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Sample records for febril sin foco

  1. Febrile Seizures

    MedlinePlus

    ... to pinpoint factors that can help predict which children are likely to have reoccurring or prolonged febrile seizures. Investigators continue to monitor the long-term impact that febrile seizures might have on intelligence, behavior, school achievement, and the development of epilepsy. ...

  2. Febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Mewasingh, Leena D

    2010-11-24

    Simple febrile seizures are generalised in onset, last <15 minutes, and do not occur more than once in 24 hours. Complex febrile seizures are longer lasting, have focal symptoms, and can recur within 24 hours. This review only deals with simple febrile seizures. About 2% to 5% of children in the USA and Western Europe, and 6% to 9% of infants and children in Japan will have experienced at least one febrile seizure by the age of 5 years. Simple febrile seizures may slightly increase the risk of developing epilepsy, but have no known adverse effects on behaviour, scholastic performance, or neurocognition. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments given during episodes of fever in children with one or more previous simple febrile seizures? What are the effects of long-term (daily, for >1 month) anticonvulsant treatment in children with a history of simple febrile seizures? What are the effects of treatments on reducing the risk of subsequent epilepsy in children with a history of simple febrile seizures? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 18 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: anticonvulsants (intermittent or continuous) and antipyretic treatments (physical antipyretic measures, paracetamol, ibuprofen).

  3. Febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Janet L; Carapetian, Stephanie A; Hageman, Joseph R; Kelley, Kent R

    2013-12-01

    Febrile seizures are the most common form of childhood seizures, affecting 2% to 5% of children. They are considered benign and self-limiting; however, a febrile seizure is a terrifying event for most parents, and is one of the most common causes of trips to the emergency room. A febrile seizure is "an event in infancy or childhood, usually occurring between 3 months and 5 years of age, associated with fever but without evidence of intracranial infection or defined cause." This definition excludes seizures with fever in children who have had a prior afebrile seizure. In 2011, The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) published a clinical practice guideline defining a febrile seizure as "a seizure accompanied by fever (temperature ≥ 100.4°F or 38°C by any method), without central nervous system infection, that occurs in infants and children 6 through 60 months of age." Febrile seizures are further classified as simple or complex. This article reviews the evaluation, management, and prognosis of simple and complex seizures, including febrile status epilepticus. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Febrile seizures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Febrile seizure (FS) is the most common seizure disorder of childhood, and occurs in an age-related manner. FS are classified into simple and complex. FS has a multifactorial inheritance, suggesting that both genetic and environmental factors are causative. Various animal models have elucidated the pathophysiological mechanisms of FS. Risk factors for a first FS are a family history of the disorder and a developmental delay. Risk factors for recurrent FS are a family history, age below 18 months at seizure onset, maximum temperature, and duration of fever. Risk factors for subsequent development of epilepsy are neurodevelopmental abnormality and complex FS. Clinicians evaluating children after a simple FS should concentrate on identifying the cause of the child's fever. Meningitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for any febrile child. A simple FS does not usually require further evaluation such as ordering electroencephalography, neuroimaging, or other studies. Treatment is acute rescue therapy for prolonged FS. Antipyretics are not proven to reduce the recurrence risk for FS. Some evidence shows that both intermittent therapy with oral/rectal diazepam and continuous prophylaxis with oral phenobarbital or valproate are effective in reducing the risk of recurrence, but there is no evidence that these medications reduce the risk of subsequent epilepsy. Vaccine-induced FS is a rare event that does not lead to deleterious outcomes, but could affect patient and physician attitudes toward the safety of vaccination. PMID:25324864

  5. Foco Nasmyth para el telescopio 2,15mts. de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casagrande, A. R.

    En principio, este proyecto intenta lograr el mayor aprovechamiento posible del instrumental que se dispone, buscando la manera de optimizar y hacer más eficiente el servicio que brinda el CASLEO a la comunidad astronómica. El mismo consiste en utilizar dispositivos ya existentes en el telescopio, y darle una utilidad. Tal es el caso del camino óptico destinado al foco Coude. Si tenemos en cuenta que disponemos de un tercer espejo Coude, con todos sus mecanismos automatizados, (actualmente sin uso), una distancia apropiada del plano focal, el espacio y el lugar físico necesario para instalar un periférico, es posible la habilitación de un foco Nasmyth en el telescopio 2,15mts. El hecho de contar con este nuevo foco, redundará en importantes beneficios. En primer lugar, posibilitará la observación, casi simultánea, con dos instrumentos. Otro aspecto a tener en cuenta, es que disminuirá el frecuente cambio del instrumental periférico, motivo este que degrada su ideal puesta a punto. Por último, también de interés, es de destacar su escaso costo de ejecución.

  6. Febrile seizures and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+).

    PubMed

    Camfield, Peter; Camfield, Carol

    2015-06-01

    To review the literature about febrile seizures and GEFS plus with special emphasis on management and outcome. Selected literature review. Febrile seizures are the most common convulsive event in humans, occurring in 2-6% of the population. The aetiology is complex with strong evidence for a heterogeneous genetic predisposition interacting with fever of any cause, with certain viral infections having a greater effect. A large amount of literature has established that febrile seizures have no long-term consequences on cognition or behaviour. Unfortunately, about 40% of children with a first febrile seizure will have a recurrence. The strongest predictor of recurrence is age <14-16 months at the time of the first febrile seizure. Epilepsy follows febrile seizures in ∼3% cases, with the concepts of simple and complex febrile seizures providing relatively weak prediction. Very prolonged febrile seizures may lead to mesial temporal sclerosis and temporal lobe epilepsy although the degree of risk remains uncertain. Investigations beyond establishing the cause of the provoking fever are nearly always unnecessary. Treatment is mainly reassurance and there is some evidence that parents eventually "come to grips" with the fear that their children are dying during a febrile seizure. Antipyretic medications are remarkably ineffective to prevent recurrences. Daily and intermittent prophylactic medications are ineffective or have unacceptable side effects or risks. "Rescue" benzodiazepines may prevent prolonged recurrences for selected patients with a first prolonged febrile seizure although this has not been proven. Genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) is a complex autosomal dominant disorder usually caused by mutations in SCN1A (a voltage-gated sodium channel). One third of patients have febrile seizures only; two thirds have a variety of epilepsy syndromes, both focal and generalized. Febrile seizures may distress parents but rarely have any long

  7. Fever, febrile seizures and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Céline M; Brewster, Amy L; Richichi, Cristina; Zha, Qinqin; Baram, Tallie Z

    2007-10-01

    Seizures induced by fever (febrile seizures) are the most common type of pathological brain activity in infants and children. These febrile seizures and their potential contribution to the mechanisms of limbic (temporal lobe) epilepsy have been a topic of major clinical and scientific interest. Key questions include the mechanisms by which fever generates seizures, the effects of long febrile seizures on neuronal function and the potential contribution of these seizures to epilepsy. This review builds on recent advances derived from animal models and summarizes our current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying febrile seizures and of changes in neuronal gene expression and function that facilitate the enduring effects of prolonged febrile seizures on neuronal and network excitability. The review also discusses the relevance of these findings to the general mechanisms of epileptogenesis during development and points out gaps in our knowledge, including the relationship of animal models to human febrile seizures and epilepsy.

  8. Fever, febrile seizures and epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, Céline M.; Brewster, Amy L.; Richichi, Cristina; Zha, Qinqin; Baram, Tallie Z.

    2009-01-01

    Seizures induced by fever (febrile seizures) are the most common type of pathological brain activity in infants and children. These febrile seizures and their potential contribution to the mechanisms of limbic (temporal lobe) epilepsy have been a topic of major clinical and scientific interest. Key questions include the mechanisms by which fever generates seizures, the effects of long febrile seizures on neuronal function and the potential contribution of these seizures to epilepsy. This review builds on recent advances derived from animal models and summarizes our current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying febrile seizures and of changes in neuronal gene expression and function that facilitate the enduring effects of prolonged febrile seizures on neuronal and network excitability. The review also discusses the relevance of these findings to the general mechanisms of epileptogenesis during development and points out gaps in our knowledge, including the relationship of animal models to human febrile seizures and epilepsy. PMID:17897728

  9. Febrile seizures - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000223.htm Febrile seizures - what to ask your doctor To use the ... enable JavaScript. Your child has had a febrile seizure. A simple febrile seizure stops by itself within ...

  10. Febrile and other occasional seizures.

    PubMed

    Bast, T; Carmant, L

    2013-01-01

    Seizures with fever that result from encephalitis or meningitis usually occur late in the course of febrile illness, and are focal and prolonged. Febrile seizures are by far the most common affecting 5% of the population, followed by posttraumatic seizures and those observed in the setting of a toxic, infectious, or metabolic encephalopathy. This chapter reviews the clinical presentation of the three most common forms, due to fever, trauma, and intoxication. Febrile seizures carry no cognitive or mortality risk. Recurrence risk is increased by young age, namely before 1 year of age. Febrile seizures that persist after the age of 6 years are usually part of the syndrome of Generalized epilepsy febrile seizures plus. These febrile seizures have a strong link with epilepsy since non-febrile seizures may occur later in the same patient and in other members of the same family with an autosomal dominant transmission. Complex febrile seizures, i.e., with focal or prolonged manifestations or followed by focal defect, are related to later mesial temporal epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis; risk factors are seizure duration and brain malformation. Prophylactic treatment is usually not required in febrile seizures. Early onset of complex seizures is the main indication for AED prophylaxis. Early posttraumatic seizures, i.e., within the first week, are often focal and indicate brain trauma: contusion, hematoma, 24 hours amnesia, and depressed skull fracture are major factors of posttraumatic epilepsy. Prophylaxis with antiepileptic drugs is not effective. Various psychotropic drugs, including antiepileptics, may cause seizures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Febrile neutropaenia in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Walwyn, M; Nicholson, A; Lee, M G; Wharfe, G; Frankson, M A

    2010-03-01

    Febrile neutropaenia is a common complication of chemotherapy in cancer patients. Empirical antibiotic regimes are based on the epidemiological characteristics of bacterial isolates globally and locally. This study retrospectively reviewed all cases of febrile neutropaenia in patients with confirmed cancer admitted at the University Hospital of the West Indies in the four-year period between, January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2006 and who received chemotherapy. Cases were identified from blood culture records and hospital charts which were reviewed to determine the aetiological agents causing bacteraemia, their antimicrobial susceptibilities and clinicalfeatures. These cases were compared with non-neutropaenic cancer patients admitted with fever. A total of 197 febrile episodes in cancer patients were reviewed. Thirty-seven per cent had febrile neutropaenia while 62% were non-neutropaenic. Acute myeloid leukaemia was the most common haematological malignancy and the most common solid tumour was breast cancer. Twenty-six per cent of patients had a positive blood culture. In febrile neutropaenic patients, Escherichia coli was the most common organism isolated followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci while in non-neutropaenic patients, coagulase-negative staphylococci was most common. Acinetobacter infections was prominent in non-neutropaenic patients but absent in neutropaenic patients. More than one organism was cultured in 9 neutropaenic and 18 non-neutropaenic patients. Mortality was 10.8% in neutropaenic and 24.4% in non-neutropaenic patients. Gram-negative organisms are the predominant isolates in febrile neutropaenic episodes in this cohort of patients. Non-neutropaenic patients had an increased mortality with an increase in Acinetobacter infections and multiple isolates.

  12. Association between hypocapnia and febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Kilicaslan, Buket; Erol, Ilknur; Ozkale, Yasemin; Saygi, Semra; Sariturk, Cagla

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation with subsequent hypocapnia is relevant to febrile seizures in children. This is only the second study to measure pCO2 and pH values in children with febrile seizures. This prospective case-control study enrolled 18 children who presented with febrile seizures and 18 children who presented with a febrile illness without seizures. Venous blood gas analyses were measured both from the febrile seizure and control group. There was no significant difference in mean blood pH between the febrile seizure and control groups but blood pCO2 was significantly lower in the febrile seizure group. Patients with complex febrile seizures exhibited significantly lower pCO2 levels within 1 hour of seizure onset than patients with simplex febrile seizures. These data indicate that febrile seizures may be associated with hyperventilation and that the ensuing hypocapnia may contribute to the development of febrile seizures.

  13. Recent Research on Febrile Seizures: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Syndi Seinfeld, DO; Pellock, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Febrile seizures are common and mostly benign. They are the most common cause of seizures in children less than five years of age. There are two categories of febrile seizures, simple and complex. Both the International League against Epilepsy and the National Institute of Health has published definitions on the classification of febrile seizures. Simple febrile seizures are mostly benign, but a prolonged (complex) febrile seizure can have long term consequences. Most children who have a febrile seizure have normal health and development after the event, but there is recent evidence that suggests a small subset of children that present with seizures and fever may have recurrent seizure or develop epilepsy. This review will give an overview of the definition of febrile seizures, epidemiology, evaluation, treatment, outcomes and recent research. PMID:25383238

  14. [Complex febrile crises: should we change the way we act?].

    PubMed

    Martinez-Cayuelas, E; Herraiz-Martinez, M; Villacieros-Hernandez, L; Cean-Cabrera, L; Martinez-Salcedo, E; Alarcon-Martinez, H; Domingo-Jimenez, R; Perez-Fernandez, V

    2014-11-16

    Introduccion. Las convulsiones febriles son una de las causas mas frecuentes de consulta. Hasta ahora, los pacientes con convulsiones febriles complejas (CFC) deben ingresar, dado el mayor porcentaje de epilepsia y complicaciones agudas descrito clasicamente. En la actualidad hay estudios que apoyan ser menos invasivos en el abordaje de estos pacientes. Objetivo. Describir las caracteristicas de los pacientes ingresados por CFC y proponer un nuevo protocolo de actuacion. Pacientes y metodos. Analisis retrospectivo de historias clinicas de ingresados por CFC (enero de 2010-diciembre de 2013). Se ofrecen datos epidemiologicos, clinicos, pruebas complementarias y evolucion. Resultados. Las CFC suponian un 4,2% de los ingresos de neuropediatria (n = 67). Edad media al evento: 25 meses. El 47% tenia antecedentes familiares patologicos, y el 31%, antecedentes personales de convulsion febril previa. En el 54% de los pacientes, la CFC duro menos de cinco minutos; hubo recurrencia, la mayoria con un total de dos crisis y durante el primer dia (las CFC por recurrencia son las mas frecuentes). De las pruebas complementarias realizadas, ninguna de ellas sirvio como apoyo diagnostico en el momento agudo. Durante su seguimiento, cinco pacientes presentaron complicaciones. Los pacientes con antecedentes familiares de convulsiones febriles presentan mayor riesgo de epilepsia o recurrencia (p = 0,02), sin diferencias significativas respecto a la edad, numero de crisis, intervalo de fiebre, estado epileptico o tipo de CFC. Conclusiones. Las CFC no asocian mayores complicaciones agudas; las exploraciones complementarias no permiten discriminar precozmente a los pacientes de riesgo. Su ingreso podria evitarse en ausencia de otros signos clinicos y limitarse a casos seleccionados.

  15. [[Abortion: An Unforgivable Sin?].

    PubMed

    Lalli, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Abortion has become something to hide, something you can't tell other people, something you have to expiate forever. Besides, abortion is more and more difficult to achieve because of the raising average of consciencious objection (from 70 to 90% of health care providers are conscientious objectors, 2014 data, Ministero della Salute) and illegal abortion is "coming back"from the 70s, when abortion was a crime (Italian law n. 194/1978). Abortion is often blamed as a murder, an unforgivenable sin, even as genocide. Silence against shouting "killers!" to women who are going to have an abortion: this is a common actual scenario. Why is it so difficult to discuss and even to mention abortion?

  16. Clinical characteristics of children with febrile seizure.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, D; Dhakal, A K; Shakya, H; Shakya, A; Shah, S C; Mehata, S

    2014-01-01

    Febrile seizure is common in children below five years of age. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical profile of children presenting with febrile seizure in a teaching hospital. This was a descriptive retrospective study among children presenting with febrile seizure in a teaching hospital from July 2009 to June 2013. Children between six months to six years were included in the study while patients with prior episodes of afebrile seizures, abnormal neurodevelopment and not meeting the age criteria were excluded. Patient's demographic and clinical data were collected from the in-patients records and analyzed. This study included 103 children with febrile seizure. Out of which 67% were male. Simple febrile seizure and complex febrile seizure were observed in 76.7% and 23.3% of patients respectively. Majority of children (71.8%)had generalized tonic clonic seizure followed by tonic seizures. Most of children (72.8%) who developed first episode of seizure were below 24 months of age with the mean age of 20.7 (±12.1) months. Overall 33% of patients developed recurrence of febrile seizure and first episode of febrile seizure at age one year or below was associated with the seizure recurrence. Upper respiratory tract infections were the commonest cause of fever in these children. Febrile seizure was observed predominantly in children below age of two years and simple febrile seizure was the ommonest variety. Recurrence of febrile seizure was common and significantly associated with the first episode of febrile seizure at the age of one year or below.

  17. Role of apolipoprotein E in febrile convulsion.

    PubMed

    Giray, Ozlem; Ulgenalp, Ayfer; Bora, Elçin; Uran, Nedret; Yilmaz, Ebru; Unalp, Aycan; Erçal, Derya

    2008-10-01

    Apolipoprotein E is consistently associated with the progression of some common human neurodegenerative diseases, e.g., epilepsy. We hypothesized that genetic variations in the apolipoprotein E gene have implications for susceptibility to, and prognoses in, febrile convulsion, which plays an apparent role in the development of epilepsy. We used the polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digestion to characterize variations of the apolipoprotein E gene. Sixty-nine patients with febrile convulsion (simple/complex) and a corresponding cohort of healthy patients (n = 75) were used. There was no significant difference in genotypic distribution and allelic frequencies of the apolipoprotein E gene between the febrile convulsion and control groups. Comparing subpopulations of the febrile convulsion group (patients with simple and complex febrile convulsion), we noted that no patients with the epsilon3/epsilon4 genotype had complex febrile convulsions. The apolipoprotein E epsilon3/epsilon4 genotype was more frequently seen in the simple febrile than in the complicated febrile convulsion group (9 versus 0 patients, respectively). The data indicate an association with the epsilon3/epsilon4 genotype of the apolipoprotein E gene with a milder phenotype. Although apolipoprotein E4 is not a vulnerability factor regarding febrile convulsions, it seems effective in regard to prognoses.

  18. Managing asbestos: Ten costly sins

    SciTech Connect

    Denson, F.A.; Onderick, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes how to build an ongoing, continuous, and improved asbestos management program. Asbestos management is one of the toughest jobs facing a plant or environmental engineer today; even seasoned engineers can make mistakes. Much confusion exists about how best to manage this issue, especially in plant settings. Whether the company is small, medium, or large, asbestos has the power to steal from profits if not managed properly. To help POWER readers examine their current asbestos management programs, here are 10 common errors that could be stopped or avoided by practicing preventive techniques. The 10 costly sins presented are not mutually exclusive, and they certainly are not all-inclusive. They are offered as a way to stimulate ideas on how to build an ongoing, continuous, and improved asbestos management program. These include Sin 1: No written policy. Sin 2: Lack of corporate guidance. Sin 3: Not complying with regulations. Sin 4: Not worrying about other respirable fibers. Sin 5: Lawsuits--not culpable. Sin 6: No visible emissions, no problems. Sin 7: Managing asbestos manually.

  19. Childhood Febrile Seizures: Overview and Implications

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Tonia; Jacobsen, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the latest knowledge and understanding of childhood febrile seizures. This review also discusses childhood febrile seizure occurrence, health services utilization and treatment costs. Parental reactions associated with its occurrence and how healthcare providers can assist parents with dealing effectively with this potentially frightening and anxiety-producing event are also discussed. PMID:17479160

  20. Management of febrile convulsion in children.

    PubMed

    Paul, Siba Prosad; Rogers, Eleanor; Wilkinson, Rachel; Paul, Biswajit

    2015-05-01

    The causes of febrile convulsions are usually benign. Such convulsions are common in children and their long-term consequences are rare. However, other causes of seizures, such as intracranial infections, must be excluded before diagnosis, especially in infants and younger children. Diagnosis is based mainly on history taking, and further investigations into the condition are not generally needed in fully immunised children presenting with simple febrile convulsions. Treatment involves symptom control and treating the cause of the fever. Nevertheless, febrile convulsions in children can be distressing for parents, who should be supported and kept informed by experienced emergency department (ED) nurses. This article discusses the aetiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of children with febrile convulsion, and best practice for care in EDs. It also includes a reflective case study to highlight the challenges faced by healthcare professionals who manage children who present with febrile convulsion.

  1. Febrile Illness with Skin Rashes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Skin rashes that appear during febrile illnesses are in fact caused by various infectious diseases. Since infectious exanthematous diseases range from mild infections that disappear naturally to severe infectious diseases, focus on and basic knowledge of these diseases is very important. But, these include non-infectious diseases, so that comprehensive knowledge of these other diseases is required. Usually, early diagnostic testing for a febrile illness with a rash is inefficient. For clinical diagnosis of diseases accompanied by skin rash and fever, a complete history must be taken, including recent travel, contact with animals, medications, and exposure to forests and other natural environments. In addition, time of onset of symptoms and the characteristics of the rash itself (morphology, location, distribution) could be helpful in the clinical diagnosis. It is also critical to understand the patient's history of specific underlying diseases. However, diagnostic basic tests could be helpful in diagnosis if they are repeated and the clinical course is monitored. Generally, skin rashes are nonspecific and self-limited. Therefore, it could be clinically meaningful as a characteristic diagnostic finding in a very small subset of specific diseases. PMID:26483989

  2. Recurrence Risk of Febrile Seizures in Children.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, J; Poudel, P; Shah, G S; Yadav, S; Chaudhary, S; Kafle, S

    2016-09-01

    Identifying children with febrile seizure who are at risk for recurrence is important so that special attention can be given to them. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors for recurrence of febrile seizures in children. This prospective hospital based study was conducted from July 2013 to August 2014 'among children of 6 months to 6 years of age at Bishweshwar Prasad Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS), Nepal. Children meeting the selection criteria were enrolled in study. Clinical, investigation, treatment and outcome parameters were analyzed. A total of 92 children with febrile seizure were enrolled in study. Males accounted for 70% and females 30%. Simple febrile seizure was present in 48% and complex febrile seizures were seen in 52%. Recurrence of seizure was seen in one third of cases. Loss of consciousness was most common post-ictal phenomenon followed by confusion and lethargy. Upper respiratory infection was the most common precipitating factor. Generalized Tonic Clonic Seizure was the most common seizure type present in 79% of cases. Significant risk factors for recurrence occurred in males (p=0.088), age less than 1 year (p=0.003). Most of the recurrence occurred within one year of first seizure. Febrile Seizure is common in males. Almost one third of children with febrile seizure are at risk for recurrence. The significant risk factors for recurrences are male gender and age <1year.

  3. Febrile seizures: risks, evaluation, and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Graves, Reese C; Oehler, Karen; Tingle, Leslie E

    2012-01-15

    Febrile seizures are common in the first five years of life, and many factors that increase seizure risk have been identified. Initial evaluation should determine whether features of a complex seizure are present and identify the source of fever. Routine blood tests, neuroimaging, and electroencephalography are not recommended, and lumbar puncture is no longer recommended in patients with uncomplicated febrile seizures. In the unusual case of febrile status epilepticus, intravenous lorazepam and buccal midazolam are first-line agents. After an initial febrile seizure, physicians should reassure parents about the low risk of long-term effects, including neurologic sequelae, epilepsy, and death. However, there is a 15 to 70 percent risk of recurrence in the first two years after an initial febrile seizure. This risk is increased in patients younger than 18 months and those with a lower fever, short duration of fever before seizure onset, or a family history of febrile seizures. Continuous or intermittent antiepileptic or antipyretic medication is not recommended for the prevention of recurrent febrile seizures.

  4. [Febrile convulsions and other occasional convulsions in children].

    PubMed

    Vallée, L; Cuisset, J M; Cuvellier, J C; de Sèze, C

    1999-09-15

    Febrile convulsions are the main etiology of the occasional convulsions. They occur between 6 months and 5 years. They are short, bilateral, clonic or tonico-clonic. Febrile convulsions are classified in 2 groups: benign febrile convulsions and complicated febrile convulsions. When it exists, the genetic predisposition is a significant factor recurrent of febrile convulsions, but their prognosis remains good. Treatment depends on the diagnosis of simple or complicated febrile convulsions. The treatment of febrile convulsions is intra-rectal diazepam (0.5 mg/kg). The risks of recurrence of convulsions are inversely proportional to the intensity and duration of the fever episode before the convulsion.

  5. Neutropenia in the Febrile Child.

    PubMed

    Ku, Brandon C; Bailey, Charles; Balamuth, Fran

    2016-05-01

    Fever in the pediatric population is a common chief complaint presenting to the emergency department and may be one of the first indications of a life-threatening infection, especially in patients with neutropenia. Given that pediatric patients with febrile neutropenia frequently present to emergency departments for emergent care, it is critical for emergency medicine physicians and pediatricians and family physicians working in the emergency department to know the key aspects of the clinical approach to these patients. This review of the clinical evaluation and treatment of the pediatric patient presenting with fever and confirmed or suspected neutropenia will provide health care providers with the necessary tools to effectively care for this patient population.

  6. Febrile Seizures and Epilepsy: Possible Outcomes

    MedlinePlus

    ... whether they could increase the risk of developing epilepsy later. Febrile seizures are defined as seizures that ... brains of patients who underwent surgery for severe epilepsy. 3 The children with FSE were com- pared ...

  7. [Strategies of treatment for febrile neutropenia].

    PubMed

    Terui, Yasuhito

    2013-06-01

    The guideline on febrile neutropenia(FN)was published by the Japanese Society of Medical Oncology(JSMO)in 2012. Based on this guideline, the treatment strategy for febrile neutropenia that is discussed in this paper includes empiric treatment strategies, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus antibiotics in the initial treatment, treatment for severe FN, treatment for outpatients, duration of FN treatment, treatment after recovery from fever associated with neutropenia, and empiric treatment with anti-fungal drugs in patients with prolonged FN.

  8. Is temperature regulation different in children susceptible to febrile seizures?

    PubMed

    Gordon, Kevin E; Dooley, Joseph M; Wood, Ellen P; Bethune, Peggy

    2009-03-01

    To examine the relationship between the presence and magnitude of fever and susceptibility to febrile seizures, defined as a known family history of febrile seizures. Reanalysis of a case-control study dataset (Am J Dis Child. 1993; 147: 35-39). The magnitude of presenting fever was examined between the incident febrile seizure group (N = 75) and febrile control group (N = 150) for a family history of febrile seizures. The presence of fever was examined between the febrile control group (N = 150) and the afebrile control group (N = 150) for a family history of febrile seizures. Children with incident febrile seizures had a higher temperature in the emergency department than febrile controls (39.3 degrees C vs 39.0 degrees C, p = .004). Febrile control children with a known family history of febrile seizures had higher temperatures than those without a known family history (39.5 degrees C vs 38.9 degrees C, p = .04). A model of fever magnitude within the febrile group (seizures and controls) suggested that most of this relationship was on the basis of family history of febrile seizures rather than seizure or control status, with a possibility of interaction. Within the control children (febrile and afebrile), a known family history of febrile seizures was associated with fever (OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.1,10.7). Children susceptible to febrile seizures through a known family history of febrile seizures appear more likely to present to emergency departments with fever, and when compared to their febrile counterparts, a fever of higher magnitude. This data supports Rantala's assertion "It may be that regulation of temperature is different in children susceptible to febrile seizures".

  9. Febrile seizures: Mechanisms and relationship to epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, Céline M.; Brewster, Amy L.; Baram, Tallie Z.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of febrile seizures have been driven by two major enigmas: first, how these most common of human seizures are generated by fever has not been known. Second, epidemiological studies have linked prolonged febrile seizures with the development of temporal lobe epilepsy, yet whether long or recurrent febrile seizures cause temporal lobe epilepsy has remained unresolved. To investigate these questions, a model of prolonged (complex) febrile seizures was developed in immature rats and mice, permitting mechanistic examination of the potential causal relationships of fever and seizures, and of febrile seizures and limbic epilepsy. Although the model relied on hyperthermia, it was discovered that the hyperthermia-induced secretion of endogenous fever mediators including interleukin-1β, which contributed to the generation of these ‘febrile’ seizures. In addition, prolonged experimental febrile seizures provoked epilepsy in a third of the animals. Investigations of the mechanisms of this epileptogenesis demonstrated that expression of specific ion (HCN) channels and of endocannabinoid signaling, may be involved. These may provide novel drug targets for intervention in the epileptogenic process. PMID:19232478

  10. The ethics of sin taxes.

    PubMed

    Green, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT The current global economic crisis is forcing governments to consider a variety of methods to generate funds for infrastructure. In the United States, smoking-related illness and an obesity epidemic are forcing public health institutions to consider a variety of methods to influence health behaviors of entire target groups. In this paper, the author uses a public health nursing model, the Public Health Code of Ethics (Public Health Leadership Society, 2002), the American Nurses' Association (ANA) Code of Ethics (2001), and other relevant ethical theory to weigh and balance the arguments for and against the use of sin taxes. A position advocating the limited use of sin taxes is supported as a reasonable stance for the public health professional.

  11. Epilepsy After Febrile Seizures: Twins Suggest Genetic Influence.

    PubMed

    Seinfeld, Syndi A; Pellock, John M; Kjeldsen, Marianne J; Nakken, Karl Otto; Corey, Linda A

    2016-02-01

    A history of complex febrile seizures can increase the risk of epilepsy, but the role of genetic factors is unclear. This analysis evaluated the relationship between febrile seizures and epilepsy. Information on the history of seizures was obtained by a questionnaire from twin pairs in the Mid-Atlantic, Danish, and Norwegian Twin Registries. The information was verified using medical records and detailed clinical and family interviews. The initial study evaluated the genetic epidemiology of febrile seizures in this population. Further information was analyzed and used to evaluate genetic associations of different febrile seizure subtypes. Histories of febrile seizures were validated in 1051 twins in 900 pairs. The febrile seizure type was classified as simple, complex, or febrile status epilepticus. There were 61% simple, 12% complex, and 7% febrile status epilepticus. There were 78 twins who developed epilepsy. The highest rate of epilepsy (22.2%) occurred in the febrile status epilepticus group. Concordance was highest in simple group. A twin with febrile status epilepticus is at the highest risk of developing epilepsy, but simple febrile seizures gave the highest risk for the unaffected twin to develop seizures or other neurological issues. These results are consistent with previous findings. There is a subgroup of febrile seizures that can be associated with long-term consequences. This subgroup can be associated with a significant financial and emotional burden. It is currently not possible to accurately identify which children will develop recurrent febrile seizures, epilepsy, or neuropsychological comorbidities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Simple febrile seizure, complex seizure, generalized epilepsy with febrile seizure plus, FIRES and new syndromes].

    PubMed

    Moreno de Flagge, Noris

    2013-01-01

    Febrile seizures are the most common seizures in childhood. They have been observed in 2-5% of children before the age of 5, but in some populations this figure may increase to 15%. It is a common cause of pediatric hospital admissions and cause of anxiety for parents. Febrile seizures could be the first manifestation of epilepsy. About 13% of epileptic patients have a history of febrile seizure, and 30% have had recurrent febrile seizures. Their phenotypic characteristics allow, in the majority of cases, a classification of the seizure, an elaboration of a prognosis and to assume a specific therapeutic attitude. It is possible to describe a spectrum according to their severity, from the benign simple seizure to the more complex, febrile seizure plus, Dravet'syndrome, and FIRES. During the past decade, molecular genetic studies have contributed to the identification of genetic factors involved in febrile seizure and related disorders, making the necessity of a careful follow up of these patients in order to detect risk factors earlier. We have reviewed the medical literature to update current knowledge of febrile seizures, their prognosis and their relation to new epileptic syndromes.

  13. Febrile Seizures and Febrile Seizure Syndromes: An Updated Overview of Old and Current Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Khair, Abdulhafeez M.; Elmagrabi, Dalal

    2015-01-01

    Febrile seizures are the most common paroxysmal episode during childhood, affecting up to one in 10 children. They are a major cause of emergency facility visits and a source of family distress and anxiety. Their etiology and pathophysiological pathways are being understood better over time; however, there is still more to learn. Genetic predisposition is thought to be a major contributor. Febrile seizures have been historically classified as benign; however, many emerging febrile seizure syndromes behave differently. The way in which human knowledge has evolved over the years in regard to febrile seizures has not been dealt with in depth in the current literature, up to our current knowledge. This review serves as a documentary of how scientists have explored febrile seizures, elaborating on the journey of knowledge as far as etiology, clinical features, approach, and treatment strategies are concerned. Although this review cannot cover all clinical aspects related to febrile seizures at the textbook level, we believe it can function as a quick summary of the past and current sources of knowledge for all varieties of febrile seizure types and syndromes. PMID:26697219

  14. Febrile Seizures and Febrile Seizure Syndromes: An Updated Overview of Old and Current Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Khair, Abdulhafeez M; Elmagrabi, Dalal

    2015-01-01

    Febrile seizures are the most common paroxysmal episode during childhood, affecting up to one in 10 children. They are a major cause of emergency facility visits and a source of family distress and anxiety. Their etiology and pathophysiological pathways are being understood better over time; however, there is still more to learn. Genetic predisposition is thought to be a major contributor. Febrile seizures have been historically classified as benign; however, many emerging febrile seizure syndromes behave differently. The way in which human knowledge has evolved over the years in regard to febrile seizures has not been dealt with in depth in the current literature, up to our current knowledge. This review serves as a documentary of how scientists have explored febrile seizures, elaborating on the journey of knowledge as far as etiology, clinical features, approach, and treatment strategies are concerned. Although this review cannot cover all clinical aspects related to febrile seizures at the textbook level, we believe it can function as a quick summary of the past and current sources of knowledge for all varieties of febrile seizure types and syndromes.

  15. sin 2 beta + gamma Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Therin, G; /Paris U., VI-VII

    2005-06-24

    I report on the most recent measurements done to constrain sin(2{beta}+{gamma}) with neutral B mesons. Direct measurements of 2{beta} + {gamma} will provide a precise test of the standard model predictions with higher statistics. Present constraints come from studies of B {yields} D{sup (*){+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}}/{rho}{sup {-+}} decays done by BABAR and Belle collaborations with full and inclusive techniques to reconstruct B mesons. B {yields} D{sup 0(*)}K{sup 0} decays are also very promising but statistics are too low to give any constraint at the moment.

  16. Febrile Convulsions: Their Significance for Later Intellectual Development and Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    Concludes that intellectual and behavioral outcomes in children who have had febrile convulsions are dependent on preseizure status, unilaterality of the initial fit, recurrent febrile seizures, continued neurological abnormalities, the advent of fits when afebrile, and socioeconomic status. Suggests that a febrile convulsion should be followed up…

  17. Risk of epilepsy after febrile convulsions: a national cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Verity, C M; Golding, J

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To identify children with febrile convulsions, classify their febrile convulsions into simple and complex, and determine the number and type of subsequent afebrile seizures in those children. DESIGN--National population based study. SETTING--United Kingdom. SUBJECTS--16,004 neonatal survivors born during one week in April 1970. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Information about febrile and afebrile seizures obtained from questionnaires at 5 and 10 years of age and from hospital records. RESULTS--Information was available for 14,676 of the cohort children. 398 (2.7%) of them had had at least one febrile convulsion. 16 children were known to be neurologically or developmentally abnormal before the first attack. Of the remaining 382 children, 305 had had a simple first febrile convulsion and 77 a complex first febrile convulsion. Thirteen of the 382 had had one or more afebrile seizures, nine of whom had developed epilepsy (recurrent afebrile seizures). A higher proportion of children with complex febrile convulsions (6/95) rather than simple febrile convulsions (3/287) developed epilepsy, the risk being highest for those who had had focal febrile convulsions (5/17; chi 2 = 39.9, p less than 0.001). Three of the 32 children who had prolonged febrile convulsions developed afebrile complex partial seizures. CONCLUSIONS--The risk of epilepsy after febrile convulsions is much less than reported in many hospital studies, and if febrile convulsions cause brain damage that leads to later epilepsy this is a rare occurrence. PMID:1760604

  18. Borrelia crocidurae infection in acutely febrile patients, Senegal.

    PubMed

    Mediannikov, Oleg; Socolovschi, Cristina; Bassene, Hubert; Diatta, Georges; Ratmanov, Pavel; Fenollar, Florence; Sokhna, Cheikh; Raoult, Didier

    2014-08-01

    As malaria cases in Africa decline, other causes of acute febrile illness are being explored. To determine incidence of Borrelia crocidurae infection during June 2010-October 2011, we collected 1,566 blood specimens from febrile patients in Senegal. Incidence was high (7.3%). New treatment strategies, possibly doxycycline, might be indicated for febrile patients.

  19. Febrile Convulsions: Their Significance for Later Intellectual Development and Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    Concludes that intellectual and behavioral outcomes in children who have had febrile convulsions are dependent on preseizure status, unilaterality of the initial fit, recurrent febrile seizures, continued neurological abnormalities, the advent of fits when afebrile, and socioeconomic status. Suggests that a febrile convulsion should be followed up…

  20. IN GRAMMAR'S FALL, WE SINNED ALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TIBBETTS, A.M.

    THROUGH THEIR LOSS OF FAITH IN TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR, MEN HAVE "SINNED" AND CONTRIBUTED SLIGHTLY BUT IMPORTANTLY TO THE CREATION OF AN AMORAL AND RELATIVISTIC SOCIETY. PROMPTED BY THE SIN OF INTELLECTUAL PRIDE, SOME LINGUISTS SEEM TO ASSUME THAT GRAMMATICAL PROBLEMS CAN BE SOLVED BY RATIOCINATION ALONE. IGNORANCE OF THE PAST--ANOTHER SIN--AND…

  1. Predictive factors for poor prognosis febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Shin; Lee, Yoon-Seon

    2012-07-01

    Most patients with chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia recover rapidly without serious complications. However, it still remains a life-threatening treatment-related toxicity, and is associated with dose reductions and delays of chemotherapeutic agents that may compromise treatment outcomes. Recent developments of risk stratification enabled early discharge with oral antibiotics for low-risk patients. However, even in low-risk patients, medical complications including bacteremia could happen. The authors reviewed recent literature to provide an update on research regarding predictive factors for poor prognosis in patients with febrile neutropenia. Various prognostic factors have been suggested with controversies. Hematological parameters, prophylactic measurements and patient-specific risk factors showed inconsistent results. MASCC risk-index score, which was originally developed to identify low-risk patients, in turn showed that the lower the MASCC score, the poorer the prognosis of febrile neutropenia, with very low levels (<15), the rate of complications was high. Patients with severe sepsis and septic shock commonly had procalcitonin concentration above 2.0 ng/ml, and this level should be considered at high risk of poor prognosis. Lower MASCC score and higher procalcitonin concentration can predict poor outcomes in febrile neutropenia. More research is required with regard to the other factors showing controversies.

