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Sample records for fbsr monolith formation

  1. Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) monolith formation

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2007-07-01

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as an alternative technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of aqueous high sodium containing radioactive wastes at various DOE facilities in the United States. The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants converts aqueous Low Activity Wastes (LAW) to a granular or 'mineralized' waste form while converting organic components to CO{sub 2} and steam, and nitrate/nitrite components, if any, to N{sub 2}. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like structures that atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The granular product has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Shallow land burial requires that the mineralized waste form be able to sustain the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations. The strength requirement necessitates binding the granular product into a monolith. FBSR mineral products were formulated into a variety of monoliths including various cements, Ceramicrete, and hydro-ceramics. All but one of the nine monoliths tested met the <2 g/m{sup 2} durability specification for Na and Re (simulant for Tc-99) when tested using the Product Consistency Test (PCT; ASTM C1285). Of the nine monoliths tested the cements produced with 80-87 wt% FBSR product, the Ceramicrete, and the hydro-ceramic produced with 83.3 wt% FBSR product, met the compressive strength and durability requirements for an LAW waste form. (authors)

  2. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER (FBSR) PRODUCT: MONOLITH FORMATION AND CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C

    2006-09-13

    The most important requirement for Hanford's low activity waste (LAW) form for shallow land disposal is the chemical durability of the product. A secondary, but still essential specification, is the compressive strength of the material with regards to the strength of the material under shallow land disposal conditions, e.g. the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations, because the term ''near-surface disposal'' indicates disposal in the uppermost portion, or approximately the top 30 meters, of the earth's surface. The THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) mineral waste form for LAW is granular in nature because it is formed by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR). As a granular product it has been shown to be as durable as Hanford's LAW glass during testing with ASTM C-1285-02 known as the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and with the Single Pass Flow Through Test (SPFT). Hanford Envelope A and Envelope C simulants both performed well during PCT and SPFT testing and during subsequent performance assessment modeling. This is partially due to the high aluminosilicate content of the mineral product which provides a natural aluminosilicate buffering mechanism that inhibits leaching and is known to occur in naturally occurring aluminosilicate mineral analogs. In order for the TTT Na-Al-Si (NAS) granular mineral product to meet the compressive strength requirements (ASTM C39) for a Hanford waste form, the granular product needs to be made into a monolith or disposed of in High Integrity Containers (HIC's). Additionally, the Hanford intruder scenario for disposal in the Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) trench is mitigated as there is reduced intruder exposure when a waste form is in a monolithic form. During the preliminary testing of a monolith binder for TTT's FBSR mineral product, four parameters were monitored: (1) waste loading (not optimized for each waste form tested); (2) density; (3) compressive strength; and (4) durability

  3. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMER MONOLITH FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C

    2006-12-22

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as an alternative technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of aqueous high sodium containing radioactive wastes at various DOE facilities in the United States. The addition of clay, charcoal, and a catalyst as co-reactants converts aqueous Low Activity Wastes (LAW) to a granular or ''mineralized'' waste form while converting organic components to CO{sub 2} and steam, and nitrate/nitrite components, if any, to N{sub 2}. The waste form produced is a multiphase mineral assemblage of Na-Al-Si (NAS) feldspathoid minerals with cage-like structures that atomically bond radionuclides like Tc-99 and anions such as SO{sub 4}, I, F, and Cl. The granular product has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Shallow land burial requires that the mineralized waste form be able to sustain the weight of soil overburden and potential intrusion by future generations. The strength requirement necessitates binding the granular product into a monolith. FBSR mineral products were formulated into a variety of monoliths including various cements, Ceramicrete, and hydroceramics. All but one of the nine monoliths tested met the <2g/m{sup 2} durability specification for Na and Re (simulant for Tc-99) when tested using the Product Consistency Test (PCT; ASTM C1285). Of the nine monoliths tested the cements produced with 80-87 wt% FBSR product, the Ceramicrete, and the hydroceramic produced with 83.3 wt% FBSR product, met the compressive strength and durability requirements for an LAW waste form.

  4. Radioactive Demonstrations Of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) With Hanford Low Activity Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Burket, P. R.; Bannochie, C. J.; Daniel, W. G.; Nash, C. A.; Cozzi, A. D.; Herman, C. C.

    2012-10-22

    Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) are being evaluated. One immobilization technology being considered is Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) which offers a low temperature (700-750?C) continuous method by which wastes high in organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, or other aqueous components may be processed into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The granular waste form produced by co-processing the waste with kaolin clay has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. The FBSR granular product will be monolithed into a final waste form. The granular component is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals such as sodalite. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial, engineering, pilot, and laboratory scales on simulants. Radioactive testing at SRNL commenced in late 2010 to demonstrate the technology on radioactive LAW streams which is the focus of this study.

  5. Characterization and Leaching Tests of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Waste Form for LAW Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla; Brown, Christopher F.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-10-01

    Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) have been evaluated. One such immobilization technology is the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) granular product. The FBSR granular product is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial and laboratory scale. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was involved in an extensive characterization campaign. This goal of this campaign was study the durability of the FBSR mineral product and the mineral product encapsulated in a monolith to meet compressive strength requirements. This paper gives an overview of results obtained using the ASTM C 1285 Product Consistency Test (PCT), the EPA Test Method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the ASTMC 1662 Single-Pass Flow-Through (SPFT) test. Along with these durability tests an overview of the characteristics of the waste form has been collected using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), microwave digestions for chemical composition, and surface area from Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) theory.

  6. Characterization and Leaching Tests of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Waste Form for LAW Immobilization - 13400

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J.; Qafoku, Nikolla P.; Peterson, Reid A.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2013-07-01

    Several supplemental technologies for treating and immobilizing Hanford low activity waste (LAW) have been evaluated. One such immobilization technology is the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) granular product. The FBSR granular product is composed of insoluble sodium aluminosilicate (NAS) feldspathoid minerals. Production of the FBSR mineral product has been demonstrated both at the industrial and laboratory scale. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was involved in an extensive characterization campaign. The goal of this campaign was to study the durability of the FBSR mineral product and the encapsulated FBSR product in a geo-polymer monolith. This paper gives an overview of results obtained using the ASTM C 1285 Product Consistency Test (PCT), the EPA Test Method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), and the ASTMC 1662 Single-Pass Flow-Through (SPFT) test. Along with these durability tests an overview of the characteristics of the waste form has been collected using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), microwave digestions for chemical composition, and surface area from Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) theory. (authors)

  7. Disposition of Tank 48H Organics by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2003-12-02

    In order to make space in the Savannah River Site Tank farm, the Tank 48H waste must be removed. Therefore, the Tank 48H waste must be processed to reduce or eliminate levels of nitrates, nitrites, and sodium tetraphenyl borate in order to reduce impacts of these species before it is vitrified. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming is being considered as a candidate technology for destroying the nitrates and the NaTPB prior to melting. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was tasked to perform a proof-of-concept steam reforming test to evaluate the technical feasibility for pretreating the Tank 48H waste. The crucible (bench scale) tests conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center were initiated to optimize and augment the parameters subsequently tested at the pilot scale at INEEL. The purposes of the current study, organic destruction and downstream processing of T48H waste slurry were fulfilled. TPB was destroyed in all 19 samples tested with the simulated FB SR process at operational temperatures 650-725 degrees Celsius. A test temperature of 650 degrees Celsius optimized NO3 destruction during the formation of an Na2CO3 FBSR product. A test temperature of 725 degrees Celsius optimized NO3 destruction during formation of a sodium silicate FBSR product. Destruction of nitrate at greater than 99 per cent was achieved with addition of sugar as a reductant at 1X stoichiometry and total organic carbon analyses indicated that excess reductant was not present in the FBSR product. The use of sugar at 1X stoichiometry appears to ensure that excess reductant is not contained in the FBSR product that would alter the REDuction/OXidation equilibrium of the DWPF melter, while simultaneously assuring that NO3 is destroyed adequately. Destruction of antifoam with the simulated FBSR process was also achieved at operating temperatures between 650-725 degrees Celsius. based on measured total organic carbon.

  8. Online preconcentration using monoliths in electrochromatography capillary format and microchips.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Violaine; Proczek, Gaëlle; Dugay, José; Descroix, Stéphanie; Hennion, Marie-Claire

    2007-11-01

    Online preconcentration and separation of analytes using an in situ photopolymerized hexyl acrylate-based monolith stationary phase was evaluated using electrochromatography in capillary format and microchip. The band broadening occurring during the preconcentration process by frontal electrochromatography and during the desorption process by elution electrochromatography was studied. The hexyl acrylate-based monolith provides high retention for neutral analytes allowing the handling of large sample volumes and its structure allows rapid mass transfer, thus reducing the band broadening. For moderately polar analytes such as mono-chlorophenols that are slightly retained in water, it was shown that enrichment factors up to 3500 can be obtained by a hydrodynamic injection of several bed volumes for 120 min under 0.8 MPa with a decrease in efficiency of 50% and a decrease of 30% for the resolution between 2- and 3-chlorophenol. An 8 min preconcentration time allows enrichment factors above 100 for polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The interest of these monoliths when synthesized in microchip is also demonstrated. A 200-fold enrichment was easily obtained for PAHs with only 1 min as preconcentration time, without decrease in efficiency.

  9. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank Farm Blend) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation (FBSR)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Daniel, W. E.; Hall, H. K.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Supplemental Treatment is likely to be required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. The Supplemental Treatment chosen will immobilize that portion of the retrieved LAW that is not sent to the WTP’s LAW Vitrification facility into a solidified waste form. The solidified waste will then be disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) offers a moderate temperature (700-750°C) continuous method by which LAW can be processed irrespective of whether the waste contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be comparable to LAW glass, i.e. leaches Tc-99, Re and Na at <2g/m2 during ASTM C1285 (Product Consistency) durability testing. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product was investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage. Monolithing in an inorganic geopolymer binder, which is

  10. Westerlund 1: monolithic formation of a starburst cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, Ignacio; Clark, J. Simon; Ritchie, Ben; Goodwin, Simon

    2015-08-01

    Westerlund 1 is in all likelihood the most massive young cluster in the Milky Way, with a mass on the order of 105 Msol. We have been observing its massive star population for ten years, measuring radial velocity changes for a substantial fraction of its OB stars and evolved supergiants. The properties of the evolved population are entirely consisting with a single burst of star formation, in excellent agreement with the results of studies based on the lower-mass population.Here we will present two new studies of the cluster: 1) A direct measurement of its average radial velocity and velocity dispersion based on individual measurements for several dozen stars with constant radial velocity and 2) A search for massive stars in its immediate neighbourhood using multi-object spectroscopy.The results of these two studies show that Westerlund 1 is decidedly subvirial and has a systemic radial velocity significantly different from that of nearby gas, which was assumed to provide a dynamical distance by previous authors. Moreover, the dynamical distance is inconsistent with the properties of the high-mass stellar population. In addition, we find that the cluster is completely isolated, with hardly any massive star in its vicinity that could be associated in terms of distance modulus or radial velocity. The cluster halo does not extend much further than five parsec away from the centre. All these properties are very unusual among starburst clusters in the Local Universe, which tend to form in the context of large star-forming regions.Westerlund 1 is thus the best example we have of a starburst cluster formed monolithically.

  11. The formation of NGC 3603 young starburst cluster: `prompt' hierarchical assembly or monolithic starburst?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Sambaran; Kroupa, Pavel

    2015-02-01

    The formation of very young massive clusters or `starburst' clusters is currently one of the most widely debated topic in astronomy. The classical notion dictates that a star cluster is formed in situ in a dense molecular gas clump. The stellar radiative and mechanical feedback to the residual gas energizes the latter until it escapes the system. The newly born gas-free young cluster eventually readjusts with the corresponding mass-loss. Based on the observed substructured morphologies of many young stellar associations, it is alternatively suggested that even the smooth-profiled massive clusters are also assembled from migrating less massive subclusters. A very young (age ≈ 1 Myr), massive (>104 M⊙) star cluster like the Galactic NGC 3603 young cluster (HD 97950) is an appropriate testbed for distinguishing between the above `monolithic' and `hierarchical' formation scenarios. A recent study by Banerjee & Kroupa demonstrates that the monolithic scenario remarkably reproduces the HD 97950 cluster. In particular, its shape, internal motion and the mass distribution of stars are found to follow naturally and consistently from a single model calculation undergoing ≈70 per cent by mass gas dispersal. In this work, we explore the possibility of the formation of the above cluster via hierarchical assembly of subclusters. These subclusters are initially distributed over a wide range of spatial volumes and have various modes of subclustering in both absence and presence of a background gas potential. Unlike the above monolithic initial system that reproduces HD 97950 very well, the same is found to be prohibitive with hierarchical assembly alone (with/without a gas potential). Only those systems which assemble promptly into a single cluster (in ≲1 Myr) from a close separation (all within ≲2 pc) could match the observed density profile of HD 97950 after a similar gas removal. These results therefore suggest that the NGC 3603 young cluster has formed essentially

  12. Radioactive Demonstration Of Mineralized Waste Forms Made From Hanford Low Activity Waste (Tank SX-105, Tank AN-103, And AZ-101/102) By Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation (FBSR)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C. M.; Crawford, C. L.; Bannochie, C. J.; Burket, P. R.; Cozzi, A. D.; Daniel, W. E.; Hall, H. K.; Miller, D. H.; Missimer, D. M.; Nash, C. A.; Williams, M. F.

    2013-09-18

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is a robust technology for the immobilization of a wide variety of radioactive wastes. Applications have been tested at the pilot scale for the high sodium, sulfate, halide, organic and nitrate wastes at the Hanford site, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), and the Savannah River Site (SRS). Due to the moderate processing temperatures, halides, sulfates, and technetium are retained in mineral phases of the feldspathoid family (nepheline, sodalite, nosean, carnegieite, etc). The feldspathoid minerals bind the contaminants such as Tc-99 in cage (sodalite, nosean) or ring (nepheline) structures to surrounding aluminosilicate tetrahedra in the feldspathoid structures. The granular FBSR mineral waste form that is produced has a comparable durability to LAW glass based on the short term PCT testing in this study, the INL studies, SPFT and PUF testing from previous studies as given in the columns in Table 1-3 that represent the various durability tests. Monolithing of the granular product was shown to be feasible in a separate study. Macro-encapsulating the granular product provides a decrease in leaching compared to the FBSR granular product when the geopolymer is correctly formulated.

  13. Single-Pass Flow Through (SPFT) Testing of Fluidized-Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Lorier, T. H.; Pareizs, J. M.; Jantzen, C. M.

    2005-08-15

    Two samples of fluidized-bed steam reforming (FBSR) mineral waste form product were subjected to single-pass flow-through (SPFT) testing. Sample LAW 1123 resulted from pilot-scale FBSR processing with a Hanford Envelope A low-activity waste (LAW) simulant. Sample SBW 1173 resulted from pilot-scale FBSR processing with an Idaho National Laboratory (INL) simulant commonly referred to as sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The pilot-scale waste forms were made at the Science and Technology Applications Research (STAR) facility in Idaho Falls, Idaho. The durability of the two FBSR waste forms was assessed via the SPFT test in this study. Both samples were multiphase mineral waste forms, so the SPFT test results provide an overall release rate from the multiple mineral species in each sample and are dependent on the amount of each phase present and the mineralogy of the phases present. SPFT testing was performed at temperatures of 25, 40, 70, and 90 C on LAW 1123, while SBW 1173 was only tested at 70 and 90 C. The 70 and 90 C data were compared to each other and the LAW-1123 results were compared to previous testing performed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on a LAW Envelope C (high organic content) waste simulant. The objectives of this study were to obtain forward dissolution rate data for both STAR FBSR bed products (using SPFT tests). Also, a qualitative comparison of the FBSR bed products to a glass waste form (specifically the low-activity reference material (LRM) glass) was performed. For these comparisons, the relative surface areas of the FBSR and glass products had to be measured. Due to the more porous and irregular surface of FBSR bed products, the surface area of the bed products was determined using the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) measurement method. The surface area of a glass is much smoother and the calculated geometric surface area is typically used for determining dissolution behavior. Presently there are no specifications or

  14. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR) OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW) ORGANIC AND NITRATE DESTRUCTION PRIOR TO VITRIFICATION: CRUCIBLE SCALE TO ENGINEERING SCALE DEMONSTRATIONS AND NON-RADIOACTIVE TO RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M; Gene Daniel, G; Paul Burket, P; Charles Crawford, C

    2009-02-07

    Over a decade ago, an in-tank precipitation process to remove Cs-137 from radioactive high level waste (HLW) supernates was demonstrated at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The full scale demonstration with actual HLW was performed in SRS Tank 48 (T48). Sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) was added to enable Cs-137 extraction as CsTPB. The CsTPB, an organic, and its decomposition products proved to be problematic for subsequent processing of the Cs-137 precipitate in the SRS HLW vitrification facility for ultimate disposal in a HLW repository. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a technology for destroying the organics and nitrates in the T48 waste to render it compatible with subsequent HLW vitrification. During FBSR processing the T48 waste is converted into organic-free and nitrate-free carbonate-based minerals which are water soluble. The soluble nature of the carbonate-based minerals allows them to be dissolved and pumped to the vitrification facility or returned to the tank farm for future vitrification. The initial use of the FBSR process for T48 waste was demonstrated with simulated waste in 2003 at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using a specially designed sealed crucible test that reproduces the FBSR pyrolysis reactions, i.e. carbonate formation, organic and nitrate destruction. This was followed by pilot scale testing of simulants at the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Science & Technology Application Research (STAR) Center in Idaho Falls, ID by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and SRNL in 2003-4 and then engineering scale demonstrations by THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) and SRS/SRNL at the Hazen Research, Inc. (HRI) test facility in Golden, CO in 2006 and 2008. Radioactive sealed crucible testing with real T48 waste was performed at SRNL in 2008, and radioactive Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was performed in the SRNL Shielded Cell Facility (SCF) in 2008.

  15. Stabilization of Savannah River National Laboartory (SRNL) Aqueous Waste by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C

    2004-11-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is a multidisciplinary laboratory operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) in Aiken, South Carolina. Research and development programs have been conducted at SRNL for {approx}50 years generating non-radioactive (hazardous and non-hazardous) and radioactive aqueous wastes. Typically the aqueous effluents from the R&D activities are disposed of from each laboratory module via the High Activity Drains (HAD) or the Low Activity Drains (LAD) depending on whether they are radioactive or not. The aqueous effluents are collected in holding tanks, analyzed and shipped to either H-Area (HAD waste) or the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) (LAD waste) for volume reduction. Because collection, analysis, and transport of LAD and HAD waste is cumbersome and since future treatment of this waste may be curtailed as the F/H-Area evaporators and waste tanks are decommissioned, SRNL laboratory operations requested several proof of principle demonstrations of alternate technologies that would define an alternative disposal path for the aqueous wastes. Proof of principle for the disposal of SRNL HAD waste using a technology known as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is the focus of the current study. The FBSR technology can be performed either as a batch process, e.g. in each laboratory module in small furnaces with an 8'' by 8'' footprint, or in a semi-continuous Bench Scale Reformer (BSR). The proof of principle experiments described in this study cover the use of the FBSR technology at any scale (pilot or full scale). The proof of principle experiments described in this study used a non-radioactive HAD simulant.

  16. Ballistic Performance Model of Crater Formation in Monolithic, Porous Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. E.; Christiansen, E. L.; Deighton, K. D.

    2014-01-01

    Porous monolithic ablative systems insulate atmospheric reentry vehicles from reentry plasmas generated by atmospheric braking from orbital and exo-orbital velocities. Due to the necessity that these materials create a temperature gradient up to several thousand Kelvin over their thickness, it is important that these materials are near their pristine state prior to reentry. These materials may also be on exposed surfaces to space environment threats like orbital debris and meteoroids leaving a probability that these exposed surfaces will be below their prescribed values. Owing to the typical small size of impact craters in these materials, the local flow fields over these craters and the ablative process afford some margin in thermal protection designs for these locally reduced performance values. In this work, tests to develop ballistic performance models for thermal protection materials typical of those being used on Orion are discussed. A density profile as a function of depth of a typical monolithic ablator and substructure system is shown in Figure 1a.

  17. Monolithic Domes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanham, Carol

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the energy savings, low cost, and near-absolute protection from tornadoes provided by monolithic domes is starting to appeal to school districts for athletic and other facilities, including the Italy (Texas) Independent School District. Provides an overview of monolithic dome construction. (EV)

  18. Disposition of Tank 48H Organics By Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) (U)

    SciTech Connect

    JANTZEN, CAROLM.

    2004-03-29

    An In Tank Processing (ITP) technology was developed at the Savannah River Site to remove Cs-137 from high-level waste supernates. During the ITP process monosodium titanate and sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) were added to the salt supernate to adsorb Sr-90/Pu-238 and precipitate Cs-137 as CsTPB, respectively. This process was demonstrated at the SRS in 1983. The demonstration produced 53,000 gallons of 2.5 weight per cent Cs rich precipitate containing TPB, which was later washed and diluted to 250,000 gallons. This material is currently stored in SRS tanks. The washed precipitate was to ultimately be disposed in borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility. Due to safety concerns the ITP process was abandoned in 1998, and new technologies are being researched for Cs-137 removal. In order to make space in the SRS Tank farm, the tank waste must be removed. Therefore, the tank waste must be processed to reduce or eliminate levels of nitrates, nitrites, and sodium tetra phenylborate (NaTPB) in order to reduce impacts of these species before it is vitrified at the DWPF. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered as a candidate technology for destroying the nitrates and the NaTPB prior to melting. The purposes of the current study, organic destruction and downstream processing of T48H waste slurry were fulfilled. TPB was destroyed in all 19 samples tested with the simulated FBSR process at operational temperatures 650-725 degrees Celsius.

  19. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 revised form Symptom Validity Scale-Revised (MMPI-2-RF FBS-r; also known as Fake Bad Scale): psychometric characteristics in a nonlitigation neuropsychological setting.

    PubMed

    Gass, Carlton S; Odland, Anthony P

    2012-01-01

    This study examined fundamental psychometric characteristics of the Symptom Validity Scale-Revised (FBS-r) in a nonforensic sample of 303 neuropsychological referrals. FBS-r had a reliability (internal consistency) of .747 and two higher order factoral dimensions (Somatic Complaints and Optimism/Virtue). FBS-r had a discordant factor structure: Optimism/Virtue (7 items) was negatively related to Somatic Complaints (21 items) and undercut FBS-r measurement consistency (reliability). FBS-r scores, which purportedly reflect symptom exaggeration, are affected by as much as 23 T-score points on test items that are negatively related to symptom reporting. These data suggest that the FBS-r produces ambiguous scores reflecting two underlying dimensions that warrant additional research.

  20. Miniature fuel cell with monolithically fabricated Si electrodes - Alloy catalyst formation -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogura, Daiki; Suzuki, Takahiro; Katayama, Noboru; Dowaki, Kiyoshi; Hayase, Masanori

    2013-12-01

    A novel Pd-Pt catalyst formation process was proposed for reduction of Pt usage. In our miniature fuel cells, porous Pt was used as the catalyst, and the Pt usage was quite high. To reduce the Pt usage, we have attempted to deposit Pt on porous Pd by galvanic replacement, and relatively large output was demonstrated. In this study, in order to reduce more Pt usage and explore the alloy catalyst formation process, atomic layer deposition by UPD-SLRR (Under Potential Deposition - Surface Limited Redox Replacement) was applied to the Pd-Pt catalyst formation. The new process was verified at each process steps by EDS elemental analysis, and the expected spectra were obtained. Prototype cells were constructed by the new process, and cell output was raised to 420mW/cm2 by the Pd-Pt catalyst from 125mW/cm2 with Pd catalyst.

  1. Monolithic spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Rajic, S.; Egert, C.M.; Kahl, W.K.; Snyder, W.B. Jr.; Evans, B.M. III; Marlar, T.A.; Cunningham, J.P.

    1998-05-19

    A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays. 6 figs.

  2. Monolithic spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    Rajic, Slobodan; Egert, Charles M.; Kahl, William K.; Snyder, Jr., William B.; Evans, III, Boyd M.; Marlar, Troy A.; Cunningham, Joseph P.

    1998-01-01

    A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays.

  3. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATIONS OF FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING WITH ACUTAL HANFORD LOW ACTIVITY WASTES VERIFYING FBSR AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.; Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Bannochie, C.; Daniel, G.; Nash, C.; Cozzi, A.; Herman, C.

    2012-01-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the cleanup mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is one of the supplementary treatments being considered. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which LAW and other secondary wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates/nitrites, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, and/or radio-nuclides like I-129 and Tc-99. Radioactive testing of Savannah River LAW (Tank 50) shimmed to resemble Hanford LAW and actual Hanford LAW (SX-105 and AN-103) have produced a ceramic (mineral) waste form which is the same as the non-radioactive waste simulants tested at the engineering scale. The radioactive testing demonstrated that the FBSR process can retain the volatile radioactive components that cannot be contained at vitrification temperatures. The radioactive and nonradioactive mineral waste forms that were produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process are shown to be as durable as LAW glass.

  4. Grafted macroporous polymer monolithic disks: a new format of scavengers for solution-phase combinatorial chemistry.

    PubMed

    Tripp, J A; Svec, F; Fréchet, J M

    2001-01-01

    Polyethylene encased porous poly(chloromethylstyrene-co-divinylbenzene) disks have been prepared by polymerization in a cylindrical glass mold and cut to a disk format. Following attachment of a free radical azo initiator 4,4'-azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid) to available functionalities at the surface of the pores, the polymerization of 2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone was initiated from the surface. To avoid an undesirable increase in flow resistance and to improve the yield of grafting, divinylbenzene was added to the polymerization mixture in order to form a layer of swellable reactive polymer gel within the pores. The use of these disks as scavenging filters to remove various amines from solutions in flow-through operations was demonstrated by effective removal of amines in a very short period of time from their solutions in a variety of solvents, even including alcohols and water.

  5. In Situ Formation of Polysulfonamide Supported Poly(ethylene glycol) Divinyl Ether Based Polymer Electrolyte toward Monolithic Sodium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianjun; Wen, Huijie; Yue, Liping; Chai, Jingchao; Ma, Jun; Hu, Pu; Ding, Guoliang; Wang, Qingfu; Liu, Zhihong; Cui, Guanglei; Chen, Liquan

    2017-01-01

    Sodium ion battery is one of the promising rechargeable batteries due to the low-cost and abundant sodium sources. In this work, a monolithic sodium ion battery based on a Na3 V2 (PO4 )3 cathode, MoS2 layered anode, and polyether-based polymer electrolyte is reported. In addition, a new kind of polysulfonamide-supported poly(ethylene glycol) divinyl ether based polymer electrolyte is also demonstrated for monolithic sodium ion battery via in situ preparation. The resultant polymer electrolyte exhibits relatively high ionic conductivity (1.2 mS cm(-1) ) at ambient temperature, wide electrochemical window (4.7 V), and favorable mechanical strength (25 MPa). Moreover, such a monolithic Na3 V2 (PO4 )3 /MoS2 sodium ion battery using this polymer electrolyte delivers outstanding rate capability (up to 10 C) and superior cyclic stability (84%) after 1000 cycles at 0.5 C. What is more essential, such a polymer electrolyte based soft-package monolithic sodium ion cell can still power a red light emitting diode lamp and run finite times without suffering from any internal short-circuit failures, even in the case of a bended and wrinkled state. Considering these aspects, this work no doubt provides a new approach for the design of a high-performance polymer electrolyte toward monolithic sodium ion battery with exceptional rate capability and high safety. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Effect of the presence of an ordered micro-pillar array on the formation of silica monoliths.

    PubMed

    Detobel, Frederik; Eghbali, Hamed; De Bruyne, Selm; Terryn, Herman; Gardeniers, Han; Desmet, Gert

    2009-10-30

    We report on the synthesis of siloxane-based monoliths in the presence of a two-dimensional, perfectly ordered array of micro-pillars. Both methyltrimethoxysilane- and tetramethoxysilane-based monoliths were considered. The obtained structures were analyzed using scanning-electron microscopy and can be explained from the general theory of surface-directed phase separation in confined spaces. The formed structures are to a large extent nearly exclusively determined by the ratio between the bulk domain size of the monolith on the one hand and the distance between the micro-pillars on the other hand. When this ratio is small, the presence of the pillars has nearly no effect on the morphology of the produced monoliths. However, when the ratio approaches unity and ascends above it, some new types of monolith morphologies are induced, two of which appear to have interesting properties for use as novel chromatographic supports. One of these structures (obtained when the domain size/inter-pillar distance ratio is around unity) is a 3D network of linear interconnections between the pillars, organized such that all skeleton branches are oriented perpendicular to the micro-pillar surface. A second interesting structure is obtained at even higher values of the domain size/inter-pillar distance ratio. In this case, each individual micro-pillar is uniformly coated with a mesoporous shell.

  7. Monolithic Optoelectronic Integrated Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Walters, Wayne; Gustafsen, Jerry; Bendett, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Monolithic optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEIC) receives single digitally modulated input light signal via optical fiber and converts it into 16-channel electrical output signal. Potentially useful in any system in which digital data must be transmitted serially at high rates, then decoded into and used in parallel format at destination. Applications include transmission and decoding of control signals to phase shifters in phased-array antennas and also communication of data between computers and peripheral equipment in local-area networks.

  8. Monolithic Optoelectronic Integrated Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Walters, Wayne; Gustafsen, Jerry; Bendett, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Monolithic optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEIC) receives single digitally modulated input light signal via optical fiber and converts it into 16-channel electrical output signal. Potentially useful in any system in which digital data must be transmitted serially at high rates, then decoded into and used in parallel format at destination. Applications include transmission and decoding of control signals to phase shifters in phased-array antennas and also communication of data between computers and peripheral equipment in local-area networks.

  9. MINERALIZATION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING (FBSR): COMPARISONS TO VITREOUS WASTE FORMS, AND PERTINENT DURABILITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C

    2008-12-26

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to generate a document for the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that would cover the following topics: (1) A description of the mineral structures produced by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) of Hanford type Low Activity Waste (LAW including LAWR which is LAW melter recycle waste) waste, especially the cage structured minerals and how they are formed. (2) How the cage structured minerals contain some contaminants, while others become part of the mineral structure (Note that all contaminants become part of the mineral structure and this will be described in the subsequent sections of this report). (3) Possible contaminant release mechanisms from the mineral structures. (4) Appropriate analyses to evaluate these release mechanisms. (5) Why the appropriate analyses are comparable to the existing Hanford glass dataset. In order to discuss the mineral structures and how they bond contaminants a brief description of the structures of both mineral (ceramic) and vitreous waste forms will be given to show their similarities. By demonstrating the similarities of mineral and vitreous waste forms on atomic level, the contaminant release mechanisms of the crystalline (mineral) and amorphous (glass) waste forms can be compared. This will then logically lead to the discussion of why many of the analyses used to evaluate vitreous waste forms and glass-ceramics (also known as glass composite materials) are appropriate for determining the release mechanisms of LAW/LAWR mineral waste forms and how the durability data on LAW/LAWR mineral waste forms relate to the durability data for LAW/LAWR glasses. The text will discuss the LAW mineral waste form made by FBSR. The nanoscale mechanism by which the minerals form will be also be described in the text. The appropriate analyses to evaluate contaminant release mechanisms will be discussed, as will the FBSR test results to

  10. Polystyrene-co-Divinylbenzene PolyHIPE Monoliths in 1.0 mm Column Formats for Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Sidratul; Fitzhenry, Laurence; White, Blánaid; Connolly, Damian

    2016-03-18

    The reversed phase liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) separation of small molecules using a polystyrene-co-divinylbenzene (PS-co-DVB) polyHIPE stationary phases housed within 1.0 mm i.d. silcosteel columns is presented within this study. A 90% PS-co-DVB polyHIPE was covalently attached to the walls of the column housing by prior wall modification with 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate and could withstand operating backpressures in excess of 200 bar at a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min. Permeability studies revealed that the monolith swelled slightly in 100% acetonitrile relative to 100% water but could nevertheless be used to separate five alkylbenzenes using a flow rate of 40 µL/min (linear velocity: 0.57 mm/s). Remarkable column-to-column reproducibility is shown with retention factor variation between 2.6% and 6.1% for two separately prepared columns.

  11. CRUCIBLE TESTING OF TANK 48 RADIOACTIVE WASTE SAMPLE USING FBSR TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANIC DESTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, C; William Pepper, W

    2008-09-19

    The purpose of crucible scale testing with actual radioactive Tank 48H material was to duplicate the test results that had been previously performed on simulant Tank 48H material. The earlier crucible scale testing using simulants was successful in demonstrating that bench scale crucible tests produce results that are indicative of actual Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) pilot scale tests. Thus, comparison of the results using radioactive Tank 48H feed to those reported earlier with simulants would then provide proof that the radioactive tank waste behaves in a similar manner to the simulant. Demonstration of similar behavior for the actual radioactive Tank 48H slurry to the simulant is important as a preliminary or preparation step for the more complex bench-scale steam reformer unit that is planned for radioactive application in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF) later in 2008. The goals of this crucible-scale testing were to show 99% destruction of tetraphenylborate and to demonstrate that the final solid product produced is sodium carbonate. Testing protocol was repeated using the specifications of earlier simulant crucible scale testing, that is sealed high purity alumina crucibles containing a pre-carbonated and evaporated Tank 48H material. Sealing of the crucibles was accomplished by using an inorganic 'nepheline' sealant. The sealed crucibles were heat-treated at 650 C under constant argon flow to inert the system. Final product REDOX measurements were performed to establish the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of known amounts of added iron species in the final product. These REDOX measurements confirm the processing conditions (pyrolysis occurring at low oxygen fugacity) of the sealed crucible environment which is the environment actually achieved in the fluidized bed steam reformer process. Solid product dissolution in water was used to measure soluble cations and anions, and to investigate insoluble

  12. A digital microfluidic method for in situ formation of porous polymer monoliths with application to solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao; Mudrik, Jared M; Jebrail, Mais J; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2011-05-15

    We introduce the marriage of two technologies: digital microfluidics (DMF), a technique in which droplets are manipulated by application of electrostatic forces on an array of electrodes coated by an insulator, and porous polymer monoliths (PPMs), a class of materials that is popular for use for solid-phase extraction and chromatography. In this work, circular PPM discs were formed in situ by dispensing and manipulating droplets of monomer solutions to designated spots on a DMF device followed by UV-initiated polymerization. We used PPM discs formed in this manner to develop a digital microfluidic solid-phase extraction (DMF-SPE) method, in which PPM discs are activated and equilibrated, samples are loaded, PPM discs are washed, and the samples are eluted, all using microliter droplets of samples and reagents. The new method has extraction efficiency (93%) comparable to that of pipet-based ZipTips and is compatible with preparative sample extraction and recovery for on-chip desalting, removal of surfactants, and preconcentration. We anticipate that DMF-SPE may be useful for a wide range of applications requiring preparative sample cleanup and concentration.

  13. Surface modified aerogel monoliths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas (Inventor); Johnston, James C. (Inventor); Kuczmarski, Maria A. (Inventor); Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    This invention comprises reinforced aerogel monoliths such as silica aerogels having a polymer coating on its outer geometric surface boundary, and to the method of preparing said aerogel monoliths. The polymer coatings on the aerogel monoliths are derived from polymer precursors selected from the group consisting of isocyanates as a precursor, precursors of epoxies, and precursors of polyimides. The coated aerogel monoliths can be modified further by encapsulating the aerogel with the polymer precursor reinforced with fibers such as carbon or glass fibers to obtain mechanically reinforced composite encapsulated aerogel monoliths.

  14. Enantioselective nano liquid chromatographic separation of racemic pharmaceuticals: a facile one-pot in situ preparation of lipase-based polymer monoliths in capillary format.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Marwa; Ghanem, Ashraf

    2014-11-01

    New affinity monolithic capillary columns of 150 µm internal diameter were prepared in situ fused glass capillary via either immobilization or encapsulation of Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) on or within polymer monoliths, respectively. The immobilized lipase-based monoliths were prepared via copolymerization of 19.1% monomers (8.9% MMA and 10.2% GMA), 19.8% EDMA, and 61.1% porogens (54.2% formamide and 6.9% 1-propanol) w/w or 20% GMA, 20% EDMA, and 60% porogens (51.6% cyclohexanol and 8.4% 1-dodecanol) in the presence of AIBN (1%) as a radical initiator. This was followed by pumping a solution of lipase through the capillaries and rinsing with potassium phosphate buffer. On the other hand, the encapsulated lipase-based monoliths were prepared via copolymerization of 20% monomers (GMA), 20% EDMA, and 60% porogens (48% 1-propanol, 6% 1,4-butanediol) or 16.4% monomers (16% BuMA, 0.4% SPMA), 23.6% EDMA, and 60% porogens (36% 1-propanol, 18% 1,4-butanediol along with 6% lipase aqueous solution in potassium phosphate buffer. The prepared capillary columns were investigated for the enantioselective nano liquid chromatographic separation of a set of different classes of racemic pharmaceuticals, namely, α- and β-blockers, antiinflammatory drugs, antifungal drugs, dopamine antagonists, norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors, catecholamines, sedative hypnotics, diuretics, antihistaminics, anticancer drugs, and antiarrhythmic drugs. Run-to-run repeatability was quite satisfactory. The encapsulated lipase-based capillary monolith showed better enantioselective separations of most of the investigated compounds. Baseline separation was achieved for alprenolol, atenolol, bromoglutithimide, carbuterol, chloropheneramine, cizolertine carbinol, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymandelic acid, desmethylcizolertine, nomifensine, normetanephrine, and sulconazole under reversed phase chromatographic conditions. A speculation about the understanding of the chiral recognition mechanism of

  15. In-situ functionalized monolithic polysiloxane-polymethacrylate composite materials from polythiol-ene double click reaction in capillary column format for enantioselective nano-high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wolter, Marc; Lämmerhofer, Michael

    2017-05-12

    This work reports on the proof-of-principle of preparation of novel one step in-situ functionalized monolithic polysiloxane-polymethacrylate composite materials in capillary columns for enantioselective nano-HPLC using a thiol-ene click reaction. Quinine carbamate as functional monomer and ethylene dimethacrylate as crosslinker were both used as ene components in a thermally initiated double click-type polymerization reaction with poly(3-mercaptopropyl)methylsiloxane as thiol component in presence of 1-propanol as porogenic solvent. Elemental analysis and on-capillary fluorescence measurement proved the successful incorporation of the functional chiral monomer into the polymer. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed a macroporous polymer morphology which is typical for a nucleation and growth mechanism of pore formation. The individual microglobules appear relatively spherical and smooth indicating a non-porous nature. Nano-HPLC experiments of the chiral monolithic capillary column provided successful enantiomer separation of N-3,5-dinitrobenzoylleucine as test compound in polar organic elution mode clearly documenting the successful implementation of the proposed concept towards new functionalized monolithic composite materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Monolithic exploding foil initiator

    DOEpatents

    Welle, Eric J; Vianco, Paul T; Headley, Paul S; Jarrell, Jason A; Garrity, J. Emmett; Shelton, Keegan P; Marley, Stephen K

    2012-10-23

    A monolithic exploding foil initiator (EFI) or slapper detonator and the method for making the monolithic EFI wherein the exploding bridge and the dielectric from which the flyer will be generated are integrated directly onto the header. In some embodiments, the barrel is directly integrated directly onto the header.

  17. Selective oxidation of cyclohexene through gold functionalized silica monolith microreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alotaibi, Mohammed T.; Taylor, Martin J.; Liu, Dan; Beaumont, Simon K.; Kyriakou, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    Two simple, reproducible methods of preparing evenly distributed Au nanoparticle containing mesoporous silica monoliths are investigated. These Au nanoparticle containing monoliths are subsequently investigated as flow reactors for the selective oxidation of cyclohexene. In the first strategy, the silica monolith was directly impregnated with Au nanoparticles during the formation of the monolith. The second approach was to pre-functionalize the monolith with thiol groups tethered within the silica mesostructure. These can act as evenly distributed anchors for the Au nanoparticles to be incorporated by flowing a Au nanoparticle solution through the thiol functionalized monolith. Both methods led to successfully achieving even distribution of Au nanoparticles along the length of the monolith as demonstrated by ICP-OES. However, the impregnation method led to strong agglomeration of the Au nanoparticles during subsequent heating steps while the thiol anchoring procedure maintained the nanoparticles in the range of 6.8 ± 1.4 nm. Both Au nanoparticle containing monoliths as well as samples with no Au incorporated were tested for the selective oxidation of cyclohexene under constant flow at 30 °C. The Au free materials were found to be catalytically inactive with Au being the minimum necessary requirement for the reaction to proceed. The impregnated Au-containing monolith was found to be less active than the thiol functionalized Au-containing material, attributable to the low metal surface area of the Au nanoparticles. The reaction on the thiol functionalized Au-containing monolith was found to depend strongly on the type of oxidant used: tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) was more active than H2O2, likely due to the thiol induced hydrophobicity in the monolith.

  18. Development of a silica monolith modified with Fe3O4 nano-particles in centrifugal spin column format for the extraction of phosphorylated compounds.

    PubMed

    Alwy, Ali; Clarke, Sarah P; Brougham, Dermot F; Twamley, Brendan; Paull, Brett; White, Blánaid; Connolly, Damian

    2015-01-01

    In this study, citrate-stabilised iron oxide nano-particles (∼16 nm) have been immobilised on commercial silica monolithic centrifugal spin columns (MonoSpin) for the extraction of phosphorylated compounds. Two alternative strategies were adopted involving either direct electrostatic attachment to an aminated MonoSpin (single-layer method) in the first instance, or the use of a layer-by-layer method with poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride. Field-emission scanning electron spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was used for confirming notably higher coverage of nano-particles using the layer-by-layer method (2.49 ± 0.53 wt%) compared with the single-layer method (0.43 ± 0.30 wt%). The modified monolith was used for the selective separation/extraction of adenosine monophosphate, adenosine diphosphate and adenosine triphosphate with elution using a phosphate buffer. A reversed-phase liquid chromatographic assay was used for confirming that adenosine, as a non-phosphorylated control was not retained on the modified MonoSpin devices, whereas recovery of 80% for adenosine monophosphate, 86% for adenosine diphosphate and 82% for adenosine triphosphate was achieved.

  19. Monolithic microwave integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucel, R. A.

    Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs), a new microwave technology which is expected to exert a profound influence on microwave circuit designs for future military systems as well as for the commercial and consumer markets, is discussed. The book contains an historical discussion followed by a comprehensive review presenting the current status in the field. The general topics of the volume are: design considerations, materials and processing considerations, monolithic circuit applications, and CAD, measurement, and packaging techniques. All phases of MMIC technology are covered, from design to testing.

  20. Embedded-monolith armor

    DOEpatents

    McElfresh, Michael W.; Groves, Scott E; Moffet, Mitchell L.; Martin, Louis P.

    2016-07-19

    A lightweight armor system utilizing a face section having a multiplicity of monoliths embedded in a matrix supported on low density foam. The face section is supported with a strong stiff backing plate. The backing plate is mounted on a spall plate.

  1. Preparation and evaluation of ionic liquid-gold nanoparticles functionalized silica monolithic column for capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Lu, Junyu; Ye, Fanggui; Zhang, Aizhu; Chen, Xia; Wei, Yu; Zhao, Shulin

    2012-12-21

    This paper describes the development of silica monolithic column modified with ionic liquids-gold nanoparticles (ILs-GNPs) for capillary electrochromatography (CEC). The novel ILs (1-methyl-2-mercapto-3-butylimidazolium bromide) were synthesized and used to modify GNPs functionalized silica monolithic column via the formation of a Au-S bond. The morphology of the GNPs and ILs-GNPs functionalized silica (ILs-GNPs-silica) monolithic column were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscope, respectively. A cathodic electroosmotic flow was observed at pH above 6.4 on ILs-GNPs-silica monolithic column, which was reversed at acidic pH. The electrochromatographic performance of ILs-GNPs-silica monolithic column was evaluated by separation of different kinds of analytes such as hydrophobic, polar and basic compounds. The ILs-GNPs-silica monolithic column displayed enhanced hydrophobic retention characteristics in the separation of five hydrophobic n-alkylbenzenes when compared to the ILs bonded silica monolithic column. The column efficiencies for the n-alkylbenzenes were from 62,000 to 110,000 N m(-1). The ILs-GNPs-silica monolithic column exhibited reversed-phase electrochromatographic behavior toward neutral solutes. Separation of polar compounds was demonstrated on ILs-GNPs-silica monolithic column in reversed-phase CEC mode using high aqueous mobile phases. The relatively good peak shape and high separation efficiency on ILs-GNPs-silica monolithic column was obtained for basic solutes when compared to silica monolithic column modified GNPs.

  2. Monolithic MACS micro resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann-Horn, J. A.; Jacquinot, J.-F.; Ginefri, J. C.; Bonhomme, C.; Sakellariou, D.

    2016-10-01

    Magic Angle Coil Spinning (MACS) aids improving the intrinsically low NMR sensitivity of heterogeneous microscopic samples. We report on the design and testing of a new type of monolithic 2D MACS resonators to overcome known limitations of conventional micro coils. The resonators' conductors were printed on dielectric substrate and tuned without utilizing lumped element capacitors. Self-resonance conditions have been computed by a hybrid FEM-MoM technique. Preliminary results reported here indicate robust mechanical stability, reduced eddy currents heating and negligible susceptibility effects. The gain in B1 /√{ P } is in agreement with the NMR sensitivity enhancement according to the principle of reciprocity. A sensitivity enhancement larger than 3 has been achieved in a monolithic micro resonator inside a standard 4 mm rotor at 500 MHz. These 2D resonators could offer higher performance micro-detection and ease of use of heterogeneous microscopic substances such as biomedical samples, microscopic specimens and thin film materials.

  3. Monolithic Millimeter Wave Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nan-Lei

    There is an increasing interest in the millimeter -wave spectrum for use in communications and for military and scientific applications. The concept of monolithic integration aims to produce very-high-frequency circuits in a more reliable, reproducible way than conventional electronics, and also at lower cost, with smaller size and lighter weight. In this thesis, a negative resistance device is integrated monolithically with a resonator to produce an effective oscillator. This work fills the void resulting from the exclusion of the local oscillator from the monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMMIC) receiver design. For convenience a microwave frequency model was used to design the resonator circuit. A 5 GHz hybrid oscillator was first fabricated to test the design; the necessary GaAs process technology was developed for the fabrication. Negative resistance devices and oscillator theory were studied, and a simple but practical model of the Gunn diode was devised to solve the impedance matching problem. Monolithic oscillators at the Ka band (35 GHz) were built and refined. All devices operated in CW mode. By means of an electric-field probe, the output power was coupled into a metallic waveguide for measurement purposes. The best result was 3.63 mW of power output, the highest efficiency was 0.43% and the frequency stability was better than 10-4. In the future, an IMPATT diode could replace the Gunn device to give much higher power and efficiency. A varactor-tuned circuit also suitable for large-scale integration is under study.

  4. Monolith electroplating process

    DOEpatents

    Agarrwal, Rajev R.

    2001-01-01

    An electroplating process for preparing a monolith metal layer over a polycrystalline base metal and the plated monolith product. A monolith layer has a variable thickness of one crystal. The process is typically carried in molten salts electrolytes, such as the halide salts under an inert atmosphere at an elevated temperature, and over deposition time periods and film thickness sufficient to sinter and recrystallize completely the nucleating metal particles into one single crystal or crystals having very large grains. In the process, a close-packed film of submicron particle (20) is formed on a suitable substrate at an elevated temperature. The temperature has the significance of annealing particles as they are formed, and substrates on which the particles can populate are desirable. As the packed bed thickens, the submicron particles develop necks (21) and as they merge into each other shrinkage (22) occurs. Then as micropores also close (23) by surface tension, metal density is reached and the film consists of unstable metal grain (24) that at high enough temperature recrystallize (25) and recrystallized grains grow into an annealed single crystal over the electroplating time span. While cadmium was used in the experimental work, other soft metals may be used.

  5. Fabrication of a GMA-co-EDMA Monolith in a 2.0 mm i.d. Polypropylene Housing.

    PubMed

    Iacono, Marcello; Connolly, Damian; Heise, Andreas

    2016-03-31

    Polymers are interesting housing materials for the fabrication of inexpensive monolithic chromatography and solid phase extraction (SPE) devices. Challenges arise when polymeric monoliths are formed in non-conical, cylindrical tubes of larger diameter due to potential monolith detachment from the housing wall resulting in loss of separation performance and mechanical stability. Here, a two-step protocol is applied to ensure formation of robust homogeneous methacrylate monolith in polypropylene (PP) tubing with a diameter of 2.0 mm. Detailed Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging confirm the successful pre-modification of the tubing wall with an anchoring layer of cross-linked ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA). Subsequent formation of an EDMA-glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) monolith in the PP tube resulted in a homogeneous monolithic polymer with enhanced mechanical stability as compared to non-anchored monoliths.

  6. Fabrication of a GMA-co-EDMA Monolith in a 2.0 mm i.d. Polypropylene Housing

    PubMed Central

    Iacono, Marcello; Connolly, Damian; Heise, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Polymers are interesting housing materials for the fabrication of inexpensive monolithic chromatography and solid phase extraction (SPE) devices. Challenges arise when polymeric monoliths are formed in non-conical, cylindrical tubes of larger diameter due to potential monolith detachment from the housing wall resulting in loss of separation performance and mechanical stability. Here, a two-step protocol is applied to ensure formation of robust homogeneous methacrylate monolith in polypropylene (PP) tubing with a diameter of 2.0 mm. Detailed Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging confirm the successful pre-modification of the tubing wall with an anchoring layer of cross-linked ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA). Subsequent formation of an EDMA-glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) monolith in the PP tube resulted in a homogeneous monolithic polymer with enhanced mechanical stability as compared to non-anchored monoliths. PMID:28773385

  7. Monolithic microfluidic concentrators and mixers

    DOEpatents

    Frechet, Jean M.; Svec, Frantisek; Yu, Cong; Rohr, Thomas

    2005-05-03

    Microfluidic devices comprising porous monolithic polymer for concentration, extraction or mixing of fluids. A method for in situ preparation of monolithic polymers by in situ initiated polymerization of polymer precursors within microchannels of a microfluidic device and their use for solid phase extraction (SPE), preconcentration, concentration and mixing.

  8. Monolithic tandem solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W.

    1991-01-01

    A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate, and (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched. The solar cell can be provided as a two-terminal device or a three-terminal device.

  9. Design of monoliths through their mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Podgornik, Aleš; Savnik, Aleš; Jančar, Janez; Krajnc, Nika Lendero

    2014-03-14

    Chromatographic monoliths have several interesting properties making them attractive supports for analytics but also for purification, especially of large biomolecules and bioassemblies. Although many of monolith features were thoroughly investigated, there is no data available to predict how monolith mechanical properties affect its chromatographic performance. In this work, we investigated the effect of porosity, pore size and chemical modification on methacrylate monolith compression modulus. While a linear correlation between pore size and compression modulus was found, the effect of porosity was highly exponential. Through these correlations it was concluded that chemical modification affects monolith porosity without changing the monolith skeleton integrity. Mathematical model to describe the change of monolith permeability as a function of monolith compression modulus was derived and successfully validated for monoliths of different geometries and pore sizes. It enables the prediction of pressure drop increase due to monolith compressibility for any monolith structural characteristics, such as geometry, porosity, pore size or mobile phase properties like viscosity or flow rate, based solely on the data of compression modulus and structural data of non-compressed monolith. Furthermore, it enables simple determination of monolith pore size at which monolith compressibility is the smallest and the most robust performance is expected. Data of monolith compression modulus in combination with developed mathematical model can therefore be used for the prediction of monolith permeability during its implementation but also to accelerate the design of novel chromatographic monoliths with desired hydrodynamic properties for particular application.

  10. Exploring transverse pattern formation in a dual-polarization self-mode-locked monolithic Yb: KGW laser and generating a 25-GHz sub-picosecond vortex beam via gain competition.

    PubMed

    Chang, M T; Liang, H C; Su, K W; Chen, Y F

    2016-04-18

    Formation of transverse modes in a dual-polarization self-mode-locked monolithic Yb: KGW laser under high-power pumping is thoroughly explored. It is experimentally observed that the polarization-resolved transverse patterns are considerably affected by the pump location in the transverse plane of the gain medium. In contrast, the longitudinal self-mode-locking is nearly undisturbed by the pump position, even under the high-power pumping. Under central pumping, a vortex beam of the Laguerre-Gaussian LGp,l mode with p = 1 and l = 1 can be efficiently generated through the process of the gain competition with a sub-picosecond pulse train at 25.3 GHz and the output power can be up to 1.45 W at a pump power of 10.0 W. Under off-center pumping, the symmetry breaking causes the transverse patterns to be dominated by the high-order Hermite-Gaussian modes. Numerical analyses are further performed to manifest the symmetry breaking induced by the off-center pumping.

  11. Monolithic ballasted penetrator

    DOEpatents

    Hickerson, Jr., James P.; Zanner, Frank J.; Baldwin, Michael D.; Maguire, Michael C.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a monolithic ballasted penetrator capable of delivering a working payload to a hardened target, such as reinforced concrete. The invention includes a ballast made from a dense heavy material insert and a monolithic case extending along an axis and consisting of a high-strength steel alloy. The case includes a nose end containing a hollow portion in which the ballast is nearly completely surrounded so that no movement of the ballast relative to the case is possible during impact with a hard target. The case is cast around the ballast, joining the two parts together. The ballast may contain concentric grooves or protrusions that improve joint strength between the case and ballast. The case further includes a second hollow portion; between the ballast and base, which has a payload fastened within this portion. The penetrator can be used to carry instrumentation to measure the geologic character of the earth, or properties of arctic ice, as they pass through it.

  12. Monolithic optical parametric oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunig, Ingo; Beckmann, Tobias; Buse, Karsten

    2012-02-01

    Stability and footprint of optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) strongly depend on the cavity used. Monolithic OPOs tend to be most stable and compact since they do not require external mirrors that have to be aligned. The most straightforward way to get rid of the mirrors is to coat the end faces of the nonlinear crystal. Whispering gallery resonators (WGRs) are a more advanced solution since they provide ultra-high reflectivity over a wide spectral range without any coating. Furthermore, they can be fabricated out of nonlinear-optical materials like lithium niobate. Thus, they are ideally suited to serve as a monolithic OPO cavity. We present the experimental realization of optical parametric oscillators based on whispering gallery resonators. Pumped at 1 μm wavelength, they generate signal and idler fields tunable between 1.8 and 2.5 μm wavelength. We explore different schemes, how to phase match the nonlinear interaction in a WGR. In particular, we show improvements in the fabrication of quasi-phase-matching structures. They enable great flexibility for the tuning and for the choice of the pump laser.

  13. Monolithic THz Frequency Multipliers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, N. R.; Narayanan, G.; Grosslein, R. M.; Martin, S.; Mehdi, I.; Smith, P.; Coulomb, M.; DeMartinez, G.

    2001-01-01

    Frequency multipliers are required as local oscillator sources for frequencies up to 2.7 THz for FIRST and airborne applications. Multipliers at these frequencies have not previously been demonstrated, and the object of this work was to show whether such circuits are really practical. A practical circuit is one which not only performs as well as is required, but also can be replicated in a time that is feasible. As the frequency of circuits is increased, the difficulties in fabrication and assembly increase rapidly. Building all of the circuit on GaAs as a monolithic circuit is highly desirable to minimize the complexity of assembly, but at the highest frequencies, even a complete monolithic circuit is extremely small, and presents serious handling difficulty. This is compounded by the requirement for a very thin substrate. Assembly can become very difficult because of handling problems and critical placement. It is very desirable to make the chip big enough to that it can be seen without magnification, and strong enough that it may be picked up with tweezers. Machined blocks to house the chips present an additional challenge. Blocks with complex features are very expensive, and these also imply very critical assembly of the parts. It would be much better if the features in the block were as simple as possible and non-critical to the function of the chip. In particular, grounding and other electrical interfaces should be done in a manner that is highly reproducible.

  14. A hierarchically porous cellulose monolith: A template-free fabricated, morphology-tunable, and easily functionalizable platform.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yuanrong; Xiong, Qiancheng; Bai, Qiuhong; Miyamoto, Miwa; Li, Cong; Shen, Yehua; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2017-02-10

    Recently, monoliths with continuous porous structure have received much attention for high-performance separation/adsorption matrix in biomedical and environmental fields. This study proposes a novel route to prepare cellulose monoliths with hierarchically porous structure by selecting cellulose acetate (CA) as the starting material. Thermally induced phase separation of CA solution using a mixed solvent affords a CA monolith, which is converted into the cellulose monolith by alkaline hydrolysis. Scanning electron microscopy images of the CA and cellulose monoliths reveal a continuous macropore with rough surface, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis indicates the formation of a mesoporous structure. The macroporous structure could be controlled by changing the fabrication parameters. A series of reactive groups are introduced by chemical modifications on the surface of the cellulose monolith. The facile and diverse modifiability combined with its hydrophilic property make the hierarchically porous cellulose monolith a potential platform for use in separation, purification and bio-related applications.

  15. Biobased monoliths for adenovirus purification.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Cláudia S M; Gonçalves, Bianca; Sousa, Margarida; Martins, Duarte L; Barroso, Telma; Pina, Ana Sofia; Peixoto, Cristina; Aguiar-Ricardo, Ana; Roque, A Cecília A

    2015-04-01

    Adenoviruses are important platforms for vaccine development and vectors for gene therapy, increasing the demand for high titers of purified viral preparations. Monoliths are macroporous supports regarded as ideal for the purification of macromolecular complexes, including viral particles. Although common monoliths are based on synthetic polymers as methacrylates, we explored the potential of biopolymers processed by clean technologies to produce monoliths for adenovirus purification. Such an approach enables the development of disposable and biodegradable matrices for bioprocessing. A total of 20 monoliths were produced from different biopolymers (chitosan, agarose, and dextran), employing two distinct temperatures during the freezing process (-20 °C and -80 °C). The morphological and physical properties of the structures were thoroughly characterized. The monoliths presenting higher robustness and permeability rates were further analyzed for the nonspecific binding of Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) preparations. The matrices presenting lower nonspecific Ad5 binding were further functionalized with quaternary amine anion-exchange ligand glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride hydrochloride by two distinct methods, and their performance toward Ad5 purification was assessed. The monolith composed of chitosan and poly(vinyl) alcohol (50:50) prepared at -80 °C allowed 100% recovery of Ad5 particles bound to the support. This is the first report of the successful purification of adenovirus using monoliths obtained from biopolymers processed by clean technologies.

  16. Monolithically compatible impedance measurement

    DOEpatents

    Ericson, Milton Nance; Holcomb, David Eugene

    2002-01-01

    A monolithic sensor includes a reference channel and at least one sensing channel. Each sensing channel has an oscillator and a counter driven by the oscillator. The reference channel and the at least one sensing channel being formed integrally with a substrate and intimately nested with one another on the substrate. Thus, the oscillator and the counter have matched component values and temperature coefficients. A frequency determining component of the sensing oscillator is formed integrally with the substrate and has an impedance parameter which varies with an environmental parameter to be measured by the sensor. A gating control is responsive to an output signal generated by the reference channel, for terminating counting in the at least one sensing channel at an output count, whereby the output count is indicative of the environmental parameter, and successive ones of the output counts are indicative of changes in the environmental parameter.

  17. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1993-01-01

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  18. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1993-03-30

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  19. Monolithic microchannel heatsink

    DOEpatents

    Benett, W.J.; Beach, R.J.; Ciarlo, D.R.

    1996-08-20

    A silicon wafer has slots sawn in it that allow diode laser bars to be mounted in contact with the silicon. Microchannels are etched into the back of the wafer to provide cooling of the diode bars. To facilitate getting the channels close to the diode bars, the channels are rotated from an angle perpendicular to the diode bars which allows increased penetration between the mounted diode bars. This invention enables the fabrication of monolithic silicon microchannel heatsinks for laser diodes. The heatsinks have low thermal resistance because of the close proximity of the microchannels to the laser diode being cooled. This allows high average power operation of two-dimensional laser diode arrays that have a high density of laser diode bars and therefore high optical power density. 9 figs.