  2. [Epidemiological surveillance of febrile rash illness].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, Gabriela Fidela; Rojas-Mendoza, Teresita; Cabrera-Gaytán, David Alejandro; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción; Maldonado-Burgos, Martha Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Three imported cases of measles were detected in 2011, so the issue of surveillance with epidemiological alerts intensified. The aim of this article is to describe the phenomenon of intensified surveillance of febrile rash illness before the import of confirmed measles in the country at the Mexican Institute of Social Security cases. The cases of epidemiological surveillance system 2011 were obtained was compared with the prior year It was determined t-Student mean difference and Wilson test for proportions, both with an alpha value of 0.05. 2786 cases of febrile rash illness were reported, 51.2 % more cases than the previous year were reported in 2011, the number of reported cases in relation to the expected increase in 29 of the 35 Delegations, an increase in the average number of cases reported from week 26. 67.4 % of reported cases are concentrated in children under 5 years of age. The average days to collect laboratory sample improved after issuing alerts from 3.4 to 2.6 days (p < 0.000000559). A significant increase in reported cases of febrile rash illness compared with the prior year was appreciated. The Institute has a surveillance system for robust and febrile rash illness, which has identified risks to the population.

  3. Association between iron deficiency and febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Valia; Vargiami, Euthymia; Kontopoulos, Eleutherios; Kardaras, Panagiotis; Economou, Marina; Athanassiou-Mataxa, Miranta; Kirkham, Fenella; Zafeiriou, Dimitrios I

    2015-09-01

    The relationship between iron status and febrile seizures has been examined in various settings, mainly in the Developing World, with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to investigate any association between iron deficiency and febrile seizures (FS) in European children aged 6-60 months. Prospective, case-control study. Greek population in Thessaloniki. 50 patients with febrile seizures (cases) and 50 controls (children presenting with fever, without seizures). None. Haematologic parameters (haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, red cell distribution width), plasma iron, total iron-binding capacity, plasma ferritin, transferrin saturation and soluble transferrin receptors were compared in cases and controls. Plasma ferritin was lower (median [range]: 42.8 (3-285.7) vs 58.3 (21.4-195.3 ng/ml; p = 0.02) and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) higher (mean [Standard Deviation] 267 [58.9] vs 243 [58.45] μg/dl, p = 0.04) in cases than in controls. Results were similar for 12 complex FS cases (ferritin 30 (3-121 vs 89 (41.8-141.5ng/lL; TIBC 292.92 [68.0] vs 232.08 [36.27] μg/dL). Iron deficiency, defined as ferritin <30 ng/ml, was more frequent in cases (24%) than controls (4%; p = 0.004). Ferritin was lower and TIBC higher in 18 with previous seizures than in 32 with a first seizure although haemoglobin and mean cell haemoglobin concentration were higher. European children with febrile seizures have lower Ferritin than those with fever alone, and iron deficiency, but not anaemia, is associated with recurrence. Iron status screening should be considered as routine for children presenting with or at high risk for febrile seizures. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. SIN3A and SIN3B differentially regulate breast cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Monica J.; Liu, Jianzhong; Libby, Emily Falk; Lee, Minnkyong; Crawford, Nigel P.S.; Hurst, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    SIN3 corepressor complexes play important roles in both normal development and breast cancer. Mammalian cells have two paralogs of SIN3 (SIN3A and SIN3B) that are encoded by distinct genes and have unique functions in many developmental processes. However, specific roles for SIN3A and SIN3B in breast cancer progression have not been characterized. We generated stable knockdown cells of SIN3 paralogs individually and in combination using three non-overlapping shRNA. Stable knockdown of SIN3B caused a significant decrease in transwell invasion through Matrigel and decreased the number of invasive colonies when grown in a 3D extracellular matrix. Conversely, stable knockdown of SIN3A significantly increased transwell invasion and increased the number of invasive colonies. These results were corroborated in vivo in which SIN3B knockdown significantly decreased and SIN3A knockdown increased experimental lung metastases. RNA sequencing was used to identify unique targets and biological pathways that were altered upon knockdown of SIN3A compared to SIN3B. Additionally, we analyzed microarray data sets to identify correlations of SIN3A and SIN3B expression with survival in patients with breast cancer. These data sets indicated that high mRNA expression of SIN3A as well as low mRNA expression of SIN3B correlates with longer relapse free survival specifically in patients with triple negative breast cancer which corresponds with our in vitro and in vivo data. These results demonstrate key functional differences between SIN3 paralogs in regulating the process of breast cancer metastasis and suggest metastasis suppressive roles of SIN3A and metastasis promoting roles of SIN3B. PMID:27780928

  5. Recognition and management of febrile convulsion in children.

    PubMed

    Paul, Siba Prosad; Kirkham, Emily Natasha; Shirt, Bethany

    2015-08-26

    Febrile convulsion is characterised by convulsion associated with fever in an infant or child aged between six months and six years. The febrile illness causing the convulsion should not be secondary to an intracranial infection (meningitis or encephalitis) or acute electrolyte imbalance. Most cases of febrile convulsion are short lived and self-terminating. However, a few cases of prolonged febrile convulsion may need anticonvulsant medication to stop the seizure. Management is mainly symptomatic, although anticonvulsants may have a role in a small number of children with complex or recurrent febrile convulsion. Referral to paediatric neurologists may be necessary in cases of complex or recurrent febrile convulsion, or in those where a pre-existing neurological disorder exists. One third of children will develop a further febrile convulsion during subsequent febrile illness. Nurses have a vital role in managing children with febrile convulsion, educating parents about the condition and dispelling myths. This article outlines the presentation, management, investigations and prognosis for febrile convulsion, indicating how nurses working in different clinical areas can help to manage this common childhood condition.

  6. Inheritance of Febrile Seizures in Sudden Unexplained Death in Toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Ingrid A.; Poduri, Annapurna; Crandall, Laura; Haas, Elisabeth; Grafe, Marjorie R.; Kinney, Hannah C.; Krous, Henry F.

    2014-01-01

    Sudden unexplained death in toddlers has been associated with febrile seizures, family history of febrile seizures, and hippocampal anomalies. We investigated the mode of inheritance for febrile seizures in these families. A three-generation pedigree was obtained from families enrolled in the San Diego Sudden Unexplained Death in Childhood Research Project, involving toddlers with sudden unexplained death, febrile seizures, and family history of febrile seizures. In our six cases, death was unwitnessed and related to sleep. The interval from last witnessed febrile seizure to death ranged from 3 weeks to 6 months. Hippocampal abnormalities were identified in one of three cases with available autopsy sections. Autosomal dominant inheritance of febrile seizures was observed in three families. A fourth demonstrated autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance or variable expressivity. In two families, the maternal and paternal sides manifested febrile seizures. In this series, the major pattern of inheritance in toddlers with sudden unexplained death and febrile seizures was autosomal dominant. Future studies should develop markers (including genetic) to identify which patients with febrile seizures are at risk for sudden unexplained death in childhood, and to provide guidance for families and physicians. PMID:22490769

  7. Urinary tract infection in febrile convulsions.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, P; Verrier Jones, K

    1991-01-01

    A retrospective review of the casenotes of 403 children admitted to hospital with febrile convulsions was performed to estimate the frequency of symptomatic urinary tract infection and examine medical practice in making this diagnosis. A total of 228 (56%) children had urine cultured: 150 bag specimens, 76 clean voided samples, and two suprapubic aspirates. There were 13 'probable' and six 'possible' infected urine samples together representing 5% of the whole study population (n = 403), 8% of those having urine cultured (n = 228), and 12% of those providing uncontaminated urine samples (n = 155). Those with first febrile convulsions and those aged under 18 months were more likely to have urine examined. Practices varied significantly between different hospitals. These results suggest that there has indeed been a need for practice guidelines, and that further audit of practice is required to assess their impact. PMID:1755639

  8. Febrile Seizures: Four Steps Algorithmic Clinical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common form of convulsive phenomena in human being and affect 2% to 14% of children. It is the most common type of seizures that every pediatrician is dealing with. It is the most benign type of all seizures occurring in childhood. There are many debates on how to approach to febrile seizures in pediatric neurology and there are many possible malpractices in this field. Some of the most common frequent queries areHow could we differentiate FS from seizures and fever associated with serious infections involving the central nervous system?When should we refer the affected child for further investigations such as lumbar puncture, EEG, neuroimaging, and routine biochemical studies?How should we treat FS in its acute phase?How could we assess the risk for further recurrences as well as other risks threatening the child's health in future?How could we select the patients for treatment or prophylaxis?Which medication(s) should be selected for treatment or prophylaxis? Trying to answer the above-mentioned questions, this review article will present a four steps algorithmic clinical approach model to a child with febrile seizures based on the current medical literature. PMID:23056677

  9. Febrile urinary tract infections: pyelonephritis and urosepsis.

    PubMed

    Schneeberger, Caroline; Holleman, Frits; Geerlings, Suzanne E

    2016-02-01

    Complicated infections of the urinary tract (UTI) including pyelonephritis and urosepsis are also called febrile UTI. This review describes insights from the literature on this topic since July 2014. Recent studies regarding risk factors and consequences of febrile UTI confirmed existing knowledge. It remains difficult to obtain insight into the epidemiology of febrile UTI because urine and blood cultures are frequently missing. The relationship between host and virulence factors of Escherichia coli was further explored showing that less virulent strains can cause infection in immunocompromised patients. In contrast to obstructive uropathy, diabetes, and being older, neutropenia was not a risk factor for lower UTI or urosepsis. A randomized controlled trial revealed that ceftolozane-tazobactam was marginally superior to levofloxacin as treatment for complicated UTI. Case series supported the notion that xanthogranulomatous and emphysematous pyelonephritis are more common in diabetic patients and that drainage or surgery is often required. Neutropenia was not a risk factor for lower UTI or urosepsis. When local resistance percentages to the frequently prescribed fluoroquinolones are high, the combination of ceftolozane-tazobactam may be an alternative as treatment for complicated UTI. Xanthogranulomatous and emphysematous pyelonephritis need to be considered in diabetic patients presenting with UTI symptoms.

  10. Simple febrile convulsions in children: explain and reassure the parents.

    PubMed

    2002-02-01

    (1) Simple febrile convulsions (brief and generalised) in children carry a high risk of recurrence during new febrile episodes (30-50%), especially while the child is under the age of 3 years. These relapses are rarely severe and only occur during a minority of febrile episodes. Later onset of epilepsy is rare. (2) Long term treatment with phenobarbital and valproic acid reduce the risk of relapse but carry a risk of bothersome or severe adverse effects. These treatments are rarely warranted in this setting. (3) Oral diazepam administration to a febrile child has moderate preventive efficacy, which is further limited by the difficulty of timing the treatment correctly. Oral diazepam has frequent but generally mild adverse effects. (4) Antipyretics are not very effective at preventing febrile convulsions but can make the child more comfortable. (5) Parents are often upset when they first see their child have a febrile convulsion. It is important to take the time to reassure them.

  11. Randomized, controlled trial of ibuprofen syrup administered during febrile illnesses to prevent febrile seizure recurrences.

    PubMed

    van Stuijvenberg, M; Derksen-Lubsen, G; Steyerberg, E W; Habbema, J D; Moll, H A

    1998-11-01

    Febrile seizures recur frequently. Factors increasing the risk of febrile seizure recurrence include young age at onset, family history of febrile seizures, previous recurrent febrile seizures, time lapse since previous seizure <6 months, relative low temperature at the initial seizure, multiple type initial seizure, and frequent febrile illnesses. Prevention of seizure recurrences serves two useful purposes: meeting parental fear of recurrent febrile seizures in general and reducing the (small) risk of a long-lasting and eventually injurious recurrent seizure. In daily practice, children with febrile seizures often are treated with antipyretics during fever to prevent febrile seizure recurrences. Thus far, no randomized placebo-controlled trial has been performed to assess the efficacy of intermittent antipyretic treatment in the prevention of seizure recurrence. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Children 1 to 4 years of age who had had at least one risk factor for febrile seizure recurrence were enrolled. They were randomly assigned to either ibuprofen syrup, 20 mg/mL, 0.25 mL (= 5 mg) per kilogram of body weight per dose, or matching placebo, to be administered every 6 hours during fever (temperature, >/=38.5 degrees C). Parents were instructed to take the child's rectal temperature immediately when the child seemed ill or feverish and to promptly administer the study medication when the temperature was >/=38.5 degrees C. Doses were to be administered every 6 hours until the child was afebrile for 24 hours. The parents were instructed not to administer any other antipyretic drug to the child. For measuring rectal temperature, a Philips HP5316 digital thermometer (Philips, Eindhoven, The Netherlands) was distributed. During subsequent treatment of the fever episode, parents had to call the investigator at least once each day to notify the investigator in case of febrile seizure recurrence. The investigator could be contacted by

  12. [An unusual cause of febrile neutropenia: brucellosis].

    PubMed

    Solmaz, Soner; Asma, Süheyl; Ozdoğu, Hakan; Yeral, Mahmut; Turunç, Tuba

    2014-10-01

    Febrile neutropenia which is a common complication of cancer treatment, is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality. Several gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria are responsible for infections in neutropenic patients, however the most common microorganisms are Escherichia coli and coagulase-negative staphylococci, in decreasing order. Although Brucella spp. infections are endemic in Turkey, brucellosis-related febrile neutropenia has only rarely been reported. In this report, a case of brucellosis-related febrile neutropenia in a patient with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) was presented. A 56-year-old male patient presenting with fever, petechiae/purpura, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, and anemia was admitted to our hospital. Laboratory studies revealed a hemoglobin level of 8.27 g/dl, leukocyte count of 77.100 k/ml, absolute neutrophil count of 200 k/ml, and platelets at 94.200 k/ml. The patient was diagnosed as AML-M1 and piperacillin/tazobactam was started as the first-line antibiotic therapy due to the febrile neutropenia. On admission, blood and urine cultures were negative. Once the fever was controlled, remission/induction chemotherapy was initiated. However, fever developed again on the eight day, and vancomycin was added to the therapy. Since the fever persisted, the antibiotic therapy was gradually replaced with meropenem and linezolid. However, fever continued and the patient's general condition deteriorated. Subsequently performed Brucella tube agglutination test revealed positivity at 1/320 titer and the microorganism grown in blood culture (Bactec 9050; BD, USA) was identified as B.melitensis by conventional methods. Rifampicin and doxycycline therapy was started immediately, however, the patient died due to septic shock. If the tests for brucellosis were performed earlier when response to second step antibiotic therapy lacked in this patient, it was assumed that mortality could be prevented by the prompt initiation of the

  13. Pharmacokinetics of trimethoprim (TMP) in normal and febrile rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ladefoged, O

    1977-11-01

    The pharmacokinetics of trimethoprim (TMP) were investigated in normal and febrile rabbits. The half-life of TMP in rabbits is about 40 minutes and no differences were found between the half-life in normal and febrile rabbits. A significantly greater volume of distribution of TMP, however, was found in the febrile rabbits. Analysis according to the two-compartment model showed that the differences are due to a change in the distribution of TMP towards the peripheral compartments.

  14. Serum Endocan Levels in Children with Febrile Neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Kiral, Eylem; Dinleyici, Ener Cagri; Bozkurt-Turhan, Ayse; Bor, Ozcan; Akgun, Yurdanur; Akgun, Necat Akdeniz

    2016-03-17

    Endocan is an endotelial cell specific molecule; previous studies have shown that serum endocan levels increased in cancer and sepsis and are also related to the severity of sepsis. There are no clinical study about serum endocan levels in children with febrile neutropenia. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum endocan levels in pediatric leukemia patients with febrile neutropenia (n=33) and compare them with children with leukemia without fever (n=33) and also with healthy children (n=24). The median serum endocan level in the first group (children with febrile neutropenia) was statistically significantly higher compared to the leukemic children without febrile neutropenia and also control group (P<0.01 for both). No difference was determined between the serum endocan levels of the leukaemia patients without febrile neutropenia and the healthy control group (P>0.05). Serum endocan levels were also similar with febrile neutropenia due to bacterial causes comparing with the idiopathic febril neutropenia. The results of this study showed increased serum endocan in children with leukemia during the febrile neutropenia episode, and no changes of serum endocan levels in children without leukemia without infection/fever. The monitoring of a series of serum endocan levels would be helpful for the course of febrile neutropenia.

  15. Serum Endocan Levels in Children with Febrile Neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    Kiral, Eylem; Bozkurt-Turhan, Ayse; Bor, Ozcan; Akgun, Yurdanur; Akgun, Necat Akdeniz

    2016-01-01

    Endocan is an endotelial cell specific molecule; previous studies have shown that serum endocan levels increased in cancer and sepsis and are also related to the severity of sepsis. There are no clinical study about serum endocan levels in children with febrile neutropenia. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum endocan levels in pediatric leukemia patients with febrile neutropenia (n=33) and compare them with children with leukemia without fever (n=33) and also with healthy children (n=24). The median serum endocan level in the first group (children with febrile neutropenia) was statistically significantly higher compared to the leukemic children without febrile neutropenia and also control group (P<0.01 for both). No difference was determined between the serum endocan levels of the leukaemia patients without febrile neutropenia and the healthy control group (P>0.05). Serum endocan levels were also similar with febrile neutropenia due to bacterial causes comparing with the idiopathic febril neutropenia. The results of this study showed increased serum endocan in children with leukemia during the febrile neutropenia episode, and no changes of serum endocan levels in children without leukemia without infection/fever. The monitoring of a series of serum endocan levels would be helpful for the course of febrile neutropenia. PMID:27103976

  16. "Simple febrile seizures plus (SFS+)": more than one febrile seizure within 24 hours is usually okay.

    PubMed

    Grill, Marie F; Ng, Yu-Tze

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether children with recurrent febrile seizures within a 24-hour period need to be worked up differently from children with simple febrile seizures. Inclusion criteria included the following: (i) children with first seizure cluster between 4 months and 3 years of age, (ii) children who had more than one febrile seizure within 24 hours, and (iii) children who returned to baseline between and after each event. Thirty-two patients met the inclusion criteria over a 3-year period. All patients underwent brain CT and/or MRI and EEG. All head CTs were normal. Two children had abnormal MRI findings - both benign: one is thought to represent postictal changes, and the other one is an incidental arachnoid cyst. Of the 4 abnormal EEGs, one showed epileptiform discharges, while the others showed generalized ictal or postictal features. We propose the term "simple febrile seizures plus (SFS+)" to describe children who have more than one seizure within 24 hours but who are otherwise not different in presentation from children with SFS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors

    PubMed Central

    ESMAILI GOURABI, Hamed; BIDABADI, Elham; CHERAGHALIPOUR, Fatemeh; AARABI, Yasaman; SALAMAT, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    Objective Because of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile seizure admitted to 17 Shahrivar hospital in Rasht, from August, 2009 to August, 2010 were studied. Age, sex, family history of the disease, seizure types, body temperature upon admission and infectious causes of the fever were recorded. All statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software, version 16. Results Of the 214 children (mean age, 25.24±15.40 months), 124 were boys and 109 had a positive family history. Complex seizures were seen in 39 cases. In patients with a complex febrile seizure, 59% had the repetitive type, 20.5% had the focal type and 20.5% had more than 15 minutes duration of seizures. Most of the repetitive seizures (78.3%) occurred in patients under 2 years old; the difference between under and over 2-year-old patients was statistically significant. Study results did not show significant differences between the two genders for simple or complex seizures. The mean body temperature upon admission was 38.2±1.32◦C (38.31±0.82 degrees in boys and 38.04±1.78 in girls). Upper respiratory infections were seen in most patients (74.29%). All cases of lower respiratory infections were boys. There was a statistically significant difference between boys and girls in causes of fever. Conclusion Most of the children had a positive family history and the most common causative factor was upper respiratory infection. PMID:24665278

  18. Undiagnosed Acute Viral Febrile Illnesses, Sierra Leone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    www.cdc.gov/eid • Vol. 20, No. 7, July 2014 Author affiliations: US Army Medical Research Institute of Infec- tious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Maryland, USA...SUBTITLE Undiagnosed Acute Viral Febrile Illnesses, Sierra Leone 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR (S) 5d... Hantavirus genus, family Bunyaviridae. Virology. 1994;198:196– 204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/viro.1994.1022 17. Duermeyer W, Wielaard F, van der Veen J

  19. Epilepsy in children with a history of febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Hyun; Byeon, Jung Hye; Kim, Gun Ha; Eun, Baik-Lin; Eun, So-Hee

    2016-02-01

    Febrile seizure, the most common type of pediatric convulsive disorder, is a benign seizure syndrome distinct from epilepsy. However, as epilepsy is also common during childhood, we aimed to identify the prognostic factors that can predict epilepsy in children with febrile seizures. The study comprised 249 children at the Korea University Ansan Hospital who presented with febrile seizures. The relationship between the subsequent occurrence of epilepsy and clinical factors including seizure and fever-related variables were analyzed by multivariate analysis. Twenty-five patients (10.0%) had additional afebrile seizures later and were diagnosed with epilepsy. The subsequent occurrence of epilepsy in patients with a history of febrile seizures was associated with a seizure frequency of more than 10 times during the first 2 years after seizure onset (P<0.001). Factors that were associated with subsequent occurrence of epilepsy were developmental delay (P<0.001), preterm birth (P=0.001), multiple seizures during a febrile seizure attack (P=0.005), and epileptiform discharges on electroencephalography (EEG) (P=0.008). Other factors such as the age at onset of first seizure, seizure duration, and family history of epilepsy were not associated with subsequent occurrence of epilepsy in this study. Febrile seizures are common and mostly benign. However, careful observation is needed, particularly for prediction of subsequent epileptic episodes in patients with frequent febrile seizures with known risk factors, such as developmental delay, history of preterm birth, several attacks during a febrile episode, and epileptiform discharges on EEG.

  20. Recognition Memory Is Impaired in Children after Prolonged Febrile Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinos, Marina M.; Yoong, Michael; Patil, Shekhar; Chin, Richard F. M.; Neville, Brian G.; Scott, Rod C.; de Haan, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Children with a history of a prolonged febrile seizure show signs of acute hippocampal injury on magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, animal studies have shown that adult rats who suffered febrile seizures during development reveal memory impairments. Together, these lines of evidence suggest that memory impairments related to hippocampal…

  1. Recognition Memory Is Impaired in Children after Prolonged Febrile Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinos, Marina M.; Yoong, Michael; Patil, Shekhar; Chin, Richard F. M.; Neville, Brian G.; Scott, Rod C.; de Haan, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Children with a history of a prolonged febrile seizure show signs of acute hippocampal injury on magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, animal studies have shown that adult rats who suffered febrile seizures during development reveal memory impairments. Together, these lines of evidence suggest that memory impairments related to hippocampal…

  2. Seizure susceptibility due to antihistamines in febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Takano, Tomoyuki; Sakaue, Yuko; Sokoda, Tatsuyuki; Sawai, Chihiro; Akabori, Shie; Maruo, Yoshihiro; Taga, Takashi; Ohno, Masaki; Takeuchi, Yoshihiro

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether seizure susceptibility due to antihistamines is provoked in patients with febrile seizures. The study population comprised 14 patients with simple febrile seizures and 35 patients with complex febrile seizures. Detailed clinical manifestations were compared between patients with and without administration of antihistamine. The time from fever detection to the seizure onset was significantly shorter in the antihistamine group than that in the nonantihistamine group, and the duration of seizures was significantly longer in the antihistamine group than that in nonantihistamine group. Interleukin-1beta is thought to be associated with causing febrile seizures via its dual role as a pyrogen and convulsant substance. Moreover, interleukin-1beta may activate the turnover of hypothalamic neural histamine. These considerations, along with the present results, suggest that the depletion of hypothalamic neuronal histamine induced by antihistamines may increase neuronal excitability, thereby increasing seizure susceptibility in patients with febrile seizures. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pedigree analysis in families with febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W G; Kugler, S L; Stenroos, E S; Meulener, M C; Rangwalla, I; Johnson, T W; Mandelbaum, D E

    1996-02-02

    Febrile seizures are the most common form of seizures, occurring in an estimated 2-5% of North American children. We carried out a systematic pedigree study of febrile seizure probands. Forty of 52 probands (77%) in a referral population selected for increased severity had more than one case per family: one family had 10 cases, one family had 7, 3 families had 6, 2 had 5, 3 had 4, 13 had 3, and 17 had 2 cases. Mode of inheritance in the multicase families best fit the hypothesis of autosomal dominance with reduced penetrance. Polygenic inheritance could not be excluded for some of the smaller families. There was no support for X-linked or mitochondrial inheritance. Penetrance was calculated to be 0.64. Because the cases were selected for increased severity, this represents a useful estimate of the upper limit of penetrance and is in agreement with twin studies. Simulated lod scores showed adequate power for a linkage study in the absence of heterogeneity. Individual families had simulated average lod scores as high as 2.1. However, with potential heterogeneity, assuming only 70% of families share the same disease locus, average lod scores were marginal, and a high density map of marker loci and additional families would be required to document linkage.

  4. Role of viruses in febrile convulsions.

    PubMed

    Lewis, H M; Parry, J V; Parry, R P; Davies, H A; Sanderson, P J; Tyrrell, D A; Valman, H B

    1979-11-01

    A disseminated viral illness was demonstrated by isolating a virus from the CSF, blood or urine in 27% of 73 children who were admitted to hospital after a first febrile convulsion. However, a viral aetiology could be implicated for 86% of the children after combining results of tissue culture, electron microscopy, mouse inoculation, complement fixation tests, and interferon assay. Parallel bacterial cultures showed a possible pathogen in 29% of children, but in only 4% was the pathogen isolated from the CSF, blood, or urine. No correlation was found between the nature of the pathogen (or evidence of its dissemination) and the severity of the convulsion, degree of fever, CSF protein, CSF white cells, or the WBC. The results suggest that a febrile convulsion could be a response to invasion of the blood stream or central nervous system by a micro-organism which is usually a virus. Invasion may be of such brief duration that successful isolation of the virus from the blood, CSF, or urine in not more commonly achieved.

  5. Pedigree analysis in families with febrile seizures

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.G.; Kugler, S.L.; Stenroos, E.S.; Meulener, M.C.

    1996-02-02

    Febrile seizures are the most common form of seizures, occurring in an estimated 2-5% of North American children. We carried out a systematic pedigree study of febrile seizure probands. Forty of 52 probands (77%) in a referral population selected for increased severity had more than one case per family: one family had 10 cases, one family had 7, 3 families had 6, 2 had 5, 3 had 4, 13 had 3, and 17 had 2 cases. Mode of inheritance in the multicase families best fit the hypothesis of autosomal dominance with reduced penetrance. Polygenic inheritance could not be excluded for some of the smaller families. There was no support for X-linked or mitochondrial inheritance. Penetrance was calculated to be 0.64. Because the cases were selected for increased severity, this represents a useful estimate of the upper limit of penetrance and is in agreement with twin studies. Simulated lod scores showed adequate power for a linkage study in the absence of heterogeneity. Individual families had simulated average lod scores as high as 2.1. However, with potential heterogeneity, assuming only 70% of families share the same disease locus, average lod scores were marginal, and a high density map of marker loci and additional families would be required to document linkage. 41 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Zinc status in febrile seizure: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Salehiomran, Mohammad Reza; Mahzari, Masoumeh

    2013-01-01

    Febrile seizure is the most common type of seizure in children. Their incidence is 2-5%. There are different hypotheses about relationship between neurotransmitters and trace elements (such as zinc) and febrile seizure. Zinc, as a major element of some enzymes, plays an important role in the central nervous system (CNS) and can affect some inhibitory mechanisms of CNS. The aim of the present study was to determine whether there were any changes in serum zinc level in children with febrile seizure in comparison with febrile children without seizure. This case-control study was performed on 100 patients aged 6 months to 6 years. This study was conducted between January and August 2012, on 50 children with febrile seizures (case) and 50 febrile children without seizures (control), that were referred to Amirkola Children Hospital (a referral hospital in the north of Iran). Two groups were matched for age and sex. The serum zinc levels in the both groups were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. The mean serum zinc level was 0.585±0.166 mg/L and 0.704±0.179 mg/L in the case group and the control group, respectively (p=0.001). The mean serum zinc level was significantly lower in the febrile seizure group compared to the control groups. Our findings revealed that serum zinc level was significantly lower in children with simple febrile seizure in comparison with febrile children without seizure. It can emphasize the hypothesis that there is a relation between serum zinc level and febrile seizure in children.

  7. Management of febrile neutropenia in solid organ malignancies following chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lakshmaiah, Kuntegowdanahalli C; Abhayakumar, S M; Shetty, Rachan; Loknath, D; Jayashree, R S; Govindbabu, K

    2014-01-01

    Febrile neutropenia is a medical emergency and it requires immediate hospitalization for evaluation and administration of empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics. The present study was undertaken to analyze the infectious agents, choice of empiric antibiotics, and outcome in high-risk febrile neutropenia in the solid organ malignancies. In this study, 92 high risk febrile neutropenic episodes were analyzed in 72 patients with solid organ malignancies. We used cefoperazone-sulbactum as an initial empiric antibiotic. Piperacillin/tazobactum or carbapenems were added to the patients who did not respond to initial antibiotic. Among the 92 episodes treated, most patients received first-line chemotherapy for locally advanced disease. Microbes were isolated in 25% of febrile neutropenic episodes. Gram-negative organism (61.70%) constituted the most common isolates. The most common microbes identified were E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus in blood, Klebsiella pneumonia in sputum and E. coli in urine culture. Patients who had been treated with cefoperazone-sulbactum improved clinically in 70.6% of febrile neutropenic episodes. Second- line antibiotics (piperacillin-tazobactum with amikacin) were required in 24% episodes, while another 5.4% episodes required third-line antibiotics (carbapenems). In this study, mortality was seen in 12% of febrile neutropenic episodes. Staphylococcus aureus was 100% sensitive to linezolid, teicoplanin, and vancomycin, whereas Gram-negative organisms were 100% sensitive to imepenem and meropenem. Cephaperazone-sulbactum is a reasonable initial choice for empirical therapy in high risk febrile neutropenic patients in solid organ malignancies.

  8. Feasible Relation between Glutathione Peroxidase and Febrile Seizure

    PubMed Central

    MAHYAR, Abolfazl; AYAZI, Parviz; DALIRANI, Reza; MOHAMMAD HOSEINI, Behzad; SAROOKHANI, Mohammad Reza; JAVADI, Amir; ESMAEILY, Shiva

    2017-01-01

    Objective We aimed to determine the relationship between serum glutathione peroxidase and febrile seizure. Materials & Methods In this case-control study, 43 children with simple febrile seizure (case group) were compared with 43 febrile children without seizure (control group) in terms of serum glutathione peroxidase level, measured by ELISA method. This study was conducted in Qazvin Children Hospital, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in Qazvin, Iran in 2012-2013. The results were analyzed and compared in two groups. Results From 43 children 24 (53%) were male and 19 (47%) were female in children with simple febrile seizure, and 26 (60%) were male and 17 (40%) were female in febrile children without seizure (control group) (P=0.827). Serum glutathione peroxidase level was 166 U/ml (SD=107) in the case group and 141 U/ml (SD=90.5) in the control group of no significant difference. Conclusion There was no significant relationship between serum glutathione peroxidase and simple febrile seizure. Thus, it seems that glutathione peroxidase, an essential component of antioxidant system, does not play any role in the pathogenesis of simple febrile seizure. PMID:28277558

  9. Febrile seizures: current views and investigations.

    PubMed

    Reid, Aylin Y; Galic, Michael A; Teskey, G Campbell; Pittman, Quentin J

    2009-11-01

    Febrile seizures (FSs) are seizures that occur during fever, usually at the time of a cold or flu, and represent the most common cause of seizures in the pediatric population. Up to 5% of children between the ages of six months and five years-of-age will experience a FS. Clinically these seizures are categorized as benign events with little impact on the growth and development of the child. However, studies have linked the occurrence of FSs to an increased risk of developing adult epileptic disorders. There are many unanswered questions about FSs, such as the mechanism of their generation, the long-term effects of these seizures, and their role in epileptogenesis. Answers are beginning to emerge based on results from animal studies. This review summarizes the current literature on animal models of FSs, mechanisms underlying the seizures, and functional, structural, and molecular changes that may result from them.

  10. Epilepsy in children with a history of febrile seizures

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hyun; Byeon, Jung Hye; Kim, Gun Ha; Eun, Baik-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Febrile seizure, the most common type of pediatric convulsive disorder, is a benign seizure syndrome distinct from epilepsy. However, as epilepsy is also common during childhood, we aimed to identify the prognostic factors that can predict epilepsy in children with febrile seizures Methods The study comprised 249 children at the Korea University Ansan Hospital who presented with febrile seizures. The relationship between the subsequent occurrence of epilepsy and clinical factors including seizure and fever-related variables were analyzed by multivariate analysis. Results Twenty-five patients (10.0%) had additional afebrile seizures later and were diagnosed with epilepsy. The subsequent occurrence of epilepsy in patients with a history of febrile seizures was associated with a seizure frequency of more than 10 times during the first 2 years after seizure onset (P<0.001). Factors that were associated with subsequent occurrence of epilepsy were developmental delay (P<0.001), preterm birth (P=0.001), multiple seizures during a febrile seizure attack (P=0.005), and epileptiform discharges on electroencephalography (EEG) (P=0.008). Other factors such as the age at onset of first seizure, seizure duration, and family history of epilepsy were not associated with subsequent occurrence of epilepsy in this study. Conclusion Febrile seizures are common and mostly benign. However, careful observation is needed, particularly for prediction of subsequent epileptic episodes in patients with frequent febrile seizures with known risk factors, such as developmental delay, history of preterm birth, several attacks during a febrile episode, and epileptiform discharges on EEG. PMID:26958066

  11. Original Sin and T. E. Hulme's Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kishler, Thomas C.

    1976-01-01

    T. E. Hulme, a vigorous opponent of romanticism in art, poetry, and philosophy, insisted that the underlying flaw of the romantic view was its rejection of the dogma of Original Sin and the fall of man. His views are explored for the significant bearing they have on the development of aesthetic insight and indirectly on value and outlook.…

  12. William Blake and the Great Sin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Andrew M.

    1975-01-01

    Writing in his diary of 10th December, 1825, Crabb Robinson quoted from a recent conversation in which William Blake said, "There is no use in education. I hold it wrong. It is the great sin". Author believed that Blake's writings and conversations had considerable educational significance, and he considered them in this article.…

  13. Original Sin and T. E. Hulme's Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kishler, Thomas C.

    1976-01-01

    T. E. Hulme, a vigorous opponent of romanticism in art, poetry, and philosophy, insisted that the underlying flaw of the romantic view was its rejection of the dogma of Original Sin and the fall of man. His views are explored for the significant bearing they have on the development of aesthetic insight and indirectly on value and outlook.…

  14. Oral versus intravenous antibiotics in treatment of paediatric febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Vedi, Aditi; Cohn, Richard

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether, in low-risk febrile neutropenic paediatric populations, oral antibiotics are as effective as intravenous antibiotics in obtaining resolution of the febrile neutropenic episode. A comprehensive literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL identified prospective, randomised controlled trials comparing oral antibiotics with intravenous antibiotics in the treatment of febrile neutropenic episodes in low-risk paediatric oncology patients. Outcomes assessed were mortality, rate of treatment failure, length of the febrile neutropenic episode and adverse events. The random effects model was used to calculate risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous data and mean difference with standard deviation for continuous data. Seven trials were included in the overall analysis, which included 934 episodes of febrile neutropenia in 676 patients aged between 9 months and 20 years. The overall treatment failure rates were not significantly different between oral and intravenous antibiotics (RR: 1.02, 95% confidence interval 0.78-1.32, P= 0.91). In carefully selected low-risk febrile neutropenic children, empiric treatment with oral antibiotics is a safe and effective alternative to intravenous antibiotics as they lower the cost of treatment as well as psychosocial burden on these children and their families. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  15. Prophylactic antipyretics for prevention of febrile seizures following vaccination.

    PubMed

    Monfries, Nicholas; Goldman, Ran D

    2017-02-01

    Question Parents of a 12-month-old boy are bringing their son in to my family practice clinic for his well-baby visit. As the infant is due for his 12-month vaccine series, the parents are concerned after hearing about the association between certain vaccinations and an increased risk of febrile seizures, and are wondering if they should administer prophylactic antipyretics to decrease the risk of febrile seizure. What vaccinations are associated with increased risk of febrile seizure, and is there evidence supporting prophylactic administration of antipyretics to prevent febrile seizures? Answer Vaccinations associated with increased risk of febrile seizure include the following: the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine; the measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine; the combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine; the whole-cell pertussis vaccine; the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine; and concomitant administration of the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine with either the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine or the diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine. Despite being a higher-risk group, children receiving these vaccinations should not receive prophylactic antipyretics, as no statistically significant reduction in the rate of febrile seizures has been documented, and prophylactic antipyretic use potentially decreases the immune response to certain vaccines. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  16. Original antigenic sin: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Vatti, Anup; Monsalve, Diana M; Pacheco, Yovana; Chang, Christopher; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Gershwin, M Eric

    2017-09-01

    The concept of "original antigenic sin" was first proposed by Thomas Francis, Jr. in 1960. This phenomenon has the potential to rewrite what we understand about how the immune system responds to infections and its mechanistic implications on how vaccines should be designed. Antigenic sin has been demonstrated to occur in several infectious diseases in both animals and humans, including human influenza infection and dengue fever. The basis of "original antigenic sin" requires immunological memory, and our immune system ability to autocorrect. In the context of viral infections, it is expected that if we are exposed to a native strain of a pathogen, we should be able to mount a secondary immune response on subsequent exposure to the same pathogen. "Original antigenic sin" will not contradict this well-established immunological process, as long as the subsequent infectious antigen is identical to the original one. But "original antigenic sin" implies that when the epitope varies slightly, then the immune system relies on memory of the earlier infection, rather than mount another primary or secondary response to the new epitope which would allow faster and stronger responses. The result is that the immunological response may be inadequate against the new strain, because the immune system does not adapt and instead relies on its memory to mount a response. In the case of vaccines, if we only immunize to a single strain or epitope, and if that strain/epitope changes over time, then the immune system is unable to mount an accurate secondary response. In addition, depending of the first viral exposure the secondary immune response can result in an antibody-dependent enhancement of the disease or at the opposite, it could induce anergy. Both of them triggering loss of pathogen control and inducing aberrant clinical consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Childhood Epilepsy, Febrile Seizures, and Subsequent Risk of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bertelsen, Elin Næs; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Petersen, Liselotte; Christensen, Jakob; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2016-08-01

    Epilepsy, febrile seizures, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are disorders of the central nervous system and share common risk factors. Our goal was to examine the association in a nationwide cohort study with prospective follow-up and adjustment for selected confounders. We hypothesized that epilepsy and febrile seizures were associated with subsequent ADHD. A population-based cohort of all children born in Denmark from 1990 through 2007 was followed up until 2012. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for ADHD were estimated by using Cox regression analysis, comparing children with epilepsy and febrile seizure with those without these disorders, adjusted for socioeconomic and perinatal risk factors, as well as family history of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. A total of 906 379 individuals were followed up for 22 years (∼10 million person-years of observation); 21 079 individuals developed ADHD. Children with epilepsy had a fully adjusted IRR of ADHD of 2.72 (95% CI, 2.53-2.91) compared with children without epilepsy. Similarly, in children with febrile seizure, the fully adjusted IRR of ADHD was 1.28 (95% CI, 1.20-1.35). In individuals with both epilepsy and febrile seizure, the fully adjusted IRR of ADHD was 3.22 (95% CI, 2.72-3.83). Our findings indicate a strong association between epilepsy in childhood and, to a lesser extent, febrile seizure and subsequent development of ADHD, even after adjusting for socioeconomic and perinatal risk factors, and family history of epilepsy, febrile seizures, or psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  18. The assessment of risk factors for febrile seizures in children.

    PubMed

    Gontko-Romanowska, Krystyna; Żaba, Zbigniew; Panieński, Paweł; Steinborn, Barbara; Szemień, Michał; Łukasik-Głębocka, Magdalena; Ratajczak, Krystian; Chrobak, Adrian; Mitkowska, Joanna; Górny, Jacek

    2017-07-31

    The aim of the paper was to assess the risk factors of febrile seizures in children. The paper presents an analysis of a group of 176 children aged 6 months to 5 years who were admitted to A&E because of febrile seizures. The analysed group of 176 children comprised 61.96% boys and 38.07% girls, and the average age equalled 23 months. Family history was significant in 9.66% of patients. A statistically significant difference was noticed between insignificant family history and the incidence of febrile seizures. In all the studied groups of children the factor that determined the incidence of febrile seizures was a sudden increase in the body temperature with an infection of the upper respiratory tract of several day's duration as another cause. Febrile seizure incident was most frequently associated with a sudden increase in the body temperature in 53.40% children. A statistically significant difference was observed between persisting fever and an increase thereof during the day. Yet another factor predisposing for febrile seizures incidence was an infection of the upper respiratory system that could be observed in 32.95% patients. The mean body temperature when the seizures occurred was 38.9°C. A sudden increase in the body temperature within the first day of pyrexia predisposes for the incidence of febrile seizures and it was proved that it depends on how long fever persists during the day. The other factor triggering the seizures was an infection of the upper respiratory tract of several days' duration. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  19. Association between iron deficiency anemia and febrile seizure in children.

    PubMed

    Derakhshanfar, Hojjat; Abaskhanian, Ali; Alimohammadi, Hosein; ModanlooKordi, Mona

    2012-08-01

    Febrile convulsion (FC) is a common cause of seizure in young children, with an excellent prognosis. In addition to genetic predisposition, FCs are generally thought to be induced by elemental changes such as iron deficiency. Regarding the high prevalence of febrile seizure and iron deficiency anemia in children, the aim was to investigate the role of iron deficiency anemia in FC patients. This case-control study was performed in 500 children with febrile seizures (case) and 500 febrile children without seizures (control), referred to Mofid hospital in Tehran during one year (Nov 2009-Nov 2010). All children were aged between 6-60 months. The groups were matched in age and gender and use of supplemental iron. Laboratory tests consisted of Complete Blood Count (CBC). Serum iron, plasma ferritin and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) analyses were done in each patient. The patients and controls were 26.49+12.65 and 26.84+11.70 months of mean age, respectively. The amount of Hb, Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RBC count, serum iron and plasma ferritin were significantly higher and TIBC was significantly lower among the cases with febrile convulsion than the controls. The incidence of iron deficiency anemia was significantly higher in controls compared with the cases (p less than 0.016). The mean of temperature peak on admission was significantly higher in the febrile convulsion group than controls. The results of this study suggest that the risk of febrile seizure occurrence in anemic children is less common as compared to non-anemic ones.

  20. Babar: Sin(2beta) With Charm

    SciTech Connect

    Grenier, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique /Clermont-Ferrand U.

    2006-04-12

    We present measurements of time-dependent CP asymmetries of neutral B decays to several charm and charmonium final states. Data have been collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage ring at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. In the absence of penguin contribution, the Standard Model predicts the time-dependent CP asymmetry parameters S and C are to be {eta}{sub CP} sin(2{beta}) and 0, respectively.

  1. Sin3b Interacts with Myc and Decreases Myc Levels*

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Sanz, Pablo; Quintanilla, Andrea; Lafita, M. Carmen; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; García-Gutierrez, Lucia; Tabor, Vedrana; Varela, Ignacio; Shiio, Yuzuru; Larsson, Lars-Gunnar; Portillo, Francisco; Leon, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Myc expression is deregulated in many human cancers. A yeast two-hybrid screen has revealed that the transcriptional repressor Sin3b interacts with Myc protein. Endogenous Myc and Sin3b co-localize and interact in the nuclei of human and rat cells, as assessed by co-immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and proximity ligation assay. The interaction is Max-independent. A conserved Myc region (amino acids 186–203) is required for the interaction with Sin3 proteins. Histone deacetylase 1 is recruited to Myc-Sin3b complexes, and its deacetylase activity is required for the effects of Sin3b on Myc. Myc and Sin3a/b co-occupied many sites on the chromatin of human leukemia cells, although the presence of Sin3 was not associated with gene down-regulation. In leukemia cells and fibroblasts, Sin3b silencing led to Myc up-regulation, whereas Sin3b overexpression induced Myc deacetylation and degradation. An analysis of Sin3b expression in breast tumors revealed an association between low Sin3b expression and disease progression. The data suggest that Sin3b decreases Myc protein levels upon Myc deacetylation. As Sin3b is also required for transcriptional repression by Mxd-Max complexes, our results suggest that, at least in some cell types, Sin3b limits Myc activity through two complementary activities: Mxd-dependent gene repression and reduction of Myc levels. PMID:24951594

  2. Febrile illness experience among Nigerian nomads

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An understanding of the febrile illness experience of Nigerian nomadic Fulani is necessary for developing an appropriate strategy for extending malaria intervention services to them. An exploratory study of their malaria illness experience was carried out in Northern Nigeria preparatory to promoting malaria intervention among them. Methods Ethnographic tools including interviews, group discussions, informal conversations and living-in-camp observations were used for collecting information on local knowledge, perceived cause, severity and health seeking behaviour of nomadic Fulani in their dry season camps at the Gongola-Benue valley in Northeastern Nigeria. Results Nomadic Fulani regarded pabboje (a type of "fever" that is distinct from other fevers because it "comes today, goes tomorrow, returns the next") as their commonest health problem. Pabboje is associated with early rains, ripening corn and brightly coloured flora. Pabboje is inherent in all nomadic Fulani for which treatment is therefore unnecessary despite its interference with performance of duty such as herding. Traditional medicines are used to reduce the severity, and rituals carried out to make it permanently inactive or to divert its recurrence. Although modern antimalaria may make the severity of subsequent pabboje episodes worse, nomads seek treatment in private health facilities against fevers that are persistent using antimalarial medicines. The consent of the household head was essential for a sick child to be treated outside the camp. The most important issues in health service utilization among nomads are the belief that fever is a Fulani illness that needs no cure until a particular period, preference for private medicine vendors and the avoidance of health facilities. Conclusions Understanding nomadic Fulani beliefs about pabboje is useful for planning an acceptable community participatory fever management among them. PMID:22292982

  3. [Special features of febrile neutropenia in pediatric patients].

    PubMed

    Olivé-Oliveras, M Teresa; Ruiz-Camps, Isabel

    2005-12-01

    Febrile neutropenia is a common complication in pediatric oncohematological patients. It is defined by fever > or = 38.3 degrees C or > or = 38 for more than one hour together with a neutrophil count of < or = 500/microl(3). These children are usually admitted to hospital and receive empirical broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. Recent studies support the possibility of early discharge or outpatient management in selected cases of febrile neutropenia. This translates into a lower risk of nosocomial infections and a reduction in the discriminate use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, with a consequent reduction in resistance, toxicity and costs. All of these factors would improve the patient's quality of life. The estimated incidence of bacteremia in children with febrile neutropenia is 10-36%. However, the experience of multiple centers suggests that not all children have the same risk of complications or death due to infection and that the risk is much lower than that in adults.

  4. Tick-borne febrile illnesses lacking specific symptoms.

    PubMed

    Stoecker, William V; Calcara, David A; Malters, Joseph M; Clonts, Monica; Everett, E Dale

    2009-01-01

    We report here one case of tularemia, one case of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, and one case of febrile illness most consistent with tularemia with titers suggestive of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in residents of three south-central Missouri counties. All three cases had with nonspecific symptoms of a febrile illness. All three patients had a history of a tick bite, common in south-central Missouri, but only two patients reported the tick bite when first seen. In these three cases, the severity of the illness provided a clue that led to a diagnosis of tick-borne febrile illnesses by confirmatory serology in two cases. It is very important that physicians be aware of these diseases in the spring and summer months.

  5. Febrile status epilepticus due to respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    PubMed

    Uda, Kazuhiro; Kitazawa, Katsuhiko

    2017-08-01

    Febrile status epilepticus can have neurological sequelae. The type of sequelae, however, depend on the etiology, including infection due to viral agents such as the influenza virus. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in childhood may also contribute to this. The aim of this study was therefore to characterize febrile status epilepticus associated with RSV infection, and to determine whether this type of infection is a risk factor for neurological sequelae in febrile status epilepticus. We reviewed the medical records of children aged ≤3 years with febrile status epilepticus who were admitted to a tertiary hospital between January 2007 and December 2011. The differences between the RSV-positive and RSV-negative groups were evaluated according to the demographic and clinical data. A total of 99 patients with febrile status epilepticus who had been tested for RSV infection were identified. Three patients in the RSV-positive group (n = 19) and four in the RSV-negative group (n = 80) presented with bronchiolitis. The incidence of intubation and anti-seizure drug treatment in the RSV-positive group was significantly higher than in the -negative group. While all of the patients in the RSV-negative group recovered completely, six patients in the RSV-positive group developed encephalopathy and profound neurological sequelae. In five of the six patients, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed subcortical white matter lesions. RSV infection in the absence of bronchiolitis can initially present as febrile status epilepticus and subsequently develop into acute encephalopathy with profound neurological sequelae. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  6. Cerebral Abscess Presenting as a Complex Febrile Seizure.

    PubMed

    Anand, Anjoli; Salas, Alicia; Mahl, Evan; Levine, Marla C

    2015-07-01

    Currently, there is no standardized approach to the management of complex febrile seizures in children and there are no published practice guidelines for the procurement of neuroimaging. Presented is a 2-year-old female patient who experienced a 3- to 5-minute episode of staring and unilateral mouth twitching associated with high fever. On initial presentation, the patient appeared well and had a normal neurological examination. No focus of infection was identified, and she was diagnosed with complex febrile seizure. The patient was discharged home with close neurology and primary care follow-up but returned the following day with altered mental status, toxic appearance, and right lower extremity weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed left-sided cranial empyema and the patient was managed with antibiotics and surgical drainage. A literature review to answer the question "Do children with complex febrile seizures require emergent neuroimaging?" yielded a small number of retrospective reviews describing the utility of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and lumbar puncture in the work-up of febrile seizures. Current evidence indicates that neuroimaging is not indicated in an otherwise healthy child who presents with complex febrile seizure if the patient is well appearing and has no evidence of focal neurological deficit on examination. As this case demonstrates, however, serious conditions such as meningitis and brain abscess (though rare) should be considered in the differential diagnosis of complex febrile seizure and physicians should remain aware that the need for neuroimaging and/or lumbar puncture may arise in the appropriate clinical setting.

  7. Recognition memory is impaired in children after prolonged febrile seizures

    PubMed Central

    Martinos, Marina M.; Yoong, Michael; Patil, Shekhar; Chin, Richard F. M.; Neville, Brian G.; de Haan, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Children with a history of a prolonged febrile seizure show signs of acute hippocampal injury on magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, animal studies have shown that adult rats who suffered febrile seizures during development reveal memory impairments. Together, these lines of evidence suggest that memory impairments related to hippocampal injury may be evident in human children after prolonged febrile seizures. The current study addressed this question by investigating memory abilities in 26 children soon after a prolonged febrile seizure (median: 37.5 days) and compared their results to those of 37 normally developing children. Fifteen patients were reassessed at a mean of 12.5 months after their first assessment to determine the transiency of any observed effects. We used the visual paired comparison task to test memory abilities in our group, as this task does not depend on verbal abilities and also because successful performance on the task has been proven to depend on the presence of functional hippocampi. Our findings show that patients perform as well as controls in the absence of a delay between the learning phase and the memory test, suggesting that both groups are able to form representations of the presented stimulus. However, after a 5-min delay, patients’ recognition memory is not different from chance, and comparison of patients and controls points to an accelerated forgetting rate in the prolonged febrile seizure group. The patients’ performance was not related to the time elapsed from the acute event or the duration of the prolonged febrile seizure, suggesting that the observed effect is not a by-product of the seizure itself or a delayed effect of medication administered to terminate the seizure. By contrast, performance was related to hippocampal size; participants with the smallest mean hippocampal volumes revealed the biggest drop in performance from the immediate to the delayed paradigm. At follow-up, children were still showing

  8. Advances in management of low-risk febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Teuffel, Oliver; Sung, Lillian

    2012-02-01

    To describe and discuss the most recent advances in the management of low-risk febrile neutropenia in children with cancer. Several risk stratification tools for children with febrile neutropenia have been developed, although none of these tools have been directly compared and few have been validated in independent populations. However, there is good evidence that, for pediatric patients with febrile neutropenia at low risk for severe infection, outpatient management is a well tolerated and efficacious alternative to inpatient care. Moreover, major progress has been made in obtaining and understanding perceived quality of life and preferences for outpatient management in pediatric cancer patients. Many parents prefer inpatient management although child quality of life is, in general, anticipated to be higher with outpatient intravenous therapy. Finally, outpatient strategies are more cost-effective as compared with traditional management in hospital. Outpatient management is a well tolerated and cost-effective strategy for low-risk febrile neutropenia in children with cancer, although parental preferences are highly variable for outpatient versus inpatient management. Future research should examine the effectiveness of outpatient strategies through conduct of large cohort studies. Other future work could focus on development of decision aids and other tools to facilitate ambulatory approaches.

  9. Bacterial lung sepsis in patients with febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Lanoix, Jean-Philippe; Schmit, Jean-Luc; Douadi, Youcef

    2012-05-01

    This review provides an update on microbiological and therapeutic data in febrile neutropenic patients in general and those with bacterial lung sepsis in particular. Although the Infectious Diseases Society of America updated its guidelines on febrile neutropenia in 2010, changing epidemiological factors and the spread of new drug resistance constitutes challenges for initial treatment of this condition. Lung sepsis stands out because of the frequent absence of microbiological identification. We review the use of newly available, novel, broad-spectrum antibiotics (linezolid, tigecycline, daptomycin, etc.) in this indication. Although the incidence of Gram-negative infections in neutropenic fever is leveling off, there is a worrying increase in resistance. New drugs are available but not well studied in febrile neutropenia; daptomycin and tigecycline should not be used in suspected lung sepsis in these patients. New diagnostic tools (such as the procalcitonin assay and the LightCycler SeptiFast assay, Roche Molecular Systems) appear to be unhelpful in febrile neutropenia, although more data on fungal sepsis are required. There are no specific features of the treatment of pneumonia or septic shock in neutropenic fever, but both conditions increase the mortality rate.

  10. Epileptogenesis provoked by prolonged experimental febrile seizures: mechanisms and biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, Celiné M.; Ravizza, Teresa; Hamamura, Mark; Zha, Qinqin; Keebaugh, Andrew; Fok, Kimberly; Andres, Adrienne M.; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Obenaus, Andre; Vezzani, Annamaria; Baram, Tallie Z.

    2010-01-01

    Whether long febrile seizures (FS) can cause epilepsy in the absence of genetic or acquired predisposing factors is unclear. Having established causality between long FS and limbic epilepsy in an animal model, we studied here if the duration of the inciting FS influenced the probability of developing subsequent epilepsy and the severity of the spontaneous seizures. We evaluated if interictal epileptifom activity and/or elevation of hippocampal T2 signal on MRI provided predictive biomarkers for epileptogenesis, and if the inflammatory mediator interleukin-1β (IL-1β), an intrinsic element of FS generation, contributed also to subsequent epileptogenesis. We found that febrile status epilepticus, lasting an average of 64 minutes, increased the severity and duration of subsequent spontaneous seizures compared with FS averaging 24 minutes. Interictal activity in rats sustaining febrile status epilepticus was also significantly longer and more robust, and correlated with the presence of hippocampal T2 changes in individual rats. Neither T2 changes nor interictal activity predicted epileptogenesis. Hippocampal levels of IL-1β were significantly higher for over 24 hours after prolonged FS. Chronically, IL-1β levels were elevated only in rats developing spontaneous limbic seizures after febrile status epilepticus, consistent with a role for this inflammatory mediator in epileptogenesis. Establishing seizure duration as an important determinant in epileptogenesis, and defining the predictive roles of interictal activity, MRI, and inflammatory processes are of paramount importance to the clinical understanding of the outcome of FS, the most common neurological insult in infants and children. PMID:20519523

  11. Mayaro Virus in Child with Acute Febrile Illness, Haiti, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Lednicky, John; De Rochars, Valery Madsen Beau; Elbadry, Maha; Loeb, Julia; Telisma, Taina; Chavannes, Sonese; Anilis, Gina; Cella, Eleonora; Ciccozzi, Massinno; Okech, Bernard; Salemi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Mayaro virus has been associated with small outbreaks in northern South America. We isolated this virus from a child with acute febrile illness in rural Haiti, confirming its role as a cause of mosquitoborne illness in the Caribbean region. The clinical presentation can mimic that of chikungunya, dengue, and Zika virus infections. PMID:27767924

  12. Prevalence of recent immunisation in children with febrile convulsions

    PubMed Central

    Motala, Leya; Eslick, Guy D

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the prevalence of recent immunisation amongst children under 7 years of age presenting for febrile convulsions. METHODS This is a retrospective study of all children under the age of seven presenting with febrile convulsions to a tertiary referral hospital in Sydney. A total of 78 cases occurred in the period January 2011 to July 2012 and were included in the study. Data was extracted from medical records to provide a retrospective review of the convulsions. RESULTS Of the 78 total cases, there were five medical records which contained information on whether or not immunisation had been administered in the preceding 48 h to presentation to the emergency department. Of these five patients only one patient (1.28% of the study population) was confirmed to have received a vaccination with Infanrix, Prevnar and Rotavirus. The majority of cases reported a current infection as a likely precipitant to the febrile convulsion. CONCLUSION This study found a very low prevalence of recent immunisation amongst children with febrile convulsions presenting to an emergency department at a tertiary referral hospital in Sydney. This finding, however, may have been distorted by underreporting of vaccination history. PMID:27610346

  13. Mayaro Virus in Child with Acute Febrile Illness, Haiti, 2015.

    PubMed

    Lednicky, John; De Rochars, Valery Madsen Beau; Elbadry, Maha; Loeb, Julia; Telisma, Taina; Chavannes, Sonese; Anilis, Gina; Cella, Eleonora; Ciccozzi, Massinno; Okech, Bernard; Salemi, Marco; Morris, J Glenn

    2016-11-01

    Mayaro virus has been associated with small outbreaks in northern South America. We isolated this virus from a child with acute febrile illness in rural Haiti, confirming its role as a cause of mosquitoborne illness in the Caribbean region. The clinical presentation can mimic that of chikungunya, dengue, and Zika virus infections.

  14. New guidelines for management of febrile seizures in Japan.

    PubMed

    Natsume, Jun; Hamano, Shin-Ichiro; Iyoda, Kuniaki; Kanemura, Hideaki; Kubota, Masaya; Mimaki, Masakazu; Niijima, Shinichi; Tanabe, Takuya; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Kojimahara, Noriko; Komaki, Hirohumi; Sugai, Kenji; Fukuda, Tokiko; Maegaki, Yoshihiro; Sugie, Hideo

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, the Japanese Society of Child Neurology released new guidelines for the management of febrile seizures, the first update of such guidelines since 1996. In 1988, the Conference on Febrile Convulsions in Japan published "Guidelines for the Treatment of Febrile Seizures." The Task Committee of the Conference proposed a revised version of the guidelines in 1996; that version released in 1996 was used for the next 19years in Japan for the clinical management of children with febrile seizures. Although the guidelines were very helpful for many clinicians, new guidelines were needed to reflect changes in public health and the dissemination of new medical evidence. The Japanese Society of Child Neurology formed a working group in 2012, and published the new guidelines in March 2015. The guidelines include emergency care, application of electroencephalography, neuroimaging, prophylactic diazepam, antipyretics, drugs needing special attention, and vaccines. While the new guidelines contain updated clinical recommendations, many unsolved questions remain. These questions should be clarified by future clinical research.

  15. Evidence on the use of paracetamol in febrile children.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Fiona M.; Shann, Frank; Curtis, Nigel; Mulholland, Kim

    2003-01-01

    Antipyretics, including acetaminophen (paracetamol), are prescribed commonly in children with pyrexia, despite minimal evidence of a clinical benefit. A literature review was performed by searching Medline and the Cochrane databases for research papers on the efficacy of paracetamol in febrile illnesses in children and adverse outcomes related to the use of paracetamol. No studies showed any clear benefit for the use of paracetamol in therapeutic doses in febrile children with viral or bacterial infections or with malaria. Some studies suggested that fever may have a beneficial role in infection, although no definitive prospective studies in children have been done to prove this. The use of paracetamol in therapeutic doses generally is safe, although hepatotoxicity has occurred with recommended dosages in children. In developing countries where malnutrition is common, data on the safety of paracetamol are lacking. The cost of paracetamol for poor families is substantial. No evidence shows that it is beneficial to treat febrile children with paracetamol. Treatment should be given only to children who are in obvious discomfort and those with conditions known to be painful. The role of paracetamol in children with severe malaria or sepsis and in malnourished, febrile children needs to be clarified. PMID:12856055

  16. Development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS).

    PubMed

    Konrath, Sara; Meier, Brian P; Bushman, Brad J

    2014-01-01

    The narcissistic personality is characterized by grandiosity, entitlement, and low empathy. This paper describes the development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS). Although the use of longer instruments is superior in most circumstances, we recommend the SINS in some circumstances (e.g. under serious time constraints, online studies). In 11 independent studies (total N = 2,250), we demonstrate the SINS' psychometric properties. The SINS is significantly correlated with longer narcissism scales, but uncorrelated with self-esteem. It also has high test-retest reliability. We validate the SINS in a variety of samples (e.g., undergraduates, nationally representative adults), intrapersonal correlates (e.g., positive affect, depression), and interpersonal correlates (e.g., aggression, relationship quality, prosocial behavior). The SINS taps into the more fragile and less desirable components of narcissism. The SINS can be a useful tool for researchers, especially when it is important to measure narcissism with constraints preventing the use of longer measures.

  17. Respiratory alkalosis in children with febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Schuchmann, Sebastian; Hauck, Sarah; Henning, Stephan; Grüters-Kieslich, Annette; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Schmitz, Dietmar; Kaila, Kai

    2011-11-01

    Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common type of convulsive events in children. FS are suggested to result from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. However, the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying FS remain unclear. Using an animal model of experimental FS, it was demonstrated that hyperthermia causes respiratory alkalosis with consequent brain alkalosis and seizures. Here we examine the acid-base status of children who were admitted to the hospital for FS. Children who were admitted because of gastroenteritis (GE), a condition known to promote acidosis, were examined to investigate a possible protective effect of acidosis against FS. We enrolled 433 age-matched children with similar levels of fever from two groups presented to the emergency department. One group was admitted for FS (n = 213) and the other for GE (n = 220). In the FS group, the etiology of fever was respiratory tract infection (74.2%), otitis media (7%), GE (7%), tonsillitis (4.2%), scarlet fever (2.3%) chickenpox (1.4%), urinary tract infection (1.4%), postvaccination reaction (0.9%), or unidentified (1.4%). In all patients, capillary pH and blood Pco(2) were measured immediately on admission to the hospital. Respiratory alkalosis was found in children with FS (pH 7.46 ± 0.04, [mean ± standard deviation] Pco(2) 29.5 ± 5.5 mmHg), whereas a metabolic acidosis was seen in all children admitted for GE (pH 7.31 ± 0.03, Pco(2) 37.7 ± 4.3 mmHg; p < 0.001 for both parameters). No FS were observed in the latter group. A subgroup (n = 15; 7%) of the patients with FS had GE and, notably, their blood pH was more alkaline (pH 7.44 ± 0.04) than in the GE-admitted group. During the enrollment period, eight of the patients were admitted on separate occasions because of FS or GE. Consistent with the view that generation of FS requires a genetic susceptibility in addition to acute seizure triggering factors, each of these patients had an alkalotic blood pH when admitted because of FS

  18. Disease, suffering, and sin: one Anglican's perspective.

    PubMed

    Foster, Claire

    2006-08-01

    This article explores some of the implications of understanding sin as failure of perception. The theological underpinning of the argument is the choice made in the Garden of Eden to eat the fruit of the tree of knowledge rather than the fruit of the tree of life, or wisdom. This has led to distorted perception, in which all things are seen as having separate, independent existences rather than joined together by their common divine source and their deep interrelatedness in the covenant made with God. The article discusses the fascination with the principle of respect for autonomy in the light of this theology. It also looks at perceptions of the HIV/AIDS crisis in Africa. It finishes with a definition of repentance that makes right perception possible.

  19. Sin3b interacts with Myc and decreases Myc levels.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Sanz, Pablo; Quintanilla, Andrea; Lafita, M Carmen; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; García-Gutierrez, Lucia; Tabor, Vedrana; Varela, Ignacio; Shiio, Yuzuru; Larsson, Lars-Gunnar; Portillo, Francisco; Leon, Javier

    2014-08-08

    Myc expression is deregulated in many human cancers. A yeast two-hybrid screen has revealed that the transcriptional repressor Sin3b interacts with Myc protein. Endogenous Myc and Sin3b co-localize and interact in the nuclei of human and rat cells, as assessed by co-immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and proximity ligation assay. The interaction is Max-independent. A conserved Myc region (amino acids 186-203) is required for the interaction with Sin3 proteins. Histone deacetylase 1 is recruited to Myc-Sin3b complexes, and its deacetylase activity is required for the effects of Sin3b on Myc. Myc and Sin3a/b co-occupied many sites on the chromatin of human leukemia cells, although the presence of Sin3 was not associated with gene down-regulation. In leukemia cells and fibroblasts, Sin3b silencing led to Myc up-regulation, whereas Sin3b overexpression induced Myc deacetylation and degradation. An analysis of Sin3b expression in breast tumors revealed an association between low Sin3b expression and disease progression. The data suggest that Sin3b decreases Myc protein levels upon Myc deacetylation. As Sin3b is also required for transcriptional repression by Mxd-Max complexes, our results suggest that, at least in some cell types, Sin3b limits Myc activity through two complementary activities: Mxd-dependent gene repression and reduction of Myc levels. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Children Experiencing First-Time or Prolonged Febrile Seizure Are Prone to Stress Hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Yong; Kim, Jung-Heon; Cho, Hyung-Rae; Lee, Jong-Seung; Ryu, Jeong-Min; Yum, Mi-Sun; Ko, Tae-Sung

    2016-03-01

    The risk factors and clinical implications of stress hyperglycemia in children with febrile seizure remain uncertain. Among 479 children with febrile seizure, the prevalence of the stress hyperglycemia (blood glucose concentration ≥ 150 mg/dL) was 10.0%. Stress hyperglycemia group included larger proportion of first-time febrile seizure, prolonged febrile seizure, and smaller proportion of short febrile seizure in comparison with the non-stress hyperglycemia group. Stress hyperglycemia group demonstrated a lower pH and higher lactate levels than the non-stress hyperglycemia group. Multivariate analysis revealed that first-time febrile seizure (aOR = 3.741, P = .004) and prolonged febrile seizure (aOR = 12.855, P < .001) were significant risk factors for stress hyperglycemia. The rate of early febrile seizure recurrence in the emergency department was not different between the groups. These findings suggest that children experiencing first-time or prolonged febrile seizure are prone to stress hyperglycemia, and this can be related to febrile seizure severity. However, stress hyperglycemia is not predictive of early febrile seizure recurrence in the emergency department. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. [Febrile neutropenia at the emergency department of a cancer hospital].

    PubMed

    Debey, C; Meert, A-P; Berghmans, T; Thomas, J M; Sculier, J P

    2011-01-01

    Febrile neutropenia is an important cause of fever in the cancer patient. When he/she is undergoing chemotherapy, the priority is to exclude that complication because it requires rapid administration of empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics. We have studied the rate and characteristics of febrile neutropenia in cancer patients consulting in a emergency department. We have conducted a retrospective study in the emergency department of a cancer hospital over the year 2008. Every patient with cancer and fever > or = 38 degrees C was included. Over 2.130 consultations, 408 were selected (313 patients) including 21.6% (88) for febrile neutropenia. A focal symptom or physical sign was present in the majority of the cases. 88% were assessed as low risk for severe complications and about half of them received oral antibiotics. There were only a few patients with a nude fever for which it was difficult to make a hypothetical diagnosis in order to administer a probabilistic treatment. The majority of the consultations lead to hospital admission. Over the 80 hospitalisations, 6 deaths occurred. There was no death among the patients who remained ambulatory. In conclusion, our study shows that febrile neutropenia is frequent in ambulatory cancer patients presenting with fever and that in the majority of the cases, it is associated with a low risk. In such a situation, ambulatory management is more and more often considered or, at least, a rapid discharge after a short admission in case of low risk febrile neutropenia. In that context, the role of the general practioner has to be emphasised and to facilitate the outpatient management, we propose an algorithm that requires validation.

  2. Evaluation of Risk Factors Associated with First Episode Febrile Seizure.

    PubMed

    Sharawat, Indar Kumar; Singh, Jitender; Dawman, Lesa; Singh, Amitabh

    2016-05-01

    Febrile seizure (FS) is the single most common type of seizure seen in children between 6 months to 5 years of age. The purpose of our study was to identify the risk factors associated with the first episode of febrile seizures, which would help in the better management and preventive measures in children at risk for FS episodes. To evaluate the risk factors associated with the first episode of febrile seizures in Indian children. This was a hospital based, case control study. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with the first FS episode in children. Seventy (70) children between age 6 months to 5 years with their first episode of FS were compared with 70 children with fever but without seizures based on various risk factors. The mean age was 24.90±16.11 months in cases and 26.34±16.93 months in controls. Male: female ratio was 2:1. A positive family history was found in 31.4% of first degree and 11.4% in second degree relatives. Mean maximum temperature was 102.06±1.1°F and URI (upper respiratory infection) was most common cause of fever. Antenatal complication was significantly higher in the case group. RBC (Red Blood Cells) indices like lower mean haemoglobin, MCV (Mean Corpuscular Volume), MCH (Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin concentration) and higher RDW (Red Cell Distribution Width) values were seen in patients. Serum sodium, Serum calcium and random blood sugar values of the cases were significantly lower than those of controls (p<0.05). Our study shows that male gender, family history of febrile seizures, peak body temperature, underlying cause of fever, antenatal complications, low serum calcium, sodium, blood sugar and microcytic hypochromic anaemia are the risk factors associated with the occurrence of first episode of febrile seizure and, thus, preventive measures in removing these risk factors could lead to a decrease in incidence of FS.

  3. Parental reactions to febrile seizures in Malaysian children.

    PubMed

    Deng, C T; Zulkifli, H I; Azizi, B H

    1996-12-01

    The reactions of 117 parents to the febrile seizure experienced by their children; and their fears and worries were investigated. A standard questionnaire was used and clinical information was abstracted from the notes. In 88.9% of the cases, the adult present at the seizure was one of the parents usually the mother. Most of the parents (66.7%) did tepid sponging to bring the fever down but a third tried to open the clenched teeth of the child. The adults present placed the child supine in 62.9%, on the side in 9.5% and prone in 6.0%. Over half of the parents brought the child to a private clinic first before bringing to hospital. A fifth of the children were given antipyretics by the parent or the doctor and an anticonvulsant was given in 7.7% of cases. Interestingly, in 12% of children traditional treatment was given for the seizure. Three quarters of the parents knew that the febrile seizure was caused by high fever (which we have taken as the correct knowledge of febrile seizure). However "ghosts" and "spirits" were blamed as the cause of the seizure by 7% of parents. Factors significantly associated with correct knowledge were higher parental education and higher family income. The most common fear expressed was that the child might be dead or might die from the seizure (70.9%). Fear of death was associated with low paternal education. We concluded that the majority of our parents had reacted appropriately to a febrile seizure and their knowledge of the cause of febrile seizure was generally correct. Their fears and worries were similar to those elsewhere. However, traditional beliefs and practices may have to be taken into consideration during counselling.

  4. A predictive model to differentiate dengue from other febrile illness.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Eduardo; Smieja, Marek; Walter, Stephen D; Loeb, Mark

    2016-11-22

    Dengue is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries and has a presentation similar to other febrile illnesses. Since laboratory confirmation is frequently delayed, the majority of dengue cases are diagnosed based on symptoms. The objective of this study was to identify clinical, hematological and demographical parameters that could be used as predictors of dengue fever among patients with febrile illness. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 548 patients presenting with febrile syndrome to the largest public hospitals in Honduras. Patients' clinical, laboratory, and demographic data as well as dengue laboratory detection by either serology or viral isolation were used to build a predictive statistical model to identify dengue cases. Of 548 patients, 390 were confirmed with dengue infection while 158 had negative results. Univariable analysis revealed seven variables associated with dengue: male sex, petechiae, skin rash, myalgia, retro-ocular pain, positive tourniquet test, and gingival bleeding. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, retro-ocular pain petechiae and gingival bleeding were associated with increased risk, while epistaxis and paleness of skin were associated with reduced risk of dengue. Using a value of 0.6 (i.e., 60% probability for a case to be positive based on the equation values), our model had a sensitivity of 86.2%, a specificity of 27.2%, and an overall accuracy of 69.2%; allowing for the diagnosis of dengue to be ruled out and for other febrile conditions to be investigated. Among Honduran patients presenting with febrile illness, our analysis identified key symptoms associated with dengue fever, however the overall accuracy of our model was still low and specificity remains a concern. Our model requires validation in other populations with a similar pattern of dengue transmission.

  5. Corporate redemption and the seven deadly sins.

    PubMed

    Pearson, A E

    1992-01-01

    Competitive purgatory is the sorry state of too many formerly proud U.S. corporations. They are languishing from the devastating effects of seven familiar sins: inconsistent product quality; slow response to the marketplace; lack of innovative, competitive products; uncompetitive cost structure; inadequate employee involvement; unresponsive customer service; and inefficient resource allocation. To make matters worse, the maladies are mostly management-induced, and the remedies most managers are employing-shifting strategy, reallocating resources, focusing on operations--are proving ineffective. The cures don't address the cause of the disease: negative, risk-averse, bureaucratic work environments that flourished in decades of easy growth but today are undermining competitive performance. What's needed is a total reinvention of the soft side of the organization to produce a work environment that stresses speed, Spartanism, innovation, and marketplace focus. First, top managers must decide what their company stands for and convince their employees of this uniqueness. Second, they must set standards that drive their business to worldclass levels and be tough about enforcing and raising them. Third, they must push constantly to ensure that enough innovations take place to change the company's future significantly. Three other factors are crucial: the right talent, an effective reward system, and CEOs who can drive the desired changes personally. Creating a dynamic work environment is not easy: it takes perseverance, flexibility, and commitment. But these efforts will pay off: how people tackle problems, work together, and think about their jobs are the activities that make a company great.