  20. Monolithic microchannel heatsink

    DOEpatents

    Benett, William J.; Beach, Raymond J.; Ciarlo, Dino R.

    1996-01-01

    A silicon wafer has slots sawn in it that allow diode laser bars to be mounted in contact with the silicon. Microchannels are etched into the back of the wafer to provide cooling of the diode bars. To facilitate getting the channels close to the diode bars, the channels are rotated from an angle perpendicular to the diode bars which allows increased penetration between the mounted diode bars. This invention enables the fabrication of monolithic silicon microchannel heatsinks for laser diodes. The heatsinks have low thermal resistance because of the close proximity of the microchannels to the laser diode being cooled. This allows high average power operation of two-dimensional laser diode arrays that have a high density of laser diode bars and therefore high optical power density.

  1. Monolithic microcircuit techniques and processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, B. W.

    1972-01-01

    Brief discussions of the techniques used to make dielectric and metal thin film depositions for monolithic circuits are presented. Silicon nitride deposition and the properties of silicon nitride films are discussed. Deposition of dichlorosilane and thermally grown silicon dioxide are reported. The deposition and thermal densification of borosilicate, aluminosilicate, and phosphosilicate glasses are discussed. Metallization for monolithic circuits and the characteristics of thin films are also included.

  2. Monolith Joint Repairs: Case Histories

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    REPAIR, EVALUATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROGRAM TECHNICAL REPORT REMR-CS-22 MONOLITH JOINT REPAIRS: CASE HISTORVS.Z by James G ...Washington, DC 20314-1000 32307 S11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Monolith Joint Repairs: Case Histories 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) May. James G ...Research Work Unit 32307, "Tech- niques for Joint Repair and Rehabilitation," for which MAJ James G . May, CE, is the Principal Investigator. This work unit

  3. Monolithic Michelson Interferometer as ultra stable wavelength reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xiaoke; Ge, Jian

    2010-07-01

    Ultra-stable Monolithic Michelson interferometer can be an ideal reference for highprecision applications such as RV measurement in planet searching and orbit study. The advantages include wide wavelength range, simple sinusoidal spectral format, and high optical efficiency. In this paper, we report that a monolithic Michelson interferometers has been in-house developed with minimized thermal sensitivity with compensation tuning. With a scanning white light interferometer, the thermal sensitivity is measured ~ 6x10-7/°C at 550 nm and it decreases to zero near 1000 nm. We expect the wideband wavelength reference source to be stabilized better than 0.3 m/s for RV experiments

  4. Improved methods of forming monolithic integrated circuits having complementary bipolar transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohannon, R. O., Jr.; Cashion, W. F.; Stehlin, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    Two new processes form complementary transistors in monolithic semiconductor circuits, require fewer steps /infusions/ than previous methods, and eliminate such problems as nonuniform h sub FE distribution, low yield, and large device formation.

  5. Pore volume accessibility of particulate and monolithic stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Urban, Jiří

    2015-05-29

    A chromatographic characterization of pore volume accessibility for both particulate and monolithic stationary phases is presented. Size-exclusion calibration curves have been used to determine the pore volume fraction that is accessible for six alkylbenzenes and twelve polystyrene standards in tetrahydrofuran as the mobile phase. Accessible porosity has been then correlated with the size of the pores from which individual compounds are just excluded. I have determined pore volume accessibility of commercially available columns packed with fully and superficially porous particles, as well as with silica-based monolithic stationary phase. I also have investigated pore accessibility of polymer-based monolithic stationary phases. Suggested protocol is used to characterize pore formation at the early stage of the polymerization, to evaluate an extent of hypercrosslinking during modification of pore surface, and to characterize the pore accessibility of monolithic stationary phases hypercrosslinked after an early termination of polymerization reaction. Pore volume accessibility was also correlated to column efficiency of both particulate and monolithic stationary phases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Factorizing monolithic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, J.H.; Ankeny, L.A.; Clancy, S.P.

    1998-12-31

    The Blanca project is part of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), which focuses on Science-Based Stockpile Stewardship through the large-scale simulation of multi-physics, multi-dimensional problems. Blanca is the only Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)-based ASCI project that is written entirely in C++. Tecolote, a new framework used in developing Blanca physics codes, provides an infrastructure for gluing together any number of components; this framework is then used to create applications that encompass a wide variety of physics models, numerical solution options, and underlying data storage schemes. The advantage of this approach is that only the essential components for the given model need be activated at runtime. Tecolote has been designed for code re-use and to isolate the computer science mechanics from the physics aspects as much as possible -- allowing physics model developers to write algorithms in a style quite similar to the underlying physics equations that govern the computational physics. This paper describes the advantages of component architectures and contrasts the Tecolote framework with Microsoft`s OLE and Apple`s OpenDoc. An actual factorization of a traditional monolithic application into its basic components is also described.

  7. Monolithic afocal telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, William T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An afocal monolithic optical element formed of a shallow cylinder of optical material (glass, polymer, etc.) with fast aspheric surfaces, nominally confocal paraboloids, configured on the front and back surfaces. The front surface is substantially planar, and this lends itself to deposition of multi-layer stacks of thin dielectric and metal films to create a filter for rejecting out-of-band light. However, an aspheric section (for example, a paraboloid) can either be ground into a small area of this surface (for a Cassegrain-type telescope) or attached to the planar surface (for a Gregorian-type telescope). This aspheric section of the surface is then silvered to create the telescope's secondary mirror. The rear surface of the cylinder is figured into a steep, convex asphere (again, a paraboloid in the examples), and also made reflective to form the telescope's primary mirror. A small section of the rear surface (approximately the size of the secondary obscuration, depending on the required field of the telescope) is ground flat to provide an unpowered surface through which the collimated light beam can exit the optical element. This portion of the rear surface is made to transmit the light concentrated by the reflective surfaces, and can support the deposition of a spectral filter.

  8. Less common applications of monoliths: IV. Recent developments in immobilized enzyme reactors for proteomics and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Krenkova, Jana; Svec, Frantisek

    2009-03-01

    Use of monolithic supports for enzyme immobilization has rapidly expanded since we published the preceding paper in the series of articles concerned with this topic almost three years ago. Many groups worldwide have realized the benefits of applying monoliths as support structures and used a variety of techniques to immobilize many different enzymes. Although some of these new developments are just refinements of the methods developed previously, some notable new approaches have also been reported. This review summarizes the literature published since 2006 and demonstrates the broad variability of reactive monoliths prepared from silica as well as from organic polymers in the form of disks, columns, and capillaries. All these monoliths were prepared by direct formation from reactive precursors or activation of preformed inactive structures. Interestingly, most of the applications of monolithic enzyme reactors target proteolytic digestion of proteins for proteomic analysis.

  9. Highly bioactive polysiloxane modified bioactive glass-poly(ethylene glycol) hybrids monoliths with controlled surface structure for bone tissue regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing; Que, Wenxiu; Xing, Yonglei; Lei, Bo

    2015-03-01

    Crack-free monoliths with controllable surface microstructure have high bioactivities and therefore potential applications in bone tissue regeneration. In this paper, crack-free polydimethylsiloxane-modified bioactive glass-poly (ethylene glycol) (PDMS-BG-PEG) hybrids monoliths were fabricated via using a modified sol-gel process. Results show that the addition of PEG plays an important part in the formation of crack-free and gelation of the monoliths, and surface microstructures of the as-prepared hybrid monoliths were significantly influenced by the concentration and molecular weight of PEG. The samples obtained from PEG 300 had porous surface result in higher bioactivity (apatite formation) in simulated body fluid (SBF), while the samples obtained from PEG 600 had the smooth surface and inhibited the formation of apatite layer in SBF. These as-prepared hybrid monoliths can be used as a good candidate of implant and scaffold for highly efficient bone tissue regeneration.

  10. Method of monolithic module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Gee, James M.; Garrett, Stephen E.; Morgan, William P.; Worobey, Walter

    1999-01-01

    Methods for "monolithic module assembly" which translate many of the advantages of monolithic module construction of thin-film PV modules to wafered c-Si PV modules. Methods employ using back-contact solar cells positioned atop electrically conductive circuit elements affixed to a planar support so that a circuit capable of generating electric power is created. The modules are encapsulated using encapsulant materials such as EVA which are commonly used in photovoltaic module manufacture. The methods of the invention allow multiple cells to be electrically connected in a single encapsulation step rather than by sequential soldering which characterizes the currently used commercial practices.

  11. Monolithical aspherical beam expanding systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, U.; Matthias, Sabrina

    2014-10-01

    Beam expanding is a common task, where Galileo telescopes are preferred. However researches and customers have found limitations when using these systems. A new monolithical solution which is based on the usage of only one aspherical component will be presented. It will be shown how to combine up to five monolithical beam expanding systems and to keep the beam quality at diffraction limitation. Insights will be given how aspherical beam expanding systems will help using larger incoming beams and reducing the overall length of such a system. Additionally an add-on element for divergence and wavelength adaption will be presented.

  12. Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis on Ceramic Monolith-Structured Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yong; Liu, Wei

    2009-04-19

    This paper reports recent research results about impact of different catalyst bed configurations on FT reaction product distribution. A CoRe/γ-alumina catalyst is prepared in bulk particle form and tested in the packed bed reactor at a size of 60 to 100 mesh. The same catalyst is ball milled and coated on a ceramic monolith support structure of channel size about 1mm. The monolith catalyst module is tested in two different ways, as a whole piece and as well-defined channels. Steady-state reaction conversion is measured at various temperatures under constant H2/CO feed ratio of 2 and reactor pressure of 25 bar. Detailed product analysis is performed. Significant formation of wax is evident with the packed particle bed and with the monolith catalyst that is improperly packed. By contrast, the wax formation is not detected in the liquid product by confining the reactions inside the monolith channel. This study presents an important finding about the structured catalyst/reactor system that the product distribution highly depends on the way how the structured reactor is set up. Even if the same catalyst and same reaction conditions (T, P, H2/oil ratio) are used, hydrodynamics (or flow conditions) inside a structured channel can have a significant impact on the product distribution.

  13. Monolithic molecularly imprinted cryogel for lysozyme recognition.

    PubMed

    Rabieizadeh, Mohammadmahdi; Kashefimofrad, Seyed Mohammadreza; Naeimpoor, Fereshteh

    2014-10-01

    The application of molecularly imprinted polymers in the selective adsorption of macromolecules such as proteins by monolithic protein-imprinted columns requires a macroporous structure, which can be provided by cryogelation at low temperature in which the formation of ice crystals gives a porous structure to the molecularly imprinted polymer. In this study, we applied this technique to synthesize lysozyme-imprinted polyacrylamide cryogels containing 8% w/v of total monomers and 0.3% w/v of lysozyme. The synthesized cryogel was sponge-like and elastic with very fast swelling and reshaping properties, showing a swelling ratio of 24.5 ± 3 and gel fraction yield of about 72%. It showed an imprinting effect of 1.58 and a separation factor of 1.37 for cytochrome c as the competing protein. Adsorption studies on the cryogel revealed that it follows the Langmuir isotherm, with a maximum theoretical adsorption capacity of 36.3 mg lysozyme per gram of cryogel. Additionally, it was shown that a salt-free rebinding solution at low flow rate and pH = 7.0 is favorable for lysozyme rebinding. This kind of monolithic column promises a wide range of application in separation of various biomolecules due to its preparation simplicity, good rebinding characteristics, and macroporosity.

  14. Monolithic fiber optic sensor assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Scott

    2015-02-10

    A remote sensor element for spectrographic measurements employs a monolithic assembly of one or two fiber optics to two optical elements separated by a supporting structure to allow the flow of gases or particulates therebetween. In a preferred embodiment, the sensor element components are fused ceramic to resist high temperatures and failure from large temperature changes.

  15. Monolithic blue upconversion fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaebler, Volker; Eichler, Hans J.

    2002-06-01

    We report a monolithic low threshold 482nm Tm:ZBLAN upconversion fiber laser. The laser cavity consists of a directly coated single-mode fluoride fiber. The vapor deposit coatings significantly reduce the coupling losses and are suitable to be pumped by laser diodes. The laser operation and threshold characteristics have been investigated. The output stability and beam quality was tested.

  16. In situ Fabrication of Monolithic Copper Azide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bing; Li, Mingyu; Zeng, Qingxuan; Wu, Xingyu

    2016-04-01

    Fabrication and characterization of monolithic copper azide were performed. The monolithic nanoporous copper (NPC) with interconnected pores and nanoparticles was prepared by decomposition and sintering of the ultrafine copper oxalate. The preferable monolithic NPC can be obtained through decomposition and sintering at 400°C for 30 min. Then, the available monolithic NPC was in situ reacted with the gaseous HN3 for 24 h and the monolithic NPC was transformed into monolithic copper azide. Additionally, the copper particles prepared by electrodeposition were also reacted with the gaseous HN3 under uniform conditions as a comparison. The fabricated monolithic copper azide was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

  17. Protective Skins for Aerogel Monoliths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leventis, Nicholas; Johnston, James C.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Meador, Ann B.

    2007-01-01

    A method of imparting relatively hard protective outer skins to aerogel monoliths has been developed. Even more than aerogel beads, aerogel monoliths are attractive as thermal-insulation materials, but the commercial utilization of aerogel monoliths in thermal-insulation panels has been inhibited by their fragility and the consequent difficulty of handling them. Therefore, there is a need to afford sufficient protection to aerogel monoliths to facilitate handling, without compromising the attractive bulk properties (low density, high porosity, low thermal conductivity, high surface area, and low permittivity) of aerogel materials. The present method was devised to satisfy this need. The essence of the present method is to coat an aerogel monolith with an outer polymeric skin, by painting or spraying. Apparently, the reason spraying and painting were not attempted until now is that it is well known in the aerogel industry that aerogels collapse in contact with liquids. In the present method, one prevents such collapse through the proper choice of coating liquid and process conditions: In particular, one uses a viscous polymer precursor liquid and (a) carefully controls the amount of liquid applied and/or (b) causes the liquid to become cured to the desired hard polymeric layer rapidly enough that there is not sufficient time for the liquid to percolate into the aerogel bulk. The method has been demonstrated by use of isocyanates, which, upon exposure to atmospheric moisture, become cured to polyurethane/polyurea-type coats. The method has also been demonstrated by use of commercial epoxy resins. The method could also be implemented by use of a variety of other resins, including polyimide precursors (for forming high-temperature-resistant protective skins) or perfluorinated monomers (for forming coats that impart hydrophobicity and some increase in strength).

  18. Facile preparation of silver nanoparticles homogeneously immobilized in hierarchically monolithic silica using ethylene glycol as reductant.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huan; Zhu, Yang; Yang, Hui; Nakanishi, Kazuki; Kanamori, Kazuyoshi; Guo, Xingzhong

    2014-09-07

    A facile and "green" method was proposed to introduce Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) into the hierarchically monolithic silica uniformly in the presence of (3-aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane (APTES) and ethylene glycol. APTES is used to modify the monolith by incorporating amino groups onto the surface of meso-macroporous skeletons, while ethylene glycol is employed as the productive reductant. Ag NPs are homogeneously immobilized in hierarchically monolithic silica after reduction and drying at 40 °C for different duration times, and the embedded amount of Ag NPs can reach 15.44 wt% when treated once. The embedment of Ag NPs increases with the repeat treatment and the APTES amount, without uncontrollable crystalline growth. The surface areas of Ag NPs embedded in silica monoliths after heat treatment at 300 and 400 °C are higher than those before heat treatment. The modification via APTES and the embedment of Ag NPs does not spoil the morphology of monolithic silica, while changing the pore structures of the monolith. A tentative formation process and a reduction mechanism are proposed for the modification, reduction and embedment. Ag NPs embedded in monolithic silica is promising for wide applications such as catalysis and separation.

  19. Polyvinyl alcohol-based hydrophilic monoliths from water-in-oil high internal phase emulsion template.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiao; Zeng, Ni; Zhang, Jin; Jiang, Long; Dan, Yi

    2017-07-01

    Herein, we report a new approach to fabricate polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based hydrophilic monoliths by alcoholysis of porous emulsion-templated polyvinyl acetate (PVAc). The precursory PVAc-based monolith is obtained by polymerization of a W/O high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) containing vinyl acetate as the external phase while water as the internal phase. As an alcoholysis-stable tri-functional commonomer, triallyl isocyanurate is chosen as the crosslinking agent to prevent possible collapse of the polymeric skeleton and the consequent losses in mechanical properties during the alcoholysis step. By alcoholysis of the resulting PVAc-based monolith, the PVA-based monoliths are successful prepared as confirmed by FTIR analysis. BET analysis and SEM observation confirm the formation of open-cell and highly interconnected porous structures of PVA-based monoliths with surface areas of around 16m(2)/g. Stemming from the intrinsic hydrophilicity of hydroxyl and morphology, PVA-based monoliths exhibit great enhancement in hydrophilicity with a much lower water contact angles than that of PVAc-based monoliths. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Transparent monolithic metal ion containing nanophase aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Risen, W. M., Jr.; Hu, X.; Ji, S.; Littrell, K.

    1999-12-01

    The formation of monolithic and transparent transition metal containing aerogels has been achieved through cooperative interactions of high molecular weight functionalized carbohydrates and silica precursors, which strongly influence the kinetics of gelation. After initial gelation, subsequent modification of the ligating character of the system, coordination of the group VIII metal ions, and supercritical extraction afford the aerogels. The structures at the nanophase level have been probed by photon and electron transmission and neutron scattering techniques to help elucidate the basis for structural integrity together with the small entity sizes that permit transparency in the visible range. They also help with understanding the chemical reactivities of the metal-containing sites in these very high surface area materials. These results are discussed in connection with new reaction studies.

  1. Titanium-scaffolded organic-monolithic stationary phases for ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Vonk, Rudy J; Vaast, Axel; Eeltink, Sebastiaan; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2014-09-12

    Organic-polymer monoliths with overall dimensions larger than one millimetre are prone to rupture - either within the monolith itself or between the monoliths and the containing wall - due to the inevitable shrinkage accompanying the formation of a cross-linked polymeric network. This problem has been addressed by creating titanium-scaffolded poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) (S-co-DVB) monoliths. Titanium-scaffolded monoliths were successfully used in liquid chromatography at very high pressures (up to 80MPa) and using gradients spanning the full range of water-acetonitrile compositions (0 to 100%). The kinetic-performance of (50-mm long) titanium-scaffolded monoliths was compared to that of similar monolith created in 1-mm i.d. glass-lined tubing at pressures up to 50MPa. The peak capacities obtained with the titanium-scaffolded column was about 30% lower. An increased Eddy-diffusion, due to the pillar-structure, and a decreased permeability are thought to be the main reasons for this reduced kinetic-performance. No decrease in performance was observed when the titanium-scaffolded columns were operated at pressures of 80MPa for up to 12h. The column-to-column repeatability (n=5) was acceptable in terms of observed peak widths at half heights (RSD ca. 10%) The run-to-run repeatability (n=135) in terms of retention times and peak widths at half height were found to be good. Titanium-scaffolded columns coupled in series up to a combined length of (200mm) were used for the analyses of a complex Escherichia coli protein sample. Our experiments demonstrate that columns based on titanium-scaffolded organic-polymer monolith can be operated under strenuous conditions without loss in performance. The titanium-scaffolded approach makes it feasible to create organic-polymer monoliths in wide-bore columns with accurate temperature control.

  2. Monolithic pattern-sensitive detector

    DOEpatents

    Berger, Kurt W.

    2000-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet light (EUV) is detected using a precisely defined reference pattern formed over a shallow junction photodiode. The reference pattern is formed in an EUV absorber preferably comprising nickel or other material having EUV- and other spectral region attenuating characteristics. An EUV-transmissive energy filter is disposed between a passivation oxide layer of the photodiode and the EUV transmissive energy filter. The device is monolithically formed to provide robustness and compactness.

  3. Monolithic Fuel Fabrication Process Development

    SciTech Connect

    C. R. Clark; N. P. Hallinan; J. F. Jue; D. D. Keiser; J. M. Wight

    2006-05-01

    The pursuit of a high uranium density research reactor fuel plate has led to monolithic fuel, which possesses the greatest possible uranium density in the fuel region. Process developments in fabrication development include friction stir welding tool geometry and cooling improvements and a reduction in the length of time required to complete the transient liquid phase bonding process. Annealing effects on the microstructures of the U-10Mo foil and friction stir welded aluminum 6061 cladding are also examined.

  4. Graphene-supported metal oxide monolith

    DOEpatents

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Biener, Juergen; Biener, Monika A.; Wang, Yinmin; Ye, Jianchao; Tylski, Elijah

    2017-01-10

    A composition comprising at least one graphene-supported metal oxide monolith, said monolith comprising a three-dimensional structure of graphene sheets crosslinked by covalent carbon bonds, wherein the graphene sheets are coated by at least one metal oxide such as iron oxide or titanium oxide. Also provided is an electrode comprising the aforementioned graphene-supported metal oxide monolith, wherein the electrode can be substantially free of any carbon-black and substantially free of any binder.

  5. Synthesis of high porosity, monolithic alumina aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Poco, J F; Satcher, J H; Hrubesh, L W

    2000-09-20

    Many non-silica aerogels are notably weak and fragile in monolithic form. Particularly, few monolithic aerogels with densities less than 50kg/m3 have any significant strength. It is especially difficult to prepare uncracked monoliths of pure alumina aerogels that are robust and moisture stable. In this paper, we discuss the synthesis of strong, stable, monolithic, high porosity (>98% porous) alumina aerogels, using a two-step sol-gel process. The alumina aerogels have a polycrystalline morphology that results in enhanced physical properties. Most of the measured physical properties of the alumina aerogels are superior to those for silica aerogels for equivalent densities.

  6. Radioactive Bench-scale Steam Reformer Demonstration of a Monolithic Steam Reformed Mineralized Waste Form for Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste - 12306

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Brent; Olson, Arlin; Mason, J. Bradley; Ryan, Kevin; Jantzen, Carol; Crawford, Charles

    2012-07-01

    Hanford currently has 212,000 m{sup 3} (56 million gallons) of highly radioactive mixed waste stored in the Hanford tank farm. This waste will be processed to produce both high-level and low-level activity fractions, both of which are to be vitrified. Supplemental treatment options have been under evaluation for treating portions of the low-activity waste, as well as the liquid secondary waste from the low-activity waste vitrification process. One technology under consideration has been the THOR{sup R} fluidized bed steam reforming process offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT). As a follow-on effort to TTT's 2008 pilot plant FBSR non-radioactive demonstration for treating low-activity waste and waste treatment plant secondary waste, TTT, in conjunction with Savannah River National Laboratory, has completed a bench scale evaluation of this same technology on a chemically adjusted radioactive surrogate of Hanford's waste treatment plant secondary waste stream. This test generated a granular product that was subsequently formed into monoliths, using a geo-polymer as the binding agent, that were subjected to compressibility testing, the Product Consistency Test and other leachability tests, and chemical composition analyses. This testing has demonstrated that the mineralized waste form, produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay using the TTT process, is as durable as low-activity waste glass. Testing has shown the resulting monolith waste form is durable, leach resistant, and chemically stable, and has the added benefit of capturing and retaining the majority of Tc-99, I-129, and other target species at high levels. (authors)

  7. Monolithically integrated absolute frequency comb laser system

    SciTech Connect

    Wanke, Michael C.

    2016-07-12

    Rather than down-convert optical frequencies, a QCL laser system directly generates a THz frequency comb in a compact monolithically integrated chip that can be locked to an absolute frequency without the need of a frequency-comb synthesizer. The monolithic, absolute frequency comb can provide a THz frequency reference and tool for high-resolution broad band spectroscopy.

  8. Monolithic CMOS imaging x-ray spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenter, Almus; Kraft, Ralph; Gauron, Thomas; Murray, Stephen S.

    2014-07-01

    The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) in collaboration with SRI/Sarnoff is developing monolithic CMOS detectors optimized for x-ray astronomy. The goal of this multi-year program is to produce CMOS x-ray imaging spectrometers that are Fano noise limited over the 0.1-10keV energy band while incorporating the many benefits of CMOS technology. These benefits include: low power consumption, radiation "hardness", high levels of integration, and very high read rates. Small format test devices from a previous wafer fabrication run (2011-2012) have recently been back-thinned and tested for response below 1keV. These devices perform as expected in regards to dark current, read noise, spectral response and Quantum Efficiency (QE). We demonstrate that running these devices at rates ~> 1Mpix/second eliminates the need for cooling as shot noise from any dark current is greatly mitigated. The test devices were fabricated on 15μm, high resistivity custom (~30kΩ-cm) epitaxial silicon and have a 16 by 192 pixel format. They incorporate 16μm pitch, 6 Transistor Pinned Photo Diode (6TPPD) pixels which have ~40μV/electron sensitivity and a highly parallel analog CDS signal chain. Newer, improved, lower noise detectors have just been fabricated (October 2013). These new detectors are fabricated on 9μm epitaxial silicon and have a 1k by 1k format. They incorporate similar 16μm pitch, 6TPPD pixels but have ~ 50% higher sensitivity and much (3×) lower read noise. These new detectors have undergone preliminary testing for functionality in Front Illuminated (FI) form and are presently being prepared for back thinning and packaging. Monolithic CMOS devices such as these, would be ideal candidate detectors for the focal planes of Solar, planetary and other space-borne x-ray astronomy missions. The high through-put, low noise and excellent low energy response, provide high dynamic range and good time resolution; bright, time varying x-ray features could be temporally and

  9. Compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Vernon, George E.; Hoke, Darren A.; De Marquis, Virginia K.; Harris, Steven M.

    2007-06-26

    A compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit (CDU) is disclosed in which a thyristor switch and a flyback charging circuit are both sandwiched about a ceramic energy storage capacitor. The result is a compact rugged assembly which provides a low-inductance current discharge path. The flyback charging circuit preferably includes a low-temperature co-fired ceramic transformer. The CDU can further include one or more ceramic substrates for enclosing the thyristor switch and for holding various passive components used in the flyback charging circuit. A load such as a detonator can also be attached directly to the CDU.

  10. Nanosecond monolithic CMOS readout cell

    DOEpatents

    Souchkov, Vitali V.

    2004-08-24

    A pulse shaper is implemented in monolithic CMOS with a delay unit formed of a unity gain buffer. The shaper is formed of a difference amplifier having one input connected directly to an input signal and a second input connected to a delayed input signal through the buffer. An elementary cell is based on the pulse shaper and a timing circuit which gates the output of an integrator connected to the pulse shaper output. A detector readout system is formed of a plurality of elementary cells, each connected to a pixel of a pixel array, or to a microstrip of a plurality of microstrips, or to a detector segment.

  11. Adsorption over polyacrylonitrile based carbon monoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandi, Mahasweta; Dutta, Arghya; Patra, Astam Kumar; Bhaumik, Asim; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    Highly porous activated carbon monoliths have been prepared from mesoporous polyacrylonitrile (PAN) monolith as the carbon precursor. The mesoporous PAN monoliths are fabricated by a unique and facile template-free method which on carbonization gives N-doped activated carbon monoliths. The carbonization is achieved via two step thermal process which includes pretreatment in air leading to cyclization and subsequent aromatization of the PAN moieties followed by carbonization in a mixture of argon and carbon dioxide to give a layered carbon framework. Nitrogen sorption experiments carried over these carbon monoliths revealed high surface area (ca. 2500 m2g-1) for these materials with precise micropore size distribution. The activated carbons show extraordinarily high CO2 capture capacity and the uptake up to 3 bar has been found to be as high as 22.5 and 10.6 mmol/g at 273 K and 298 K, respectively.

  12. Monolithical aspherical beam expanding systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, U.

    2014-02-01

    In complex laser systems, such as those for material processing, and in basically all laboratory applications passive optical components are indispensable. Matching beam diameters is a common task, where Galileo type telescopes are preferred for beam expansion. Nevertheless researches and customers have found various limitations when using these systems. Some of them are the complicated adjustment, very small diameter for the incoming beam (1/e2), fixed and non-modifiable magnifications. Above that, diffraction-limitation is only assured within the optical design and not for the real world setup of the beam expanding system. Therefore, we will discuss limitations of currently used beam expanding systems to some extent. We will then present a new monolithical solution, which is based on the usage of only one aspherical component. It will be shown theoretically how the beam quality can be significantly improved by using aspherical lenses. As it is in the nature of things aspheres are working diffraction limited in the design, it will be shown how to combine up to five monolithical beam expanding systems and to keep the beam quality at diffraction limitation. Data of the culminated wavefront error will be presented. Last but not least insights will be given how beam expanding systems based on aspheres will help to use larger incoming beams and to reduce the overall length of such a system.

  13. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    DOEpatents

    Hatch, Anson V.; Sommer, Gregory j.; Singh, Anup K.; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay

    2015-12-01

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

  14. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    DOEpatents

    Hatch, Anson V; Sommer, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay V

    2014-04-22

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

  15. Monolithic Continuous-Flow Bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Kornfield, Julia A.; Voecks, Gerald A.

    1993-01-01

    Monolithic ceramic matrices containing many small flow passages useful as continuous-flow bioreactors. Ceramic matrix containing passages made by extruding and firing suitable ceramic. Pores in matrix provide attachment medium for film of cells and allow free movement of solution. Material one not toxic to micro-organisms grown in reactor. In reactor, liquid nutrients flow over, and liquid reaction products flow from, cell culture immobilized in one set of channels while oxygen flows to, and gaseous reaction products flow from, culture in adjacent set of passages. Cells live on inner surfaces containing flowing nutrient and in pores of walls of passages. Ready access to nutrients and oxygen in channels. They generate continuous high yield characteristic of immobilized cells, without large expenditure of energy otherwise incurred if necessary to pump nutrient solution through dense biomass as in bioreactors of other types.

  16. Monolithic Continuous-Flow Bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Kornfield, Julia A.; Voecks, Gerald A.

    1993-01-01

    Monolithic ceramic matrices containing many small flow passages useful as continuous-flow bioreactors. Ceramic matrix containing passages made by extruding and firing suitable ceramic. Pores in matrix provide attachment medium for film of cells and allow free movement of solution. Material one not toxic to micro-organisms grown in reactor. In reactor, liquid nutrients flow over, and liquid reaction products flow from, cell culture immobilized in one set of channels while oxygen flows to, and gaseous reaction products flow from, culture in adjacent set of passages. Cells live on inner surfaces containing flowing nutrient and in pores of walls of passages. Ready access to nutrients and oxygen in channels. They generate continuous high yield characteristic of immobilized cells, without large expenditure of energy otherwise incurred if necessary to pump nutrient solution through dense biomass as in bioreactors of other types.

  17. Monolithic solid electrolyte oxygen pump

    DOEpatents

    Fee, Darrell C.; Poeppel, Roger B.; Easler, Timothy E.; Dees, Dennis W.

    1989-01-01

    A multi-layer oxygen pump having a one-piece, monolithic ceramic structure affords high oxygen production per unit weight and volume and is thus particularly adapted for use as a portable oxygen supply. The oxygen pump is comprised of a large number of small cells on the order of 1-2 millimeters in diameter which form the walls of the pump and which are comprised of thin, i.e., 25-50 micrometers, ceramic layers of cell components. The cell components include an air electrode, an oxygen electrode, an electrolyte and interconnection materials. The cell walls form the passages for input air and for exhausting the oxygen which is transferred from a relatively dilute gaseous mixture to a higher concentration by applying a DC voltage across the electrodes so as to ionize the oxygen at the air electrode, whereupon the ionized oxygen travels through the electrolyte and is converted to oxygen gas at the oxygen electrode.

  18. Monolithic cells for solar fuels.

    PubMed

    Rongé, Jan; Bosserez, Tom; Martel, David; Nervi, Carlo; Boarino, Luca; Taulelle, Francis; Decher, Gero; Bordiga, Silvia; Martens, Johan A

    2014-12-07

    Hybrid energy generation models based on a variety of alternative energy supply technologies are considered the best way to cope with the depletion of fossil energy resources and to limit global warming. One of the currently missing technologies is the mimic of natural photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide and water into chemical fuel using sunlight. This idea has been around for decades, but artificial photosynthesis of organic molecules is still far away from providing real-world solutions. The scientific challenge is to perform in an efficient way the multi-electron transfer reactions of water oxidation and carbon dioxide reduction using holes and single electrons generated in an illuminated semiconductor. In this tutorial review the design of photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells that combine solar water oxidation and CO2 reduction is discussed. In such PEC cells simultaneous transport and efficient use of light, electrons, protons and molecules has to be managed. It is explained how efficiency can be gained by compartmentalisation of the water oxidation and CO2 reduction processes by proton exchange membranes, and monolithic concepts of artificial leaves and solar membranes are presented. Besides transferring protons from the anode to the cathode compartment the membrane serves as a molecular barrier material to prevent cross-over of oxygen and fuel molecules. Innovative nano-organized multimaterials will be needed to realise practical artificial photosynthesis devices. This review provides an overview of synthesis techniques which could be used to realise monolithic multifunctional membrane-electrode assemblies, such as Layer-by-Layer (LbL) deposition, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), and porous silicon (porSi) engineering. Advances in modelling approaches, electrochemical techniques and in situ spectroscopies to characterise overall PEC cell performance are discussed.

  19. Anisotropically structured magnetic aerogel monoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiligtag, Florian J.; Airaghi Leccardi, Marta J. I.; Erdem, Derya; Süess, Martin J.; Niederberger, Markus

    2014-10-01

    Texturing of magnetic ceramics and composites by aligning and fixing of colloidal particles in a magnetic field is a powerful strategy to induce anisotropic chemical, physical and especially mechanical properties into bulk materials. If porosity could be introduced, anisotropically structured magnetic materials would be the perfect supports for magnetic separations in biotechnology or for magnetic field-assisted chemical reactions. Aerogels, combining high porosity with nanoscale structural features, offer an exceptionally large surface area, but they are difficult to magnetically texture. Here we present the preparation of anatase-magnetite aerogel monoliths via the assembly of preformed nanocrystallites. Different approaches are proposed to produce macroscopic bodies with gradient-like magnetic segmentation or with strongly anisotropic magnetic texture.Texturing of magnetic ceramics and composites by aligning and fixing of colloidal particles in a magnetic field is a powerful strategy to induce anisotropic chemical, physical and especially mechanical properties into bulk materials. If porosity could be introduced, anisotropically structured magnetic materials would be the perfect supports for magnetic separations in biotechnology or for magnetic field-assisted chemical reactions. Aerogels, combining high porosity with nanoscale structural features, offer an exceptionally large surface area, but they are difficult to magnetically texture. Here we present the preparation of anatase-magnetite aerogel monoliths via the assembly of preformed nanocrystallites. Different approaches are proposed to produce macroscopic bodies with gradient-like magnetic segmentation or with strongly anisotropic magnetic texture. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Digital photographs of dispersions and gels with different water-to-ethanol ratios; magnetic measurements of an anatase aerogel containing 0.25 mol% Fe3O4 nanoparticles; XRD patterns of the iron oxide and

  20. Monolithic solid-state lasers for spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Yu, Anthony W.; Stephen, Mark A.; Merritt, Scott; Glebov, Leonid; Glebova, Larissa; Ryasnyanskiy, Aleksandr; Smirnov, Vadim; Mu, Xiaodong; Meissner, Stephanie; Meissner, Helmuth

    2015-02-01

    A new solution for building high power, solid state lasers for space flight is to fabricate the whole laser resonator in a single (monolithic) structure or alternatively to build a contiguous diffusion bonded or welded structure. Monolithic lasers provide numerous advantages for space flight solid-state lasers by minimizing misalignment concerns. The closed cavity is immune to contamination. The number of components is minimized thus increasing reliability. Bragg mirrors serve as the high reflector and output coupler thus minimizing optical coatings and coating damage. The Bragg mirrors also provide spectral and spatial mode selection for high fidelity. The monolithic structure allows short cavities resulting in short pulses. Passive saturable absorber Q-switches provide a soft aperture for spatial mode filtering and improved pointing stability. We will review our recent commercial and in-house developments toward fully monolithic solid-state lasers.

  1. Activated carbon monoliths for methane storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chada, Nagaraju; Romanos, Jimmy; Hilton, Ramsey; Suppes, Galen; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter

    2012-02-01

    The use of adsorbent storage media for natural gas (methane) vehicles allows for the use of non-cylindrical tanks due to the decreased pressure at which the natural gas is stored. The use of carbon powder as a storage material allows for a high mass of methane stored for mass of sample, but at the cost of the tank volume. Densified carbon monoliths, however, allow for the mass of methane for volume of tank to be optimized. In this work, different activated carbon monoliths have been produced using a polymeric binder, with various synthesis parameters. The methane storage was studied using a home-built, dosing-type instrument. A monolith with optimal parameters has been fabricated. The gravimetric excess adsorption for the optimized monolith was found to be 161 g methane for kg carbon.

  2. Optimization of monolithic columns for microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagaduan, Jayson V.; Yang, Weichun; Woolley, Adam T.

    2011-06-01

    Monolithic columns offer advantages as solid-phase extractors because they offer high surface area that can be tailored to a specific function, fast mass transport, and ease of fabrication. Porous glycidyl methacrylate-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate monoliths were polymerized in-situ in microfluidic devices, without pre-treatment of the poly(methyl methacrylate) channel surface. Cyclohexanol, 1-dodecanol and Tween 20 were used to control the pore size of the monoliths. The epoxy groups on the monolith surface can be utilized to immobilize target-specific probes such as antibodies, aptamers, or DNA for biomarker detection. Microfluidic devices integrated with solid-phase extractors should be useful for point-of-care diagnostics in detecting specific biomarkers from complex biological fluids.

  3. Hybrid and monolithic integration of planar lightwave circuits (PLCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ray T.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we review the status of monolithic and hybrid integration of planar lightwave circuits (PLCs). Building blocks needed for system integration based on polymeric materials, III-V semiconductor materials, LiNbO 3 and SOI on Silicon are summarized with pros and cons. Due to the maturity of silicon CMOS technology, silicon becomes the platform of choice for optical application specific integrated circuits (OASICs). However, the indirect bandgap of silicon makes the formation of electrically pumped silicon laser a remote plausibility which requires hybrid integration of laser sources made out of III-V compound semicouductor.

  4. Monolithic multinozzle emitters for nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Daojing; Yang, Peidong; Kim, Woong; Fan, Rong

    2011-09-20

    Novel and significantly simplified procedures for fabrication of fully integrated nanoelectrospray emitters have been described. For nanofabricated monolithic multinozzle emitters (NM.sup.2 emitters), a bottom up approach using silicon nanowires on a silicon sliver is used. For microfabricated monolithic multinozzle emitters (M.sup.3 emitters), a top down approach using MEMS techniques on silicon wafers is used. The emitters have performance comparable to that of commercially-available silica capillary emitters for nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry.

  5. Methacrylate Polymer Monoliths for Separation Applications

    PubMed Central

    Groarke, Robert J.; Brabazon, Dermot

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the development of methacrylate-based polymer monoliths for separation science applications. An introduction to monoliths is presented, followed by the preparation methods and characteristics specific to methacrylate monoliths. Both traditional chemical based syntheses and emerging additive manufacturing methods are presented along with an analysis of the different types of functional groups, which have been utilized with methacrylate monoliths. The role of methacrylate based porous materials in separation science in industrially important chemical and biological separations are discussed, with particular attention given to the most recent developments and challenges associated with these materials. While these monoliths have been shown to be useful for a wide variety of applications, there is still scope for exerting better control over the porous architectures and chemistries obtained from the different fabrication routes. Conclusions regarding this previous work are drawn and an outlook towards future challenges and potential developments in this vibrant research area are presented. Discussed in particular are the potential of additive manufacturing for the preparation of monolithic structures with pre-defined multi-scale porous morphologies and for the optimization of surface reactive chemistries. PMID:28773570

  6. Using scanning contactless conductivity to optimise photografting procedures and capacity in the production of polymer ion-exchange monoliths.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Eoin; Connolly, Damian; Paull, Brett

    2009-07-01

    Capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C4D) is utilised as a simple, rapid and non-invasive technique for the quantitative evaluation of the ion-exchange capacity of charged polymer monoliths in capillary format. A charged monomer, 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) was photografted onto a 100 microm i.d. butyl methacrylate-co-ethylenedimethacrylate monolith in a number of discrete 10 mm zones. By varying the energy dose (J/cm2) during grafting of each zone, the grafting density and thus ion-exchange capacity could be precisely controlled. Ion-exchange capacity could be correlated with energy dose by measuring the conductive response of each grafted region using scanning C4D techniques. Repeatability of the scanning C4D method was excellent with % RSD values of 0.7% and 2.4% obtained for three replicate scans of the ungrafted and grafted regions of a single monolith, respectively. Repeatability of the photografting process on separate monoliths was also examined by comparison of C4D profiles. The spatial accuracy of photografting was probed using scanning C4D which could measure the conductive response of the monolith at measurement intervals as low as 1 mm along its entire length. Scanning C4D was also used for the real time visualisation of the equilibration of grafted zones to permit the optimisation of monolith washing procedures. Finally, scanning C4D was applied to the measurement of the ion-exchange capacity of butyl methacrylate-co-AMPS-co-ethylenedimethacrylate copolymers with a direct correlation between monolith conductive response and concentration of charged monomer in the polymerisation mixture. The longitudinal homogeneity of charge along the monolith was 0.3% RSD, demonstrating that the charged functional monomer was evenly dispersed throughout the bulk of the monolith. Ion-exchange capacity was cross validated chromatographically using breakthrough studies and found to closely correlate to within 1% of the

  7. Advances in the development of organic polymer monolithic columns and their applications in food analysis--a review.

    PubMed

    Jandera, Pavel

    2013-10-25

    Monolithic continuous separation media are gradually finding their way to sample pre-treatment, isolation, enrichment and final analytical separations of a plethora of compounds, occurring as food components, additives or contaminants, including pharmaceuticals, pesticides and toxins, which have traditionally been the domain of particulate chromatographic materials. In the present review, recent advances in the technology of monolithic columns and the applications in food analysis are addressed. Silica-based monoliths are excellent substitutes to conventional particle-packed columns, improving the speed of analysis for low-molecular weight compounds, due to their excellent efficiency and high permeability. These properties have been recently appreciated in two-dimensional HPLC, where the performance in the second dimension is of crucial importance. Organic-polymer monoliths in various formats provide excellent separations of biopolymers. Thin monolithic disks or rod columns are widely employed in isolation, purification and pre-treatment of sample containing proteins, peptides or nucleic acid fragments. Monolithic capillaries were originally intended for use in electrochromatography, but are becoming more frequently used for capillary and micro-HPLC. Monoliths are ideal highly porous support media for immobilization or imprinting template molecules, to provide sorbents for shape-selective isolation of target molecules from various matrices occurring in food analysis. The separation efficiency of organic polymer monoliths for small molecules can be significantly improved by optimization of polymerization approach, or by post-polymerization modification. This will enable full utilization of a large variety of available monomers to prepare monoliths with chemistry matching the needs of selectivity of separations of various food samples containing even very polar or ionized compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Applications of monolithic solid-phase extraction in chromatography-based clinical chemistry assays.

    PubMed

    Bunch, Dustin R; Wang, Sihe

    2013-04-01

    Complex matrices, for example urine, serum, plasma, and whole blood, which are common in clinical chemistry testing, contain many non-analyte compounds that can interfere with either detection or in-source ionization in chromatography-based assays. To overcome this problem, analytes are extracted by protein precipitation, solid-phase extraction (SPE), and liquid-liquid extraction. With correct chemistry and well controlled material SPE may furnish clean specimens with consistent performance. Traditionally, SPE has been performed with particle-based adsorbents, but monolithic SPE is attracting increasing interest of clinical laboratories. Monoliths, solid pieces of stationary phase, have bimodal structures consisting of macropores, which enable passage of solvent, and mesopores, in which analytes are separated. This structure results in low back-pressure with separation capabilities similar to those of particle-based adsorbents. Monoliths also enable increased sample throughput, reduced solvent use, varied support formats, and/or automation. However, many of these monoliths are not commercially available. In this review, application of monoliths to purification of samples from humans before chromatography-based assays will be critically reviewed.

  9. Development of an epoxy-based monolith used for the affinity capturing of Escherichia coli bacteria.

    PubMed

    Peskoller, Caroline; Niessner, Reinhard; Seidel, Michael

    2009-05-01

    An epoxy-based monolith has been developed for use as hydrophilic support in bioseparation. This monolith is produced by self-polymerization of polyglycerol-3-glycidyl ether in organic solvents as porogens at room temperature within 1 h. One receives a highly cross-linked structure that provides useful mechanical properties. The porosity and pore diameter can be controlled by varying the composition of the porogen. In this work, an epoxy-based monolith with a high porosity (79%) and large pore size (22 microm) is prepared and used in affinity capturing of bacterial cells. These features allow the passage of bacterial cells through the column. As affinity ligand polymyxin B is used, which allows the binding of gram-negative bacteria. The efficiency of the monolithic affinity column is studied with Escherichia coli spiked in water. Bacterial cells are concentrated on the column at pH 4 and eluted with a recovery of 97+/-3% in 200 microL by changing the pH value without impairing viability of bacteria. The dynamic capacity for the monolithic column is nearly independent of the flow rate (4x10(9)cells/column). Thereby, it is possible to separate and enrich gram-negative bacterial cells, such as E. coli, with high flow rates (10 mL/min) and low back pressure (<1 bar) in a volume as low as 200 microL compatible for real-time polymerase chain reaction, microarray formats, and biosensors.

  10. Extraction of genomic DNA using a new amino silica monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijia; Yu, Shengbing; Yang, Shuixian; Zhou, Ping; Hu, Jiming; Zhang, Yibing

    2009-08-01

    A new amino silica monolithic column was developed for DNA extraction in a miniaturized format. The monolithic column was prepared in situ by polymerization of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and N-(beta-aminoethyl)-gamma-aminopropylmethyldimethoxysilane (AEAPMDMS). DNA was loaded in 50 mM tris(hydroxylmethyl)aminomethane-EDTA buffer at pH 7.0 and eluted with 300 mM potassium phosphate solution at pH 10.0. Under optimal condition, a 6.0-cm monolithic column provided a capacity of 56 ng DNA with an extraction efficiency of 71 +/- 5.2% (X +/- RSD). When the amino silica monolithic column was applied to extract genomic DNA from the whole blood of crucian carp, an extraction efficiency of 52 +/- 5.6% (X +/- RSD) was obtained by three extractions. Since the chaotropic-based sample loading and organic solvent wash steps were avoided in this procedure, the purified DNA was suitable for downstream processes such as PCR. This amino silica monolithic column was demonstrated to allow rapid and efficient DNA purification in microscale.

  11. Affinity monolith chromatography: A review of principles and recent analytical applications

    PubMed Central

    Pfaunmiller, Erika L.; Paulemond, Marie Laura; Dupper, Courtney M.; Hage, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Affinity monolith chromatography (AMC) is a type of liquid chromatography that uses a monolithic support and a biologically-related binding agent as a stationary phase. AMC is a powerful method for the selective separation, analysis or studies of specific target compounds in a sample. This review discusses the basic principles of AMC and recent developments or applications of this method, with particular emphasis being given to work that has appeared in the last five years. Various materials that have been used to prepare columns for AMC are examined, including organic monoliths, silica monoliths, agarose monoliths and cryogels. These supports have been used in AMC for formats that have ranged from traditional columns to disks, microcolumns and capillaries. Many binding agents have also been employed in AMC, such as antibodies, enzymes, proteins, lectins, immobilized metal-ions and dyes. Some applications that have been reported with these binding agents in AMC are bioaffinity chromatography, immunoaffinity chromatography or immunoextraction, immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography, dye-ligand affinity chromatography, chiral separations and biointeraction studies. Examples are presented from fields that include analytical chemistry, pharmaceutical analysis, clinical testing and biotechnology. Current trends and possible future directions in AMC are also discussed. PMID:23187827

  12. Monolithically integrated Ge CMOS laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho-Aguilera, Rodolfo

    2014-02-01

    Ge-on-Si devices are explored for photonic integration. Through the development of better growth techniques, monolithic integration, laser design and prototypes, it was possible to probe Ge light emitters with emphasis on lasers. Preliminary worked shows thermal photonic behavior capable of enhancing lamination at high temperatures. Increase luminescence is observed up to 120°C from L-band contribution. Higher temperatures show contribution from Δ -band. The increase carrier thermal contribution suggests high temperature applications for Ge light emitters. A Ge electrically pumped laser was probed under 0.2% biaxial strain and doping concentration ~4.5×1019cm-3 n-type. Ge pnn lasers exhibit a gain >1000cm-1 with 8mW power output, presenting a spectrum range of over 200nm, making Ge the ideal candidate for Si photonics. Large temperatures fluctuations and process limit the present device. Theoretically a gain of >4000cm- gain is possible with a threshold of as low as 1kA/cm2. Improvements in Ge work

  13. Uncooled monolithic ferroelectric IRFPA technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcher, James F.; Hanson, Charles M.; Beratan, Howard R.; Udayakumar, K. R.; Soch, Kevin L.

    1998-10-01

    Once relegated to expensive military platforms, occasionally to civilian platforms, and envisioned for individual soldiers, uncooled thermal imaging affords cost-effective solutions for police cars, commercial surveillance, driving aids, and a variety of other industrial and consumer applications. System prices are continuing to drop, and swelling production volume will soon drive prices substantially lower. The impetus for further development is to improve performance. Hybrid barium strontium titanate (BST) detectors currently in production are relatively inexpensive, but have limited potential for improved performance. The MTF at high frequencies is limited by thermal conduction through the optical coating. Microbolometer arrays in development at Raytheon have recently demonstrated performance superior to hybrid detectors. However, microbolometer technology lacks a mature, low-cost system technology and an abundance of upgradable, deployable system implementations. Thin-film ferroelectric (TFFE) detectors have all the performance potential of microbolometers. They are also compatible with numerous fielded and planned system implementations. Like the resistive microbolometer, the TFFE detector is monolithic; i.e., the detector material is deposited directly on the readout IC rather than being bump bonded to it. Imaging arrays of 240 X 320 pixels have been produced, demonstrating the feasibility of the technology.

  14. Structure for monolithic optical circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evanchuk, Vincent L. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A method for making monolithic optical circuits, with related optical devices as required or desired, on a supporting surface (10) consists of coating the supporting surface with reflecting metal or cladding resin, spreading a layer of liquid radiation sensitive plastic (12) on the surface, exposing the liquid plastic with a mask (14) to cure it in a desired pattern of light conductors (16, 18, 20), washing away the unexposed liquid plastic, and coating the conductors thus formed with reflective metal or cladding resin. The index of refraction for the cladding (22) is selected to be lower than for the conductors so that light in the conductors will be reflected by the interface with the cladding. For multiple level conductors, as where one conductor must cross over another, the process may be repeated to fabricate a bridge with columns (24, 26) of conductors to the next level, and conductor (28) between the columns. For more efficient transfer of energy over the bridge, faces at 45.degree. may be formed to reflect light up and across the bridge.

  15. A monolith purification process for virus-like particles from yeast homogenate.

    PubMed

    Burden, Claire S; Jin, Jing; Podgornik, Aleš; Bracewell, Daniel G

    2012-01-01

    Monoliths are an alternative stationary phase format to conventional particle based media for large biomolecules. Conventional resins suffer from limited capacities and flow rates when used for viruses, virus-like particles (VLP) and other nanoplex materials. The monolith structure provides a more open pore structure to improve accessibility for these materials and better mass transport from convective flow and reduced pressure drops. To examine the performance of this format for bioprocessing we selected the challenging capture of a VLP from clarified yeast homogenate. Using a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae host it was found hydrophobic interaction based separation using a hydroxyl derivatised monolith had the best performance. The monolith was then compared to a known beaded resin method, where the dynamic binding capacity was shown to be three-fold superior for the monolith with equivalent 90% recovery of the VLP. To understand the impact of the crude feed material confocal microscopy was used to visualise lipid contaminants, deriving from the homogenised yeast. It was seen that the lipid formed a layer on top of the column, even after regeneration of the column with isopropanol, resulting in increasing pressure drops with the number of operational cycles. Removal of the lipid pre-column significantly reduces the amount and rate of this fouling process. Using Amberlite/XAD-4 beads around 70% of the lipid was removed, with a loss of VLP around 20%. Applying a reduced lipid feed versus an untreated feed further increased the dynamic binding capacity of the monolith from 0.11 mg/mL column to 0.25 mg/mL column.

  16. Radioactive demonstration of final mineralized waste forms for Hanford waste treatment plant secondary waste (WTP-SW) by fluidized bed steam reforming (FBSR) using the bench scale reformer platform

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, G.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2014-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford’s tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as 137Cs, 129I, 99Tc, Cl, F, and SO4 that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150°C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW.

  17. Monolithic and mechanical multijunction space solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    Monolithic and mechanically stacked tandem solar cells have been fabricated with encouraging AM0 efficiencies summarized as: monolithic GaAs/Ge: 19.1 percent (28 C, 4 sq cm); monolithic InP/Ga0.47In0.53As: 22.2 percent (25 C, 0.296 sq cm); monolithic AlGaAs/GaAs/InGaAs: 27.6 percent (80 C, 0.2 sq cm, 100 X); mechanically stacked GaAs/GaSb: 30.8 percent (25 C, 0.049 sq cm, 100 X); and mechanically stacked GaAs/CuInSe2: 23.1 percent (25 C, 4 sq cm). Significant improvement in tandem cell efficiencies nearing to theoretical predictions has been projected with the improvement in cell material quality and processing. Thin-film cells offer improved specific power. It is pointed out that both the monolithic and mechanically stacked cells have their own problems as to size, processing, current-voltage matching, weight, etc. More information is needed on the effect of temperature and radiation on the cell performance. Proper reference cells and full spectrum range simulators are required to measure efficiencies correctly.

  18. Taking a Large Monolith to Use for Teaching Soil Morphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, B. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Described is a technique for taking a large monolith for the purpose of teaching soil structure. Materials and procedures are detailed. A survey of 93 students indicated that the larger monolith was preferred over the commonly used narrow ones. (CW)

  19. Taking a Large Monolith to Use for Teaching Soil Morphology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, B. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Described is a technique for taking a large monolith for the purpose of teaching soil structure. Materials and procedures are detailed. A survey of 93 students indicated that the larger monolith was preferred over the commonly used narrow ones. (CW)

  20. GaAs monolithic RF modules for SARSAT distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauley, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Monolithic GaAs UHF components for use in SARSAT Emergency Distress beacons are under development by Microwave Monolithics, Inc., Simi Valley, CA. The components include a bi-phase modulator, driver amplifier, and a 5 watt power amplifier.

  1. Monolithically integrated HgCdTe focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velicu, Silviu; Lee, Tae-Seok; Ashokan, Renganathan; Grein, Christoph H.; Boieriu, Paul; Chen, Y. P.; Dinan, John H.; Lianos, Dimitrios

    2003-12-01

    The cost and performance of hybrid HgCdTe infrared focal plane arrays are constrained by the necessity of fabricating the detector arrays on a CdZnTe substrate. These substrates are expensive, fragile, are available only in small rectangular formats, and are not a good thermal expansion match to the silicon readout integrated circuit. We discuss in this paper an infrared sensor technology based on monolithically integrated infrared focal plane arrays that could replace the conventional hybrid focal plane array technology. We have investigated the critical issues related to the growth of HgCdTe on Si read-out integrated circuits and the fabrication of monolithic focal plane arrays: (1) the design of Si read-out integrated circuits and focal plane array layouts, (2) the low temperature cleaning of Si(001) wafers, (3) growth of CdTe and HgCdTe layers on read-out integrated circuits, (4) array fabrication, interconnection between focal plane array and read-out integrated circuit input nodes and demonstration of the photovoltaic operation, and (5) maintenance of the read-out integrated circuit characteristics after substrate cleaning, molecular beam epitaxy growth and device fabrication. Crystallographic, optical and electrical properties of the grown layers are presented. Electrical properties for diodes fabricated on misoriented Si and read-out integrated circuit substrates are discussed. The fabrication of arrays with demonstrated I-V properties show that monolithic integration of HgCdTe-based infrared focal plane arrays on Si read-out integrated circuits is feasible and could be implemented in the 3rd generation of infrared systems.

  2. Consolidation and densification methods for fibrous monolith processing

    SciTech Connect

    Sutaria, Manish P.; Rigali, Mark J.; Cipriani, Ronald A.; Artz, Gregory J.; Mulligan, Anthony C.

    2006-06-20

    Methods for consolidation and densification of fibrous monolith composite structures are provided. Consolidation and densification of two- and three-dimensional fibrous monolith components having complex geometries can be achieved by pressureless sintering. The fibrous monolith composites are formed from filaments having at least a first material composition generally surrounded by a second material composition. The composites are sintered at a pressure of no more than about 30 psi to provide consolidated and densified fibrous monolith composites.

  3. Designing Catalytic Monoliths For Closed-Cycle CO2 Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinn, Keith; Herz, Richard K.; Goldblum, Seth; Noskowski, ED

    1992-01-01

    LASCAT (Design of Catalytic Monoliths for Closed-Cycle Carbon Dioxide Lasers) computer program aids in design of catalyst in monolith by simulating effects of design decisions on performance of laser. Provides opportunity for designer to explore tradeoffs among activity and dimensions of catalyst, dimensions of monolith, pressure drop caused by flow of gas through monolith, conversion of oxygen, and other variables. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  4. A 30 GHz monolithic receive module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondal, J.; Contolatis, T.; Geddes, J.; Bauhahn, P.; Sokolov, V.

    1990-01-01

    The technical achievements and deliveries made during the duration of the program to develop a 30 GHz monolithic receive module for communication feed array applications and to deliver submodules and 30 GHz monolithic receive modules for experimental evaluation are discussed. Key requirements include an overall receive module noise figure of 5 dB, a 30 dB RF-to-RF gain with six levels of intermediate gain control, a five bit phase shifter, and a maximum power consumption of 250 mW. In addition, the monolithic receive module design addresses a cost goal of less than one thousand dollars (1980 dollars) per module in unit buys of 5,000 or more, and a mechanical configuration that is applicable to a spaceborne phase array system. An additional task for the development and delivery of 32 GHz phase shifter integrated circuit (IC) for deep space communication is also described.

  5. Development of a monolithic ferrite memory array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckler, C. H., Jr.; Bhiwandker, N. C.

    1972-01-01

    The results of the development and testing of ferrite monolithic memory arrays are presented. This development required the synthesis of ferrite materials having special magnetic and physical characteristics and the development of special processes; (1) for making flexible sheets (laminae) of the ferrite composition, (2) for embedding conductors in ferrite, and (3) bonding ferrite laminae together to form a monolithic structure. Major problems encountered in each of these areas and their solutions are discussed. Twenty-two full-size arrays were fabricated and fired during the development of these processes. The majority of these arrays were tested for their memory characteristics as well as for their physical characteristics and the results are presented. The arrays produced during this program meet the essential goals and demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating monolithic ferrite memory arrays by the processes developed.

  6. Monolithic and mechanical multijunction space solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1992-01-01

    High-efficiency, lightweight, radiation-resistant solar cells are essential to meet the large power requirements of future space missions. Single-junction cells are limited in efficiency. Higher cell efficiencies could be realized by developing multijunction, multibandgap solar cells. Monolithic and mechanically stacked tandem solar cells surpassing single-junction cell efficiencies have been fabricated. This article surveys the current status of monolithic and mechanically stacked multibandgap space solar cells, and outlines problems yet to be resolved. The monolithic and mechanically stacked cells each have their own problems related to size, processing, current and voltage matching, weight, and other factors. More information is needed on the effect of temperature and radiation on the cell performance. Proper reference cells and full-spectrum range simulators are also needed to measure efficiencies correctly. Cost issues are not addressed, since the two approaches are still in the developmental stage.