  6. Febrile neutropenia in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Nihal; Tüysüz, Gülen; Çelik, Nigar; Yantri, Leman; Erginöz, Ethem; Apak, Hilmi; Özkan, Alp; Yıldız, İnci; Celkan, Tiraje

    2016-01-01

    Aim: An important life-threatening complication of intensive chemotherapy administered in children with leukemia is febrile neutropenia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and consequences of febrile neutropenia attacks in children who were treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Material and Methods: Nighty-six children who received chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in our center between January 1995 and December 2010 were included in the study. The data related to demographic characteristics, treatment features, relapse and febrile neutropenia incidences, risk factors, culture results and prognosis were retrospectively evaluated from the patients’ files. Results: A total of two hundred-ninety nine febrile neutropenia attacks observed in the patients during initial treatment and relapse treatment were evaluated. When the incidence of febrile neutropenia was evaluated by years, it was observed that the patients treated after year 2000 had statistically significantly more febrile neutopenia attacks compared to the patients treated before year 2000. When the incidences of febrile neutropenia during initial treatment and during relapse treatment were compared, it was observed that more febrile neutropenia attacks occured during relapse treatment. Fifty-nine percent of all febrile neutropenia attacks were fever of unknown origin. Eighty microorganisms grew in cultures during febrile neutropenia throughout treatment in 75 patients; 86% were bacterial infections (50% gram positive and 50% gram negative), 8% were viral infections and 6% were fungal infections. Coagulase negative staphylococcus (n=17) was the most frequent gram positive pathogen; E. Coli (n=17) was the most commonly grown gram negative pathogen. Conclusions: In this study, it was found that an increase in the incidence of febrile neutropenia occured in years. Increments in treatment intensities increase the incidence of febrile neutropenia while improving

  7. Intergenerational Transmission of Enhanced Seizure Susceptibility after Febrile Seizures.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dengchang; Feng, Bo; Dai, Yunjian; Wu, Xiaohua; Chen, Bin; Xu, Cenglin; Tang, Yangshun; Wang, Kang; Zhang, Shihong; Wang, Shuang; Luo, Benyan; Chen, Zhong

    2017-03-01

    Environmental exposure early in development plays a role in susceptibility to disease in later life. Here, we demonstrate that prolonged febrile seizures induced by exposure of rat pups to a hyperthermic environment enhance seizure susceptibility not only in these hyperthermia-treated rats but also in their future offspring, even if the offspring never experience febrile seizures. This transgenerational transmission was intensity-dependent and was mainly from mothers to their offspring. The transmission was associated with DNA methylation. Thus, our study supports a "Lamarckian"-like mechanism of pathogenesis and the crucial role of epigenetic factors in neurological conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of febrile seizures and febrile seizure susceptibility in mouse inbred strains.

    PubMed

    van Gassen, K L I; Hessel, E V S; Ramakers, G M J; Notenboom, R G E; Wolterink-Donselaar, I G; Brakkee, J H; Godschalk, T C; Qiao, X; Spruijt, B M; van Nieuwenhuizen, O; de Graan, P N E

    2008-07-01

    Febrile seizures (FS) are the most prevalent seizures in children. Although FS are largely benign, complex FS increase the risk to develop temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Studies in rat models for FS have provided information about functional changes in the hippocampus after complex FS. However, our knowledge about the genes and pathways involved in the causes and consequences of FS is still limited. To enable molecular, genetic and knockout studies, we developed and characterized an FS model in mice and used it as a phenotypic screen to analyze FS susceptibility. Hyperthermia was induced by warm air in 10- to 14-day-old mice and induced FS in all animals. Under the conditions used, seizure-induced behavior in mice and rats was similar. In adulthood, treated mice showed increased hippocampal Ih current and seizure susceptibility, characteristics also seen after FS in rats. Of the seven genetically diverse mouse strains screened for FS susceptibility, C57BL/6J mice were among the most susceptible, whereas A/J mice were among the most resistant. Strains genetically similar to C57BL/6J also showed a susceptible phenotype. Our phenotypic data suggest that complex genetics underlie FS susceptibility and show that the C57BL/6J strain is highly susceptible to FS. As this strain has been described as resistant to convulsants, our data indicate that susceptibility genes for FS and convulsants are distinct. Insight into the mechanisms underlying seizure susceptibility and FS may help to identify markers for the early diagnosis of children at risk for complex FS and TLE and may provide new leads for treatment.

  9. Bacterial infection profiles in lung cancer patients with febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Lanoix, Jean-Philippe; Pluquet, Emilie; Lescure, Francois Xavier; Bentayeb, Houcine; Lecuyer, Emmanuelle; Boutemy, Marie; Dumont, Patrick; Jounieaux, Vincent; Schmit, Jean Luc; Dayen, Charles; Douadi, Youcef

    2011-06-27

    The chemotherapy used to treat lung cancer causes febrile neutropenia in 10 to 40% of patients. Although most episodes are of undetermined origin, an infectious etiology can be suspected in 30% of cases. In view of the scarcity of data on lung cancer patients with febrile neutropenia, we performed a retrospective study of the microbiological characteristics of cases recorded in three medical centers in the Picardy region of northern France. We analyzed the medical records of lung cancer patients with neutropenia (neutrophil count < 500/mm(3)) and fever (temperature > 38.3°C). The study included 87 lung cancer patients with febrile neutropenia (mean age: 64.2). Two thirds of the patients had metastases and half had poor performance status. Thirty-three of the 87 cases were microbiologically documented. Gram-negative bacteria (mainly enterobacteriaceae from the urinary and digestive tracts) were identified in 59% of these cases. Staphylococcus species (mainly S. aureus) accounted for a high proportion of the identified Gram-positive bacteria. Bacteremia accounted for 60% of the microbiologically documented cases of fever. 23% of the blood cultures were positive. 14% of the infections were probably hospital-acquired and 14% were caused by multidrug-resistant strains. The overall mortality rate at day 30 was 33% and the infection-related mortality rate was 16.1%. Treatment with antibiotics was successful in 82.8% of cases. In a multivariate analysis, predictive factors for treatment failure were age >60 and thrombocytopenia < 20000/mm(3). Gram-negative species were the most frequently identified bacteria in lung cancer patients with febrile neutropenia. Despite the success of antibiotic treatment and a low-risk neutropenic patient group, mortality is high in this particular population.

  10. RNA Viruses that Cause Hemorrhagic, Encephalitic, and Febrile Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Encephalitis can occur 5-10 days after and treated with ribavirin initially 2 hr after the acute febrile episode, with a presenta- virus inoculation by the...Africa, six of nine inoculation Lassa virus is an enveloped, single- contacts were given ribavirin prophylacti- stranded, bisegmented RNA virus...The mortal- days after inoculation . The six lethally in- 704 CHAPTER 18 fected animals had viremia titers that sig- hospitalized with acute Lassa

  11. Acute febrile torticollis in youth: clinical investigation and current management

    PubMed Central

    Ouattassi, Naouar; Chmiel, Mohammed; Kerouiti, Zakaria El; Ridal, Mohammed; Alami, Mohammed Nouredine

    2015-01-01

    Acute febrile torticollis in children is a rare and a special clinical picture of variable causes. It may indicate an inflammatory or an infectious pathology affecting any of the anatomical structures of the neck. Treatment is quite clearly defined, and it may be a therapeutic emergency. It is a condition that all ENT specialists must be familiar with since they are most likely to be the first physician to whom such a child is brought PMID:26328000

  12. Febrile seizure recurrence reduced by intermittent oral levetiracetam

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Lin-Yan; Zou, Li-Ping; Zhong, Jian-Min; Gao, Lei; Zhao, Jian-Bo; Xiao, Nong; Zhou, Hong; Zhao, Meng; Shi, Xiu-Yu; Liu, Yu-Jie; Ju, Jun; Zhang, Wei-Na; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Kwan, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Objective Febrile seizure (FS) is the most common form of childhood seizure disorders. FS is perhaps one of the most frequent causes of admittance to pediatric emergency wards worldwide. We aimed to identify a new, safe, and effective therapy for preventing FS recurrence. Methods A total of 115 children with a history of two or more episodes of FS were randomly assigned to levetiracetam (LEV) and control (LEV/control ratio = 2:1) groups. At the onset of fever, LEV group was orally administered with a dose of 15–30 mg/kg per day twice daily for 1 week. Thereafter, the dosage was gradually reduced until totally discontinued in the second week. The primary efficacy variable was seizure frequency associated with febrile events and FS recurrence rate (RR) during 48-week follow-up. The second outcome was the cost effectiveness of the two groups. Results The intention-to-treat analysis showed that 78 children in LEV group experienced 148 febrile episodes. Among these 78 children, 11 experienced 15 FS recurrences. In control group, 37 children experienced 64 febrile episodes; among these 37 children, 19 experienced 32 FS recurrences. A significant difference was observed between two groups in FS RR and FS recurrence/fever episode. The cost of LEV group for the prevention of FS recurrence is lower than control group. During 48-week follow-up period, one patient in LEV group exhibited severe drowsiness. No other side effects were observed in the same patient and in other children. Interpretation Intermittent oral LEV can effectively prevent FS recurrence and reduce wastage of medical resources. PMID:25356397

  13. Empiric antifungal therapy in patients with febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Jenna J; MacDougall, Conan; Gallagher, Jason C

    2011-04-01

    Invasive fungal infections, most commonly candidiasis or aspergillosis, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with neutropenia. Difficulty in diagnosing invasive fungal infections in these patients complicates decisions regarding pharmacotherapy. Because of the difficult diagnosis and the significant morbidity and mortality of fungal infections in patients with neutropenia, systemic antifungal agents are used as empiric antifungal therapy in patients with febrile neutropenia who are not responding to antibacterial therapy. The pharmacotherapy of invasive fungal infections has evolved rapidly within the past several years as numerous antifungal agents--different formulations of amphotericin B, azoles, and echinocandins--have become available for use as empiric antifungal therapy in patients with febrile neutropenia. Various levels of evidence support the use of these agents for this indication. Their use is limited, however, by drug intolerance, drug interactions, adverse-event profiles, and limited activity with some mold species. Thus, considerations for selecting an antifungal drug for empiric use in patients with febrile neutropenia should include the epidemiology of fungal infections in the individual patient's institution and the specific clinical circumstances of the patient.

  14. Long term outcome of prophylaxis for febrile convulsions.

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, F U; Paerregaard, A; Andersen, R; Andresen, J

    1996-01-01

    A cohort of 289 children with febrile convulsions who had been randomised in early childhood to either intermittent prophylaxis (diazepam at fever) or no prophylaxis (diazepam at seizures) was followed up 12 years later. The study focused on the occurrence of epilepsy and on neurological, motor, intellectual, cognitive, and scholastic achievements in the cohort. At follow up the two groups were of almost identical age (14.0 v 14.1 years), body weight (58.2 v 57.2 kg), height (168.2 v 167.7 cm), and head circumference (55.9 v 56.2 cm). The occurrence of epilepsy (0.7% v 0.8%), neurological examination, fine and gross motor development on the Stott motor test, intellectual performance on the Wechsler intelligence scale for children verbal IQ (105 v 105), performance IQ (114 v 111), and full scale IQ (110 v 108), cognitive abilities on a neuropsychological test battery, including short and long term, auditory and visual memory, visuomotor tempo, computer reaction time, reading test, and scholastic achievement were also very similar. Children with simple and complex febrile convulsions had the same benign outcome. The long term prognosis in terms of subsequent epilepsy, neurological, motor, intellectual, cognitive, and scholastic ability was not influenced by the type of treatment applied in early childhood. Preventing new febrile convulsions appears no better in the long run than abbreviating them. PMID:8660037

  15. Human Febrile Illness Caused by Encephalomyocarditis Virus Infection, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Blair, Patrick; Nix, W. Allan; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Comer, James A.; Rollin, Pierre; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Olson, James; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2009-01-01

    Etiologic studies of acute febrile disease were conducted in sites across South America, including Cusco and Iquitos, Peru. Patients’ clinical signs and symptoms were recorded, and acute- and convalescent-phase serum samples were obtained for serologic examination and virus isolation in Vero E6 and C6/36 cells. Virus isolated in Vero E6 cells was identified as encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) by electron microscopy and by subsequent molecular diagnostic testing of samples from 2 febrile patients with nausea, headache, and dyspnea. The virus was recovered from acute-phase serum samples from both case-patients and identified with cardiovirus-specific reverse transcription–PCR and sequencing. Serum samples from case-patient 1 showed cardiovirus antibody by immunoglobulin M ELISA (acute phase <8, convalescent phase >1,024) and by neutralization assay (acute phase <10, convalescent phase >1,280). Serum samples from case-patient 2 did not contain antibodies detectable by either assay. Detection of virus in serum strongly supports a role for EMCV in human infection and febrile illness. PMID:19331761

  16. Structural and electronic properties of Sin, Sin+, and AlSin-1 (n=2-13) clusters: Theoretical investigation based on ab initio molecular orbital theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigam, Sandeep; Majumder, Chiranjib; Kulshreshtha, S. K.

    2004-10-01

    The geometric and electronic structures of Sin, Sin+, and AlSin-1 clusters (2⩽n⩽13) have been investigated using the ab initio molecular orbital theory under the density functional theory formalism. The hybrid exchange-correlation energy function (B3LYP) and a standard split-valence basis set with polarization functions [6-31G(d)] were employed for this purpose. Relative stabilities of these clusters have been analyzed based on their binding energies, second difference in energy (Δ 2E) and fragmentation behavior. The equilibrium geometry of the neutral and charged Sin clusters show similar structural growth. However, significant differences have been observed in the electronic structure leading to their different stability pattern. While for neutral clusters, the Si10 is magic, the extra stability of the Si11+ cluster over the Si10+ and Si12+ bears evidence for the magic behavior of the Si11+ cluster, which is in excellent agreement with the recent experimental observations. Similarly for AlSin-1 clusters, which is isoelectronic with Sin+ clusters show extra stability of the AlSi10 cluster suggesting the influence of the electronic structures for different stabilities between neutral and charged clusters. The ground state geometries of the AlSin-1 clusters show that the impurity Al atom prefers to substitute for the Si atom, that has the highest coordination number in the host Sin cluster. The fragmentation behavior of all these clusters show that while small clusters prefers to evaporate monomer, the larger ones dissociate into two stable clusters of smaller size.

  17. Zinc supplementation prolongs the latency of hyperthermia-induced febrile seizures in rats.

    PubMed

    Aydın, L; Erdem, S R; Yazıcı, C

    2016-03-01

    Some studies have shown a relationship between febrile seizures and zinc levels. The lowest dose zinc supplementation in pentylenetetrazole seizure model has a protective effect. But, zinc pretreatment has no effect in maximal electroshock model. However, it is unclear how zinc supplementation affects hyperthermia-induced febrile seizures. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of zinc supplementation on febrile seizures in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were randomly assigned to four groups. Zinc supplementation was commenced 5 days prior to febrile seizure induction by placing the animals in a water bath at 45°C. We measured the rectal temperature and determined the febrile seizure latency, duration, and stage. In the zinc-supplemented group, both the seizure latency and the rectal temperature triggering seizure initiation were significantly higher than in the other groups. We suggest that zinc supplementation can positively modulate febrile seizure pathogenesis in rats.

  18. A role for mammalian Sin3 in permanent gene silencing.

    PubMed

    van Oevelen, Chris; Wang, Jinhua; Asp, Patrik; Yan, Qin; Kaelin, William G; Kluger, Yuval; Dynlacht, Brian David

    2008-11-07

    The multisubunit Sin3 corepressor complex regulates gene transcription through deacetylation of nucleosomes. However, the full range of Sin3 activities and targets is not well understood. Here, we have investigated genome-wide binding of mouse Sin3 and RBP2 as well as histone modifications and nucleosome positioning as a function of myogenic differentiation. Remarkably, we find that Sin3 complexes spread immediately downstream of the transcription start site on repressed and transcribed genes during differentiation. We show that RBP2 is part of a Sin3 complex and that on a subset of E2F4 target genes, the coordinated activity of Sin3 and RBP2 leads to deacetylation, demethylation, and repositioning of nucleosomes. Our work provides evidence for coordinated binding of Sin3, chromatin modifications, and chromatin remodeling within discrete regulatory regions, suggesting a model in which spreading of Sin3 binding is ultimately linked to permanent gene silencing on a subset of E2F4 target genes.

  19. A role for mammalian Sin3 in permanent gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    van Oevelen, Chris; Wang, Jinhua; Asp, Patrik; Yan, Qin; Kaelin, William G.; Kluger, Yuval; Dynlacht, Brian David

    2011-01-01

    Summary The multi-subunit Sin3 co-repressor complex regulates gene transcription through deacetylation of nucleosomes. However, the full range of Sin3 activities and targets is not well understood. Here, we have investigated genome-wide binding of mouse Sin3 and RBP2 as well as histone modifications and nucleosome positioning as a function of myogenic differentiation. Remarkably, we find that Sin3 complexes spread immediately downstream of the transcription start site on repressed and transcribed genes during differentiation. We show that RBP2 is part of a Sin3 complex, and on a subset of E2F4 target genes, the coordinated activity of Sin3 and RBP2 leads to deacetylation, demethylation, and repositioning of nucleosomes. Our work provides evidence for coordinated binding of Sin3, chromatin modifications, and chromatin remodeling within discrete regulatory regions, suggesting a model in which spreading of Sin3 binding is ultimately linked to permanent gene silencing on a subset of E2F4 target genes. PMID:18995834

  20. Intermittent prophylaxis of recurrent febrile seizures with clobazam versus diazepam.

    PubMed

    Sattar, S; Saha, S K; Parveen, F; Banu, L A; Momen, A; Ahmed, A U; Quddush, M R; Karim, M M; Begum, S A; Haque, M A; Hoque, M R

    2014-10-01

    Febrile seizures are the most common type of seizure among children that can be prevented by using prophylactic drugs like Clobazam and Diazepam. The present prospective study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital and Community Based Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh over a period of 1 year from July 2012 to June 2013 to compare the effectiveness of intermittent Clobazam versus Diazepam therapy in preventing the recurrence of febrile seizures and assessed adverse effects of each drug. A total of 65 patients (32 children administered Clobazam and rest 33 children received Diazepam) of simple and complex febrile seizures aged 6 months to 5 years of both sexes were the study population. Data were collected by interview of the patients, clinical examination and laboratory investigations using the research instrument. Data were analyzed by using Chi-square (χ2) Test, Student's 't' Test and Fisher's Exact Test. For all analytical tests, the level of significance was set at 0.05 and p<0.05 was considered significant. The proportion of patients was higher between age 12-36 months and male was predominant in the both Clobazam and Diazepam groups. Over 31% of patients in Clobazam group who experienced episode of fever within 3 months, 40.6% within 6 months and 9.4% within 9 months compared to 36.4% in Diazepam group within 3 months, 45.5% within 6 months & 12.1% within 9 months after discharge from the hospital. Three (9.4%) patients in Clobazam group and 7(21.3%) in Diazepam group who experienced febrile convulsion during the follow up period. From the data adverse effects within 3 and 6 months experienced by the patient's drowsiness, sedation and ataxia were higher in Diazepam group than those in Clobazam group. However, within 9 months lethargy and irritability were somewhat higher in Clobazam group than those in Diazepam group. The mean duration of hospitalization was significantly higher in Diazepam group compared to

  1. Students Informing Now (S.I.N.) Challenge the Racial State in California without Shame..."SIN Verguenza!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Foundations, 2007

    2007-01-01

    On a cold and wet Friday night in January of 2006, thirteen undergraduate students gathered together in a small room on campus at the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) to found Students Informing Now (S.I.N.). S.I.N. was created to support the AB 504 students, labeled in this country as "illegal aliens." Inspired by Paulo…

  2. Development and Validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS)

    PubMed Central

    Konrath, Sara; Meier, Brian P.; Bushman, Brad J.

    2014-01-01

    Main Objectives The narcissistic personality is characterized by grandiosity, entitlement, and low empathy. This paper describes the development and validation of the Single Item Narcissism Scale (SINS). Although the use of longer instruments is superior in most circumstances, we recommend the SINS in some circumstances (e.g. under serious time constraints, online studies). Methods In 11 independent studies (total N = 2,250), we demonstrate the SINS' psychometric properties. Results The SINS is significantly correlated with longer narcissism scales, but uncorrelated with self-esteem. It also has high test-retest reliability. We validate the SINS in a variety of samples (e.g., undergraduates, nationally representative adults), intrapersonal correlates (e.g., positive affect, depression), and interpersonal correlates (e.g., aggression, relationship quality, prosocial behavior). The SINS taps into the more fragile and less desirable components of narcissism. Significance The SINS can be a useful tool for researchers, especially when it is important to measure narcissism with constraints preventing the use of longer measures. PMID:25093508

  3. Febrile Urinary Tract Infection after Radical Cystectomy and Ileal Neobladder in Patients with Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Hyun; Yoon, Hyun Suk; Yoon, Hana; Chung, Woo Sik; Sim, Bong Suk; Lee, Dong Hyeon

    2016-07-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common complications after radical cystectomy and orthotopic neobladder reconstruction. This study investigated the incidence and implicated pathogen of febrile UTI after ileal neobladder reconstruction and identify clinical and urodynamic parameters associated with febrile UTI. From January 2001 to May 2015, 236 patients who underwent radical cystectomy and ileal neobladder were included in this study. Fifty-five episodes of febrile UTI were identified in 46 patients (19.4%). The probability of febrile UTI was 17.6% and 19.8% at 6 months and 24 months after surgery, respectively. While, Escherichia coli was the most common implicated pathogen (22/55, 40.0%), Enterococcus spp. were the most common pathogen during the first month after surgery (18/33, 54.5%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, ureteral stricture was an independent risk factor associated with febrile UTI (OR 5.93, P = 0.023). However, ureteral stricture accounted for only 6 episodes (10.9%, 6/55) of febrile UTI. Most episodes of febrile UTI occurred within 6 months after surgery. Thus, to identify risk factors associated with febrile UTI in the initial postoperative period, we assessed videourodynamics within 6 months after surgery in 38 patients. On videourodyamic examination, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) was identified in 16 patients (42.1%). The rate of VUR presence in patients who had febrile UTI was not significantly different from those in patients without febrile UTI (50% vs. 39.3%, P = 0.556). Patients with febrile UTI had significantly larger residual urine volume (212.0 ± 193.7 vs. 90.5 ± 148.2, P = 0.048) than those without. E. coli and Enterococcus spp. are common pathogens and ureteral stricture and residual urine are risk factors for UTI after ileal neobladder reconstruction.

  4. Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with childhood febrile seizure.

    PubMed

    Asadi-Pooya, A A; Nei, M; Rostami, C; Sperling, M R

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the demographic and clinical manifestations of patients with mesial temporal sclerosis and temporal lobe epilepsy (MTS-TLE) with childhood febrile seizure (FS) and establishing the potential differences as compared to those without FS. We also investigated the surgery outcome in these two groups of patients. In this retrospective study, all patients with a clinical diagnosis of drug-resistant TLE due to mesial temporal sclerosis, who underwent epilepsy surgery at Jefferson Comprehensive Epilepsy Center, were recruited. Patients were prospectively registered in a database from 1986 through 2014. Postsurgical outcome was classified into two groups; seizure-free or relapsed. Clinical manifestations and outcome were compared between patients with MTS-TLE with FS and those without FS. Two hundred and sixty-two patients were eligible for this study. One hundred and seventy patients (64.9%) did not have FS in their childhood, while 92 patients (35.1%) reported experiencing FS in their childhood. Demographic and clinical characteristics of these two groups of patients were not different. Postoperative seizure outcome was not statistically different between these two groups of patients (P = 0.19). When MTS is the pathological substrate of TLE, clinical manifestations and response to surgical treatment of patients are very similar in patients with history of febrile seizure in their childhood compared to those without such an experience. In other words, when the subgroup of patients with MTS-TLE and drug-resistant seizures is examined history of childhood febrile seizure loses its value as a distinguishing factor in characteristics or predictive factor for surgery outcome. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Utility of initial EEG in first complex febrile seizure.

    PubMed

    Harini, Chellamani; Nagarajan, Elanagan; Kimia, Amir A; de Carvalho, Rachel Marin; An, Sookee; Bergin, Ann M; Takeoka, Masanori; Pearl, Phillip L; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2015-11-01

    The risk of developing epilepsy following febrile seizures (FS) varies between 2% and 10%, with complex febrile seizures (CFS) having a higher risk. We examined the utility of detected epileptiform abnormalities on the initial EEG following a first CFS in predicting subsequent epilepsy. This was a retrospective study of consecutive patients (ages 6-60 months) who were neurologically healthy or mildly delayed, seen in the ED following a first CFS and had both an EEG and minimum of 2-year follow-up. Data regarding clinical characteristics, EEG report, development of subsequent epilepsy, and type of epilepsy were collected. Established clinical predictors for subsequent epilepsy in children with FS and EEG status were evaluated for potential correlation with the development of subsequent epilepsy. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of an abnormal EEG (epileptiform EEG) were calculated. A group of 154 children met our inclusion criteria. Overall, 20 (13%) children developed epilepsy. The prevalence of epilepsy was 13% (CI 8.3-19.6%). Epileptiform abnormalities were noted in 21 patients (13.6%), EEG slowing in 23 patients (14.9%), and focal asymmetry in six (3.8%). Epileptiform EEGs were noted in 20% (4/20) of patients with epilepsy and 13% (17/134) of patients without epilepsy (p=0.48). At an estimated risk of subsequent epilepsy of 10% (from population-based studies of children with FS), we determined that the PPV of an epileptiform EEG for subsequent epilepsy was 15%. None of the clinical variables (presence of more than 1 complex feature, family history of epilepsy, or status epilepticus) predicted epilepsy. An epileptiform EEG was not a sensitive measure and had a poor positive predictive value for the development of epilepsy among neurologically healthy or mildly delayed children with a first complex febrile seizure. The practice of obtaining routine EEG for predicting epilepsy after the first CFS needs clarification by well

  6. Risk factors for subsequent febrile seizures in the FEBSTAT study.

    PubMed

    Hesdorffer, Dale C; Shinnar, Shlomo; Lax, Daniel N; Pellock, John M; Nordli, Douglas R; Seinfeld, Syndi; Gallentine, William; Frank, L Matthew; Lewis, Darrell V; Shinnar, Ruth C; Bello, Jacqueline A; Chan, Stephen; Epstein, Leon G; Moshé, Solomon L; Liu, Binyi; Sun, Shumei

    2016-07-01

    To identify risk and risk factors for developing a subsequent febrile seizure (FS) in children with a first febrile status epilepticus (FSE) compared to a first simple febrile seizure (SFS). To identify home use of rescue medications for subsequent FS. Cases included a first FS that was FSE drawn from FEBSTAT and Columbia cohorts. Controls were a first SFS. Cases and controls were classified according to established FEBSTAT protocols. Cumulative risk for subsequent FS over a 5-year period was compared in FSE versus SFS, and Cox proportional hazards regression was conducted. Separate analysis examined subsequent FS within FSE. The use of rescue medications at home was assessed for subsequent FS. Risk for a subsequent FSE was significantly increased in FSE versus SFS. Any magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormality increased the risk 3.4-fold (p < 0.05), adjusting for age at first FS and FSE and in analyses restricted to children whose first FS was FSE (any MRI abnormality hazard ratio [HR] 2.9, p < 0.05). The risk for a second FS of any type or of subsequent FS lasting >10 min over the 5-year follow-up did not differ in FSE versus SFS. Rectal diazepam was administered at home to 5 (23.8%) of 21 children with subsequent FS lasting ≥10 min. Compared to controls, FSE was associated with an increased risk for subsequent FSE, suggesting the propensity of children with an initial prolonged seizure to experience a prolonged recurrence. Any baseline MRI abnormality increased the recurrence risk when FSE was compared to SFS and when FSE was studied alone. A minority of children with a subsequent FS lasting 10 min or longer were treated with rectal diazepam at home, despite receiving prescriptions after the first FSE. This indicates the need to further improve the education of clinicians and parents in order to prevent subsequent FSE. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  7. Antipyretic effect of ibuprofen and dipyrone in febrile children.

    PubMed

    Magni, Ana Maria; Scheffer, Daniel Kashiwamura; Bruniera, Paula

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate temperature changes in febrile children that received a single oral dose of ibuprofen (10 mg/kg), the dose recommended for high fever, or dipyrone (15 mg/kg), the dose recommended by the manufacturer, at 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 hours after administration. This open-label randomized (1:1) controlled clinical tried enrolled 80 febrile boys and girls aged 6 months to 8 years with baseline axillary temperatures of 38.0 to 40.3 °C. The children were divided into two groups: high fever (> 39.1 °C) and low-grade fever (38.0 to 39.1 °C). The antipyretic effect was analyzed according to discontinuity, safety, response to treatment, tolerability and therapeutic efficacy. Of the 80 children, 31 remained febrile during the 8 hours (38.8%), but 100% had a temperature decrease in the first 2 hours after the administration of either medication. In the high fever group, the temperature fell in 11 children treated with ibuprofen up to the 5th hour (100.00%) and in the 11 that received dipyrone, up to the third hour (100.00%). The difference in antipyretic efficacy of ibuprofen in the high fever group was statistically significant in the 3rd and 4th hours, and in the low-grade fever group, in the 3rd hour after medication. A single oral dose of ibuprofen has a greater antipyretic efficacy than dipyrone, particularly when the fever is high. Both drugs were well tolerated and safe in the short term.

  8. Towards Developing a Scoring System for Febrile Thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Kshirsagar, Prasita; Chauhan, Shaylika; Samel, Dinesh

    2016-02-01

    The authors wished to develop a scoring system for evaluating patients presenting with febrile thrombocytopenia for risk stratification, predicting patient outcome and optimization of care especially in resource poor countries. 1. To decide a protocol in the management of patients with fever and thrombocytopenia. 2. To develop screening or therapeutic guidelines (early warning score-EWS) in febrile thrombocytopenic patients and decide about therapeutic interventions. 1. To decide a protocol in the management of patients with fever and thrombocytopenia. 2. To develop screening or therapeutic guidelines (early warning score-EWS) in febrile thrombocytopenic patients and decide about therapeutic interventions. Retrospective study and development of a bedside scoring system based on Platelet Count, Temperature, Respiratory Rate, Blood Pressure. Pulse, CNS, Respiratory, Hematological, Hepatic and Renal complications in a central civic hospital and teaching institute in India. All patients > 18 years presenting with fever and thrombocytopenia with platelet count of < 150 × 109/L. Number of patients requiring platelet transfusions decreases when total risk score is used for risk stratification and for transfusing platelets as against the platelet count at admission. Patients who died in our study had a platelet count at presentation between 20,000- 1,00,000 though their total risk score was 17 and 18 respectively; hence platelet count alone should not be relied upon for platelet transfusion. Irrespective of the number of platelets transfused the prognosis is poor as the total risk score increases. The platelet count is not the only indicator of transfusion. When we use total risk score instead of platelet count for classifying patients who need transfusions, number of patients who fall in severe risk category needing immediate transfusion reduces and haphazard use of platelets can be avoided. Patient outcome (death/survival), occurrence of complications and hematological

  9. Hot tots: current approach to the young febrile infant.

    PubMed

    Chinnock, R; Butto, J; Fernando, N

    1995-01-01

    The diagnostic approach to the young febrile infant is a common dilemma for anyone caring for children. While historically these patients have been considered for automatic admission to the hospital, it seems prudent, because of the iatrogenic risks of hospitalization and in the interest of cost management, to identify those infants who can be safely, and effectively treated as outpatients. A clinical and laboratory process has been described to assist the clinician in this process. A thorough clinical examination accompanied by screening laboratory data will result in excellent results even in the youngest of our patients.

  10. Evaluation of predictors of adverse outcome in febrile neutropenic episodes in pediatric oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Bothra, Meenakshi; Seth, Rachna; Kapil, Arti; Dwivedi, S N; Bhatnagar, Shinjini; Xess, Immaculata

    2013-04-01

    To identify predictors associated with adverse outcome in febrile neutropenic episodes among pediatric oncology patients between 1 and 18 y age, to ascertain the prevalence of invasive bacterial or fungal infection/mortality, to determine the common organisms causing invasive bacterial infection in children with febrile neutropenia and to evaluate their current antimicrobial sensitivity pattern. It was an observational descriptive study conducted between February 2009 through July 2010. Febrile neutropenic episodes satisfying the inclusion criteria were enrolled. Relevant history was taken followed by a detailed clinical examination and laboratory examination. Logistic Regression analysis was used to identify significant predictors of adverse outcome in febrile neutropenic episodes. Out of the 155 febrile neutropenic episodes studied, adverse outcome occurred in 53(34 %) of the episodes. History of three or more previous episodes of febrile neutropenia, child being already on oral antibiotics and Chest Radiograph abnormality at presentation were found to be significantly associated with adverse outcome on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Documented invasive bacterial and fungal infection was seen in 27.8 % and 14.2 % episodes. Mortality occurred in 8 (5 %) of episodes. Gram negative bacterial infections were more common. Most common bacteria isolated was Escherichia coli and the commonest gram positive organism isolated was Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). On multivariate analysis, the variables found to be significantly associated with adverse outcome in febrile neutropenic episodes were three or more previous episodes of febrile neutropenia, child being already on oral antibiotics and Chest Radioraph abnormality at presentation.

  11. Febrile Seizures and Behavioural and Cognitive Outcomes in Preschool Children: The Generation R Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Annemarie M.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hofman, Albert; Tiemeier, Henning; Moll, Henriette A.; Arts, Willem Frans M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: General developmental outcome is known to be good in school-aged children who experienced febrile seizures. We examined cognitive and behavioural outcomes in preschool children with febrile seizures, including language and executive functioning outcomes. Method: This work was performed in the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort…

  12. Treatment of Febrile Neutropenia and Prophylaxis in Hematologic Malignancies: A Critical Review and Update

    PubMed Central

    Villafuerte-Gutierrez, Paola; Villalon, Lucia; Losa, Juan E.; Henriquez-Camacho, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Febrile neutropenia is one of the most serious complications in patients with haematological malignancies and chemotherapy. A prompt identification of infection and empirical antibiotic therapy can prolong survival. This paper reviews the guidelines about febrile neutropenia in the setting of hematologic malignancies, providing an overview of the definition of fever and neutropenia, and categories of risk assessment, management of infections, and prophylaxis. PMID:25525436

  13. Febrile Seizures and Behavioural and Cognitive Outcomes in Preschool Children: An Old Issue Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deonna, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    The possible deleterious role of febrile seizures on development is an old issue. It took a long time to realize that impaired development or occurrence of chronic epilepsy affected a very small minority of children with febrile seizures. These children either had pre-existing brain damage, specific genetic epileptic conditions, or seizure-induced…

  14. Serum vitamin B12, folic acid, and homocysteine levels in children with febrile seizure.

    PubMed

    Özkale, Yasemin; Erol, İlknur; Kılıçarslan, Buket; Özkale, Murat; Saygı, Semra; Sarıtürk, Çağla; Sezgin, Nurzen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the associations between febrile seizure and serum levels of vitamin B12, folic acid, and homocysteine. One hundred and four children who presented with febrile seizure and 75 controls who presented with febrile illness unaccompanied by seizure were enrolled into the study. Mean levels of vitamin B12, folic acid and homocysteine were compared between two groups. Mean vitamin B12 level in the febrile seizure group was significantly lower than the control group. The febrile seizure patients with 3 or more had significantly lower serum folic acid than the subgroups with two or one episode only. Serum concentrations of folic acid were significantly lower in the febrile seizure subgroup with body temperature 37.5-39.0˚C at time of convulsion. Low serum vitamin B12 may reduce a child's threshold for seizure and may be a risk factor for febrile seizure. Low serum folic acid level may be predisposed to recurrent febrile seizure.

  15. Treatment of febrile neutropenia and prophylaxis in hematologic malignancies: a critical review and update.

    PubMed

    Villafuerte-Gutierrez, Paola; Villalon, Lucia; Losa, Juan E; Henriquez-Camacho, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Febrile neutropenia is one of the most serious complications in patients with haematological malignancies and chemotherapy. A prompt identification of infection and empirical antibiotic therapy can prolong survival. This paper reviews the guidelines about febrile neutropenia in the setting of hematologic malignancies, providing an overview of the definition of fever and neutropenia, and categories of risk assessment, management of infections, and prophylaxis.

  16. Febrile Seizures and Behavioural and Cognitive Outcomes in Preschool Children: An Old Issue Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deonna, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    The possible deleterious role of febrile seizures on development is an old issue. It took a long time to realize that impaired development or occurrence of chronic epilepsy affected a very small minority of children with febrile seizures. These children either had pre-existing brain damage, specific genetic epileptic conditions, or seizure-induced…

  17. Common variants associated with general and MMR vaccine-related febrile seizures

    PubMed Central

    Feenstra, Bjarke; Pasternak, Björn; Geller, Frank; Carstensen, Lisbeth; Wang, Tongfei; Huang, Fen; Eitson, Jennifer L.; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Svanström, Henrik; Vestergaard, Mogens; Hougaard, David M.; Schoggins, John W.; Jan, Lily Yeh; Melbye, Mads; Hviid, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Febrile seizures represent a recognized serious adverse event following measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination. We conducted a series of genome-wide association scans comparing children with MMR-related febrile seizures, children with febrile seizures unrelated to vaccination, and controls with no history of febrile seizures. Two loci were distinctly associated with MMR-related febrile seizures, harboring the interferon-stimulated gene IFI44L (rs273259; P = 5.9×10−12 vs. controls; P =1.2×10−9 vs. MMR-unrelated febrile seizures) and the measles virus receptor CD46 (rs1318653; P = 9.6×10−11 vs. controls; P = 1.6×10−9 vs. MMR-unrelated febrile seizures). Furthermore, four loci were associated with febrile seizures in general implicating the sodium channel genes SCN1A (rs6432860; P = 2.2×10−16) and SCN2A (rs3769955; P = 3.1×10−10), a TMEM16 family gene (TMEM16C; rs114444506; P = 3.7×10−20), and a region associated with magnesium levels (12q21.33; rs11105468; P = 3.4×10−11). Finally, functional relevance of TMEM16C was demonstrated with electrophysiological experiments in wild-type and knockout rats. PMID:25344690

  18. Febrile Seizures and Behavioural and Cognitive Outcomes in Preschool Children: The Generation R Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visser, Annemarie M.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hofman, Albert; Tiemeier, Henning; Moll, Henriette A.; Arts, Willem Frans M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: General developmental outcome is known to be good in school-aged children who experienced febrile seizures. We examined cognitive and behavioural outcomes in preschool children with febrile seizures, including language and executive functioning outcomes. Method: This work was performed in the Generation R Study, a population-based cohort…

  19. Identifying risk factors for refractory febrile neutropenia in patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Masaki; Tokunaga, Shoji; Ikegame, Satoshi; Harada, Eiji; Matsumoto, Takemasa; Uchino, Junji; Watanabe, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2012-02-01

    Information about the development of febrile neutropenia in patients with solid tumors remains insufficient. In this study, we tried to identify the risk factors for refractory febrile neutropenia in patients with lung cancer. A total of 59 neutropenic fever episodes associated with anti-tumor chemotherapy for lung cancer were retrospectively analyzed. We compared patient characteristics according to their initial response to treatment with antibiotics. For 34 of 59 (58%) episodes a response to initial antibiotics was obtained whereas 25 of 59 (42%) were refractory to treatment. Multivariate analysis demonstrated independent risk factors for refractory febrile neutropenia with lung cancer. These risk factors were the severity of febrile neutropenia (odds ratio (OR) 6.11; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.85-20.14) and C-reactive protein more than 10 mg/dl (OR 4.39; 95% CI 1.22-15.74). These factors could predict outcome for patients with lung cancer who develop refractory febrile neutropenia.