  7. Monolithic and mechanical multijunction space solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, R.K.; Flood, D.J. )

    1993-05-01

    High-efficiency, lightweight, radiation-resistant solar cells are essential to meet the large power requirements of future space missions. Single-junction cells are limited in efficiency. Higher cell efficiencies could be realized by developing multijunction, multibandgap solar cells. Monolithic and mechanically stacked tandem solar cells surpassing single-junction cell efficiencies have been fabricated. This article surveys the current status of monolithic and mechanically stacked multibandgap space solar cells, and outlines problems yet to be resolved. The monolithic and mechanically stacked cells each have their own problems related to size, processing, current and voltage matching, weight, and other factors. More information is needed on the effect of temperature and radiation on the cell performance. Proper reference cells and full-spectrum range simulators are also needed to measure efficiencies correctly. Cost issues are not addressed, since the two approaches are still in the developmental stage.

  8. Eigenpolarization theory of monolithic nonplanar ring oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsson, Alan C.; Gustafson, Eric K.; Byer, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Diode-laser-pumped monolithic nonplanar ring oscillators (NPROs) in an applied magnetic field can operate as unidirectional traveling-wave lasers. The diode laser pumping, monolithic construction, and unidirectional oscillation lead to narrow linewidth radiation. Here, a comprehensive theory of the eigenpolarizations of a monolithic NPRO is presented. It is shown how the properties of the integral optical diode that forces unidirectional operation depend on the choice of the gain medium, the applied magnetic field, the output coupler, and the geometry of the nonplanar ring light path. Using optical equivalence theorems to gain insight into the polarization characteristics of the NPRO, a strategy for designing NPROs with low thresholds and large loss nonreciprocities is given. An analysis of the eigenpolarizations for one such NPRO is presented, alternative optimization approaches are considered, and the prospects for further reducing the linewidths of these lasers are briefly discussed.

  9. Monolithic widely tunable quantum cascade laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lascola, Kevin M.; Leavitt, Richard P.; Bruno, John D.; Bradshaw, John L.; Pham, John T.; Towner, Frederick J.

    2012-06-01

    Maxion Technologies has designed a monolithic, widely tunable Quantum Cascade (QC) laser for use in chemical sensing applications. This multi-section QC laser is a monolithically tunable device, similar to those demonstrated in the near IR for telecommunications. Wideband tuning is achieved through grating assisted coupling of the optical mode between lateral waveguides, allowing ~10 times the tuning range normally achieved by distributed feedback lasers without incorporation of external optical elements. Compared to implementations in the near IR, the use of lateral waveguides (rather than vertically stacked waveguides) allows the optical mode to maintain the high overlap with the active region necessary for room temperature lasing in the mid-IR. Due to its monolithic design, this laser is expected to be rapidly tunable and usable in field environments due to its insensitivity to shock and vibration, while the wide tuning range of the device will allow for an enhanced ability to discriminate against background chemicals.

  10. Polymer network/carbon layer on monolith support and monolith catalytic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Nordquist, Andrew Francis; Wilhelm, Frederick Carl; Waller, Francis Joseph; Machado, Reinaldo Mario

    2003-08-26

    The present invention relates to an improved monolith catalytic reactor and a monolith support. The improvement in the support resides in a polymer network/carbon coating applied to the surface of a porous substrate and a catalytic metal, preferably a transition metal catalyst applied to the surface of the polymer network/carbon coating. The monolith support has from 100 to 800 cells per square inch and a polymer network/carbon coating with surface area of from 0.1 to 15 m.sup.2 /gram as measured by adsorption of N.sub.2 or Kr using the BET method.

  11. The 30-GHz monolithic receive module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauhahn, P.; Geddes, J.; Sokolov, V.; Contolatis, T.

    1988-01-01

    The fourth year progress is described on a program to develop a 27.5 to 30 GHz GaAs monolithic receive module for spaceborne-communication antenna feed array applications, and to deliver submodules for experimental evaluation. Program goals include an overall receive module noise figure of 5 dB, a 30 dB RF to IF gain with six levels of intermediate gain control, a five bit phase shifter, and a maximum power consumption of 250 mW. Submicron gate length single and dual gate FETs are described and applied in the development of monolithic gain control amplifiers and low noise amplifiers. A two-stage monolithic gain control amplifier based on ion implanted dual gate MESFETs was designed and fabricated. The gain control amplifier has a gain of 12 dB at 29 GHz with a gain control range of over 13 dB. A two-stage monolithic low noise amplifier based on ion implanted MESFETs which provides 7 dB gain with 6.2 dB noise figure at 29 GHz was also developed. An interconnected receive module containing LNA, gain control, and phase shifter submodules was built using the LNA and gain control ICs as well as a monolithic phase shifter developed previously under this program. The design, fabrication, and evaluation of this interconnected receiver is presented. Progress in the development of an RF/IF submodule containing a unique ion implanted diode mixer diode and a broadband balanced mixer monolithic IC with on-chip IF amplifier and the initial design of circuits for the RF portion of a two submodule receiver are also discussed.

  12. Physical and chemical sensing using monolithic semiconductor optical transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappe, Hans P.; Hofstetter, Daniel; Maisenhoelder, Bernd; Moser, Michael; Riel, Peter; Kunz, Rino E.

    1997-09-01

    We present two monolithically integrated optical sensor systems based on semiconductor photonic integrated circuits. These compact, robust and highly functional transducers perform all necessary optical and electro-optical functions on-chip; extension to multi-sensor arrays is easily envisaged. A monolithic Michelson interferometer for high-resolution displacement measurement and a monolithic Mach-Zehnder interferometer for refractometry are discussed.

  13. Distributed Amplifier Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    Distributed Amplifier Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Design by John E. Penn ARL-TR-6237 October 2012...Distributed Amplifier Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Design John E. Penn Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Distributed Amplifier Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Design 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  14. Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMIC) Broadband Power Amplifiers (Part 2)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits ( MMIC ) Broadband Power Amplifiers (Part 2) by John E. Penn ARL-TN-0556 July 2013...Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits ( MMIC ) Broadband Power Amplifiers (Part 2) John E. Penn Sensors and Electron Devices...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits ( MMIC ) Broadband Power Amplifiers (Part 2) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  15. Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMIC) Broadband Power Amplifiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits ( MMIC ) Broadband Power Amplifiers by John E. Penn ARL-TR-6278 December 2012...Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits ( MMIC ) Broadband Power Amplifiers John E. Penn Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL...SUBTITLE Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits ( MMIC ) Broadband Power Amplifiers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  16. Silica-based monolithic capillary columns modified by liposomes for characterization of analyte-liposome interactions by capillary liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Moravcová, Dana; Planeta, Josef; Wiedmer, Susanne K

    2013-11-22

    This study introduces a silica-based monolith in a capillary format (0.1 mm × 100 mm) as a support for immobilization of liposomes and its characterization in immobilized liposome chromatography. Silica-based monolithic capillary columns prepared by acidic hydrolysis of tetramethoxysilane in the presence of polyethylene glycol and urea were modified by (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane, whereby amino groups were introduced to the monolithic surface. These groups undergo reaction with glutaraldehyde to form an iminoaldehyde, allowing covalent binding of pre-formed liposomes containing primary amino groups. Two types of phospholipid vesicles were used for column modification; these were 2-oleoyl-1-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidyl choline with and without 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine. The prepared columns were evaluated under isocratic separation conditions employing 20mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 as a mobile phase and a set of unrelated drugs as model analytes. The liposome layer on the synthesized columns significantly changed the column selectivity compared to the aminopropylsilylated monolithic stationary phase. Monolithic columns modified by liposomes were stable under the separation conditions, which proved the applicability of the suggested preparation procedure for the synthesis of capillary columns dedicated to study analyte-liposome interactions. The column efficiency originating from the silica monolith was preserved and reached, e.g., more than 120,000 theoretical plates/m for caffeine as a solute.

  17. Chiral monolithic absorbent constructed by optically active helical-substituted polyacetylene and graphene oxide: preparation and chiral absorption capacity.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifei; Wang, Bo; Yang, Wantai; Deng, Jianping

    2015-02-01

    Chiral monolithic absorbent is successfully constructed for the first time by using optically active helical-substituted polyacetylene and graphene oxide (GO). The preparative strategy is facile and straightforward, in which chiral-substituted acetylene monomer (Ma), cross-linker (Mb), and alkynylated GO (Mc) undergo copolymerization to form the desired monolithic absorbent in quantitative yield. The resulting monoliths are characterized by circular dichroism, UV-vis absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FT-IR, Raman, energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), XPS, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques. The polymer chains derived from Ma form chiral helical structures and thus provide optical activity to the monoliths, while GO sheets contribute to the formation of porous structures. The porous structure enables the monolithic absorbents to demonstrate a large swelling ratio in organic solvents, and more remarkably, the helical polymer chains provide optical activity and further enantio-differentiating absorption ability. The present study establishes an efficient and versatile methodology for preparing novel functional materials, in particular monolithic chiral materials based on substituted polyacetylene and GO.

  18. UPDATE ON MONOLITHIC FUEL FABRICATION METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    C. R. Clark; J. F. Jue; G. A. Moore; N. P. Hallinan; B. H. Park; D. E. Burkes

    2006-10-01

    Efforts to develop a viable monolithic research reactor fuel plate have continued at Idaho National Laboratory. These efforts have concentrated on both fabrication process refinement and scale-up to produce full sized fuel plates. Progress at INL has led to fabrication of hot isostatic pressed uranium-molybdenum bearing monolithic fuel plates. These miniplates are part of the RERTR-8 miniplate irradiation test. Further progress has also been made on friction stir weld processing which has been used to fabricate full size fuel plates which will be irradiated in the ATR and OSIRIS reactors.

  19. Increased thermal conductivity monolithic zeolite structures

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James; Klett, Lynn; Kaufman, Jonathan

    2008-11-25

    A monolith comprises a zeolite, a thermally conductive carbon, and a binder. The zeolite is included in the form of beads, pellets, powders and mixtures thereof. The thermally conductive carbon can be carbon nano-fibers, diamond or graphite which provide thermal conductivities in excess of about 100 W/mK to more than 1,000 W/mK. A method of preparing a zeolite monolith includes the steps of mixing a zeolite dispersion in an aqueous colloidal silica binder with a dispersion of carbon nano-fibers in water followed by dehydration and curing of the binder is given.

  20. Monolithically integrated optoelectronic down-converter (MIOD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portnoi, Efrim L.; Venus, G. B.; Khazan, A. A.; Gorfinkel, Vera B.; Kompa, Guenter; Avrutin, Evgenii A.; Thayne, Iain G.; Barrow, David A.; Marsh, John H.

    1995-06-01

    Optoelectronic down-conversion of very high-frequency amplitude-modulated signals using a semiconductor laser simultaneously as a local oscillator and a mixer is proposed. Three possible constructions of a monolithically integrated down-converter are considered theoretically: a four-terminal semiconductor laser with dual pumping current/modal gain control, and both a passively mode-locked and a passively Q-switched semiconductor laser monolithically integrated with an electroabsorption or pumping current modulator. Experimental verification of the feasibility of the concept of down conversion in a laser diode is presented.

  1. Macroporous Monolithic Polymers: Preparation and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Arrua, Ruben Dario; Strumia, Miriam Cristina; Alvarez Igarzabal, Cecilia Inés

    2009-01-01

    In the last years, macroporous monolithic materials have been introduced as a new and useful generation of polymers used in different fields. These polymers may be prepared in a simple way from a homogenous mixture into a mold and contain large interconnected pores or channels allowing for high flow rates at moderate pressures. Due to their porous characteristics, they could be used in different processes, such as stationary phases for different types of chromatography, high-throughput bioreactors and in microfluidic chip applications. This review reports the contributions of several groups working in the preparation of different macroporous monoliths and their modification by immobilization of specific ligands on the products for specific purposes.

  2. Package Holds Five Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mysoor, Narayan R.; Decker, D. Richard; Olson, Hilding M.

    1996-01-01

    Packages protect and hold monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) chips while providing dc and radio-frequency (RF) electrical connections for chips undergoing development. Required to be compact, lightweight, and rugged. Designed to minimize undesired resonances, reflections, losses, and impedance mismatches.

  3. Acetone oxidation in a photocatalytic monolith reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, M.L.; Ollis, D.F.

    1994-09-01

    Photocatalyzed oxidation of acetone (70-400 mg/m{sup 3}) in air was carried out using near-UV illuminated TiO{sub 2} (anatase) coated on the surface of a ceramic honeycomb monolith. Considerable adsorption of acetone and water was noted on the catalyst coated monolith; these uptakes were described with a Langmuir adsorption isotherm for acetone and a modified BET adsorption isotherm for water. The acetone photocatalyzed disappearance kinetics on the TiO{sub 2} were determined with initial rate differential conversion, recycle reactor data and were analyzed using a Langmuir-Hinshel-Wood rate form coupled with a reactant mass balance including appreciable acetone monolith adsorption. The model, with parameters evaluated from initial rate data, is then shown to satisfactorily predict reactor behavior at all conversions. These kinetics and design results, together with earlier literature for photocatalytic oxidation of alkanes, 1-butanol, toluene, trichloroethylene, and odor compounds, indicate a potential for use of the photocatalytic monolith configuration for removal of all major classes of air contaminants. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Quasi-monolithic tunable optical resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbore, Mark (Inventor); Tapos, Francisc (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An optical resonator has a piezoelectric element attached to a quasi-monolithic structure. The quasi-monolithic structure defines an optical path. Mirrors attached to the structure deflect light along the optical path. The piezoelectric element controllably strains the quasi-monolithic structure to change a length of the optical path by about 1 micron. A first feedback loop coupled to the piezoelectric element provides fine control over the cavity length. The resonator may include a thermally actuated spacer attached to the cavity and a mirror attached to the spacer. The thermally actuated spacer adjusts the cavity length by up to about 20 microns. A second feedback loop coupled to the sensor and heater provides a coarse control over the cavity length. An alternative embodiment provides a quasi-monolithic optical parametric oscillator (OPO). This embodiment includes a non-linear optical element within the resonator cavity along the optical path. Such an OPO configuration is broadly tunable and capable of mode-hop free operation for periods of 24 hours or more.

  5. Monolithic resonant optical reflector laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, T.; Suehiro, M.; Maeda, M.; Hihara, M.; Hosomatsu, H.

    1991-10-01

    The first monolithic resonant optical reflector laser diode that has a waveguide directional coupler and two DBR reflectors integrated by compositional disordering of quantum-well heterostructures is described. A linewidth of 440 kHz was obtained, and this value is expected to be greatly decreased by reducing the propagation loss in the integrated waveguide.

  6. Development of oxide fibrous monolith systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Goretta, K. C.

    1999-03-02

    Fibrous monolithic ceramics generally have a cellular structure that consists of a strong cell surrounded by a weaker boundary phase [1-5]. Fibrous monoliths (FMs) are produced from powders by conventional ceramic fabrication techniques, such as extrusion [1,2]. When properly engineered, they exhibit fail gracefully [3-5]. Several compositions of ceramics and cermets have been processed successfully in fibrous monolithic form [4]. The most thoroughly investigated fibrous monolith consists of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} cells and a BN cell-boundary phase [3-5]. Through appropriate selection of initial powders and extrusion and hot-pressing parameters, very tough final products have been produced. The resultant high toughness is due primarily to delamination during fracture along textured platelike BN grains. The primary objectives of our program are to develop: (1) Oxide-based FMs, including new systems with improved properties; (2) FMs that can be pressureless sintered rather than hot-pressed; (3) Techniques for continuous extrusion of FM filaments, including solid freeform fabrication (SFF) for net-shape fabrication of FMs; (4) Predictive micromechanical models for FM design and performance; and (5) Ties with industrial producers and users of FMs.

  7. Constant capacitance in nanopores of carbon monoliths.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Alejandra; Moreno-Fernández, Gelines; Lobato, Belén; Centeno, Teresa A

    2015-06-28

    The results obtained for binder-free electrodes made of carbon monoliths with narrow micropore size distributions confirm that the specific capacitance in the electrolyte (C2H5)4NBF4/acetonitrile does not depend significantly on the micropore size and support the foregoing constant result of 0.094 ± 0.011 F m(-2).

  8. Mixed mode HILIC/anion exchange separations on latex coated silica monoliths.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohammed E A; Lucy, Charles A

    2012-10-15

    Bare silica monoliths do not possess anion exchange sites hence they show low retention for anions. Moreover, bare silica monoliths show low retention in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). Coating the silica surface with cationic nanoparticles e.g. AS9-SC (latex A), AS12A (latex B) and DNApac (latex C) increases the thickness of the water layer on the Onyx silica monolith 8-10 times enabling HILIC retention when a high % acetonitrile (ACN) mobile phase is used. The formed water layer by itself is not sufficient to perform good separation of the studied anions (acetate, formate, nitrate, bromate, thiocyanate and iodide). On the other hand, the latex nanoparticles introduce positively charged sites, making anion exchange chromatography possible, with the anion exchange capacity varying with the latex adsorbed (44.1 ± 0.2, 4.4 ± 0.1 and 14.0 ± 0.7 μeq/column for latex A, B and C, respectively). Latex A nanoparticles which provided the highest ion exchange capacity separated all tested anions with reasonable resolution. Fast separation (2.5 min) of acetate, formate, nitrate, bromate, thiocyanate and iodide was performed using the latex A coated silica monolith. The obtained efficiencies are 13,000-50,000 plates/m at 3 mL/min with a minimum resolution of 0.85. Retention is mixed mode under HILIC conditions with HILIC dominating for the kosmotropic anions and ion exchange dominating for the chaotropic anions. The two different brands of silica monoliths (Merck Chromolith and Phenomenex Onyx) coated with the same latex A nanoparticles displayed similar water layer volumes, ion exchange capacity and selectivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Nanoparticle-Directed Metal-Organic Framework/Porous Organic Polymer Monolithic Supports for Flow-Based Applications.

    PubMed

    Darder, María Del Mar; Salehinia, Shima; Parra, José B; Herrero-Martinez, José M; Svec, Frantisek; Cerdà, Víctor; Turnes Palomino, Gemma; Maya, Fernando

    2017-01-18

    A two-step nanoparticle-directed route for the preparation of macroporous polymer monoliths for which the pore surface is covered with a metal-organic framework (MOF) coating has been developed to facilitate the use of MOFs in flow-based applications. The flow-through monolithic matrix was prepared in a column format from a polymerization mixture containing ZnO-nanoparticles. These nanoparticles embedded in the precursor monolith were converted to MOF coatings via the dissolution-precipitation equilibrium after filling the pores of the monolith with a solution of the organic linker. Pore surface coverage with the microporous zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-8 resulted in an increase in surface area from 72 to 273 m(2) g(-1). Monolithic polymer containing ZIF-8 coating was implemented as a microreactor catalyzing the Knoevenagel condensation reaction and also in extraction column format enabling the preconcentration of trace levels of toxic chlorophenols in environmental waters. Our approach can be readily adapted to other polymers and MOFs thus enabling development of systems for flow-based MOF applications.

  10. Monolithic Transformation of Ceramic Materials from Metal-Organic Sols and Gels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-20

    Peptization of the hydrolysis product requires: 9 Prevention of trihydroxide ( bayerite ) formation. e Addition of a critical amount of certain acids which...providing products with interesting and useful properties. For example, powders of molecular level homogeneity, important in phase studies, were...bodies via gel processes has been done in the silica system,3,4 where production of a monolithic piece is relatively straightforward because of the

  11. Molecularly imprinted monolith coupled on-line with high performance liquid chromatography for simultaneous quantitative determination of cyromazine and melamine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shanshan; Li, Daomin; Hua, Zhendong; Zhao, Meiping

    2011-09-21

    We report a novel method for simultaneous determination of cyromazine and melamine based on a molecularly imprinted monolith on-line coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The imprinted monolith was prepared by in situ polymerization using 2,4-diamino-6-undecyl-1,3,5-triazine (DAUTA) as a mimic template. Due to the better solubility of DAUTA in chloroform, hydrogen bonds were effectively developed between the template and the functional monomer and resulted in the formation of highly specific cavities in the obtained imprinted monolith. With methanol as the loading solvent, cyromazine and melamine were both selectively retained by the obtained imprinted monolith, while the nonspecific adsorption on the non-imprinted monolith was negligible. The imprinted monolithic column was on-line coupled with HPLC for purification and concentration of the two analytes from milk samples. To minimize the peak broadening during the on-line transfer of the analytes from the imprinted monolith to the following analytical column, a successive desorption program was developed for the elution step, which enabled on-line stacking of the target compounds before being analyzed by HPLC. Low detection limits of 0.12 μg mL(-1) for melamine and 0.05 μg mL(-1) for cyromazine were achieved with only 0.3 mL of milk sample and a low sensitivity HPLC-UVD instrument. The method may be further extended to detect other analytes of interest in a large variety of samples.

  12. Monolithic pixel detectors for high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeys, W.

    2013-12-01

    Monolithic pixel detectors integrating sensor matrix and readout in one piece of silicon have revolutionized imaging for consumer applications, but despite years of research they have not yet been widely adopted for high energy physics. Two major requirements for this application, radiation tolerance and low power consumption, require charge collection by drift for the most extreme radiation levels and an optimization of the collected signal charge over input capacitance ratio (Q/C). It is shown that monolithic detectors can achieve Q/C for low analog power consumption and even carryout the promise to practically eliminate analog power consumption, but combining sufficient Q/C, collection by drift, and integration of readout circuitry within the pixel remains a challenge. An overview is given of different approaches to address this challenge, with possible advantages and disadvantages.

  13. A monolithic integrated photonic microwave filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fandiño, Javier S.; Muñoz, Pascual; Doménech, David; Capmany, José

    2016-12-01

    Meeting the increasing demand for capacity in wireless networks requires the harnessing of higher regions in the radiofrequency spectrum, reducing cell size, as well as more compact, agile and power-efficient base stations that are capable of smoothly interfacing the radio and fibre segments. Fully functional microwave photonic chips are promising candidates in attempts to meet these goals. In recent years, many integrated microwave photonic chips have been reported in different technologies. To the best of our knowledge, none has monolithically integrated all the main active and passive optoelectronic components. Here, we report the first demonstration of a tunable microwave photonics filter that is monolithically integrated into an indium phosphide chip. The reconfigurable radiofrequency photonic filter includes all the necessary elements (for example, lasers, modulators and photodetectors), and its response can be tuned by means of control electric currents. This is an important step in demonstrating the feasibility of integrated and programmable microwave photonic processors.

  14. Monolithic Flexure Pre-Stressed Ultrasonic Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Allen, Phillip Grant (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A monolithic ultrasonic horn where the horn, backing, and pre-stress structures are combined in a single monolithic piece is disclosed. Pre-stress is applied by external flexure structures. The provision of the external flexures has numerous advantages including the elimination of the need for a pre-stress bolt. The removal of the pre-stress bolt eliminates potential internal electric discharge points in the actuator. In addition, it reduces the chances of mechanical failure in the actuator stacks that result from the free surface in the hole of conventional ring stacks. In addition, the removal of the stress bolt and the corresponding reduction in the overall number of parts reduces the overall complexity of the resulting ultrasonic horn actuator and simplifies the ease of the design, fabrication and integration of the actuator of the present invention into other structures.

  15. A monolithic integrated photonic microwave filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fandiño, Javier S.; Muñoz, Pascual; Doménech, David; Capmany, José

    2017-02-01

    Meeting the increasing demand for capacity in wireless networks requires the harnessing of higher regions in the radiofrequency spectrum, reducing cell size, as well as more compact, agile and power-efficient base stations that are capable of smoothly interfacing the radio and fibre segments. Fully functional microwave photonic chips are promising candidates in attempts to meet these goals. In recent years, many integrated microwave photonic chips have been reported in different technologies. To the best of our knowledge, none has monolithically integrated all the main active and passive optoelectronic components. Here, we report the first demonstration of a tunable microwave photonics filter that is monolithically integrated into an indium phosphide chip. The reconfigurable radiofrequency photonic filter includes all the necessary elements (for example, lasers, modulators and photodetectors), and its response can be tuned by means of control electric currents. This is an important step in demonstrating the feasibility of integrated and programmable microwave photonic processors.

  16. Trends in monolithic microwave integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterzer, F.

    1981-11-01

    Current trends in the fabrication of monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) are reviewed. The technologies developed predominantly make use of semi-insulating GaAs substrates, GaAs FET active elements, and lumped element circuits. An increasing number of MMIC designs incorporate innovative designs, including actively matched amplifiers and mixers, analog and digital functions, SAW circuits, and increased Q with lower resistance. A new generation of hybrid integrated circuits is also being developed which is expected to compete with conventional MMICs due to the potential for significant cost reduction. MMICs are considered to have the greatest potentials in applications requiring large quantities of similar circuits, circuits using large numbers of transistors or small areas for passive elements, and novel circuits such as SAWs monolithically combined with FETs.

  17. Monolithic mode-locked quantum dot lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penty, R. V.; Thompson, M. G.; White, I. H.

    2008-02-01

    Monolithic mode-locked laser diodes based on QD active regions are regarded as potentially suitable for a large range of photonic applications due to their compactness, mechanical stability and robustness, high potential repetition rates and low potential jitter. Their inherent properties, such as high differential gain, low chirp and fast saturable absorption have led to demonstration of improved performance over their QW equivalents. Low background loss and the relatively long lengths of quantum dot laser devices also have encouraged studies of mode-locking at repetition rates previously not explored in monolithic devices. Applications include biomedicine, high-speed data transmission, clock signal generation and electro-optic sampling. This paper reviews some of the work at Cambridge on the realization of such devices.

  18. Comparison of soil-monolith extraction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meissner, R.; Rupp, H.; Weller, U.; Vogel, H.-J.

    2009-04-01

    In the international literature the term „lysimeter" is used for different objectives, e.g. suction cups, fluxmeters, etc. According to our understanding it belongs to the direct methods to measure water and solute fluxes in soil. Depending on the scientific task the shape and dimensions of the lysimeter as well as the type of filling (disturbed or undisturbed) and the specific instrumentation can be different. In any case where water dynamics or solute transport in natural soil is considered, lysimeters should be filled with 'undisturbed' monoliths which are large enough to contain the small scale heterogeneity of a site since flow and transport is highly sensitive to soil structure. Furthermore, lysimeters with vegetation should represent the natural crop inventory and the maximum root penetration depth should be taken into account. The aim of this contribution is to give an overview about different methods for obtaining undisturbed soil monoliths, in particular about i) techniques for the vertical and ii) for the horizontal extraction and iii) to evaluate the most frequently used procedures based on X-ray tomography images. Minimal disturbance of the soil monolith during extraction and subsequence filling of the lysimeter vessel is of critical importance for establishing flow and transport conditions corresponding approximately to natural field conditions. In the past, several methods were used to extract and fill lysimeter vessels vertically - including hand digging, employing sets of trihedral scaffold with lifting blocks and ballast, or using heavy duty excavators, which could shear and cut large blocks of soil. More recently, technologies have been developed to extract cylindrical soil monoliths by using ramming equipment or screw presses. One of the great disadvantages of the mentioned methods is the compaction or settling of soil that occurs during the "hammering" or "pressing". For this reason a new technology was developed, which cuts the outline of

  19. Monolithic Flexure Pre-Stressed Ultrasonic Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Allen, Phillip Grant (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A monolithic ultrasonic horn where the horn, backing, and pre-stress structures are combined in a single monolithic piece is disclosed. Pre-stress is applied by external flexure structures. The provision of the external flexures has numerous advantages including the elimination of the need for a pre-stress bolt. The removal of the pre-stress bolt eliminates potential internal electric discharge points in the actuator. In addition, it reduces the chances of mechanical failure in the actuator stacks that result from the free surface in the hole of conventional ring stacks. In addition, the removal of the stress bolt and the corresponding reduction in the overall number of parts reduces the overall complexity of the resulting ultrasonic horn actuator and simplifies the ease of the design, fabrication and integration of the actuator of the present invention into other structures.

  20. Polymethacrylate monoliths with immobilized poly-3-mercaptopropyl methylsiloxane film for high-coverage surface functionalization by thiol-ene click reaction.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Correa, Enrique Javier; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel; Lämmerhofer, Michael

    2014-11-07

    In this work, new polythiol-functionalized macroporous monolithic polymethacrylate-polysiloxane composite materials are presented which can be useful substrates for highly efficient immobilization of (chiral) catalysts, chromatographic ligands, and other functional moieties by thiol-ene click reaction. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) (poly(GMA-co-EDMA)) monoliths were coated with a poly-3-mercaptopropyl methylsiloxane (PMPMS) film and subsequently the polymer was covalently immobilized by formation of crosslinks via nucleophilic substitution reaction with pendent 2,3-epoxypropyl groups on the monolith surface. This monolith, though, showed similar levels of surface coverage as a reference monolith obtained by opening of the epoxide groups with sodium hydrogen sulfide. However, a 3-step functionalization by amination of the epoxy monolith, followed by its vinylation with allylglycidyl ether and subsequent thiolation by coating of a thin polythiol (PMPMS) film and crosslinking by click reaction furnished a monolith with more than 2-fold elevated thiol coverage. Its further functionalization with a clickable chiral quinine carbamate selector clearly documented the benefit of highly dense thiol surfaces for such reactions and synthesis of functional materials with proper ligand loadings. The new monoliths were chromatographically tested in capillary electrochromatography mode using N-3,5-dinitrobenzoyl-leucine as chiral probe and the capillary column with the monolith having the highest selector coverage, produced from the precursor with the most thiols on the surface, showed the largest separation factor. By performic acid oxidation the surface characteristic could be tuned and strongly altered due to a delicate balance of enantioselective and non-specific interactions.

  1. Update On Monolithic Fuel Fabrication Development

    SciTech Connect

    C. R Clark; J. M. Wight; G. C. Knighton; G. A. Moore; J. F. Jue

    2005-11-01

    Efforts to develop a viable monolithic research reactor fuel plate have continued at Idaho National Laboratory. These efforts have concentrated on both fabrication process refinement and scale-up to produce full sized fuel plates. Advancements have been made in the production of U-Mo foil including full sized foils. Progress has also been made in the friction stir welding and transient liquid phase bonding fabrication processes resulting in better bonding, more stable processes and the ability to fabricate larger fuel plates.

  2. Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Droege, M.W.; Coronado, P.R.; Hair, L.M.

    1995-03-07

    Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The present invention is especially advantageous for making metal oxides other than silica that are prone to forming opaque, cracked aerogels. 6 figs.

  3. Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Droege, Michael W.; Coronado, Paul R.; Hair, Lucy M.

    1995-01-01

    Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The present invention is especially advantageous for making metal oxides other than silica that are prone to forming opaque, cracked aerogels.

  4. Monolithic solid oxide fuel cell development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myles, K. M.; Mcpheeters, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of the monolithic solid oxide fuel cell (MSOFC) concept has been proven, and the performance has been dramatically improved. The differences in thermal expansion coefficients and firing shrinkages among the fuel cell materials have been minimized, thus allowing successful fabrication of the MSOFC with few defects. The MSOFC shows excellent promise for development into a practical power source for many applications from stationary power, to automobile propulsion, to space pulsed power.

  5. Monolithically integrated interferometer for optical displacement measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstetter, Daniel; Zappe, Hans P.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the fabrication of a monolithically integrated optical displacement sensors using III-V semiconductor technology. The device is configured as a Michelson interferometer and consists of a distributed Bragg reflector laser, a photodetector and waveguides forming a directional coupler. Using this interferometer, displacements in the 100 nm range could be measured at distances of up to 45 cm. We present fabrication, device results and characterization of the completed interferometer, problems, limitations and future applications will also be discussed.

  6. Monolithic Integration of Semiconductor and Superconductor Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-31

    change the device performance at room temperature . The monolithic bipolar transistors will be fabricated by Honeywell’s MICRO SWITCH Division of...subsequent processing run funded by Honeywell which was completed in December, 1991. Task 2.5: Device Evaluation Room temperature resistance measurements were...dc bias current of only 1 pA was measured at a substrate temperature of 73 K in a microbolometer occupying a 125 pm x 125 pm area. In thermal imaging

  7. Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Coronado, Paul R.

    1999-01-01

    Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The containment vessel is enclosed within an aqueous atmosphere that is above the supercritical temperature and pressure of the solvent of the metal alkoxide solution.

  8. Nanoporous Carbon Monoliths with Tunable Thermal Insulation and Mechanical Properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaopeng; Chen, Fenghua; Luo, Zhenhua; Li, Hao; Zhao, Tong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, nanoscale porous carbon monoliths, with excellent compressive strength and thermal insulation, were obtained with a simple method of carbonizing cured phenol-formaldehyde resin/poly(methyl methacrylate) blends. Apparent density, pore size and morphology of the carbon monoliths were tailored by changing the composition, curing process and carbonization temperature. The continuous nanopores played a key role in enhancing mechanical and thermal performance of the carbon materials. When PMMA concentration was 25%, apparent density and thermal conductivity of the nanoporous carbonaceous monoliths were obtained as low as 1.07 g · cm⁻³ and 0.42 W/(m · K), decreasing by 29.4% and 35.4% than that of carbonaceous monoliths obtained from pure PF; while compressive strength of the nanoporous carbonaceous monoliths was as high as 34 MPa, which was improved over five times than that of pure PF carbon monoliths.

  9. FRACTURE-RESISTANT MONOLITHIC DENTAL CROWNS

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Mai, Zhisong; Barani, Amir; Bush, Mark; Lawn, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Objective To quantify the splitting resistance of monolithic zirconia, lithium disilicate and nanoparticle-composite dental crowns. Methods Fracture experiments were conducted on anatomically-correct monolithic crown structures cemented to standard dental composite dies, by axial loading of a hard sphere placed between the cusps. The structures were observed in situ during fracture testing, and critical loads to split the structures were measured. Extended finite element modeling (XFEM), with provision for step-by-step extension of embedded cracks, was employed to simulate full failure evolution. Results Experimental measurements and XFEM predictions were self consistent within data scatter. In conjunction with a fracture mechanics equation for critical splitting load, the data were used to predict load-sustaining capacity for crowns on actual dentin substrates and for loading with a sphere of different size. Stages of crack propagation within the crown and support substrate were quantified. Zirconia crowns showed the highest fracture loads, lithium disilicate intermediate, and dental nanocomposite lowest. Dental nanocomposite crowns have comparable fracture resistance to natural enamel. Significance The results confirm that monolithic crowns are able to sustain high bite forces. The analysis indicates what material and geometrical properties are important in optimizing crown performance and longevity. PMID:26792623

  10. Monolithic zirconia and digital impression: case report.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, F; Brauner, E; Pignatiello, G; Mencio, F; Rosella, D; Papi, P; Di Carlo, T; Giovannetti, A; Pompa, G; Di Carlo, S

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present a clinical case of a full arch prosthetic rehabilitation on natural teeth, combining both digital work-flow and monolithic zirconia. Digital impression was taken with an intraoral optical scanner (CS3500, Carestream Dental, Atlanta, GA, USA). A prosthetic rehabilitation was realized on natural teeth using monolithic zirconia from 1.6 to 1.4 and from 2.7 to 2.4 frameworks, while in the aesthetic area (from 2.3 to 1.3), technicians left on the structure a 0.8 mm vestibular space for ceramic layering. The combination of digital impression technology and the use of the monolithic zirconia had demonstrated the delivery of the final prosthetic device in a quick time without the need to remodel functional or aesthetic areas. The digital work-flow combines intraoral optical impression techniques and CAD/CAM technology, in order to achieve a fully digital and successful way to deliver prosthetic restorations to patients, providing aesthetics and function in shorter intervals of time. The clinical outcome of this study was satisfactory but a long-term evaluation is needed.

  11. Monolithic catalyst beds for hydrazine reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A monolithic catalyst bed for monopropellant hydrazine decomposition was evaluated. The program involved the evaluation of a new hydrazine catalyst concept wherein open-celled foamed materials are used as supports for the active catalysts. A high-surface-area material is deposited upon the open-celled foamed material and is then coated with an active metal to provide a spontaneous catalyst. Only a fraction of the amount of expensive active metal in currently available catalysts is needed to promote monolithic catalyst. Numerous parameters were evaluated during the program, and the importance of additional parameters became obvious only while the program was in progress. A demonstration firing (using a 2.2-Newton (N)(0.5-lbf) reactor) successfully accumulated 7,700 seconds of firing time and 16 ambient temperature starts without degradation. Based on the excellent results obtained throughout the program and the demonstrated life capability of the monolithic foam, it is recommended that additional studies be conducted to further exploit the advantages of this concept.

  12. Strength and toughness of monolithic and composite silicon nitrides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.

    1990-01-01

    The strength and toughness of two composite and two monolithic silicon nitrides were measured from 25 to 1400 C. The monolithic and composite materials were made from similar starting powders. Both of the composite materials contained 30 vol percent silicon carbide whiskers. All measurements were made by four point flexure in surrounding air and humidity. The composite and monolithic materials exhibited similar fast fracture properties as a function of temperature.

  13. Less common applications of monoliths III. Gas chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Svec, Frantisek; Kurganov, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    Porous polymer monoliths emerged about two decades ago. Despite this short time, they are finding applications in a variety of fields. In addition to the most common and certainly best known use of this new category of porous media as stationary phases in liquid chromatography, monolithic materials also found their applications in other areas. This review article focuses on monoliths in capillaries designed for separations in gas chromatography. PMID:17645884

  14. Consolidation and densification methods for fibrous monolith processing

    SciTech Connect

    Sutaria, Manish P.; Rigali, Mark J.; Cipriani, Ronald A.; Artz, Gregory J.; Mulligan, Anthony C.

    2004-05-25

    Methods for consolidation and densification of fibrous monolith composite structures are provided. Consolidation and densification of two- and three-dimensional fibrous monolith components having complex geometries can be achieved by pressureless sintering. The fibrous monolith composites are formed from filaments having at least a first material composition generally surrounded by a second material composition. The composites are sintered in an inert gas or nitrogen gas at a pressure of no more than about 30 psi to provide consolidated and densified fibrous monolith composites.

  15. Less common applications of monoliths: Preconcentration andsolid-phase extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Svec, Frantisek

    2006-03-27

    Monolithic materials are finding their place in a variety of fields. While liquid chromatography is the most emphasized use of this new category of porous media, some other just as important applications are eclipsed by the success of monolithic columns. This review article describes all current facets of use of monoliths in preconcentration and solid-phase extraction. In addition to the typical off line use that does not seem to be the main stream application for the monolithic materials, in-line connection of the preconcentration with HPLC, electrochromatography, electrophoresis, enzymatic digestion, as well as its applications in microfluidics are presented.

  16. Monolithic Lumped Element Integrated Circuit (M2LEIC) Transistors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    INTEGRATED CIRCUITS, *MONOLITHIC STRUCTURES(ELECTRONICS), *TRANSISTORS, CHIPS(ELECTRONICS), FABRICATION, EPITAXIAL GROWTH, ULTRAHIGH FREQUENCY, POLYSILICONS, PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY, RADIOFREQUENCY POWER, IMPEDANCE MATCHING .

  17. Crack-free polydimethylsiloxane-bioactive glass-poly(ethylene glycol) hybrid monoliths with controlled biomineralization activity and mechanical property for bone tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Du, Yuzhang; Que, Wenxiu; Xing, Yonglei; Chen, Xiaofeng; Lei, Bo

    2015-12-01

    Crack-free organic-inorganic hybrid monoliths with controlled biomineralization activity and mechanical property have an important role for highly efficient bone tissue regeneration. Here, biomimetic and crack-free polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-modified bioactive glass (BG)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) (PDMS-BG-PEG) hybrids monoliths were prepared by a facile sol-gel technique. Results indicate that under the assist of co-solvents, BG sol and PDMS and PEG could be hybridized at a molecular level, and effects of the PEG molecular weight on the structure, biomineralization activity, and mechanical property of the as-prepared hybrid monoliths were also investigated in detail. It is found that an addition of low molecular weight PEG can significantly prevent the formation of cracks and speed up the gelation of the hybrid monoliths, and the surface microstructure of the hybrid monoliths can be changed from the porous to the smooth as the PEG molecular weight increases. Additionally, the hybrid monoliths with low molecular weight PEG show the high formation of the biological apatite layer, while the hybrids with high molecular weight PEG exhibit negligible biomineralization ability in simulated body fluid (SBF). Furthermore, the PDMS-BG-PEG 600 hybrid monolith has significantly high compressive strength (32 ± 3 MPa) and modulus (153 ± 11 MPa), as well as good cell biocompatibility by supporting osteoblast (MC3T3-E1) attachment and proliferation. These results indicate that the as-prepared PDMS-BG-PEG hybrid monoliths may have promising applications for bone tissue regeneration.

  18. 3D statistical failure analysis of monolithic dental ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Nasrin, Sadia; Katsube, Noriko; Seghi, Robert R; Rokhlin, Stanislav I

    2016-07-05

    For adhesively retained ceramic crown of various types, it has been clinically observed that the most catastrophic failures initiate from the cement interface as a result of radial crack formation as opposed to Hertzian contact stresses originating on the occlusal surface. In this work, a 3D failure prognosis model is developed for interface initiated failures of monolithic ceramic crowns. The surface flaw distribution parameters determined by biaxial flexural tests on ceramic plates and point-to-point variations of multi-axial stress state at the intaglio surface are obtained by finite element stress analysis. They are combined on the basis of fracture mechanics based statistical failure probability model to predict failure probability of a monolithic crown subjected to single-cycle indentation load. The proposed method is verified by prior 2D axisymmetric model and experimental data. Under conditions where the crowns are completely bonded to the tooth substrate, both high flexural stress and high interfacial shear stress are shown to occur in the wall region where the crown thickness is relatively thin while high interfacial normal tensile stress distribution is observed at the margin region. Significant impact of reduced cement modulus on these stress states is shown. While the analyses are limited to single-cycle load-to-failure tests, high interfacial normal tensile stress or high interfacial shear stress may contribute to degradation of the cement bond between ceramic and dentin. In addition, the crown failure probability is shown to be controlled by high flexural stress concentrations over a small area, and the proposed method might be of some value to detect initial crown design errors.

  19. Leaching of mercury-containing cement monoliths aged for one year.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Margareta; Allard, Bert

    2008-01-01

    A directive from the Swedish Government states that waste containing more than 1% of mercury shall be permanently deposited. The stabilization of mercury by conversion to a sparingly soluble compound like the sulphide is crucial to ensure long-term immobilization in a permanent storage. Immobilization by the solidification/stabilization (S/S) method and possible formation of HgS from mercury oxide or elemental mercury by reaction with a sulphur source (S or FeS) is investigated by a modified version of the NEN 7345 Dutch tank-leaching test. The diffusion of mercury during 11 months from 1-year-old mercury containing monoliths of Portland and slag cement is demonstrated. In a geologic repository under conditions representative of deep granitic bedrock (bicarbonate buffered to pH 8.6), a favourable monolith combination is slag cement with addition of the iron sulphide troilite. The apparent diffusion coefficient of mercury is estimated.

  20. Westerlund 1: monolithic formation of a starburst cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, Ignacio; Clark, J. Simon; Ritchie, Ben W.; Goodwin, Simon P.

    2017-03-01

    Westerlund 1 is in all likelihood the most massive young cluster in the Milky Way, with a mass on the order of 105 M ⊙. To determine its bulk properties we have made multi-epoch radial velocity measurements for a substantial fraction of its OB stars and evolved supergiants and obtained multi-object spectroscopy of candidate cluster members in its locale. The results of these two studies show that Westerlund 1 is apparently subvirial and appears completely isolated, with hardly any massive star in its vicinity that could be associated with it in terms of distance modulus or radial velocity. The cluster halo does not extend much further than five parsec away from the centre. All these properties are very unusual among starburst clusters in the Local Universe, which tend to form in the context of large star-forming regions.

  1. Fibrous monoliths: Economic ceramic matrix composites from powders [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rigali, Mark; Sutaria, Manish; Mulligan, Anthony; Creegan, Peter; Cipriani, Ron

    1999-05-26

    The project was to develop and perform pilot-scale production of fibrous monolith composites. The principal focus of the program was to develop damage-tolerant, wear-resistant tooling for petroleum drilling applications and generate a basic mechanical properties database on fibrous monolith composites.

  2. Creating deep soil core monoliths: Beyond the solum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil monoliths serve as useful teaching aids in the study of the Earth’s critical zone where rock, soil, water, air, and organisms interact. Typical monolith preparation has so far been confined to the 1 to 2-m depth of the solum. Critical ecosystem services provided by soils include materials from ...

  3. Method of fabricating a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Minh, Nguyen Q.; Horne, Craig R.

    1994-01-01

    In a two-step densifying process of making a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell, a limited number of anode-electrolyte-cathode cells separated by an interconnect layer are formed and partially densified. Subsequently, the partially densified cells are stacked and further densified to form a monolithic array.

  4. Method of fabricating a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Minh, N.Q.; Horne, C.R.

    1994-03-01

    In a two-step densifying process of making a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell, a limited number of anode-electrolyte-cathode cells separated by an interconnect layer are formed and partially densified. Subsequently, the partially densified cells are stacked and further densified to form a monolithic array. 10 figures.

  5. Catalytic Ignition and Upstream Reaction Propagation in Monolith Reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter M.; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Miller, Fletcher J.; T'ien, James S.

    2007-01-01

    Using numerical simulations, this work demonstrates a concept called back-end ignition for lighting-off and pre-heating a catalytic monolith in a power generation system. In this concept, a downstream heat source (e.g. a flame) or resistive heating in the downstream portion of the monolith initiates a localized catalytic reaction which subsequently propagates upstream and heats the entire monolith. The simulations used a transient numerical model of a single catalytic channel which characterizes the behavior of the entire monolith. The model treats both the gas and solid phases and includes detailed homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. An important parameter in the model for back-end ignition is upstream heat conduction along the solid. The simulations used both dry and wet CO chemistry as a model fuel for the proof-of-concept calculations; the presence of water vapor can trigger homogenous reactions, provided that gas-phase temperatures are adequately high and there is sufficient fuel remaining after surface reactions. With sufficiently high inlet equivalence ratio, back-end ignition occurs using the thermophysical properties of both a ceramic and metal monolith (coated with platinum in both cases), with the heat-up times significantly faster for the metal monolith. For lower equivalence ratios, back-end ignition occurs without upstream propagation. Once light-off and propagation occur, the inlet equivalence ratio could be reduced significantly while still maintaining an ignited monolith as demonstrated by calculations using complete monolith heating.

  6. Electrochromic switching of monolithic Prussian blue thin film devices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianxi; Zhou, Wencai; Walheim, Stefan; Wang, Zhengbang; Lindemann, Peter; Heissler, Stefan; Liu, Jinxuan; Weidler, Peter G; Schimmel, Thomas; Wöll, Christof; Redel, Engelbert

    2015-06-01

    Monolithic, crystalline and highly oriented coordination network compound (CNC) Prussian blue (PB) thin films have been deposited though different routes on conductive substrates. Characterization of the monolithic thin films reveals a long-term stability, even after many redox cycles the crystallinity as well as the high orientation remain intact during the electrochromic switching process.

  7. Monolithic LTCC seal frame and lid

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, Daniel S.; Peterson, Kenneth A.; Stockdale, Dave; Duncan, James Brent; Riggs, Bristen

    2016-06-21

    A method for forming a monolithic seal frame and lid for use with a substrate and electronic circuitry comprises the steps of forming a mandrel from a ceramic and glass based material, forming a seal frame and lid block from a ceramic and glass based material, creating a seal frame and lid by forming a compartment and a plurality of sidewalls in the seal frame and lid block, placing the seal frame and lid on the mandrel such that the mandrel fits within the compartment, and cofiring the seal frame and lid block.

  8. Isolation of Bacterial Ribosomes with Monolith Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Trauner, Andrej; Bennett, Mark H.; Williams, Huw D.

    2011-01-01

    We report the development of a rapid chromatographic method for the isolation of bacterial ribosomes from crude cell lysates in less than ten minutes. Our separation is based on the use of strong anion exchange monolithic columns. Using a simple stepwise elution program we were able to purify ribosomes whose composition is comparable to those isolated by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation, as confirmed by quantitative proteomic analysis (iTRAQ). The speed and simplicity of this approach could accelerate the study of many different aspects of ribosomal biology. PMID:21326610

  9. Synthesis of Porous Carbon Monoliths Using Hard Templates

    PubMed Central

    Klepel, Olaf; Danneberg, Nina; Dräger, Matti; Erlitz, Marcel; Taubert, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The preparation of porous carbon monoliths with a defined shape via template-assisted routes is reported. Monoliths made from porous concrete and zeolite were each used as the template. The porous concrete-derived carbon monoliths exhibited high gravimetric specific surface areas up to 2000 m2·g−1. The pore system comprised macro-, meso-, and micropores. These pores were hierarchically arranged. The pore system was created by the complex interplay of the actions of both the template and the activating agent as well. On the other hand, zeolite-made template shapes allowed for the preparation of microporous carbon monoliths with a high volumetric specific surface area. This feature could be beneficial if carbon monoliths must be integrated into technical systems under space-limited conditions. PMID:28773338

  10. Scaling up of continuous-flow, microwave-assisted, organic reactions by varying the size of Pd-functionalized catalytic monoliths.

    PubMed

    He, Ping; Haswell, Stephen J; Fletcher, Paul D I; Kelly, Stephen M; Mansfield, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    A product-scalable, catalytically mediated flow system has been developed to perform Suzuki-Miyaura reactions under a microwave heating regime, in which the volumetric throughput of a Pd-supported silica monolith can be used to increase the quantity of the product without changing the optimal operating conditions. Two silica monoliths (both 3 cm long), with comparable pore diameters and surface areas, were fabricated with diameters of 3.2 and 6.4 mm to give volumetric capacities of 0.205 and 0.790 mL, respectively. The two monoliths were functionalized with a loading of 4.5 wt % Pd and then sealed in heat-shrinkable Teflon(®) tubing to form a monolithic flow reactor. The Pd-supported silica monolith flow reactor was then placed into the microwave cavity and connected to an HPLC pump and a backpressure regulator to minimize the formation of gas bubbles. The flow rate and microwave power were varied to optimize the reactant contact time and temperature, respectively. Under optimal reaction conditions the quantity of product could be increased from 31 mg per hour to 340 mg per hour simply by changing the volumetric capacity of the monolith.

  11. Rapid isolation of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids using monolithic high performance liquid chromatography columns.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Peter; Wijesundera, Chakra

    2013-06-01

    Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids are important bio-active fatty acids in fish oils. Monolithic HPLC columns both in the polymeric cation exchange (silver-ion) and RP formats were compared with corresponding packed columns for the isolation of these acids from tuna oil ethyl esters. Monolithic columns in both formats enabled rapid (typically 5-10 min) separations compared with packed columns (30 min). Polymeric monolithic silver-ion disc column rapidly furnished mixtures of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic esters (90% purity) within 5-10 min, but was unable to resolve individual esters. A preparative version of the same column (80 mL bed volume) enabled isolation (>88% purity) of 100 mg quantities of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic esters from esterified tuna oil within 6 min. Baseline separation of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic esters was achieved on all RP columns. The results show that there is potential to use polymeric monolithic cation exchange columns for scaled-up preparation of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic ester concentrates from fish oils. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Monolithic Hydrogen Peroxide Catalyst Bed Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponzo, J. B.

    2003-01-01

    With recent increased industry and government interest in rocket grade hydrogen peroxide as a viable propellant, significant effort has been expended to improve on earlier developments. This effort has been predominately centered in improving heterogeneous. typically catalyst beds; and homogeneous catalysts, which are typically solutions of catalytic substances. Heterogeneous catalyst beds have traditionally consisted of compressed wire screens plated with a catalytic substance, usually silver, and were used m many RCS applications (X-1, Mercury, and Centaur for example). Aerojet has devised a heterogeneous catalyst design that is monolithic (single piece), extremely compact, and has pressure drops equal to or less than traditional screen beds. The design consists of a bonded stack of very thin, photoetched metal plates, silver coated. This design leads to a high surface area per unit volume and precise flow area, resulting in high, stable, and repeatable performance. Very high throughputs have been demonstrated with 90% hydrogen peroxide. (0.60 lbm/s/sq in at 1775-175 psia) with no flooding of the catalyst bed. Bed life of over 900 seconds has also been demonstrated at throughputs of 0.60 lbm/s/sq in across varying chamber pressures. The monolithic design also exhibits good starting performance, short break-in periods, and will easily scale to various sizes.

  13. Large area monolithic organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hui; Tao, Cheng; Hambsch, Mike; Pivrikas, Almantas; Velusamy, Marappan; Aljada, Muhsen; Zhang, Yuliang; Burn, Paul L.; Meredith, Paul

    2012-11-01

    Although efficiencies of > 10% have recently been achieved in laboratory-scale organic solar cells, these competitive performance figures are yet to be translated to large active areas and geometries relevant for viable manufacturing. One of the factors hindering scale-up is a lack of knowledge of device physics at the sub-module level, particularly cell architecture, electrode geometry and current collection pathways. A more in depth understanding of how photocurrent and photovoltage extraction can be optimised over large active areas is urgently needed. Another key factor suppressing conversion efficiencies in large area cells is the relatively high sheet resistance of the transparent conducting anode - typically indium tin oxide. Hence, to replace ITO with alternative transparent conducting anodes is also a high priority on the pathway to viable module-level organic solar cells. In our paper we will focus on large area devices relevant to sub-module scales - 5 cm × 5 cm monolithic geometry. We have applied a range of experimental techniques to create a more comprehensive understanding of the true device physics that could help make large area, monolithic organic solar cells more viable. By employing this knowledge, a novel transparent anode consisting of molybdenum oxide (MoOx) and silver (Ag) is developed to replace ITO and PEDOT-free large area solar cell sub-modules, acting as both a transparent window and hole-collecting electrode. The proposed architecture and anode materials are well suited to high throughput, low cost all-solution processing.

  14. Catastrophic failure of a monolithic zirconia prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jae-Seung; Ji, Woon; Choi, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Sunjai

    2015-02-01

    Recently, monolithic zirconia restorations have received attention as an alternative to zirconia veneered with feldspathic porcelain to eliminate chipping failures of veneer ceramics. In this clinical report, a patient with mandibular edentulism received 4 dental implants in the interforaminal area, and a screw-retained monolithic zirconia prosthesis was fabricated. The patient also received a maxillary complete removable dental prosthesis over 4 anterior roots. At the 18-month follow-up, all of the zirconia cylinders were seen to be fractured, and the contacting abutment surfaces had lost structural integrity. The damaged abutments were replaced with new abutments, and a new prosthesis was delivered with a computer-assisted design and computer-assisted manufacturing fabricated titanium framework with denture teeth and denture base resins. At the 6-month recall, the patient did not have any problems. Dental zirconia has excellent physical properties; however, care should be taken to prevent excessive stresses on the zirconia cylinders when a screw-retained zirconia restoration is planned as a definitive prosthesis.

  15. Monolithic columns in plant proteomics and metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Rigobello-Masini, Marilda; Penteado, José Carlos Pires; Masini, Jorge Cesar

    2013-03-01

    Since "omics" techniques emerged, plant studies, from biochemistry to ecology, have become more comprehensive. Plant proteomics and metabolomics enable the construction of databases that, with the help of genomics and informatics, show the data obtained as a system. Thus, all the constituents of the system can be seen with their interactions in both space and time. For instance, perturbations in a plant ecosystem as a consequence of application of herbicides or exposure to pollutants can be predicted by using information gathered from these databases. Analytical chemistry has been involved in this scientific evolution. Proteomics and metabolomics are emerging fields that require separation, identification, and quantification of proteins, peptides, and small molecules of metabolites in complex biological samples. The success of this work relies on efficient chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques, and on mass spectrometric detection. This paper reviews recent developments in the use of monolithic columns, focusing on their applications in "top-down" and "bottom-up" approaches, including their use as supports for immobilization of proteolytic enzymes and their use in two-dimensional and multidimensional chromatography. Whereas polymeric columns have been predominantly used for separation of proteins and polypeptides, silica-based monoliths have been more extensively used for separation of small molecules of metabolites. Representative applications in proteomics and in analysis of plant metabolites are given and summarized in tables.

  16. Hydrogel coated monoliths for enzymatic hydrolysis of penicillin G

    PubMed Central

    Smeltink, M. W.; Straathof, A. J. J.; Paasman, M. A.; van de Sandt, E. J. A. X.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a hydrogel-coated monolith for the entrapment of penicillin G acylase (E. coli, PGA). After screening of different hydrogels, chitosan was chosen as the carrier material for the preparation of monolithic biocatalysts. This protocol leads to active immobilized biocatalysts for the enzymatic hydrolysis of penicillin G (PenG). The monolithic biocatalyst was tested in a monolith loop reactor (MLR) and compared with conventional reactor systems using free PGA, and a commercially available immobilized PGA. The optimal immobilization protocol was found to be 5 g l−1 PGA, 1% chitosan, 1.1% glutaraldehyde and pH 7. Final PGA loading on glass plates was 29 mg ml−1 gel. For 400 cpsi monoliths, the final PGA loading on functionalized monoliths was 36 mg ml−1 gel. The observed volumetric reaction rate in the MLR was 0.79 mol s−1 m−3monolith. Apart from an initial drop in activity due to wash out of PGA at higher ionic strength, no decrease in activity was observed after five subsequent activity test runs. The storage stability of the biocatalysts is at least a month without loss of activity. Although the monolithic biocatalyst as used in the MLR is still outperformed by the current industrial catalyst (immobilized preparation of PGA, 4.5 mol s−1 m−3catalyst), the rate per gel volume is slightly higher for monolithic catalysts. Good activity and improved mechanical strength make the monolithic bioreactor an interesting alternative that deserves further investigation for this application. Although moderate internal diffusion limitations have been observed inside the gel beads and in the gel layer on the monolith channel, this is not the main reason for the large differences in reactor performance that were observed. The pH drop over the reactor as a result of the chosen method for pH control results in a decreased performance of both the MLR and the packed bed reactor compared to the batch system. A different

  17. Monolithic 3D-ICs with single grain Si thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, R.; Derakhshandeh, J.; Tajari Mofrad, M. R.; Chen, T.; Golshani, N.; Beenakker, C. I. M.

    2012-05-01

    Monolithic 3D integration is the ultimate approach in 3D-ICs as it provides high-density and submicron vertical interconnects and hence transistor level integration. Here, high-quality Si layer formation at a low temperature is a key challenge. We review our recent achievements in monolithic 3D-ICs based on single-grain Si TFTs that are fabricated inside a single-grain with a low-temperature process. With the μ-Czochralski process based on a pulsed-laser crystallization, Si grains with a diameter of 6 μm are successfully formed on predetermined positions. Single-grain (SG) Si TFTs are fabricated inside the single-grain with mobility for electron and holes of 600 cm2/V s and 200 cm2/V s, respectively. Two layers of the SG Si TFT were vertically stacked and successfully implemented into CMOS inverter, 3D 6T-SRAM and single-grain lateral PIN photo-diode with in-pixel amplifier. Those results indicate that the SG TFTs are attractive for use in monolithic 3D-ICs on an arbitrary substrate including a glass and even a plastic for applications such as ultra-high-density memories, logic-to-logic integration, CPU integrated display, and high-definition image sensor for artificial retina.

  18. Preparation of Highly Porous Coordination Polymer Coatings on Macroporous Polymer Monoliths for Enhanced Enrichment of Phosphopeptides

    PubMed Central

    Lamprou, Alexandros; Wang, Hongxia; Saeed, Adeela; Svec, Frantisek; Britt, David; Maya, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    We describe a protocol for the preparation of hybrid materials based on highly porous coordination polymer coatings on the internal surface of macroporous polymer monoliths. The developed approach is based on the preparation of a macroporous polymer containing carboxylic acid functional groups and the subsequent step-by-step solution-based controlled growth of a layer of a porous coordination polymer on the surface of the pores of the polymer monolith. The prepared metal-organic polymer hybrid has a high specific micropore surface area. The amount of iron(III) sites is enhanced through metal-organic coordination on the surface of the pores of the functional polymer support. The increase of metal sites is related to the number of iterations of the coating process. The developed preparation scheme is easily adapted to a capillary column format. The functional porous polymer is prepared as a self-contained single-block porous monolith within the capillary, yielding a flow-through separation device with excellent flow permeability and modest back-pressure. The metal-organic polymer hybrid column showed excellent performance for the enrichment of phosphopeptides from digested proteins and their subsequent detection using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The presented experimental protocol is highly versatile, and can be easily implemented to different organic polymer supports and coatings with a plethora of porous coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks for multiple purification and/or separation applications. PMID:26273850

  19. Preparation of Highly Porous Coordination Polymer Coatings on Macroporous Polymer Monoliths for Enhanced Enrichment of Phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Lamprou, Alexandros; Wang, Hongxia; Saeed, Adeela; Svec, Frantisek; Britt, David; Maya, Fernando

    2015-07-14

    We describe a protocol for the preparation of hybrid materials based on highly porous coordination polymer coatings on the internal surface of macroporous polymer monoliths. The developed approach is based on the preparation of a macroporous polymer containing carboxylic acid functional groups and the subsequent step-by-step solution-based controlled growth of a layer of a porous coordination polymer on the surface of the pores of the polymer monolith. The prepared metal-organic polymer hybrid has a high specific micropore surface area. The amount of iron(III) sites is enhanced through metal-organic coordination on the surface of the pores of the functional polymer support. The increase of metal sites is related to the number of iterations of the coating process. The developed preparation scheme is easily adapted to a capillary column format. The functional porous polymer is prepared as a self-contained single-block porous monolith within the capillary, yielding a flow-through separation device with excellent flow permeability and modest back-pressure. The metal-organic polymer hybrid column showed excellent performance for the enrichment of phosphopeptides from digested proteins and their subsequent detection using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The presented experimental protocol is highly versatile, and can be easily implemented to different organic polymer supports and coatings with a plethora of porous coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks for multiple purification and/or separation applications.

  20. On the underestimated impact of the gelation temperature on macro- and mesoporosity in monolithic silica.

    PubMed

    Meinusch, Rafael; Ellinghaus, Rüdiger; Hormann, Kristof; Tallarek, Ulrich; Smarsly, Bernd M

    2017-06-07

    The preparation of monolithic SiO2 with bimodal porosity using a special sol-gel procedure ("Nakanishi process") generally shows a pronounced sensitivity towards several physico-chemical parameters of the initial solution (concentrations, precursors, pH, temperature, etc.). Thus, temporal and spatial variations of these parameters during the sol-gel reactions can affect the final meso- and macropore space with respect to the pore size distributions and homogeneity. In this study we thoroughly examine the sol-gel reaction in terms of the impact of temperature accuracy and homogeneity during the gelation and their effect on meso- and macropore space. The in-depth characterization of the macroporosity in monolithic SiO2 rods, prepared by utilizing a highly homogeneous and accurate temperature profile, shows that a decrease of only 1.5 °C during the reaction doubles the mean size of the macropores in the analyzed temperature ranges (22.0-28.0 °C and 33.5-36.5 °C). Rheological measurements of the gelation points and the viscosity of the starting solutions prove that a higher reaction rate is the main reason for this marked temperature-sensitivity. Furthermore, the mesoporosity is affected to a surprising extent by the applied small temperature differences during the gelation reaction. This phenomenon is shown to be mainly caused by the temperature-dependent differences in macropore and skeleton dimensions and an inhomogeneous distribution of mesopore sizes within the skeleton. In essence, our study reveals that the impact of temperature on the formation of meso- and macroscale dimensions during the sol-gel process has been underestimated so far. The impact of a poor temperature homogeneity during monolith synthesis is exemplarily demonstrated by the application of monolithic silica capillary columns in HPLC.

  1. Novel highly hydrophilic zwitterionic monolithic column for hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhengjin; Smith, Norman W; Ferguson, Paul D; Taylor, Mark R

    2009-08-01

    A novel zwitterionic hydrophilic porous poly(SPV-co-MBA) monolithic column was prepared by thermal co-polymerisation of 1-(3-sulphopropyl)-4-vinylpyridinium-betaine (4-SPV) and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA). An HILIC/RP dual separation mechanism was observed on this optimised poly(SPV-co-MBA) monolithic column and the composition of the mobile phase corresponding to the transition from the HILIC to the RP mode was around 30% ACN in water. Higher hydrophilicity was achieved on this novel monolithic column compared to the poly(N,N-dimethyl-N-methacryloxyethyl-N-(3-sulphopropyl)ammonium betaine-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic column. Permeability studies showed slight swelling and/or shrinking with mobile phases of different polarity. As might be anticipated, a weak electrostatic interaction for charged analytes was also observed by studying the influence of mobile phase pH and salt concentration on their retention on the poly(SPV-co-MBA) monolithic column. The final optimised poly(SPV-co-MBA) monolith showed comparable selectivities to commercial ZIC-pHILIC phases for polar test analytes. Fast separation of five pyrimidines and purines was achieved in less than 1 min due to the high permeability of the monolithic column. Additionally, baseline separation of nine benzoic acid derivatives was also observed using either a pH or ACN gradient.

  2. Rapid process for producing transparent, monolithic porous glass

    DOEpatents

    Coronado, Paul R.

    2006-02-14

    A process for making transparent porous glass monoliths from gels. The glass is produced much faster and in much larger sizes than present technology for making porous glass. The process reduces the cost of making large porous glass monoliths because: 1) the process does not require solvent exchange nor additives to the gel to increase the drying rates, 2) only moderate temperatures and pressures are used so relatively inexpensive equipment is needed, an 3) net-shape glass monoliths are possible using this process. The process depends on the use of temperature to control the partial pressure of the gel solvent in a closed vessel, resulting in controlled shrinking during drying.

  3. Engineering and Design: Structural Analysis and Design of U-Frame Lock Monoliths

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-31

    upstream and downstream direction. Finally, any of the aforementioned monoliths can also act as bridge pier monoliths. When a bridge pier is located on a...monolith, it can have an effect on the design of the monolith due to the loads transmitted to the monolith from the bridge pier. This is particu- larly...ations: erodibility of foundation, potential for scour , factor of safety against flotation during dewatering of the lock, differential movements

  4. LSST primary/tertiary monolithic mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebag, J.; Gressler, W.; Liang, M.; Neill, D.; Araujo-Hauck, C.; Andrew, J.; Angeli, G.; Cho, M.; Claver, C.; Daruich, F.; Gessner, C.; Hileman, E.; Krabbendam, V.; Muller, G.; Poczulp, G.; Repp, R.; Wiecha, O.; Xin, B.; Kenagy, K.; Martin, H. M.; Tuell, M. T.; West, S. C.

    2016-08-01

    At the core of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) three-mirror optical design is the primary/tertiary (M1M3) mirror that combines these two large mirrors onto one monolithic substrate. The M1M3 mirror was spin cast and polished at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab at The University of Arizona (formerly SOML, now the Richard F. Caris Mirror Lab at the University of Arizona (RFCML)). Final acceptance of the mirror occurred during the year 2015 and the mirror is now in storage while the mirror cell assembly is being fabricated. The M1M3 mirror will be tested at RFCML after integration with its mirror cell before being shipped to Chile.

  5. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit water vapor radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sukamto, L. M.; Cooley, T. W.; Janssen, M. A.; Parks, G. S.

    1991-01-01

    A proof of concept Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Water Vapor Radiometer (WVR) is under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). WVR's are used to remotely sense water vapor and cloud liquid water in the atmosphere and are valuable for meteorological applications as well as for determination of signal path delays due to water vapor in the atmosphere. The high cost and large size of existing WVR instruments motivate the development of miniature MMIC WVR's, which have great potential for low cost mass production. The miniaturization of WVR components allows large scale deployment of WVR's for Earth environment and meteorological applications. Small WVR's can also result in improved thermal stability, resulting in improved calibration stability. Described here is the design and fabrication of a 31.4 GHz MMIC radiometer as one channel of a thermally stable WVR as a means of assessing MMIC technology feasibility.

  6. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K.; Wei, G.; Yu, P.C.

    1991-12-31

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors` institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  7. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. . Electro-Optics Technology Center); Wei, G. ); Yu, P.C. )

    1991-01-01

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors' institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  8. Monolithic cascade-type solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, S.; Shibukawa, A.; Yamaguchi, M.

    1985-01-01

    Solar cells consist of a semiconductor base, a bottom cell with a band-gap energy of E1, and a top cell with a band-gap energy of E2, and 0.96 E1 1.36 eV and (0.80 E + 0.77) eV E2 (0.80 E1 + 0.92) eV. A monolithic cascade-type solar cell was prepared with an n(+)-type GaAs base, a GaInAs bottom solar cell, and a GaAiInAs top solar cell. The surface of the cell is coated with a SiO antireflection film. The efficiency of the cell is 32%.

  9. A study of subterahertz HEMT monolithic oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Youngwoo; Pavlidis, Dimitris

    1992-01-01

    A detailed study of monolithic InP-based HEMT oscillators for subterahertz operation is presented. InAlAs/InGaAs HEMT's have been optimized for high frequency operation and showed very high maximum oscillation frequencies (f(sub max)) of 310 GHz using offset self-aligned gamma-gate technology. Power characteristics of HEMT oscillators are reported. An oscillation power of more than 10 mW was evaluated by large-signal analysis at 320 GHz using HEMT's with f(sub max) = 450 GHz, V(sub br) = 10 V and a gate width (W(sub g)) of 8 x 22.5 microns. Oscillator topology studies showed that complex feedback schemes such as dual and active feedback enhance the negative resistance. Push-push oscillator designs based on harmonic signal generation can finally be used to overcome the frequency barrier imposed by f(sub max).

  10. Development of 20 GHz monolithic transmit modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    The history of the development of a transmit module for the band 17.7 to 20.2 GHz is presented. The module was to monolithically combine, on one chip, five bits of phase shift, a buffer amplifier and a power amplifier to produce 200 mW to the antenna element. The approach taken was MESFET ion implanted device technology. A common pinch-off voltage was decided upon for each application. The beginning of the total integration phases revealed hitherto unencountered hazards of large microwave circuit integration which were successfully overcome. Yield and customer considerations finally led to two separate chips, one containing the power amplifiers and the other containing the complete five bit phase shifter.

  11. Monolithic short wave infrared (SWIR) detector array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A monolithic self-scanned linear detector array was developed for remote sensing in the 1.1- 2.4-micron spectral region. A high-density IRCCD test chip was fabricated to verify new design approaches required for the detector array. The driving factors in the Schottky barrier IRCCD (Pdsub2Si) process development are the attainment of detector yield, uniformity, adequate quantum efficiency, and lowest possible dark current consistent with radiometric accuracy. A dual-band module was designed that consists of two linear detector arrays. The sensor architecture places the floating diffusion output structure in the middle of the chip, away from the butt edges. A focal plane package was conceptualized and includes a polycrystalline silicon substrate carrying a two-layer, thick-film interconnecting conductor pattern and five epoxy-mounted modules. A polycrystalline silicon cover encloses the modules and bond wires, and serves as a radiation and EMI shield, thermal conductor, and contamination seal.

  12. A monolithic bolometer array suitable for FIRST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bock, J. J.; LeDuc, H. G.; Lange, A. E.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    1997-01-01

    The development of arrays of infrared bolometers that are suitable for use in the Far Infrared and Submillimeter Telescope (FIRST) mission is reported. The array architecture is based on the silicon nitride micromesh bolometer currently baselined for use in the case of the Planck mission. This architecture allows each pixel to be efficiently coupled to one or both polarizations and to one or more spatial models of radiation. Micromesh structures are currently being developed, coupled with transistor-edge sensors and read out by a SQUID amplifier. If these devices are successful, then the relatively large cooling power available at 300 mK may enable a SQUID-based multiplexer to be integrated on the same wafer as the array, creating a monolithic, fully multiplexed, 2D array with relatively few connections to the sub-Kelvin stage.

  13. Solid oxide fuel cell having monolithic core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, J. P.; Young, J. E.

    1983-10-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell is described for electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output, wherein the cell core has an array of electrolyte and interconnect walls that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support. The core is monolithic, where each electrolyte wall consists of thin layers of cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of electrolyte material. The electrolyte walls are arranged and backfolded between adjacent interconnect walls operable to define a plurality of core passageways alternately arranged where the inside faces have only the anode material or only the cathode material exposed. Each layer of the electrolyte and interconnect materials 0.002 to 0.01 cm thick; and each layer of the cathode and anode materials is 0.002 to 0.05 cm thick.

  14. Monolithic geometric anti-spring blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cella, G.; Sannibale, V.; DeSalvo, R.; Márka, S.; Takamori, A.

    2005-03-01

    In this article we investigate the principle and properties of a vertical passive seismic noise attenuator conceived for ground based gravitational wave interferometers. This mechanical attenuator based on a particular geometry of cantilever blades called monolithic geometric anti springs (MGAS) permits the design of mechanical harmonic oscillators with very low resonant frequency (below 10 mHz). Here we address the theoretical description of the mechanical device, focusing on the most important quantities for the low-frequency regime, on the distribution of internal stresses, and on the thermal stability. In order to obtain physical insight of the attenuator peculiarities, we devise some simplified models, rather than use the brute force of finite element analysis. Those models have been used to optimize the design of a seismic attenuation system prototype for LIGO advanced configurations and for the next generation of the TAMA interferometer.

  15. Monolithic fuel injector and related manufacturing method

    DOEpatents

    Ziminsky, Willy Steve [Greenville, SC; Johnson, Thomas Edward [Greenville, SC; Lacy, Benjamin [Greenville, SC; York, William David [Greenville, SC; Stevenson, Christian Xavier [Greenville, SC

    2012-05-22

    A monolithic fuel injection head for a fuel nozzle includes a substantially hollow vesicle body formed with an upstream end face, a downstream end face and a peripheral wall extending therebetween, an internal baffle plate extending radially outwardly from a downstream end of the bore, terminating short of the peripheral wall, thereby defining upstream and downstream fuel plenums in the vesicle body, in fluid communication by way of a radial gap between the baffle plate and the peripheral wall. A plurality of integral pre-mix tubes extend axially through the upstream and downstream fuel plenums in the vesicle body and through the baffle plate, with at least one fuel injection hole extending between each of the pre-mix tubes and the upstream fuel plenum, thereby enabling fuel in the upstream plenum to be injected into the plurality of pre-mix tubes. The fuel injection head is formed by direct metal laser sintering.

  16. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles confined in hierarchically porous monolithic silica: a new function in aromatic hydrocarbon separations.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yang; Morisato, Kei; Li, Wenyan; Kanamori, Kazuyoshi; Nakanishi, Kazuki

    2013-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have been homogeneously introduced into hierarchically porous monolithic silica columns with well-defined macropores and SBA-15-type hexagonally ordered mesopores by using ethanol as the mild reductant. Within the cylindrical silica mesopores treated with aminopropyl groups as the host, monocrystalline Ag NPs and nanorods are obtained after being treated in silver nitrate/ethanol solution at room temperature for different durations of reducing time. The loading of Ag NPs in the monolith can be increased to 33 wt % by the repetitive treatment, which also led to the formation of polycrystalline Ag nanorods in the mesopores. Although the bare silica column cannot separate aromatic hydrocarbons, good separation of those molecules by noncharged Ag NPs confined in the porous structure of the monolith has been for the first time demonstrated with the Ag NP-embedded silica column. The NP-embedded monolithic silica would be a powerful separation tool for hydrocarbons with different number, position, and configuration of unsaturated bonds.

  17. Production of novel polymer monolithic columns, with stationary phase gradients, using cyclic olefin co-polymer (COC) optical filters.

    PubMed

    Currivan, Sinéad; Connolly, Damian; Paull, Brett

    2012-06-07

    Polymer monolithic columns with controlled surface ligand density, providing stationary phase gradients within monolithic capillary columns, have been developed using photo-grafting through optical filters. Utilising commercially available cyclic olefin co-polymer (COC) films, the production of an optical filter capable of attenuating UV irradiation, in a tailored manner, was investigated. This novel optical filter was successfully applied to the surface modification of poly(BuMA-co-EDMA) monolithic columns in a multi-step grafting procedure. Fabricated columns were subjected to scanning capacitively coupled contactless conductivity (sC(4)D), to determine the distribution of the grafted functional groups, axially along the column. Further modification to produce a chelating stationary phase gradient of iminodiacetic acid (IDA) was demonstrated. To demonstrate the distribution of the IDA sites, a metal cation (Cu(2+)) was complexed to the IDA forming a chelate. Upon the formation of a complex of IDA with Cu(2+), an overall drop in conductive response was observed. The COC optical filter was also used in the fabrication of a grafted gradient of strong cation exchanger (SCX), sulphopropyl methacrylate (SPM) upon a polymer monolith, demonstrating the broader applicability of such a filter.

  18. IRRADIATION PERFORMANCE OF U-Mo MONOLITHIC FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    M.K. Meyer; J. Gan; J.-F. Jue; D.D. Keiser; E. Perez; A. Robinson; D.M. Wachs; N. Woolstenhulme; G.L. Hofman; Y.-S. Kim

    2014-04-01

    High-performance research reactors require fuel that operates at high specific power to high fission density, but at relatively low temperatures. Research reactor fuels are designed for efficient heat rejection, and are composed of assemblies of thin-plates clad in aluminum alloy. The development of low-enriched fuels to replace high-enriched fuels for these reactors requires a substantially increased uranium density in the fuel to offset the decrease in enrichment. Very few fuel phases have been identified that have the required combination of very-high uranium density and stable fuel behavior at high burnup. UMo alloys represent the best known tradeoff in these properties. Testing of aluminum matrix U-Mo aluminum matrix dispersion fuel revealed a pattern of breakaway swelling behavior at intermediate burnup, related to the formation of a molybdenum stabilized high aluminum intermetallic phase that forms during irradiation. In the case of monolithic fuel, this issue was addressed by eliminating, as much as possible, the interfacial area between U-Mo and aluminum. Based on scoping irradiation test data, a fuel plate system composed of solid U-10Mo fuel meat, a zirconium diffusion barrier, and Al6061 cladding was selected for development. Developmental testing of this fuel system indicates that it meets core criteria for fuel qualification, including stable and predictable swelling behavior, mechanical integrity to high burnup, and geometric stability. In addition, the fuel exhibits robust behavior during power-cooling mismatch events under irradiation at high power.

  19. Irradiation performance of U-Mo monolithic fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M. K.; Gan, J.; Jue, J. F.; Keiser, D. D.; Perez, E.; Robinson, A.; Wachs, D. M.; Woolstenhulme, N.; Hofman, G. L.; Kim, Y. S.

    2014-04-01

    High-performance research reactors require fuel that operates at high specific power to high fission density, but at relatively low temperatures. Research reactor fuels are designed for efficient heat rejection, and are composed of assemblies of thin-plates clad in aluminum alloy. The development of low-enriched fuels to replace high-enriched fuels for these reactors requires a substantially increased uranium density in the fuel to offset the decrease in enrichment. Very few fuel phases have been identified that have the required combination of very-high uranium density and stable fuel behavior at high burnup. U-Mo alloys represent the best known tradeoff in these properties. Testing of aluminum matrix U-Mo aluminum matrix dispersion fuel revealed a pattern of breakaway swelling behavior at intermediate burnup, related to the formation of a molybdenum stabilized high aluminum intermetallic phase that forms during irradiation. In the case of monolithic fuel, this issue was addressed by eliminating, as much as possible, the interfacial area between U-Mo and aluminum. Based on scoping irradiation test data, a fuel plate system composed of solid U-10Mo fuel meat, a zirconium diffusion barrier, and Al6061 cladding was selected for development. Developmental testing of this fuel system indicates that it meets core criteria for fuel qualification, including stable and predictable swelling behavior, mechanical integrity to high burnup, and geometric stability. In addition, the fuel exhibits robust behavior during power-cooling mismatch events under irradiation at high power.

  20. 26. DETAIL VIEW OF CONCRETE MONOLITH CONSTRUCTION AT UPPER END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. DETAIL VIEW OF CONCRETE MONOLITH CONSTRUCTION AT UPPER END OF MAIN LOCK AND DAM PIERS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (DOWNSTREAM) - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  1. 10. LOCK CONSTRUCTION PHOTO SHOWING CONCRETE MONOLITHS FOR WALLS, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. LOCK CONSTRUCTION PHOTO SHOWING CONCRETE MONOLITHS FOR WALLS, LOOKING NORTH. August 1934 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 16, Upper Mississippi River, Muscatine, Muscatine County, IA

  2. 62. VIEW SHOWING INSTALLATION TAINTER VALVE MACHINERY MONOLITH NO. 321, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. VIEW SHOWING INSTALLATION TAINTER VALVE MACHINERY MONOLITH NO. 32-1, LOOKING WEST Photograph No. 8571. October 24, 1949 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 27, Granite City, Madison County, IL

  3. 31. SPILLWAY CHANNEL WALLS REINF DETAILS; MONOLITHS E21 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. SPILLWAY CHANNEL WALLS REINF - DETAILS; MONOLITHS E-21 AND W-21. Sheet S-45, May, 1940. File no. 342/58. - Prado Dam, Spillway, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  4. 27. DETAIL VIEW OF CONCRETE MONOLITH CONSTRUCTION AT DOWNSTREAM END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. DETAIL VIEW OF CONCRETE MONOLITH CONSTRUCTION AT DOWNSTREAM END OF WEST MAIN LOCK WALL, LOOKiNG SOUTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  5. Application of monolithic chromatographic supports in virus research.

    PubMed

    Krajacic, Mladen; Ravnikar, Maja; Štrancar, Aleš; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Ion

    2017-05-12

    Key properties of monolithic chromatographic supports, make them suitable for separation and/or concentration of large biomolecules, especially virus particles and viral genomes. One by one, the studies that have been completed so far, contributed to the knowledge that monolith chromatography has hardly any limitation to be applied in virus research. Viruses of different sizes, possessing icosahedral structure and symmetrical morphology, as well as rod-shaped or filamentous viruses with helical structure, even enveloped ones, all of them could be successfully managed by means of monolith chromatography. Same is true for viral genomes, primarily when being distinct from other nucleic acid forms present in a host cell. This review is exclusively focused on viruses. It describes the application of monolith chromatography to different problematics within the virus research field. The reviewed achievements offer new possibilities and trigger new aspects in virology. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. 53. VIEW OF ROCK FOUNDATIONS AIR CLEANED FOR MONOLITHS 1722, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. VIEW OF ROCK FOUNDATIONS AIR CLEANED FOR MONOLITHS 17-22, INTERMEDIATE WALL, LOOKING NORTH Photograph No. 12840. September 10, 1948 - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 27, Granite City, Madison County, IL

  7. Advances in monoliths and related porous materials for microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Knob, Radim; Sahore, Vishal; Woolley, Adam T.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the use of monolithic porous polymers has seen significant growth. These materials present a highly useful support for various analytical and biochemical applications. Since their introduction, various approaches have been introduced to produce monoliths in a broad range of materials. Simple preparation has enabled their easy implementation in microchannels, extending the range of applications where microfluidics can be successfully utilized. This review summarizes progress regarding monoliths and related porous materials in the field of microfluidics between 2010 and 2015. Recent developments in monolith preparation, solid-phase extraction, separations, and catalysis are critically discussed. Finally, a brief overview of the use of these porous materials for analysis of subcellular and larger structures is given. PMID:27190564

  8. [Preparation and evaluation of silica xerogel monolithic column].

    PubMed

    Yan, Fengchuan; Chen, Bo

    2011-05-01

    Using potassium silicate as silicon source, formamide as catalyst, a series of silica xerogel monolithic columns with different consistencies were prepared. The column bed would not rupture and collapse during drying at high temperatures. This is the biggest advantage compared with the inorganic monolithic columns using alkoxy silane as precursor. The effect of the modulus of potassium silicate on the physical structure of the monolithic column was investigated. The monolithic silica columns were characterized by scanning electron micrograph (SEM) and nitrogen adsorption. The relationship between column pressure and flow rate was evaluated. The column efficiency for anthracene was tested. The breakthrough curve for toluene was studied. The results showed that the column bed could maintain good stability at high temperatures, high column pressures, and high flow rates. The column efficiency of 41,400 plates/m was achieved for anthracene. The column capacity for toluene was 61 ng.

  9. Hierarchical Porous Polystyrene Monoliths from PolyHIPE.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinjia; Tan, Liangxiao; Xia, Lingling; Wood, Colin D; Tan, Bien

    2015-09-01

    Hierarchical porous polystyrene monoliths (HCP-PolyHIPE) are obtained by hypercrosslinking poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) monoliths prepared by polymerization of high internal phase emulsions (PolyHIPEs). The hypercrosslinking is achieved using an approach known as knitting which employs formaldehyde dimethyl acetal (FDA) as an external crosslinker. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirms that the macroporous structure in the original monolith is retained during the knitting process. By increasing the amount of divinylbenzene (DVB) in PolyHIPE, the BET surface area and pore volume of the HCP-PolyHIPE decrease, while the micropore size increases. BET surface areas of 196-595 m(2) g(-1) are obtained. The presence of micropores, mesopores, and macropores is confirmed from the pore size distribution. With a hierarchical porous structure, the monoliths reveal comparable gas sorption properties and potential applications in oil spill clean-up.

  10. 25. DETAIL VIEW OF CONCRETE MONOLITH CONSTRUCTION AT UPPER END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. DETAIL VIEW OF CONCRETE MONOLITH CONSTRUCTION AT UPPER END OF MAIN LOCK AND DAM PIERS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (DOWNSTREAM). NOTE GANTRY CRANES - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  11. Monolithic Perovskite Silicon Tandem Solar Cells with Advanced Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Goldschmidt, Jan C.; Bett, Alexander J.; Bivour, Martin; Blasi, Benedikt; Eisenlohr, Johannes; Kohlstadt, Markus; Lee, Seunghun; Mastroianni, Simone; Mundt, Laura; Mundus, Markus; Ndione, Paul; Reichel, Christian; Schubert, Martin; Schulze, Patricia S.; Tucher, Nico; Veit, Clemens; Veurman, Welmoed; Wienands, Karl; Winkler, Kristina; Wurfel, Uli; Glunz, Stefan W.; Hermle, Martin

    2016-11-14

    For high efficiency monolithic perovskite silicon tandem solar cells, we develop low-temperature processes for the perovskite top cell, rear-side light trapping, optimized perovskite growth, transparent contacts and adapted characterization methods.

  12. Metal stain on monolithic zirconia restoration: A case report

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In restorative treatment using fixed dental prostheses, dentists should select appropriate restoration material among various types of dental materials. The strength, marginal fit, esthetics, wear resistance, biocompatibility, and cost are important factors in the choice of restoration materials. The present case showed a surface stain on a monolithic zirconia restoration that was due to wear between the monolithic zirconia restoration and the base metal alloy restoration. This phenomenon was confirmed by surface roughness measurement and electron probe micro-analysis. PMID:28435624

  13. GaAs monolithic Lange and Wilkinson couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waterman, R. C., Jr.; Fabian, W.; Pucel, R. A.; Tajima, Y.; Vorhaus, J. L.

    1981-02-01

    A monolithic GaAs X-band three-port Wilkinson coupler and a monolithic GaAs X-band four-port interdigitated Lange coupler are examined with reference to their design, fabrication technology, and experimental performance data. It is shown that fabrication of these couplers is compatible with present MMIC technologies. Measured loss minus fixture contributions is 0.25 dB and 0.75 dB for the Wilkinson and the Lange couplers, respectively.

  14. Extended Leach Testing of Simulated LAW Cast Stone Monoliths

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Westsik, Joseph H.; Williams, Benjamin D.; Jung, H. B.; Wang, Guohui

    2015-07-09

    This report describes the results from long-term laboratory leach tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate the release of key constituents from monoliths of Cast Stone prepared with four simulated low-activity waste (LAW) liquid waste streams. Specific objectives of the Cast Stone long-term leach tests described in this report focused on four activities: 1. Extending the leaching times for selected ongoing EPA-1315 tests on monoliths made with LAW simulants beyond the conventional 63-day time period up to 609 days reported herein (with some tests continuing that will be documented later) in an effort to evaluate long-term leaching properties of Cast Stone to support future performance assessment activities. 2. Starting new EPA-1315 leach tests on archived Cast Stone monoliths made with four LAW simulants using two leachants (deionized water [DIW] and simulated Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Site vadose zone pore water [VZP]). 3. Evaluating the impacts of varying the iodide loading (starting iodide concentrations) in one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) Average) by manufacturing new Cast Stone monoliths and repeating the EPA-1315 leach tests using DIW and the VZP leachants. 4. Evaluating the impacts of using a non-pertechnetate form of Tc that is present in some Hanford tanks. In this activity one LAW simulant (7.8 M Na HTWOS Average) was spiked with a Tc(I)-tricarbonyl gluconate species and then solidified into Cast Stone monoliths. Cured monoliths were leached using the EPA-1315 leach protocol with DIW and VZP. The leach results for the Tc-Gluconate Cast Stone monoliths were compared to Cast Stone monoliths pertechnetate.

  15. Monolithic electronics for nuclear and high-energy physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Young, G.R.

    1994-12-31

    Electronic instrumentation for large fixed-target and collider experiments is rapidly moving to the use of highly integrated electronics wherever it is cost effective. This trend is aided by the development of circuit building blocks useful for nuclear and high-energy physics instrumentation and has accelerated recently with the development of monolithic silicon chips with multiple functions on one substrate. Examples of recent developments are given, together with remarks on the rationale for use of monolithic electronics and economic considerations.

  16. Metal stain on monolithic zirconia restoration: A case report.

    PubMed

    Cha, Min-Sang; Lee, Sang-Woon; Huh, Yoon-Hyuk; Cho, Lee-Ra; Park, Chan-Jin

    2017-04-01

    In restorative treatment using fixed dental prostheses, dentists should select appropriate restoration material among various types of dental materials. The strength, marginal fit, esthetics, wear resistance, biocompatibility, and cost are important factors in the choice of restoration materials. The present case showed a surface stain on a monolithic zirconia restoration that was due to wear between the monolithic zirconia restoration and the base metal alloy restoration. This phenomenon was confirmed by surface roughness measurement and electron probe micro-analysis.

  17. Sol-Gel Synthesis of Non-Silica Monolithic Materials

    PubMed Central

    Gaweł, Bartłomiej; Gaweł, Kamila; Øye, Gisle

    2010-01-01

    Monolithic materials have become very popular because of various applications, especially within chromatography and catalysis. Large surface areas and multimodal porosities are great advantages for these applications. New sol-gel preparation methods utilizing phase separation or nanocasting have opened the possibility for preparing materials of other oxides than silica. In this review, we present different synthesis methods for inorganic, non-silica monolithic materials. Some examples of application of the materials are also included.

  18. Mechanically stable, hierarchically porous Cu3(btc)2 (HKUST-1) monoliths via direct conversion of copper(II) hydroxide-based monoliths.

    PubMed

    Moitra, Nirmalya; Fukumoto, Shotaro; Reboul, Julien; Sumida, Kenji; Zhu, Yang; Nakanishi, Kazuki; Furukawa, Shuhei; Kitagawa, Susumu; Kanamori, Kazuyoshi

    2015-02-28

    The synthesis of highly crystalline macro-meso-microporous monolithic Cu3(btc)2 (HKUST-1; btc(3-) = benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate) is demonstrated by direct conversion of Cu(OH)2-based monoliths while preserving the characteristic macroporous structure. The high mechanical strength of the monoliths is promising for possible applications to continuous flow reactors.

  19. Capillary electrochromatography with monolithic silica column: I. Preparation of silica monoliths having surface-bound octadecyl moieties and their chromatographic characterization and applications to the separation of neutral and charged species.

    PubMed

    Allen, Darin; El Rassi, Ziad

    2003-01-01

    Monolithic silica columns with surface-bound octadecyl (C18) moieties have been prepared by a sol-gel process in 100 microm ID fused-silica capillaries for reversed-phase capillary electrochromatography of neutral and charged species. The reaction conditions for the preparation of the C18-silica monoliths were optimized for maximum surface coverage with octadecyl moieties in order to maximize retention and selectivity toward neutral and charged solutes with a sufficiently strong electroosmotic flow (> 2 mm/s) to yield rapid analysis time. Furthermore, the effect of the pore-tailoring process on the silica monoliths was performed over a wide range of treatment time with 0.010 M ammonium hydroxide solution in order to determine the optimum time and conditions that yield mesopores of narrow pore size distribution that result in high separation efficiency. Under optimum column fabrication conditions and optimum mobile phase composition and flow velocity, the average separation efficiency reached 160 000 plates/m, a value comparable to that obtained on columns packed with 3 microm C18-silica particles with the advantages of high permeability and virtually no bubble formation. The optimized monolithic C18-silica columns were evaluated for their retention properties toward neutral and charged analytes over a wide range of mobile phase compositions. A series of dimensionless retention parameters were evaluated and correlated to solute polarity and electromigration property. A dimensionless mobility modulus was introduced to describe charged solute migration and interaction behavior with the monolithic C18-silica in a counterflow regime during capillary electrochromatography (CEC )separations. The mobility moduli correlated well with the solute hydrophobic character and its charge-to-mass ratio.

  20. Phenylalanine functionalized zwitterionic monolith for hydrophobic interaction electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiabin; Jia, Wenchao; Lin, Xucong; Wu, Xiaoping; Xie, Zenghong

    2013-12-01

    A novel phenylalanine (Phe) functionalized zwitterionic monolith for hydrophobic electrochromatography was prepared by a two-step procedure involving the synthesis of glycidyl methacrylate based polymer monolith and subsequent on-column chemical modification with Phe via ring-opening reaction of epoxides. Benefitting from the hydrophobicity of both methacrylate-based matrix and aromatic group of Phe, this monolith could exhibit good hydrophobic interaction for the separation. Typical RP chromatographic behavior was observed toward various solutes. The well-controlled cathodic or anodic EOF of the prepared column could be facilely switched by altering the pH values of running buffers. The separation mechanism of this Phe functionalized zwitterionic monolith is discussed in detail. Two mixed-mode mechanisms of RP/cation exchange and RP/anion exchange could be further realized on the same monolith in different pH condition of the mobile phase. Versatile separation capabilities of neutral, basic, and acidic analytes have been successfully achieved in this zwitterionic monolith by CEC method.

  1. Comparison of monolithic silica and polymethacrylate capillary columns for LC.

    PubMed

    Moravcová, Dana; Jandera, Pavel; Urban, Jiri; Planeta, Josef

    2004-07-01

    Organic polymer monolithic capillary columns were prepared in fused-silica capillaries by radical co-polymerization of ethylene dimethacrylate and butyl methacrylate monomers with azobisisobutyronitrile as initiator of the polymerization reaction in the presence of various amounts of porogenic solvent mixtures and different concentration ratios of monomers and 1-propanol, 1,4-butanediol, and water. The chromatographic properties of the organic polymer monolithic columns were compared with those of commercial silica-based particulate and monolithic capillary and analytical HPLC columns. The tests included the determination of H-u curves, column permeabilities, pore distribution by inversed-SEC measurements, methylene and polar selectivities, and polar interactions with naphthalenesulphonic acid test samples. Organic polymer monolithic capillary columns show similar retention behaviour to chemically bonded alkyl silica columns for compounds with different polarities characterized by interaction indices, Ix, but have lower methylene selectivities and do not show polar interactions with sulphonic acids. The commercial capillary and analytical silica gel-based monolithic columns showed similar selectivities and provided symmetrical peaks, indicating no significant surface heterogeneities. To allow accurate characterization of the properties of capillary monolithic columns, the experimental data should be corrected for extra-column contributions. With 0.3 mm ID capillary columns, corrections for extra-column volume contributions are sufficient, but to obtain true information on the efficiency of 0.1 mm ID capillary columns, the experimental bandwidths should be corrected for extra-column contributions to peak broadening.

  2. Pepsin-modified chiral monolithic column for affinity capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Hong, Tingting; Chi, Cuijie; Ji, Yibing

    2014-11-01

    Pepsin-modified affinity monolithic capillary electrochromatography, a novel microanalysis system, was developed by the covalent bonding of pepsin on silica monolith. The column was successfully applied in the chiral separation of (±)-nefopam. Furthermore, the electrochromatographic performance of the pepsin-functionalized monolith for enantiomeric analysis was evaluated in terms of protein content, pH of running buffer, sample volume, buffer concentration, applied voltage, and capillary temperature. The relative standard deviation (%RSD) values of retention time (intraday <0.53, n = 10; interday <0.53, n = 10; column-to-column <0.70, n = 20; and batch-to-batch <0.80, n = 20) indicated satisfactory stability of these columns. No appreciable change was observed in retention and resolution for chiral recognition of (±)-nefopam in 50 days with 100 injections. The proteolytic activity of this stationary phase was further characterized with bovine serum albumin as substrate for online protein digestion. As for monolithic immobilized enzyme reactor, successive protein injections confirmed both the operational stability and ability to reuse the bioreactor for at least 20 digestions. It implied that the affinity monolith used in this research opens a new path of exploring particularly versatile class of enzymes to develop enzyme-modified affinity capillary monolith for enantioseparation.

  3. Agglomerated silica monolithic column for hydrophilic interaction LC.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohammed E A; Zhou, Ting; Lucy, Charles A

    2010-03-01

    Hydrophilic interaction LC (HILIC) has gained wide acceptance in recent years due to its ability to retain and separate polar compounds such as pharmaceuticals. Most commercial HILIC phases are particle based, which limit the speed with which HILIC separations can be performed. Herein, agglomerated silica monolithic columns are prepared by electrostatically attaching polyionic latex particles onto a silica monolith by simply flushing a suspension of the ionic latex through a silica monolith. Such phases retain the high efficiency and permeability of the native silica monolith, while the agglomerated phase is easy to introduce and provides excellent mass transfer. High %ACN in the mobile phase dramatically increases the efficiency and retention, consistent with HILIC behavior. Test analytes such as benzoates, nucleotides and amino acids are separated with plate heights of 25-110 microm. The high permeability of monoliths allows HILIC separations to be performed with baseline resolution in less than 15 s. Electrostatic repulsion-hydrophilic liquid interaction chromatographic retention behavior of the latex-coated monoliths is verified using amino acids as test analytes.

  4. Porous monoliths for on-line sample preparation: A review.

    PubMed

    Masini, Jorge C; Svec, Frantisek

    2017-04-29

    This review aims at presenting the state of the art concerning monolithic materials for on-line sample preparation emphasizing solid-phase extraction, matrix exchange, and analyte conversion. Emphasis was given to organic and silica-based, as well as hybrid monoliths reported in the literature mostly after 2010. The first part of this review presents materials and strategies for enrichment of inorganic species in environmental and biological samples using mostly ICP-MS detectors. In the second part we focus on organic analytes, discussing the role of surface area of the polymer monoliths and density of adsorption sites for specific interactions, including incorporation of nanoparticles, metal organic frameworks, as well as the preparation of hybrid organic-silica monoliths to increase the surface area. Incorporation of ionic liquids to increase the number of types of interaction mechanisms available for retention is also discussed. Monoliths affording molecular recognition properties achieved by including boronate moieties for cis-diol recognition, as well as antibodies and aptamers for specific molecular recognition are also reviewed. The largest number of applications of molecular recognition mechanisms was observed for molecularly imprinted polymer monoliths as a consequence of the simplicity of this approach when compared to the use of immunosorbents or aptamers. The final part examines the on-line applications of immobilized enzyme reactors used for protein digestion in proteomic analysis and for kinetic studies in drug discovery and clinical assays usually coupling the reactors to mass spectrometers.

  5. Polymethacrylate monolithic and hybrid particle-monolithic columns for reversed-phase and hydrophilic interaction capillary liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jandera, Pavel; Urban, Jirí; Skeríková, Veronika; Langmaier, Pavel; Kubícková, Romana; Planeta, Josef

    2010-01-01

    We prepared hybrid particle-monolithic polymethacrylate columns for micro-HPLC by in situ polymerization in fused silica capillaries pre-packed with 3-5microm C(18) and aminopropyl silica bonded particles, using polymerization mixtures based on laurylmethacrylate-ethylene dimethacrylate (co)polymers for the reversed-phase (RP) mode and [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]-dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl) zwitterionic (co)polymers for the hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) mode. The hybrid particle-monolithic columns showed reduced porosity and hold-up volumes, approximately 2-2.5 times lower in comparison to the pure monolithic columns prepared in the whole volume of empty capillaries. The elution volumes of sample compounds are also generally lower in comparison to packed or pure monolithic columns. The efficiency and permeability of the hybrid columns are intermediate in between the properties of the reference pure monolithic and particle-packed columns. The chemistries of the embedded solid particles and of the interparticle monolithic moiety in the hybrid capillary columns contribute to the retention to various degrees, affecting the selectivity of separation. Some hybrid columns provided improved separations of proteins in comparison to the reference particle-packed columns in the reversed-phase mode. Zwitterionic hybrid particle-monolithic columns show dual mode retention HILIC/RP behaviour depending on the composition of the mobile phase and allow separations of polar compounds such as phenolic acids in the HILIC mode at lower concentrations of acetonitrile and, often in shorter analysis time in comparison to particle-packed and full-volume monolithic columns.

  6. Tuning preparation conditions towards optimized separation performance of thermally polymerized organo-silica monolithic columns in capillary liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Gharbharan, Deepa; Britsch, Denae; Soto, Gabriela; Weed, Anna-Marie Karen; Svec, Frantisek; Zajickova, Zuzana

    2015-08-21

    Tuning of preparation conditions, such as variations in the amount of a porogen, concentration of an aqueous acid catalyst, and adjustment in polymerization temperature and time, towards optimized chromatographic performance of thermally polymerized monolithic capillaries prepared from 3-(methacryloyloxy)propyltrimethoxysilane has been carried out. Performance of capillary columns in reversed-phase liquid chromatography was assessed utilizing various sets of solutes. Results describing hydrophobicity, steric selectivity, and extent of hydrogen bonding enabled comparison of performance of hybrid monolithic columns prepared under thermal (TSG) and photopolymerized (PSG) conditions. Reduced amounts of porogen in the polymerization mixture, and prolonged reaction times were necessary for the preparation of monolithic columns with enhanced retention and column efficiency that reached to 111,000 plates/m for alkylbenzenes with shorter alkyl chains. Both increased concentration of catalyst and higher temperature resulted in faster polymerization but inevitably in insufficient time for pore formation. Thermally polymerized monoliths produced surfaces, which were slightly more hydrophobic (a methylene selectivity of 1.28±0.002 TSG vs 1.20±0.002 PSG), with reduced number of residual silanols (a caffeine/phenol selectivity of 0.13±0.001 TSG vs 0.17±0.003 PSG). However, steric selectivity of 1.70±0.01 was the same for both types of columns. The batch-to-batch repeatability was better using thermal initiation compared to monolithic columns prepared under photopolymerized conditions. RSD for retention factor of benzene was 3.7% for TSG capillaries (n=42) vs. 6.6% for PSG capillaries (n=18). A similar trend was observed for columns prepared within the same batch.

  7. Use of eutectic mixtures for preparation of monolithic carbons with CO₂-adsorption and gas-separation capabilities.

    PubMed

    López-Salas, N; Jardim, E O; Silvestre-Albero, A; Gutiérrez, M C; Ferrer, M L; Rodríguez-Reinoso, F; Silvestre-Albero, J; del Monte, F

    2014-10-21

    With global warming becoming one of the main problems our society is facing nowadays, there is an urgent demand to develop materials suitable for CO2 storage as well as for gas separation. Within this context, hierarchical porous structures are of great interest for in-flow applications because of the desirable combination of an extensive internal reactive surface along narrow nanopores with facile molecular transport through broad "highways" leading to and from these pores. Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been recently used in the synthesis of carbon monoliths exhibiting a bicontinuous porous structure composed of continuous macroporous channels and a continuous carbon network that contains a certain microporosity and provides considerable surface area. In this work, we have prepared two DESs for the preparation of two hierarchical carbon monoliths with different compositions (e.g., either nitrogen-doped or not) and structure. It is worth noting that DESs played a capital role in the synthesis of hierarchical carbon monoliths not only promoting the spinodal decomposition that governs the formation of the bicontinuous porous structure but also providing the precursors required to tailor the composition and the molecular sieve structure of the resulting carbons. We have studied the performance of these two carbons for CO2, N2, and CH4 adsorption in both monolithic and powdered form. We have also studied the selective adsorption of CO2 versus CH4 in equilibrium and dynamic conditions. We found that these materials combined a high CO2-sorption capacity besides an excellent CO2/N2 and CO2/CH4 selectivity and, interestingly, this performance was preserved when processed in both monolithic and powdered form.

  8. Biasable, Balanced, Fundamental Submillimeter Monolithic Membrane Mixer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Peter; Schlecht, Erich; Mehdi, Imran; Gill, John; Velebir, James; Tsang, Raymond; Dengler, Robert; Lin, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This device is a biasable, submillimeter-wave, balanced mixer fabricated using JPL s monolithic membrane process a simplified version of planar membrane technology. The primary target application is instrumentation used for analysis of atmospheric constituents, pressure, temperature, winds, and other physical and chemical properties of the atmospheres of planets and comets. Other applications include high-sensitivity gas detection and analysis. This innovation uses a balanced configuration of two diodes allowing the radio frequency (RF) signal and local oscillator (LO) inputs to be separated. This removes the need for external diplexers that are inherently narrowband, bulky, and require mechanical tuning to change frequency. Additionally, this mixer uses DC bias-ability to improve its performance and versatility. In order to solve problems relating to circuit size, the GaAs membrane process was created. As much of the circuitry as possible is fabricated on-chip, making the circuit monolithic. The remainder of the circuitry is precision-machined into a waveguide block that holds the GaAs circuit. The most critical alignments are performed using micron-scale semiconductor technology, enabling wide bandwidth and high operating frequencies. The balanced mixer gets superior performance with less than 2 mW of LO power. This can be provided by a simple two-stage multiplier chain following an amplifier at around 90 GHz. Further, the diodes are arranged so that they can be biased. Biasing pushes the diodes closer to their switching voltage, so that less LO power is required to switch the diodes on and off. In the photo, the diodes are at the right end of the circuit. The LO comes from the waveguide at the right into a reduced-height section containing the diodes. Because the diodes are in series to the LO signal, they are both turned on and off simultaneously once per LO cycle. Conversely, the RF signal is picked up from the RF waveguide by the probe at the left, and flows

  9. Monolithic cryopolymers with embedded nanoparticles. I. Capillary liquid chromatography of proteins using neutral embedded nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dario Arrua, R; Nordborg, Anna; Haddad, Paul R; Hilder, Emily F

    2013-01-18

    Rigid monolithic cryostructures were prepared in capillary format at sub-zero temperatures and used successfully in the separation of proteins by hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC). The polymerization mixture consisted of poly(ethyleneglycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) M(n)∼258 as the single monomer, a mixture of dioxane and water as the porogen and N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) and ammonium persulfate (APS) as the initiator system. At sub-zero temperatures, the solvent mixture used as the porogen is frozen, leading to the formation of a polymeric structure templated by the solvent crystals that are formed. The optimization of the polymerization reaction was carried out by studying the influence of different reaction parameters including the temperature of the reaction, monomer concentration and solvent, on the porous characteristics of the polymers obtained. Separations were performed in HIC mode using 3 M ammonium sulfate in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 6.9 to 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 6.9 over a 15 min gradient. The addition of neutral nanoparticles synthesized by mini-emulsion polymerization greatly improved the separation of the protein mixture, doubling the peak capacity of the control column without nanoparticles (from 7 to 17). Although the peak capacities and resolution values achieved were lower than those reported for conventional methacrylate monolithic columns, the use of this polymerization approach allows the preparation of polymeric structures which presented a more open porous structure and consequently exhibited significantly higher permeability than conventional polymer monoliths.

  10. Monolithic Nickel (II) Oxide Aerogels Using an Organic Epoxide: The Importance of the Counter Ion

    SciTech Connect

    Gash, A E; Satcher, J H; Simpson, R L

    2004-01-13

    The synthesis and characterization of nickel (II) oxide aerogel materials prepared using the epoxide addition method is described. The addition of the organic epoxide propylene oxide to an ethanolic solution of NiCl{sub 2} 6H{sub 2}O resulted in the formation of an opaque light green monolithic gel and subsequent drying with supercritical CO{sub 2} gave a monolithic aerogel material of the same color. This material has been characterized using powder X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, elemental analysis, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis. The results indicate that the nickel (II) oxide aerogel has very low bulk density (98 kg/m{sup 3} ({approx}98 %porous)), high surface area (413 m{sup 2}/g), and has a particulate-type aerogel microstructure made up of very fine spherical particles with an open porous network. By comparison, a precipitate of Ni{sub 3}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH){sub 4} is obtained when the same preparation is attempted with the common Ni(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} 6H{sub 2}O salt as the precursor. The implications of the difference of reactivity of the two different precursors are discussed in the context of the mechanism of gel formation via the epoxide addition method. The synthesis of nickel (II) oxide aerogel, using the epoxide addition method, is especially unique in our experience. It is our first example of the successful preparation of a metal oxide aerogel using a metal divalent metal ion and may have implications for the application of this method to the preparation of aerogels or nanoparticles of other divalent metal oxides. To our knowledge this is the first report of a monolithic pure nickel (II) oxide aerogel materials.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of ammonium functionalized porous poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monoliths for microscale analysis and its application to DNA purification.

    PubMed

    Bruchet, A; Dugas, V; Laszak, I; Mariet, C; Goutelard, F; Randon, J

    2011-06-01

    A systematic study of parameters affecting the nucleophilic addition of secondary and tertiary amines on reactive epoxy groups was conducted on porous polymer monoliths. Reaction of small amines like diethylamine (DEA) or triethylamine (TEA) on poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monoliths (poly(GMA-co-EDMA)) allows to prepare anion exchange media. This study aimed to determine optimal and suitable conditions to prepare anion-exchange porous monolith inside 100 microm internal diameter capillary. The reaction kinetic of amine nucleophilic addition on porous poly(GMA-co-EDMA) monoliths was followed by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. The reactivity of such epoxy-functionalized porous polymers was first determined through a study in pure amine solutions. Thereafter, conditions of reactions (i.e., temperature and time of reaction, solvent composition, concentration of amine) with respect to its further implementation at nanoscale, were optimized through a factorial analysis. The optimization allowed extending conversion yields of epoxy groups up to more than 90% in dilute amine solution within less than 4 hours of reaction for TEA addition. This ion-exchange support with respect to the in-situ light-addressable process of elaboration is specifically designed to be incorporated as biomolecular sample preparation module in microsystem devices. The high loading capacity obtained for the preconcentration of DNA demonstrate the attractivity of this functionalized polymeric porous monolith as solid-phase support to improve the quantity and the efficiency of DNA extraction applied into microscale format like capillaries or lab-on-chip.

  12. There's more than one way to skin a cat: A wide selection of techniques used for the preparation of porous polymer monoliths

    PubMed Central

    Svec, Frantisek

    2010-01-01

    The porous polymer monoliths went a long way since their invention two decades ago. While the first studies applied the traditional polymerization processes at that time well established for the preparation of polymer particles, creativity of scientists interested in the monolithic structures has later led to the use of numerous less common techniques. This review article presents vast variety of methods that have meanwhile emerged. The text first briefly describes the early approaches used for the preparation of monoliths comprising standard free radical polymerizations and includes their development up to present days. Specific attention is paid to the effects of process variables on the formation of both porous structure and pore surface chemistry. Specific attention is also devoted to the use of photopolymerization. Then, several less common free radical polymerization techniques are presented in more detail such as those initiated by γ-rays and electron beam, the preparation of monoliths from high internal phase emulsions, and cryogels. Living processes including stable free radicals, atom transfer radical polymerization, and ring opening metathesis polymerization are also discussed. The review ends with description of preparation methods based on polycondensation and polyaddition reactions as well as on precipitation of preformed polymers affording the monolithic materials. PMID:19828151

  13. The synthesis of surface-glycosylated porous monolithic column via aqueous two-phase graft copolymerization and its application in capillary-liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiyue; He, Haiqin; Shu, Yan; Li, Yuxin; Yang, Zihui; Chen, Yingzhuang; Ma, Ming; Chen, Bo

    2016-12-01

    A facile, flexible process was developed for the preparation of surface-glycosylated porous monolithic columns via aqueous two-phase graft copolymerization of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) and water-soluble dextran (dextran sulfate). The formation of poly(PEGDA) porous skeletons and surface glycosylation were achieved via a one-step process without pre-modification of the dextran. The synthesis conditions were thoroughly optimized. The optimal monolithic column exhibited a large dry state surface area (greater than 400m(2)/g), and it was evaluated as a hydrophilic liquid chromatography (HILIC) stationary phase. A typical HILIC mechanism was observed at high organic solvent content (≥65% acetonitrile). In addition, the resulting monolithic column demonstrated the potential use in analysis of complex biological sample and enviroment water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Button cell supercapacitors with monolithic carbon aerogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pröbstle, H.; Schmitt, C.; Fricke, J.

    Carbon aerogels are highly porous materials prepared via pyrolysis of resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels. The density of the aerogels can be varied in a wide range, whereby the major part of the pores is accessible to ionic conductors. Therefore, the application of high surface area aerogels as electrodes in supercapacitor devices is promising. In the present publication, the integration of thin monolithic aerogel composites in button cell casings is presented. The preparation of thin and mechanically stable aerogel electrodes was performed via integration of carbon fibers into the aerogel skeleton. In order to increase the external electrode area in the button cells (volume: 2.1 cm 3) a special folding technique for the electrodes (thickness: 180 μm) was employed. The aerogel capacitors exhibit an excellent long term stability with no significant degradation after 80,000 charging and discharging cycles. According to a ragone-evaluation of the impedance data, the maximum power output and energy content for the aerogel button cells are 4.6 W and 4.9 mWh, respectively. The influence of CO 2-activation on the capacitive and resistive behavior of the electrodes in different aqueous electrolytes is analyzed using innovative analytical methods for cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy.

  15. Dedicated monolithic infrared spectrometer for process monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadha, Suneet; Kyle, William; Bolduc, Roy A.; Curtiss, Lawrence E.

    1999-12-01

    Foster-Miller has leveraged its innovations in IR fiber- optic probes and the recent development of a miniature spectrometer to build a novel IR sensor system for process applications. The developed sensor systems is a low-cost alternative to process FTIR and filter based systems. A monolithic wedge-grating optic provides the spectral dispersion with low cost thermopile point or array detectors picking off the diffracted wavelengths from the optic. The integrated optic provides spectral discrimination between 3- 12 micrometers with resolution at 8 cm-1 or better and high overall optical throughput. The device has a fixed cylindrical grating uniquely bonded to the edge of a ZnSe conditioning 'wedge'. The conditioning optic overcomes limitations of concave gratings as it accepts high angle light at the narrow end of the wedge and progressively conditions it to be near normal to the grating. On return, the diffracted wavelengths are concentrated on the discrete or array detector elements by the wedge, providing throughput comparable to that of an FTIR. The miniature spectrometer coupled to flow through liquid cells or multipass gas cells provides significant cost advantage over conventional sampling methodologies. Currently, we are investigating process applications for the petroleum and dairy markets. The sensor system eliminates the cost, complexity, reliability and bandwidth/resolution problems associated with either Fabry Perot or Michelson Interferometer based approaches for low-cost process applications.

  16. The 30-GHz monolithic receive module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolov, V.; Geddes, J.; Bauhahn, P.

    1983-01-01

    Key requirements for a 30 GHz GaAs monolithic receive module for spaceborne communication antenna feed array applications include an overall receive module noise figure of 5 dB, a 30 dB RF to IF gain with six levels of intermediate gain control, a five-bit phase shifter, and a maximum power consumption of 250 mW. The RF designs for each of the four submodules (low noise amplifier, some gain control, phase shifter, and RF to IF sub-module) are presented. Except for the phase shifter, high frequency, low noise FETs with sub-half micron gate lengths are employed in the submodules. For the gain control, a two stage dual gate FET amplifier is used. The phase shifter is of the passive switched line type and consists of 5-bits. It uses relatively large gate width FETs (with zero drain to source bias) as the switching elements. A 20 GHz local oscillator buffer amplifier, a FET compatible balanced mixer, and a 5-8 GHz IF amplifier constitute the RF/IF sub-module. Phase shifter fabrication using ion implantation and a self-aligned gate technique is described. Preliminary RF results obtained on such phase shifters are included.

  17. Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core

    DOEpatents

    McPheeters, Charles C.; Mrazek, Franklin C.

    1988-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700.degree. C. and 1100.degree. C.

  18. Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core

    DOEpatents

    McPheeters, C.C.; Mrazek, F.C.

    1988-08-02

    A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700 C and 1,100 C. 8 figs.

  19. Experiments of a monolithic radial transmission line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, C.; Wang, X.; Zou, X.; Lehr, J.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of a monolithic radial transmission line (MRTL) that may be used in pulsed power generators and microwave devices. The MRTL with a hyperbolic impedance profile is 508 mm in radius, corresponding to a one-way transit time of 15 ns for the electromagnetic wave. In the experiments, up to twenty identical voltage pulses, 10 ns in FWHM and 2 ns in rise-time, were fed into the MRTL through 20 input BNC connectors that are uniformly distributed along the outer circumference of the MRTL. It was found that the amplitude of the voltage from the output BNC connector located in the center of the MRTL is nearly proportional to the total number of the input branches. The effect of the failure modes on the output voltage was investigated. For the MRTL driven by 20 input branches, while the open-circuit or short-circuit even in one input branch considerably decreases the amplitude of the output voltage, the jitter shorter than 2 ns in 3 input branches makes no obvious effect on the output voltage.

  20. Advances in monolithic ferroelectric uncooled IRFPA technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Charles M.; Beratan, Howard R.; Belcher, James F.; Udayakumar, K. R.; Soch, Kevin L.

    1998-07-01

    The success of uncooled IR imaging at Raytheon has awakened a new view of the potential of thermal imaging. Once relegated to only expensive military platforms, occasionally to civilian platforms, and envisioned for individual soldiers, thermal imaging is now affordable for police cars, commercial surveillance, driving aids, and a variety of other industrial and consumer applications. System prices are as low as $8000, and swelling production volume will soon drive prices substantially lower. The impetus for further development is performance. The hybrid barium strontium titanate (BST) detectors currently in production have limited potential for improved sensitivity, and their MTF is suppressed at high frequencies. Microbolometer arrays in development at Raytheon have demonstrated performance superior to hybrid detectors. However, microbolometer technology lacks a mature, low-cost system technology and an abundance of deployable system implementations. Thin-film ferroelectric (TFFE) detectors have all the performance potential of microbolometers, and arguably more. They are also compatible with numerous fielded and planned system implementations. Like a microbolometer, the TFFE detector is monolithic; i.e., the detector material is deposited directly on the readout IC rather than being bump bonded to it. Initial imaging arrays of 240 X 320 pixels have been produced, demonstrating the feasibility of the technology.

  1. Experiments of a monolithic radial transmission line.

    PubMed

    Mao, C; Wang, X; Zou, X; Lehr, J

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of a monolithic radial transmission line (MRTL) that may be used in pulsed power generators and microwave devices. The MRTL with a hyperbolic impedance profile is 508 mm in radius, corresponding to a one-way transit time of 15 ns for the electromagnetic wave. In the experiments, up to twenty identical voltage pulses, 10 ns in FWHM and 2 ns in rise-time, were fed into the MRTL through 20 input BNC connectors that are uniformly distributed along the outer circumference of the MRTL. It was found that the amplitude of the voltage from the output BNC connector located in the center of the MRTL is nearly proportional to the total number of the input branches. The effect of the failure modes on the output voltage was investigated. For the MRTL driven by 20 input branches, while the open-circuit or short-circuit even in one input branch considerably decreases the amplitude of the output voltage, the jitter shorter than 2 ns in 3 input branches makes no obvious effect on the output voltage.