  20. Febrile seizures - semiology in humans and animal models: evidence of focality and heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Neville, Brian G R; Gindner, Diane

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between febrile seizures and hippocampal sclerosis has been the subject of longstanding discussion. Animal models for prolonged seizures have shown a clear causal relationship with focal limbic features at low dose and hippocampal damage at high dose. Careful history taking of febrile seizure semiology has shown focal early features often with clear temporal lobe elements. This would suggest that many febrile seizures are secondarily generalised hippocampal seizures. There is evidence of varying levels of epileptogenicity in specific infective causes of febrile seizures. Seizure semiology also suggests that a proportion of such seizures may be non-epileptic reflex asystolic attacks. Seizure semiology in febrile seizures deserves closer scrutiny. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Modeling the septation initiation network (SIN) in fission yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Csikász-Nagy, Attila; Kapuy, Orsolya; Gyorffy, Béla; Tyson, John J; Novák, Béla

    2007-04-01

    Cytokinesis in fission yeast is controlled by a signal transduction pathway called the Septation Initiation Network (SIN). From a dynamical point of view the most interesting questions about the regulation of fission yeast cytokinesis are: how do wild type cells ensure that septation is initiated only once per cycle? Why does the control system stay in a continuously septating state in some mutant strains? And how is it that the SIN remains active when cytokinesis fails? To answer these questions we construct a simplified mathematical model of the SIN and graft this regulatory module onto our previous model of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) dynamics in fission yeast cells. The SIN is both activated and inhibited by mitotic Cdk/cyclin complexes. As a consequence of this dual regulation, the SIN gets activated only once at the end of mitosis, when Cdk activity drops. The mathematical model describes the timing of septation not only in wild type cells but also in mutants where components of the SIN are knocked out. The model predicts phenotypes of some uncharacterized mutant cells and shows how a cytokinesis checkpoint can stop the cell cycle if septation fails.

  2. [Pathophysiology and diagnosis of cancer patients with febrile neutropenia].

    PubMed

    Saito, Takeshi; Aiba, Keisuke

    2013-06-01

    Exogenous pyrogens induce several cytokines which activate immune responses, and produce fever. In Japan, febrile neutropenia is defined as having an axillary temperature of>37. 5°C, and neutropenia showing an absolute neutrophil count (ANC)of<500 cells/mL or an ANC that is expected to reduce to<500 cells/mL during the next 48 hours. Signs and symptoms of inflammation are often attenuated or absent in neutropenic patients. Therefore, careful physical examination is required to detect subtle symptoms and signs of infection. As an initial assessment, laboratory tests should include the following: a ) complete blood cell count with differential leukocyte count and platelet count, b ) measurement of serum levels of creatinine, electrolytes, and hepatic transaminase enzymes, c ) serologic assay for fungal infection, and d ) at least 2 sets of blood cultures. Radiographical approaches are also important for detecting the focus of infection. Proper risk classification should be performed using the Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer(MASCC)scoring system to distinguish high-risk and low-risk patients with febrile neutropenia.

  3. Prolonged sleep fragmentation of mice exacerbates febrile responses to lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Ringgold, Kristyn M.; Barf, R. Paulien; George, Amrita; Sutton, Blair C.; Opp, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep disruption is a frequent occurrence in modern society. Whereas many studies have focused on the consequences of total sleep deprivation, few have investigated the condition of sleep disruption. New Method We disrupted sleep of mice during the light period for 9 consecutive days using an intermittently-rotating disc. Results Electroencephalogram (EEG) data demonstrated that non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep was severely fragmented and REM sleep was essentially abolished during the 12 h light period. During the dark period, when sleep was not disrupted, neither NREM sleep nor REM sleep times differed from control values. Analysis of the EEG revealed a trend for increased power in the peak frequency of the NREM EEG spectra during the dark period. The fragmentation protocol was not overly stressful as body weights and water consumption remained unchanged, and plasma corticosterone did not differ between mice subjected to 3 or 9 days of sleep disruption and home cage controls. However, mice subjected to 9 days of sleep disruption by this method responded to lipopolysaccharide with an exacerbated febrile response. Comparison with existing methods Existing methods to disrupt sleep of laboratory rodents often subject the animal to excessive locomotion, vibration, or sudden movements. This method does not suffer from any of these confounds. Conclusions This study demonstrates that prolonged sleep disruption of mice exacerbates febrile responses to lipopolysaccharide. This device provides a method to determine mechanisms by which chronic insufficient sleep contributes to the etiology of many pathologies, particularly those with an inflammatory component. PMID:23872243

  4. Management of febrile neutropenia in the era of bacterial resistance

    PubMed Central

    Alp, Sehnaz

    2013-01-01

    Managing cancer patients with fever and neutropenia must be considered as a medical emergency since any delay in initiating appropriate empirical antibacterial therapy may result in high rates of mortality and morbidity. Emerging antibacterial resistance in bacterial pathogens infecting febrile neutropenic patients complicates management, and choosing the type of empirical antimicrobial therapy has become a challenge. To further complicate the decision process, not all neutropenic patients are in same category of susceptibility to develop severe infection. While low-risk patients may be treated with oral antibiotics in the outpatient setting, high-risk patients usually need to be admitted to hospital and receive parenteral broad-spectrum antibiotics until the neutrophil levels recover. These strategies have recently been addressed in two international guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the European Conference on Infections in Leukaemia (ECIL). This review gives a brief overview of current antimicrobial resistance problems and their effects in febrile neutropenic cancer patients by summarizing the suggestions from the IDSA and ECIL guidelines. PMID:25165543

  5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Bacteremia among Acutely Febrile Children in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Pavlinac, Patricia B.; Naulikha, Jaqueline M.; John-Stewart, Grace C.; Onchiri, Frankline M.; Okumu, Albert O.; Sitati, Ruth R.; Cranmer, Lisa M.; Lokken, Erica M.; Singa, Benson O.; Walson, Judd L.

    2015-01-01

    In children, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) frequently disseminates systemically, presenting with nonspecific signs including fever. We determined prevalence of M. tuberculosis bacteremia among febrile children presenting to hospitals in Nyanza, Kenya (a region with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and M. tuberculosis prevalence). Between March 2013 and February 2014, we enrolled children aged 6 months to 5 years presenting with fever (axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C) and no recent antibiotic use. Blood samples were collected for bacterial and mycobacterial culture using standard methods. Among 148 children enrolled, median age was 3.1 years (interquartile range: 1.8–4.1 years); 10.3% of children were living with a household member diagnosed with M. tuberculosis in the last year. Seventeen percent of children were stunted (height-for-age z-score < −2), 18.6% wasted (weight-for-height z-score < −2), 2.7% were HIV-infected, and 14.2% were HIV-exposed uninfected. Seventeen children (11.5%) had one or more signs of tuberculosis (TB). All children had a Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination scar. Among 134 viable blood cultures, none (95% confidence interval: 0–2.7%) had Mycobacterium isolated. Despite exposure to household TB contacts, HIV exposure, and malnutrition, M. tuberculosis bacteremia was not detected in this pediatric febrile cohort, a finding consistent with other pediatric studies. PMID:26324730

  6. Academic and social success in adolescents with previous febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Sillanpää, Matti; Suominen, Sakari; Rautava, Päivi; Aromaa, Minna

    2011-05-01

    To study academic achievement and social success in adolescents with febrile seizures (FS) before their 5th birthday. A random birth cohort (n=900) was prospectively followed from early pregnancy and examined at ages 12 and 18 years to study the relationships between FS and school achievement (three most important school marks), behavior and social competence (Achenbach Childhood Behavior Checklist, Youth Self-Report), life management (Antonovsky Sense of Coherence Scale) and social participation. No significant differences could be detected between children with vs. without FS or between boys vs. girls in academic achievement, behavior, social competence, life management, or social participation, either at age 12 or 18 years, except for more somatic complaints of girls at age 18. Of adolescents with previous FS, 29% had not participated in the maturity examination, 20% had participated but failed and 51% had passed, comparing 35%, 18% and 47%, respectively, of those without FS (p=0.6676). Our study confirms the findings of the previous population studies reporting similar academic and social success between children with and without febrile seizures before the 5th birthday. Reassurance of the parents about a favorable future may ameliorate their worries at this frightening event in their child's life. Copyright © 2011 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Leptospirosis among Hospitalized Febrile Patients in Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, Holly M.; Bui, Duy M.; Galloway, Renee L.; Stoddard, Robyn A.; Shadomy, Sean V.; Morrissey, Anne B.; Bartlett, John A.; Onyango, Jecinta J.; Maro, Venance P.; Kinabo, Grace D.; Saganda, Wilbrod; Crump, John A.

    2011-01-01

    We enrolled consecutive febrile admissions to two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Confirmed leptospirosis was defined as a ≥ 4-fold increase in microscopic agglutination test (MAT) titer; probable leptospirosis as reciprocal MAT titer ≥ 800; and exposure to pathogenic leptospires as titer ≥ 100. Among 870 patients enrolled in the study, 453 (52.1%) had paired sera available, and 40 (8.8%) of these met the definition for confirmed leptospirosis. Of 832 patients with ≥ 1 serum sample available, 30 (3.6%) had probable leptospirosis and an additional 277 (33.3%) had evidence of exposure to pathogenic leptospires. Among those with leptospirosis the most common clinical diagnoses were malaria in 31 (44.3%) and pneumonia in 18 (25.7%). Leptospirosis was associated with living in a rural area (odds ratio [OR] 3.4, P < 0.001). Among those with confirmed leptospirosis, the predominant reactive serogroups were Mini and Australis. Leptospirosis is a major yet underdiagnosed cause of febrile illness in northern Tanzania, where it appears to be endemic. PMID:21813847

  8. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Bacteremia Among Acutely Febrile Children in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Pavlinac, Patricia B; Naulikha, Jaqueline M; John-Stewart, Grace C; Onchiri, Frankline M; Okumu, Albert O; Sitati, Ruth R; Cranmer, Lisa M; Lokken, Erica M; Singa, Benson O; Walson, Judd L

    2015-11-01

    In children, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) frequently disseminates systemically, presenting with nonspecific signs including fever. We determined prevalence of M. tuberculosis bacteremia among febrile children presenting to hospitals in Nyanza, Kenya (a region with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and M. tuberculosis prevalence). Between March 2013 and February 2014, we enrolled children aged 6 months to 5 years presenting with fever (axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C) and no recent antibiotic use. Blood samples were collected for bacterial and mycobacterial culture using standard methods. Among 148 children enrolled, median age was 3.1 years (interquartile range: 1.8-4.1 years); 10.3% of children were living with a household member diagnosed with M. tuberculosis in the last year. Seventeen percent of children were stunted (height-for-age z-score < -2), 18.6% wasted (weight-for-height z-score < -2), 2.7% were HIV-infected, and 14.2% were HIV-exposed uninfected. Seventeen children (11.5%) had one or more signs of tuberculosis (TB). All children had a Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination scar. Among 134 viable blood cultures, none (95% confidence interval: 0-2.7%) had Mycobacterium isolated. Despite exposure to household TB contacts, HIV exposure, and malnutrition, M. tuberculosis bacteremia was not detected in this pediatric febrile cohort, a finding consistent with other pediatric studies.

  9. Are febrile seizures an indication for intermittent benzodiazepine treatment, and if so, in which cases?

    PubMed

    Camfield, Peter; Camfield, Carol

    2014-10-09

    Febrile seizures occur in ∼4% of children. After a first febrile seizure, the risk of recurrence is ∼40%, but excellent studies document that febrile seizures do not cause brain damage or deficits in cognition or behaviour. The risk of subsequent epilepsy is 2-4%. Prolonged febrile seizures are of concern because a child may later develop mesial temporal sclerosis and intractable epilepsy in rare cases. Most prolonged febrile seizures represent the first febrile seizure and cannot be anticipated. A first prolonged febrile seizure does not increase the risk of recurrence, but if there is a recurrence, it is more likely to be prolonged. Prevention of recurrent febrile seizures is difficult. Antipyretics are ineffective. Daily AED treatment is not often justified. Intermittent oral diazepam at the time of illness is not very successful and has significant side effects. The most optimistic study found that the number of subjects required to treat in order to prevent one recurrence was 14. Intermittent clobazam has fewer side effects than diazepam and may be somewhat effective. Rescue benzodiazepines given outside health care facilities may be effective in selected patients to prevent prolonged recurrences, although this has not been proven with rectal diazepam which has been more extensively studied than buccal or nasal midazolam. Currently, we suggest that, for children with febrile seizures, candidates for consideration for rescue benzodiazepines are those with a prolonged febrile seizure or poor access to medical care. It is possible that the use of a rescue benzodiazepine may alleviate severe parental anxiety, but this remains to be established.

  10. Comorbidities among patients with cancer who do and do not develop febrile neutropenia during the first chemotherapy cycle.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyan; Luthra, Rakesh; Morrow, Phuong K; Fisher, Maxine D; Reiner, Maureen; Barron, Richard L; Langeberg, Wendy J

    2016-10-01

    Patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy with certain comorbidities are at increased risk of febrile neutropenia. A comprehensive evaluation of febrile neutropenia-related comorbidities across cancers is needed. This study compared comorbidity prevalence among patients with cancer who did and did not develop febrile neutropenia during the first chemotherapy cycle. This case-control study used administrative claims from adult patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma or breast, lung, colorectal, ovarian, or gastric cancer who received chemotherapy between 2007 and 2012. Each patient who developed febrile neutropenia (case) was matched with up to four patients without febrile neutropenia (controls) by cancer type, metastasis, chemotherapy regimen, age group, and sex. For each comorbidity (identified in the year before chemotherapy began), the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for febrile neutropenia by cancer type was evaluated using conditional logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounding factors. Of 31,331 eligible patients, 672 developed febrile neutropenia in the first chemotherapy cycle. A total of 3312 febrile neutropenia cases and matched controls were analyzed. Across tumor types, comorbidity prevalence was higher in patients who developed febrile neutropenia than in those without febrile neutropenia. Among patients with breast cancer, osteoarthritis was more prevalent in patients with febrile neutropenia (aOR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.07 to 3.18). Among patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, renal disease was more prevalent in patients with febrile neutropenia (aOR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.23 to 4.11). Patients who developed febrile neutropenia in the first chemotherapy cycle presented with comorbidities more often than otherwise similar patients who did not develop febrile neutropenia. These findings warrant further investigation and support the inclusion of comorbidities into febrile neutropenia risk models. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Increased levels of HMGB1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines in children with febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jieun; Min, Hyun Jin; Shin, Jeon-Soo

    2011-10-11

    Febrile seizures are the most common form of childhood seizures. Fever is induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines during infection, and pro-inflammatory cytokines may trigger the development of febrile seizures. In order to determine whether active inflammation, including high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, occurs in children with febrile seizures or epilepsy, we analyzed cytokine profiles of patients with febrile seizures or epilepsy. Forty-one febrile seizure patients who visited the emergency department of Seoul National University Boramae Hospital from June 2008 to May 2009 were included in this study. Blood was obtained from the febrile seizure child patients within 30 minutes of the time of the seizure; subsequently, serum cytokine assays were performed. Control samples were collected from children with febrile illness without convulsion (N = 41) and similarly analyzed. Serum samples from afebrile status epilepticus attacks in intractable epilepsy children (N = 12), afebrile seizure attacks in generalized epilepsy with febrile seizure plus (GEFSP) children (N = 6), and afebrile non-epileptic controls (N = 7) were also analyzed. Serum HMGB1 and IL-1β levels were significantly higher in febrile seizure patients than in fever only controls (p < 0.05). Serum IL-6 levels were significantly higher in typical febrile seizures than in fever only controls (p < 0.05). Serum IL-1β levels were significantly higher in status epilepticus attacks in intractable epilepsy patients than in fever only controls (p < 0.05). Serum levels of IL-1β were significantly correlated with levels of HMGB1, IL-6, and TNF-α (p < 0.05). HMGB1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly higher in febrile seizure children. Although it is not possible to infer causality from descriptive human studies, our data suggest that HMGB1 and the cytokine network may contribute to the generation of febrile seizures in children. There may be a potential role for anti

  12. Increased levels of HMGB1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines in children with febrile seizures

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective Febrile seizures are the most common form of childhood seizures. Fever is induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines during infection, and pro-inflammatory cytokines may trigger the development of febrile seizures. In order to determine whether active inflammation, including high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and pro-inflammatory cytokines, occurs in children with febrile seizures or epilepsy, we analyzed cytokine profiles of patients with febrile seizures or epilepsy. Methods Forty-one febrile seizure patients who visited the emergency department of Seoul National University Boramae Hospital from June 2008 to May 2009 were included in this study. Blood was obtained from the febrile seizure child patients within 30 minutes of the time of the seizure; subsequently, serum cytokine assays were performed. Control samples were collected from children with febrile illness without convulsion (N = 41) and similarly analyzed. Serum samples from afebrile status epilepticus attacks in intractable epilepsy children (N = 12), afebrile seizure attacks in generalized epilepsy with febrile seizure plus (GEFSP) children (N = 6), and afebrile non-epileptic controls (N = 7) were also analyzed. Results Serum HMGB1 and IL-1β levels were significantly higher in febrile seizure patients than in fever only controls (p < 0.05). Serum IL-6 levels were significantly higher in typical febrile seizures than in fever only controls (p < 0.05). Serum IL-1β levels were significantly higher in status epilepticus attacks in intractable epilepsy patients than in fever only controls (p < 0.05). Serum levels of IL-1β were significantly correlated with levels of HMGB1, IL-6, and TNF-α (p < 0.05). Conclusions HMGB1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines were significantly higher in febrile seizure children. Although it is not possible to infer causality from descriptive human studies, our data suggest that HMGB1 and the cytokine network may contribute to the generation of febrile seizures in children

  13. Febrile seizrues: demographic, clinical and etiological profile of children admitted with febrile seizures in a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shabbir; Tarar, Saba Haider

    2015-09-01

    The hospital-based prospective study was conducted in Combined Military Hospital, Kharian, Pakistan, from January 2012 to December 2013, to determine the demographic, clinical and aetiological profile of paediatric patients admitted with febrile seizures. Patients clinically diagnosed as a case of febrile seizure were included in study. Patient's information was collected using a predesigned proforma. Out of total enrolled 100 children, 68(68%) were male and 32(32%) female. Mean age of the sample was22.58±12.50 months. Mean time interval between onset of fever and occurrence of seizures was17.68±12.09 hours. Overall, 78(78%) patients had simple seizures. Only 30(30%) patients had positive family history and 35(35%) had recurrence of seizures during the same episode of illness. Acute respiratory infection was the commonest cause for FS in 72(72%).Besides, 64(64%) patients were malnourished, 77(77%) had anaemia and 51(51%) had raised total leukocyte count.

  14. SIN and the art of splitting the fission yeast cell.

    PubMed

    Krapp, Andrea; Gulli, Marie-Pierre; Simanis, Viesturs

    2004-09-07

    The septation initiation network (SIN) triggers the onset of cytokinesis in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe by promoting contraction of the medially placed F-actin ring. SIN signaling is regulated by the polo-like kinase plo1p and by cdc2p, the initiator of mitosis, and its activation is co-ordinated with other events in mitosis to ensure that cytokinesis does not begin until chromosomes have been separated. Though the SIN controls the contractile ring, the signal originates from the poles of the mitotic spindle. Recent studies suggest that the spindle pole body may act as a dynamic assembly site for active SIN signaling complexes. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae the counterpart of the SIN, called the MEN, mediates both mitotic exit and cytokinesis, in part through regulating activation of the phosphoprotein phosphatase Cdc14p. Flp1p, the S. pombe ortholog of Cdc14p, is not essential for mitotic exit, but may contribute to an orderly mitosis-G1 transition by regulating the destruction of the mitotic inducer cdc25p.

  15. Neuronal injury and cytogenesis after simple febrile seizures in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of juvenile rat.

    PubMed

    Nazem, Amir; Jafarian, Amir Hossein; Sadraie, Seyed Homayoon; Gorji, Ali; Kheradmand, Hamed; Radmard, Mahla; Haghir, Hossein

    2012-11-01

    Although simple febrile seizures are frequently described as harmless, there is evidence which suggests that hippocampal damage may occur after simple febrile seizures. This study aimed to investigate possible neuronal damages as well as alterations in cytogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus following simple febrile seizures. Simple febrile seizure was modeled by hyperthermia-induced seizures in 22-day-old male rats. The brains were removed 2 or 15 days after hyperthermia in all rats with (n=20) and without (n=10) occurrence of seizures as well as in control animals (n=10). The sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin to estimate the surface numerical density of dark neurons. Ki-67 immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate changes of cytogenesis following simple febrile seizures. Hyperthermia induced behavioral seizure activities in 67 % of the rats. The numerical densities of dark neurons as well as the mean Ki-67 index (the fraction of Ki-67-positive cells) were significantly increased in dentate gyrus after induction of seizures by hyperthermia compared to both controls and rats without seizure after hyperthermia. Both the seizure duration and intensity were correlated significantly with numerical densities of dark neurons (but not with Ki-67 index). The data indicate that simple febrile seizures can cause neuronal damages and enhancement of cytogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, which were still visible for at least 2 weeks. These findings also suggest the correlation of febrile seizure intensity and duration with neuronal damage.

  16. PRRT2 Mutations Are Related to Febrile Seizures in Epileptic Patients

    PubMed Central

    He, Zheng-Wen; Qu, Jian; Zhang, Ying; Mao, Chen-Xue; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Mao, Xiao-Yuan; Deng, Zhi-Yong; Zhou, Bo-Ting; Yin, Ji-Ye; Long, Hong-Yu; Xiao, Bo; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Liu, Zhao-Qian

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies reported that the proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) gene was identified to be related to paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), infantile convulsions with PKD, PKD with migraine and benign familial infantile epilepsy (BFIE). The present study explores whether the PRRT2 mutation is a potential cause of febrile seizures, including febrile seizures plus (FS+), generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) and Dravet syndrome (DS); thus, it may provide a new drug target for personalized medicine for febrile seizure patients. We screened PRRT2 exons in a cohort of 136 epileptic patients with febrile seizures, including FS+, GEFS+ and DS. PRRT2 genetic mutations were identified in 25 out of 136 (18.4%) febrile seizures in epileptic patients. Five loss-of-function and coding missense mutations were identified: c.649delC (p.R217Efs*12), c.649_650insC (p.R217Pfs*8), c.412C>G (p.Pro138Ala), c.439G>C (p.Asp147His) and c.623C>A (p.Ser208Tyr). PRRT2 variants were probably involved in the etiology of febrile seizures in epileptic patients. PMID:25522171

  17. The Relationship between Iron Deficiency and Febrile Convulsion: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Mohammad Reza; Kheirkhah, Davood; Madani, Mahla; Kashani, Hamed Haddad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Febrile seizure is among the most common convulsion disorders in children, which strikes 2% to 5% of children between 3 to 60 months of age. Some studies have reported that iron deficiency could be a risk factor for febrile seizure. The present study was conducted to compare the rate of iron deficiency anemia in febrile children with and without seizure. Materials and Methods: This case-control study evaluated 200 children aged 6-60 month in two 100 person groups (febrile seizure and febrile without convulsion) in Kashan. The CBC diff, serum iron and TIBC were done for all of participants. Diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia based on mentioned tests. Results: No significant differences were found in two groups regarding to the age, gender, and the disease causing the fever. The presence of iron deficiency anemia was 45% in the convulsion group and 22% in the group with fever without convulsion. The Chi Square test indicated a significant difference between two groups. Conclusions: The findings suggest that a considerable percentage of children having febrile seizure suffer from iron-deficiency anemia and low serum iron. This means the low serum iron and presence of anemia can serve as a reinforcing factor for the febrile seizure in children. PMID:26383191

  18. Comparison of serum zinc levels measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in preschool children with febrile and afebrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun-Hwa; Kim, Jeong Hyun

    2012-05-01

    Changes in levels of trace elements have been proposed to underlie febrile seizures. Particularly, low zinc levels have been proposed as related factor of febrile seizure. In this study, we investigated whether mean serum zinc levels differed between children with febrile seizure and afebrile seizure. Using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, serum zinc levels were measured in 288 children who had been diagnosed with febrile seizures (N=248) and afebrile seizures (N=40). Mean serum zinc levels were compared between the 2 groups. Mean serum zinc level was 60.5±12.7 µg/dL in the febrile seizure group and 68.9 ±14.5 µg/dL in the afebrile seizure group. A significant difference in serum zinc levels was observed between the febrile and afebrile seizure groups (P<0.001). Zinc levels in children with febrile seizure were significantly lower than those in children with afebrile seizure.

  19. Frequent fever episodes and the risk of febrile seizures: the Generation R study.

    PubMed

    Visser, Annemarie M; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Breteler, Monique M B; Hofman, Albert; Moll, Henriette A; Arts, Willem Frans M

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association between the number of fever episodes and the risk of febrile seizures. This study was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort study from early foetal life onwards. Information about the occurrence of febrile seizures and fever episodes was collected by questionnaires at the ages of 12, 24 and 36 months. Analyses were based on 3033 subjects. The risk of febrile seizures was compared between children with frequent fever episodes (>2 per year), and children with only 1 or 2 fever episodes per year. The frequency of fever episodes was not associated with the risk of febrile seizures in the age range of 6-12 months. In the second and third year of life, having more than 2 fever episodes was associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures (odds ratios 2.02 [95% confidence interval 1.13-3.62] and 2.29 [95% confidence interval 1.00-5.24], respectively). In the age range between 6 and 36 months, we observed a significant trend between the frequency of fever episodes (<2, 3-4 or >4 per year) and the risk of febrile seizures (p-value for trend < 0.001). The association between the number of fever episodes and the occurrence of febrile seizures was stronger for children with recurrent febrile seizures. Frequent fever episodes are associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures in the second and third years of life. Further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms underlying this association. Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Febrile seizures in children with familial Mediterranean fever: Coincidence or association?

    PubMed

    Çomak, Elif; Tüfekçi, Özlem; Kılıçbay, Fatih; Isıyel, Emel; Sever, Ali Haydar; Aslanger, Ayça; Ekici, Barış

    2015-09-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an inherited disease characterized by recurrent bouts of fever and polyserositis and caused by MEditerranean FeVer gene (MEFV) mutations. Given the febrile characteristics of the disease one would expect higher frequency of febrile seizure in this group of pediatric patients. To evaluate the frequency of febrile seizure and related factors in patients with FMF. The children with the diagnosis of FMF were enrolled in the study. Information including clinical features, type of mutation and the history of febrile seizure were all noted. A total of 97 patients, 43 (44.3%) girls with a median age of 7.93 ± 4.05 years (2-16) and a median follow-up period of 20.65 ± 24.33 months (6-135) were included in the study. The frequency of febrile seizure in children with FMF was found as 13.4%, which is higher than the general population [p = 0.04, OR: 2.9 (95% CI: 1.0-8.5)]. The allele frequency of exon 2 mutations in MEFV genes was higher in the patients with febrile seizure (p = 0.03). Frequency of FMF related clinical findings (fever, abdominal pain, arthralgia/myalgia, arthritis, chest pain and erysipelas-like erythema) was similar between the two groups. However, frequency of headache was higher in the patients with febrile seizure (p = 0.014). The frequency of febrile seizure in children with FMF was found to be higher than the general population. Although this finding may be related to high fever during FMF attacks in individuals with genetic propensity of febrile seizure, it may also be a neurologic complication of FMF. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Serial procalcitonin levels to detect bacteremia in febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Reitman, Aaron J; Pisk, Rhonda M; Gates, John V; Ozeran, J Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Our objective was to evaluate serial procalcitonin (PCT) levels compared with an initial PCT level at admission in predicting bacteremia in pediatric febrile neutropenic oncology patients. Serum PCT levels were measured at admission (t0) and within 24 hours of admission (t1) in pediatric oncology patients presenting with fever and neutropenia. A blood culture was collected at t0 and monitored for 5 days for bacterial growth. PCT value of 0.5 ng/mL at either t0 or t1 was considered predictive for bacteremia. PCT levels were significantly higher in children with positive blood cultures than with negative blood cultures. Serial PCT values mirrored t1 values. Serial PCT showed 76% specificity and negative predictive value of 93% in ruling out bacteremia. Elevated PCT levels are predictive of bacteremia. Using serial PCT levels within 24 hours allowed a better prediction of bacteremia than the PCT level at t0.

  2. Uncommon clinical pattern of FMF: protracted febrile myalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tufan, Gülnihal; Demir, Serap

    2010-06-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a genetic multisystem disorder of unknown etiology characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and pain due to acute inflammation of the peritoneum, synovia, or pleura. Up to 25% of patients with FMF report muscle pain. Myalgia may be a spontaneous pattern, exercise-induced pattern, or protracted febrile myalgia syndrome (PFMS). PFMS is characterized by severe paralyzing myalgia, high fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, arthritis/arthralgia, and transient vasculitic rashes mimicking Henoch-Schonlein purpura. The episodes last for 4-6 weeks, except in those patients treated with corticosteroids. The PFMS may recur even under colchicine prophylaxis. We describe a 30-year-old pregnant Turkish woman with known FMF and under colchicine prophylaxis, with severe myalgia for 8 weeks, emphasizing the importance of a different clinical pattern of PFMS even in the absence of other symptoms.

  3. Two USA Ehrlichia spp. cause febrile illness in goats.

    PubMed

    Loftis, Amanda D; Levin, Michael L; Spurlock, J Paul

    2008-08-25

    Ehrlichia spp. are not currently recognized as a cause of illness in goats in the USA, but three Ehrlichia are enzootic in lone star ticks (Amblyomma americanum) in the eastern USA, and related bacteria in other countries cause illness in goats. We exposed naïve goats to Ehrlichia-infected Amblyomma and demonstrated that infection and clinical illness can be caused by two USA species, E. ewingii and the recently discovered Panola Mountain Ehrlichia sp. Clinical features in all five goats are described; ehrlichioses were associated with pyrexia, serous nasal discharge, inappetance, lethargy, decreased alkaline phosphatase, and, in most cases, neutropenia. Goats remained chronically infected for several months following exposure to ehrlichiae and transmitted the pathogens to uninfected ticks. In the eastern USA, undifferentiated febrile illness in goats might be caused by previously unrecognized ehrlichial infections, and pastures housing-infected goats could become infested with a large number of infected ticks.

  4. Rodent-associated Bartonella Febrile Illness, Southwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Iralu, Jonathan; Bai, Ying; Crook, Larry; Tempest, Bruce; Simpson, Gary; McKenzie, Taylor

    2006-01-01

    Serum specimens from 114 patients hospitalized with a febrile illness were tested with an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using Bartonella antigens prepared from 6 species of sigmodontine rodents and 3 known human Bartonella pathogens: B. henselae, B. quintana, and B. elizabethae. Acute- and convalescent-phase serum samples from 5 of these patients showed seroconversion with an IFA titer >512 to rodent-associated Bartonella antigens. The highest titer was against antigen derived from the white-throated woodrat (Neotoma albigula), although this rodent is not necessarily implicated as the source of infection. Three of the 5 who seroconverted showed no cross-reaction to the 3 Bartonella human pathogens. Common clinical characteristics were fever, chills, myalgias, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and transaminasemia. Although antibodies to Bartonella are cross-reactive, high-titer seroconversions to rodent-associated Bartonella antigens in adults with common clinical characteristics should stimulate the search for additional Bartonella human pathogens. PMID:16836824

  5. [Exanthema as a main symptom in the febrile child].

    PubMed

    Aebi, C

    2005-08-01

    Distinguishing in febrile children between harmless rashes and those, which require specific action, is a common problem in pediatric primary care. Major exanthematous diseases necessitating emergency hospitalization include invasive meningococcal disease and rarely gram-negative septicaemia caused by other pathogens, staphylococcal and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, endocarditis, fever and rash in travellers returning from tropical countries and drug hypersensitivity syndrome. Therapeutic intervention is also necessary in patients with scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, varicella in postpuberal and immunocompromised individuals, in Kawasaki's disease, in Still's disease and in other non-infectious, inflammatory diseases (e.g., familial mediterranean fever). Finally, various specific measures need to be taken in reportable diseases, erythema infectiosum (parvovirus B19), primary HIV infection and in Henoch-Schölein purpura.

  6. Combined and alternating paracetamol and ibuprofen therapy for febrile children.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tiffany; Stang, Antonia S; Ganshorn, Heather; Hartling, Lisa; Maconochie, Ian K; Thomsen, Anna M; Johnson, David W

    2014-09-01

    Health professionals frequently recommend fever treatment regimens for children that either combine paracetamol and ibuprofen or alternate them. However, there is uncertainty about whether these regimens are better than the use of single agents, and about the adverse effect profile of combination regimens. To assess the effects and side effects of combining paracetamol and ibuprofen, or alternating them on consecutive treatments, compared with monotherapy for treating fever in children. In September 2013, we searched Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (2009-2011). We included randomized controlled trials comparing alternating or combined paracetamol and ibuprofen regimens with monotherapy in children with fever. One review author and two assistants independently screened the searches and applied inclusion criteria. Two authors assessed risk of bias and graded the evidence independently. We conducted separate analyses for different comparison groups (combined therapy versus monotherapy, alternating therapy versus monotherapy, combined therapy versus alternating therapy). Six studies, enrolling 915 participants, are included. Compared to giving a single antipyretic alone, giving combined paracetamol and ibuprofen to febrile children can result in a lower mean temperature at one hour after treatment (MD -0.27 °Celsius, 95% CI -0.45 to -0.08, two trials, 163 participants, moderate quality evidence). If no further antipyretics are given, combined treatment probably also results in a lower mean temperature at four hours (MD -0.70 °Celsius, 95% CI -1.05 to -0.35, two trials, 196 participants, moderate quality evidence), and in fewer children remaining or becoming febrile for at least four hours after treatment (RR 0.08, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.42, two trials, 196 participants, moderate quality evidence). Only one trial assessed a

  7. The human dark side: evolutionary psychology and original sin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joseph; Theol, M

    2014-04-01

    Human nature has a dark side, something important to religions. Evolutionary psychology has been used to illuminate the human shadow side, although as a discipline it has attracted criticism. This article seeks to examine the evolutionary psychology's understanding of human nature and to propose an unexpected dialog with an enduring account of human evil known as original sin. Two cases are briefly considered: murder and rape. To further the exchange, numerous theoretical and methodological criticisms and replies of evolutionary psychology are explored jointly with original sin. Evolutionary psychology can partner with original sin since they share some theoretical likenesses and together they offer insights into the nature of what it means to be human.

  8. Sin, suffering, and the need for the theological virtues.

    PubMed

    Jones, David Albert

    2006-08-01

    This article examines the account of the relationship between sin and suffering provided by J. L. A. Garcia in "Sin and Suffering in a Catholic Understanding of Medical Ethics," in this issue. Garcia draws on the (Roman) Catholic tradition and particularly on the thought of Thomas Aquinas, who remains an important resource for Catholic theology. Nevertheless, his interpretation of Thomas is open to criticism, both in terms of omissions and in terms of positive claims. Garcia includes those elements of Thomas that are purely philosophical, such as natural law and acquired virtue, but neglects the theological and infused virtues, the gifts and fruits of the Holy Spirit, and the beatitudes. These omissions distort his account of the Christian life so that he underplays both the radical problem posed by sin (and suffering), and the radical character of the ultimate solution: redemption in Christ through the grace of the Holy Spirit.

  9. Incidence, treatment, and consequences of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in the inpatient and outpatient settings.

    PubMed

    Weycker, Derek; Barron, Richard; Kartashov, Alex; Legg, Jason; Lyman, Gary H

    2014-06-01

    To examine the incidence, treatment, and consequences of febrile neutropenia across inpatient and outpatient care settings. Data were obtained from Humedica's National Electronic Health Record-Derived Longitudinal Patient-Level Database (2007-2010). The study population included adult patients who received myelosuppressive chemotherapy for a solid tumor or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. For each patient, each chemotherapy regimen course and each cycle within each regimen course was characterized. Febrile neutropenia episodes were identified on a cycle-specific basis based on any of the following: (1) absolute neutrophil count <1.0 × 10(9)/L and evidence of infection or fever; (2) inpatient diagnosis of neutropenia, fever, or infection; (3) outpatient diagnosis of neutropenia and non-prophylactic antimicrobial use; or (4) mention of febrile neutropenia in physician notes. Febrile neutropenia episodes were categorized as inpatient or outpatient based on the initial setting of care (i.e. acute-care inpatient facility vs. ambulatory care facility). Febrile neutropenia consequences included hospital length of stay and mortality (inpatient cases only), as well as number of febrile neutropenia-related outpatient encounters. Among the 2131 patients in this study, 401 experienced a total of 458 febrile neutropenia episodes. Risk of febrile neutropenia during the chemotherapy regimen course was 16.8% (95% CI: 15.3, 18.4). In cycle 1 alone, risk of febrile neutropenia was 8.1% (7.1, 9.3). Most febrile neutropenia episodes (83.2%) were initially treated in the inpatient setting; the hospital mortality rate was 8.1% (5.8, 11.1), and mean hospital length of stay was 8.4 days (7.7, 9.1). Among febrile neutropenia episodes initially treated in the outpatient setting (16.8%), the mean number of outpatient management encounters was 2.6 (2.1, 3.1), most of which were in the physician's office (69.2%) or emergency department (26.9%). Febrile neutropenia remains a common occurrence among

  10. [Significance of the antimicrobial drug used to prevent febrile infection following prostate needle biopsy].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Satoshi; Maki, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Hamaguchi, Masumitsu; Yoshikawa, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Naotaka; Iguchi, Atushi

    2014-05-01

    The rate of incidence of febrile infection and the antimicrobial drug used at the time of prostate needle biopsy was examined retrospectively. SPFX (sparfloxacin) 400 mg (January 2007 to March 2010) and LVFX (levofloxacin) 500 mg (April 2010, onward) were administered prophylactically in 1,034 patients undergoing transrectal or transperineal prostate biopsy. One febrile infection occurred and resolved in each group. A single dose of LVFX 500 mg before the procedure effectively prevented febrile infection in both transrectal and transperineal prostate needle biopsy.