  2. Solid oxide fuel cell having monolithic core

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, J.P.; Young, J.E.

    1983-10-12

    A solid oxide fuel cell is described for electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output, wherein the cell core has an array of electrolyte and interconnect walls that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support. Instead, the core is monolithic, where each electrolyte wall consists of thin layers of cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of electrolyte material therebetween. The electrolyte walls are arranged and backfolded between adjacent interconnect walls operable to define a plurality of core passageways alternately arranged where the inside faces thereof have only the anode material or only the cathode material exposed. Means direct the fuel to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the cathode-exposed core passageway; and means also direct the galvanic output to an exterior circuit. Each layer of the electrolyte and interconnect materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.01 cm thick; and each layer of the cathode and anode materials is of the order of 0.002 to 0.05 cm thick.

  3. Solid oxide fuel cell having monolithic core

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, John P.; Young, John E.

    1984-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell for electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output, wherein the cell core has an array of electrolyte and interconnect walls that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support. Instead, the core is monolithic, where each electrolyte wall consists of thin layers of cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of electrolyte material therebetween, and each interconnect wall consists of thin layers of the cathode and anode materials sandwiching a thin layer of interconnect material therebetween. The electrolyte walls are arranged and backfolded between adjacent interconnect walls operable to define a plurality of core passageways alternately arranged where the inside faces thereof have only the anode material or only the cathode material exposed. Means direct the fuel to the anode-exposed core passageways and means direct the oxidant to the cathode-exposed core passageway; and means also direct the galvanic output to an exterior circuit. Each layer of the electrolyte and interconnect materials is of the order of 0.002-0.01 cm thick; and each layer of the cathode and anode materials is of the order of 0.002-0.05 cm thick.

  4. Neutron spectrometry with a monolithic silicon telescope.

    PubMed

    Agosteo, S; D'Angelo, G; Fazzi, A; Para, A Foglio; Pola, A; Zotto, P

    2007-01-01

    A neutron spectrometer was set-up by coupling a polyethylene converter with a monolithic silicon telescope, consisting of a DeltaE and an E stage-detector (about 2 and 500 microm thick, respectively). The detection system was irradiated with monoenergetic neutrons at INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (Legnaro, Italy). The maximum detectable energy, imposed by the thickness of the E stage, is about 8 MeV for the present detector. The scatter plots of the energy deposited in the two stages were acquired using two independent electronic chains. The distributions of the recoil-protons are well-discriminated from those due to secondary electrons for energies above 0.350 MeV. The experimental spectra of the recoil-protons were compared with the results of Monte Carlo simulations using the FLUKA code. An analytical model that takes into account the geometrical structure of the silicon telescope was developed, validated and implemented in an unfolding code. The capability of reproducing continuous neutron spectra was investigated by irradiating the detector with neutrons from a thick beryllium target bombarded with protons. The measured spectra were compared with data taken from the literature. Satisfactory agreement was found.

  5. Monolithic integrated-optic TDLAS sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frish, Michael B.; Scherer, David R.; Wainner, Richard T.; Allen, Mark G.; Shankar, Raji; Loncar, Marko

    2012-06-01

    We are developing prototype chip-scale low-power integrated-optic gas-phase chemical sensors based on infrared Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS). TDLAS is able to sense many gas phase chemicals with high sensitivity and selectivity. Using semiconductor fabrication and assembly techniques, the low-cost integrated optic TDLAS technology will permit mass production of sensors that have wide ranging industrial, medical, environmental, and consumer applications. Novel gas sensing elements using low-loss resonant photonic crystal cavities or waveguides will permit monolithic integration of a laser source, sampling elements, and detector on a semiconductor materials system substrate. Practical challenges to fabricating these devices include: a) selecting and designing the high-Q micro-resonator sensing element appropriate for the selected analyte; and b) device thermal management, especially stabilizing laser temperature with the precision needed for sensitive spectroscopic detection. In this paper, we analyze the expected sensitivity of micro-resonator-based structures for chemical sensing, and demonstrate a novel approach for exploiting laser waste heat to stabilize the laser temperature.

  6. Monolithic supports with unique geometries and enhanced mass transfer.

    SciTech Connect

    Stuecker, John Nicholas; Ferrizz, Robert Matthew; Cesarano, Joseph, III; Miller, James Edward

    2004-01-01

    The catalytic combustion of natural gas has been the topic of much research over the past decade. Interest in this technology results from a desire to decrease or eliminate the emissions of harmful nitrogen oxides (NOX) from gas turbine power plants. A low-pressure drop catalyst support, such as a ceramic monolith, is ideal for this high-temperature, high-flow application. A drawback to the traditional honeycomb monoliths under these operating conditions is poor mass transfer to the catalyst surface in the straight-through channels. 'Robocasting' is a unique process developed at Sandia National Laboratories that can be used to manufacture ceramic monoliths with alternative 3-dimensional geometries, providing tortuous pathways to increase mass transfer while maintaining low pressure drops. This report details the mass transfer effects for novel 3-dimensional robocast monoliths, traditional honeycomb-type monoliths, and ceramic foams. The mass transfer limit is experimentally determined using the probe reaction of CO oxidation over a Pt / {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst, and the pressure drop is measured for each monolith sample. Conversion versus temperature data is analyzed quantitatively using well-known dimensionless mass transfer parameters. The results show that, relative to the honeycomb monolith support, considerable improvement in mass transfer efficiency is observed for robocast samples synthesized using an FCC-like geometry of alternating rods. Also, there is clearly a trade-off between enhanced mass transfer and increased pressure drop, which can be optimized depending on the particular demands of a given application.

  7. The Structure and Properties of Carbon Fiber Based Adsorbent Monoliths

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, T.; Judkins, R.R.; Rogers, M.R.; Shaw, W.S.

    1998-11-06

    Carbon fiber monoliths manufactured by a novel slurry molding process from isotropic pitch-derived fibers are being developed at ORNL for gas separation and storage applications [1]. Low density (p = 0.2 - 0,3 g/cm3) monoliths have been successfully demonstrated to have an acceptable pressure drop for gas separation applications and are currently being developed for C02/CH4 separations, whereas monoliths with densities in the range p = 0.4 - 0.6 g/cm3 have been "shown to have natural gas storage capacities of >100 VIV at 500 psi pressure and room temperature. Thermal conductivity, as a function of temperature, was measured using the LASER flash, thermal- pulse method. Another approach to minimizing the temperature gradients that develop in a storage bed is to increase the thermal conductivity of the adsorbent carbon. To this end, we have developed hybrid monoliths that contain small fractions of mesophase pitch- derived carbon fibers. Our hybrid monoliths exhibit thermal conductivities in the range 0.2-0.9 W/m.K depending on the blend and density of the monolith. In comparison, a packed bed of granular carbon at comparable density would have a thermal conductivity of approximately 0.1 W/m.K [ 1 ]. The thermal conductivities of several of the hybrid The improved thermal conductivity of our monoliths is attributed to the bonding between the fibers and the incorporation of high thermal conductivity, mesophase pitch-derived carbon fibers. These features are visible in the SEM micrograph in Fig. 4.

  8. Fabrication of poly(γ-glutamic acid) monolith by thermally induced phase separation and its application.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Bin; Fujimoto, Takashi; Mizohata, Eiichi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Sung, Moon-Hee; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Monoliths are functional porous materials with a three-dimensional continuous interconnected pore structure in a single piece. A monolith with uniform shape based on poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) has been prepared via a thermally induced phase separation technique using a mixture of dimethyl sulfoxide, water, and ethanol as solvent. The morphology of the obtained monolith was observed by scanning electron microscopy and the surface area of the monolith was evaluated by the Brunauer Emmett Teller method. The effects of fabrication parameters such as the concentration and molecular mass of PGA and the solvent composition have been systematically investigated. The PGA monolith was cross-linked with hexamethylene diisocyanate to produce the water-insoluble monolith. The addition of sodium chloride to the phase separation solvent affected the properties of the cross-linked monolith. The swelling ratio of the cross-linked monolith toward aqueous solutions depended on the buffer pH as well as the monolith fabrication condition. Copper(II) ion was efficiently adsorbed on the cross-linked PGA monolith, and the obtained copper-immobilized monolith showed strong antibacterial activity for Escherichia coli. By combination of the characteristic properties of PGA (e.g., high biocompatibility and biodegradability) and the unique features of monoliths (e.g., through-pore structure, large surface area, and high porosity with small pore size), the PGA monolith possesses large potentials for various industrial applications in the biomedical, environmental, analytical, and separation fields.

  9. Influence of the hydrothermal treatment on the chromatographic properties of monolithic silica capillaries for nano-liquid chromatography or capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Puy, G; Roux, R; Demesmay, C; Rocca, J-L; Iapichella, J; Galarneau, A; Brunel, D

    2007-08-10

    In the last decade, silica monolithic capillaries have focused more and more attention on miniaturized separation techniques like capillary electrochromatography (CEC), nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC) and chip electrochromatography owing to their unique chromatographic properties and their simplified preparation compared with packed columns. They are synthesized according to a sol-gel multi-step process that includes, after a gelation step at 40 degrees C leading to the formation of the macropores network and the silica skeleton, a post-gelation step (hydrothermal treatment at 120 degrees C in basic medium) that allows to tailor the mesopores and finally a calcination or a washing step to remove remaining polymers. In order to reduce the synthesis time, the number of synthesis steps and above all the temperature synthesis, to adapt the synthesis of such silica monoliths in polymeric microsystem devices, we extensively studied the influence of the hydrothermal treatment and its duration on textural (pore size distribution) and chromatographic properties (retention, efficiency) of in situ-synthesized capillary monoliths in nano-LC and CEC. This study was performed on pure silica and octyl chains grafted silica monoliths. Untreated monoliths show small pores (<6 nm), whereas hydrothermally treated monoliths exhibit medium and large mesopores (8-17 nm). It was demonstrated that the hydrothermal treatment at 120 degrees C was not necessary for pure silica monolithic capillaries dedicated to normal phase liquid chromatography or hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and electrochromatography: the suppression of the hydrothermal treatment did not impair efficiencies in CEC and in nano-LC but contributed to increase in retention factors. Minimal plate heights of ca. 5 microm in CEC and 6 microm in nano-LC were obtained with or without hydrothermal treatment with bare silica. In the same way, the hydrothermal treatment was not necessary for grafted

  10. Allyl-silica Hybrid Monoliths For Chromatographic Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wenjuan

    Column technology continues to be the most investigated topics in the separation world, since the column is the place where the chromatographic separation happens, making it the heart of the separation system. Allyl-silica hybrid monolithic material has been exploited as support material and potential stationary phases for liquid chromatography; the stationary phase anchored to the silica surface by Si-C bond, which is more pH stable than traditional stationary phase. First, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been used to study the sol in the synthesis of allyl-silica hybrid monoliths. Allyl-trimethoxysilane (allyl-TrMOS), dimethyldimethoxysilane (DMDMOS) and tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) have been served as co-precursors in the sol-gel synthesis of organo-silica hybrid monolithic columns for liquid chromatography (LC). 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 1H NMR spectroscopy were employed to monitor reaction profiles for the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis and initial condensation reactions of the individual precursor and the hybrid system. 29Si-NMR has also been used to identify different silane species formed during the reactions. The overall hydrolysis rate has been found to follow the trend DMDMOS > allyl-TrMOS > TMOS, if each precursor is reacted individually (homo-polymerization). Precursors show different hydrolysis rate when reacted together in the hybrid system than they are reacted individually. Cross-condensation products of TMOS and DMDMOS (QD) arise about 10 minutes of initiation of the reaction. The allyl-silica monolithic columns for capillary liquid chromatography can only be prepared in capillaries with 50 im internal diameter with acceptable performance. One of the most prominent problems related to the synthesis of silica monolithic structures is the volume shrinkage. The synthesis of allylfunctionalized silica hybrid monolithic structures has been studied in an attempt to reduce the volume shrinkage during aging, drying and heat treatment

  11. ADVANCED GASIFICATION MERCURY/TRACE METAL CONTROL WITH MONOLITH TRAPS

    SciTech Connect

    Mark A. Musich; Michael L. Swanson; Grant E. Dunham; Joshua J. Stanislowski

    2010-07-31

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m3 (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m3 (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most effective arsine

  12. Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith Traps

    SciTech Connect

    Musich, Mark; Swanson, Michael; Dunham, Grant; Stanislowski, Joshua

    2010-10-05

    Two Corning monoliths and a non-carbon-based material have been identified as potential additives for mercury capture in syngas at temperatures above 400°F and pressure of 600 psig. A new Corning monolith formulation, GR-F1-2189, described as an active sample appeared to be the best monolith tested to date. The Corning SR Liquid monolith concept continues to be a strong candidate for mercury capture. Both monolith types allowed mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb), a current U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) goal for trace metal control. Preparation methods for formulating the SR Liquid monolith impacted the ability of the monolith to capture mercury. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC)-prepared Noncarbon Sorbents 1 and 2 appeared to offer potential for sustained and significant reduction of mercury concentration in the simulated fuel gas. The Noncarbon Sorbent 1 allowed sustained mercury reduction to below 5-μg/m{sup 3} (~5 ppb). The non-carbon-based sorbent appeared to offer the potential for regeneration, that is, desorption of mercury by temperature swing (using nitrogen and steam at temperatures above where adsorption takes place). A Corning cordierite monolith treated with a Group IB metal offered limited potential as a mercury sorbent. However, a Corning carbon-based monolith containing prereduced metallic species similar to those found on the noncarbon sorbents did not exhibit significant or sustained mercury reduction. EERC sorbents prepared with Group IB and IIB selenide appeared to have some promise for mercury capture. Unfortunately, these sorbents also released Se, as was evidenced by the measurement of H2Se in the effluent gas. All sorbents tested with arsine or hydrogen selenide, including Corning monoliths and the Group IB and IIB metal-based materials, showed an ability to capture arsine or hydrogen selenide at 400°F and 600 psig. Based on current testing, the noncarbon metal-based sorbents appear to be the most

  13. Thermoresponsive ketoprofen-imprinted monolith prepared in ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuan; Zhao, Chun-Yan; Wang, Xian-Hua; Huang, Yan-Ping; Liu, Zhao-Sheng

    2014-09-01

    A thermoresponsive imprinted monolith with the ability of molecular recognition for ketoprofen was prepared for the first time. The smart monolith was synthesized in a stainless steel column using acrylamide (AAm) and 2-acrylamide-2-methyl propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) as functional monomers, which can form interpolymer complexation to restrict access of the analyte to the imprinted networks at low temperatures. To avoid a high back pressure of the column derived from neat dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a porogenic solvent that is needed to solve polar AMPS, an ionic liquid, [BMIM]BF4, was introduced into the pre-polymerization mixture. The molecular recognition ability towards ketoprofen of the resulting thermoresponsive molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) monolith displayed significant dependence on temperature compared with a non-imprinted column (NIP), and the greatest imprinting factor was achieved at the transition temperature of 35 °C (above 10). Furthermore, the number of binding sites of the smart MIP monolith at 35 °C was about 76 times as large as that at 25 °C. In addition, Freundlich analyses indicated that the thermoresponsive MIP monolith had homogeneous affinity sites at both 25 and 35 °C with heterogeneity index 0.9251 and 0.9851, respectively.

  14. Continuous vs. discrete models of nonadiabatic monolith catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Groppi, G.; Tronconi, E.

    1996-08-01

    Monolith catalysts are widely applied for clean up of waste gases [catalytic mufflers, volatile organic compound (VOC) incinerators, reactors for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} by NH{sub 3}] in view of their unique combination of low-pressure drops and high gas-solid interfacial areas. The crucial point in continuous heat-transfer models is the evaluation of the effective thermal conductivity coefficients, which are functions both of the physical properties of the two phases and of the monolith geometry. In this work a novel expression for calculation of the radial effective conductivity is derived. The physical consistency of the steady-state continuous model implementing such an expression is then analyzed by comparison with a discrete monolith model. In spite of the just-mentioned limitations, discrete models have been partially validated in the literature against experimental temperature profiles in heated monoliths; thus, they can be regarded as a standard in evaluating the adequacy of the continuum approach. The reference problem of pure heat transfer with constant temperature of the external monolith wall is investigated for these purposes.

  15. Hydrodynamic instabilities in gas-liquid monolithic reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Grolman, E.; Edvinsson, R.K.; Stankiewicz, A.; Moulijn, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Liquid holdup and pressure drop were measured during the co-current down flow of air and water through a monolith in the Taylor flow regime. The model presented accounts for the significant, up to three fold, increase in frictional pressure drop that is caused by the presence of gas bubbles. It is accurate to within 20%. In addition, the model presented is used to predict hydrodynamic stability, which is defined as the situation where all channels transport gas and liquid in the direction of mass flow. Essential for stability is a sufficiently good initial liquid distribution, which was achieved with a shower-type distributor. Furthermore, distribution was significantly enhanced by the natural occurrence of a well-mixed foam (aerated liquid) layer on top of the monolith at liquid holdup values above 0.5. The quality of the liquid distribution across the monolith follows directly from on-line, integral liquid holdup measurements. Monoliths have been developed and used extensively for catalytic automobile exhaust conversion, from which they have inherited mechanical and thermal robustness. Today, monoliths provide an interesting alternative to trickle-bed and slurry-column technologies, for solid-catalyzed gas-liquid reactions.

  16. New Graphene Form of Nanoporous Monolith for Excellent Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Bi, Hui; Lin, Tianquan; Xu, Feng; Tang, Yufeng; Liu, Zhanqiang; Huang, Fuqiang

    2016-01-13

    Extraordinary tubular graphene cellular material of a tetrahedrally connected covalent structure was very recently discovered as a new supermaterial with ultralight, ultrastiff, superelastic, and excellent conductive characteristics, but no high specific surface area will keep it from any next-generation energy storage applications. Herein, we prepare another new graphene monolith of mesoporous graphene-filled tubes instead of hollow tubes in the reported cellular structure. This graphene nanoporous monolith is also composed of covalently bonded carbon network possessing high specific surface area of ∼1590 m(2) g(-1) and electrical conductivity of ∼32 S cm(-1), superior to graphene aerogels and porous graphene forms self-assembled by graphene oxide. This 3D graphene monolith can support over 10 000 times its own weight, significantly superior to CNT and graphene cellular materials with a similar density. Furthermore, pseudocapacitance-active functional groups are introduced into the new nanoporous graphene monolith as an electrode material in electrochemical capacitors. Surprisingly, the electrode of 3D mesoporous graphene has a specific capacitance of 303 F g(-1) and maintains over 98% retention after 10 000 cycles, belonging to the list for the best carbon-based active materials. The macroscopic mesoporous graphene monolith suggests the great potential as an electrode for supercapacitors in energy storage areas.

  17. Surfactant-Bound Monolithic Columns for Capillary Electrochromatography

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Congying; He, Jun; Jia, Jinping; Fang, Nenghu; Shamsi, Shahab A.

    2010-01-01

    A novel anionic surfactant bound monolithic stationary phase based on 11-acrylaminoundecanoic acid (AAUA) is designed for capillary electrochromatography (CEC). The monolith possessing bonded undecanoyl groups (hydrophobic sites) and carboxyl groups (weak cationic ion-exchange sites) was evaluated as a mixed-mode stationary phase in CEC for the separation of neutral and polar solutes. Using a multivariate D-optimal design the composition of the polymerization mixture was modeled and optimized with five alkylbenzenes (ABs) and seven alkyl phenyl ketones (APKs) as test solutes. The D-optimal design indicates a strong dependence of electrochromatographic parameters on the concentration of AAUA monomer and porogen (water) in the polymerization mixture. A difference of 6%, 8% and 13% RSD between the predicted and the experimental values in terms of efficiency, resolution, and retention time, respectively, indeed confirmed that the proposed approach is practical. The physical (i.e., morphology, porosity and permeability) and chromatographic properties of the monolithic columns were thoroughly investigated. With the optimized monolithic column, high efficiency separation of N-methylcarbamates (NMCs) pesticides and positional isomers was successfully achieved. It appears that this type of mixed-mode monolith (containing both chargeable and hydrophobic sites) may have a great potential as a new generation of CEC stationary phase. PMID:19885887

  18. Novel zwitterionic polyphosphorylcholine monolithic column for hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhengjin; Reilly, John; Everatt, Brian; Smith, Norman W

    2009-03-20

    A novel porous zwitterionic monolith was prepared by thermal co-polymerisation of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) within 100 microm I.D. capillaries. Mercury intrusion porosimetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-HPLC (micro-HPLC), elemental analysis and zeta-potential analysis were used to evaluate the monolithic structure. No evidence of swelling or shrinking of the monolith in different polarity solvents was observed. A typical hydrophilic liquid chromatography (HILIC) mechanism was observed at high organic solvent content (acetonitrile >60%). The phosphorylcholine (PC) functionality has both a positively charged quaternary ammonium and a negatively charged phosphate group. For charged analytes, a weak electrostatic interaction was also observed by studying the influence of mobile phase pH and salt concentration on their retentions on the poly(MPC-co-EDMA) monolithic column. The optimised poly(MPC-co-EDMA) monolith showed very good selectivities for a range of polar test analytes, especially small peptides. This might be ascribed to the good biocompatibility of PC functionality. At low organic solvent content, baseline separation was also observed for a test mixture of seven alkylphenones by a reversed-phase separation mechanism.

  19. HPLC analysis of synthetic polymers on short monolithic columns.

    PubMed

    Maksimova, Elena; Vlakh, Evgenia; Sinitsyna, Ekaterina; Tennikova, Tatiana

    2013-12-01

    Ultrashort monolithic columns (disks) were thoroughly studied as efficient stationary phases for precipitation-dissolution chromatography of synthetic polymers. Gradient elution mode was applied in all chromatographic runs. The mixtures of different flexible chain homopolymers, such as polystyrenes, poly(methyl methacrylates), and poly(tert-butylmethacrylates) were separated according to their molecular weights on both commercial poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) disks (12 id × 3 mm and 5 × 5 mm) and lab-made monolithic columns (4.6 id × 50 mm) filled with supports of different hydrophobicity. The experimental conditions were optimized to reach fast and highly efficient separation. It was observed that, similar to the separation of monoliths of other classes of (macro)molecules (proteins, DNA, oligonucleotides), the length of column did not affect the peak resolution. A comparison of the retention properties of the poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) disk-shaped monoliths with those based on poly(lauryl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate), poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate), and poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) supports demonstrated the obvious effect of surface chemistry on the resolution factor. Additionally, the results of the discussed chromatographic mode on the fast determination of the molecular weights of homopolymers used in this study were compared to those established by SEC on columns packed with sorbent beads of a similar nature to the monoliths. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Edge chipping and flexural resistance of monolithic ceramics☆

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Lee, James J.-W.; Srikanth, Ramanathan; Lawn, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Test the hypothesis that monolithic ceramics can be developed with combined esthetics and superior fracture resistance to circumvent processing and performance drawbacks of traditional all-ceramic crowns and fixed-dental-prostheses consisting of a hard and strong core with an esthetic porcelain veneer. Specifically, to demonstrate that monolithic prostheses can be produced with a much reduced susceptibility to fracture. Methods Protocols were applied for quantifying resistance to chipping as well as resistance to flexural failure in two classes of dental ceramic, microstructurally-modified zirconias and lithium disilicate glass–ceramics. A sharp indenter was used to induce chips near the edges of flat-layer specimens, and the results compared with predictions from a critical load equation. The critical loads required to produce cementation surface failure in monolithic specimens bonded to dentin were computed from established flexural strength relations and the predictions validated with experimental data. Results Monolithic zirconias have superior chipping and flexural fracture resistance relative to their veneered counterparts. While they have superior esthetics, glass–ceramics exhibit lower strength but higher chip fracture resistance relative to porcelain-veneered zirconias. Significance The study suggests a promising future for new and improved monolithic ceramic restorations, with combined durability and acceptable esthetics. PMID:24139756

  1. Parallel preconditioners for monolithic solution of shear bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger-Vergiat, Luc; McAuliffe, Colin; Waisman, Haim

    2016-01-01

    Shear bands are one of the most fascinating instabilities in metals that occur under high strain rates. They describe narrow regions, on the order of micron scales, where plastic deformations and significant heating are localized which eventually leads to fracture nucleation and failure of the component. In this work shear bands are described by a set of four strongly coupled thermo-mechanical equations discretized by a mixed finite element formulation. A thermo-viscoplastic flow rule is used to model the inelastic constitutive law and finite thermal conductivity is prescribed which gives rise to an inherent physical length scale, governed by competition of shear heating and thermal diffusion. The residual equations are solved monolithically by a Newton type method at every time step and have been shown to yield mesh insensitive result. The Jacobian of the system is sparse and has a nonsymmetric block structure that varies with the different stages of shear bands formation. The aim of the current work is to develop robust parallel preconditioners to GMRES in order to solve the resulting Jacobian systems efficiently. The main idea is to design Schur complements tailored to the specific block structure of the system and that account for the varying stages of shear bands. We develop multipurpose preconditioners that apply to standard irreducible discretizations as well as our recent work on isogeometric discretizations of shear bands. The proposed preconditioners are tested on benchmark examples and compared to standard state of practice solvers such as GMRES/ILU and LU direct solvers. Nonlinear and linear iterations counts as well as CPU times and computational speedups are reported and it is shown that the proposed preconditioners are robust, efficient and outperform traditional state of the art solvers.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of nanotemplated carbon monolithic material.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoyun; Nesterenko, Ekaterina P; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Brabazon, Dermot; Zhou, Lin; Glennon, Jeremy D; Luong, John H T; Paull, Brett

    2013-09-11

    A novel hierarchical nanotemplated carbon monolithic rod (NTCM) was prepared using a novel facile nanotemplating approach. The NTCM was obtained using C60-fullerene modified silica gels as hard templates, which were embedded in a phenolic resin containing a metal catalyst for localized graphitization, followed by bulk carbonization, and template and catalyst removal. TEM, SEM, and BET measurements revealed that NTCM possessed an integrated open hierarchical porous structure, with a trimodal pore distribution. This porous material also possessed a high mesopore volume and narrow mesopore size distribution. During the course of carbonization, the C60 conjugated to aminated silica was partly decomposed, leading to the formation of micropores. The Raman signature of NTCM was very similar to that of multiwalled carbon nanotubes as exemplified by three major peaks as commonly observed for other carbon materials, i.e., the sp3 and sp2 carbon phases coexisted in the sample. Surface area measurements were obtained using both nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms (BET) and with a methylene blue binding assay, with BET results showing the NTCM material possessed an average specific surface area of 435 m2 g(-1), compared to an area of 372 m2 g(-1) obtained using the methylene blue assay. Electrochemical studies using NTCM modified glassy carbon or boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes displayed quasi-reversible oxidation/reduction with ferricyanide. In addition, the BDD electrode modified with NTCM was able to detect hydrogen peroxide with a detection limit of below 300 nM, whereas the pristine BDD electrode was not responsive to this target compound.

  3. Irradiation performance of U-Mo monolithic fuel

    DOE PAGES

    Meyer, M. K.; Gan, J.; Jue, J. F.; ...

    2014-04-01

    High-performance research reactors require fuel that operates at high specific power to high fission density, but at relatively low temperatures. Research reactor fuels are designed for efficient heat rejection, and are composed of assemblies of thin-plates clad in aluminum alloy. The development of low-enriched fuels to replace high-enriched fuels for these reactors requires a substantially increased uranium density in the fuel to offset the decrease in enrichment. Very few fuel phases have been identified that have the required combination of very-high uranium density and stable fuel behavior at high burnup. U-Mo alloys represent the best known tradeoff in these properties.more » Testing of aluminum matrix U-Mo aluminum matrix dispersion fuel revealed a pattern of breakaway swelling behavior at intermediate burnup, related to the formation of a molybdenum stabilized high aluminum intermetallic phase that forms during irradiation. In the case of monolithic fuel, this issue was addressed by eliminating, as much as possible, the interfacial area between U-Mo and aluminum. Based on scoping irradiation test data, a fuel plate system composed of solid U-10Mo fuel meat, a zirconium diffusion barrier, and Al6061 cladding was selected for development. Developmental testing of this fuel system indicates that it meets core criteria for fuel qualification, including stable and predictable swelling behavior, mechanical integrity to high burnup, and geometric stability. In addition, the fuel exhibits robust behavior during power-cooling mismatch events under irradiation at high power.« less

  4. GaAs monolithic R.F. modules for SARSAT distress beacons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauley, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Monolithic GaAs UHF components for use in SARSAT Emergency Distress beacons are under development by Microwave Monolithics, Inc., Simi Valley, CA. The components include a bi-phase modulator, driver amplifier, and a 5 watt power amplifier.

  5. Monolithic Solid Oxide Fuel Cell development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myles, K. M.; Mcpheeters, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    The Monolithic Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (MSOFC) is an oxide-ceramic structure in which appropriate electronic and ionic conductors are fabricated in a honeycomb shape similar to a block of corrugated paperboard. These electronic and ionic conductors are arranged to provide short conduction paths to minimize resistive losses. The power density achievable with the MSOFC is expected to be about 8 kW/kg or 4 kW/L, at fuel efficienceis over 50 percent, because of small cell size and low resistive losses in the materials. The MSOFC operates in the range of 700 to 1000 C, at which temperatures rapid reform of hydrocarbon fuels is expected within the nickel-YSZ fuel channels. Tape casting and hot roll calendering are used to fabricate the MSOFC structure. The performance of the MSOFC has improved significantly during the course of development. The limitation of this system, based on materials resistance alone without interfacial resistances, is 0.093 ohm-sq cm area-specific resistance (ASR). The current typical performance of MSOFC single cells is characterized by ASRs of about 0.4 to 0.5 ohm-sq cm. With further development the ASR is expected to be reduced below 0.2 ohm-sq cm, which will result in power levels greater than 1.4 W/sq cm. The feasibility of the MSOFC concept was proven, and the performance was dramatically improved. The differences in thermal expansion coefficients and firing shrinkages among the fuel cell materials were minimized. As a result of good matching of these properties, the MSOFC structure was successfully fabricated with few defects, and the system shows excellent promise for development into a practical power source.

  6. Multiple wavelength LED on monolithic QW structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakariya, Abdullah J.; LiKamWa, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    A monolithically integrated multi-wavelength LED based on selective dielectric cap intermixing is investigated experimentally. The proposed LED emits radiation with multiple wavelength peaks from one compact easy to fabricate quantum well (QW) structure. Each wavelength has an independent emission power control, allowing the LED to radiate one or more wavelengths simultaneously. The LED material is an AlGaAs/GaAs QW p-i-n heterostructure. The device is divided into three selectively intermixed regions using an impurity-free vacancy induced intermixing technique creating localized intermixed areas. Each region is intermixed to varying extent resulting in different luminescence peaks and by separately addressing each section with its electrical current, the net emission spectrum can be fully controlled. The fabrication process starts with the growth of a 400nm thick layer of SiO2 over the whole sample using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Three regions with different SiO2 thicknesses are defined via two photolithographic and subsequent reactive ion etching steps. The sample is then annealed at 975°C for 20s to activate the intermixing of the constituent atoms of the quantum well and barrier materials. The degree of intermixing is determined by the thickness of the SiO2 cap. After removal of the SiO2 cap, contact stripes are evaporated on each region to act as an independent intensity power control for that region. Experimental results have shown that a controllable 10nm, 21nm and 33nm blue shifts of the peak wavelength of emission from that of the as-grown sample corresponding to 0, 100nm, and 400nm thick SiO2 caps respectively.

  7. A very low noise monolithic Horizontal accelerometer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolini, Alessandro; Takamori, Akiteru; Cella, Giancarlo; Fidecaro, Francesco; Francesconi, Mario; Desalvo, Riccardo; Sannibale, Virginio

    2000-04-01

    We present a new low noise, low frequency, horizontal accelerometer. The mechanical design and the machining process aim to improve the sensitivity in the frequency region between 0.01 and 1 Hz, where metal internal friction and thermal elastic effects become critical. The accelerometer mechanics is shaped as a small folded pendulum in order to obtain a very low resonant frequency and low mechanical losses. A folded pendulum is essentially a mass suspended on one side by a simple pendulum and on the other by an inverted pendulum working antagonistically. The straight pendulum positive gravitational spring constant is balanced by the inverted pendulum’s negative one; by changing the center of mass position one can lower arbitrarily the resonant frequency. The only dissipation is in the anelasticity of the mechanical flex joint and in the readout/actuation system. If the spring constant is minimised, the mechanical losses are minimal. The monolithic design of the accelerometer eliminates the stick-and-slip friction localised in the flexure clamps. Low stiffness, 10 micron thick flex joints are achieved by EDM and electropolishing. The instrument is equipped with a low capacitance position sensor; the signal from the sensor is filtered by a PID controller and fed back to the mass through capacitive force actuator for feedback closed-loop operation. The sensor noise matches the expected thermal noise performances, 10-12 m/√Hz , with measuring range of a few microns. The expected sensitivity, less than 10-11 m/ s^2 / √Hz around 150 mHz, is a factor 30 below the state of the art limit. This accelerometer was designed to be integrated in the active control of the LIGO II mirror seismic isolators.

  8. Microstructural Examination to Aid in Understanding Friction Bonding Fabrication Technique for Monolithic Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Karen L. Shropshire

    2008-04-01

    Monolithic nuclear fuel is currently being developed for use in research reactors, and friction bonding (FB) is a technique being developed to help in this fuel’s fabrication. Since both FB and monolithic fuel are new concepts, research is needed to understand the impact of varying FB fabrication parameters on fuel plate characteristics. This thesis research provides insight into the FB process and its application to the monolithic fuel design by recognizing and understanding the microstructural effects of varying fabrication parameters (a) FB tool load, and (b) FB tool face alloy. These two fabrication parameters help drive material temperature during fabrication, and thus the material properties, bond strength, and possible formation of interface reaction layers. This study analyzed temperatures and tool loads measured during those FB processes and examined microstructural characteristics of materials and bonds in samples taken from the resulting fuel plates. This study shows that higher tool load increases aluminum plasticization and forging during FB, and that the tool face alloy helps determine the tool’s heat extraction efficacy. The study concludes that successful aluminum bonds can be attained in fuel plates using a wide range of FB tool loads. The range of tool loads yielding successful uranium-aluminum bonding was not established, but it was demonstrated that such bonding can be attained with FB tool load of 48,900 N (11,000 lbf) when using a FB tool faced with a tungsten alloy. This tool successfully performed FB, and with better results than tools faced with other materials. Results of this study correlate well with results reported for similar aluminum bonding techniques. This study’s results also provide support and validation for other nuclear fuel development studies and conclusions. Recommendations are offered for further research.

  9. A Possible Astronomically Aligned Monolith at Gardom's Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Daniel; Alder, Andy; Bemand, Elizabeth

    2015-05-01

    A unique triangular shaped monolith located within the Peak District National Park at Gardom's Edge could be intentionally astronomically aligned. It is set within a landscape rich in late Neolithic and Bronze Age remains. We show that the stone is most likely in its original orientation owing to its clear signs of erosion and associated to the time period of the late Neolithic. It is tilted towards south and its north side slopes at an angle equal to the maximum altitude of the Sun at mid-summer. This alignment emphasizes the changing declinations of the Sun during the seasons as well as giving an indication of mid-summers day. This functionality is achieved by an impressive display of light and shadow on the north facing side of the monolith. Together with other monuments in the close vicinity the monolith would have represented an ideal marker or social arena for seasonal gatherings for the otherwise dispersed small communities.

  10. Monolithic optoelectronic integrated broadband optical receiver with graphene photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chuantong; Huang, Beiju; Mao, Xurui; Zhang, Zanyun; Zhang, Zan; Geng, Zhaoxin; Xue, Ping; Chen, Hongda

    2017-07-01

    Optical receivers with potentially high operation bandwidth and low cost have received considerable interest due to rapidly growing data traffic and potential Tb/s optical interconnect requirements. Experimental realization of 65 GHz optical signal detection and 262 GHz intrinsic operation speed reveals the significance role of graphene photodetectors (PDs) in optical interconnect domains. In this work, a novel complementary metal oxide semiconductor post-backend process has been developed for integrating graphene PDs onto silicon integrated circuit chips. A prototype monolithic optoelectronic integrated optical receiver has been successfully demonstrated for the first time. Moreover, this is a firstly reported broadband optical receiver benefiting from natural broadband light absorption features of graphene material. This work is a perfect exhibition of the concept of monolithic optoelectronic integration and will pave way to monolithically integrated graphene optoelectronic devices with silicon ICs for three-dimensional optoelectronic integrated circuit chips.

  11. Wide band monolithic SAW convolver for asynchronous communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toplicar, J. R.

    The rapid acquisition of code synchronization without prior knowledge of time of arrival of a received signal is a key problem in secure spread spectrum communications. Monolithic SAW convolvers used as programmable matched filters provide a low-cost solution to this rapid synchronization problem. In this paper a description is presented of techniques for decoding binary coded signals using monolithic SAW convolvers. The principles of operation of the convolver and methods of obtaining unambiguous code synchronization are discussed. Key monolithic convolver design parameters as well as the impact of design on achievable processing gain, dynamic range, suppression of spurious signals, size, and cost are described. Design and performance details are presented and compared with theoretical predictions and with com

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF MONOLITHIC FUEL FOIL PROPERTIES AND BOND STRENGTH

    SciTech Connect

    D E Burkes; D D Keiser; D M Wachs; J S Larson; M D Chapple

    2007-03-01

    Understanding fuel foil mechanical properties, and fuel / cladding bond quality and strength in monolithic plates is an important area of investigation and quantification. Specifically, what constitutes an acceptable monolithic fuel – cladding bond, how are the properties of the bond measured and determined, and what is the impact of fabrication process or change in parameters on the level of bonding? Currently, non-bond areas are quantified employing ultrasonic determinations that are challenging to interpret and understand in terms of irradiation impact. Thus, determining mechanical properties of the fuel foil and what constitutes fuel / cladding non-bonds is essential to successful qualification of monolithic fuel plates. Capabilities and tests related to determination of these properties have been implemented at the INL and are discussed, along with preliminary results.

  13. Deposition of zeolite nanoparticles onto porous silica monolith

    SciTech Connect

    Gackowski, Mariusz; Bielanska, Elzbieta; Szczepanowicz, Krzysztof; Warszynski, Piotr; Derewinski, Miroslaw

    2016-06-01

    A facile and effective method of deposition of MFl zeolite nanoparticles (nanocrystals) onto macro-/mesoporous silica monolith was proposed. The electrostatic interaction between those two materials was induces by adsorption of cationic polyelectrolytes. That can be realized either by adsorption of polyelectrolyte onto silica monolith or on zeolite nanocrystals. The effect of time, concentration of zeolite nanocrystals, type of polyelectrolyte, and ultrasound treatment is scrutinized. Adsorption of polyelectrolyte onto silica monolith with subsequent deposition of nanocrystals resulted in a monolayer coverage assessed with SEM images. Infrared spectroscopy was applied as a useful method to determine the deposition effectiveness of zeolite nanocrystals onto silica. Modification of nanocrystals with polyelectrolyte resulted in a multilayer coverage due to agglomeration of particles. On the other hand, the excess of polyelectrolyte in the system resulted in a low coverage due to competition between polyelectrolyte and modified nanocrystals.

  14. MONOLITHIC FUEL FABRICATION PROCESS DEVELOPMENT AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY_

    SciTech Connect

    G. A. Moore; F. J. Rice; N. E. Woolstenhulme; J-F. Jue; B. H. Park; S. E. Steffler; N. P. Hallinan; M. D. Chapple; M. C. Marshall; B. L. Mackowiak; C. R. Clark; B. H. Rabin

    2009-11-01

    Full-size/prototypic U10Mo monolithic fuel-foils and aluminum clad fuel plates are being developed at the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC). These efforts are focused on realizing Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) high density monolithic fuel plates for use in High Performance Research and Test Reactors. The U10Mo fuel foils under development afford a fuel meat density of ~16 gU/cc and thus have the potential to facilitate LEU conversions without any significant reactor-performance penalty. An overview is provided of the ongoing monolithic UMo fuel development effort, including application of a zirconium barrier layer on fuel foils, fabrication scale-up efforts, and development of complex/graded fuel foils. Fuel plate clad bonding processes to be discussed include: Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) and Friction Bonding (FB).

  15. Tooth-colored CAD/CAM monolithic restorations.

    PubMed

    Reich, S

    2015-01-01

    A monolithic restoration (also known as a full contour restoration) is one that is manufactured from a single material for the fully anatomic replacement of lost tooth structure. Additional staining (followed by glaze firing if ceramic materials are used) may be performed to enhance the appearance of the restoration. For decades, monolithic restoration has been the standard for inlay and partial crown restorations manufactured by both pressing and computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) techniques. A limited selection of monolithic materials is now available for dental crown and bridge restorations. The IDS (2015) provided an opportunity to learn about and evaluate current trends in this field. In addition to new developments, established materials are also mentioned in this article to complete the picture. In line with the strategic focus of the IJCD, the focus here is naturally on CAD/CAM materials.

  16. Plastic deformation of silicon nitride/boron nitride fibrous monoliths.

    SciTech Connect

    de Arellano-Lopez, A. R.; Lopez-Pombero, S.; Dominguez-Rodriguez, A.; Routbort, J. L.; Singh, D.; Goretta, K. C.; Energy Technology; Univ. de Sevilla

    2001-02-01

    High-temperature compressive creep of unidirectional Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/BN fibrous monoliths has been investigated at 1300-1500 C in an inert atmosphere. The results were then compared to those for deformation of the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and BN base materials. Plasticity of the fibrous monoliths was limited to very low stresses when the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} cells were oriented perpendicular to the stress axis because the BN cell boundaries failed, followed by failure of the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} cells. In the fibrous monolith in which cells were oriented parallel to the stress axis, steady-state deformation controlled by deformation of the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} cells was achieved.

  17. Cerec anterior crowns: restorative options with monolithic ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Reich, Sven; Fiedlar, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the different types of monolithic ceramic crowns that can be placed on anterior teeth with existing shoulder preparations. Anterior crowns were indicated for the teeth 12 to 22 in the present case. The patient, a 65-year-old male, had received all-ceramic crowns 20 years earlier, which had started to develop cracks and palatal fractures over the last few years. The patient's teeth were prepared and four sets of crowns were fabricated using different monolithic ceramic materials: IPS e.max CAD, Cerec Blocs C In, VITABLOCS Real Life, and ENAMIC. Both shade characterization and crystallization firing were performed on the monolithic lithium disilicate glass ceramic crowns. The silicate ceramic crowns received glaze firing alone. The crowns made of hybrid ceramic (ENAMIC) were treated with a polymer sealant.

  18. Development of an affinity silica monolith containing human serum albumin for chiral separations.

    PubMed

    Mallik, Rangan; Hage, David S

    2008-04-14

    An affinity monolith based on silica and containing immobilized human serum albumin (HSA) was developed and evaluated in terms of its binding, efficiency and selectivity in chiral separations. The results were compared with data obtained for the same protein when used as a chiral stationary phase with HPLC-grade silica particles or a monolith based on a copolymer of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA). The surface coverage of HSA in the silica monolith was similar to values obtained with silica particles and a GMA/EDMA monolith. However, the higher surface area of the silica monolith gave a material that contained 1.3-2.2-times more immobilized HSA per unit volume when compared to silica particles or a GMA/EDMA monolith. The retention, efficiency and resolving power of the HSA silica monolith were evaluated using two chiral analytes: d/l-tryptophan and R/S-warfarin. The separation of R- and S-ibuprofen was also considered. The HSA silica monolith gave higher retention and higher or comparable resolution and efficiency when compared with HSA columns that contained silica particles or a GMA/EDMA monolith. The silica monolith also gave lower back pressures and separation impedances than these other materials. It was concluded that silica monoliths can be valuable alternatives to silica particles or GMA/EDMA monoliths when used with immobilized HSA as a chiral stationary phase.

  19. Preparation of poly(γ-glutamic acid)/hydroxyapatite monolith via biomineralization for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Bin; Hasegawa, Urara; van der Vlies, André J; Sung, Moon-Hee; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid monolith of poly(γ-glutamic acid) and hydroxyapatite (PGA/HAp monolith) was prepared via biomineralization and used as a macroporous cell scaffold in bone tissue engineering. The PGA monolith having a bimodal pore size distribution was used as a substrate to induce biomineralization. The PGA/HAp monolith was obtained by immersing the PGA monolith in simulated body fluid. Pretreatment with CaCl2 enhanced the apatite-forming ability of the PGA monolith. Murine osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells efficiently attached and proliferated on the PGA/HAp monolith. MTT assay showed that both the PGA and PGA/HAp monolith did not have apparent cytotoxicity. Moreover, the PGA and PGA/HAp monoliths adsorbed bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) by electrostatic interaction which was slowly released in the medium during cell culture. The PGA/HAp monolith enhanced BMP-2 induced alkaline phosphatase activity compared to the PGA monolith and a polystyrene culture plate. Thus, these PGA/HAp monoliths may have potential in bone tissue engineering.

  20. Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Frequency Doublers - 2nd Pass Correction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Frequency Doublers—2nd Pass Correction by John E. Penn ARL-TN-0580 September 2013...September 2013 Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Frequency Doublers—2nd Pass Correction John E. Penn Sensors and Electron...COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Frequency Doublers–2nd Pass Correction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  1. Room-Temperature Quantum Ballistic Transport in Monolithic Ultrascaled Al–Ge–Al Nanowire Heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Conductance quantization at room temperature is a key requirement for the utilizing of ballistic transport for, e.g., high-performance, low-power dissipating transistors operating at the upper limit of “on”-state conductance or multivalued logic gates. So far, studying conductance quantization has been restricted to high-mobility materials at ultralow temperatures and requires sophisticated nanostructure formation techniques and precise lithography for contact formation. Utilizing a thermally induced exchange reaction between single-crystalline Ge nanowires and Al pads, we achieved monolithic Al–Ge–Al NW heterostructures with ultrasmall Ge segments contacted by self-aligned quasi one-dimensional crystalline Al leads. By integration in electrostatically modulated back-gated field-effect transistors, we demonstrate the first experimental observation of room temperature quantum ballistic transport in Ge, favorable for integration in complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor platform technology. PMID:28735546

  2. Room-Temperature Quantum Ballistic Transport in Monolithic Ultrascaled Al-Ge-Al Nanowire Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Sistani, Masiar; Staudinger, Philipp; Greil, Johannes; Holzbauer, Martin; Detz, Hermann; Bertagnolli, Emmerich; Lugstein, Alois

    2017-08-09

    Conductance quantization at room temperature is a key requirement for the utilizing of ballistic transport for, e.g., high-performance, low-power dissipating transistors operating at the upper limit of "on"-state conductance or multivalued logic gates. So far, studying conductance quantization has been restricted to high-mobility materials at ultralow temperatures and requires sophisticated nanostructure formation techniques and precise lithography for contact formation. Utilizing a thermally induced exchange reaction between single-crystalline Ge nanowires and Al pads, we achieved monolithic Al-Ge-Al NW heterostructures with ultrasmall Ge segments contacted by self-aligned quasi one-dimensional crystalline Al leads. By integration in electrostatically modulated back-gated field-effect transistors, we demonstrate the first experimental observation of room temperature quantum ballistic transport in Ge, favorable for integration in complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor platform technology.

  3. Monolithic pixel detectors in silicon on insulator technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bisello, Dario

    2013-05-06

    Silicon On Insulator (SOI) is becoming an attractive technology to fabricate monolithic pixel detectors. The possibility of using the depleted resistive substrate as a drift collection volume and to connect it by means of vias through the buried oxide to the pixel electronic makes this kind of approach interesting both for particle and photon detection. In this paper I report the results obtained in the development of monolithic pixel detectors in an SOI technology by a collaboration between groups from the University and INFN of Padova (Italy) and the LBNL and the SCIPP at UCSC (USA).

  4. Diode Laser Optically Injected by Resonance of a Monolithic Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yu; Zhao, Yang; Li, Ye; Yang, Tao; Cao, Jian-Ping; Fang, Zhan-Jun; Zang, Er-Jun

    2011-11-01

    We demonstrate a self-injection locking extended cavity diode laser (ECDL) using resonant optical feedback from the p-polarization of a monolithic folded Fabry—Perot parallel cavity (MFC). The full width at half maximum of the MFC resonance is 31 MHz. With the help of a narrow-linewidth reference laser, the linewidth of the ECDL is measured to be about 7 kHz. The frequency of the laser could be tuned at 160 MHz with an amplitude of 40 V by a PZT mounted on the monolithic cavity and the voltage tuning coefficient is about 4 MHz/V.

  5. Lectin-carbohydrate interactions on nanoporous gold monoliths.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yih Horng; Fujikawa, Kohki; Pornsuriyasak, Papapida; Alla, Allan J; Ganesh, N Vijaya; Demchenko, Alexei V; Stine, Keith J

    2013-07-01

    Monoliths of nanoporous gold (np-Au) were modified with self-assembled monolayers of octadecanethiol (C18-SH), 8-mercaptooctyl α-D-mannopyranoside (αMan-C8-SH), and 8-mercapto-3,6-dioxaoctanol (HO-PEG2-SH), and the loading was assessed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Modification with mixed SAMs containing αMan-C8-SH (at a 0.20 mole fraction in the SAM forming solution) with either octanethiol or HO-PEG2-SH was also investigated. The np-Au monoliths modified with αMan-C8-SH bind the lectin Concanavalin A (Con A), and the additional mass due to bound protein was assessed using TGA analysis. A comparison of TGA traces measured before and after exposure of HO-PEG2-SH modified np-Au to Con A showed that the non-specific binding of Con A was minimal. In contrast, np-Au modified with octanethiol showed a significant mass loss due to non-specifically adsorbed Con A. A significant mass loss was also attributed to binding of Con A to bare np-Au monoliths. TGA revealed a mass loss due to the binding of Con A to np-Au monoliths modified with pure αMan-C8-SH. The use of mass losses determined by TGA to compare the binding of Con A to np-Au monoliths modified by mixed SAMs of αMan-C8-SH and either octanethiol or HO-PEG2-SH revealed that binding to mixed SAM modified surfaces is specific for the mixed SAMs with HO-PEG2-SH but shows a significant contribution from non-specific adsorption for the mixed SAMs with octanethiol. Minimal adsorption of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and peanut agglutinin (PNA) towards the mannoside modified np-Au monoliths was demonstrated. A greater mass loss was found for Con A bound onto the monolith than for either IgG or PNA, signifying that the mannose presenting SAMs in np-Au retain selectivity for Con A. TGA data also provide evidence that Con A bound to the αMan-C8-SH modified np-Au can be eluted by flowing a solution of methyl α-D-mannopyranoside through the structure. The presence of Con A proteins on the modified np-Au surface was

  6. Monolithic pixel detectors in silicon on insulator technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisello, Dario

    2013-05-01

    Silicon On Insulator (SOI) is becoming an attractive technology to fabricate monolithic pixel detectors. The possibility of using the depleted resistive substrate as a drift collection volume and to connect it by means of vias through the buried oxide to the pixel electronic makes this kind of approach interesting both for particle and photon detection. In this paper I report the results obtained in the development of monolithic pixel detectors in an SOI technology by a collaboration between groups from the University and INFN of Padova (Italy) and the LBNL and the SCIPP at UCSC (USA).

  7. Polyurea-Based Aerogel Monoliths and Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Je Kyun

    2012-01-01

    aerogel insulation material was developed that will provide superior thermal insulation and inherent radiation protection for government and commercial applications. The rubbery polyureabased aerogel exhibits little dustiness, good flexibility and toughness, and durability typical of the parent polyurea polymer, yet with the low density and superior insulation properties associated with aerogels. The thermal conductivity values of polyurea-based aerogels at lower temperature under vacuum pressures are very low and better than that of silica aerogels. Flexible, rubbery polyurea-based aerogels are able to overcome the weak and brittle nature of conventional inorganic and organic aerogels, including polyisocyanurate aerogels, which are generally prepared with the one similar component to polyurethane rubber aerogels. Additionally, with higher content of hydrogen in their structures, the polyurea rubber-based aerogels will also provide inherently better radiation protection than those of inorganic and carbon aerogels. The aerogel materials also demonstrate good hydrophobicity due to their hydrocarbon molecular structure. There are several strategies to overcoming the drawbacks associated with the weakness and brittleness of silica aerogels. Development of the flexible fiber-reinforced silica aerogel composite blanket has proven to be one promising approach, providing a conveniently fielded form factor that is relatively robust in industrial environments compared to silica aerogel monoliths. However, the flexible, silica aerogel composites still have a brittle, dusty character that may be undesirable, or even intolerable, in certain application environments. Although the cross - linked organic aerogels, such as resorcinol- formaldehyde (RF), polyisocyanurate, and cellulose aerogels, show very high impact strength, they are also very brittle with little elongation (i.e., less rubbery). Also, silica and carbon aerogels are less efficient radiation shielding materials due

  8. Monolithic Flexure Pre-Stressed Ultrasonic Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Allen, Phillip Grant

    2011-01-01

    High-power ultrasonic actuators are generally assembled with a horn, backing, stress bolt, piezoelectric rings, and electrodes. The manufacturing process is complex, expensive, difficult, and time-consuming. The internal stress bolt needs to be insulated and presents a potential internal discharge point, which can decrease actuator life. Also, the introduction of a center hole for the bolt causes many failures, reducing the throughput of the manufactured actuators. A new design has been developed for producing ultrasonic horn actuators. This design consists of using flexures rather than stress bolts, allowing one to apply pre-load to the piezoelectric material. It also allows one to manufacture them from a single material/plate, rapid prototype them, or make an array in a plate or 3D structure. The actuator is easily assembled, and application of pre-stress greater than 25 MPa was demonstrated. The horn consists of external flexures that eliminate the need for the conventional stress bolt internal to the piezoelectric, and reduces the related complexity. The stress bolts are required in existing horns to provide prestress on piezoelectric stacks when driven at high power levels. In addition, the manufacturing process benefits from the amenability to produce horn structures with internal cavities. The removal of the pre-stress bolt removes a potential internal electric discharge point in the actuator. In addition, it significantly reduces the chances of mechanical failure in the piezoelectric stacks that result from the hole surface in conventional piezoelectric actuators. The novel features of this disclosure are: 1. A design that can be manufactured from a single piece of metal using EDM, precision machining, or rapid prototyping. 2. Increased electromechanical coupling of the horn actuator. 3. Higher energy density. 4. A monolithic structure of a horn that consists of an external flexure or flexures that can be used to pre-stress a solid piezoelectric structure

  9. Constitutive Theory Developed for Monolithic Ceramic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janosik, Lesley A.

    1998-01-01

    with these service conditions by developing a multiaxial viscoplastic constitutive model that accounts for time-dependent hereditary material deformation (such as creep and stress relaxation) in monolithic structural ceramics. Using continuum principles of engineering mechanics, we derived the complete viscoplastic theory from a scalar dissipative potential function.

  10. Preparation and complex characterization of silica holmium sol-gel monoliths.

    PubMed

    Cacaina, D; Areva, S; Laaksonen, H; Simon, S; Ylänen, H

    2011-01-01

    Amorphous, sol-gel derived SiO(2) are known to biocompatible and bioresorbable materials. Biodegradable and inert materials containing radioactive isotopes have potential application as delivery vehicles of the beta radiation to the cancer tumors inside the body. Incorporation of holmium in the sol-gel derived SiO(2) could lead to the formation of a biodegradable material which could be used as carrier biomaterial for the radiation of radioactive holmium to the various cancer sites. The homogeneity of the prepared sol-gel silica holmium monoliths was investigated by Back Scattered Electron Imaging of Scanning Electron Microscope equipped with Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis, X-ray Induced Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. The biodegradation of the monoliths was investigated in Simulated Body Fluid and TRIS (Trizma pre-set Crystals) solution. The results show that by suitable tailoring of the sol-gel processing parameters holmium can be homogeneously incorporated in the silica matrix with a controlled biodegradation rate.

  11. Polystyrene bound stationary phase of excellent separation efficiency based on partially sub-2μm silica monolith particles.

    PubMed

    Ali, Faiz; Cheong, Won Jo; A L Othman, Zeid A; A L Majid, Abdullah M

    2013-08-16

    Partially sub-2μm porous silica monolith particles have been synthesized by a renovated procedure and modified to polystyrene coated silica particles with excellent separation efficiency when used as chromatographic media. In the procedure of preparing silica monolith particles in this study, subtle control of formulation of the reaction mixture and multi-step heating followed by calcination, without any washing and sieving process, enabled formation of silica particles characterized by proper particle and pore size distribution for high separation efficiency. 3-Chloropropyl trimethoxysilane was used as the halogen terminal spacer to combine the initiator to silica particles. Uniform and thin coating of polystyrene layer on initiator attached silica particles was formed via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Micro-columns (1.0mm ID and 300mm length) were packed with the resultant phase and their chromatographic performance was elucidated by HPLC. A mobile phase of 60/40 (v/v) acetonitrile/water containing 0.1% TFA and a flow rate of 15μL/min were found to be the optimized conditions leading to number of theoretical plates close to 50,000 (165,000m(-1)). This is the very first study to get such highly efficient HPLC columns using a silica monolith particulate stationary phase.

  12. Comparison of dynamic fatigue behavior between SiC whisker-reinforced composite and monolithic silicon nitrides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    1991-01-01

    The dynamic fatigue behavior of 30 vol percent silicon nitride whisker-reinforced composite and monolithic silicon nitrides were determined as a function of temperature from 1100 to 1300 C in ambient air. The fatigue susceptibility parameter, n, decreased from 88.1 to 20.1 for the composite material, and from 50.8 to 40.4 for the monolithic, with increasing temperature from 1100 to 1300 C. A transition in the dynamic fatigue curve occurred for the composite material at a low stressing rate of 2 MPa/min at 1300 C, resulting in a very low value of n equals 5.8. Fractographic analysis showed that glassy phases in the slow crack growth region were more pronounced in the composite compared to the monolithic material, implying that SiC whisker addition promotes the formation of glass rich phases at the grain boundaries, thereby enhancing fatigue. These results indicate that SiC whisker addition to Si3 N4 matrix substantially deteriorates fatigue resistance inherent to the matrix base material for this selected material system.

  13. 26. SPILLWAY CHANNEL WALLS REINF. DETAILS; MONOLITHS W1 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. SPILLWAY CHANNEL WALLS - REINF. DETAILS; MONOLITHS W-1 TO W-4 INCL. Sheet S-26, July, 1939. File no. SA 342/34. - Prado Dam, Spillway, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  14. Three-dimensional developing flow model for photocatalytic monolith reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Md.M.; Raupp, G.B.; Hay, S.O.; Obee, T.N.

    1999-06-01

    A first-principles mathematical model describes performance of a titania-coated honeycomb monolith photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) reactor for air purification. The single-channel, 3-D convection-diffusion-reaction model assumes steady-state operation, negligible axial dispersion, and negligible homogeneous reaction. The reactor model accounts rigorously for entrance effects arising from the developing fluid-flow field and uses a previously developed first-principles radiation-field submodel for the UV flux profile down the monolith length. The model requires specification of an intrinsic photocatalytic reaction rate dependent on local UV light intensity and local reactant concentration, and uses reaction-rate expressions and kinetic parameters determined independently using a flat-plate reactor. Model predictions matched experimental pilot-scale formaldehyde conversion measurements for a range of inlet formaldehyde concentrations, air humidity levels, monolith lengths, and for various monolith/lamp-bank configurations. This agreement was realized without benefit of any adjustable photocatalytic reactor model parameters, radiation-field submodel parameters, or kinetic submodel parameters. The model tends to systematically overpredict toluene conversion data by about 33%, which falls within the accepted limits of experimental kinetic parameter accuracy. With further validation, the model could be used in PCO reactor design and to develop quantitative energy utilization metrics.

  15. A novel carbon fiber based porous carbon monolith

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, T.D.; Klett, J.W.; Weaver, C.E.

    1995-07-01

    A novel porous carbon material based on carbon fibers has been developed. The material, when activated, develops a significant micro- or mesopore volume dependent upon the carbon fiber type utilized (isotropic pitch or polyacrylonitrile). The materials will find applications in the field of fluid separations or as a catalyst support. Here, the manufacture and characterization of our porous carbon monoliths are described.

  16. A Monolithically-Integrated μGC Chemical Sensor System

    PubMed Central

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Bauer, Joseph M.; Moorman, Matthew W.; Sanchez, Lawrence J.; Anderson, John M.; Whiting, Joshua J.; Porter, Daniel A.; Copic, Davor; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.

    2011-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) is used for organic and inorganic gas detection with a range of applications including screening for chemical warfare agents (CWA), breath analysis for diagnostics or law enforcement purposes, and air pollutants/indoor air quality monitoring of homes and commercial buildings. A field-portable, light weight, low power, rapid response, micro-gas chromatography (μGC) system is essential for such applications. We describe the design, fabrication and packaging of μGC on monolithically-integrated Si dies, comprised of a preconcentrator (PC), μGC column, detector and coatings for each of these components. An important feature of our system is that the same mechanical micro resonator design is used for the PC and detector. We demonstrate system performance by detecting four different CWA simulants within 2 min. We present theoretical analyses for cost/power comparisons of monolithic versus hybrid μGC systems. We discuss thermal isolation in monolithic systems to improve overall performance. Our monolithically-integrated μGC, relative to its hybrid cousin, will afford equal or slightly lower cost, a footprint that is 1/2 to 1/3 the size and an improved resolution of 4 to 25%. PMID:22163970

  17. Monolithic natural gas storage delivery system based on sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Hornbostel, Marc; Krishnan, Gopala N.; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2016-09-27

    The invention provides methods for producing a strong, light, sorbent-based storage/dispenser system for gases and fuels. The system comprises a porous monolithic material with an adherent strong impervious skin that is capable of storing a gas under pressure in a safe and usable manner.

  18. Single-frequency lasing of monolithic Ho,Tm:YLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Grady J.; Deyst, John P.; Storm, Mark E.

    1993-01-01

    Single-frequency lasing in monolithic crystals of holmium-thulium-doped YLF (Ho,Tm:YLF) is reported. A maximum single-frequency output power of 6 mW at a wavelength of 2.05 microns is demonstrated. Frequency tuning is also described.

  19. Molecular crowding-based imprinted monolithic column for capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Zong, Hai-Yan; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Zhao-Sheng; Huang, Yan-Ping

    2015-03-01

    Molecular crowding is a new approach to stabilizing binding sites and improving molecular recognition. In this work, the concept was applied to the preparation of imprinted monolithic columns for CEC. The imprinted monolithic column was synthesized using a mixture of d-zopiclone (d-ZOP)(template), methacrylic acid, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) (molecular crowding agent). The resulting PMMA-based imprinted capillary was able to separate ZOP enantiomers in CEC mode. The resolution of enantiomer separation achieved on the d-ZOP-imprinted monolithic column was up to 2.09. Some polymerization factors, such as template-monomer molar ratio, functional monomer-cross-linker molar ratio and the composition of the porogen, on the imprinting effect of resulting molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) monolithic column were systematically investigated. Chromatographic parameters, including pH values, the content of acetonitrile and the salt concentration on chiral separation were also studied. The results indicated the addition of PMMA resulted in MIPs with superior retention properties and excellent selectivity for d-ZOP, as compared to the MIPs prepared without addition of the crowding-inducing agent. The results revealed that molecular crowding is an effective method for the preparation of a highly efficient MIP stationary phase for chiral separation in CEC.

  20. Shear bond strength of indirect composite material to monolithic zirconia.

    PubMed

    Sari, Fatih; Secilmis, Asli; Simsek, Irfan; Ozsevik, Semih

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on bond strength of indirect composite material (Tescera Indirect Composite System) to monolithic zirconia (inCoris TZI). Partially stabilized monolithic zirconia blocks were cut into with 2.0 mm thickness. Sintered zirconia specimens were divided into different surface treatment groups: no treatment (control), sandblasting, glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application, and sandblasting + glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application. The indirect composite material was applied to the surface of the monolithic zirconia specimens. Shear bond strength value of each specimen was evaluated after thermocycling. The fractured surface of each specimen was examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope to assess the failure types. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey LSD tests (α=.05). Bond strength was significantly lower in untreated specimens than in sandblasted specimens (P<.05). No difference between the glaze layer and hydrofluoric acid application treated groups were observed. However, bond strength for these groups were significantly higher as compared with the other two groups (P<.05). Combined use of glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application and silanization are reliable for strong and durable bonding between indirect composite material and monolithic zirconia.

  1. Carbon monolith: preparation, characterization and application as microextraction fiber.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhi-Guo; Chen, Fei; Xing, Jun; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2009-07-10

    A carbon monolith was synthesized via a polymerization-carbonization method, styrene and divinylbenzene being adopted as precursors and dodecanol as a porogen during polymerization. The resultant monolith had bimodal porous substructure, narrowly distributed nano skeleton pores and uniform textural pores or throughpores. The carbon monolith was directly used as an extracting fiber, taking place of the coated silica fibers in commercially available solid-phase microextraction device, for the extraction of phenols followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Under the studied conditions, the calibration curves were linear from 0.5 to 50 ng mL(-1) for phenol, o-nitrophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and p-chlorophenol. The limits of detection were between 0.04 and 0.43 ng mL(-1). The recoveries of the phenols spiked in real water samples at 10 ng mL(-1) were between 85% and 98% with the relative standard deviations below 10%. Compared with the commercial coated ones (e.g. PDMS, CW/DVB and DVB/CAR/PDMS), the carbon monolith-based fiber had advantages of faster extraction equilibrium and higher extraction capacity due to the superior pore connectivity and pore openness resulting from its bimodal porous substructure.

  2. Preparation of phenylboronate affinity rigid monolith with macromolecular porogen.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-Jie; Jia, Man; Zhao, Yong-Xin; Liu, Zhao-Sheng; Akber Aisa, Haji

    2016-03-18

    Boronate-affinity monolithic column was first prepared via polystyrene (PS) as porogen in this work. The monolithic polymer was synthetized using 4-vinylphenylboronic acid (4-VPBA) as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as crosslinker monomer, and a mixture of PS solution in tetrahydrofuran, the linear macromolecular porogen, and toluene as porogen. Isoquercitrin (ISO) and hyperoside (HYP), isomer diol flavonoid glycosides, can be baseline separated on the poly(VPBA-co-EDMA) monolith. The effect of polymerization variables on the selectivity factor, e.g., the ratio of monomer to crosslinker (M/C), the amount of PS and the molecular weight of macromolecular porogen was investigated. The surface properties of the monolithic polymer were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption. The best polymerization condition was the M/C ratio of 7:3, and the PS concentration of 40 mg/ml. The poly(VPBA-co-EDMA) polymer was also applied to extract cis-diol flavonoid glycosides from the crude extraction of cotton flower. After treated by poly(VPBA-co-EDMA) for solid phase extraction, high purity ISO and HYP (>99.96%) can be obtained with recovery of 83.7% and 78.6%, respectively.

  3. MONOLITHIC FUEL FABRICATION PROCESS DEVELOPMENT AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn A. Moore; Francine J. Rice; Nicolas E. Woolstenhulme; W. David SwanK; DeLon C. Haggard; Jan-Fong Jue; Blair H. Park; Steven E. Steffler; N. Pat Hallinan; Michael D. Chapple; Douglas E. Burkes

    2008-10-01

    Within the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program directed by the US Department of Energy (DOE), UMo fuel-foils are being developed in an effort to realize high density monolithic fuel plates for use in high-flux research and test reactors. Namely, targeted are reactors that are not amenable to Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel conversion via utilization of high density dispersion-based fuels, i.e. 8-9 gU/cc. LEU conversion of reactors having a need for >8-9 gU/cc fuel density will only be possible by way of monolithic fuel forms. The UMo fuel foils under development afford fuel meat density of ~16 gU/cc and thus have the potential to facilitate LEU conversions without any significant reactor-performance penalty. Two primary challenges have been established with respect to UMo monolithic fuel development; namely, fuel element fabrication and in-reactor fuel element performance. Both issues are being addressed concurrently at the Idaho National Laboratory. An overview is provided of the ongoing monolithic UMo fuel development effort at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL); including development of complex/graded fuel foils. Fabrication processes to be discussed include: UMo alloying and casting, foil fabrication via hot rolling, fuel-clad interlayer application via co-rolling and thermal spray processes, clad bonding via Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) and Friction Bonding (FB), and fuel plate finishing.

  4. 1 W, coherent, monolithically integrated master oscillator power amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waarts, R.; Parke, R.; Welch, D.; Mehuys, D.; Streifer, W.

    1990-11-01

    Monolithically integrated master oscillator power amplifiers (M-MOPA) have been fabricated consisting of a single mode distributed Bragg reflector oscillator coupled to a chain of nine single mode amplifiers and detuned second order grating output couplers. The M-MOPA emits in excess of 1 W in a coherent, single longitudinal mode, beam.

  5. RF characterization of monolithic microwave and mm-wave ICs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanofsky, R. R.; Ponchak, G. E.; Shalkhauser, K. A.; Bhasin, K. B.

    1986-01-01

    A number of fixturing techniques compatible with automatic network analysis are presented. The fixtures are capable of characterizing GaAs Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMICs) at K and Ka band. Several different transitions are used to couple the RF test port to microstrip. Fixtures which provide chip level de-embedding are included. In addition, two advanced characterization techniques are assessed.

  6. Monolithic catalyst catalytic converter with catalyst holding expansible retainer ring

    SciTech Connect

    Isogai, K.; Koga, I.; Ohmori, N.; Okamoto, M.; Takeuchi, M.; Takita, N.; Tobi, N.

    1984-05-15

    A catalytic converter includes a tubular casing within which is held a monolithic catalyst body which is generally of a columnar shape. The ends of the monolithic catalyst body are each engaged with a cushion ring, and each cushion ring is engaged with a retainer ring therefor, which is substantially axially fixed within the casing near to an end thereof. The monolithic catalyst body is supported within the casing by axial compressive force present between the retainer rings on the outside, the cushion rings between the retainer rings, and the monolithic catalyst body between the cushion rings. At least one of the retainer rings is formed with a break in a part of its circumference, the two free ends of the retainer ring on the two sides of the break being movable with distortion of the retainer ring through a certain distance, according to changes of temperature of the retainer ring, with respect to one another in the mutual relative direction which causes the overall circumference of the retainer ring to be diminished, so that expansion of the retainer ring when it heats up is adsorbed, and the retainer ring is not subject to kinking or folding when the catalytic converter operates in the hot condition.

  7. Multiple Quantum Well (MQW) Devices For Monolithic Integrated Optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Thomas H.

    1988-05-01

    Semiconductor MQWs represent a new technology for opto-electronics. These MQWs have an electroabsorption effect approximately 50 times larger than conventional semiconductors. They are compatible with existing source and detector material systems and produce devices that are compact and high speed, which makes them useful for monolithic integrated optoelectronic devices.

  8. Multiple Quantum Well(MQW) Devices For Monolithic Integrated Optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Thomas H.

    1987-02-01

    A new technology for opto-electronics has been developed, semiconductor MQWs. These MQWs have an electroabsorption effect 30-60 times larger than conventional semiconductors. They are compatible with existing source and detector material systems and produce devices that are compact and high speed, which makes them useful for monolithic integrated optoelectronic devices.

  9. Shear bond strength of indirect composite material to monolithic zirconia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aimed to evaluate the effect of surface treatments on bond strength of indirect composite material (Tescera Indirect Composite System) to monolithic zirconia (inCoris TZI). MATERIALS AND METHODS Partially stabilized monolithic zirconia blocks were cut into with 2.0 mm thickness. Sintered zirconia specimens were divided into different surface treatment groups: no treatment (control), sandblasting, glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application, and sandblasting + glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application. The indirect composite material was applied to the surface of the monolithic zirconia specimens. Shear bond strength value of each specimen was evaluated after thermocycling. The fractured surface of each specimen was examined with a stereomicroscope and a scanning electron microscope to assess the failure types. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey LSD tests (α=.05). RESULTS Bond strength was significantly lower in untreated specimens than in sandblasted specimens (P<.05). No difference between the glaze layer and hydrofluoric acid application treated groups were observed. However, bond strength for these groups were significantly higher as compared with the other two groups (P<.05). CONCLUSION Combined use of glaze layer & hydrofluoric acid application and silanization are reliable for strong and durable bonding between indirect composite material and monolithic zirconia. PMID:27555895

  10. A Modular and Compact Multidetector System Based on Monolithic Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Figuera, P.; Cardella, G.; Di Pietro, A.; Papa, M.; Tian, W.; Amorini, F.; Musumarra, A.; Pappalardo, G.; Rizzo, F.; Tudisco, S.; Fallica, G.; Valvo, G.

    2004-02-27

    The characteristics of a new multidetector based on the use of Monolithic Silicon Telescopes are presented. Using suitable ion implantation techniques, the {delta}E and residual energy stages of the telescopes have been integrated on a single Si chip, obtaining a typical thickness for the {delta}E stage of the order of 2{mu}m.

  11. 24. SPILLWAY CHANNEL WALLS REINFORCEMENT DETAILS; MONOLITHS E1 TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. SPILLWAY CHANNEL WALLS - REINFORCEMENT DETAILS; MONOLITHS E-1 TO F-4 INCL. & NO. 34. Sheet S-11, June, 1939. File no. SA 342/24(?). - Prado Dam, Spillway, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  12. Translucency of monolithic and core zirconia after hydrothermal aging

    PubMed Central

    Fathy, Salma M.; El-Fallal, Abeer A.; El-Negoly, Salwa A.; El Bedawy, Abu Baker

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the hydrothermal aging effect on the translucency of partially stabilized tetragonal zirconia with yttria (Y-TZP) used as monolithic or fully milled zirconia and of core type. Methods: Twenty disc-shaped specimens (1 and 10 mm) for each type of monolithic and core Y-TZP materials were milled and sintered according to the manufacturer’s instruction. The final specimens were divided into two groups according to the type of Y-TZP used. Translucency parameter (TP) was measured over white and black backgrounds with the diffuse reflectance method; X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to analyze the microstructure of both Y-TZP types before and after aging. Data for TP values was statistically analyzed using Student’s t-test. Results: Monolithic Y-TZP showed the highest TP mean value (16.4 ± 0.316) before aging while core Y-TZP showed the lowest TP mean value (7.05 ± 0.261) after aging. There was a significant difference between the two Y-TZP types before and after hydrothermal aging. XRD analysis showed increases in monoclinic content in both Y-TZP surfaces after aging. Conclusion: Monolithic Y-TZP has a higher chance to low-temperature degradation than core type, which may significantly affect the esthetic appearance and translucency hence durability of translucent Y-TZP. PMID:27335897

  13. Morphosynthesis of cubic silver cages on monolithic activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Zhao, Hong; Lai, Yijian; Liu, Siyu; Zhao, Binyuan; Ning, Yuesheng; Hu, Xiaobin

    2013-11-14

    Cubic silver cages were prepared on monolithic activated carbon (MAC) pre-absorbed with Cl(-), SO4(2-), or PO4(3-) anions. Silver insoluble salts served as templates for the morphosynthesis of silver cages. The silver ions were reduced by reductive functional groups on MAC micropores through a galvanic cell reaction mechanism.

  14. Translucency and Strength of High Translucency Monolithic Zirconium Oxide Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-17

    in the dyeing liquid for 2 minutes. Residual dyeing liquid was removed from each specimen using an absorbent paper towel and then allowed to air...MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 17 MAY2016 1. Your paper , entitled Translucency and Strength of High-Translucency Monolithic

  15. Monolithically integrated semiconductor ring lasers: Design, fabrication, and directional control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hongjun

    Monolithic semiconductor ring lasers (SRLs) are attractive light sources for optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs) due to their convenience in monolithic integration: neither cleaved facets nor gratings are required for optical feedback. They are promising candidates for wavelength filtering, multiplexing-demultiplexing applications, electrical or all-optical switching, gating, and memories, and particularly, optical inertial rotation sensors or ring laser gyros. As the major part of a NASA-supported project "Monolithically integrated semiconductor ring laser gyro for space applications," this dissertation research was focused on design, fabrication, and directional control of monolithically integrated SRLs with relatively large size and sophisticated OEIC structures. The main potential application is the next-generation monolithic ring laser gyros. Specifically, monolithic SRLs with the longest reported cavity of 10.28 mm have been demonstrated. In device characterization, differential I-V analysis has been used for the first time in SRLs for purely electrical identification of lasing threshold and directional switching. Sophisticated device structures have been devised, including optically independent novel ring laser pairs, from which frequency beating between monolithically integrated SRLs was reported for the first time. In addition, no frequency lock-in was observed in the beating spectra, indicating an important progress for proposed gyro applications. Functional OEIC components including photodetectors, passive and active waveguides, and novel Joule heaters have been integrated on-chip along with the ring lasers. Mode competition, directional switching, bistability, and bidirectional and unidirectional operation in SRLs have been investigated. Directional control techniques with asymmetric mechanisms including spiral and S-section waveguides have been implemented. The S-section was investigated and analyzed in great detail for its suppression of

  16. Facile fabrication of mesoporous poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol)/chitosan blend monoliths.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guowei; Xin, Yuanrong; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2015-11-05

    Poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVOH)/chitosan blend monoliths were fabricated by thermally-induced phase separation method. Chitosan was successfully incorporated into the polymeric monolith by selecting EVOH as the main component of the monolith. SEM images exhibit that the chitosan was located on the inner surface of the monolith. Fourier-transform infrared analysis and elemental analysis indicate the successful blend of EVOH and chitosan. BET results show that the blend monoliths had high specific surface area and uniform mesopore structure. Good adsorption ability toward various heavy metal ions was found in the blend monoliths due to the large chelation capacity of chitosan. The blend monoliths have potential application for waste water purification or bio-related applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ex Situ Integration of Multifunctional Porous Polymer Monoliths into Thermoplastic Microfluidic Chips.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Eric L; Wienhold, Erik; Rahmanian, Omid D; DeVoe, Don L

    2014-10-31

    A unique method for incorporating functional porous polymer monolith elements into thermoplastic microfluidic chips is described. Monolith elements are formed in a microfabricated mold, rather than within the microchannels, and chemically functionalized off chip before insertion into solvent-softened thermoplastic microchannels during chip assembly. Because monoliths may be trimmed prior to final placement, control of their size, shape, and uniformity is greatly improved over in-situ photopolymerization methods. A characteristic trapezoidal profile facilitates rapid insertion and enables complete mechanical anchoring of the monolith periphery, eliminating the need for chemical attachment to the microchannel walls. Off-chip processing allows the parallel preparation of monoliths of differing compositions and surface chemistries in large batches. Multifunctional flow-through arrays of multiple monolith elements are demonstrated using this approach through the creation of a fluorescent immunosensor with integrated controls, and a microfluidic bubble separator comprising a combination of integrated hydrophobic and hydrophilic monolith elements.

  18. Ex Situ Integration of Multifunctional Porous Polymer Monoliths into Thermoplastic Microfluidic Chips

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Eric L.; Wienhold, Erik; Rahmanian, Omid D.; DeVoe, Don L.

    2014-01-01

    A unique method for incorporating functional porous polymer monolith elements into thermoplastic microfluidic chips is described. Monolith elements are formed in a microfabricated mold, rather than within the microchannels, and chemically functionalized off chip before insertion into solvent-softened thermoplastic microchannels during chip assembly. Because monoliths may be trimmed prior to final placement, control of their size, shape, and uniformity is greatly improved over in-situ photopolymerization methods. A characteristic trapezoidal profile facilitates rapid insertion and enables complete mechanical anchoring of the monolith periphery, eliminating the need for chemical attachment to the microchannel walls. Off-chip processing allows the parallel preparation of monoliths of differing compositions and surface chemistries in large batches. Multifunctional flow-through arrays of multiple monolith elements are demonstrated using this approach through the creation of a fluorescent immunosensor with integrated controls, and a microfluidic bubble separator comprising a combination of integrated hydrophobic and hydrophilic monolith elements. PMID:25018587

  19. Porous graphene oxide/carboxymethyl cellulose monoliths, with high metal ion adsorption.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongli; Liu, Yue; Wang, Xinrui; Sun, Zhiming; Ma, Junkui; Wu, Tao; Xing, Fubao; Gao, Jianping

    2014-01-30

    Orderly porous graphene oxide/carboxymethyl cellulose (GO/CMC) monoliths were prepared by a unidirectional freeze-drying method. The porous monoliths were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Their properties including compressive strength and moisture adsorption were measured. The incorporation of GO changed the porous structure of the GO/CMC monoliths and significantly increased their compressive strength. The porous GO/CMC monoliths exhibited a strong ability to adsorb metal ions, and the Ni(2+) ions adsorbed on GO/CMC monolith were reduced by NaBH4 to obtain Ni GO/CMC monolith which could be used as catalyst in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol. Since CMC is biodegradable and non-toxic, the porous GO/CMC monoliths are potential environmental adsorbents.

  20. Evaluation of translucency of monolithic zirconia and framework zirconia materials.

    PubMed

    Tuncel, İlkin; Turp, Işıl; Üşümez, Aslıhan

    2016-06-01

    The opacity of zirconia is an esthetic disadvantage that hinders achieving natural and shade-matched restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the translucency of non-colored and colored framework zirconia and monolithic zirconia. The three groups tested were: non-colored framework zirconia, colored framework zirconia with the A3 shade according to Vita Classic Scale, and monolithic zirconia (n=5). The specimens were fabricated in the dimensions of 15×12×0.5 mm. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the contrast ratio, which is indicative of translucency. Three measurements were made to obtain the contrast ratios of the materials over a white background (L(*)w) and a black background (L(*)b). The data were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests. One specimen from each group was chosen for scanning electron microscope analysis. The determined areas of the SEM images were divided by the number of grains in order to calculate the mean grain size. Statistically significant differences were observed among all groups (P<.05). Non-colored zirconia had the highest translucency with a contrast ratio of 0.75, while monolithic zirconia had the lowest translucency with a contrast ratio of 0.8. The mean grain sizes of the non-colored, colored, and monolithic zirconia were 233, 256, and 361 nm, respectively. The translucency of the zirconia was affected by the coloring procedure and the grain size. Although monolithic zirconia may not be the best esthetic material for the anterior region, it may serve as an alternative in the posterior region for the bilayered zirconia restorations.

  1. Evaluation of translucency of monolithic zirconia and framework zirconia materials

    PubMed Central

    Tuncel, İlkin; Üşümez, Aslıhan

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The opacity of zirconia is an esthetic disadvantage that hinders achieving natural and shade-matched restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the translucency of non-colored and colored framework zirconia and monolithic zirconia. MATERIALS AND METHODS The three groups tested were: non-colored framework zirconia, colored framework zirconia with the A3 shade according to Vita Classic Scale, and monolithic zirconia (n=5). The specimens were fabricated in the dimensions of 15×12×0.5 mm. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the contrast ratio, which is indicative of translucency. Three measurements were made to obtain the contrast ratios of the materials over a white background (L*w) and a black background (L*b). The data were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance and Tukey HSD tests. One specimen from each group was chosen for scanning electron microscope analysis. The determined areas of the SEM images were divided by the number of grains in order to calculate the mean grain size. RESULTS Statistically significant differences were observed among all groups (P<.05). Non-colored zirconia had the highest translucency with a contrast ratio of 0.75, while monolithic zirconia had the lowest translucency with a contrast ratio of 0.8. The mean grain sizes of the non-colored, colored, and monolithic zirconia were 233, 256, and 361 nm, respectively. CONCLUSION The translucency of the zirconia was affected by the coloring procedure and the grain size. Although monolithic zirconia may not be the best esthetic material for the anterior region, it may serve as an alternative in the posterior region for the bilayered zirconia restorations. PMID:27350851

  2. Residual Strength Analyses of Monolithic Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forth, Scott (Technical Monitor); Ambur, Damodar R. (Technical Monitor); Seshadri, B. R.; Tiwari, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    Finite-element fracture simulation methodology predicts the residual strength of damaged aircraft structures. The methodology uses the critical crack-tip-opening-angle (CTOA) fracture criterion to characterize the fracture behavior of the material. The CTOA fracture criterion assumes that stable crack growth occurs when the crack-tip angle reaches a constant critical value. The use of the CTOA criterion requires an elastic- plastic, finite-element analysis. The critical CTOA value is determined by simulating fracture behavior in laboratory specimens, such as a compact specimen, to obtain the angle that best fits the observed test behavior. The critical CTOA value appears to be independent of loading, crack length, and in-plane dimensions. However, it is a function of material thickness and local crack-front constraint. Modeling the local constraint requires either a three-dimensional analysis or a two-dimensional analysis with an approximation to account for the constraint effects. In recent times as the aircraft industry is leaning towards monolithic structures with the intention of reducing part count and manufacturing cost, there has been a consistent effort at NASA Langley to extend critical CTOA based numerical methodology in the analysis of integrally-stiffened panels.In this regard, a series of fracture tests were conducted on both flat and curved aluminum alloy integrally-stiffened panels. These flat panels were subjected to uniaxial tension and during the test, applied load-crack extension, out-of-plane displacements and local deformations around the crack tip region were measured. Compact and middle-crack tension specimens were tested to determine the critical angle (wc) using three-dimensional code (ZIP3D) and the plane-strain core height (hJ using two-dimensional code (STAGS). These values were then used in the STAGS analysis to predict the fracture behavior of the integrally-stiffened panels. The analyses modeled stable tearing, buckling, and crack

  3. Fabrication of Monolithic Sapphire Membranes for High T(sub c) Bolometer Array Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pugel, D. E.; Lakew, B.; Aslam, S.; Wang, L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of Pt/Cr thin film masks for the architecture of monolithic membrane structures in r-plane single crystal sapphire. The development of a pinhole-free Pt/Cr composite mask that is resistant to boiling H2SO4:H3PO4 etchant will lead to the fabrication of smooth sapphire membranes whose surfaces are well-suited for the growth of low-noise high Tc films. In particular, the relationship of thermal annealing conditions on the Pt/Cr composite mask system to: (1) changes in the surface morphology (2) elemental concentration of the Pt/Cr thin film layers and (3) etch pit formation on the sapphire surface will be presented.

  4. Monolithic ZnTe-based pillar microcavities containing CdTe quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Carsten; Pacuski, Wojciech; Jakubczyk, Tomasz; Kobak, Jakub; Gaj, Jan A; Frank, Kristian; Schowalter, Marco; Rosenauer, Andreas; Florian, Matthias; Jahnke, Frank; Hommel, Detlef

    2011-07-15

    Micropillars of different diameters have been prepared by focused ion beam milling out of a planar ZnTe-based cavity. The monolithic epitaxial structure, deposited on a GaAs substrate, contains CdTe quantum dots embedded in a ZnTe λ-cavity delimited by two distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs). The high refractive index material of the DBR structure is ZnTe, while for the low index material a short-period triple MgTe/ZnTe/MgSe superlattice is used. The CdTe quantum dots are formed by a novel Zn-induced formation process and are investigated by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Micro-photoluminescence measurements show discrete optical modes for the pillars, in good agreement with calculations based on a vectorial transfer matrix method. The measured quality factor reaches a value of 3100.

  5. Monolithic ZnTe-based pillar microcavities containing CdTe quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Carsten; Pacuski, Wojciech; Jakubczyk, Tomasz; Kobak, Jakub; Gaj, Jan A.; Frank, Kristian; Schowalter, Marco; Rosenauer, Andreas; Florian, Matthias; Jahnke, Frank; Hommel, Detlef

    2011-07-01

    Micropillars of different diameters have been prepared by focused ion beam milling out of a planar ZnTe-based cavity. The monolithic epitaxial structure, deposited on a GaAs substrate, contains CdTe quantum dots embedded in a ZnTe λ-cavity delimited by two distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs). The high refractive index material of the DBR structure is ZnTe, while for the low index material a short-period triple MgTe/ZnTe/MgSe superlattice is used. The CdTe quantum dots are formed by a novel Zn-induced formation process and are investigated by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Micro-photoluminescence measurements show discrete optical modes for the pillars, in good agreement with calculations based on a vectorial transfer matrix method. The measured quality factor reaches a value of 3100.

  6. Fabrication of Monolithic Sapphire Membranes for High Tc Bolometer Array Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pugel, D. E.; Lakew, B.; Aslam, S.; Wang, L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of Pt/Cr thin film masks for the architecture of monolithic membrane structures in r-plane sapphire. The development of a pinhole-free Pt/Cr composite mask that is resistant to hot H2SO4:H3PO4 etchant, will lead to the fabrication of smooth sapphire membranes whose surfaces are well-suited for the growth of low-noise high Tc films. In particular, the relationship of thermal annealing conditions on the Pt/Cr composite mask system to: (1) changes in the surface morphology and elemental concentration of the Pt/Cr thin film layers and (2) etch pit formation on the sapphire surface will be presented.

  7. Block copolymer-derived monolithic polymer films and membranes comprising self-organized cylindrical nanopores for chemical sensing and separations.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    Microphase separation of block copolymers (BCPs) has been extensively studied because it leads to the self-assembled formation of periodic structures controlled on the scale of tens of nanometers. In particular, BCP-derived cylindrical microdomains have attracted considerable interest for various applications owing to their well-defined shapes of uniform and tunable diameters. This focus review highlights recent efforts to apply BCP-derived monolithic films/membranes comprising cylindrical nanopores for chemical sensing and separations. The nanopores provide confined molecular pathways that exhibit enhanced selectivity based on steric, electrostatic, and chemical interactions, and thus, enable us to design unique electrochemical sensors and highly efficient separation membranes.

  8. Millimeter-wave monolithic passive circuit components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binari, S. C.; Neidert, R. E.; Kelner, G.; Boos, J. B.

    1984-12-01

    Several mm-wave passive circuit elements have been designed, fabricated and tested. The circuit elements were designed in a microstrip format and cover the 75- to 150-GHz frequency range. They consist of a terminated 50-Ohm transmission line, a Wilkinson (1960) splitter, a Lange coupler, and a sum/difference network. The test results on these components demonstrate the feasibility of microstrip circuitry in this region of the mm-wave spectrum.

  9. From 1D to 3D - macroscopic nanowire aerogel monoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wei; Rechberger, Felix; Niederberger, Markus

    2016-07-01

    Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying.Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, SEM and TEM images, and digital photographs. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr04429h

  10. Low-bandgap, monolithic, multi-bandgap, optoelectronic devices

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W.; Carapella, Jeffrey J.

    2014-07-08

    Low bandgap, monolithic, multi-bandgap, optoelectronic devices (10), including PV converters, photodetectors, and LED's, have lattice-matched (LM), double-heterostructure (DH), low-bandgap GaInAs(P) subcells (22, 24) including those that are lattice-mismatched (LMM) to InP, grown on an InP substrate (26) by use of at least one graded lattice constant transition layer (20) of InAsP positioned somewhere between the InP substrate (26) and the LMM subcell(s) (22, 24). These devices are monofacial (10) or bifacial (80) and include monolithic, integrated, modules (MIMs) (190) with a plurality of voltage-matched subcell circuits (262, 264, 266, 270, 272) as well as other variations and embodiments.

  11. Hydrogenation with monolith reactor under conditions of immiscible liquid phases

    DOEpatents

    Nordquist, Andrew Francis; Wilhelm, Frederick Carl; Waller, Francis Joseph; Machado, Reinaldo Mario

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved for the hydrogenation of an immiscible mixture of an organic reactant in water. The immiscible mixture can result from the generation of water by the hydrogenation reaction itself or, by the addition of, water to the reactant prior to contact with the catalyst. The improvement resides in effecting the hydrogenation reaction in a monolith catalytic reactor from 100 to 800 cpi, at a superficial velocity of from 0.1 to 2 m/second in the absence of a cosolvent for the immiscible mixture. In a preferred embodiment, the hydrogenation is carried out using a monolith support which has a polymer network/carbon coating onto which a transition metal is deposited.

  12. Low-bandgap, monolithic, multi-bandgap, optoelectronic devices

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W.; Carapella, Jeffrey J.

    2016-03-22

    Low bandgap, monolithic, multi-bandgap, optoelectronic devices (10), including PV converters, photodetectors, and LED's, have lattice-matched (LM), double-heterostructure (DH), low-bandgap GaInAs(P) subcells (22, 24) including those that are lattice-mismatched (LMM) to InP, grown on an InP substrate (26) by use of at least one graded lattice constant transition layer (20) of InAsP positioned somewhere between the InP substrate (26) and the LMM subcell(s) (22, 24). These devices are monofacial (10) or bifacial (80) and include monolithic, integrated, modules (MIMs) (190) with a plurality of voltage-matched subcell circuits (262, 264, 266, 270, 272) as well as other variations and embodiments.

  13. Low-bandgap, monolithic, multi-bandgap, optoelectronic devices

    DOEpatents

    Wanlass, Mark W.; Carapella, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-05

    Low bandgap, monolithic, multi-bandgap, optoelectronic devices (10), including PV converters, photodetectors, and LED's, have lattice-matched (LM), double-heterostructure (DH), low-bandgap GaInAs(P) subcells (22, 24) including those that are lattice-mismatched (LMM) to InP, grown on an InP substrate (26) by use of at least one graded lattice constant transition layer (20) of InAsP positioned somewhere between the InP substrate (26) and the LMM subcell(s) (22, 24). These devices are monofacial (10) or bifacial (80) and include monolithic, integrated, modules (MIMs) (190) with a plurality of voltage-matched subcell circuits (262, 264, 266, 270, 272) as well as other variations and embodiments.

  14. Monolithic HTS microwave phase shifter and other devices

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, C.M.; Kobayashi, J.H.; Guillory, E.B.; Pettiette-Hall, C.; Burch, J.F. )

    1992-08-01

    We describe a monolithic high-temperature superconductor (HTS) phase shifter based on the distributed Josephson inductance (DJI) design integrated monolithically into a 10-GHz microstrip line. This microwave circuit incorporates >1000 HTS rf SQUIDS. Recent data demonstrate the performance of this broadband HTS circuit. We observed phase shifts greater than 150[degrees] in resonant structures, and 20[degrees] in broadband circuits. The nonlinear inductance of the superconducting transmission line can be used for other novel applications, including parametric amplification. A comparison of the DJI circuit to a series array of Josephson elements (used for pulse sharpening) will contrast these two new and exciting nonlinear transmission line circuits. 19 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Development of stable monolithic wide-field Michelson interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xiaoke; Ge, Jian; Chen, Zhiping

    2011-07-01

    Bulk wide-field Michelson interferometers are very useful for high precision applications in remote sensing and astronomy. A stable monolithic Michelson interferometer is a key element in high precision radial velocity (RV) measurements for extrasolar planets searching and studies. Thermal stress analysis shows that matching coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) is a critical requirement for ensuring interferometer stability. This requirement leads to a novel design using BK7 and LAK7 materials, such that the monolithic interferometer is free from thermal distortion. The processes of design, fabrication, and testing of interferometers are described in detail. In performance evaluations, the field angle is typically 23.8° and thermal sensitivity is typically -2.6×10-6/° C near 550nm, which corresponds to ˜800m/s/°C in the RV scale. Low-cost interferometer products have been commissioned in multiple RV instruments, and they are producing high stability performance over long term operations.

  16. Production of aligned microfibers and nanofibers and derived functional monoliths

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Michael Z.; DePaoli, David W.; Kuritz, Tanya; Omatete, Ogbemi

    2007-08-14

    The present invention comprises a method for producing microfibers and nanofibers and further fabricating derived solid monolithic materials having aligned uniform micro- or nanofibrils. A method for producing fibers ranging in diameter from micrometer-sized to nanometer-sized comprises the steps of producing an electric field and preparing a solid precipitative reaction media wherein the media comprises at least one chemical reactive precursor and a solvent having low electrical conductivity and wherein a solid precipitation reaction process for nucleation and growth of a solid phase occurs within the media. Then, subjecting the media to the electric field to induce in-situ growth of microfibers or nanofibers during the reaction process within the media causing precipitative growth of solid phase particles wherein the reaction conditions and reaction kinetics control the size, morphology and composition of the fibers. The fibers can then be wet pressed while under electric field into a solid monolith slab, dried and consolidated.

  17. Mobile Monolith Polymer Elements For Flow Control In Microfluidic Systems

    DOEpatents

    Hasselbrink, Jr., Ernest F.; Rehm, Jason E.; Shepodd, Timothy J.; Kirby, Brian J.

    2006-01-24

    A cast-in-place and lithographically shaped mobile, monolithic polymer element for fluid flow control in microfluidic devices and method of manufacture. Microfluid flow control devices, or microvalves that provide for control of fluid or ionic current flow can be made incorporating a cast-in-place, mobile monolithic polymer element, disposed within a microchannel, and driven by fluid pressure (either liquid or gas) against a retaining or sealing surface. The polymer elements are made by the application of lithographic methods to monomer mixtures formulated in such a way that the polymer will not bond to microchannel walls. The polymer elements can seal against pressures greater than 5000 psi, and have a response time on the order of milliseconds. By the use of energetic radiation it is possible to depolymerize selected regions of the polymer element to form shapes that cannot be produced by conventional lithographic patterning and would be impossible to machine.

  18. Mobile monolithic polymer elements for flow control in microfluidic devices

    DOEpatents

    Hasselbrink, Jr., Ernest F.; Rehm, Jason E.; Shepodd, Timothy J.; Kirby, Brian J.

    2005-11-11

    A cast-in-place and lithographically shaped mobile, monolithic polymer element for fluid flow control in microfluidic devices and method of manufacture. Microfluid flow control devices, or microvalves that provide for control of fluid or ionic current flow can be made incorporating a cast-in-place, mobile monolithic polymer element, disposed within a microchannel, and driven by fluid pressure (either liquid or gas) against a retaining or sealing surface. The polymer elements are made by the application of lithographic methods to monomer mixtures formulated in such a way that the polymer will not bond to microchannel walls. The polymer elements can seal against pressures greater than 5000 psi, and have a response time on the order of milliseconds. By the use of energetic radiation it is possible to depolymerize selected regions of the polymer element to form shapes that cannot be produced by conventional lithographic patterning and would be impossible to machine.

  19. Mobile monolithic polymer elements for flow control in microfluidic devices

    DOEpatents

    Hasselbrink, Jr., Ernest F.; Rehm, Jason E.; Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2004-08-31

    A cast-in-place and lithographically shaped mobile, monolithic polymer element for fluid flow control in microfluidic devices and method of manufacture. Microfluid flow control devices, or microvalves that provide for control of fluid or ionic current flow can be made incorporating a cast-in-place, mobile monolithic polymer element, disposed within a microchannel, and driven by either fluid or gas pressure against a retaining or sealing surface. The polymer elements are made by the application of lithographic methods to monomer mixtures formulated in such a way that the polymer will not bond to microchannel walls. The polymer elements can seal against pressures greater than 5000 psi, and have a response time on the order of milliseconds. By the use of energetic radiation it is possible to depolymerize selected regions of the polymer element to form shapes that cannot be produced by conventional lithographic patterning and would be impossible to machine.

  20. Radially polarized cylindrical vector beams from a monolithic microchip laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidoo, Darryl; Fromager, Michael; Ait-Ameur, Kamel; Forbes, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    Monolithic microchip lasers consist of a thin slice of laser crystal where the cavity mirrors are deposited directly onto the end faces. While this property makes such lasers very compact and robust, it prohibits the use of intracavity laser beam shaping techniques to produce complex light fields. We overcome this limitation and demonstrate the selection of complex light fields in the form of vector-vortex beams directly from a monolithic microchip laser. We employ pump reshaping and a thermal gradient across the crystal surface to control both the intensity and polarization profile of the output mode. In particular, we show laser oscillation on a superposition of Laguerre-Gaussian modes of zero radial and nonzero azimuthal index in both the scalar and vector regimes. Such complex light fields created directly from the source could find applications in fiber injection, materials processing and in simulating quantum processes.

  1. Phase composition gradient in leached polluted cement monoliths

    SciTech Connect

    Leoni, Matteo Scardi, Paolo; Pelosato, Renato; Sora, Isabella Natali; Dotelli, Giovanni; Stampino, Paola Gallo; Presti, Arianna Lo

    2007-11-15

    The long-term behaviour of cement monoliths containing an organic waste, was investigated by means of a 14-month dynamic-leach-testing in deionised water. The degree of hydration and the phase composition were measured by Thermal Analysis (TGA/DTA), X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDXS). X-ray data, analysed by the Rietveld method, provided a detailed quantitative information on the in-depth crystalline phase distribution in the specimens. Crossed with TGA and spectroscopic data and supported by the results of kinetic/hydration calculations, the diffraction results provide a detailed description of the in-depth phase composition gradient in the leached monoliths. In particular, 14-month old specimens show a clear leaching zone with predominance of CSH and calcite near the surface and low abundance of the other usual cement constituents. The material is not completely effective in retaining the contaminant.

  2. Monolithic integration of a plasmonic sensor with CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakoor, Abdul; Cheah, Boon C.; Hao, Danni; Al-Rawhani, Mohammed; Nagy, Bence; Grant, James; Dale, Carl; Keegan, Neil; McNeil, Calum; Cumming, David R. S.

    2017-02-01

    Monolithic integration of nanophotonic sensors with CMOS detectors can transform the laboratory based nanophotonic sensors into practical devices with a range of applications in everyday life. In this work, by monolithically integrating an array of gold nanodiscs with the CMOS photodiode we have developed a compact and miniaturized nanophotonic sensor system having direct electrical read out. Doing so eliminates the need of expensive and bulky laboratory based optical spectrum analyzers used currently for measurements of nanophotonic sensor chips. The experimental optical sensitivity of the gold nanodiscs is measured to be 275 nm/RIU which translates to an electrical sensitivity of 5.4 V/RIU. This integration of nanophotonic sensors with the CMOS electronics has the potential to revolutionize personalized medical diagnostics similar to the way in which the CMOS technology has revolutionized the electronics industry.

  3. A 30 GHz monolithic receive module technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geddes, J.; Sokolov, V.; Bauhahn, P.; Contolatis, T.

    1988-01-01

    This report is a technology assessment relevant to the 30 GHz Monolithic Receive Module development. It is based on results obtained on the present NASA Contract (NAS3-23356) as well as on information gathered from literature and other industry sources. To date the on-going Honeywell program has concentrated on demonstrating the so-called interconnected receive module which consists of four monolithic chips - the low noise front-end amplifier (LNA), the five bit phase shifter (PS), the gain control amplifier (GC), and the RF to IF downconverter (RF/IF). Results on all four individual chips have been obtained and interconnection of the first three functions has been accomplished. Future work on this contract is aimed at a higher level of integration, i.e., integration of the first three functions (LNA + PS + GC) on a single GaAs chip. The report presents the status of this technology and projections of its future directions.

  4. Design and Testing of Prototypic Elements Containing Monolithic Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; M.K. Meyer; D.M. Wachs

    2011-10-01

    The US fuel development team has performed numerous irradiation tests on small to medium sized specimens containing low enriched uranium fuel designs. The team is now focused on qualification and demonstration of the uranium-molybdenum Base Monolithic Design and has entered the next generation of testing with the design and irradiation of prototypic elements which contain this fuel. The designs of fuel elements containing monolithic fuel, such as AFIP-7 (which is currently under irradiation) and RERTR-FE (which is currently under fabrication), are appropriate progressions relative to the technology life cycle. The culmination of this testing program will occur with the design, fabrication, and irradiation of demonstration products to include the base fuel demonstration and design demonstration experiments. Future plans show that design, fabrication, and testing activities will apply the rigor needed for a demonstration campaign.

  5. Affinity Monolith-Integrated Microchips for Protein Purification and Concentration.

    PubMed

    Gao, Changlu; Sun, Xiuhua; Wang, Huaixin; Qiao, Wei; Hu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Affinity chromatography is a valuable method to purify and concentrate minute amount of proteins. Monoliths with epoxy groups for affinity immobilization were prepared by direct in-situ photopolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in porogenic solvents consisting of 1-dodecanol and cyclohexanol. By integrating affinity monoliths onto a microfluidic system, targeted biomolecules can be captured and retained on affinity column, while other biomolecules having no specific interactions toward the immobilized ligands flow through the microchannel. Therefore, proteins which remain on the affinity column are purified and concentrated, and then eluted by appropriate solutions and finally, separated by microchip capillary electrophoresis. This integrated microfluidic device has been applied to the purification and separation of specific proteins (FITC-labeled human serum albumin and IgG) in a mixture.

  6. Development of stable monolithic wide-field Michelson interferometers.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiaoke; Ge, Jian; Chen, Zhiping

    2011-07-20

    Bulk wide-field Michelson interferometers are very useful for high precision applications in remote sensing and astronomy. A stable monolithic Michelson interferometer is a key element in high precision radial velocity (RV) measurements for extrasolar planets searching and studies. Thermal stress analysis shows that matching coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) is a critical requirement for ensuring interferometer stability. This requirement leads to a novel design using BK7 and LAK7 materials, such that the monolithic interferometer is free from thermal distortion. The processes of design, fabrication, and testing of interferometers are described in detail. In performance evaluations, the field angle is typically 23.8° and thermal sensitivity is typically -2.6×10(-6)/°C near 550 nm, which corresponds to ∼800 m/s/°C in the RV scale. Low-cost interferometer products have been commissioned in multiple RV instruments, and they are producing high stability performance over long term operations.

  7. Monolithic millimeter-wave and picosecond electronic technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Talley, W.K.; Luhmann, N.C.

    1996-03-12

    Theoretical and experimental studies into monolithic millimeter-wave and picosecond electronic technologies have been undertaken as a collaborative project between the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of California Department of Applied Science Coherent Millimeter-Wave Group under the auspices of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at LLNL. The work involves the design and fabrication of monolithic frequency multiplier, beam control, and imaging arrays for millimeter-wave imaging and radar, as well as the development of high speed nonlinear transmission lines for ultra-wideband radar imaging, time domain materials characterization and magnetic fusion plasma applications. In addition, the Coherent Millimeter-Wave Group is involved in the fabrication of a state-of-the-art X-band ({approximately}8-11 GHz) RF photoinjector source aimed at producing psec high brightness electron bunches for advanced accelerator and coherent radiation generation studies.

  8. High productivity chromatographic separations on monolithic capillary columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, A. A.; Shiryaeva, V. E.; Popova, T. P.; Kurganov, A. A.

    2013-03-01

    The productivity of monolithic capillary columns based on silica gel and polymers of different polarities (divinylbenzene and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate) is investigated using a model mixture of light hydrocarbons. It is shown that the productivity of a column is noticeably affected by the type of gas carrier. The highest productivity is observed when using carbon dioxide or dinitrogen monoxide as the gas carrier. The lowest productivity is observed when uisng hydrogen or helium.

  9. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit technology for advanced space communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1988-01-01

    Future Space Communications subsystems will utilize GaAs Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMIC's) to reduce volume, weight, and cost and to enhance system reliability. Recent advances in GaAs MMIC technology have led to high-performance devices which show promise for insertion into these next generation systems. The status and development of a number of these devices operating from Ku through Ka band will be discussed along with anticipated potential applications.

  10. Coherent optical monolithic phased-array antenna steering system

    DOEpatents

    Hietala, Vincent M.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    1994-01-01

    An optical-based RF beam steering system for phased-array antennas comprising a photonic integrated circuit (PIC). The system is based on optical heterodyning employed to produce microwave phase shifting by a monolithic PIC constructed entirely of passive components. Microwave power and control signal distribution to the antenna is accomplished by optical fiber, permitting physical separation of the PIC and its control functions from the antenna. The system reduces size, weight, complexity, and cost of phased-array antenna systems.

  11. Monolithic microwave integrated circuits: Interconnections and packaging considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Downey, A. N.; Ponchak, G. E.; Romanofsky, R. R.; Anzic, G.; Connolly, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC's) above 18 GHz were developed because of important potential system benefits in cost reliability, reproducibility, and control of circuit parameters. The importance of interconnection and packaging techniques that do not compromise these MMIC virtues is emphasized. Currently available microwave transmission media are evaluated to determine their suitability for MMIC interconnections. An antipodal finline type of microstrip waveguide transition's performance is presented. Packaging requirements for MMIC's are discussed for thermal, mechanical, and electrical parameters for optimum desired performance.

  12. Advanced on-chip divider for monolithic microwave VCO's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Weddell C.

    1989-01-01

    High frequency division on a monolithic circuit is a critical technology required to significantly enhance the performance of microwave and millimeter-wave phase-locked sources. The approach used to meet this need is to apply circuit design practices which are essentially 'microwave' in nature to the basically 'digital' problem of high speed division. Following investigation of several promising circuit approaches, program phase 1 culminated in the design and layout of an 8.5 GHz (Deep Space Channel 14) divide by four circuit based on a dynamic mixing divider circuit approach. Therefore, during program phase 2, an 8.5 GHz VCO with an integral divider which provides a phase coherent 2.125 GHz reference signal for phase locking applications was fabricated and optimized. Complete phase locked operation of the monolithic GaAs devices (VCO, power splitter, and dynamic divider) was demonstrated both individually and as an integrated unit. The fully functional integrated unit in a suitable test fixture was delivered to NASA for engineering data correlation. Based on the experience gained from this 8.5 GHz super component, a monolithic GaAs millimeter-wave dynamic divider for operation with an external VCO was also designed, fabricated, and characterized. This circuit, which was also delivered to NASA, demonstrated coherent division by four at an input frequency of 24.3 GHz. The high performance monolithic microwave VCO with a coherent low frequency reference output described in this report and others based on this technology will greatly benefit advanced communications systems in both the DoD and commercial sectors. Signal processing and instrumentation systems based on phase-locking loops will also attain enhanced performance at potentially reduced cost.

  13. Clinical assessment of enamel wear caused by monolithic zirconia crowns.

    PubMed

    Stober, T; Bermejo, J L; Schwindling, F S; Schmitter, M

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure enamel wear caused by antagonistic monolithic zirconia crowns and to compare this with enamel wear caused by contralateral natural antagonists. Twenty monolithic zirconia full molar crowns were placed in 20 patients. Patients with high activity of the masseter muscle at night (bruxism) were excluded. For analysis of wear, vinylpolysiloxane impressions were prepared after crown incorporation and at 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-up. Wear of the occlusal contact areas of the crowns, of their natural antagonists, and of two contralateral natural antagonists (control teeth) was measured by use of plaster replicas and a 3D laser-scanning device. Differences of wear between the zirconia crown antagonists and the control teeth were investigated by means of two-sided paired Student's t-tests and linear regression analysis. After 2 years, mean vertical loss was 46 μm for enamel opposed to zirconia, 19-26 μm for contralateral control teeth and 14 μm for zirconia crowns. Maximum vertical loss was 151 μm for enamel opposed to zirconia, 75-115 μm for control teeth and 60 μm for zirconia crowns. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences between wear of enamel by zirconia-opposed teeth and by control teeth. Gender, which significantly affected wear, was identified as a possible confounder. Monolithic zirconia crowns generated more wear of opposed enamel than did natural teeth. Because of the greater wear caused by other dental ceramics, the use of monolithic zirconia crowns may be justified.

  14. Advanced indium antimonide monolithic charge coupled infrared imaging arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, T. L.; Merilainen, C. A.; Thom, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    The continued process development of SiO2 insulators for use in advanced InSb monolithic charge coupled infrared imaging arrays is described. Specific investigations into the use of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited (PECVD) SiO2 as a gate insulator for InSb charge coupled devices is discussed, as are investigations of other chemical vapor deposited SiO2 materials.

  15. Monolithic GaAs surface acoustic wave chemical microsensor array

    SciTech Connect

    HIETALA,VINCENT M.; CASALNUOVO,STEPHEN A.; HELLER,EDWIN J.; WENDT,JOEL R.; FRYE-MASON,GREGORY CHARLES; BACA,ALBERT G.

    2000-03-09

    A four-channel surface acoustic wave (SAW) chemical sensor array with associated RF electronics is monolithically integrated onto one GaAs IC. The sensor operates at 690 MHz from an on-chip SAW based oscillator and provides simple DC voltage outputs by using integrated phase detectors. This sensor array represents a significant advance in microsensor technology offering miniaturization, increased chemical selectivity, simplified system assembly, improved sensitivity, and inherent temperature compensation.

  16. Micro-Laser Range Finder Development: Using the Monolithic Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Micro- Laser Range Finder Development: Using the Monolithic Approach February 1999 John... Nettleton , Dallas Barr, Brad Schilling & Jonathan Lei US ARMY CECOM RDEC NVESD Fort Belvoir, VA Samuel M. Goldwasser Engineering Consultant Bala-Cynwyd, PA...ABSTRACT Laser range finders are a vital component of high precision targeting engagements. The precise and accurate range-to-target information is

  17. Extended Leach Testing of Simulated LAW Cast Stone Monoliths

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Lanigan, David C.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Williams, Benjamin D.; Jung, H. B.; Wang, Guohui

    2016-08-12

    This revision to the original report adds two longer term leach sets of data to the report and provides more discussion and graphics on how to interpret the results from long-term laboratory leach tests. The leach tests were performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate the release of key constituents from monoliths of Cast Stone prepared with four simulated low-activity waste (LAW) liquid waste streams.

  18. Ion exchange properties of monolithic and particle type iminodiacetic acid modified silica.

    PubMed

    Sugrue, Edel; Nesterenko, Pavel; Paull, Brett

    2004-07-01

    A 10 cm silica monolith has been modified with iminodiacetic acid (IDA) groups and characterised for its selectivity toward alkali, alkaline earth, and selected transition metal cations. Physical characterisation of the modified monolith found non-homogeneous modification along the length of the monolith, although sufficient capacity was achieved to facilitate significant retention of alkaline earth and transition/heavy metal ions over a range of eluent pH and ionic strength conditions. For alkaline earth and transition/heavy metal ions, selectivity of the 10 cm IDA monolith closely matched that seen with a 25 cm IDA modified silica gel particle packed column, although the separation of alkali metal ions was noticeably poorer on the monolithic column. Peak efficiencies for most metal ions were of a similar order for both column types, except for Zn(II), which showed significant peak broadening on the IDA monolithic column.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of aligned macroporous monolith for high-performance protein chromatography.

    PubMed

    Du, Kaifeng; Zhang, Qi; Dan, Shunmin; Yang, Min; Zhang, Yongkui; Chai, Dezhi

    2016-04-22

    In the present study, a freeze casting method combined with particle accumulation was applied to fabricate the aligned macroporous monolith for high-performance protein chromatography. For the preparation, the reactive colloids were first prepared by using glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as monomers. Subsequently, these colloids accumulated regularly and polymerized into the aligned macroporous monolith. The aligned porous structure of the monolith was characterized by SEM, mercury intrusion, and flow hydrodynamics. The results revealed that the generated monolith was possessed of aligned macropores in size of about 10 μm and high column permeability. Finally, after being modified with sulfonated groups, the monolith was evaluated for its chromatographic performance. It demonstrated that the aligned macropores endowed the monolith with excellent adsorption capacity and high column efficiency.

  20. [Preparation of a novel polymer monolith using atom transfer radical polymerization method for solid phase extraction].

    PubMed

    Shen, Ying; Qi, Li; Qiao, Juan; Mao, Lanqun; Chen, Yi

    2013-04-01

    In this study, a novel polymer monolith based solid phase extraction (SPE) material has been prepared by two-step atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method. Firstly, employing ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as a cross-linker, a polymer monolith filled in a filter head has been in-situ prepared quickly under mild conditions. Then, the activators generated by electron transfer ATRP (ARGET ATRP) was used for the modification of poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl-methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) on the monolithic surface. Finally, this synthesized monolith for SPE was successfully applied in the extraction and enrichment of steroids. The results revealed that ATRP can be developed as a facile and effective method with mild reaction conditions for monolith construction and has the potential for preparing monolith in diverse devices.

  1. Pepsin immobilization on an aldehyde-modified polymethacrylate monolith and its application for protein analysis.

    PubMed

    Han, Wenjuan; Yamauchi, Mika; Hasegawa, Urara; Noda, Masanori; Fukui, Kiichi; van der Vlies, André J; Uchiyama, Susumu; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Polymer-based monoliths with interconnected porous structure have attracted much attention as a high-performance stationary phase for online digestion liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) system. In this study, a poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) (PGM) monolith prepared via thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) was used as a solid support to covalently immobilize pepsin. The PGM monolith was modified with aminoacetal to yield an aldehyde-bearing (PGM-CHO) monolith. Pepsin was immobilized onto the PGM-CHO monolith via reductive amination. The immobilized pepsin showed better pH and thermal stability compared with free pepsin. Furthermore, the PGM-CHO monolith modified with pepsin was applied for online protein digestion followed by LC-MS and LC-MS/MS analyses. As a result, a larger number of peptides are reproducibly identified compared to those by polystyrene/divinylbenzene particle (POROS)-based online pepsin column.

  2. Organic monoliths for hydrophilic interaction electrochromatography/chromatography and immunoaffinity chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Gunasena, Dilani N.; El Rassi, Ziad

    2012-01-01

    This article is aimed at providing a review of the progress made over the past decade in the preparation of polar monoliths for hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC)/capillary electrochromatography (HI-CEC) and in the design of immuno-monoliths for immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) that are based on some of the polar monolith precursors used in HILIC/HI-CEC. In addition, this review article discusses some of the applications of polar monoliths by HILIC and HI-CEC, and the applications of immuno-monoliths. This article is by no means an exhaustive review of the literature; it is rather a survey of the recent progress made in the field with 83 references published in the past decade on the topics of HILIC and IAC monoliths. PMID:22147366

  3. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    K. C. Kwon

    2006-09-30

    syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. To achieve the above-mentioned objectives using a monolithic catalyst reactor, experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 40-560 seconds at 120-150 C to evaluate effects of reaction temperatures, total pressure, space time, and catalyst regeneration on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,600-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,800-2,000 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 23-27 v% hydrogen, 36-41 v% CO, 10-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 30-180 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-150 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40

  4. Three-Dimensional Bicontinuous Graphene Monolith from Polymer Templates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kewei; Chen, Yu-Ming; Policastro, Gina M; Becker, Matthew L; Zhu, Yu

    2015-06-23

    The two-dimensional single-layer and few-layered graphene exhibit many attractive properties such as large specific surface area and high charge carrier mobility. However, graphene sheets tend to stack together and form aggregates, which do not possess the desirable properties associated with graphene. Herein, we report a method to fabricate three-dimensional (3D), bicontinuous graphene monolith through a versatile hollow nickel (Ni) template derived from polymer blends. The poly(styrene)/poly(ethylene oxide) were used to fabricate a bicontinuous gyroid template using controlled phase separation. The Ni template was formed by electroless metal depositing on the polymer followed by removing the polymer phase. The resulting hollow Ni structure was highly porous (95.2%). Graphene was then synthesized from this hollow Ni template using chemical vapor deposition and the free-standing bicontinuous graphene monolith was obtained in high-throughput process. Finally, the bicontinuous graphene monolith was used directly as binder-free electrode in supercapacitor applications. The supercapacitor devices exhibited excellent stability.

  5. UPDATE ON MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF MONOLITHIC FUEL PLATES

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Burkes; F. J. Rice; J.-F. Jue; N. P. Hallinan

    2008-03-01

    Results on the relative bond strength of the fuel-clad interface in monolithic fuel plates have been presented at previous RRFM conferences. An understanding of mechanical properties of the fuel, cladding, and fuel / cladding interface has been identified as an important area of investigation and quantification for qualification of monolithic fuel forms. Significant progress has been made in the area of mechanical analysis of the monolithic fuel plates, including mechanical property determination of fuel foils, cladding processed by both hot isostatic pressing and friction bonding, and the fuel-clad composite. In addition, mechanical analysis of fabrication induced residual stress has been initiated, along with a study to address how such stress can be relieved prior to irradiation. Results of destructive examinations and mechanical tests are presented along with analysis and supporting conclusions. A brief discussion of alternative non-destructive evaluation techniques to quantify not only bond quality, but also bond integrity and strength, will also be provided. These are all necessary steps to link out-of-pile observations as a function of fabrication with in-pile behaviours.