  11. Evaluation of empiric antibiotic de-escalation in febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Amanda L; Corrigan, Patricia A; Patel, Shejal; Hawks, Kelly G

    2016-10-01

    Up until 2010, the recommended duration of empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics for febrile neutropenia was until absolute neutrophil count (ANC) recovery. An updated guideline on the use of antimicrobial agents in neutropenic patients with cancer indicates that patients who have completed an appropriate treatment course of broad-spectrum antibiotics, with resolution of signs and symptoms of infection but persistent neutropenia, can be de-escalated to oral fluoroquinolone prophylaxis until ANC recovery. The primary objective of this retrospective investigation was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of de-escalating broad-spectrum antibiotics in patients remaining neutropenic after at least 14 days of empiric broadspectrum antibiotics for febrile neutropenia compared to patients continuing broad-spectrum antibiotics until ANC recovery. There were 16 patients (61.5%) in the comparator group who met the primary endpoint of remaining afebrile and without escalation of antibiotics for at least 72 hours after 14 days of broad-spectrum antibiotics and 21 patients (80.7%) in the de-escalation group who met the primary endpoint of remaining afebrile and without reinitiation of broad-spectrum antibiotics for at least 72 hours after de-escalation to levofloxacin therapy (p = 0.11). Mean total duration of broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy was 23.5 ± 1.5 days in the comparator group versus 22.2 ± 1.43 days in the de-escalation group (p = 0.39). Results of this investigation indicate that broad-spectrum antibiotics can be safely de-escalated to levofloxacin prophylaxis prior to ANC recovery in select patients. This practice may decrease the duration of broad-spectrum antibiotic exposure and associated complications. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. A rare case of febrile abdominal pain revealing Horton's disease.

    PubMed

    Chaudet, Arnaud; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Ghazali, Aiham Daniel

    2017-07-08

    Horton's disease is a systemic inflammatory vasculitis, usually found in persons over 50years old. It affects medium and large-sized arteries stemming from the external carotid, especially the superficial temporal arteries. It can affect extracranial large vessels but only rarely the aorta. Diagnosis of aortitis is difficult and its incidence is probably underestimated. A 68-year-old Caucasian woman consulted in an emergency department for febrile abdominal pain with inflammatory syndrome. Abdomen was soft with right-side flank sensitivity. A contrast-enhanced CT scan showed aortitis from the descending aorta to the iliac arteries without complication. Because of age, clinical presentation and aortitis, Horton disease was suspected. The temporal artery biopsy showed a histological aspect of degenerative endarteritis with intimal thickening and luminal stenosis. High-dose corticosteroid therapy was introduced which improved clinical conditions and resulted in the amendment of the pain. In the present case, this patient had Horton's disease, based on 3 criteria of The American College of Rheumatology (age, temporal artery abnormalities and inflammatory syndrome) associated with aortitis. However, aortitis is a rare complication of Horton disease and is a major cause of mortality inasmuch as it can be complicated by aneurysm and dissection. It is unusual to diagnose Horton's disease from aortitis symptoms without complications. The aorta represents the most severe localization of Horton's disease. It should not be ignored in etiological hypotheses regarding febrile abdominal pain in the elderly. Corticosteroids should be started rapidly at high doses and temporal artery biopsy should be planned. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. [Serotonin dysfunctions in the background of the seven deadly sins].

    PubMed

    Janka, Zoltán

    2003-11-20

    The symbolic characters of the Seven Deadly Sins can be traced from time to time in the cultural history of human mankind, being directly specified in certain artistic products. Such are, among others, the painting entitled "The Seven Deadly Sins and the Four Lost Things" by Hieronymus Bosch and the poems Divina Commedia and The Foerie Queene by Dante Alighieri and Edmund Spenser, respectively. However, there are several paragraphs referring to these behaviours of the Seven Deadly Sins in the Bible and in the dramas of William Shakespeare. The objective of the present review is to propose that dysfunctions in the central serotonergic system might be involved in the neurobiology of these 'sinful' behaviour patterns. Evidences indicate that behaviour traits such as Accidia (Sloth), Luxuria (Lust, Lechery), Superbia (Pride), Ira (Wrath, Anger), Invidia (Envy), Avaritia (Greed, Avarice), and Gula (Gluttony) can relate to the functional alterations of serotonin in the brain. Results of biochemical and molecular genetic (polymorphism) studies on the human serotonergic system (receptor, transporter, enzyme), findings of functional imaging techniques, effects of depletion (or supplementation) of the serotonin precursor tryptophan, data of challenge probe investigations directed to testing central serotonergic functions, alterations in the peripheral serotonin measures (platelet), and the changes in the CSF 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid content indicate such serotonergic involvement. Furthermore, results of animal experiments on behaviour change (aggressive, dominant or submissive, appetite, alcohol preference) attributed to serotonin status modification and the clinically evidenced therapeutic efficacy of pharmacological interventions, based on the modulation and perturbation of the serotonergic system (e.g. selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), in treating the 'sinful' behaviour forms and analogous pathological states reaching the severity of psychiatric disorders

  14. Colony-stimulating factors for chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Mhaskar, Rahul; Clark, Otavio Augusto Camara; Lyman, Gary; Engel Ayer Botrel, Tobias; Morganti Paladini, Luciano; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2014-10-30

    Febrile neutropenia is a frequent adverse event experienced by people with cancer who are undergoing chemotherapy, and is a potentially life-threatening situation. The current treatment is supportive care plus antibiotics. Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), such as granulocyte-CSF (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF), are cytokines that stimulate and accelerate the production of one or more cell lines in the bone marrow. Clinical trials have addressed the question of whether the addition of a CSF to antibiotics could improve outcomes in individuals diagnosed with febrile neutropenia. However, the results of these trials are conflicting. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of adding G-CSF or GM-CSF to standard treatment (antibiotics) when treating chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in individuals diagnosed with cancer. We conducted the search in March 2014 and covered the major electronic databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and SCI. We contacted experts in hematology and oncology and also scanned the citations from the relevant articles. We searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared CSF plus antibiotics versus antibiotics alone for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in adults and children. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We performed meta-analysis of the selected studies using Review Manager 5 software. Fourteen RCTs (15 comparisons) including a total of 1553 participants addressing the role of CSF plus antibiotics in febrile neutropenia were included. Overall mortality was not improved by the use of CSF plus antibiotics versus antibiotics alone (hazard ratio (HR) 0.74 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47 to 1.16) P = 0.19; 13 RCTs; 1335 participants; low quality evidence). A similar finding was seen for infection-related mortality (HR 0.75 (95% CI 0.47 to 1.20) P = 0.23; 10 RCTs; 897

  15. Virtues of SIN: Can Intensified Public Efforts Help Disadvantaged Immigrants?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslund, Olof; Johansson, Per

    2011-01-01

    The labor market integration of immigrants is a top political priority throughout the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Social and fiscal gains, as well as sustained future labor supply make governments search for effective policies to increase employment among the mostly disadvantaged. The author studies SIN,…

  16. Virtues of SIN: Can Intensified Public Efforts Help Disadvantaged Immigrants?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslund, Olof; Johansson, Per

    2011-01-01

    The labor market integration of immigrants is a top political priority throughout the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Social and fiscal gains, as well as sustained future labor supply make governments search for effective policies to increase employment among the mostly disadvantaged. The author studies SIN,…

  17. Prophylactic drug management for febrile seizures in children.

    PubMed

    Offringa, Martin; Newton, Richard; Cozijnsen, Martinus A; Nevitt, Sarah J

    2017-02-22

    Febrile seizures occurring in a child older than one month during an episode of fever affect 2% to 4% of children in Great Britain and the United States and recur in 30%. Rapid-acting antiepileptics and antipyretics given during subsequent fever episodes have been used to avoid the adverse effects of continuous antiepileptic drugs. To evaluate primarily the effectiveness and safety of antiepileptic and antipyretic drugs used prophylactically to treat children with febrile seizures; but also to evaluate any other drug intervention where there was a sound biological rationale for its use. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 7); MEDLINE (1966 to July 2016); Embase (1966 to July 2016); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE) (July 2016). We imposed no language restrictions. We also contacted researchers in the field to identify continuing or unpublished studies. Trials using randomised or quasi-randomised participant allocation that compared the use of antiepileptic, antipyretic or other plausible agents with each other, placebo or no treatment. Two review authors (RN and MO) independently applied predefined criteria to select trials for inclusion and extracted the predefined relevant data, recording methods for randomisation, blinding and exclusions. For the 2016 update a third author (MC) checked all original inclusions, data analyses, and updated the search. Outcomes assessed were seizure recurrence at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 months and at age 5 to 6 years in the intervention and non-intervention groups, and adverse medication effects. We assessed the presence of publication bias using funnel plots. We included 40 articles describing 30 randomised trials with 4256 randomised participants. We analysed 13 interventions of continuous or intermittent prophylaxis and their control treatments. Methodological quality was moderate to poor in most studies. We found no significant

  18. Effects of mannose-binding lectin polymorphisms on irinotecan-induced febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    van der Bol, Jessica M; de Jong, Floris A; van Schaik, Ron H; Sparreboom, Alex; van Fessem, Marianne A; van de Geijn, Fleur E; van Daele, Paul L; Verweij, Jaap; Sleijfer, Stefan; Mathijssen, Ron H

    2010-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is important in the innate immune response. MBL2 gene polymorphisms affect MBL expression, and genotypes yielding low MBL levels have been associated with an elevated risk for infections in hematological cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. However, these reported associations are inconsistent, and data on patients with solid tumors are lacking. Here, we investigated the effects of MBL2 genotypes on irinotecan-induced febrile neutropenia in patients with solid tumors. Irinotecan-treated patients were genotyped for the MBL2 gene. Two promoter (-550 H/L and -221 X/Y) and three exon polymorphisms (52 A/D, 54 A/B, and 57 A/C) were determined, together with known risk factors for irinotecan-induced toxicity. Neutropenia and febrile neutropenia were recorded during the first course. Of the 133 patients, 28% experienced severe neutropenia and 10% experienced febrile neutropenia. No associations were found between exon polymorphisms and febrile neutropenia. However, patients with the H/H promoter genotype, associated with high MBL levels, experienced significantly more febrile neutropenia than patients with the H/L and L/L genotypes (20% versus 13% versus 5%). Moreover, patients with the HYA haplotype encountered significantly more febrile neutropenia than patients without this high MBL-producing haplotype (16% versus 4%). In the subgroup with wild-type exon polymorphisms (A/A), patients with the high MBL promoter phenotype had the highest incidence of febrile neutropenia, regardless of known risk factors. Patients with high MBL2 promoter genotypes and haplotypes seem more at risk for developing febrile neutropenia. If confirmed, these preliminary findings may contribute to more individualized approaches of irinotecan treatment.

  19. Effects of Mannose-Binding Lectin Polymorphisms on Irinotecan-Induced Febrile Neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Floris A.; van Schaik, Ron H.; Sparreboom, Alex; van Fessem, Marianne A.; van de Geijn, Fleur E.; van Daele, Paul L.; Verweij, Jaap; Sleijfer, Stefan; Mathijssen, Ron H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is important in the innate immune response. MBL2 gene polymorphisms affect MBL expression, and genotypes yielding low MBL levels have been associated with an elevated risk for infections in hematological cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. However, these reported associations are inconsistent, and data on patients with solid tumors are lacking. Here, we investigated the effects of MBL2 genotypes on irinotecan-induced febrile neutropenia in patients with solid tumors. Patients and Methods. Irinotecan-treated patients were genotyped for the MBL2 gene. Two promoter (−550 H/L and −221 X/Y) and three exon polymorphisms (52 A/D, 54 A/B, and 57 A/C) were determined, together with known risk factors for irinotecan-induced toxicity. Neutropenia and febrile neutropenia were recorded during the first course. Results. Of the 133 patients, 28% experienced severe neutropenia and 10% experienced febrile neutropenia. No associations were found between exon polymorphisms and febrile neutropenia. However, patients with the H/H promoter genotype, associated with high MBL levels, experienced significantly more febrile neutropenia than patients with the H/L and L/L genotypes (20% versus 13% versus 5%). Moreover, patients with the HYA haplotype encountered significantly more febrile neutropenia than patients without this high MBL-producing haplotype (16% versus 4%). In the subgroup with wild-type exon polymorphisms (A/A), patients with the high MBL promoter phenotype had the highest incidence of febrile neutropenia, regardless of known risk factors. Conclusion. Patients with high MBL2 promoter genotypes and haplotypes seem more at risk for developing febrile neutropenia. If confirmed, these preliminary findings may contribute to more individualized approaches of irinotecan treatment. PMID:20930093

  20. TRPV1 promotes repetitive febrile seizures by pro-inflammatory cytokines in immature brain.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Xian; Yu, Fang; Sanchez, Russell M; Liu, Yu-Qiang; Min, Jia-Wei; Hu, Jiang-Jian; Bsoul, Najeeb Bassam; Han, Song; Yin, Jun; Liu, Wan-Hong; He, Xiao-Hua; Peng, Bi-Wen

    2015-08-01

    Febrile seizure (FS) is the most common seizure disorder in children, and children with FS are regarded as a high risk for the eventual development of epilepsy. Brain inflammation may be implicated in the mechanism of FS. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is believed to act as a monitor and regulator of body temperature. The role of inflammation in synaptic plasticity mediation indicates that TRPV1 is relevant to several nervous system diseases, such as epilepsy. Here, we report a critical role for TRPV1 in a febrile seizure mouse model and reveal increased levels of pro-inflammatory factors in the immature brain. Animals were subjected to hyperthermia for 30 min, which generates seizures lasting approximately 20 min, and then were used for experiments. To invoke frequently repetitive febrile seizures, mice are exposed to hyperthermia for three times daily at an interval of 4h between every time induced seizure, and a total of 4 days to induce. Behavioral testing for febrile seizures revealed that a TRPV1 knock-out mouse model demonstrated a prolonged onset latency and a shortened duration and seizure grade of febrile seizure when compared with wild type (WT) mice. The expression levels of both TRPV1 mRNA and protein increased after a hyperthermia-induced febrile seizure in WT mice. Notably, TRPV1 activation resulted in a significant elevation in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and HMGB1) in the hippocampus and cortex. These data indicate that the reduction of TRPV1 expression parallels a decreased susceptibility to febrile seizures. Thus, preventative strategies might be developed for use during febrile seizures.

  1. Towards Improving Point-of-Care Diagnosis of Non-malaria Febrile Illness: A Metabolomics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Decuypere, Saskia; Maltha, Jessica; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Rattray, Nicholas J. W.; Issa, Guiraud; Bérenger, Kaboré; Lompo, Palpouguini; Tahita, Marc C.; Ruspasinghe, Thusitha; McConville, Malcolm; Goodacre, Royston; Tinto, Halidou; Jacobs, Jan; Carapetis, Jonathan R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Non-malaria febrile illnesses such as bacterial bloodstream infections (BSI) are a leading cause of disease and mortality in the tropics. However, there are no reliable, simple diagnostic tests for identifying BSI or other severe non-malaria febrile illnesses. We hypothesized that different infectious agents responsible for severe febrile illness would impact on the host metabololome in different ways, and investigated the potential of plasma metabolites for diagnosis of non-malaria febrile illness. Methodology We conducted a comprehensive mass-spectrometry based metabolomics analysis of the plasma of 61 children with severe febrile illness from a malaria-endemic rural African setting. Metabolite features characteristic for non-malaria febrile illness, BSI, severe anemia and poor clinical outcome were identified by receiver operating curve analysis. Principal Findings The plasma metabolome profile of malaria and non-malaria patients revealed fundamental differences in host response, including a differential activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. A simple corticosteroid signature was a good classifier of severe malaria and non-malaria febrile patients (AUC 0.82, 95% CI: 0.70–0.93). Patients with BSI were characterized by upregulated plasma bile metabolites; a signature of two bile metabolites was estimated to have a sensitivity of 98.1% (95% CI: 80.2–100) and a specificity of 82.9% (95% CI: 54.7–99.9) to detect BSI in children younger than 5 years. This BSI signature demonstrates that host metabolites can have a superior diagnostic sensitivity compared to pathogen-detecting tests to identify infections characterized by low pathogen load such as BSI. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential use of plasma metabolites to identify causality in children with severe febrile illness in malaria-endemic settings. PMID:26943791

  2. Hippocampal Malrotation Is Associated With Prolonged Febrile Seizures: Results of the FEBSTAT Study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Stephen; Bello, Jacqueline A; Shinnar, Shlomo; Hesdorffer, Dale C; Lewis, Darrell V; MacFall, James; Shinnar, Ruth C; Gomes, William; Litherland, Claire; Xu, Yuan; Nordli, Douglas R; Pellock, John M; Frank, L Matthew; Moshé, Solomon L; Sun, Shumei

    2015-11-01

    Hippocampal malrotation is characterized by incomplete hippocampal inversion with a rounded shape and blurred internal architecture. There is still debate about whether hippocampal malrotation has pathologic significance. We present findings from the Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Seizures in Childhood (FEBSTAT) study on the frequency of and risk factors for hippocampal malrotation. FEBSTAT is a prospective multicenter study investigating the consequences of febrile status epilepticus in childhood. MRI studies of 226 patients with febrile status epilepticus were analyzed visually by two board-certified neuroradiologists blinded to clinical details and were compared with MRI studies of 96 subjects with first simple febrile seizure. Quantitative analysis of hippocampal volume was performed by two independent observers. Hippocampal malrotation was present in 20 of 226 (8.8%) patients with febrile status epilepticus compared with two of 96 (2.1%) control subjects (odds ratio [OR], 4.56; 95% CI, 1.05-19.92). Hippocampal malrotation was exclusively left-sided in 18 of 22 (81.8%) patients and bilateral in the remaining four patients (18.2%). There was no case of exclusively right-sided hippocampal malrotation. Hippocampal malrotation was more common in boys than in girls (OR, 6.1; 95% CI, 1.7-21.5). On quantitative volumetric MRI analysis, the left hippocampal volume was smaller in patients with hippocampal malrotation than in control subjects with simple febrile seizure (p = 0.004), and the right-to-left hippocampal volume ratio was higher in the hippocampal malrotation group than in the simple febrile seizure group (p < 0.001). Hippocampal malrotation is a developmental malformation that predominantly affects the left hippocampus in male patients and is more frequently found in children with prolonged febrile status epilepticus than in control subjects. These data provide further evidence that hippocampal malrotation represents a pathologic error in brain development

  3. Increased number of febrile seizures in children born very preterm: relation of neonatal, febrile and epileptic seizures and neurological dysfunction to seizure outcome at 16 years of age.

    PubMed

    Herrgård, Eila A; Karvonen, Marjo; Luoma, Laila; Saavalainen, Pia; Määttä, Sara; Laukkanen, Eila; Partanen, Juhani

    2006-12-01

    In prematurely born population, a cascade of events from initial injury in the developing brain to morbidity may be followed. The aim of our study was to assess seizures in prematurely born children from birth up to 16 years and to evaluate the contribution of different seizures, and of neurological dysfunction to the seizure outcome. Pre- and neonatal data and data from neurodevelopmental examination at 5 years of 60 prospectively followed children born at or before 32 weeks of gestation, and of 60 matched term controls from the 2 year birth cohort were available from earlier phases of the study. Later seizure data were obtained from questionnaires at 5, 9, and 16 years, and from hospital records and parent interviews. In the preterm group, 16 children (27%) exhibited neonatal seizures, 10 children (17%) had seizures during febrile illness and 5 children had epilepsy. Eight children had only febrile seizures, and 3 of these had both multiple simple and complex febrile seizures and neurodevelopmental dysfunction. None of the 8 children had experienced neonatal seizures, 6 had a positive family history of seizures, but none developed epilepsy. The children with epilepsy had CP and neurocognitive problems, and all but one had experienced neonatal seizures; two of them had also had fever-induced epileptic seizures. In controls 3 children (5%) had simple febrile seizures. Children born very preterm have increased rate of febrile seizures compared to the controls. However, no cascade from initial injury via febrile seizures to epilepsy could be shown during the follow-up of 16 years. Symptomatic epilepsy in prematurely born children is characterised by neonatal seizures, major neurological disabilities and early onset of epilepsy.

  4. The mammalian Sin3 proteins are required for muscle development and sarcomere specification.

    PubMed

    van Oevelen, Chris; Bowman, Christopher; Pellegrino, Jessica; Asp, Patrik; Cheng, Jemmie; Parisi, Fabio; Micsinai, Mariann; Kluger, Yuval; Chu, Alphonse; Blais, Alexandre; David, Gregory; Dynlacht, Brian D

    2010-12-01

    The highly related mammalian Sin3A and Sin3B proteins provide a versatile platform for chromatin-modifying activities. Sin3-containing complexes play a role in gene repression through deacetylation of nucleosomes. Here, we explore a role for Sin3 in myogenesis by examining the phenotypes resulting from acute somatic deletion of both isoforms in vivo and from primary myotubes in vitro. Myotubes ablated for Sin3A alone, but not Sin3B, displayed gross defects in sarcomere structure that were considerably enhanced upon simultaneous ablation of both isoforms. Massively parallel sequencing of Sin3A- and Sin3B-bound genomic loci revealed a subset of target genes directly involved in sarcomere function that are positively regulated by Sin3A and Sin3B proteins. Both proteins were coordinately recruited to a substantial number of genes. Interestingly, depletion of Sin3B led to compensatory increases in Sin3A recruitment at certain target loci, but Sin3B was never found to compensate for Sin3A loss. Thus, our analyses describe a novel transcriptional role for Sin3A and Sin3B proteins associated with maintenance of differentiated muscle cells.

  5. Relationship between common viral upper respiratory tract infections and febrile seizures in children from Suzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jihong; Yan, Wenhua; Li, Yan; Zhang, Bingbing; Gu, Qing

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the potential predisposing factors for the development of febrile seizures among children with upper respiratory tract infection in the eastern Chinese region. Participants were individuals aged 6 months and 6 years (n = 189) who were diagnosed with febrile seizure, complicated with upper respiratory tract infection, and 174 age-matched children who had upper respiratory tract infection without seizures as controls. The viral antigens including influenza A and B, parainfluenza, adenovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus were detected from nasopharyngeal aspirates. The incidence of influenza A infection was much higher in patients with febrile seizure than controls, especially those children aged >36 months. Patients with influenza A infection had higher body temperatures at seizure occurrence, shorter seizure duration, and shorter fever duration before seizure onset. Influenza A infections are frequently associated with febrile seizure in children with upper respiratory tract infection. During an influenza epidemic, effective vaccination of children, especially those with a past history of febrile seizure, may minimize the development of febrile seizure. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. [Current clinical practice in the treatment of febrile neutropenia (FN)].

    PubMed

    Takei, Naoko; Komatsu, Tsunehiko

    2011-10-01

    Because of the refractory and recurrent nature of febrile neutropenia (FN), definite diagnosis and early empiric treatment with antibiotics are important for FN patients. With this background, guidelines for FN treatment have been published in Japan and overseas, although a treatment method appropriate for clinical practice in Japan has not yet been established. Therefore, we conducted a survey of actual practice, including trends in prescription of antibiotics for FN, in the hope that it would help establish a definitive treatment for FN in Japan. The survey results confirmed that FN patients under care of hematology departments accounted for the largest proportion, followed by pediatrics (hematology), pulmonary medicine, medical oncology, and respiratory surgery, and the proportions of patients diagnosed with FN and those receiving antibiotics in hematology departments are larger than in other departments. Across all departments, cefepime (CFPM) is most frequently used as the initial treatment of choice, accounting for 35.9% of prescriptions, followed by meropenem (MEPM) (24.3%). These drugs are selected because they exhibit high potency and wide coverage against organisms that are presumed to cause FN, and their costs are covered by insurance, while the existence of insurance coverage is the major determining factor for treatment in Japan. Among second-line drugs, MEPM is most frequently used, accounting for 46.3% of prescriptions. The guidelines are commonly used as the basis for treatment, accounting for 52.0% of all departments, especially the guidelines established by the Japan Febrile Neutropenia Study Group. On the other hand, the percentage of departments that have introduced a hospital protocol and clinical path is only 13.0% in total. To provide appropriate treatment for FN patients, insurance coverage and introduction of a hospital protocol and clinical path based on guidelines and evidence are essential. The current situation, in which these are not

  7. [Efficacy of Levofloxacin Hydrate in Febrile Neutropenia for Outpatient Chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Manato; Sato, Junya; Nihei, Satoru; Kashiwaba, Masahiro; Kudo, Kenzo

    2016-05-01

    Management of febrile neutropenia (FN) is important for the safety of patients undergoing outpatient chemotherapy. Oral antimicrobials are usually prescribed as the initial treatment for FN, and outpatients are instructed to begin medication prior to chemotherapy. However, the effectiveness and safety of the use of these oral antibiotics have not yet been established. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness and safety of levofloxacin hydrate (LVFX) for breast cancer patients with FN, and the factors associated with the onset of FN in 134 breast cancer patients who underwent chemotherapy including the anticancer drug anthracycline (total, 513 courses), in an outpatient chemotherapy department. The effectiveness and safety of LVFX were defined respectively as defervescence within 5 days, and the appearance of side effects such as diarrhea and rashes. Fever was observed in 89 (66%) of the 134 patients, and during 164 (32%) of 513 courses. Defervescence was observed with the LVFX medication in 149 (93%) of 160 courses. The primary side effect was the development of rashes, and only 2 (1%) of the 160 courses were discontinued. Onset of stomatitis during chemotherapy was observed as a factor of FN (odds ratio: 1.36, p<0.05). Our results suggest that the use of LVFX according to the patients' discretion might be an effective and safe option for the management of FN during outpatient chemotherapy.

  8. Prolonged febrile illness and fever of unknown origin in adults.

    PubMed

    Hersch, Elizabeth C; Oh, Robert C

    2014-07-15

    Fever of unknown origin has been described as a febrile illness (temperature of 101°F [38.3°C] or higher) for three weeks or longer without an etiology despite a one-week inpatient evaluation. A more recent qualitative definition requires only a reasonable diagnostic evaluation. Although there are more than 200 diseases in the differential diagnosis, most cases in adults are limited to several dozen possible causes. Fever of unknown origin is more often an atypical presentation of a common disease rather than an unusual disease. The most common subgroups in the differential are infection, malignancy, noninfectious inflammatory diseases, and miscellaneous. Clinicians should perform a comprehensive history and examination to look for potentially diagnostic clues to guide the initial evaluation. If there are no potentially diagnostic clues, the patient should undergo a minimum diagnostic workup, including a complete blood count, chest radiography, urinalysis and culture, electrolyte panel, liver enzymes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein level testing. Further testing should include blood cultures, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, rheumatoid factor, and antinuclear antibodies. Human immunodeficiency virus and appropriate region-specific serologic testing (e.g., cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, tuberculosis) and abdominal and pelvic ultrasonography or computed tomography are commonly performed. If the diagnosis remains elusive, 18F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography plus computed tomography may help guide the clinician toward tissue biopsy. Empiric antibiotics or steroids are generally discouraged in patients with fever of unknown origin.

  9. Novel GABRG2 mutations cause familial febrile seizures

    PubMed Central

    Boillot, Morgane; Morin-Brureau, Mélanie; Picard, Fabienne; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Lambrecq, Virginie; Minetti, Carlo; Striano, Pasquale; Zara, Federico; Iacomino, Michele; Ishida, Saeko; An-Gourfinkel, Isabelle; Daniau, Mailys; Hardies, Katia; Baulac, Michel; Dulac, Olivier; Leguern, Eric; Nabbout, Rima

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the genetic cause in a large family with febrile seizures (FS) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and subsequently search for additional mutations in a cohort of 107 families with FS, with or without epilepsy. Methods: The cohort consisted of 1 large family with FS and TLE, 64 smaller French families recruited through a national French campaign, and 43 Italian families. Molecular analyses consisted of whole-exome sequencing and mutational screening. Results: Exome sequencing revealed a p.Glu402fs*3 mutation in the γ2 subunit of the GABAA receptor gene (GABRG2) in the large family with FS and TLE. Three additional nonsense and frameshift GABRG2 mutations (p.Arg136*, p.Val462fs*33, and p.Pro59fs*12), 1 missense mutation (p.Met199Val), and 1 exonic deletion were subsequently identified in 5 families of the follow-up cohort. Conclusions: We report GABRG2 mutations in 5.6% (6/108) of families with FS, with or without associated epilepsy. This study provides evidence that GABRG2 mutations are linked to the FS phenotype, rather than epilepsy, and that loss-of-function of GABAA receptor γ2 subunit is the probable underlying pathogenic mechanism. PMID:27066572

  10. [Febrile responses in patients with pediatric rheumatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Yokota, Shumpei; Kikuchi, Masako; Nozawa, Tomo; Kizawa, Toshitaka; Kanetaka, Taichi; Kadota, Keisuke; Miyamae, Takako; Mori, Masaaki

    2012-01-01

    Fever is one of the critical symptoms of patients in pediatrics field. It indicates inflammatory focus somewhere in the body, and the major causes of fever are infectious diseases. Recent progresses of our knowledge about autoinflammatory syndrome promoted the investigation of the mechanism of fever, and suggested that the pro-inflammatory cytokines are the direct causative agents of fever. The basic science revealed that cooperation of IL-6 and IL-1β induces febrile response. Fever of unknown origin (FUO) remains a challenging problem. Rheumatic diseases, rare infectious diseases, and benign tumors and malignancies are diagnoses to be differentiated. FDG-PET is recently proved a valuable tool for the identification of the etiology in patients with FUO. Since the introduction of biological response modifiers into the treatment of patients with pediatric rheumatic diseases has shifted the therapeutic paradigm, a new concept that the blockade of a unique pro-inflammatory cytokine brings cessation of whole inflammatory responses affected tremendously the clinical medicine. A more investigation of inflammation and its pathophisiology will be needed in pediatric rheumatology.

  11. Acute Q fever in febrile patients in northwestern of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeili, Saber; Golzar, Farhad; Ayubi, Erfan; Naghili, Behrooz; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    Background Q fever is an endemic disease in different parts of Iran. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of acute Q fever disease among at-risk individuals in northwestern Iran. Methodology An etiological study was carried out in 2013 in Tabriz County. A total of 116 individuals who were in contact with livestock and had a nonspecific febrile illness were enrolled in the study. IgG phase II antibodies against Coxiella burnetii were detected using ELISA. Principal findings The prevalence of acute Q fever was 13.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0, 21.0%). Headache (87.5%) and fatigue and weakness (81.3%) were the dominant clinical characteristics among patients whit acute Q fever. Acute lower respiratory tract infection and chills were poorly associated with acute Q fever. Furthermore, 32% (95% CI: 24, 41%) of participants had a history of previous exposure to Q fever agent (past infection). Consumption of unpasteurized dairy products was a weak risk factor for previous exposure to C. burnetii. Conclusion This study identified patients with acute Q fever in northwestern of Iran. The evidence from this study and previous studies conducted in different regions of Iran support this fact that Q fever is one of the important endemic zoonotic diseases in Iran and needs due attention by clinical physicians and health care system. PMID:28394892

  12. Diagnostic significance of indium-111 granulocyte scintigraphy in febrile patients

    SciTech Connect

    Syrjaelae, M.T.Va.; Valtonen, V.; Liewendahl, K.; Myllylae, G.

    1987-02-01

    Sixty-eight patients with fever of unknown origin, 32 patients with postoperative fever, and 26 patients with therapy-resistant fever after bacteremia were investigated with (/sup 111/In) granulocyte scintigraphy for the detection of abscesses. The results showed that the value of (/sup 111/In)granulocyte scintigraphy in the detection of infectious foci vary in these three types of febrile conditions. The overall sensitivity and specificity were 86.5% and 87.8%, respectively. We observed, however, a relatively low predictive value of a positive result in the fever of unknown origin group (73.1%), and also a low predictive value of a negative result in the bacteremia group (66.7%). The C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in patients with a true-positive scintigram were significantly (p less than 0.001) higher than in patients with a true-negative scintigram. There was also a significant positive correlation (p less than 0.01) between the serum CRP concentration and the intensity of the granulocyte accumulations. There was no correlation between the peripheral leukocyte count or the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and the intensity of the granulocyte uptake. Therefore CRP, but not the leukocyte count or ESR, appears useful for selecting the patients who benefit most from granulocyte scintigraphy.

  13. Food-borne bacteremic illnesses in febrile neutropenic children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anselm Chi-wai; Siao-ping Ong, Nellie Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Bacteremia following febrile neutropenia is a serious complication in children with malignancies. Preventive measures are currently targeted at antimicrobial prophylaxis, amelioration of drug-induced neutropenia, and nosocomial spread of pathogens, with little attention to community-acquired infections. A retrospective study was conducted at a pediatric oncology center during a 3-year period to identify probable cases of food-borne infections with bacteremia. Twenty-one bacteremic illnesses affecting 15 children receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were reviewed. Three (14%) episodes were highly suspected of a food-borne origin: a 17-year-old boy with osteosarcoma contracted Sphingomonas paucimobilis septicemia after consuming nasi lemak bought from a street hawker; a 2-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed Chryseobacterium meningosepticum septicemia after a sushi dinner; a 2-year-old girl was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Lactobacillus bacteremia suspected to be of probiotic origin. All of them were neutropenic at the time of the infections and the bacteremias were cleared with antibiotic treatment. Food-borne sepsis may be an important, but readily preventable, cause of bloodstream infections in pediatric oncology patients, especially in tropical countries with an abundance of culinary outlets. PMID:22184532

  14. The underlying aetiologies of coma in febrile Sudanese children.

    PubMed

    El-Amin, Eisa O; Elbashir, Mohamed I Haj; Elamin, Osman E; Mukhtar, Yousif; Abdo, Hussein; Abdul-Rahman, Ismail; El-Amin, Mohamed E

    2013-05-01

    Cerebral malaria, acute bacterial meningitis and viral encephalitis are the main causes of fever and altered consciousness in the tropics. In areas where reliable laboratory testing is unavailable, over diagnosis and misdiagnosis of these conditions is likely. In malaria endemic countries non-malarial contributors to coma may be overlooked, overburdening available resources. The aim of this study is to evaluate the underlying causes of altered mental state in children presenting with fever and coma to tertiary medical facilities in Sudan. Children over one month of age admitted to the emergency departments of three main hospitals in Khartoum with fever and coma were investigated for cerebral malaria, acute bacterial meningitis and Herpes simplex encephalitis during April to November 2011. One hundred and four children presenting with fever and coma were evaluated. Cerebral malaria was clinically suspected in 38 patients and 5 were confirmed. Acute bacterial meningitis was suspected in 63 patients and confirmed in 15. Herpes encephalitis was confirmed in only one case. There were five cases of mixed infection and the remainder were unknown. The clinical diagnoses of cerebral malaria, acute bacterial meningitis and viral encephalitis are unreliable. Further studies to evaluate the underlying causes of coma in febrile Sudanese children are warranted.

  15. Protective effect of carnosine on febrile seizures in immature mice.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yun-Jian; Wu, Deng-Chang; Feng, Bo; Hou, Wei-wei; Xu, Ceng-Lin; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Chen, Zhong; Hu, Wei-Wei

    2015-02-19

    Febrile seizures (FSs) are the most common type of convulsions in childhood and complex FSs represent an increased risk for development of temporal lobe epilepsy. The aim of this study was to analyze the anticonvulsant effects of carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide composed of alanine and histidine, on hyperthermia induced seizure in immature mice. Injection of carnosine significantly increased the latency and decreased the duration of FSs in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, histidine had similar effects on FSs as carnosine. The protective effect of carnosine or histidine was completely abolished by α-fluoromethylhistidine (α-FMH), a selective and irreversible histidine decarboxylase inhibitor, or in histidine decarboxylase deficient (HDC-KO) mice. Peripheral carnosine administration increased the level of carnosine, histidine and histamine in the cortex and hippocampus of mice pups, but decreased glutamate contents in the cortex and hippocampus. These results indicate that carnosine can protect against FSs in mice pups through its conversion to histamine, suggesting that it may serve as an efficient anti-FSs drug in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute Q fever in febrile patients in northwestern of Iran.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Saber; Golzar, Farhad; Ayubi, Erfan; Naghili, Behrooz; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2017-04-01

    Q fever is an endemic disease in different parts of Iran. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of acute Q fever disease among at-risk individuals in northwestern Iran. An etiological study was carried out in 2013 in Tabriz County. A total of 116 individuals who were in contact with livestock and had a nonspecific febrile illness were enrolled in the study. IgG phase II antibodies against Coxiella burnetii were detected using ELISA. The prevalence of acute Q fever was 13.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0, 21.0%). Headache (87.5%) and fatigue and weakness (81.3%) were the dominant clinical characteristics among patients whit acute Q fever. Acute lower respiratory tract infection and chills were poorly associated with acute Q fever. Furthermore, 32% (95% CI: 24, 41%) of participants had a history of previous exposure to Q fever agent (past infection). Consumption of unpasteurized dairy products was a weak risk factor for previous exposure to C. burnetii. This study identified patients with acute Q fever in northwestern of Iran. The evidence from this study and previous studies conducted in different regions of Iran support this fact that Q fever is one of the important endemic zoonotic diseases in Iran and needs due attention by clinical physicians and health care system.