  6. Monolithic integration of microelectronics and photonics using molecularly engineered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubacki, Ronald M.

    2005-03-01

    The monolithic integration of CMOS microelectronics with photonics is inevitable and benefits both technologies. Photonic integration to microelectronics provides such solutions as overcoming microprocessor communication roadblocks through the use of optical interconnection. Microelectronic integration can provide benefits to photonic structures by optimizing electronic signals generated by photonic biosensors for example. Photonic integration must complement, build on, and enhance the existing state of CMOS microelectronic technology. Photonic approaches that ignore the realities of CMOS architectures (such as power and thermal limitations), provide little benefit to the CMOS device performance, are incompatible with CMOS silicon manufacturing processes, or are incapable of achieving levels of long term reliability already well demonstrated by microelectronic devices, give little reason for photonic/microelectronic integration. Practical implementation of photonics on chip, monolithically with CMOS type microelectronic devices, remains in the laboratory. This work presents architectures to integrate photonics and microelectronics that address CMOS fabrication realities, increase performance of both the electronic and optical functions, and retain current levels of reliability. Fabricating these structures with the limited CMOS material set and/or typical photonic materials requires materials to be molecularly engineered to provide required properties. Materials have been investigated that enable economic fabrication of photonic structures for monolithic integration. Low loss self assembled silicon nanocomposite VIPIR waveguide structures are combined with long term stable non-linear poled polymers for fabrication of electro-optic active devices. Materials are fabricated using low temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD).

  7. Advanced Gasification Mercury/Trace Metal Control with Monolith Traps

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Swanson; Grant E. Dunham; Mark A. Musich

    2007-02-01

    Three potential additives for controlling mercury emissions from syngas at temperatures ranging from 350 to 500 F (177 to 260 C) were developed. Current efforts are being directed at increasing the effective working temperature for these sorbents and also being able to either eliminate any potential mercury desorption or trying to engineer a trace metal removal system that can utilize the observed desorption process to repeatedly regenerate the same sorbent monolith for extended use. Project results also indicate that one of these same sorbents can also successfully be utilized for arsenic removal. Capture of the hydrogen selenide in the passivated tubing at elevated temperatures has resulted in limited results on the effective control of hydrogen selenide with these current sorbents, although lower-temperature results are promising. Preliminary economic analysis suggests that these Corning monoliths potentially could be more cost-effective than the conventional cold-gas (presulfided activated carbon beds) technology currently being utilized. Recent Hg-loading results might suggest that the annualized costs might be as high as 2.5 times the cost of the conventional technology. However, this annualized cost does not take into account the significantly improved thermal efficiency of any plant utilizing the warm-gas monolith technology currently being developed.

  8. Preparing Silica Aerogel Monoliths via a Rapid Supercritical Extraction Method

    PubMed Central

    Gorka, Caroline A.

    2014-01-01

    A procedure for the fabrication of monolithic silica aerogels in eight hours or less via a rapid supercritical extraction process is described. The procedure requires 15-20 min of preparation time, during which a liquid precursor mixture is prepared and poured into wells of a metal mold that is placed between the platens of a hydraulic hot press, followed by several hours of processing within the hot press. The precursor solution consists of a 1.0:12.0:3.6:3.5 x 10-3 molar ratio of tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS):methanol:water:ammonia. In each well of the mold, a porous silica sol-gel matrix forms. As the temperature of the mold and its contents is increased, the pressure within the mold rises. After the temperature/pressure conditions surpass the supercritical point for the solvent within the pores of the matrix (in this case, a methanol/water mixture), the supercritical fluid is released, and monolithic aerogel remains within the wells of the mold. With the mold used in this procedure, cylindrical monoliths of 2.2 cm diameter and 1.9 cm height are produced. Aerogels formed by this rapid method have comparable properties (low bulk and skeletal density, high surface area, mesoporous morphology) to those prepared by other methods that involve either additional reaction steps or solvent extractions (lengthier processes that generate more chemical waste).The rapid supercritical extraction method can also be applied to the fabrication of aerogels based on other precursor recipes. PMID:24637334

  9. Monolithic pixels on moderate resistivity substrate and sparsifying readout architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giubilato, P.; Battaglia, M.; Bisello, D.; Caselle, M.; Chalmet, P.; Demaria, L.; Ikemoto, Y.; Kloukinas, K.; Mansuy, S. C.; Mattiazzo, S.; Marchioro, A.; Mugnier, H.; Pantano, D.; Potenza, A.; Rivetti, A.; Rousset, J.; Silvestrin, L.; Snoeys, W.

    2013-12-01

    The LePix projects aim realizing a new generation monolithic pixel detectors with improved performances at lesser cost with respect to both current state of the art monolithic and hybrid pixel sensors. The detector is built in a 90 nm CMOS process on a substrate of moderate resistivity. This allows charge collection by drift while maintaining the other advantages usually offered by MAPS, like having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line. The collection by drift mechanism, coupled to the low capacitance design of the collecting node made possible by the monolithic approach, provides an excellent signal to noise ratio straight at the pixel cell together with a radiation tolerance far superior to conventional un-depleted MAPS. The excellent signal-to-noise performance is demonstrated by the device ability to separate the 6 keV 55Fe double peak at room temperature. To achieve high granularity (10-20 μm pitch pixels) over large detector areas maintaining high readout speed, a completely new compressing architecture has been devised. This architecture departs from the mainstream hybrid pixel sparsification approach, which uses in-pixel logic to reduce data, by using topological compression to minimize pixel area and power consumption.

  10. Modeling of Flow in a Polymeric Chromatographic Monolith

    PubMed Central

    Koku, Harun; Maier, Robert S.; Czymmek, Kirk J.; Schure, Mark R.; Lenhoff, Abraham M.

    2011-01-01

    The flow behavior of a commercial polymeric monolith was investigated by direct numerical simulations employing the lattice-Boltzmann (LB) methodology. An explicit structural representation of the monolith was obtained by serial sectioning of a portion of the monolith and imaging by scanning electron microscopy. After image processing, the three-dimensional structure of a sample block with dimensions of 35.6 μm × 35.6 μm × 27.9 μm was obtained, with uniform 18.5 nm voxel size. Flow was simulated on this reconstructed block using the LB method to obtain the velocity distribution, and in turn macroscopic flow properties such as the permeability and the average velocity. The computed axial velocity distribution exhibits a sharp peak with an exponentially decaying tail. Analysis of the local components of the flow field suggests that flow is not evenly distributed throughout the sample geometry, as is also seen in geometries that exhibit preferential flow paths, such as sphere pack arrays with defects. A significant fraction of negative axial velocities are observed; the largest of these are due to flow along horizontal pores that are also slightly oriented in the negative axial direction. Possible implications for mass transfer are discussed. PMID:21529814

  11. Strong cation exchange monoliths for HPLC by Reactive Gelation.

    PubMed

    Brand, Bastian; Krättli, Martin; Storti, Giuseppe; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2011-08-01

    Polymeric monolithic stationary phases for HPLC can be produced by Reactive Gelation. Unlike the conventional method of using porogens, such novel process consists of a number of separate steps, thus enabling a better control of the quality of the final material. A suspension of polymer nanoparticles in water is produced and subsequently swollen with hydrophobic monomers. The particles are then destabilised (usually by salt addition) to make them aggregate into a large percolating structure, the so-called monolith. Finally, the added monomer can then be polymerised to harden the structure. In this work, a polystyrene latex is used as the base material and functionalised by introduction of epoxide groups on the surface and subsequent reaction to sulphonic acid groups, yielding a SO3(-) density of 0.7 mmol/g dry material. Morphological investigations show 54% porosity made of 300 nm large pores. Van Deemter measurements of a large protein show no practical influence of diffusion limitations on the plate number. Finally, a preliminary separation of a test protein mixture is shown, demonstrating the potential of using ion-exchange chromatography on Reactive Gelation monoliths.

  12. Optimal parameters of monolithic high-index contrast grating VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marciniak, Magdalena; Gebski, Marcin; Dems, Maciej; Czyszanowski, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Monolithic High refractive index Contrast Grating (MHCG) allows several-fold size reduction of epitaxial structure of VCSEL and facilitates VCSEL fabrication in all photonic material systems. MHCGs can be fabricated of material which refractive index is higher than 1.75 without the need of the combination of low and high refractive index materials. MHCGs have a great application potential in optoelectronic devices, especially in phosphide- and nitride-based VCSELs, which suffer from the lack of efficient monolithically integrated DBR mirrors. MHCGs can simplify the construction of VCSELs, reducing their epitaxial design to monolithic wafer with carrier confinement and active region inside and etched stripes on both surfaces in post processing. In this paper we present results of numerical analysis of MHCGs as a high reflective mirrors for broad range of refractive indices that corresponds to plethora of materials typically used in optoelectronics. Our calculations base on a three-dimensional, fully vectorial optical model. We investigate the reflectance of the MHCG mirrors of different design as the function of the refractive index and we show the optimal geometrical parameters of MHCG enabling nearly 100% reflectance and broad reflection stop-band. We show that MHCG can be designed based on most of semiconductors materials and for any incident light wavelength from optical spectrum.

  13. Electrically assisted capillary liquid chromatography using a silica monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Bergström, Edmund T; Goodall, David M

    2010-04-09

    A silica monolithic capillary column was linked to an open capillary of the same internal diameter via a Teflon sleeve to form a duplex column to investigate the combination of chromatography and electrophoresis in the mode of electrically assisted capillary liquid chromatography (eCLC). Using a commercial CE instrument with an 8.5 cm long, 100 microm i.d. reversed phase silica monolithic section and a window 1.5 cm beyond the end of this in a 21.5 cm open section, a minimum plate height of 9 microm was obtained in capillary liquid chromatography (CLC) mode at a low driving pressure of 50 psi. In eCLC mode, high speed and high resolution separations of acidic and basic compounds were achieved with selectivity tuning based on the flexible combination of pressure (0-100 psi) and voltage. Taking advantage of the excellent permeability of silica monolithic columns, use of a step flow gradient enabled elution of compounds with different charge state. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing the performance of curtain flow first generation silica monoliths.

    PubMed

    Soliven, Arianne; Foley, Dominic; Pereira, Luisa; Dennis, Gary R; Shalliker, R Andrew; Cabrera, Karin; Ritchie, Harald; Edge, Tony

    2014-07-18

    Analytical scale active flow technology first generation silica monolithic columns kitted out in curtain flow mode of operation were studied for the first time. A series of tests were undertaken assessing the column efficiency, peak asymmetry and detection sensitivity. Two curtain flow columns were tested, one with a fixed outlet ratio of 10% through the central exit port, the other with 30%. Tests were carried out using a wide range in inlet flow segmentation ratios. The performance of the curtain flow columns were compared to a conventional monolithic column. The gain in theoretical plates achieved in the curtain flow mode of operation was as much as 130%, with almost Gaussian bands being obtained. Detection sensitivity increased by as much as 250% under optimal detection conditions. The permeability advantage of the monolithic structure together with the active flow technology makes it a priceless tool for high throughput, sensitive, low detection volume analyses. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of cements on fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Mouhat, Mathieu; Nergård, John Magnus; Lægreid, Solveig Jenssen; Kanno, Taro; Milleding, Percy; Örtengren, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The present study investigated the effect of cements on fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns in relation to their compressive strength. Materials and methods Four different cements were tested: zinc phosphate cement (ZPC), glass-ionomer cement (GIC), self-adhesive resin-based cement (SRC) and resin-based cement (RC). RC was used in both dual cure mode (RC-D) and chemical cure mode (RC-C). First, the compressive strength of each cement was tested according to a standard (ISO 9917-1:2004). Second, load-to-failure test was performed to analyze the crown fracture resistance. CAD/CAM-produced monolithic zirconia crowns with a minimal thickness of 0.5 mm were prepared and cemented to dies with each cement. The crown–die samples were loaded until fracture. Results The compressive strength of SRC, RC-D and RC-C was significantly higher than those of ZPC and GIC (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the fracture load of the crown between the groups. Conclusion The values achieved in the load-to-failure test suggest that monolithic zirconia crowns with a minimal thickness of 0.5 mm may have good resistance against fracture regardless of types of cements. PMID:27335900

  16. Fully decoupled monolithic projection method for natural convection problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiaomin; Kim, Kyoungyoun; Lee, Changhoon; Choi, Jung-Il

    2017-04-01

    To solve time-dependent natural convection problems, we propose a fully decoupled monolithic projection method. The proposed method applies the Crank-Nicolson scheme in time and the second-order central finite difference in space. To obtain a non-iterative monolithic method from the fully discretized nonlinear system, we first adopt linearizations of the nonlinear convection terms and the general buoyancy term with incurring second-order errors in time. Approximate block lower-upper decompositions, along with an approximate factorization technique, are additionally employed to a global linearly coupled system, which leads to several decoupled subsystems, i.e., a fully decoupled monolithic procedure. We establish global error estimates to verify the second-order temporal accuracy of the proposed method for velocity, pressure, and temperature in terms of a discrete l2-norm. Moreover, according to the energy evolution, the proposed method is proved to be stable if the time step is less than or equal to a constant. In addition, we provide numerical simulations of two-dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard convection and periodic forced flow. The results demonstrate that the proposed method significantly mitigates the time step limitation, reduces the computational cost because only one Poisson equation is required to be solved, and preserves the second-order temporal accuracy for velocity, pressure, and temperature. Finally, the proposed method reasonably predicts a three-dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard convection for different Rayleigh numbers.

  17. Preparing silica aerogel monoliths via a rapid supercritical extraction method.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Mary K; Anderson, Ann M; Gorka, Caroline A

    2014-02-28

    A procedure for the fabrication of monolithic silica aerogels in eight hours or less via a rapid supercritical extraction process is described. The procedure requires 15-20 min of preparation time, during which a liquid precursor mixture is prepared and poured into wells of a metal mold that is placed between the platens of a hydraulic hot press, followed by several hours of processing within the hot press. The precursor solution consists of a 1.0:12.0:3.6:3.5 x 10(-3) molar ratio of tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS):methanol:water:ammonia. In each well of the mold, a porous silica sol-gel matrix forms. As the temperature of the mold and its contents is increased, the pressure within the mold rises. After the temperature/pressure conditions surpass the supercritical point for the solvent within the pores of the matrix (in this case, a methanol/water mixture), the supercritical fluid is released, and monolithic aerogel remains within the wells of the mold. With the mold used in this procedure, cylindrical monoliths of 2.2 cm diameter and 1.9 cm height are produced. Aerogels formed by this rapid method have comparable properties (low bulk and skeletal density, high surface area, mesoporous morphology) to those prepared by other methods that involve either additional reaction steps or solvent extractions (lengthier processes that generate more chemical waste).The rapid supercritical extraction method can also be applied to the fabrication of aerogels based on other precursor recipes.

  18. Application of Monolithic Zirconia Ceramics in Dental Practice: A Case History Report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Hun; Lee, Jai-Bong; Han, Jung-Suk; Yeo, In-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Monolithic zirconia restorations increasingly have been used in dental practice in recent years and demonstrate superior mechanical performance compared with porcelain-veneered zirconia restorations. Recent advances in manufacturing technology have made possible the fabrication of translucent monolithic zirconia ceramics. This case report describes three clinical examples of monolithic zirconia fixed dental prostheses being used in the anterior and posterior regions and exhibiting acceptable esthetic results.

  19. Photoinitiated grafting of porous polymer monoliths and thermoplastic polymers for microfluidic devices

    DOEpatents

    Frechet, Jean M. J. [Oakland, CA; Svec, Frantisek [Alameda, CA; Rohr, Thomas [Leiden, NL

    2008-10-07

    A microfluidic device preferably made of a thermoplastic polymer that includes a channel or a multiplicity of channels whose surfaces are modified by photografting. The device further includes a porous polymer monolith prepared via UV initiated polymerization within the channel, and functionalization of the pore surface of the monolith using photografting. Processes for making such surface modifications of thermoplastic polymers and porous polymer monoliths are set forth.

  20. High-power monolithic fiber amplifiers based on advanced photonic crystal fiber designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipes, Donald L.; Tafoya, Jason D.; Schulz, Daniel S.; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Weirich, Johannes; Olausson, Christina B.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the development and performance of a fully monolithic PCF amplifier that has achieved over 400 W with near diffraction limited beam quality with an approximately 1GHz phase modulated input. The key components for these amplifiers are an advanced PCF fiber design that combines segmented acoustically tailored (SAT) fiber that is gain tailored, a novel multi fiber-coupled laser diode stack and a monolithic 6+1x1 large fiber pump/signal multiplexer. The precisely aligned 2-D laser diode emitter array found in laser diode stacks is utilized by way of a simple in-line imaging process with no mirror reflections to process a 2-D array of 380-450 elements into 3 400/440μm 0.22NA pump delivery fibers. The fiber combiner is an etched air taper design that transforms low numerical aperture (NA), large diameter pump radiation into a high NA, small diameter format for pump injection into an air-clad large mode area PCF, while maintaining a constant core size through the taper for efficient signal coupling and throughput. The fiber combiner has 6 400/440/0.22 core/clad/NA pump delivery fibers and a 25/440 PM step-index signal delivery fiber on the input side and a 40/525 PM undoped PCF on the output side. The etched air taper transforms the six 400/440 μm 0.22 NA pump fibers to the 525 μm 0.55 NA core of the PCF fiber with a measured pump combining efficiency of over 95% with a low brightness drop. The combiner also operates as a stepwise mode converter via a 30 μm intermediate core region in the combiner between the 20 μm core of the input fiber and the 40 μm fiber core of the PCF with a measured signal efficiency of 60% to 70% while maintaining polarization with a measured PER of 20 dB. These devices were integrated in to a monolithic fiber amplifier with high efficiency and near diffraction limited beam quality.

  1. Preparation of a boronate-functionalized affinity hybrid monolith for specific capture of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Mao, J; He, X W; Chen, L X; Zhang, Y K

    2013-06-01

    A novel strategy for preparation of a boronate affinity hybrid monolith was developed using a Cu(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction of an alkyne-boronate ligand with an azide-functionalized monolithic intermediate. An azide-functionalized hybrid monolith was first synthesized via a single-step procedure to provide reactive sites for click chemistry; then the alkyne-boronate ligands were covalently immobilized on the azide-functionalized hybrid monolith via an in-column CuAAC reaction to form a boronate affinity hybrid monolith under mild conditions. The boronate affinity monolith was characterized and evaluated by means of elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The boronate affinity hybrid monolith exhibited excellent specificity toward nucleosides and glycoproteins, which were chosen as test cis-diol-containing compounds under neutral conditions. The binding capacity of the monolith for the glycoprotein ovalbumin was 2.36 mg · g(-1) at pH 7.0. The practicability of the boronate affinity hybrid monolithic material was demonstrated by specific capture of the glycoproteins ovalbumin and ovotransferrin from an egg sample.

  2. A poly(vinyl alcohol)/sodium alginate blend monolith with nanoscale porous structure.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoxia; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2013-10-04

    A stimuli-responsive poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/sodium alginate (SA) blend monolith with nanoscale porous (mesoporous) structure is successfully fabricated by thermally impacted non-solvent induced phase separation (TINIPS) method. The PVA/SA blend monolith with different SA contents is conveniently fabricated in an aqueous methanol without any templates. The solvent suitable for the fabrication of the present blend monolith by TINIPS is different with that of the PVA monolith. The nanostructural control of the blend monolith is readily achieved by optimizing the fabrication conditions. Brunauer Emmett Teller measurement shows that the obtained blend monolith has a large surface area. Pore size distribution plot for the blend monolith obtained by the non-local density functional theory method reveals the existence of the nanoscale porous structure. Fourier transform infrared analysis reveals the strong interactions between PVA and SA. The pH-responsive property of the blend monolith is investigated on the basis of swelling ratio in different pH solutions. The present blend monolith of biocompatible and biodegradable PVA and SA with nanoscale porous structure has large potential for applications in biomedical and environmental fields.

  3. Comparison of perfusion media and monoliths for protein and virus-like particle chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yige; Abraham, Dicky; Carta, Giorgio

    2016-05-20

    Structural and performance characteristics of perfusion chromatography media (POROS HS 20 and 50) and those of a polymethacrylate monolith (CIM SO3-1 tube monolith column) are compared for protein and virus-like particle chromatography using 1mL columns. Axial flow columns are used for POROS while the monolith has a radial flow configuration, which provides comparable operating pressures. The POROS beads contain a bimodal distribution of pore sizes, some as large as 0.5μm, which allow a small fraction of the mobile phase to flow within the particles, while the monolith contains 1-2μm flow channels. For proteins (lysozyme and IgG), the dynamic binding capacity of the POROS columns is more than twice that of the monolith at longer residence times. While the DBC of the POROS HS 50 column decreases at shorter residence times, the DBC of the POROS HS 20 column for IgG remains nearly twice that of the monolith at residence times at least as low as 0.2min as a result of intraparticle convection. Protein recoveries are comparable for all three columns. For VLPs, however, the eluted peaks are broader and recovery is lower for the monolith than for the POROS columns and is dependent on the direction of flow in the monolith, which is attributed to denser layer observed by SEM at the inlet surface of the monolith that appears to trap VLPs when loading in the normal flow direction.

  4. Simultaneous separation of water- and fat-soluble vitamins in isocratic pressure-assisted capillary electrochromatography using a methacrylate-based monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hiroki; Kitagawa, Shinya; Ohtani, Hajime

    2013-06-01

    A method of simultaneous separation of water- and fat-soluble vitamins using pressure-assisted CEC with a methacrylate-based capillary monolithic column was developed. In the proposed method, water-soluble vitamins were mainly separated electrophoretically, while fat soluble-ones were separated chromatographically by the interaction with a methacrylate-based monolith. A mixture of six water-soluble and four fat-soluble vitamins was separated simultaneously within 20 min with an isocratic elution using 1 M formic acid (pH 1.9)/acetonitrile (30:70, v/v) containing 10 mM ammonium formate as a mobile phase. When the method was applied to a commercial multivitamin tablet and a spiked one, the vitamins were successfully analyzed, and no influence of the matrix contained in the tablet was observed.

  5. The elevated temperature mechanical properties of silicon nitride/boron nitride fibrous monoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trice, Rodney Wayne

    nitride and the silicon nitride. A more refractory fibrous monolith was fabricated in an effort to extend the high temperature properties of SN/BN fibrous monoliths. Only 4 wt.% yttria was added to the silicon nitride to aid in densification. The presence of residual carbon following binder burnout was proposed to be responsible for the formation of melilite, a phase known to undergo severe oxidation between 900sp°C-1100sp°C. When residual carbon was removed prior to hot-pressing with a post-binder burnout heat treatment at 400sp°C in air this phase was not present. A room temperature strength of 553 MPa and a work of fracture of 6700 J/msp2 was observed. A strength of 293 MPa was measured at 1400sp°C.

  6. MONOLITH: a massive magnetized iron detector for atmospheric neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MONOLITH Collaboration

    2001-08-01

    The MONOLITH (Massive Observatory for Neutrino Oscillation or LImits on THeir existence) project is a proposal (N.Y. Agafonova et al., 2000) for an experiment to be installed in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory to study atmospheric neutrino oscillations with a massive magnetized iron tracking calorimeter . The main purpose is to confirm the existence of atmospheric neutrino oscillations through the explicit observation of the first oscillation minimum in νµ disappearance. The MONOLITH detector has been designed in order to discriminate among different oscillation modes and to accurately measure the oscillation parameters in a range that completely covers the Super-Kamiokande allowed region. Other measurements include studies of matter effects, the NC up down ratio, the ¯ν/ν ratio, the study of cosmic ray muons in the multi-TeV energy region, and auxiliary measurements from the CERN to Gran Sasso neutrino beam. Correspondence to: G. C. Trinchero (trinchero@to.infn.it) 1 Institutions participating to the MONOLITH Collaboration: INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Napoli, Italy Moscow Engineering Physics Insitute, Moscow, Russia Universit´a di Bologna and INFN, Bologna, Italy Columbia University, New York, USA Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, Frascati, Italy Universit´a di Torino,Torino, Italy Universit`a di Milano Bicocca and INFN Sezione di Milano, Italy M¨unster University, M¨unster, Germany Hamburg University, Hamburg, Germany INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino, Italy Istituto di Cosmogeofisica, CNR, Torino, Italy Institute for Nuclear Research (INR), Moscow, Russia Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, INFN, Assergi, Italy Universit`a de L'Aquila and INFN, L'Aquila, Italy Universit´a di Roma, Roma, Italy Bonn University, Bonn, Germany Humboldt University Berlin, Berlin, Germany

  7. Mode beating and heterodyning of monolithically integrated semiconductor ring lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chiyu

    Monolithically integrated semiconductor ring lasers (SRLs) are attractive optical sources for optoelectronic integrated circuits (OEICs) because they do not require any feedback elements, do not have parts exposed to external ambient, and can operate in a traveling-wave mode. They are promising candidates for wavelength filtering, unidirectional traveling-wave operation, and multiplexing/demultiplexing applications. Ring lasers can also be used as ultrashort pulse generators using various mode-locking schemes and as active gyro components. However, the SRL is a very complicated dynamic system, which requires more investigations to understand the performance regarding details of the design and fabrication. As a part of NASA-supported project "Monolithically Integrated Semiconductor Ring Laser Gyro for Space Applications", this dissertation research was focused on design and characterization of a novel monolithically integrated rotation sensor based on two large-size independent SRLs. Numerical modeling based on the beam propagation method (BPM) was used to design the fabrication parameters for the single-mode ridge-waveguide ring cavity and directional coupler waveguides. The mode internal coupling in single lateral-mode laser diodes with InGaAs/GaAs material system was investigated by optical experiments and numerical modeling. To gain the understanding of the SRL performance, optical and electrical characterization was performed on fabricated SRLs. Particular emphasis was placed on the study of optical and radio frequency (RF) beating spectra of longitudinal modes of ring lasers. RF measurements provide high accuracy in the diagnosis of laser oscillation parameters by purely electronic means, particularly in the measurement of the group index and its dependence on current and temperature. Theoretical analysis based on the effective index method provides good agreement between the experimental data and numerical calculations. Finally, optical heterodyning spectra

  8. Preparation and characterization of methacrylate-based monolith for capillary hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Luan; Li, Li-Man; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Ma, Qiao; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2012-03-23

    In current study, poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (MAA-co-EDMA) monolith was successfully prepared for capillary hydrophilic liquid chromatography (cHILIC). The polymerization was optimized by changing the ratio of MAA to EDMA, the type and amount of porogen. The characterization indicated that "hydrophilic" monolithic column possessed homogeneous column bed, good permeability and narrow pore size distribution. Under HILIC mode, the "hydrophilic" monolith prepared with PEG and DMSO showed stronger hydrophilicity than the "hydrophobic" monolith prepared with dodecanol and toluene. Finally, the "hydrophilic" monolith was applied in the separation of tryptic digests of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with cHILIC-ESI-qTOF-MS system. Our results revealed that 49 peptides were identified with 50% sequence coverage under HILIC mode, which was much better than the peptides identified using particulate-packed commercial column with RPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS system or "hydrophobic" monolith with cHILIC-ESI-qTOF-MS system. Taken together, the "hydrophilic" monolithic column prepared in current study, demonstrated the excellent chromatographic performance on the separation of complex samples, which offers the potential application of the monolith on proteomics study.

  9. Preparation and applications of hybrid organic-inorganic monoliths: a review.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tao; Row, Kyung Ho

    2012-06-01

    This review presents an overview of the properties of hybrid organic-inorganic monolithic materials and summarizes the recent developments in the preparation and applications of these hybrid monolithic materials. Hybrid monolithic materials with porosities, surface functionalities, and fast dynamic transport have developed rapidly, and have been used in a wide range of applications owing to the low cost, good stability, and excellent performance. Basically, these materials can be divided into two major types according to the chemical composition: hybrid silica-based monolith (HSM) and hybrid polymer-based monolith (HPM). Compared to the HPM, HSM monolith has been attracting most wide attentions, and it is commonly synthesized by the sol-gel process. The conventional preparation procedures of two type's hybrid organic-inorganic monoliths are addressed. Applications of hybrid organic-inorganic monoliths in optical devices, capillary microextraction (CME), capillary electrochromatography (CEC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and chiral separation are also reviewed. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Column preconcentration of lead in aqueous solution with macroporous epoxy resin-based polymer monolithic matrix.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sui; Zhang, Ruifeng

    2006-08-11

    The objective of this article was to investigate the feasibility of epoxy resin-based monoliths prepared by stepwise polymerization and column preconcentration of metal ions using large-scale monolithic matrix. A novel macroporous polymer monolith matrix was prepared from epoxy resin (EP) and ethylenediamine (EDA) and pore-forming reagent (polyethylene glycol, PEG-1000) by in situ step-addition polymerization. The morphology of the resulting polymer monolith was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge prepared from a simple glass-tube was used for the preconcentration and determination of Pb(II) combined with flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS). The characteristics of the monoliths for the extraction of Pb(II) in aqueous solution were investigated. The experimental results showed that trace Pb(II) ions could be quantitatively preconcentrated in the pH range of 4.0-9.0 with recoveries of >95%. The maximum static adsorption capacity of the monolith adsorbent was 106.8 mg g(-1). The column was eluted by 1.0 mol L(-1) HNO3 and recovery of Pb(II) was more than 97%. Moreover, the polymer monolith adsorbent shows superior reusability and stability. The precision and the accuracy of the proposed procedure were satisfactory by analyzing a standard reference material and three natural water samples. It was shown that the EP-EDA monolith was suitable for the preconcentration of environmental Pb(II) as an ion-selective SPE adsorbent.

  11. Thermomechanical Behavior of Monolithic SN-AG-CU Solder and Copper Fiber Reinforced Solders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    of microelectronics. This study focuses on a thermomechanical behavior comparison between monolithic Sn-Ag-Cu, copper fiber and copper ribbon ...microelectronics. This study focuses on a thermomechanical behavior comparison between monolithic Sn-Ag-Cu, copper fiber and copper ribbon ...32 3. Copper Ribbon Sample .....................................................................34 4. NiTi Fiber and

  12. Functionalization of hybrid monolithic columns via thiol-ene click reaction for proteomics analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhongshan; Liu, Jing; Liu, Zheyi; Wang, Hongwei; Ou, Junjie; Ye, Mingliang; Zou, Hanfa

    2017-05-19

    The vinyl-functionalized hybrid monolithic columns (75 and 150μm i.d.) were prepared via sol-gel chemistry of tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMS). The content of accessible vinyl groups was further improved after the monolithic column was post-treated with vinyldimethylethoxysilane (VDMES). The surface properties of monolithic columns were tailored via thiol-ene click reaction by using 1-octadecanethiol, sodium 3-mercapto-1-propanesulfonate and 2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)diethanethiol/vinylphosphonic acid, respectively. The preparing octadecyl-functionalized monolithic columns were adopted for proteomics analysis in cLC-MS/MS. A 37-cm-long×75-μm-i.d. monolithic column could identify 3918 unique peptides and 1067 unique proteins in the tryptic digest of proteins from HeLa cells. When a 90-cm-long×75-μm-i.d. monolithic column was used, the numbers of unique peptides and proteins were increased by 82% and 32%, respectively. Furthermore, strong cation exchange (SCX) monolithic columns (4cm in length×150μm i.d.) were also prepared and coupled with the 37-cm-long×75-μm-i.d. octadecyl-functionalized monolithic column for two-dimensional SCX-RPLC-MS/MS analysis, which could identify 17114 unique peptides and 3211 unique proteins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. W-band monolithic oscillator using InAlAs/InGaAs HEMT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwon, Y.; Pavlidis, D.; Tutt, M.; Ng, G. I.; Lai, R.

    1990-01-01

    A W-band monolithic integrated oscillator circuit was designed and fabricated using submicron HEMT technology. The oscillation frequency was around 81 GHz and the power was -7 dBm at the chip level. This is the first report of an InAlAs/InGaAs monolithic oscillator operating at the W-band.

  14. Monoliths for fast bioseparation and bioconversion and their applications in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Jungbauer, Alois; Hahn, Rainer

    2004-07-01

    Monoliths have consolidated their position in bioseparation. More than 200 different applications have been reported in the past two decades and their advantages compared to conventional chromatography demonstrated. These include the high mass transfer efficiency due to the convective flow enabled by the macroporous character of the matrix. Recently plasmid DNA and viruses were separated with high efficiency and cryogels and monolithic superporous agarose were developed for capture of proteins from crude homogenates and separation of microorganisms or lymphocytes. Currently four companies manufacture monoliths mainly for analytical applications although monoliths with a volume of 0.8 liter are commercially available and 8 L are available as prototypes. A book entitled "Monolithic materials: preparation, properties and applications" was published in 2003 and became standard reference of the status of this area. This review focuses on the progress in monoliths that goes beyond the scope of this reference book. Less progress has been made in the field of bioconversions in spite of the fact that monolithic supports exhibit better performance than beads in enzymatic processing of macromolecules. It appears that the scientific community has not yet realized that supports for these applications are readily available. In addition, monoliths will further substantially advance bioseparations of both small and large molecules in the future.

  15. Polyoxometalate incorporated porous polymer monoliths, a versatile separation media for nano liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng; Xu, Jing; Hussain, Dilshad; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2016-07-01

    Here in, we present a strategy to incorporate NBu4SiW11O39(SiCHCH2)2, an organic-modified polyoxometalates (POM) monomer, into the monolithic poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) capillary columns. SEM analysis and permeability test indicated that the addition of POM lead to larger skeleton size and better permeability. BET and pore size distribution test confirmed the uniform porosity of the resulting POM incorporated monoliths. Hydrophobic, strong cation-exchange and H-bond interactions of the prepared monolith were evaluated by testing a series of chromatographic probes. The performance of monolith was further elaborated by separating 5 nucleobases, and 6 neurotransmitters. Chromatographic separation results showed that POM incorporated monolith exhibited much better resolution for the analytes as compared to the monolith without POM. This type of monolithic material has been reported for the first time and the work provided a promising way for preparation and application of various POM-incorporated monolithic materials in separation science.

  16. A monolith immobilised iridium Cp* catalyst for hydrogen transfer reactions under flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Maria Victoria; Guetzoyan, Lucie; Baxendale, Ian R

    2015-02-14

    An immobilised iridium hydrogen transfer catalyst has been developed for use in flow based processing by incorporation of a ligand into a porous polymeric monolithic flow reactor. The monolithic construct has been used for several redox reductions demonstrating excellent recyclability, good turnover numbers and high chemical stability giving negligible metal leaching over extended periods of use.

  17. High conductance ohmic junction for monolithic semiconductor devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Carol R. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    In order to increase the efficiency of solar cells, a monolithic stacked device is constructed comprising a plurality of solar sub-cells adjusted for different bands of radiation. The interconnection between these sub-cells has been a significant technical problem. The invention provides an interconnection which is a thin layer of high ohmic conductance material formed between the sub-cells. Such a layer tends to form beads which serve as a shorting interconnect while passing a large fraction of the radiation to the lower sub-cells and permitting lattice-matching between the sub-cells to be preserved.

  18. Development of fibrous monoliths from mullite, alumina, and zirconia powders

    SciTech Connect

    Polzin, B. J.; Cruse, T. A.; Singh, D.; Picciolo, J. J.; Tsaliagos, R. N.; Phelan, P. J.; Goretta, K. C.

    2000-06-29

    Fibrous monoliths (FMs) based on mullite combined with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2} have been produced. These FMs incorporate duplex cells in which compressive residual stresses were engineered into the surfaces of the cells. The residual stresses should increase average cell strength, which may allow them to achieve mechanical properties comparable to those of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/BN FMs. The expected residual stresses have been calculated, and data on sintering and thermal expansion have been gathered. Prototype FMs were produced and their microstructure examined.

  19. New Monolithic High Solar Rejection EUV Transmission Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury-Frenette, Karl; Renotte, Etienne; Lenaerts, C.; Rossi, Laurence; Jacques, Lionel; Halain, Jean-Philippe; Rochus, Pierre

    A new high solar rejection transmission filter for the extreme UV has been developed for the Solar Orbiter Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUI). To provide enhanced resilience to high thermal load, a monolithic architecture approach has been taken in order to limit the thermal contact resistance between the filtering sub-micron thin film, its supporting mesh, and holding frame. Some aspects of the manufacturing process involving thin film deposition and photolithography will be presented along with optical performance and space environmental test results. New avenues for improving the thermo-optical properties of the filter will also be discussed.

  20. Remote Sensing with Commutable Monolithic Laser and Detector.

    PubMed

    Szedlak, Rolf; Harrer, Andreas; Holzbauer, Martin; Schwarz, Benedikt; Waclawek, Johannes Paul; MacFarland, Donald; Zederbauer, Tobias; Detz, Hermann; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Lendl, Bernhard; Strasser, Gottfried

    2016-10-19

    The ubiquitous trend toward miniaturized sensing systems demands novel concepts for compact and versatile spectroscopic tools. Conventional optical sensing setups include a light source, an analyte interaction region, and a separate external detector. We present a compact sensor providing room-temperature operation of monolithic surface-active lasers and detectors integrated on the same chip. The differentiation between emitter and detector is eliminated, which enables mutual commutation. Proof-of-principle gas measurements with a limit of detection below 400 ppm are demonstrated. This concept enables a crucial miniaturization of sensing devices.

  1. Development and characterization of monolithic multilayer Laue lens nanofocusing optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazaretski, E.; Xu, W.; Bouet, N.; Zhou, J.; Yan, H.; Huang, X.; Chu, Y. S.

    2016-06-01

    We have developed an experimental approach to bond two independent linear Multilayer Laue Lenses (MLLs) together. A monolithic MLL structure was characterized using ptychography at 12 keV photon energy, and we demonstrated 12 nm and 24 nm focusing in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. Fabrication of 2D MLL optics allows installation of these focusing elements in more conventional microscopes suitable for x-ray imaging using zone plates, and opens easier access to 2D imaging with high spatial resolution in the hard x-ray regime.

  2. Ultracompact 100 Gbps coherent receiver monolithically integrated on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Zhijuan; Gong, Pan; Zhou, Zhiping; Wang, Xingjun

    2016-04-01

    This work describes an ultracompact coherent receiver monolithically integrated on silicon. The coherent receiver integrates one 1D grating coupler, one 2D grating coupler, two 90° hybrids, and eight Ge photodetectors in an area of only 1.3 × 1.4 mm2, which is about half the size of the smallest previously reported receiver. The design and performances of the components and the integrated coherent receiver are presented. The receiving of 100 Gbps polarization-division-multiplexed quadrature phase-shift keying (PDM-QPSK) signals is also successfully demonstrated.

  3. Development and characterization of monolithic multilayer Laue lens nanofocusing optics

    DOE PAGES

    Nazaretski, E.; Xu, W.; Bouet, N.; ...

    2016-06-27

    In this study, we have developed an experimental approach to bond two independent linear Multilayer Laue Lenses (MLLs) together. A monolithic MLL structure was characterized using ptychography at 12 keV photon energy, and we demonstrated 12 nm and 24 nm focusing in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. Fabrication of 2D MLL optics allows installation of these focusing elements in more conventional microscopes suitable for x-ray imaging using zone plates, and opens easier access to 2D imaging with high spatial resolution in the hard x-ray regime.

  4. Monolithic high peak-power coherent Doppler lidar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, Leonid V.; Töws, Albert; Kurtz, Alfred; Bobkov, Konstantin K.; Aleshkina, Svetlana S.; Bubnov, Mikhail M.; Lipatov, Denis S.; Guryanov, Alexey N.; Likhachev, Mikhail

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present a monolithic lidar system, based on a newly-developed double-clad large mode area (LMA) polarization-maintaining Er-doped fiber and specially designed LMA passive components. Optimization of the fiber designs resulted in as high as 100 W of SBS limited peak power. The amplifier and its passive components (circulator and collimator) were integrated in an existing lidar system. The enhanced lidar system provides three times increase of scanning range compared to one based on standard telecom-grade amplifiers.

  5. Monolithic LED arrays, next generation smart lighting sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagrange, Alexandre; Bono, Hubert; Templier, François

    2016-03-01

    LED have become the main light sources of the future as they open the path for intelligent use of light in time, intensity and color. In many usages, strong energy economy is done by adjusting these properties. The smart lighting has three dimensions, energy efficiency brought by GaN blue emitting LEDs, integration of electronics, sensors, microprocessors in the lighting system and development of new functionalities and services provided by the light. Monolithic LED arrays allow two major innovations, the spatial control of light emission and the adjustment of the electrical properties of the source.

  6. Q-switched Nd:YAG/V:YAG monolith microlaser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulc, Jan; Jelinkova, Helena; Nejezchleb, Karel; Skoda, Vaclav

    2005-03-01

    A specially developed monolith crystal, which combines in one piece cooling undoped part (undoped YAG crystal), active laser part (YAG crystal doped with Nd3+ ions) and saturable absorber (YAG crystal doped with V3+ ions), was used for construction of longitudinally diode pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at wavelength 1342 nm. The monolith consists of 4 mm long undoped part bounded to the V:YAG saturable absorber 530 μm thick which gives the initial transmission of saturable absorber 88%. The diameter of whole monolith was 5 mm. This combination of active crystal and saturable absorber allows to realize more compact resonator with the shortest cavity length of 33 mm only. The monolith was mounted in an adjustable water-cooled cupreous ring. Temperature of cooling water was in a range from 12 to 14 °C. As a pumping source the CW-operating laser diode emitting radiation at wavelength 808 nm with the maximum output power 20 W at the end of the fiber (fiber core diameter 400 &mum, numerical aperture 0.22) was used. The diode radiation was focused into the active Nd:YAG crystal by two achromatic doublet lenses with the focal length of 75 mm. The measured diameter of pumping beam focus inside the crystal was 360 μm. The resonator of the Nd:YAG laser was formed by a planar dielectric mirror with high transmission for the pumping radiation (T>98%@808nm) together with the high reflectance for the generated radiation (R=100%@1340nm), and by a concave (100mm or 146 mm) dielectric mirror serving as an output coupler. As this coupler a various dielectric reflectors (with the reflectivity from 82% up to 94%) was used with the reason to obtain the shortest giant pulse with the maximum power. As the optimal, the stable CW Q-switched output at wavelength 1342 nm with length of pulses 11 ns with repetition rate 6.4kHz and peak power 6.1kW, was obtained.

  7. Remote Sensing with Commutable Monolithic Laser and Detector

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitous trend toward miniaturized sensing systems demands novel concepts for compact and versatile spectroscopic tools. Conventional optical sensing setups include a light source, an analyte interaction region, and a separate external detector. We present a compact sensor providing room-temperature operation of monolithic surface-active lasers and detectors integrated on the same chip. The differentiation between emitter and detector is eliminated, which enables mutual commutation. Proof-of-principle gas measurements with a limit of detection below 400 ppm are demonstrated. This concept enables a crucial miniaturization of sensing devices. PMID:27785455

  8. Development and characterization of monolithic multilayer Laue lens nanofocusing optics

    SciTech Connect

    Nazaretski, E.; Xu, W.; Bouet, N.; Zhou, J.; Yan, H.; Huang, X.; Chu, Y. S.

    2016-06-27

    In this study, we have developed an experimental approach to bond two independent linear Multilayer Laue Lenses (MLLs) together. A monolithic MLL structure was characterized using ptychography at 12 keV photon energy, and we demonstrated 12 nm and 24 nm focusing in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively. Fabrication of 2D MLL optics allows installation of these focusing elements in more conventional microscopes suitable for x-ray imaging using zone plates, and opens easier access to 2D imaging with high spatial resolution in the hard x-ray regime.

  9. Calibration Designs for Non-Monolithic Wind Tunnel Force Balances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Thomas H.; Parker, Peter A.; Landman, Drew

    2010-01-01

    This research paper investigates current experimental designs and regression models for calibrating internal wind tunnel force balances of non-monolithic design. Such calibration methods are necessary for this class of balance because it has an electrical response that is dependent upon the sign of the applied forces and moments. This dependency gives rise to discontinuities in the response surfaces that are not easily modeled using traditional response surface methodologies. An analysis of current recommended calibration models is shown to lead to correlated response model terms. Alternative modeling methods are explored which feature orthogonal or near-orthogonal terms.

  10. Monolithic telescopes for free-space optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, W. Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Free-space optical communications terminals frequently rely on optical telescopes to enhance the transmitted and received efficiency of the communication system. We have designed and patented a suite of monolithic optical telescope systems, fabricated from a single piece of transparent material. In small sizes (5 to 15 cm apertures) these designs hold promise for reducing flight terminal mass and volume, reducing risks associated with telescope alignment, and reducing costs of flight optical terminals when produced in volume. This paper presents variations of optical designs and compares their characteristics, and fabrication tolerances. Results of a prototyping effort demonstrate the feasibility of producing these elements using modern fabrication techniques.

  11. Monolithic Gyroidal Mesoporous Mixed Titanium–Niobium Nitrides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous transition metal nitrides are interesting materials for energy conversion and storage applications due to their conductivity and durability. We present ordered mixed titanium–niobium (8:2, 1:1) nitrides with gyroidal network structures synthesized from triblock terpolymer structure-directed mixed oxides. The materials retain both macroscopic integrity and mesoscale ordering despite heat treatment up to 600 °C, without a rigid carbon framework as a support. Furthermore, the gyroidal lattice parameters were varied by changing polymer molar mass. This synthesis strategy may prove useful in generating a variety of monolithic ordered mesoporous mixed oxides and nitrides for electrode and catalyst materials. PMID:25122534

  12. Monolithic gyroidal mesoporous mixed titanium-niobium nitrides.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Spencer W; Sai, Hiroaki; DiSalvo, Francis J; Gruner, Sol M; Wiesner, Ulrich

    2014-08-26

    Mesoporous transition metal nitrides are interesting materials for energy conversion and storage applications due to their conductivity and durability. We present ordered mixed titanium-niobium (8:2, 1:1) nitrides with gyroidal network structures synthesized from triblock terpolymer structure-directed mixed oxides. The materials retain both macroscopic integrity and mesoscale ordering despite heat treatment up to 600 °C, without a rigid carbon framework as a support. Furthermore, the gyroidal lattice parameters were varied by changing polymer molar mass. This synthesis strategy may prove useful in generating a variety of monolithic ordered mesoporous mixed oxides and nitrides for electrode and catalyst materials.

  13. Monolithic millimeter-wave diode grid frequency multiplier arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hong-Xia L.; Qin, X.-H.; Sjogren, L. B.; Wu, W.; Chung, E.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Monolithic diode frequency multiplier arrays, including barrier-N-N(+) (BNN) doubler, multi-quantum-barrier-varactor (MQBV) tripler, Schottky-quantum-barrier-varactor (SQBV) tripler, and resonant-tunneling-diode (RTD) tripler arrays, have been successfully fabricated with yields between 85 and 99 percent. Frequency doubling and/or tripling have been observed for all the arrays. Output powers of 2.4-2.6 W (eta = 10-18 percent) at 66 GHz with the BNN doubler and 3.8-10 W (eta = 1.7-4 percent) at 99 GHz with the SQBV tripler have been achieved.

  14. Monolithic control components handle 27 W of RF power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shifrin, Mitchell B.; Ayasli, Yalcin; Katzin, Peter J.

    1989-12-01

    This paper describes a general approach to overcoming the voltage limitations of the individual switch FET by effectively combining several FETs in a monolithic series configuration. The operation of this configuration is examined using, as an example, a combination of two FETs that are shunt-mounted to an RF line. The technology described is considered to be appplicable to an arbitrary number of cells in shunt or in series with the RF transmission line. It is shown that such a FET circuit allows the power-handling capability of MMIC GaAs FET switches to be increased by more than an order of magnitude.

  15. Characterization of GaAs monolithic circuits by optical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, H.-L. A.; Lee, T. T.; Polak-Dingels, P.; Chauchard, E.; Webb, K.

    1989-09-01

    Optical techniques for broadband microwave signal generation and detection have been developed to characterize monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs). Emphasis is on the enhancement of measurement accuracy and the identification of limitations. De-embedded complex S-parameters are derived from time-domain data obtained from both a GaAs photoconductive switch and electro-optic sampling of a Ka-band MMIC power amplifier. These parameters are directly compared with those measured from a network analyzer of the same circuit.

  16. A novel carbon fiber based porous carbon monolith

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, T.D.; Klett, J.W.; Weaver, C.E.

    1995-06-01

    A novel porous carbon material based on carbon fibers has been developed. The material, when activated, develops a significant micro- or mesopore volume dependent upon the carbon fiber type utilized (isotropic pitch or polyacrylonitrile). The materials will find applications in the field of fluid separations or as a catalyst support. Here, the manufacture and characterization of our porous carbon monoliths are described. A novel adsorbent carbon composite material has been developed comprising carbon fibers and a binder. The material, called carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS), was developed through a joint research program between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Kentucky, Center for Applied Energy Research (UKCAER).

  17. A monolithically integrated torsional CMOS-MEMS relay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riverola, M.; Sobreviela, G.; Torres, F.; Uranga, A.; Barniol, N.

    2016-11-01

    We report experimental demonstrations of a torsional microelectromechanical (MEM) relay fabricated using the CMOS-MEMS approach (or intra-CMOS) which exploits the full foundry inherent characteristics enabling drastic reduction of the fabrication costs and batch production. In particular, the relay is monolithically integrated in the back end of line of a commercial standard CMOS technology (AMS 0.35 μm) and released by means of a simple one-step mask-less wet etching. The fabricated torsional relay exhibits an extremely steep switching behaviour symmetrical about both contact sides with an on-state contact resistance in the k Ω -range throughout the on-off cycling test.

  18. [Preparation of chiral monolithic column with covalently bonded cellulose and their application to rapid enantioseparation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiabin; Wang, Xiao; Li, Jianhua; Lü, Haixia; Lin, Xucong; Xie, Zenghong; Zhang, Qiqing

    2011-12-01

    A chiral monolithic capillary column for rapid enantioseparation was prepared by covalently bonding of cellulose tris(4-methylbenzoate) (CTMB) on N-acryloxysuccinimide-based monolith. The preparation and derivatization conditions of the monolithic column were optimized. The successful grafting of CTMB was confirmed on the characterizations of the infrared spectrum and the cathodic electroosmotic flow (EOF). The effects of acetic acid concentration and methanol content on the enantioseparation were studied. The solvent resistance, reproducibility and stability of the monolithic column have also been investigated. The rapid enantioseparation of the five solutes (phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, propranolol and phenylethanol) with resolution (R(s)) values up to 1.31 was achieved within 1.2 min on the prepared chiral capillary monolithic column by capillary electrochromatography.

  19. A chitosan coated monolith for nucleic acid capture in a thermoplastic microfluidic chip

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Eric L.; Wienhold, Erik; DeVoe, Don L.

    2014-01-01

    A technique for microfluidic, pH modulated DNA capture and purification using chitosan functionalized glycidyl methacrylate monoliths is presented. Highly porous polymer monoliths are formed and subsequently functionalized off-chip in a batch process before insertion into thermoplastic microchannels prior to solvent bonding, simplifying the overall fabrication process by eliminating the need for on-chip surface modifications. The monolith anchoring method allows for the use of large cross-section monoliths enabling high flowrates and high DNA capture capacity with a minimum of added design complexity. Using monolith capture elements requiring less than 1 mm2 of chip surface area, loading levels above 100 ng are demonstrated, with DNA capture and elution efficiency of 54.2% ± 14.2% achieved. PMID:25379094

  20. Monolithic capillary columns based on pentaerythritol acrylates for molecular-size-based separations of synthetic polymers.

    PubMed

    Kurganov, Alexander; Victorova, Elena; Kanateva, Anastasiia

    2015-07-01

    Monolithic capillary columns based on pentaerythritol triacrylate and pentaerythritol tetraacrylate were synthesized using different compositions of polymerization mixtures and different polymerization conditions. The impact of porogen type and porogen/monomer ratio on the porosity of synthesized monoliths was investigated. Porogen type appears to be the main factor influencing the separating properties of the monolithic sorbent. Using optimal polymerization conditions (porogen type, porogen/monomer ratio, reaction temperature, time etc.) monoliths with a porous structure optimized for polymer separations can be obtained. The monolithic capillary columns containing porous sorbents with optimized porosity are capable of separating 10 to 12 polystyrene standards in one chromatographic run utilizing both size exclusion chromatography and hydrodynamic chromatography separation mechanisms. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Methacrylate-bonded covalent-organic framework monolithic columns for high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li-Hua; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2017-01-06

    Covalent-organic frameworks (COFs) are a newfangled class of intriguing microporous materials. Considering their unique properties, COFs should be promising as packing materials for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). However, the irregular shape and sub-micrometer size of COFs synthesized via the traditional methods render the main obstacles for the application of COFs in HPLC. Herein, we report the preparation of methacrylate-bonded COF monolithic columns for HPLC to overcome the above obstacles. The prepared COF bonded monolithic columns not only show good homogeneity and permeability, but also give high column efficiency, good resolution and precision for HPLC separation of small molecules including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, anilines, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and benzothiophenes. Compared with the bare polymer monolithic column, the COF bonded monolithic columns show enhanced hydrophobic, π-π and hydrogen bond interactions in reverse phase HPLC. The results reveal the great potential of COF bonded monoliths for HPLC and COFs in separation sciences.

  2. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of robust titania monoliths for water remediation.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Kazuya; Kagawa, Tomoya; Sakai, Munetoshi; Liu, Shanhu; Ochiai, Tsuyoshi; Sakai, Hideki; Murakami, Taketoshi; Abe, Masahiko; Fujishima, Akira

    2013-02-01

    TiO(2) monoliths were prepared, characterized, and evaluated for photocatalytic performance. The TiO(2) monoliths were found to have an interconnected void lattice and a bimodal porous structure with macropores and mesopores after calcination at 500-700 °C. Monoliths calcined at 500 °C had high specific surface area (93.1 m(2)/g) and porosity (68%), which were maintained after calcination at 700-1100 °C (51-46%). The calcined monoliths had relatively high Vickers hardness (∼104) despite their porous structure. Monoliths calcined at 500 and 700 °C exhibited high performance for methylene blue decolorization because of their high specific surface area.

  3. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    K.C. Kwon

    2009-09-30

    of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash coat, and catalytic metals, to develop a regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor. The task of developing kinetic rate equations and modeling the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants will be abandoned since formulation of catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS is being in progress. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 46-570 seconds under reaction conditions to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases and evaluate their capabilities in reducing hydrogen sulfide and COS in coal gases. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,200-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-20,000-ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-27 v% hydrogen, 29-41 v% CO, 8-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of simulated coal gas mixtures to the reactor are 30 - 180 cm{sup 3}/min at 1 atm and 25 C (SCCM). The temperature of the reactor is controlled in

  4. Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    K. C. Kwon

    2007-09-30

    of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 130-156 seconds at 120-140 C to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases, evaluate removal capabilities of hydrogen sulfide and COS from coal gases with formulated catalysts, and develop an economic regeneration method of deactivated catalysts. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,300-3,800-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-1,900 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-21 v% hydrogen, 29-34 v% CO, 8-10 v% CO{sub 2}, 5-18 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 114-132 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-140 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained

  5. Facile preparation of a polydopamine-based monolith for multiple monolithic fiber solid-phase microextraction of triazine herbicides in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zirui; Mei, Meng; Huang, Yanmei; Huang, Xiaojia; Huang, Hanyue; Ding, Yuxin

    2017-02-01

    A new multiple monolithic fiber solid-phase microextraction using a polydopamine-based monolith as the extraction medium is proposed. The monolith was synthesized by facile in situ copolymerization of N-methacryldopamine and dual cross-linkers (divinylbenzene/ethylenedimethacrylate) in the presence of N,N-dimethylformamide. The effect of the contents of N-methacryldopamine and porogen in the polymerization mixture on the extraction performance was investigated thoroughly. A series of characterization studies was performed to validate the structure and properties of the monolith. The prepared multiple monolithic fibers were used for the extraction of triazine herbicides in environmental water samples. After the optimization of the extraction parameters, a convenient, sensitive, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly method for the determination of trace triazine herbicides in water samples was developed by coupling multiple monolithic fibers solid-phase microextraction with high-performance liquid chromatography and diode array detection. The results indicated that the limits of detection and quantification for the target compounds were 0.031-0.14 and 0.10-0.45 μg/L, respectively. Good precision and reproducibility were obtained with the relative standard deviations below 10%. The developed method was applied to the analysis of the triazine herbicides in different water samples (lake, river, and farmland waters). The recoveries of the method were in the range between 79.6 and 117%.

  6. A hydrometallurgical process for recovering total metal values from waste monolithic ceramic capacitors.

    PubMed

    Prabaharan, G; Barik, S P; Kumar, B

    2016-06-01

    A hydrometallurgical process for recovering the total metal values from waste monolithic ceramic capacitors was investigated. The process parameters such as time, temperature, acid concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration and other reagents (amount of zinc dust and sodium formate) were optimized. Base metals such as Ba, Ti, Sn, Cu and Ni are leached out in two stages using HCl in stage 1 and HCl with H2O2 in stage 2. More than 99% of leaching efficiency for base metals (Cu, Ni, Ba, Ti and Sn) was achieved. Precious metals such as Au and Pd are leached out using aquaregia and nitric acid was used for the leaching of Ag. Base metals (Ba, Ti, Sn, Cu and Ni) are recovered by selective precipitation using H2SO4 and NaOH solution. In case of precious metals, Au and Pd from the leach solution were precipitated out using sodium metabisulphite and sodium formate, respectively. Sodium chloride was used for the precipitation of Ag from leach solution. Overall recovery for base metals and precious metals are 95% and 92%, respectively. Based on the results of the present study, a process flow diagram was proposed for commercial application.

  7. Mixed-mode reversed-phase and ion-exchange monolithic columns for micro-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhengjin; Smith, Norman W; Ferguson, Paul D; Taylor, Mark R

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes the fabrication of RP/ion-exchange mixed-mode monolithic materials for capillary LC. Following deactivation of the capillary surface with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (gamma-MAPS), monoliths were formed by copolymerisation of pentaerythritol diacrylate monostearate (PEDAS), 2-sulphoethyl methacrylate (SEMA) with/without ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) within 100 microm id capillaries. In order to investigate the porous properties of the monoliths prepared in our laboratory, mercury intrusion porosimetry, SEM and micro-HPLC were used to measure the monolithic structures. The monolithic columns prepared without EDMA showed bad mechanical stability at high pressure, which is undesirable for micro-HPLC applications. However, it was observed that the small amount (5% w/w) of EDMA clearly improved the mechanical stability of the monoliths. In order to evaluate their application for micro-HPLC, a range of neutral, acidic and basic compounds was separated with these capillaries and satisfactory separations were obtained. In order to further investigate the separation mechanism of these monolithic columns, comparative studies were carried out on the poly(PEDAS-co-SEMA) monolithic column and two other monoliths, poly(PEDAS) and poly(PEDAS-co-2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl-trimethylammonium methylsulphate (METAM)). As expected, different selectivities were observed for the separation of basic compounds on all three monolithic columns using the same separation conditions. The mobile phase pH also showed clear influence on the retention time of basic compounds. This could be explained by ion-exchange interaction between positively charged analytes and the negatively charged sulphate group.