  17. The semiology of febrile seizures: Focal features are frequent.

    PubMed

    Takasu, Michihiko; Kubota, Tetsuo; Tsuji, Takeshi; Kurahashi, Hirokazu; Numoto, Shingo; Watanabe, Kazuyoshi; Okumura, Akihisa

    2017-08-01

    To clarify the semiology of febrile seizures (FS) and to determine the frequency of FS with symptoms suggestive of focal onset. FS symptoms in children were reported within 24h of seizure onset by the parents using a structured questionnaire consisting principally of closed-ended questions. We focused on events at seizure commencement, including changes in behavior and facial expression, and ocular and oral symptoms. We also investigated the autonomic and motor symptoms developing during seizures. The presence or absence of focal and limbic features was determined for each patient. The associations of certain focal and limbic features with patient characteristics were assessed. Information was obtained on FS in 106 children. Various events were recorded at seizure commencement. Behavioral changes were observed in 35 children, changes in facial expression in 53, ocular symptoms in 78, and oral symptoms in 90. In terms of events during seizures, autonomic symptoms were recognized in 78, and convulsive motor symptoms were recognized in 68 children. Focal features were evident in 81 children; 38 children had two or more such features. Limbic features were observed in 44 children, 9 of whom had two or more such features. There was no significant relationship between any patient characteristic and the numbers of focal or limbic features. The semiology of FS varied widely among children, and symptoms suggestive of focal onset were frequent. FS of focal onset may be more common than is generally thought. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Circadian Rhythm and the Seasonal Variation in Childhood Febrile Seizure.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Reza; Hassanzadeh Rad, Afagh; Aminzadeh, Vahid

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to assess the circadian rhythm and the seasonal variation in childhood febrile seizure (FS). This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted retrospectively on patients' records. Investigators assessed the records of patients with simple FS aged 6 to 60 months referred to Emergency Department of 17-Shahrivar Hospital, Rasht northern Iran during Jan 2010 to Jan 2013. Data were gathered by a checklist including age, sex, temperature, duration of seizure, seasonal, months, diurnal variation, and level of consciousness. Totally, 349 patients including 193 (55.3%) boys and 156 (44.7%) girls with the mean age of 22.85±18.34 months were enrolled in this study. The mean temperature of patients was 38.45±0.53°C. The mean duration of seizure was 97.91±57 sec. Awake, drowsy and slept patients were noted in 170 (48.7%), 33(9.5%) and 146 (41.8%) cases, respectively. Most of the FS occurred in winter 118 (33.8%), afternoon 132 (37.8%) and in Jan 55 (15.8%). Body temperature adjusted by hypothalamus affecting by circadian rhythm. FS is the most common form of seizure in childhood occurred by multifactorial issues. Otherwise, the occurrence of seizure in patients with epilepsy may be affected by the circadian rhythm. Seizures happen more frequent at a specific time in 24 h during a day.

  19. Single intramuscular injection of diclofenac sodium in febrile pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Yeol; Cho, Jun Hwi; Shin, Myoung Cheol; Ohk, Taek Geun; Lee, Hui Young; Park, Chan Woo

    2015-01-01

    There are few reports on the effectiveness and safety of intramuscular (IM) antipyretic injections in pediatric patients. This study reports the efficacy and adverse effects of a single IM injection of diclofenac sodium in pediatric patients. This was an observational study in which records of febrile pediatric patients presenting to the emergency department were analyzed. Subjects included pediatric patients presenting to the emergency department with a temperature of 38°C or higher. Infants under 12 months of age were excluded. Patients were excluded if they received antipyretics within 4 h prior to presenting to the emergency department. Body temperature was measured at 30-60 min intervals following diclofenac sodium injections. Fever alleviation was defined as the temperature decline to 1°C below the temperature at presentation. Patients who received diclofenac sodium twice or more on different days were observed for side effects such as allergic reaction. Records from the emergency department and outpatient clinics were analyzed. The dose of diclofenac sodium injected was approximately 2 mg/kg. The average time elapsed until antipyresis was 69.1 ± 23.8 min. The average temperature reduction after 1 h was 1.1 ± 0.6°C. The average proportion of temperature change after 1 h was 40.6 ± 22.2%. During the period at the emergency department, there were no reported serious side effects. A single dose of diclofenac sodium provided effective antipyresis in pediatric patients. Serious side effects were not observed.

  20. Subgap conductivity in SIN-junctions of high barrier transparency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotkhov, S. V.; Balashov, D. V.; Khabipov, M. I.; Buchholz, F.-I.; Zorin, A. B.

    2006-11-01

    We investigate the current-voltage characteristics of high-transparency superconductor-insulator-normal metal (SIN) junctions with the specific tunnel resistance ρ ≲ 30 Ω μm2. The junctions were fabricated from different superconducting and normal conducting materials, including Nb, Al, AuPd and Cu. The subgap leakage currents were found to be appreciably larger than those given by the standard tunnelling model. We explain our results using the model of two-electron tunnelling in the coherent diffusive transport regime. We demonstrate that even in the high-transparency SIN-junctions, a noticeable reduction of the subgap current can be achieved by splitting a junction into several submicron sub-junctions. These structures can be used as nonlinear low-noise shunts in rapid-single-flux-quantum (RSFQ) circuitry for controlling Josephson qubits.

  1. Original Antigenic Sin Response to RNA Viruses and Antiviral Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mee Sook; Kim, Jin Il; Park, Sehee; Lee, Ilseob

    2016-01-01

    The human immune system has evolved to fight against foreign pathogens. It plays a central role in the body's defense mechanism. However, the immune memory geared to fight off a previously recognized pathogen, tends to remember an original form of the pathogen when a variant form subsequently invades. This has been termed 'original antigenic sin'. This adverse immunological effect can alter vaccine effectiveness and sometimes cause enhanced pathogenicity or additional inflammatory responses, according to the type of pathogen and the circumstances of infection. Here we aim to give a simplified conceptual understanding of virus infection and original antigenic sin by comparing and contrasting the two examples of recurring infections such as influenza and dengue viruses in humans. PMID:27799871

  2. A New Analytic Alignment Method for a SINS.

    PubMed

    Tan, Caiming; Zhu, Xinhua; Su, Yan; Wang, Yu; Wu, Zhiqiang; Gu, Dongbing

    2015-11-04

    Analytic alignment is a type of self-alignment for a Strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) that is based solely on two non-collinear vectors, which are the gravity and rotational velocity vectors of the Earth at a stationary base on the ground. The attitude of the SINS with respect to the Earth can be obtained directly using the TRIAD algorithm given two vector measurements. For a traditional analytic coarse alignment, all six outputs from the inertial measurement unit (IMU) are used to compute the attitude. In this study, a novel analytic alignment method called selective alignment is presented. This method uses only three outputs of the IMU and a few properties from the remaining outputs such as the sign and the approximate value to calculate the attitude. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate the validity of this method, and the precision of yaw is improved using the selective alignment method compared to the traditional analytic coarse alignment method in the vehicle experiment. The selective alignment principle provides an accurate relationship between the outputs and the attitude of the SINS relative to the Earth for a stationary base, and it is an extension of the TRIAD algorithm. The selective alignment approach has potential uses in applications such as self-alignment, fault detection, and self-calibration.

  3. A New Analytic Alignment Method for a SINS

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Caiming; Zhu, Xinhua; Su, Yan; Wang, Yu; Wu, Zhiqiang; Gu, Dongbing

    2015-01-01

    Analytic alignment is a type of self-alignment for a Strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) that is based solely on two non-collinear vectors, which are the gravity and rotational velocity vectors of the Earth at a stationary base on the ground. The attitude of the SINS with respect to the Earth can be obtained directly using the TRIAD algorithm given two vector measurements. For a traditional analytic coarse alignment, all six outputs from the inertial measurement unit (IMU) are used to compute the attitude. In this study, a novel analytic alignment method called selective alignment is presented. This method uses only three outputs of the IMU and a few properties from the remaining outputs such as the sign and the approximate value to calculate the attitude. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate the validity of this method, and the precision of yaw is improved using the selective alignment method compared to the traditional analytic coarse alignment method in the vehicle experiment. The selective alignment principle provides an accurate relationship between the outputs and the attitude of the SINS relative to the Earth for a stationary base, and it is an extension of the TRIAD algorithm. The selective alignment approach has potential uses in applications such as self-alignment, fault detection, and self-calibration. PMID:26556353

  4. Sin and bioethics: why a liturgical anthropology is foundational.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, H Tristram

    2005-08-01

    The project of articulating a coherent, canonical, content-full, secular morality-cum-bioethics fails, because it does not acknowledge sin, which is to say, it does not acknowledge the centrality of holiness, which is essential to a non-distorted understanding of human existence and of morality. Secular morality cannot establish a particular moral content, the harmony of the good and the right, or the necessary precedence of morality over prudence, because such is possible only in terms of an ultimate point of reference: God. The necessity of a rightly ordered appreciation of God places centrally the focus on holiness and the avoidance of sin. Because the cardinal relationship of creatures to their Creator is worship, and because the cardinal corporate act of human worship is the Liturgy, morality in general and bioethics in particular can be understood in terms of the conditions necessary, so as worthily to enter into Eucharistic liturgical participation. Morality can be summed up in terms of the requirements of ritual purity. A liturgical anthropology is foundational to an account of the content-full morality and bioethics that should bind humans, since humans are first and foremost creatures obliged to join in rightly ordered worship of their Creator. When humans worship correctly, when they avoid sin and pursue holiness, they participate in restoring created reality.

  5. Prospective cohort study of febrile neutropenia in breast cancer patients with neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy: CSPOR-BC FN study.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Takashi; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Narui, Kazutaka; Kaise, Hiroshi; Tsugawa, Koichiro; Ichikawa, Yasushi; Mukai, Hirofumi

    2016-07-01

    With the increasing use of adjuvant chemotherapy for treating early breast cancer, febrile neutropenia management has become crucial. Guidelines for febrile neutropenia management are mostly based on a Caucasian population survey although ethnic differences are reported in terms of adverse events. We survey the current status of febrile neutropenia and risk factors in Japanese female breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy regimens potential for febrile neutropenia. Subsequently, we plan to conduct a multicenter prospective cohort study involving 1000 patients with operable breast cancer. With the current state of oral antibiotics being routinely prescribed without hematology tests, we survey febrile neutropenia based on two different definitions, namely, true febrile neutropenia: ≥37.5°C and Grade 4 neutropenia, and surrogate febrile neutropenia: ≥37.5°C and oral antibiotic and antipyretic intake. The comparison of true febrile neutropenia and surrogate febrile neutropenia incidences is anticipated to provide information on the safety and feasibility of chemotherapy management without performing blood tests.

  6. Comparison of piperacillin tazobactam and cefoperazone sulbactam monotherapy in treatment of febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Serap; Vural, Sema; Yildirmak, Yildiz; Emecen, Merve; Erdem, Ela; Kebudi, Rejin

    2012-04-01

    Monotherapy has tended to replace the combination therapy in emprical treatment of febrile neutropenia. There is no reported trial which compares the efficacy of cefoperazone-sulbactam (CS) and piperacillin-tazobactam (PIP/TAZO) monotherapies in the treatment of febrile neutropenia. In this prospective randomized study, we aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of CS versus PIP/TAZO as empirical monotherapies in febrile neutropenic children with cancer. The study included febrile, neutropenic children hospitalized at our center for cancer. They were randomly selected to receive CS 100 mg/kg/day or PIP/TAZO 360 mg/kg/day. Duration of fever and neutropenia, absolute neutrophil count, modification, and success rate were compared between the two groups. Resolution of fever without antibiotic change was defined as success and resolution of fever with antibiotic change or death of a patient was defined as failure. Modification was defined as changing the empirical antimicrobial agent during a febrile episode. One hundred and two febrile neutropenic episodes were documented in 55 patients with a median age of 4 years. In 50 episodes CS and in 52 episodes PIP/TAZO was used. Duration of fever and neutropenia, neutrophil count, age, sex, and primary disease were not different between two groups. Success rates in the CS and PIP/TAZO groups were respectively 56 and 62% (P > 0.05). Modification rate between two groups showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). No serious adverse effect occurred in either of the groups. CS and PIP/TAZO monotherapy are both safe and effective in the initial treatment of febrile neutropenia in children with cancer. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Meropenem versus piperacillin-tazobactam as empiric therapy for febrile neutropenia in pediatric oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Sezgin, Gulay; Acipayam, Can; Ozkan, Ayse; Bayram, Ibrahim; Tanyeli, Atila

    2014-01-01

    Infection is a serious cause of mortality in febrile neutropenia of pediatric cancer patients. Recently, monotherapy has replaced the combination therapy in empirical treatment of febrile neutropenia. Since there has been no reported trial comparing the efficacy of meropenem and piperacillin-tazobactam (PIP/ TAZ) monotherapies, the present retrospective study was conducted to compare safety and efficacy in febrile neutropenic children with cancer. Charts of febrile, neutropenic children hospitalized at our center between March 2008 and April 2011 for hemato-oncological malignancies were reviewed. Patients received PIP/TAZ 360 mg/kg/day or meropenem 60 mg/kg/day intravenously in three divided doses. Duration of fever and neutropenia, absolute neutrophil count, modification, and success rate were compared between the two groups. Resolution of fever without antibiotic change was defined as success and resolution of fever with antibiotic change or death of a patient was defined as failure. Modification was defined as changing the empirical antimicrobial agent during a febrile episode. Two hundred eighty four febrile neutropenic episodes were documented in 136 patients with a median age of 5 years. In 198 episodes meropenem and in 86 episodes PIP/ TAZ were used. Duration of fever and neutropenia, neutrophil count, sex, and primary disease were not different between two groups. Success rates and modification rate between two groups showed no significant differences (p>0.05). Overall success rate in the meropenem and PIP/TAZ groups were 92.4% and 91.9% respectively. No serious adverse effects occurred in either of the groups. Meropenem and PIP/TAZ monotherapy are equally safe and effective in the initial treatment of febrile neutropenia in children with cancer.

  8. Augmented Renal Clearance in Pediatric Patients With Febrile Neutropenia Associated With Vancomycin Clearance.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Keita; Ihara, Setsuko; Kinae, Ayumi; Ikegaya, Kenichi; Suzuki, Masayuki; Hirano, Keiko; Itoh, Kunihiko

    2016-06-01

    Vancomycin (VCM) dosage optimization in the early stages of therapy is required to achieve target trough serum concentrations, particularly in critically ill patients. Augmented renal clearance (ARC), commonly characterized by an enhanced renal clearance, has been associated with subtherapeutic concentrations of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors including febrile neutropenia for both ARC and VCM clearance in Japanese pediatric patients. A total of 109 pediatric patients with normal renal function were included in this observational study. From VCM serum concentrations, individual VCM clearance was estimated by the Bayesian method using a 1-compartment model. Patients were classified on the basis of the presence of febrile neutropenia, cancer, trauma, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and surgical operation. Risk factors for ARC, as defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) above median value (≥160 mL·min·1.73 m), were evaluated. Febrile neutropenia was only an independent risk factor for ARC (odds ratio, 5.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.98-21.66, P = 0.0030), which was the result of a stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis. Although univariate analysis demonstrated a significant association of febrile neutropenia with VCM clearance, the significant independent factors of VCM clearance were age and eGFR but not febrile neutropenia, as estimated by the stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis. This observational study concluded that febrile neutropenia, a significant risk factor for ARC, indirectly influenced VCM clearance towing to an elevated eGFR. Cancer, trauma, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and surgical operation were not significantly associated with ARC; however, more studies are needed to validate this observation. Adjustment of the initial dosage of VCM is required for achieving optimal therapeutic concentrations in pediatric patients with febrile neutropenia.

  9. Assessing the prevalence distribution of abnormal laboratory tests in patients with simple febrile seizure.

    PubMed

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Dorreh, Fatemeh; Abbasian, Ladan; Pakniyat, Abdol Ghader

    2015-01-01

    Febrile seizure is an important issue in pediatric practice. Even some pediatricians do not have a proper approach to febrile seizure, making the sick child undergo complex laboratory tests or invasive procedures or even long-term treatment with anticonvulsant drugs. In spite of multiple studies, many controversies have still remained about the significance of febrile seizure. The goal of this study is to assess the prevalence distribution of routinely requested laboratory tests results in simple febrile seizure. In a descriptive study, 549 patients with simple febrile seizure were studied. The routine lab tests including complete blood count, electrolyte, urine analysis, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis had already been performed for all patients and the results had been recorded in their medical data. These results were collected and statistically analyzed through SPSS software. About 58.7% of our cases were male. Most of the cases were 12-24 months old and the mean body temperature of them was 38.2°C. 99.3% of blood sugar tests, 98% of blood calcium tests, 100% and 99.5% of sodium, and potassium tests, respectively, 100% of blood creatinine, 96.9% of blood urea nitrogen, and 99.1% of urine analysis tests were normal. CSF analysis was done in only 49 cases and the results were normal in all of them. The percentage of abnormal laboratory test results was not statistically significant in febrile seizure and shows that performing all these tests in all patients with simple febrile seizure as routine is not necessary.

  10. Iron-deficiency Anemia in Children with Febrile Seizure: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    GHASEMI, Fateme; VALIZADEH, Fateme; TAEE, Nadere

    2014-01-01

    Objective Considering the recurrence of febrile seizure and costs for families, many studies have attempted to identify its risk factors. Some recent studies have reported that anemia is more common in children with febrile convulsion, whereas others have reported that iron deficiency raises the seizure threshold. This study was done to compare iron-deficiency anemia in children with first FS with children having febrile illness alone and with healthy children. Materials & Methods This case-control study evaluated 300 children in three groups (first FS, febrile without convulsion, and healthy) in Khoramabad Madani Hospital from September 2009 to September 2010. Body temperature on admission was measured using the tympanic method. CBC diff, MCV, MCH, MCHC, serum iron, plasma ferritin and TIBC tests were performed for all participants. Data were analyzed by frequency, mean, standard deviation, ANOVA, and chi-square statistical tests. Odds ratios were estimated by logistic regression at a confidence level of 95%. Results Forty percent of the cases with FS had iron-deficiency anemia, compared to 26% of children with febrile illness without seizure and 12% of healthy children. The Odds ratio for iron-deficiency anemia in the patients with FS was 1.89 (95% CI, 1.04-5.17) compared to the febrile children without convulsion and 2.21 (95% CI, 1.54-3.46) compared to the healthy group. Conclusion Children with FS are more likely to be iron-deficient than those with febrile illness alone and healthy children. Thus, iron-deficiency anemia could be a risk factor for FS. PMID:24949050

  11. Febrile urinary tract infections: clinical and laboratory diagnosis, imaging, and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Edefonti, Alberto; Tel, Francesca; Testa, Sara; De Palma, Diego

    2014-03-01

    According to the literature, febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common severe bacterial infections occurring in childhood, with potential serious long-term consequences. In recent years, there have been significant developments in our understanding of the pathophysiology and clinical and laboratory issues of febrile UTIs. Studies are focusing on the role of predisposing host factors related to genes regulating immune response, inflammation and fibrosis in the development of acute renal damage and subsequent processes leading to renal scars. All the available guidelines underline the importance of a correct diagnosis of febrile UTI to allow a more rational use of antibiotics and imaging. As a consequence, a shift from aggressive imaging studies to a more restrictive and targeted approach has been recently observed. Regarding the prognosis of febrile UTI, the introduction of prenatal ultrasound studies revealed that a great portion of the alterations at imaging (and thus of the clinical complications), previously attributed to postinfection scarring, were because of congenital kidney and urinary tract abnormalities. Although the long-term consequences of febrile UTIs are difficult to ascertain, it seems that children with febrile UTI, normal renal function and normal kidneys at start present a very low risk of developing decreased renal function or hypertension during follow-up. However, high body temperature and high procalcitonin levels during the acute phase of disease, which are indicative of severe inflammation, and the finding of renal scarring on imaging with DMSA scintigraphy 6 months after febrile UTI, together with the detection of congenital kidney and urinary tract abnormalities, indicate "kidney at risk" in UTI.

  12. Epilepsy, hippocampal sclerosis and febrile seizures linked by common genetic variation around SCN1A

    PubMed Central

    Kasperavičiūtė, Dalia; Catarino, Claudia B.; Matarin, Mar; Leu, Costin; Novy, Jan; Tostevin, Anna; Leal, Bárbara; Hessel, Ellen V. S.; Hallmann, Kerstin; Hildebrand, Michael S.; Dahl, Hans-Henrik M.; Ryten, Mina; Trabzuni, Daniah; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Alhusaini, Saud; Doherty, Colin P.; Dorn, Thomas; Hansen, Jörg; Krämer, Günter; Steinhoff, Bernhard J.; Zumsteg, Dominik; Duncan, Susan; Kälviäinen, Reetta K.; Eriksson, Kai J.; Kantanen, Anne-Mari; Pandolfo, Massimo; Gruber-Sedlmayr, Ursula; Schlachter, Kurt; Reinthaler, Eva M.; Stogmann, Elisabeth; Zimprich, Fritz; Théâtre, Emilie; Smith, Colin; O’Brien, Terence J.; Meng Tan, K.; Petrovski, Slave; Robbiano, Angela; Paravidino, Roberta; Zara, Federico; Striano, Pasquale; Sperling, Michael R.; Buono, Russell J.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chaves, João; Costa, Paulo P.; Silva, Berta M.; da Silva, António M.; de Graan, Pierre N. E.; Koeleman, Bobby P. C.; Becker, Albert; Schoch, Susanne; von Lehe, Marec; Reif, Philipp S.; Rosenow, Felix; Becker, Felicitas; Weber, Yvonne; Lerche, Holger; Rössler, Karl; Buchfelder, Michael; Hamer, Hajo M.; Kobow, Katja; Coras, Roland; Blumcke, Ingmar; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Weale, Michael E.; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Kunz, Wolfram S.

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy comprises several syndromes, amongst the most common being mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis. Seizures in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis are typically drug-resistant, and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis is frequently associated with important co-morbidities, mandating the search for better understanding and treatment. The cause of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis is unknown, but there is an association with childhood febrile seizures. Several rarer epilepsies featuring febrile seizures are caused by mutations in SCN1A, which encodes a brain-expressed sodium channel subunit targeted by many anti-epileptic drugs. We undertook a genome-wide association study in 1018 people with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis and 7552 control subjects, with validation in an independent sample set comprising 959 people with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis and 3591 control subjects. To dissect out variants related to a history of febrile seizures, we tested cases with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis with (overall n = 757) and without (overall n = 803) a history of febrile seizures. Meta-analysis revealed a genome-wide significant association for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis with febrile seizures at the sodium channel gene cluster on chromosome 2q24.3 [rs7587026, within an intron of the SCN1A gene, P = 3.36 × 10−9, odds ratio (A) = 1.42, 95% confidence interval: 1.26–1.59]. In a cohort of 172 individuals with febrile seizures, who did not develop epilepsy during prospective follow-up to age 13 years, and 6456 controls, no association was found for rs7587026 and febrile seizures. These findings suggest SCN1A involvement in a common epilepsy syndrome, give new direction to biological understanding of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis with febrile seizures

  13. SIN-1 cytotoxicity to PC12 cells is mediated by thiol-sensitive short-lived substances generated through SIN-1 decomposition in culture medium.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Kanako; Watanabe, Nobuo; Arai, Takao

    2009-06-01

    As a generator of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) is widely used in the study of oxidative/nitrosative stress in cultured cells, although controversy exists regarding active species responsible for cytotoxicity. In this study, we report that unstable thiol-sensitive substances, generated from the reaction of SIN-1 with components in culture medium, play a crucial role in SIN-1 cytotoxicity in PC12 cells. Exposure of cells to culture medium obtained after almost complete SIN-1 decomposition at 37 degrees C for 2h demonstrated almost the same degree of cytotoxicity as did fresh SIN-1. The cytotoxicity of SIN-1-decomposed medium largely depended on serum, decayed with time, and could be completely abolished by the addition of thiols. Degradation of synthetic ONOO(-) in the culture medium did not reproduce the unstable cytotoxicity. The presence of superoxide dismutase (SOD) during SIN-1 decomposition prevented the formation of the cytotoxic substances, whereas SOD had no protection against the cytotoxicity itself, suggesting a crucial role of simultaneously generated superoxide and nitric oxide in the formation of the toxicants, but not in their cytotoxic action. The cytotoxicity of fresh SIN-1 is dramatically suppressed in a basal medium (Hanks balanced salt), suggesting that the cytotoxicity of fresh SIN-1 also requires components of culture medium. These results suggest that SIN-1 cytotoxicity in PC12 cells is mediated via the generation of cytotoxic substances in the medium during its decomposition.

  14. Microbial translocation contribute to febrile episodes in adults with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Wong, Michelle; Barqasho, Babilonia; Ohrmalm, Lars; Tolfvenstam, Thomas; Nowak, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    In this study we sought to determine the contribution of microbial translocation to febrile episodes with no attributable microbiological cause (Fever of Unknown Origin, FUO) in an adult febrile neutropaenic cohort. Endotoxin concentrations were measured with the chromogenic Limulus Amoebocyte Assay and used as a direct measure of bacterial products whilst soluble CD14 (sCD14), measured with ELISA was selected as an indicator of the early host response to endotoxins. Endotoxin concentrations in this cohort were generally elevated but did not differ with the presentation of fever. Further stratification of the febrile episodes based on the microbiological findings revealed significantly (p = 0.0077) elevated endotoxin concentrations in FUO episodes compared with episodes with documented bacterial and viral findings. sCD14 concentrations were however, elevated in febrile episodes (p = 0.0066) and no association was observed between sCD14 concentration and microbiological findings. However, FUO episodes and episodes with Gram-negative bacteraemia were associated with higher median sCD14 concentrations than episodes with Gram-positive bacteraemia (p = 0.030). In conclusion, our findings suggest that in the absence of microbiological findings, microbial translocation could contribute to febrile episodes in an adult neutropaenic cohort. We further observed an association between prophylactic antibiotic use and increased plasma endotoxin concentrations (p = 0.0212).

  15. Increased interleukin-10 levels correlate with bacteremia and sepsis in febrile neutropenia pediatric oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Urbonas, Vincas; Eidukaitė, Audronė; Tamulienė, Indrė

    2012-03-01

    Early diagnosis of bacteremia and sepsis in pediatric oncology patients with febrile neutropenia still remains unresolved task due to lack of sensitive and specific laboratory markers particularly at the beginning of the infectious process. The objective of our study was to assess the potentiality of interleukin-10 (IL-10) to predict or exclude bacteremia or sepsis at the beginning of febrile episode in childhood oncology patients. A total of 36 febrile neutropenic episodes in 24 children were studied. Serum samples were collected after confirmation of febrile neutropenia and analyzed using automated random access analyzer. The sensitivity of IL-10 was 73% and specificity - 92% (cut-off=18pg/ml, area under the curve - 0.87, 95% CI for sensitivity 39-94%, 95% CI for specificity 74-99%) with negative predictive value (NPV) - 83%. IL-10 evaluation might be used as an additional diagnostic tool for clinicians in excluding bacteremia or clinical sepsis in oncology patients with febrile neutropenia because of high NPV and specificity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical factors predicting bacteremia in low-risk febrile neutropenia after anti-cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ha, Young Eun; Song, Jae-Hoon; Kang, Won Ki; Peck, Kyong Ran; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Kang, Cheol-In; Joung, Mi-Kyong; Joo, Eun-Jeong; Shon, Kyung Mok

    2011-11-01

    Bacteremia is an important clinical condition in febrile neutropenia that can cause clinical failure of antimicrobial therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical factors predictive of bacteremia in low-risk febrile neutropenia at initial patient evaluation. We performed a retrospective cohort study in a university hospital in Seoul, Korea, between May 1995 and May 2007. Patients who met the criteria of low-risk febrile neutropenia at the time of visit to emergency department after anti-cancer chemotherapy were included in the analysis. During the study period, 102 episodes of bacteremia were documented among the 993 episodes of low-risk febrile neutropenia. Single gram-negative bacteremia was most frequent. In multivariate regression analysis, initial body temperature ≥39°C, initial hypotension, presence of clinical sites of infection, presence of central venous catheter, initial absolute neutrophil count <50/mm(3), and the CRP ≥10 mg/dL were statistically significant predictors for bacteremia. A scoring system using these variables was derived and the likelihood of bacteremia was well correlated with the score points with AUC under ROC curve of 0.785. Patients with low score points had low rate of bacteremia, thus, would be candidates for outpatient-based or oral antibiotic therapy. We identified major clinical factors that can predict bacteremia in low-risk febrile neutropenia.

  17. IL-8 predicts pediatric oncology patients with febrile neutropenia at low risk for bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Cost, Carrye R; Stegner, Martha M; Leonard, David; Leavey, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    Despite a low bacteremia rate, pediatric oncology patients are frequently admitted for febrile neutropenia. A pediatric risk prediction model with high sensitivity to identify patients at low risk for bacteremia is not available. We performed a single-institution prospective cohort study of pediatric oncology patients with febrile neutropenia to create a risk prediction model using clinical factors, respiratory viral infection, and cytokine expression. Pediatric oncology patients with febrile neutropenia were enrolled between March 30, 2010 and April 1, 2011 and managed per institutional protocol. Blood samples for C-reactive protein and cytokine expression and nasopharyngeal swabs for respiratory viral testing were obtained. Medical records were reviewed for clinical data. Statistical analysis utilized mixed multiple logistic regression modeling. During the 12-month period, 195 febrile neutropenia episodes were enrolled. There were 24 (12%) episodes of bacteremia. Univariate analysis revealed several factors predictive for bacteremia, and interleukin (IL)-8 was the most predictive variable in the multivariate stepwise logistic regression. Low serum IL-8 predicted patients at low risk for bacteremia with a sensitivity of 0.9 and negative predictive value of 0.98. IL-8 is a highly sensitive predictor for patients at low risk for bacteremia. IL-8 should be utilized in a multi-institution prospective trial to assign risk stratification to pediatric patients admitted with febrile neutropenia.

  18. Management of febrile neutropenia in pediatric oncology patients: a Canadian survey.

    PubMed

    Boragina, Mariana; Patel, Hema; Reiter, Stephanie; Dougherty, Geoffrey

    2007-05-01

    Traditionally, febrile neutropenia in pediatric oncology patients has been managed aggressively with hospital admission and intravenous antibiotics. Recent studies suggest that less intensive interventions are effective for selected children. Study of Canadian practice patterns may help better understand the current context of care for these patients. We carried out a cross-sectional mailed survey of the 17 tertiary pediatric centers in Canada. A 36-item questionnaire gathered information on oncology department characteristics, the existence of protocols for management of febrile neutropenia, use of outpatient therapy or early discharge, criteria used to identify patients at low risk, and opinions of oncologists. A total of 16 (94%) completed questionnaires were returned, reflecting a treatment population of approximately 2,100 children with febrile neutropenia/year. Three out of seventeen centers carry out exclusively traditional management. The remaining 14 offer modified treatment for low risk children. The majority (n = 10) carry out an early discharge approach. Two thirds of the episodes of febrile neutropenia are treated this way with good results. The rest (n = 4) implement complete outpatient management. Approximately 120 patients benefit from this annually, with a reportedly high success rate. Most specialists agreed on the benefits of decreased hospitalization for children with cancer. However, about half considered the level of evidence is not sufficient to fully implement complete outpatient management. Variations in the treatment of pediatric febrile neutropenia have been extensively implemented across Canada. However more evidence, ideally in the form of multicenter clinical trials, appears to be needed to further safely modify practice.

  19. Exposure to prenatal stress has deleterious effects on hippocampal function in a febrile seizure rat model.

    PubMed

    Qulu, Lihle; Daniels, W M U; Mabandla, Musa V

    2015-10-22

    Prenatal stress has been shown to result in the development of a number of neurological disorders in the offspring. Most of these disorders are a result of an altered HPA axis resulting in higher than normal glucocorticoid levels in the affected neonate. This leaves the offspring prone to immune challenges. Therefore the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of prenatal stress and febrile seizures on behavior and hippocampal function. Pregnant dams were exposed to restraint stress during the third trimester. Following birth, febrile seizures were induced in two week old pups using lipopolysaccharide and kainic acid. A week later, anxiety-like behavior and navigational ability was assessed. Trunk blood was used to measure basal corticosterone concentration and hippocampal tissue was collected and analyzed. Our results show that exposure to prenatal stress increased basal corticosterone concentration. Exposure to prenatal stress exacerbated anxiety-like behavior and impaired the rat's navigational ability. Exposure to prenatal stress resulted in reduced hippocampal mass that was exacerbated by febrile seizures. However, exposure to febrile seizures did not affect hippocampal mass in the absence of prenatal stress. This suggests that febrile seizures are exacerbated by exposure to early life stressors and this may lead to the development of neurological symptoms associated with a malfunctioning hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Febrile seizures: an appropriate-aged model suitable for long-term studies

    PubMed Central

    Baram, Tallie Z.; Gerth, Angelika; Schultz, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Seizures induced by fever are the most prevalent age-specific seizures in infants and young children. Whether they result in long-term sequelae such as neuronal loss and temporal lobe epilepsy is controversial. Prospective studies of human febrile seizures have found no adverse effects on the developing brain. However, adults with temporal lobe epilepsy and associated limbic cell loss frequently have a history of prolonged febrile seizures in early life. These critical issues may be resolved using appropriate animal models. Published models of hyperthermic seizures have used ‘adolescent’ and older rats, have yielded a low percentage of animals with actual seizures, or have suffered from a high mortality, rendering them unsuitable for long-term studies. This article describes the establishment of a model of febrile seizures using the infant rat. Hyperthermia was induced by a regulated stream of mildly heated air, and the seizures were determined by both behavioral and electroencephalographic (EEG) criteria. Stereotyped seizures were generated in 93.6% of 10–11-day-old rats. EEG correlates of these; seizures were not evident in cortical recordings, but were clearly present in depth recordings from the amygdala and hippocampus. Prolonged febrile seizures could be induced without bums, yielding a low mortality (11%) and long-term survival. In summary, an infant rat paradigm of EEG-confirmed, hyperthermia-induced seizures which is suitable for long-term studies is described. This model should be highly valuable for studying the mechanisms and sequelae of febrile seizures. PMID:9051269

  1. Variations in inflammation-related genes may be associated with childhood febrile seizure susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Emsley, Hedley C A; Appleton, Richard E; Whitmore, Catherine L; Jury, Francine; Lamb, Janine A; Martin, Joanne E; Ollier, William E R; de la Morandière, Katherine Potier; Southern, Kevin W; Allan, Stuart M

    2014-06-01

    To investigate whether genetic variants in inflammation-related genes are associated with increased risk of childhood-onset febrile seizures. Tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 19 inflammation-related candidate genes were identified and genotyped on the Sequenom platform in a sample of Caucasian childhood-onset febrile seizures cases (n=98) compared to ethnicity, age and gender matched febrile controls presenting without seizures (n=123). Tests for allelic association were carried out using PLINK. SNPs generating empirical P-values (P<0.05) were analysed in an expanded Caucasian control sample (n=2692) from the 1958 Birth Cohort. Six SNPs generated empirical pointwise significance values P<0.05 in the febrile seizures case-control analysis in the P2X7R (purinergic receptor P2X7), TLR4 (toll-like receptor 4), IL6R (interleukin 6 receptor) and PTGER3 (prostaglandin E receptor 3, subtype EP3) genes. The most significant result was for missense SNP rs208294 in P2X7R (P=0.009); this novel association was supported in the expanded case-control analysis using the 1958 Birth Cohort (pointwise P=0.009, OR=0.63, familywise P=0.039). Genetic variants in inflammation-related genes, specifically purinergic receptor P2X7, may be involved in susceptibility to childhood-onset febrile seizures. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pegfilgrastim for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in patients with solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Lambertini, Matteo; Ferreira, Arlindo R; Del Mastro, Lucia; Danesi, Romano; Pronzato, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Neutropenia and febrile neutropenia are the most common and most severe bone marrow toxicities of chemotherapy. Recombinant granulocyte-colony stimulating factors (G-CSFs), both daily (filgrastim and biosimilars, and lenograstim) and long-acting (pegfilgrastim and lipegfilgrastim) formulations, are currently available to counteract the negative consequences of these side effects. The purpose of this article is to review the physiopathology of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia and its consequences, and the current evidence regarding the pharmacological properties, clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of pegfilgrastim as a strategy to prevent chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in patients with solid tumors. Chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia and its complications are still a major health-care concern, and the inappropriate employment of G-CSFs in clinical practice can partially explain its burden. Pegfilgrastim has pharmacological advantages over daily G-CSFs that makes it easily administrable, thus reducing the chance of incorrect delivery. The once-per-cycle administration might explain the findings derived from observational studies suggesting a possible superior efficacy of pegfilgrastim over daily G-CSFs. For patients at higher risk of failure with daily G-CSF prophylaxis (e.g. risk of non-compliance, difficulties on performing regular hemograms, high risk of developing febrile neutropenia), pegfilgrastim might be the most appropriate option.

  3. Microbial Translocation Contribute to Febrile Episodes in Adults with Chemotherapy-Induced Neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Michelle; Barqasho, Babilonia; Öhrmalm, Lars; Tolfvenstam, Thomas; Nowak, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    In this study we sought to determine the contribution of microbial translocation to febrile episodes with no attributable microbiological cause (Fever of Unknown Origin, FUO) in an adult febrile neutropaenic cohort. Endotoxin concentrations were measured with the chromogenic Limulus Amoebocyte Assay and used as a direct measure of bacterial products whilst soluble CD14 (sCD14), measured with ELISA was selected as an indicator of the early host response to endotoxins. Endotoxin concentrations in this cohort were generally elevated but did not differ with the presentation of fever. Further stratification of the febrile episodes based on the microbiological findings revealed significantly (p = 0.0077) elevated endotoxin concentrations in FUO episodes compared with episodes with documented bacterial and viral findings. sCD14 concentrations were however, elevated in febrile episodes (p = 0.0066) and no association was observed between sCD14 concentration and microbiological findings. However, FUO episodes and episodes with Gram-negative bacteraemia were associated with higher median sCD14 concentrations than episodes with Gram-positive bacteraemia (p = 0.030). In conclusion, our findings suggest that in the absence of microbiological findings, microbial translocation could contribute to febrile episodes in an adult neutropaenic cohort. We further observed an association between prophylactic antibiotic use and increased plasma endotoxin concentrations (p = 0.0212). PMID:23874493

  4. Febrile illnesses of different etiology among outpatients in four health centers in Northwestern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Animut, Abebe; Mekonnen, Yalemtsehay; Shimelis, Damte; Ephraim, Eden

    2009-03-01

    Fever of different etiology is common in tropical and subtropical countries of the world. Etiological agents of febrile illnesses were assessed in 653 acute febrile patients aged 3 to 17 years who attended the outpatient departments of Dembecha Health Center, Jiga Health Center, Quarit Health Center, and Finoteselam Hospital in western Gojjam zone, northwestern Ethiopia. Malaria was the most prevalent illness, infecting 62% of all cases. Its prevalence varied significantly from 52% (Dembecha) to 72.7% (Quarit) (chi(2)=15.02, P=0.000). Plasmodium falciparum was the first cause of malaria (47.3%) followed by P. vivax (23%). Mixed infection of both P. falciparum and P. vivax was found in 7.2% of the cases. The other febrile infections were pneumonia (7%), typhoid (5.8%), typhus (5.1%), and brucellosis (2.6%). The availability of diagnostic facilities and the awareness of the community regarding the prevalence of non-malaria febrile illnesses are very low, and these illnesses are diagnosed clinically. As these illnesses are nonspecific, especially during the early stages of onset, misdiagnosis and mistreatment can occur. Therefore, it is recommended that the necessary diagnostic materials and awareness should be in place for prompt treatment of febrile cases in these districts.