  8. Macroporous monoliths for trace metal extraction from seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Yanfeng; Mayes, Richard T.; Gill, Gary; Kuo, Li -Jung; Wood, Jordana; Binder, Andrew J.; Brown, Suree; Dai, Sheng

    2015-05-29

    The viability of seawater-based uranium recovery depends on the uranium adsorption rate and capacity, since the concentration of uranium in the oceans is relatively low (3.3 gL-1). An important consideration for a fast adsorption is to maximize the adsorption properties of adsorbents such as surface areas and pore structures, which can greatly improve the kinetics of uranium extraction and the adsorption capacity simultaneously. Following this consideration, macroporous monolith adsorbents were prepared from the copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and N,N -methylenebis(acrylamide) (MBAAm) based on a cryogel method using both hydrophobic and hydrophilic monomers. The monolithic sorbents were tested with simulated seawater containing a high uranyl concentration (–6 ppm) and the uranium adsorption results showed that the adsorption capacities are strongly influenced by the ratio of monomer to the crosslinker, i.e., the density of the amidoxime groups. Furthermore, the preliminary seawater testing indicates the high salinity content of seawater does not hinder the adsorption of uranium.

  9. Macroporous monoliths for trace metal extraction from seawater

    DOE PAGES

    Yue, Yanfeng; Mayes, Richard T.; Gill, Gary; ...

    2015-05-29

    The viability of seawater-based uranium recovery depends on the uranium adsorption rate and capacity, since the concentration of uranium in the oceans is relatively low (3.3 gL-1). An important consideration for a fast adsorption is to maximize the adsorption properties of adsorbents such as surface areas and pore structures, which can greatly improve the kinetics of uranium extraction and the adsorption capacity simultaneously. Following this consideration, macroporous monolith adsorbents were prepared from the copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and N,N -methylenebis(acrylamide) (MBAAm) based on a cryogel method using both hydrophobic and hydrophilic monomers. The monolithic sorbents were tested with simulated seawatermore » containing a high uranyl concentration (–6 ppm) and the uranium adsorption results showed that the adsorption capacities are strongly influenced by the ratio of monomer to the crosslinker, i.e., the density of the amidoxime groups. Furthermore, the preliminary seawater testing indicates the high salinity content of seawater does not hinder the adsorption of uranium.« less

  10. CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors for high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeys, W.

    2014-11-01

    Monolithic pixel detectors integrating sensor matrix and readout in one piece of silicon are only now starting to make their way into high energy physics. Two major requirements are radiation tolerance and low power consumption. For the most extreme radiation levels, signal charge has to be collected by drift from a depletion layer onto a designated collection electrode without losing the signal charge elsewhere in the in-pixel circuit. Low power consumption requires an optimization of Q/C, the ratio of the collected signal charge over the input capacitance [1]. Some solutions to combine sufficient Q/C and collection by drift require exotic fabrication steps. More conventional solutions up to now require a simple in-pixel readout circuit. Both high voltage CMOS technologies and Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) technologies with high resistivity epitaxial layers offer high voltage diodes. The choice between the two is not fundamental but more a question of how much depletion can be reached and also of availability and cost. This paper tries to give an overview.

  11. Monolithically integrated Helmholtz coils by 3-dimensional printing

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Longguang; Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Yellen, Benjamin B.

    2014-06-23

    3D printing technology is of great interest for the monolithic fabrication of integrated systems; however, it is a challenge to introduce metallic components into 3D printed molds to enable broader device functionality. Here, we develop a technique for constructing a multi-axial Helmholtz coil by injecting a eutectic liquid metal Gallium Indium alloy (EGaIn) into helically shaped orthogonal cavities constructed in a 3D printed block. The tri-axial solenoids each carry up to 3.6 A of electrical current and produce magnetic field up to 70 G. Within the central section of the coil, the field variation is less than 1% and is in agreement with theory. The flow rates and critical pressures required to fill the 3D cavities with liquid metal also agree with theoretical predictions and provide scaling trends for filling the 3D printed parts. These monolithically integrated solenoids may find future applications in electronic cell culture platforms, atomic traps, and miniaturized chemical analysis systems based on nuclear magnetic resonance.

  12. Supercapacitor Electrodes from Activated Carbon Monoliths and Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolah, B. N. M.; Othman, M. A. R.; Deraman, M.; Basri, N. H.; Farma, R.; Talib, I. A.; Ishak, M. M.

    2013-04-01

    Binderless monoliths of supercapacitor electrodes were prepared by the carbonization (N2) and activation (CO2) of green monoliths (GMs). GMs were made from mixtures of self-adhesive carbon grains (SACG) of fibers from oil palm empty fruit bunches and a combination of 5 & 6% KOH and 0, 5 & 6% carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by weight. The electrodes from GMs containing CNTs were found to have lower specific BET surface area (SBET). The electrochemical behavior of the supercapacitor fabricated using the prepared electrodes were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and galvanostatic charge-discharge (GCD). In general an addition of CNTs into the GMs reduces the equivalent series resistance (ESR) value of the cells. A cell fabricated using electrodes from GM with 5% CNT and 5% KOH was found to have the largest reduction of ESR value than that from the others GMs containing CNT. The cell has steeper Warburg's slope than that from its respective non-CNT GM, which reflect the smaller resistance for electrolyte ions to move into pores of electrodes despite these electrodes having largest reduction in specific BET surface area. The cell also has the smallest reduction of specific capacitance (Csp) and maintains the specific power range despite a reduction in the specific energy range due to the CNT addition.

  13. Monolithic Cylindrical Fused Silica Resonators with High Q Factors

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yao; Wang, Dongya; Wang, Yanyan; Liu, Jianping; Wu, Suyong; Qu, Tianliang; Yang, Kaiyong; Luo, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The cylindrical resonator gyroscope (CRG) is a typical Coriolis vibratory gyroscope whose performance is determined by the Q factor and frequency mismatch of the cylindrical resonator. Enhancing the Q factor is crucial for improving the rate sensitivity and noise performance of the CRG. In this paper, for the first time, a monolithic cylindrical fused silica resonator with a Q factor approaching 8 × 105 (ring-down time over 1 min) is reported. The resonator is made of fused silica with low internal friction and high isotropy, with a diameter of 25 mm and a center frequency of 3974.35 Hz. The structure of the resonator is first briefly introduced, and then the experimental non-contact characterization method is presented. In addition, the post-fabrication experimental procedure of Q factor improvement, including chemical and thermal treatment, is demonstrated. The Q factor improvement by both treatments is compared and the primary loss mechanism is analyzed. To the best of our knowledge, the work presented in this paper represents the highest reported Q factor for a cylindrical resonator. The proposed monolithic cylindrical fused silica resonator may enable high performance inertial sensing with standard manufacturing process and simple post-fabrication treatment. PMID:27483263

  14. CEC separation of heterocyclic amines using methacrylate monolithic columns.

    PubMed

    Barceló-Barrachina, Elena; Moyano, Encarnación; Puignou, Lluís; Galceran, Maria Teresa

    2007-06-01

    Two methacrylate-based monolithic columns, one with a negatively charged group (sulfonic group) and another with a new monomer N,N-dimethylamino ethyl acrylate (DMAEA), were prepared and tested for the separation of basic compounds by CEC. This new monolithic stationary phase was prepared by the in situ polymerization of DMAEA with butyl methacrylate and ethylene dimethacrylate, using a ternary porogenic solvent consisting of water, 1-propanol and 1,4-butanediol. The performance of this column was evaluated by means of the analysis of a family of heterocyclic amines. Separation conditions such as pH, amount of organic modifier, ionic strength and elution mode (normal or counterdirectional flow) were studied. At the optimal running electrolyte composition, and using the counterdirectional mode, symmetrical electrochromatographic peaks were obtained, with the number of theoretical plates up to 30,000 and a good resolution between closely related peaks. The 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane-sulfonic acid column was used for CEC-MS, taking advantage of the compatibility of its elution mode (normal flow) with the MS coupling.

  15. Adsorbed Methane Film Properties in Nanoporous Carbon Monoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soo, Yuchoong; Chada, Nagaraju; Beckner, Matthew; Romanos, Jimmy; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter

    2013-03-01

    Carbon briquetting can increase methane storage capacity by reducing the useless void volume resulting in a better packing density. It is a robust and efficient space-filling form for an adsorbed natural gas vehicle storage tank. To optimize methane storage capacity, we studied three fabrication process parameters: carbon-to-binder ratio, compaction temperature, and pyrolysis temperature. We found that carbon-to-binder ratio and pyrolysis temperature both have large influences on monolith uptakes. We have been able to optimize these parameters for high methane storage. All monolith uptakes (up to 260 bar) were measured by a custom-built, volumetric, reservoir-type instrument. The saturated film density and the film thickness was determined using linear extrapolation on the high pressure excess adsorption isotherms. The saturated film density was also determined using the monolayer Ono-Kondo model. Film densities ranged from ca. 0.32 g/cm3 - 0.37 g/cm3.The Ono-Kondo model also determines the binding energy of methane. Binding energies were also determined from isosteric heats calculated from the Clausius-Clapeyron equation and compared with the Ono-Kondo model method. Binding energies from Ono-Kondo were ca. 7.8 kJ/mol - 10 kJ/mol. Work funded by California Energy Commission Contract #500-08-022.

  16. Macroporous monoliths for trace metal extraction from seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Yanfeng; Mayes, Richard; Gill, Gary A.; Kuo, Li -Jung; Wood, Jordana R.; Binder, Andrew; Brown, Suree; Dai, Sheng

    2015-05-29

    The viability of seawater-based uranium recovery depends on the uranium adsorption rate and capacity, since the concentration of uranium in the oceans is relatively low (3.3 μgL⁻¹). An important consideration for a fast adsorption is to maximize the adsorption properties of adsorbents such as surface areas and pore structures, which can greatly improve the kinetics of uranium extraction and the adsorption capacity simultaneously. Following this consideration, macroporous monolith adsorbents were prepared from the copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and N,N’-methylenebis(acrylamide) (MBAAm) based on a cryogel method using both hydrophobic and hydrophilic monomers. The monolithic sorbents were tested with simulated seawater containing a high uranyl concentration (–6 ppm) and the uranium adsorption results showed that the adsorption capacities are strongly influenced by the ratio of monomer to the crosslinker, i.e., the density of the amidoxime groups. The preliminary seawater testing indicates the high salinity content of seawater does not hinder the adsorption of uranium.

  17. Monolithic graphene fibers for solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jing; Dong, Zelin; Qi, Meiling; Fu, Ruonong; Qu, Liangti

    2013-12-13

    Monolithic graphene fibers for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) were fabricated through a dimensionally confined hydrothermal strategy and their extraction performance was evaluated. For the fiber fabrication, a glass pipeline was innovatively used as a hydrothermal reactor instead of a Teflon-lined autoclave. Compared with conventional methods for SPME fibers, the proposed strategy can fabricate a uniform graphene fiber as long as several meters or more at a time. Coupled to capillary gas chromatography (GC), the monolithic graphene fibers in a direct-immersion (DI) mode achieved higher extraction efficiencies for aromatics than those for n-alkanes, especially for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), thanks to π-π stacking interaction and hydrophobic effect. Additionally, the fibers exhibited excellent durability and can be repetitively used more than 160 times without significant loss of extraction performance. As a result, an optimum extraction condition of 40°C for 50min with 20% NaCl (w/w) was finally used for SPME of PAHs in aqueous samples. For the determination of PAHs in water samples, the proposed DI-SPME-GC method exhibited linear range of 0.05-200μg/L, limits of detection (LOD) of 4.0-50ng/L, relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 9.4% and 12.1% for one fiber and different fibers, respectively, and recoveries of 78.9-115.9%. The proposed method can be used for analysis of PAHs in environmental water samples.

  18. Nanoklystron: A Monolithic Tube Approach to THz Power Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Peter H.; Fung, Andy; Manohara, Harish; Xu, Jimmy; Chang, Baohe

    2001-01-01

    The authors propose a new approach to THz power generation: the nanoklystron. Utilizing silicon micromachining techniques, the design and fabrication concept of a monolithic THz vacuum-tube reflex-klystron source is described. The nanoklystron employs a separately fabricated cathode structure composed of densely packed carbon nanotube field emitters and an add-in repeller. The nanotube cathode is expected to increase the current density, extend the cathode life and decrease the required oscillation voltage to values below 100 V. The excitation cavity is based on ridged-waveguide and differs from the conventional cylindrical re-entrant structures found in lower frequency klystrons. A quasi-static field analysis of the cavity and output coupling structure show excellent control of the quality factor and desired field distribution. Output power is expected to occur through an iris coupled matched rectangular waveguide and integrated pyramidal feed horn. The entire circuit is designed so as to be formed monolithically from two thermocompression bonded silicon wafers processed using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) techniques. To expedite prototyping, a 600 GHz mechanically machined structure has been designed and is in fabrication. A complete numeric analysis of the nanoklystron circuit, including the electron beam dynamics has just gotten underway. Separate evaluation of the nanotube cathodes is also ongoing. The authors will describe the progress to date as well as plans for the immediate implementation and testing of nanoklystron prototypes at 640 and 1250 GHz.

  19. The market of huge monolithic mirror substrates for optical astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döhring, Thorsten

    2013-09-01

    Professional astronomical telescopes are complex optical systems at the limit of technical feasibility. Often monolithic primary mirrors and sometimes even secondary mirrors with huge dimensions are used. Prominent examples are the two reflectors of the Large Binocular Telescope and the giant mirrors of VLT, GEMINI, and SUBARU. The performance of such precision optical components significantly depends on the physical parameters and the quality of their substrate materials. Within this paper selection criteria for mirror substrates will be discussed, thereby considering the important technical parameters as well as commercial points and aspects of project management. Qualities and limitations of classical mirror substrate materials like Zerodur, ULE, Sitall, borosilicate glass and Cervit will be evaluated and compared to new substrate materials like silicon carbide and beryllium. The different suppliers and their production processes are presented. In addition large mirrors of existing observatories and of telescopes under construction will be listed, thereby concentrating on mirrors above three meter in diameter. An outlook on material trends and on future astronomical telescopes closes this overview on the market of huge monolithic mirror substrates for optical astronomy.

  20. Nitrogen and Phosphorous Co-Doped Graphene Monolith for Supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yangyang; Rufford, Thomas E; Hulicova-Jurcakova, Denisa; Wang, Lianzhou

    2016-03-08

    The co-doping of heteroatoms has been regarded as a promising approach to improve the energy-storage performance of graphene-based materials because of the synergetic effect of the heteroatom dopants. In this work, a single precursor melamine phosphate was used for the first time to synthesise nitrogen/phosphorus co-doped graphene (N/P-G) monoliths by a facile hydrothermal method. The nitrogen contents of 4.27-6.58 at% and phosphorus levels of 1.03-3.00 at% could be controlled by tuning the mass ratio of melamine phosphate to graphene oxide in the precursors. The N/P-G monoliths exhibited excellent electrochemical performances as electrodes for supercapacitors with a high specific capacitance of 183 F g(-1) at a current density of 0.05 A g(-1), good rate performance and excellent cycling performance. Additionally, the N/P-G electrode was stable at 1.6 V in 1 m H2 SO4 aqueous electrolyte and delivered a high energy density of 11.33 Wh kg(-1) at 1.6 V. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Methacrylate-based monolithic layers for planar chromatography of polymers.

    PubMed

    Maksimova, E F; Vlakh, E G; Tennikova, T B

    2011-04-29

    A series of macroporous monolithic methacrylate-based materials was synthesized by in situ free radical UV-initiated copolymerization of functional monomers, such as glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), butyl methacrylate (BuMA), 2-aminoethyl methacrylate (AEMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and 2-cyanoethyl methacrylate (CEMA), with crosslinking agent, namely, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA). The materials obtained were applied as the stationary phases in simple and robust technique - planar chromatography (PLC). The method of separation layer fabrication representing macroporous polymer monolith bound to the specially prepared glass surface was developed and optimized. The GMA-EDMA and BuMA-EDMA matrixes were successfully applied for the separation of low molecular weight compounds (the mixture of several dies), as well as poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and polystyrene homopolymers of different molecular weights using reversed-phase mechanism. The materials based on copolymers AEMA-HEMA-EDMA and CEMA-HEMA-EDMA were used for normal-phase PLC separation of 2,4-dinitrophenyl amino acids and polystyrene standards.

  2. New 3-D microarray platform based on macroporous polymer monoliths.

    PubMed

    Rober, M; Walter, J; Vlakh, E; Stahl, F; Kasper, C; Tennikova, T

    2009-06-30

    Polymer macroporous monoliths are widely used as efficient sorbents in different, mostly dynamic, interphase processes. In this paper, monolithic materials strongly bound to the inert glass surface are suggested as operative matrices at the development of three-dimensional (3-D) microarrays. For this purpose, several rigid macroporous copolymers differed by reactivity and hydrophobic-hydrophilic properties were synthesized and tested: (1) glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate (poly(GMA-co-EDMA)), (2) glycidyl methacrylate-co-glycerol dimethacrylate (poly(GMA-co-GDMA)), (3) N-hydroxyphthalimide ester of acrylic acid-co-glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate (poly(HPIEAA-co-GMA-co-EDMA)), (4) 2-cyanoethyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate (poly(CEMA-co-EDMA)), and (5) 2-cyanoethyl methacrylate-co-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate (poly(CEMA-co-HEMA-co-EDMA)). The constructed devices were used as platforms for protein microarrays construction and model mouse IgG-goat anti-mouse IgG affinity pair was used to demonstrate the potential of developed test-systems, as well as to optimize microanalytical conditions. The offered microarray platforms were applied to detect the bone tissue marker osteopontin directly in cell culture medium.

  3. The development of monolithic alternating current light-emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Wen-Yung; Yen, Hsi-Hsuan; Chan, Yi-Jen

    2011-02-01

    The monolithic alternating current light emitting diode (ACLED) has been revealed for several years and was regarded as a potential device for solid state lighting. In this study, we will discuss the characteristics, development status, future challenges, and ITRI's development strategy about ACLED, especially focusing on the development progress of the monolithic GaN-based Schottky barrier diodes integrated ACLED (SBD-ACLED). The SBD-ACLED design can not only improve the chip area utilization ratio but also provide much higher reverse breakdown voltage by integrating four SBDs with the micro-LEDs array in a single chip, which was regarded as a good on-chip ACLED design. According to the experimental results, higher chip efficiency can be reached through SBD-ACLED design since the chip area utilization ratio was increased. Since the principle and the operation condition of ACLED is quite different from those of the typical DCLED, critical issues for ACLED like the current droops, the flicker phenomenon, the safety regulations, the measurement standards and the power fluctuation have been studied for getting a practical and reliable ACLED design. Besides, the "AC LED application and research alliance" (AARA) lead by ITRI in Taiwan for the commercialization works of ACLED has also been introduced.

  4. Characterization and Testing of Monolithic RERTR Fuel Plates

    SciTech Connect

    D. D. Keiser; J. F. Jue; D. E. Burkes

    2007-03-01

    Monolithic fuel plates are being developed for application in research reactors throughout the world. These fuel plates are comprised of a U-Mo alloy foil encased in aluminum alloy cladding. Three different fabrication techniques have been looked at for producing monolithic fuel plates: hot isostatic pressing (HIP), transient liquid phase bonding (TLPB), and friction stir welding (FSW). Of these three techniques, HIP and FSW are currently being emphasized. As part of the development of these fabrication techniques, fuel plates are characterized and tested to determine properties like hardness and the bond strength at the interface between the fuel and cladding. Testing of HIPed samples indicates that the foil/cladding interaction behavior depends on the Mo content in the U-Mo foil, the measured hardness values are quite different for the fuel, cladding, and interaction zone phase and Ti, Zr and Nb are the most effective diffusion barriers. For FSW samples, there is a dependence of the bond strength at the foil/cladding interface on the type of tool that is employed for performing the actual FSW process.

  5. Monolithically integrated Helmholtz coils by 3-dimensional printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longguang; Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Yellen, Benjamin B.

    2014-06-01

    3D printing technology is of great interest for the monolithic fabrication of integrated systems; however, it is a challenge to introduce metallic components into 3D printed molds to enable broader device functionality. Here, we develop a technique for constructing a multi-axial Helmholtz coil by injecting a eutectic liquid metal Gallium Indium alloy (EGaIn) into helically shaped orthogonal cavities constructed in a 3D printed block. The tri-axial solenoids each carry up to 3.6 A of electrical current and produce magnetic field up to 70 G. Within the central section of the coil, the field variation is less than 1% and is in agreement with theory. The flow rates and critical pressures required to fill the 3D cavities with liquid metal also agree with theoretical predictions and provide scaling trends for filling the 3D printed parts. These monolithically integrated solenoids may find future applications in electronic cell culture platforms, atomic traps, and miniaturized chemical analysis systems based on nuclear magnetic resonance.

  6. Monolithic OLED-Microwire Devices for Ultrastrong Magnetic Resonant Excitation.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Shirin; Joshi, Gajadhar; Malissa, Hans; Lupton, John M; Boehme, Christoph

    2017-08-09

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) make highly sensitive probes to test magnetic resonance phenomena under unconventional conditions since spin precession controls singlet-triplet transitions of electron-hole pairs, which in turn give rise to distinct recombination currents in conductivity. Electron paramagnetic resonance can therefore be detected in the absence of spin polarization. We exploit this characteristic to explore the exotic regime of ultrastrong light-matter coupling, where the Rabi frequency of a charge carrier spin is of the order of the transition frequency of the two-level system. To reach this domain, we have to lower the Zeeman splitting of the spin states, defined by the static magnetic field B0, and raise the strength of the oscillatory driving field of the resonance, B1. This is achieved by shrinking the OLED and bringing the source of resonant radio frequency (RF) radiation as close as possible to the organic semiconductor in a monolithic device structure, which incorporates an OLED fabricated directly on top of an RF microwire within one monolithic thin-film device structure. With an RF driving power in the milliwatt range applied to the microwire, the regime of bleaching and inversion of the magnetic resonance signal is reached due to the onset of the spin-Dicke effect. In this example of ultrastrong light-matter coupling, the individual resonant spin transitions of electron-hole pairs become indistinguishable with respect to the driving field, and superradiance of the magnetic dipole transitions sets in.

  7. Monolithically Integrated High-β Nanowire Lasers on Silicon.

    PubMed

    Mayer, B; Janker, L; Loitsch, B; Treu, J; Kostenbader, T; Lichtmannecker, S; Reichert, T; Morkötter, S; Kaniber, M; Abstreiter, G; Gies, C; Koblmüller, G; Finley, J J

    2016-01-13

    Reliable technologies for the monolithic integration of lasers onto silicon represent the holy grail for chip-level optical interconnects. In this context, nanowires (NWs) fabricated using III-V semiconductors are of strong interest since they can be grown site-selectively on silicon using conventional epitaxial approaches. Their unique one-dimensional structure and high refractive index naturally facilitate low loss optical waveguiding and optical recirculation in the active NW-core region. However, lasing from NWs on silicon has not been achieved to date, due to the poor modal reflectivity at the NW-silicon interface. We demonstrate how, by inserting a tailored dielectric interlayer at the NW-Si interface, low-threshold single mode lasing can be achieved in vertical-cavity GaAs-AlGaAs core-shell NW lasers on silicon as measured at low temperature. By exploring the output characteristics along a detection direction parallel to the NW-axis, we measure very high spontaneous emission factors comparable to nanocavity lasers (β = 0.2) and achieve ultralow threshold pump energies ≤11 pJ/pulse. Analysis of the input-output characteristics of the NW lasers and the power dependence of the lasing emission line width demonstrate the potential for high pulsation rates ≥250 GHz. Such highly efficient nanolasers grown monolithically on silicon are highly promising for the realization of chip-level optical interconnects.

  8. SU8 diaphragm micropump with monolithically integrated cantilever check valves.

    PubMed

    Ezkerra, Aitor; Fernández, Luis José; Mayora, Kepa; Ruano-López, Jesús Miguel

    2011-10-07

    This paper presents a SU8 unidirectional diaphragm micropump with embedded out-of-plane cantilever check valves. The device represents a reliable and low-cost solution for integration of microfluidic control in lab-on-a-chip devices. Its planar architecture allows monolithic definition of its components in a single step and potential integration with previously reported PCR, electrophoresis and flow-sensing SU8 microdevices. Pneumatic actuation is applied on a PDMS diaphragm, which is bonded to the SU8 body at wafer level, further enhancing its integration and mass production capabilities. The cantilever check valves move synchronously with the diaphragm, feature fast response (10ms), low dead volume (86nl) and a 94% flow blockage up to 300kPa. The micropump achieves a maximum flow rate of 177 μl min(-1) at 6 Hz and 200 kPa with an effective area of 10 mm(2). The device is reliable, self-priming and tolerant to particles and big bubbles. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first micropump in SU8 with monolithically integrated cantilever check valves.

  9. A monolithic mass tracking formulation for bubbles in incompressible flow

    SciTech Connect

    Aanjaneya, Mridul Patkar, Saket Fedkiw, Ronald

    2013-08-15

    We devise a novel method for treating bubbles in incompressible flow that relies on the conservative advection of bubble mass and an associated equation of state in order to determine pressure boundary conditions inside each bubble. We show that executing this algorithm in a traditional manner leads to stability issues similar to those seen for partitioned methods for solid–fluid coupling. Therefore, we reformulate the problem monolithically. This is accomplished by first proposing a new fully monolithic approach to coupling incompressible flow to fully nonlinear compressible flow including the effects of shocks and rarefactions, and then subsequently making a number of simplifying assumptions on the air flow removing not only the nonlinearities but also the spatial variations of both the density and the pressure. The resulting algorithm is quite robust, has been shown to converge to known solutions for test problems, and has been shown to be quite effective on more realistic problems including those with multiple bubbles, merging and pinching, etc. Notably, this approach departs from a standard two-phase incompressible flow model where the air flow preserves its volume despite potentially large forces and pressure differentials in the surrounding incompressible fluid that should change its volume. Our bubbles readily change volume according to an isothermal equation of state.

  10. Monolithic Active Pixel Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) ASIC

    SciTech Connect

    Khalid, Farah F.; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Shenai, Alpana; Yarema, Raymond J.; /Fermilab

    2010-11-01

    Monolithic Active Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) is a counting ASIC designed for detecting and measuring low energy X-rays from 6-12 keV. Each pixel contains analogue functionality implemented with a charge preamplifier, CR-RC{sup 2} shaper and a baseline restorer. It also contains a window comparator which can be trimmed by 4 bit DACs to remove systematic offsets. The hits are registered by a 12 bit ripple counter which is reconfigured as a shift register to serially output the data from the entire ASIC. Each pixel can be tested individually. Two diverse approaches have been used to prevent coupling between the detector and electronics in MAMBO III and MAMBO IV. MAMBO III is a 3D ASIC, the bottom ASIC consists of diodes which are connected to the top ASIC using {mu}-bump bonds. The detector is decoupled from the electronics by physically separating them on two tiers and using several metal layers as a shield. MAMBO IV is a monolithic structure which uses a nested well approach to isolate the detector from the electronics. The ASICs are being fabricated using the SOI 0.2 {micro}m OKI process, MAMBO III is 3D bonded at T-Micro and MAMBO IV nested well structure was developed in collaboration between OKI and Fermilab.

  11. Monolithic active pixel matrix with binary counters (MAMBO III) ASIC

    SciTech Connect

    Khalid, Farah; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Shenai, Alpana; Yarema, Raymond; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Monolithic Active Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) is a counting ASIC designed for detecting and measuring low energy X-rays from 6-12keV. Each pixel contains analogue functionality implemented with a charge preamplifier, CR-RC{sup 2} shaper and a baseline restorer. It also contains a window comparator which can be trimmed by 4 bit DACs to remove systematic offsets. The hits are registered by a 12 bit ripple counter which is reconfigured as a shift register to serially output the data from the entire ASIC. Each pixel can be tested individually. Two diverse approaches have been used to prevent coupling between the detector and electronics in MAMBO III and MAMBO IV. MAMBO III is a 3D ASIC, the bottom ASIC consists of diodes which are connected to the top ASIC using {mu}-bump bonds. The detector is decoupled from the electronics by physically separating them on two tiers and using several metal layers as a shield. MAMBO IV is a monolithic structure which uses a nested well approach to isolate the detector from the electronics. The ASICs are being fabricated using the SOI 0.2 {micro}m OKI process, MAMBO III is 3D bonded at T-Micro and MAMBO IV nested well structure was developed in collaboration between OKI and Fermilab.

  12. C18 silica packed capillary columns with monolithic frits prepared with UV light emitting diode: usefulness in nano-liquid chromatography and capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    D'Orazio, Giovanni; Fanali, Salvatore

    2012-04-06

    In this paper the potential of fused silica capillaries packed with RP18 silica particles entrapped with monolithic frits using both nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC) was investigated. Frits were prepared after removing a short part of the polyimide layer on the capillary wall and irradiating the polymerization mixture with an UV-light emitter diode (LED) at 370 nm. The capillary, was rotated during the polymerization procedure in order to obtain a homogeneous monolith. The distance of the LED from the capillary and the exposure time to UV light were studied in order to obtain frits with good porosity and high robustness. A mixture containing five alkylbenzenes was selected as sample and analyzed by both nano-LC and CEC. The standard mixture was baseline separated with good efficiency in the range 78,000-93,000 and 99,000-113,000 plates/m in nano-LC and CEC, respectively. The columns resulted to be very robust and the prepared monolithic frits allowed working with backpressure as high as 400 bar (nano-LC). In addition high voltages were applied in CEC (25-30 kV) without bubbles formation in absence of pressure assistance during runs.

  13. A fluorous porous polymer monolith photo-patterned chromatographic column for the separation of a flourous/fluorescently labeled peptide within a microchip.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhenpo; Oleschuk, Richard D

    2014-02-01

    A fluorous porous polymer stationary phase is photo-patterned within a glass microfluidic chip to conduct CEC. During free radical-initiated polymerization, extraneous polymer forms and contributes to excessive microfluidic channel clogging. Nitrobenzene is explored as free radical quencher to limit clogging by minimizing extraneous polymer formation and a number of initiator to quencher ratios are explored with a 0.5:1 quencher (nitrobenzene): initiator (benzoin methyl ether) molar ratio shown to be optimal. The microchip patterned with a fluorous monolith was used to carry out the electrochromatographic analysis of a mixture containing fluorescent and fluorous labeling products. The fluorous monolithic column shows fluorous selectivity for compounds labeled with perfluoromethylene tags and a custom peptide is synthesized that possesses functional groups that can be both fluorescently and fluorously labeled. MALDI MS was used to identify the labeled fragments and microchip based electrochromatography was used to analyze the resulting labeling mixture. This is the first report to our knowledge that uses fluorous porous polymer monolith within a microchip to separate analytes using fluorous-fluorous interactions. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Integrated strong cation-exchange hybrid monolith coupled with capillary zone electrophoresis and simultaneous dynamic pH junction for large-volume proteomic analysis by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenbin; Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Yan, Xiaojing; Dovichi, Norman J

    2015-06-01

    A sulfonate-silica hybrid strong cation-exchange (SCX) monolith was synthesized at the proximal end of a capillary zone electrophoresis column and used for on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) sample preconcentration. Sample was prepared in an acidic buffer and deposited onto the SCX-SPE monolith and eluted using a basic buffer. Electrophoresis was performed in an acidic buffer. This combination of buffers results in formation of a dynamic pH junction, which allows use of relatively large elution buffer volume while maintaining peak efficiency and resolution. All experiments were performed with a 50 µm ID capillary, a 1cm long SCX-SPE monolith, a 60cm long separation capillary, and a electrokinetically pumped nanospray interface. The volume of the capillary is 1.1 µL. By loading 21 µL of a 1×10(-7) M angiotensin II solution, an enrichment factor of 3000 compared to standard electrokinetic injection was achieved on this platform while retaining efficient electrophoretic performance (N=44,000 plates). The loading capacity of the sulfonate SCX hybrid monolith was determined to be ~15 pmol by frontal analysis with 10(-5) M angiotensin II. The system was also applied to the analysis of a 10(-4) mg/mL bovine serum albumin tryptic digest; the protein coverage was 12% and 11 peptides were identified. Finally, by loading 5.5 µL of a 10(-3) mg/mL E. coli digest, 109 proteins and 271 peptides were identified in a 20 min separation; the median separation efficiency generated by these peptides was 25,000 theoretical plates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Integrated strong cation-exchange hybrid monolith coupled with capillary zone electrophoresis and simultaneous dynamic pH junction for large-volume proteomic analysis by mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenbin; Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Yan, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    A sulfonate-silica hybrid strong cation-exchange (SCX) monolith was synthesized at the proximal end of a capillary zone electrophoresis column and used for on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) sample preconcentration. Sample was prepared in an acidic buffer and deposited onto the SCX-SPE monolith and eluted using a basic buffer. Electrophoresis was performed in an acidic buffer. This combination of buffers results in formation of a dynamic pH junction, which allows use of relatively large elution buffer volume while maintaining peak efficiency and resolution. All experiments were performed with a 50 µm ID capillary, a 1-cm long SCX-SPE monolith, a 60-cm long separation capillary, and a electrokinetically pumped nanospray interface. The volume of the capillary is 1.1 µL. By loading 21 µL of a 1 × 10−7 M angiotensin II solution, an enrichment factor of 3000 compared to standard electrokinetic injection was achieved on this platform while retaining efficient electrophoretic performance (N = 44 000 plates). The loading capacity of the sulfonate SCX hybrid monolith was determined to be ~15 pmol by frontal analysis with 10−5 M angiotensin II. The system was also applied to the analysis of a 10−4 mg/mL bovine serum albumin tryptic digest; the protein coverage was 12% and 11 peptides were identified. Finally, by loading 5.5 µL of a 10−3 mg/mL E. coli digest, 109 proteins and 271 peptides were identified in a 20 min separation; the median separation efficiency generated by these peptides was 25,000 theoretical plates. PMID:25863379

  16. Hydrophilic diol monolith for the preparation of immuno-sorbents at reduced nonspecific interactions.

    PubMed

    Gunasena, Dilani N; El Rassi, Ziad

    2011-08-01

    A polar organic polymer monolith (M1) was introduced for performing immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) at reduced nonspecific interactions. The M1 monolith was prepared by the in situ polymerization of glyceryl methacrylate (GMM) and pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA). Through its surface diol groups, M1 provided the functionalities to immobilize antibodies. Anti-haptoglobin antibody was used as the model antibody to study the overall behavior of the immuno monolith M1 in terms of its binding to the antigen and to evaluate its nonspecific binding with other proteins, especially the high-abundance human serum proteins. To better assess the suitability of M1 for IAC, other immuno monoliths were prepared and compared with the immuno monolith M1. Two monoliths were of the traditional ones: copolymers of (i) glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) and (ii) GMM and EDMA, referred to as M2 and M3, respectively. A fourth monolith involving the copolymerization of N-(3-aminopropyl)methacrylamide hydrochloride and EDMA (M4) was introduced to allow the site-directed immobilization of antibodies. Owing to its hydroxyl groups, the M1 exhibited negligible nonspecific hydrophobic interactions with proteins. On the other hand, M4 exhibited extensive electrostatic interactions, while the M2 and to a lesser extent M3 exhibited hydrophobic interactions.

  17. Monolith froth reactor: Development of a novel three-phase catalytic system

    SciTech Connect

    Crynes, L.L.; Cerro, R.L.; Abraham, M.A. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1995-02-01

    The monolith froth reactor, involving two-phase flow and a monolith catalyst, is developed. The flow within monolith channels, consisting of trains of gas bubbles and liquid slugs, is produced by forming a two-phase froth in a chamber immediately below the bottom of the monolith. The froth then flows upward into the monolith channels through pressure forces, which differs from previous methods since it may be carried out for a commercial-scale reactor. Because the liquid film which develops between the gas phase and the surface of the catalyst is extremely thin, two-phase flow within a monolith can provide reaction rates which are near their intrinsic values. Catalytic oxidation of aqueous phenol over copper oxide supported on [gamma]-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] is used as a model reaction for investigating reactor performance. Generation of a froth is confirmed by visual inspection; the average bubble size is approximately that predicted by a force balance. The effect of externally controllable process variables (liquid and gas flow rates, temperature, and pressure) on the rate of phenol oxidation was investigated. Reaction rate increases with temperature or pressure increase and decreases with gas flow rate increase, achieving a maximum with respect to liquid flow rate. The activation energy calculated from the apparent reaction rate measured in the monolith froth reactor is similar to that of intrinsic value, suggesting minimal mass-transfer limitations.

  18. Monolithic column incorporated with lanthanide metal-organic framework for capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Shun; Du, Pei-Yao; Gu, Wen; Zhao, Qing-Li; Huang, Yan-Ping; Liu, Zhao-Sheng

    2016-08-26

    A new lanthanide metal-organic frameworks NKU-1 have successfully incorporated into poly (BMA-co-EDMA) monolith and evaluated by capillary electrochromatography (CEC). Lanthanide metal-organic frameworks [Eu2(ABTC)1.5(H2O)3(DMA)] (NKU-1) were synthesized by self-assembly of Eu(III) ions and 3,3',5,5'-azo benzene tetracarboxylic acid ligands have been fabricated into poly(BMA-co-EDMA) monoliths. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate and N,N-dimethylformamide were developed as binary porogen obtaining homogeneous dispersibility for NKU-1 and high permeability for monolithic column. The successful incorporation of NKU-1 into poly(BMA-co-EDMA) was confirmed and characterized by FT-IR spectra, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometer area scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Separation ability of the NKU-1-poly (BMA-co-EDMA) monoliths was demonstrated by separating four groups of analytes in CEC, including alkylbenzenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, aniline series and naphthyl substitutes. Compared with bare monolithic (column efficiency of 100,000plates/m), the NKU-1-poly (BMA-co-EDMA) monoliths have displayed greater column efficiency (maximum 210,000plates/m) and higher permeability, as well as less peak tailing. The results showed that the NKU-1-poly (BMA-co-EDMA) monoliths are promising stationary phases for CEC separations.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of hierarchically porous metal, metal oxide, and carbon monoliths with highly ordered nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grano, Amy Janine

    Hierarchically porous materials are of great interest in such applications as catalysis, separations, fuel cells, and advanced batteries. One such way of producing these materials is through the process of nanocasting, in which a sacrificial template is replicated and then removed to form a monolithic replica. This replica consists of mesopores, which can be ordered or disordered, and bicontinuous macropores, which allow flow throughout the length of the monolith. Hierarchically porous metal oxide and carbon monoliths with an ordered mesopores system are synthesized for the first time via nanocasting. These replicas were used as supports for the deposition of silver particles and the catalytic efficiency was evaluated. The ordered silica template used in producing these monoliths was also used for an in-situ TEM study involving metal nanocasting, and an observation of the destruction of the silica template during nanocasting made. Two new methods of removing the silica template were developed and applied to the synthesis of copper, nickel oxide, and zinc oxide monoliths. Finally, hollow fiber membrane monoliths were examined via x-ray tomography in an attempt to establish the presence of this structure throughout the monolith.

  20. 3D-Printed Zeolite Monoliths for CO2 Removal from Enclosed Environments.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Harshul; Eastman, Stephen; Hajari, Amit; Rownaghi, Ali A; Knox, James C; Rezaei, Fateme

    2016-10-04

    Structured adsorbents, especially in the form of monolithic contactors, offer an excellent gas-solid contacting strategy for the development of practical and scalable CO2 capture technologies. In this study, the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D)-printed 13X and 5A zeolite monoliths with novel structures and their use in CO2 removal from air are reported. The physical and structural properties of these printed monoliths are evaluated and compared with their powder counterparts. Our results indicate that 3D-printed monoliths with zeolite loadings as high as 90 wt % exhibit adsorption uptake that is comparable to that of powder sorbents. The adsorption capacities of 5A and 13X monoliths were found to be 1.59 and 1.60 mmol/g, respectively, using 5000 ppm (0.5%) CO2 in nitrogen at room temperature. The dynamic CO2/N2 breakthrough experiments show relatively fast dynamics for monolithic structures. In addition, the printed zeolite monoliths show reasonably good mechanical stability that can eventually prevent attrition and dusting issues commonly encountered in traditional pellets and beads packing systems. The 3D printing technique offers an alternative, cost-effective, and facile approach to fabricate structured adsorbents with tunable structural, chemical, and mechanical properties for use in gas separation processes.

  1. Zeolitic imidazolate framework-methacrylate composite monolith characterization by inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Kareem; Badjah-Hadj-Ahmed, Ahmed Yacine; Aqel, Ahmad; Aouak, Taieb; ALOthman, Zeid Abdullah

    2016-04-22

    Thermodynamic characterization of butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate neat monolith and zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 incorporated with butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate composite monolith were studied using inverse gas chromatography at infinite dilution under 1MPa column pressure and various column temperatures. The free energy of adsorption (ΔGA), enthalpy of adsorption (ΔHA) and entropy of adsorption (ΔSA) were determined using a series of n-alkanes. The dispersive component of surface energy (γS(D)) was estimated by Dorris-Gray and Schultz et al. The composite monolith showed a more energetic surface than the neat monolith. The acidic, KA, and basic, KD, parameters for both materials were estimated using a group of polar probes. A basic character was concluded with more basic behavior for the neat monolith. Flory-Huggins parameter, χ, was taken as a measure of miscibility between the probes with the low molecular weight and the high molecular weight monolith. Inverse gas chromatography provides a better understanding of the role of incorporated zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-8) into the polymer matrix in its monolithic form. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Clickable Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Monolith for Highly Efficient Capillary Chromatographic Separation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ci; Liang, Yu; Yang, Kaiguang; Min, Yi; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2016-02-02

    A novel clickable periodic mesoporous organosilica monolith with the surface area up to 1707 m(2) g(-1) was in situ synthesized in the capillary by the one-step condensation of the organobridged-bonded alkoxysilane precursor bis(triethoxysilyl)ethylene. With Si-C bonds in the skeleton, the monolith possesses excellent chemical and mechanical stability. With vinyl groups highly loaded and homogeneously distributed throughout the structure, the monolith can be readily functionalized with functional groups by effective thiol-ene "click" chemistry reaction. Herein, with "click" modification of C18, the obtained monolith was successfully applied for capillary liquid chromatographic separation of small molecules and proteins. The column efficiency could reach 148,000 N/m, higher than most reported hybrid monoliths. Moreover, intact proteins could be separated well with good reproducibility, even after the monolithic column was exposed by basic mobile phase (pH 10.0) overnight, demonstrating the great promising of such monolith for capillary chromatographic separation.

  3. Enthalpy-entropy compensation effect on adsorption of light hydrocarbons on monolithic stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Korolev, Alexander A; Shiryaeva, Valeria E; Popova, Tamara P; Kurganov, Alexander A

    2011-08-01

    Enthalpy and entropy of adsorption of light hydrocarbons C1-C4 have been measured for three monoliths of different polarity and for five different carrier gases: helium, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and dinitrogen oxide. Using carrier gas helium the highest values of enthalpy and entropy were observed for monolith based on ethylenedimethacrylate and the lowest values were observed for monolith based on silica, while monolith based on divinylbenzene demonstrated intermediate values. Entropy-enthalpy correlations were observed with carrier gas helium for all thee monoliths and possess similar slope indicating similar adsorption mechanism on all monoliths studied. Comparing different carrier gases entropy-enthalpy correlations within a homological series of solutes were observed for light carrier gases (He, H2 and N2) and were not observed for heavy carrier gases (CO2 and N2O). Instead, entropy-enthalpy correlations for heavy carrier gases were observed with pressure as variable and the higher the carrier gas pressure the lower the values of enthalpy and entropy observed. The observed changes in entropy-enthalpy correlations were explained by competitive adsorption of heavy carrier gas on monoliths. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Hydrophobic polymer monoliths as novel phase separators: application in continuous liquid-liquid extraction systems.

    PubMed

    Peroni, Daniela; Vanhoutte, Dominique; Vilaplana, Francisco; Schoenmakers, Peter; de Koning, Sjaak; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

    2012-03-30

    Hydrophobic macroporous polymer monoliths are shown to be interesting materials for the construction of "selective solvent gates". With the appropriate surface chemistry and porous properties the monoliths can be made permeable only for apolar organic solvents and not for water. Different poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) (BMA-EDMA) and poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) (PS-DVB) monoliths prepared with tailored chemistries and porosities were evaluated for this purpose. After extensive characterization, the PS-DVB monoliths were selected due to their higher hydrophobicity and their more suitable flow characteristics. BMA-EDMA monoliths are preferred for mid-polarity solvents such as ethyl acetate, for which they provide efficient separation from water. Breakthrough experiments confirmed that the pressures necessary to generate flow of organic solvents through PS-DVB monoliths were substantially lower than for water. A phase separator was constructed using the monoliths as the flow selector. This device was successfully coupled on-line with a chip-based continuous liquid-liquid-extraction (LLE) system with segmented flow. Efficient separation of different solvents was obtained across a wide range of flow rates (0.5-4.0 mL min(-1)) and aqueous-to-organic flow ratios (β=1-10). Good robustness and long life-time were also confirmed. The suitability of the device to perform simple, cheap, and reliable phase separation in a continuous LLE system prior to gas-chromatographic analysis was proven for some selected real-life applications.

  5. Advancing the Technology of Monolithic CMOS detectors for their use as X-ray Imaging Spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenter, Almus

    attributes that would make them superior for use in X-ray astronomy. In particular, PMOS has: "no" photo-charge recombination; "no" Random Telegraph Signal noise (RTS); and lower read noise. The existing SRI/Sarnoff PMOS devices are small and have been developed for non-intensified night vision applications, however, no x-ray evaluation of a monolithic PMOS device has ever been made. In addition to these PMOS devices, SAO will also evaluate existing NMOS scale-able format devices that can be fabricated in any rectangular size/shape using stitchable reticles. These "Mk by Nk" devices would be ideal for large X-ray focal planes or long grating readouts. The Sarnoff/SRI Mk by Nk format devices have been designed, with foresight, so that they can be fabricated in either PMOS or NMOS by changing a single fabrication reticle and by changing the type of Si substrate. If X-ray performance results are expected, this proposal will lead the way to future fabrication of Mk by Nk PMOS devices that would be ideal for X-ray astronomy missions such as "X-ray Surveyor". SAO will also investigate the interaction of directly deposited Optical Blocking Filters (OBFs) on various back side passivated devices, and their resultant effects on very "soft" x-ray response. The latest CMOS processes and very fast on-chip, and off-chip digital readout signal chains and camera systems will be demonstrated.

  6. The influence of active cell design on a monolithic organic photovoltaic module: fabrication and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Hong-Kun; Sim, Jun Hyoung; Jeong, Seonju; Woo, Sung-Ho; Shin, Jang-Kyoo; Han, Yoon Soo

    2011-09-01

    In this study, the influence of an active cell design on the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of a monolithic organic photovoltaic (OPV) module was investigated using experimental methods and circuit simulation. For circuit simulation using computer simulation-based study, the organic PV cell was described by a circuit-based two-diode model and the modules were simulated under several conditions including shading effect, diode model parameters, series resistance and shunt resistance, etc. A unit organic PV cell as a reference device and four types of monolithic organic PV modules with different active cell length were fabricated together on the same glass substrate. The characteristics of the fabricated unit OPV cell were measured and the electrical parameters were extracted to use them for the simulation of four types of monolithic organic PV modules. To analyze the influence of OPV cell design on the PCE of monolithic organic PV modules, the current-voltage (I-V) characteristic curves and the PCEs of the four type monolithic OPV modules with different active cell length were obtained and compared with the simulated results. The simulated I-V curves were matched well with the measured I-V curves for the four types of monolithic organic PV modules with different active cell length. The highest PCE of the monolithic OPV module was 2.86 % with the active cell length of 11.6 mm. We expect that this work is meaningful to enhance the performance of a monolithic OPV module to a certain extent and it offers a method to design a high-efficiency large-area monolithic OPV module.

  7. Wideband monolithically integrated front-end subsystems and components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mruk, Joseph Rene

    This thesis presents the analysis, design, and measurements of passive, monolithically integrated, wideband recta-coax and printed circuit board front-end components. Monolithic fabrication of antennas, impedance transformers, filters, and transitions lowers manufacturing costs by reducing assembly time and enhances performance by removing connectors and cabling between the devices. Computational design, fabrication, and measurements are used to demonstrate the capabilities of these front-end assemblies. Two-arm wideband planar log-periodic antennas fed using a horizontal feed that allows for filters and impedance transformers to be readily fabricated within the radiating region of the antenna are demonstrated. At microwave frequencies, low-cost printed circuit board processes are typically used to produce planar devices. A 1.8 to 11 GHz two-arm planar log-periodic antenna is designed with a monolithically integrated impedance transformer. Band rejection methods based on modifying the antenna aperture, use of an integrated filter, and the application of both methods are investigated with realized gain suppressions of over 25 dB achieved. The ability of standard circuit board technology to fabricate millimeter-wave devices up to 110 GHz is severely limited. Thin dielectrics are required to prevent the excitation of higher order modes in the microstrip substrate. Fabricating the thin line widths required for the antenna aperture also becomes prohibitively challenging. Surface micro-machining typically used in the fabrication of MEMS devices is capable of producing the extremely small features that can be used to fabricate antennas extending through W-band. A directly RF fed 18 to 110 GHz planar log-periodic antenna is developed. The antenna is fabricated with an integrated impedance transformer and additional transitions for measurement characterization. Singly terminated low-loss wideband millimeter-wave filters operating over V- and W- band are developed. High

  8. Semiconductor quantum dot intermixing for monolithic photonic integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang

    Monolithic photonic integration and semiconductor quantum dot (QD) are two key technologies for the development of future fiber optic networks. This PhD work explores the possibilities for joining of these two ideas to create next generation photonic integrated circuits through the modeling, process development and characterization, and device demonstration of QD intermixing technique. The one-dimensional quantum well (QW) and three-dimensional QD intermixing model are developed. The calculations of multiple cations intermixing in InGaAsSb/AlGaAsSb QW structure suggest that a large tuning range of 2.4 mum to 1.7 mum can be obtained using intermixing technique. The theoretical analysis of quantum-confined Stark effect in the as-grown and interdiffused QD structures shows that the nonzero built-in dipole moment exists in the as-grown non-symmetrical QDs and we found that the uniform Fick's type intermixing will reduce the built-in dipole significantly. The enhanced Stark shifts have also been predicted for QD structures after intermixing. Impurity-free vacancy induced disordering (IFVD) and N ion-implantation induced disordering (N-IID) have been performed to promote the efficient group-III intermixing in InP-based quantum dash (QDash) laser structure. Selective intermixing can be achieved using SixNy as intermixing source and SiO2 as intermixing mask with a differential wavelength shift of 76 nm. A model has been proposed to explain the selective intermixing behavior and we postulate that the enhanced intermixing under SixNy capping layer is related to the dominant In diffusion with respect to other group-III atoms. More efficient intermixing which requires a lower activation than the IFVD was observed in N-IID) process. Differential bandgap shift of 112 nm has been observed after N implantation at 5 x 1012 ions/cm2 and subsequent annealing at 700°C. High quality bandgap tuned QDash lasers have been fabricated with over 120 nm wavelength blueshift showing the well

  9. An ultra-sensitive microfluidic immunoassay using living radical polymerization and porous polymer monoliths.

    SciTech Connect

    Abhyankar, Vinay V.; Singh, Anup K.; Hatch, Anson V.

    2010-07-01

    We present a platform that combines patterned photopolymerized polymer monoliths with living radical polymerization (LRP) to develop a low cost microfluidic based immunoassay capable of sensitive (low to sub pM) and rapid (<30 minute) detection of protein in 100 {micro}L sample. The introduction of LRP functionality to the porous monolith allows one step grafting of functionalized affinity probes from the monolith surface while the composition of the hydrophilic graft chain reduces non-specific interactions and helps to significantly improve the limit of detection.

  10. Failure analysis of various monolithic posterior aesthetic dental crowns using finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porojan, Liliana; Topală, Florin

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of material stiffness and load on the biomechanical performance of the monolithic full-coverage posterior aesthetic dental crowns using finite element analysis. Three restorative materials for monolithic dental crowns were selected for the study: zirconia; lithium disilicate glass-ceramic, and resin-based composite. Stresses were calculated in the crowns for all materials and in the teeth structures, under different load values. The experiments show that dental crowns made from all this new aesthetic materials processed by CAD/CAM technologies would be indicated as monolithic dental crowns for posterior areas.

  11. Recent Accomplishments in the Irradiation Testing of Engineering-Scale Monolithic Fuel Specimens

    SciTech Connect

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; D.M. Wachs; M.K. Meyer; H.W. Glunz; R.B. Nielson

    2012-10-01

    The US fuel development team is focused on qualification and demonstration of the uranium-molybdenum monolithic fuel including irradiation testing of engineering-scale specimens. The team has recently accomplished the successful irradiation of the first monolithic multi-plate fuel element assembly within the AFIP-7 campaign. The AFIP-6 MKII campaign, while somewhat truncated by hardware challenges, exhibited successful irradiation of a large-scale monolithic specimen under extreme irradiation conditions. The channel gap and ultrasonic data are presented for AFIP-7 and AFIP-6 MKII, respectively. Finally, design concepts are summarized for future irradiations such as the base fuel demonstration and design demonstration experiment campaigns.

  12. Advances in the development and applications of organic-silica hybrid monoliths.

    PubMed

    Zajickova, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    This review will concentrate on recent progress (since 2013) toward preparation of organic-silica hybrid monoliths and their latest applications as extraction and separation media largely focusing on capillary liquid chromatography and capillary electrochromatography. Main emphasis will be given to advancement of approaches relying on the sol-gel chemistry of tetra- and tri-alkoxysilanes, sol-gel chemistry of alkoxysilanes and free-radical copolymerization with organic monomers, and free radical and ring-opening copolymerization of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes with organic monomers. Hybrid molecularly-imprinted polymer monoliths and hybrid monoliths made with non-silica-based precursors or in combination with metal alkoxides will be included as well.

  13. Flow-through immobilized enzyme reactors based on monoliths: II. Kinetics study and application.

    PubMed

    Vlakh, Evgenia G; Tennikova, Tatiana B

    2013-03-01

    In the last decade, the application of monolithic materials has rapidly expanded to the realization of flow-through bioconversion processes. Up to these days, different classes of enzymes such as hydrolases, lyases, and oxidoreductases have been immobilized on organic, inorganic, or hybrid monolithic materials to prepare the effective flow-through enzymes reactors for application in proteomics, biotechnology, pharmaceutics, organic synthesis, and biosensoring. Current review describes the results of kinetic study and specialties of flow-through immobilized enzyme reactors based on the existing monolithic materials.

  14. Nondestructive characterization methods for monolithic solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    Monolithic solid oxide fuel cells (MSOFCS) represent a potential breakthrough in fuel cell technology, provided that reliable fabrication methods can be developed. Fabrication difficulties arise in several steps of the processing: First is the fabrication of uniform thin (305 {mu}m) single-layer and trilayer green tapes (the trilayer tapes of anode/electrolyte/cathode and anode/interconnect/cathode must have similar coefficients of thermal expansion to sinter uniformly and to have the necessary electrochemical properties); Second is the development of fuel and oxidant channels in which residual stresses are likely to develop in the tapes; Third is the fabrication of a ``complete`` cell for which the bond quality between layers and the quality of the trilayers must be established; and Last, attachment of fuel and oxidant manifolds and verification of seal integrity. Purpose of this report is to assess nondestructive characterization methods that could be developed for application to laboratory, prototype, and full-scale MSOFCs.

  15. An 8 Meter Monolithic UV/Optical Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Postman, Marc

    2008-01-01

    The planned Ares V launch vehicle with its 10 meter fairing and at least 55,600 kg capacity to Earth Sun L2 enables entirely new classes of space telescopes. A consortium from NASA, Space Telescope Science Institute, and aerospace industry are studying an 8-meter monolithic primary mirror UV/optical/NIR space telescope to enable new astrophysical research that is not feasible with existing or near-term missions, either space or ground. This paper briefly reviews the science case for such a mission and presents the results of an on-going technical feasibility study, including: optical design; structural design/analysis including primary mirror support structure, sun shade and secondary mirror support structure; thermal analysis; launch vehicle performance and trajectory; spacecraft including structure, propulsion, GN&C, avionics, power systems and reaction wheels; operations & servicing; mass budget and cost.

  16. Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) technology for space communications applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Denis J.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Future communications satellites are likely to use gallium arsenide (GaAs) monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) technology in most, if not all, communications payload subsystems. Multiple-scanning-beam antenna systems are expected to use GaAs MMIC's to increase functional capability, to reduce volume, weight, and cost, and to greatly improve system reliability. RF and IF matrix switch technology based on GaAs MMIC's is also being developed for these reasons. MMIC technology, including gigabit-rate GaAs digital integrated circuits, offers substantial advantages in power consumption and weight over silicon technologies for high-throughput, on-board baseband processor systems. For the more distant future pseudomorphic indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) and other advanced III-V materials offer the possibility of MMIC subsystems well up into the millimeter wavelength region. All of these technology elements are in NASA's MMIC program. Their status is reviewed.

  17. Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) technology for space communications applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Denis J.; Bhasin, Kul B.; Romanofsky, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Future communications satellites are likely to use gallium arsenide (GaAs) monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) technology in most, if not all, communications payload subsystems. Multiple-scanning-beam antenna systems are expected to use GaAs MMICs to increase functional capability, to reduce volume, weight, and cost, and to greatly improve system reliability. RF and IF matrix switch technology based on GaAs MMICs is also being developed for these reasons. MMIC technology, including gigabit-rate GaAs digital integrated circuits, offers substantial advantages in power consumption and weight over silicon technologies for high-throughput, on-board baseband processor systems. For the more distant future pseudomorphic indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) and other advanced III-V materials offer the possibility of MMIC subsystems well up into the millimeter wavelength region. All of these technology elements are in NASA's MMIC program. Their status is reviewed.

  18. Monolithic integration of a MOSFET with a MEMS device

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Reid; Draper, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    An integrated microelectromechanical system comprises at least one MOSFET interconnected to at least one MEMS device on a common substrate. A method for integrating the MOSFET with the MEMS device comprises fabricating the MOSFET and MEMS device monolithically on the common substrate. Conveniently, the gate insulator, gate electrode, and electrical contacts for the gate, source, and drain can be formed simultaneously with the MEMS device structure, thereby eliminating many process steps and materials. In particular, the gate electrode and electrical contacts of the MOSFET and the structural layers of the MEMS device can be doped polysilicon. Dopant diffusion from the electrical contacts is used to form the source and drain regions of the MOSFET. The thermal diffusion step for forming the source and drain of the MOSFET can comprise one or more of the thermal anneal steps to relieve stress in the structural layers of the MEMS device.

  19. Low frequency/high sensitivity triaxial monolithic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acernese, F.; Canonico, R.; De Rosa, R.; Giordano, G.; Romano, R.; Barone, F.

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes a new mechanical implementation of a triaxial sensor, configurable as seismometer and/or as accelerometer, consisting of three one-dimensional monolithic FP sensors, suitably geometrically positioned. The triaxial sensor is, therefore, compact, light, scalable, tunable instrument (frequency < 100 mHz with large band (10-7 Hz - 10 Hz), high quality factor (Q < 1500 in air) with good immunity to environmental noises, guaranteed by an integrated laser optical readout. The measured sensitivity curve is in very good agreement with the theoretical ones (10-12m/√Hz) in the band (0.1 ÷ 10Hz). Typical applications are in the field of earthquake engineering, geophysics, civil engineering and in all applications requiring large band-low frequency performances coupled with high sensitivities.

  20. Very low frequency/high sensitivity triaxial monolithic inertial sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acernese, F.; De Rosa, R.; Giordano, G.; Romano, R.; Barone, F.

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes a new mechanical implementation of a triaxial sensor, configurable as seismometer and/or as accelerometer, consisting of three one-dimensional monolithic FP sensors, suitably geometrically positioned. The triaxial sensor is, therefore, compact, light, scalable, tunable instrument (frequency < 100mHz), with large band (10-7 Hz - 10Hz), high quality factor (Q > 2500 in air) with good immunity to environmental noises, guaranteed by an integrated laser optical readout. The measured sensitivity curve is in very good agreement with the theoretical ones (10-12m/√Hz) in the band (0.1 ÷ 10Hz). Typical applications are in the field of earthquake engineering, geophysics, civil engineering and in all applications requiring large band-low frequency performances coupled with high sensitivities.