  5. LH750 hematology analyzers to identify malaria and dengue and distinguish them from other febrile illnesses.

    PubMed

    Sharma, P; Bhargava, M; Sukhachev, D; Datta, S; Wattal, C

    2014-02-01

    Tropical febrile illnesses such as malaria and dengue are challenging to differentiate clinically. Automated cellular indices from hematology analyzers may afford a preliminary rapid distinction. Blood count and VCS parameters from 114 malaria patients, 105 dengue patients, and 105 febrile controls without dengue or malaria were analyzed. Statistical discriminant functions were generated, and their diagnostic performances were assessed by ROC curve analysis. Three statistical functions were generated: (i) malaria-vs.-controls factor incorporating platelet count and standard deviations of lymphocyte volume and conductivity that identified malaria with 90.4% sensitivity, 88.6% specificity; (ii) dengue-vs.-controls factor incorporating platelet count, lymphocyte percentage and standard deviation of lymphocyte conductivity that identified dengue with 81.0% sensitivity and 77.1% specificity; and (iii) febrile-controls-vs.-malaria/dengue factor incorporating mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, neutrophil percentage, mean lymphocyte and monocyte volumes, and standard deviation of monocyte volume that distinguished malaria and dengue from other febrile illnesses with 85.1% sensitivity and 91.4% specificity. Leukocyte abnormalities quantitated by automated analyzers successfully identified malaria and dengue and distinguished them from other fevers. These economic discriminant functions can be rapidly calculated by analyzer software programs to generate electronic flags to trigger-specific testing. They could potentially transform diagnostic approaches to tropical febrile illnesses in cost-constrained settings. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Soluble CD14 as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarker in Hematological Patients with Febrile Neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    Intke, Carina; Hämäläinen, Sari; Jantunen, Esa; Juutilainen, Auni

    2017-01-01

    Objective Elevated levels of a cell surface glycoprotein, soluble cluster of differentiation 14 (sCD14), have been observed in patients with sepsis. Only scarce data are available on sCD14 in hematological patients with chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia. The study aim was to investigate sCD14 as an early biomarker in febrile neutropenia after intensive chemotherapy to detect a rapidly deteriorating clinical course early enough to avoid serious infectious complications. Patients and Methods This prospective study included 87 adult hematological patients at the start of febrile neutropenia after intensive chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia or after autologous stem cell transplantation. The study endpoints were septic shock, severe sepsis, and positive blood culture findings. sCD14 was analyzed from day 0 to day 2, and its prognostic capacity was compared to that of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin. Results Plasma level of sCD14 predicted the development of septic shock on day 1 (p = 0.001) and day 2 but not the development of severe sepsis or blood culture positivity in hematological patients with chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia. Conclusions Soluble CD14 did not predict an overall complicated course at the early stages of febrile neutropenia. However, it was helpful in predicting the progression of the clinical course of neutropenic fever to septic shock. PMID:28845081

  7. Estimating risk factors and causes for postpartum febrile morbidity in teenage mothers.

    PubMed

    Haeri, S; Baker, A M

    2013-02-01

    In this cohort study, our objective was to identify potentially modifiable risk factors and causes for febrile morbidity in teenage mothers. We identified all cases of febrile morbidity using the United States Joint Commission on Maternal Welfare definition in a cohort of teenage deliveries over a 4-year period at one institution. Of the 730 included teenage deliveries, 49 (7%) women suffered postpartum febrile morbidity. Higher maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI: 34.0 ± 8.6 vs 30.3 ± 6.0 kg/m(2), p = 0.0001), caesarean delivery (RR 21.3, 95% CU 8.9-54.9) and postpartum haemorrhage (RR 3.0, 95% CI 1.1-6.7) were associated with postpartum febrile morbidity. Risk factors for febrile morbidity in the teenage parturient include obesity, caesarean delivery and postpartum haemorrhage. Considering the increasing rates of teenage obesity and overall caesarean delivery rates, attention must be focused on these modifiable risk factors to avoid this complication during a tenuous time for the teenage parent.

  8. Microbiology and mortality of pediatric febrile neutropenia in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sumit; Bonilla, Miguel; Gamero, Mario; Fuentes, Soad L; Caniza, Miguela; Sung, Lillian

    2011-05-01

    Febrile neutropenia (FN) and infection-related mortality are major problems for children with cancer in low-income countries. Identifying predictors for adverse outcome of FN in low-income countries permits targeted interventions. We describe the nature and predictors of microbiologically documented infection (MDI) and mortality of FN in children with cancer in El Salvador. We examined Salvadoran pediatric oncology patients admitted with FN over a 1-year period. Data were collected prospectively. Demographic, treatment, and admission-related variables were examined as predictors of outcomes. Hundred six FN episodes among 85 patients were included. Twenty-three of 106 episodes (22%) were microbiologically documented; 13 of 106 episodes (12%) resulted in death. Gram-positive and gram-negative organisms were isolated in 14 of 23 and 11 of 23 specimens; polymicrobial infections were common (11 of 23 episodes of MDI). Older age decreased the MDI risk [odds ratio (OR) per year=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-0.99; P=0.04] while increasing number of days since the last chemotherapy increased the risk (OR=1.03 per day, 95% CI, 1.01-1.04; P=0.002). Pneumonia diagnosed either clinically (OR=6.6, 95% CI, 1.8-30.0; P=0.005) or radiographically (OR=5.5, 95% CI, 1.7-18.1; P=0.005) was the only predictor of mortality. In El Salvador, polymicrobial infections were common. Pneumonia at admission identified children with FN at high risk of death; these children may benefit from targeted interventions.

  9. Single intramuscular injection of diclofenac sodium in febrile pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Yeol; Cho, Jun Hwi; Shin, Myoung Cheol; Ohk, Taek Geun; Lee, Hui Young; Park, Chan Woo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: There are few reports on the effectiveness and safety of intramuscular (IM) antipyretic injections in pediatric patients. This study reports the efficacy and adverse effects of a single IM injection of diclofenac sodium in pediatric patients. Materials and Methods: This was an observational study in which records of febrile pediatric patients presenting to the emergency department were analyzed. Subjects included pediatric patients presenting to the emergency department with a temperature of 38°C or higher. Infants under 12 months of age were excluded. Patients were excluded if they received antipyretics within 4 h prior to presenting to the emergency department. Body temperature was measured at 30–60 min intervals following diclofenac sodium injections. Fever alleviation was defined as the temperature decline to 1°C below the temperature at presentation. Patients who received diclofenac sodium twice or more on different days were observed for side effects such as allergic reaction. Records from the emergency department and outpatient clinics were analyzed. Results: The dose of diclofenac sodium injected was approximately 2 mg/kg. The average time elapsed until antipyresis was 69.1 ± 23.8 min. The average temperature reduction after 1 h was 1.1 ± 0.6°C. The average proportion of temperature change after 1 h was 40.6 ± 22.2%. During the period at the emergency department, there were no reported serious side effects. Conclusions: A single dose of diclofenac sodium provided effective antipyresis in pediatric patients. Serious side effects were not observed. PMID:26069364

  10. Virtues of SIN: can intensified public efforts help disadvantaged immigrants?

    PubMed

    Åslund, Olof; Johansson, Per

    2011-08-01

    The labor market integration of immigrants is a top political priority throughout the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Social and fiscal gains, as well as sustained future labor supply make governments search for effective policies to increase employment among the mostly disadvantaged. The author studies SIN, a Swedish pilot workplace introduction program targeting these groups, using very detailed individual data and allowing for effects through several channels. The results show increased transitions from unemployment to work experience schemes and improved future employment probabilities for those who entered these schemes. A rough calculation suggests that each job year created cost about Euro 30,000. © The Author(s) 2011

  11. Is n sin θ conserved along the light path?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noorbala, Mahdiyar; Sepehrinia, Reza

    2016-03-01

    Snell’s law states that the quantity n{sin}θ is unchanged in refraction of light passing from one medium to another. We inquire whether this is true in the general case where the speed of light varies continuously within a medium. It turns out to be an instructive exercise in application of Snell’s law and Fermat’s principle. It also provides good pedagogical problems in calculus of variations to deal with the subtleties of a variable domain of integration and inclusion of constraints. The final result of these exercises is that, contrary to an initial expectation, the answer to the question in the title is negative.

  12. A micro-epidemiological analysis of febrile malaria in Coastal Kenya showing hotspots within hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Bejon, Philip; Williams, Thomas N; Nyundo, Christopher; Hay, Simon I; Benz, David; Gething, Peter W; Otiende, Mark; Peshu, Judy; Bashraheil, Mahfudh; Greenhouse, Bryan; Bousema, Teun; Bauni, Evasius; Marsh, Kevin; Smith, David L; Borrmann, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Malaria transmission is spatially heterogeneous. This reduces the efficacy of control strategies, but focusing control strategies on clusters or ‘hotspots’ of transmission may be highly effective. Among 1500 homesteads in coastal Kenya we calculated (a) the fraction of febrile children with positive malaria smears per homestead, and (b) the mean age of children with malaria per homestead. These two measures were inversely correlated, indicating that children in homesteads at higher transmission acquire immunity more rapidly. This inverse correlation increased gradually with increasing spatial scale of analysis, and hotspots of febrile malaria were identified at every scale. We found hotspots within hotspots, down to the level of an individual homestead. Febrile malaria hotspots were temporally unstable, but 4 km radius hotspots could be targeted for 1 month following 1 month periods of surveillance. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02130.001 PMID:24843017

  13. Infectious etiologies of acute febrile illness among patients seeking health care in south-central Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Matthew R; Blair, Patrick J; Touch, Sok; Sokhal, Buth; Yasuda, Chadwick Y; Williams, Maya; Richards, Allen L; Burgess, Timothy H; Wierzba, Thomas F; Putnam, Shannon D

    2012-02-01

    The agents of human febrile illness can vary by region and country suggesting that diagnosis, treatment, and control programs need to be based on a methodical evaluation of area-specific etiologies. From December 2006 to December 2009, 9,997 individuals presenting with acute febrile illness at nine health care clinics in south-central Cambodia were enrolled in a study to elucidate the etiologies. Upon enrollment, respiratory specimens, whole blood, and serum were collected. Testing was performed for viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens. Etiologies were identified in 38.0% of patients. Influenza was the most frequent pathogen, followed by dengue, malaria, and bacterial pathogens isolated from blood culture. In addition, 3.5% of enrolled patients were infected with more than one pathogen. Our data provide the first systematic assessment of the etiologies of acute febrile illness in south-central Cambodia. Data from syndromic-based surveillance studies can help guide public health responses in developing nations.

  14. Neurogenic pulmonary edema combined with febrile seizures in early childhood-A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Tasaka, Keiji; Matsubara, Kousaku; Hori, Masayuki; Nigami, Hiroyuki; Iwata, Aya; Isome, Kenichi; Kawasaki, Yu; Nagai, Sadayuki

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is a clinical entity that can occur following central nervous system disorders. However, NPE occurs quite rarely in early childhood, and there has only been one report about pediatric NPE associated with febrile seizures. Two cases are reported here. One case involved a 2-year-old girl who presented with febrile seizures, which rapidly progressed to severe NPE. Since the NPE occurred in the emergency department room, the patient was able to be resuscitated via immediate endotracheal intubation. The other case involved an 11-month-old boy who developed respiratory distress following a 50-min episode of febrile status epilepticus. Both patients required respiratory management in the intensive care unit. However their conditions were dramatically improved within several days and fully recovered without any sequelae.

  15. Protracted febrile myalgia in a patient with Familial Mediterranean Fever and Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Ekşioğlu, Emel; Kesikburun, Bilge; Çakçı, Aytül

    2016-06-03

    Protracted Febrile Myalgia is a rare form of vasculitis that is diagnosed in patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever. To present a case with Familial Mediterranean and Anklosing Spondylitis on anti-TNF therapy for three years, who developed protracted febrile myalgia syndrome. Case report. A 35-year-old woman with known Familial Mediterranean Fever and Anklosing Spondylitis for 3 years presented with fever, diarrhea, intermittent abdominal pain and severe diffuse muscular pain lasting for two weeks. The patient was investigated for any infection focus. The patient was diagnosed as having Protracted Febrile Myalgia four weeks after the onset of the symptoms. Prednisolone 1 mg/kg per day was applied. Her fever and muscle pain resolved within 48 hours. The coexisting Ankylosing Spondylitis disease and the use of anti-TNF treatment in patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever could be a confounding factor for the investigation of fever. Steroid therapy has a dramatic response.

  16. Risk of subsequent asthma in children with febrile seizures: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Ya; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Ku, Yi-Chia; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2014-12-01

    No study has reported a relationship between febrile seizures and asthma; thus, we examined the association between these two disorders. We identified 991 cases of children with febrile seizures as the case cohort, and the control group was matched according to age, sex, urbanization level, and their parents' occupation at a 1:4 ratio. We applied the Cox proportional hazards regression model to estimate the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for asthma among the children with febrile seizures. After 11 years of follow-up, the asthma incidence in the febrile seizure group was approximately 5% higher than that in the control group (log-rank test, P < 0.0001). The risk of asthma in the febrile seizure group was 1.41 times higher than that in the control group (95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.65; P < 0.001). Furthermore, the risk of asthma development increased (0.96 vs 3.62) in conjunction with the frequency of febrile seizure-related medical visits (one to two visits vs more than four visits; P < 0.0001). Febrile seizures may be associated with an increase in the risk of future asthma occurrence in children. We observed a significantly higher cumulative incidence of asthma occurrence in children with more febrile seizure-related medical visits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Serum interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in febrile seizures: is there a link?

    PubMed

    Mahyar, Abolfazl; Ayazi, Parviz; Orangpour, Reza; Daneshi-Kohan, Mohammad Mahdi; Sarokhani, Mohammad Reza; Javadi, Amir; Habibi, Morteza; Talebi-Bakhshayesh, Mousa

    2014-10-01

    Febrile seizures are induced by fever and are the most common type of seizures in children. Although numerous studies have been performed on febrile seizures, their pathophysiology remains unclear. Recent studies have shown that cytokines may play a role in the pathogenesis of febrile seizures. The present study was conducted to identify potential links between serum interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and febrile seizures. Ninety-two patients with simple or complex febrile seizures (46 patients per seizure type), and 46 controls with comparable age, sex, and severity of temperature were enrolled. The median concentrations of serum IL-1β in the simple, complex febrile seizure, and control groups were 0.05, 0.1, and 0.67 pg/mL, respectively (P=0.001). Moreover, the median concentrations of TNF-α in the simple, complex febrile seizure, and control groups were 2.5, 1, and 61.5 pg/mL, respectively (P=0.001). Furthermore, there were significant differences between the case groups in serum IL-1β and TNF-α levels (P<0.05). Unlike previous studies, our study does not support the hypothesis that increased IL-1β and TNF-α production is involved in the pathogenesis of febrile seizures.

  18. IL-10 combined with procalcitonin improves early prediction of complications of febrile neutropenia in hematological patients.

    PubMed

    Vänskä, Matti; Koivula, Irma; Jantunen, Esa; Hämäläinen, Sari; Purhonen, Anna-Kaisa; Pulkki, Kari; Juutilainen, Auni

    2012-12-01

    Early diagnosis of complicated course in febrile neutropenia is cumbersome due to the non-specificity of clinical and laboratory signs of severe infection. This prospective study included 100 adult hematological patients with febrile neutropenia after intensive chemotherapy at the onset of fever (d0) and for 3 days (d1-d3) thereafter. The study aim was to find early predictors for complicated course of febrile neutropenia, defined as bacteremia or septic shock. Interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) all predicted complicated course of febrile neutropenia on d0, but only PCT was predictive throughout the study period. For IL-10 on d0-1 with cut-off 37 ng/L, sensitivity was 0.71, specificity 0.82, positive predictive value 0.52 and negative predictive value 0.92. For PCT on d0-1 with cut-off 0.13 μg/L, the respective measures were 0.95, 0.53, 0.36, and 0.98. For the combination of IL-10 and PCT on d0-1 with the same cut-offs, specificity improved to 0.85 and positive predictive value to 0.56. In conclusion, the present study confirms the high negative predictive value of PCT and provides new evidence for IL-10 as an early predictor for complicated course of febrile neutropenia in hematological patients. Combining IL-10 with PCT improves the early prediction for complicated course of febrile neutropenia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of meropenem with or without immunoglobulin as second-line therapy for pediatric febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ryoji; Suzuki, Daisuke; Sano, Hirozumi; Kishimoto, Kenji; Yasuda, Kazue; Kobayashi, Kunihiko

    2014-08-01

    Meropenem (MEPM) is widely used for treatment of febrile neutropenia. There have been many reports on MEPM for pediatric febrile neutropenia showing success rates of approximately 50-75%. Although i.v. immunoglobulin (IVIG) is widely used for treatment of infection with antibiotics, there has been no report on the efficacy of IVIG for pediatric febrile neutropenia. This prospective randomized study was therefore carried out to clarify the usefulness of MEPM with or without IVIG as second line-therapy for pediatric febrile neutropenia. A total of 61 pediatric patients with 146 episodes were judged to have failure of first-line therapy (August 2008-April 2010: cefozopran vs cefepime; April 2010-April 2012: cefepime vs piperacillin/tazobactam) for febrile neutropenia, and were randomized to MEPM and MEPM + IVIG groups. MEPM with or without IVIG as second-line therapy was effective in 68.1% of a total of 144 episodes. Success rates in the MEPM and MEPM + IVIG groups were 66.3% and 70.5%, respectively. Furthermore, success rates for patients with IgG <500 mg/dL were 62.5% in the MEPM group and 81.3% in the MEPM + IVIG group. This result, however, was not statistically significant, possibly because of the small sample size. MEPM is effective and safe for second-line treatment of febrile episodes in neutropenic pediatric patients. Moreover, IVIG is effective for patients with low serum IgG. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  20. A comparative study of febrile and afebrile seizures associated with mild gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Hye; Chung, Sajun

    2013-08-01

    Seizures associated with mild gastroenteritis have been increasingly reported. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of febrile and afebrile seizures associated with mild gastroenteritis, and attempted to determine the influence of fever in these two groups. We reviewed the medical records of 59 children presenting with seizures during a mild gastroenteritis episode. They were classified into an afebrile group (n=27) and a febrile group (n=32). We compared the age of onset, sex, seizure semiology, frequency, duration, family history, and prior history of seizures between the two groups. The mean age, family history, seizure semiology, and frequency of seizures were not significantly different between the two groups. However, more patients in the afebrile group experienced ≥ 2 seizures/day than in the febrile group (63% vs. 38%, p=0.051). The febrile patients had a tendency of experiencing prolonged seizures lasting ≥ 5 min compared with the afebrile group (34% vs. 11%, p=0.063). Prior febrile seizures were noted in 5 of the 32 patients (15.6%) in the febrile group, while none of the 27 patients in the afebrile group had a history of prior seizures (p=0.056). It seems that the presence of fever may influence the clinical characteristics of seizures associated with mild gastroenteritis. We suggest that afebrile seizures associated with gastroenteritis may be regarded as a distinct condition from those associated with fever, and it needs to be clarified by a further large sample study. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Complicated malaria and other severe febrile illness in a pediatric ward in Libreville, Gabon

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although a substantial decline of Plasmodium falciparum infection is observed in Africa following implementation of new control strategies, malaria is still considered as the major cause of febrile illness in hospitalized African children. The present study was designed to assess the management of febrile illness and to determine the proportion of children with febrile illness hospitalized for primary diagnosis of malaria who had confirmed complicated malaria after implementation of new malaria control strategies in Libreville, Gabon. Methods Demographic, clinical and biological data from hospitalized children with fever or a history of fever, with a primary diagnosis of clinical malaria, aged less than 18 years old, who benefited from hematological measurements and microscopic malaria diagnosis, were recorded and analyzed during a prospective and observational study conducted in 2008 in the Centre Hospitalier de Libreville. Results A total of 418 febrile children were admitted at hospital as malaria cases. Majority of them (79.4%) were aged below five years. After medical examination, 168 were diagnosed and treated as clinical malaria and, among them, only 56.7% (n = 95) had Plasmodium falciparum positive blood smears. Age above five years, pallor, Blantyre Coma Score ≤2 and thrombocytopenia were predictive of malaria infection. Respiratory tract infections were the first leading cause of hospitalization (41.1%), followed by malaria (22.7%); co-morbidities were frequent (22%). Less than 5% of suspected bacterial infections were confirmed by culture. Global case fatality rate was 2.1% and 1% for malaria. Almost half (46%) of the children who received antimalarial therapy had negative blood smears. Likewise, antibiotics were frequently prescribed without bacteriological confirmation. Conclusions The use of clinical symptoms for the management of children febrile illness is frequent in Gabon. Information, training of health workers and

  2. Antibiotic Rotation for Febrile Neutropenic Patients with Hematological Malignancies: Clinical Significance of Antibiotic Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Yong; Shimoda, Shinji; Yakushiji, Hiroko; Ito, Yoshikiyo; Miyamoto, Toshihiro; Kamimura, Tomohiko; Shimono, Nobuyuki; Akashi, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Background Our unit adopted the single administration of cefepime as the initial treatment for febrile episodes in neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies. However, recently, cefepime-resistant gram-negative bacteremia, including those with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producers, was frequently observed in these patients. Therefore, we instituted a rotation of primary antibiotics for febrile neutropenic patients in an attempt to control antibiotic resistance. Methods This prospective trial was performed from August 2008 through March 2011 at our unit. After a pre-intervention period, in which cefepime was used as the initial agent for febrile neutropenia, 4 primary antibiotics, namely, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, meropenem, and cefepime, were rotated at 1-month intervals over 20 months. Blood and surveillance cultures were conducted for febrile episodes, in order to assess the etiology, the resistance pattern (particularly to cefepime), and the prognosis. Results In this trial, 219 patients were registered. A 65.9% reduction in the use of cefepime occurred after the antibiotic rotation. In the surveillance stool cultures, the detection rate of cefepime-resistant gram-negative isolates, of which ESBL-producers were predominant, declined significantly after the intervention (8.5 vs 0.9 episodes per 1000 patient days before and after intervention respectively, P<0.01). Interestingly, ESBL-related bacteremia was not detected after the initiation of the trial (1.7 vs 0.0 episodes per 1000 patient days before and after intervention respectively, P<0.01). Infection-related mortality was comparable between the 2 periods. Conclusions We implemented a monthly rotation of primary antibiotics for febrile neutropenic patients. An antibiotic heterogeneity strategy, mainly performed as a cycling regimen, would be useful for controlling antimicrobial resistance among patients treated for febrile neutropenia. PMID:23372683

  3. Acute undifferentiated febrile illness in rural Cambodia: a 3-year prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Tara C; Siv, Sovannaroth; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Fleischmann, Erna; Ariey, Frédéric; Buchy, Philippe; Guillard, Bertrand; González, Iveth J; Christophel, Eva-Maria; Abdur, Rashid; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Bell, David; Menard, Didier

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, malaria control has been successfully implemented in Cambodia, leading to a substantial decrease in reported cases. Wide-spread use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has revealed a large burden of malaria-negative fever cases, for which no clinical management guidelines exist at peripheral level health facilities. As a first step towards developing such guidelines, a 3-year cross-sectional prospective observational study was designed to investigate the causes of acute malaria-negative febrile illness in Cambodia. From January 2008 to December 2010, 1193 febrile patients and 282 non-febrile individuals were recruited from three health centers in eastern and western Cambodia. Malaria RDTs and routine clinical examination were performed on site by health center staff. Venous samples and nasopharyngeal throat swabs were collected and analysed by molecular diagnostic tests. Blood cultures and blood smears were also taken from all febrile individuals. Molecular testing was applied for malaria parasites, Leptospira, Rickettsia, O. tsutsugamushi, Dengue- and Influenza virus. At least one pathogen was identified in 73.3% (874/1193) of febrile patient samples. Most frequent pathogens detected were P. vivax (33.4%), P. falciparum (26.5%), pathogenic Leptospira (9.4%), Influenza viruses (8.9%), Dengue viruses (6.3%), O. tsutsugamushi (3.9%), Rickettsia (0.2%), and P. knowlesi (0.1%). In the control group, a potential pathogen was identified in 40.4%, most commonly malaria parasites and Leptospira. Clinic-based diagnosis of malaria RDT-negative cases was poorly predictive for pathogen and appropriate treatment. Additional investigations are needed to understand their impact on clinical disease and epidemiology, and the possible role of therapies such as doxycycline, since many of these pathogens were seen in non-febrile subjects.

  4. Acute Undifferentiated Febrile Illness in Rural Cambodia: A 3-Year Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Tara C.; Siv, Sovannaroth; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Fleischmann, Erna; Ariey, Frédéric; Buchy, Philippe; Guillard, Bertrand; González, Iveth J.; Christophel, Eva-Maria; Abdur, Rashid; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Bell, David; Menard, Didier

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, malaria control has been successfully implemented in Cambodia, leading to a substantial decrease in reported cases. Wide-spread use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has revealed a large burden of malaria-negative fever cases, for which no clinical management guidelines exist at peripheral level health facilities. As a first step towards developing such guidelines, a 3-year cross-sectional prospective observational study was designed to investigate the causes of acute malaria-negative febrile illness in Cambodia. From January 2008 to December 2010, 1193 febrile patients and 282 non-febrile individuals were recruited from three health centers in eastern and western Cambodia. Malaria RDTs and routine clinical examination were performed on site by health center staff. Venous samples and nasopharyngeal throat swabs were collected and analysed by molecular diagnostic tests. Blood cultures and blood smears were also taken from all febrile individuals. Molecular testing was applied for malaria parasites, Leptospira, Rickettsia, O. tsutsugamushi, Dengue- and Influenza virus. At least one pathogen was identified in 73.3% (874/1193) of febrile patient samples. Most frequent pathogens detected were P. vivax (33.4%), P. falciparum (26.5%), pathogenic Leptospira (9.4%), Influenza viruses (8.9%), Dengue viruses (6.3%), O. tsutsugamushi (3.9%), Rickettsia (0.2%), and P. knowlesi (0.1%). In the control group, a potential pathogen was identified in 40.4%, most commonly malaria parasites and Leptospira. Clinic-based diagnosis of malaria RDT-negative cases was poorly predictive for pathogen and appropriate treatment. Additional investigations are needed to understand their impact on clinical disease and epidemiology, and the possible role of therapies such as doxycycline, since many of these pathogens were seen in non-febrile subjects. PMID:24755844

  5. Distal Ureteral Diameter Ratio is Predictive of Breakthrough Febrile Urinary Tract Infection.

    PubMed

    Arlen, Angela M; Leong, Traci; Guidos, Paul J; Alexander, Siobhan E; Cooper, Christopher S

    2017-07-08

    Distal ureteral diameter ratio is an objective measure that is prognostic of spontaneous resolution of vesicoureteral reflux. Along with likelihood of resolution, improved identification of children at risk for recurrent febrile urinary tract infections may impact management decisions. We evaluated the usefulness of ureteral diameter ratio as a predictive factor for breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. Children with primary vesicoureteral reflux and detailed voiding cystourethrogram were identified. Ureteral diameter ratio was computed by measuring largest ureteral diameter within the pelvis and dividing by the distance between L1 and L3 vertebral bodies. Demographics, vesicoureteral reflux grade, laterality, presence/absence of bladder-bowel dysfunction, and ureteral diameter ratio were tested in univariate and multivariable analyses. Primary outcome was breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. We analyzed 112 girls and 28 boys with a mean ± SD age of 2.5 ± 2.3 years at diagnosis. Vesicoureteral reflux was grade 1 to 2 in 64 patients (45.7%), grade 3 in 50 (35.7%), grade 4 in 16 (11.4%) and grade 5 in 10 (7.2%). Mean ± SD followup was 3.2 ± 2.7 years. A total of 40 children (28.6%) experienced breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. Ureteral diameter ratio was significantly greater in children with (0.36) vs without (0.25) breakthrough febrile infections (p = 0.004). Controlling for vesicoureteral reflux grade, every 0.1 U increase in ureteral diameter ratio resulted in 1.7 times increased odds of breakthrough infection (95% CI 1.24 to 2.26, p <0.0001). Children with increased distal ureteral diameter ratio are at greater risk for breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections independent of reflux grade. Ureteral diameter ratio provides valuable prognostic information about risk of recurrent pyelonephritis and may assist with clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc

  6. Febrile ulceronecrotic Mucha-Habermann disease (pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta fulminans) associated with parvovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Arti; Alshalfan, Faisal; Al-Otaibi, Mohammad; Al-Sabah, Humoud; Rajy, Jihan M

    2013-06-01

    Febrile ulceronecrotic Mucha-Habermann disease is a rare fulminant variant of pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta, characterized by a rapidly progressive course with predominant ulceronecrotic lesions associated with fever and systemic manifestations. It carries a great morbidity and is potentially fatal. The exact pathogenesis is not clear, and it has been proposed to be the result of hypersensitivity reaction to an infection. We report a patient with febrile ulceronecrotic Mucha-Habermann disease in a 12-year-old boy in whom the condition was most likely precipitated by parvovirus infection, and he showed a favorable response to a combination of prednisolone with narrow band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) phototherapy.

  7. Is the addition of aminoglycosides to beta-lactams in cancer patients with febrile neutropenia needed?

    PubMed

    Contreras, Valeria; Sepúlveda, Sebastián; Heredia, Ana

    2016-02-24

    It is still controversial if the combined use of beta-lactam antibiotics and aminoglycosides has advantages over broad-spectrum beta-lactam monotherapy for the empirical treatment of cancer patients with febrile neutropenia. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified three systematic reviews including 14 pertinent randomized trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded the combination of beta-lactam antibiotics and aminoglycosides probably does not lead to a reduced mortality in febrile neutropenic cancer patients and it might increase nephrotoxicity.

  8. Prevalence of Bacterial Febrile Illnesses in Children in Kilosa District, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Chipwaza, Beatrice; Mhamphi, Ginethon G.; Ngatunga, Steve D.; Selemani, Majige; Amuri, Mbaraka; Mugasa, Joseph P.; Gwakisa, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bacterial etiologies of non-malaria febrile illnesses have significantly become important due to high mortality and morbidity, particularly in children. Despite their importance, there are few reports on the epidemiology of these diseases in Tanzania, and the true burden of such illnesses remains unknown. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of leptospirosis, brucellosis, typhoid fever and urinary tract infections and their rate of co-infections with malaria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at Kilosa district hospital in Tanzania for 6 months. Febrile children aged from 2–13 years were recruited from the outpatient department. Patients were screened by serological tests such as IgM and IgG ELISA, and microscopic agglutination test. Results A total of 370 patients were enrolled; of these 85 (23.0%) had malaria parasites, 43 (11.6%) had presumptive acute leptospirosis and 26/200 (13%) had confirmed leptospirosis. Presumptive acute brucellosis due to B. abortus was identified among 26 (7.0%) of patients while B. melitensis was detected in 57 (15.4%) of the enrolled patients. Presumptive typhoid fever due to S. Typhi was identified in thirty eight (10.3%) of the participants and 69 (18.6%) had urinary tract infections. Patients presented with similar symptoms; therefore, the identification of these diseases could not be done based on clinical ground alone. Co-infections between malaria and bacterial febrile illnesses were observed in 146 patients (39.5%). Although antibacterials and/or anti-malarials were prescribed in most patients, some patients did not receive the appropriate treatment. Conclusion The study has underscored the importance of febrile bacterial diseases including zoonoses such as leptospirosis and brucellosis in febrile children, and thus such illnesses should be considered by clinicians in the differential diagnoses of febrile diseases. However, access to diagnostic tests for discrimination of febrile illnesses is

  9. Dengue and Scrub Typhus Coinfection in a Patient Presenting with Febrile Illness

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Dengue fever and scrub typhus are common causes of acute febrile illness of unclear origin in Asia. Though coinfections of many vector-borne diseases have been described, articles on dengue and scrub typhus coinfection are distinctly limited. In case of coinfection with dengue and scrub typhus, vigilant monitoring of vitals, platelets transfusion, and timely treatment with doxycycline are necessary. High degree of suspicion has to be made for coinfection in a patient presenting with febrile illness with thrombocytopenia and deranged laboratory parameters in postmonsoon season in endemic regions in Asia. PMID:28386493

  10. Instantaneous Observability of Tightly Coupled SINS/GPS during Maneuvers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Junxiang; Yu, Fei; Lan, Haiyu; Dong, Qianhui

    2016-05-27

    The tightly coupled strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS)/global position system (GPS) has been widely used. The system observability determines whether the system state can be estimated by a filter efficiently or not. In this paper, the observability analysis of a two-channel and a three-channel tightly coupled SINS/GPS are performed, respectively, during arbitrary translational maneuvers and angle maneuvers, where the translational maneuver and angle maneuver are modeled. A novel instantaneous observability matrix (IOM) based on a reconstructed psi-angle model is proposed to make the theoretical analysis simpler, which starts from the observability definition directly. Based on the IOM, a series of theoretical analysis are performed. Analysis results show that almost all kinds of translational maneuver and angle maneuver can make a three-channel system instantaneously observable, but there is no one translational maneuver or angle maneuver can make a two-channel system instantaneously observable. The system's performance is investigated when the system is not instantaneously observable. A series of simulation studies based on EKF are performed to confirm the analytic conclusions.

  11. Instantaneous Observability of Tightly Coupled SINS/GPS during Maneuvers

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Junxiang; Yu, Fei; Lan, Haiyu; Dong, Qianhui

    2016-01-01

    The tightly coupled strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS)/global position system (GPS) has been widely used. The system observability determines whether the system state can be estimated by a filter efficiently or not. In this paper, the observability analysis of a two-channel and a three-channel tightly coupled SINS/GPS are performed, respectively, during arbitrary translational maneuvers and angle maneuvers, where the translational maneuver and angle maneuver are modeled. A novel instantaneous observability matrix (IOM) based on a reconstructed psi-angle model is proposed to make the theoretical analysis simpler, which starts from the observability definition directly. Based on the IOM, a series of theoretical analysis are performed. Analysis results show that almost all kinds of translational maneuver and angle maneuver can make a three-channel system instantaneously observable, but there is no one translational maneuver or angle maneuver can make a two-channel system instantaneously observable. The system’s performance is investigated when the system is not instantaneously observable. A series of simulation studies based on EKF are performed to confirm the analytic conclusions. PMID:27240369

  12. Sinning against nature: the theory of background conditions.

    PubMed

    Blackford, R

    2006-11-01

    Debates about the moral and political acceptability of particular sexual practices and new technologies often include appeals to a supposed imperative to follow nature. If nature is understood as the totality of all phenomena or as those things that are not artificial, there is little prospect of developing a successful argument to impugn interference with it or sinning against it. At the same time, there are serious difficulties with approaches that seek to identify "proper" human functioning. An alternative approach is to understand interference with nature as acting in a manner that threatens basic background conditions to human choice. Arguably, the theory of background conditions helps explain much of the hostility to practices and technologies that allegedly sin against nature. The theory does not, however, entail that appeals to nature are relevant or rational. Such appeals should be subjected to sceptical scrutiny. Indeed, the theory suggests that arguments against practices and technologies that can be seen as contrary to nature sometimes exercise a psychological attraction that is disproportional to their actual cogency.

  13. Sinning against nature: the theory of background conditions

    PubMed Central

    Blackford, R

    2006-01-01

    Debates about the moral and political acceptability of particular sexual practices and new technologies often include appeals to a supposed imperative to follow nature. If nature is understood as the totality of all phenomena or as those things that are not artificial, there is little prospect of developing a successful argument to impugn interference with it or sinning against it. At the same time, there are serious difficulties with approaches that seek to identify "proper" human functioning. An alternative approach is to understand interference with nature as acting in a manner that threatens basic background conditions to human choice. Arguably, the theory of background conditions helps explain much of the hostility to practices and technologies that allegedly sin against nature. The theory does not, however, entail that appeals to nature are relevant or rational. Such appeals should be subjected to sceptical scrutiny. Indeed, the theory suggests that arguments against practices and technologies that can be seen as contrary to nature sometimes exercise a psychological attraction that is disproportional to their actual cogency. PMID:17074819

  14. SInCRe—structural interactome computational resource for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Metri, Rahul; Hariharaputran, Sridhar; Ramakrishnan, Gayatri; Anand, Praveen; Raghavender, Upadhyayula S.; Ochoa-Montaño, Bernardo; Higueruelo, Alicia P.; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan; Chandra, Nagasuma R.; Blundell, Tom L.; Srinivasan, Narayanaswamy

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an integrated database for Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb) that collates information on protein sequences, domain assignments, functional annotation and 3D structural information along with protein–protein and protein–small molecule interactions. SInCRe (Structural Interactome Computational Resource) is developed out of CamBan (Cambridge and Bangalore) collaboration. The motivation for development of this database is to provide an integrated platform to allow easily access and interpretation of data and results obtained by all the groups in CamBan in the field of Mtb informatics. In-house algorithms and databases developed independently by various academic groups in CamBan are used to generate Mtb-specific datasets and are integrated in this database to provide a structural dimension to studies on tuberculosis. The SInCRe database readily provides information on identification of functional domains, genome-scale modelling of structures of Mtb proteins and characterization of the small-molecule binding sites within Mtb. The resource also provides structure-based function annotation, information on small-molecule binders including FDA (Food and Drug Administration)-approved drugs, protein–protein interactions (PPIs) and natural compounds that bind to pathogen proteins potentially and result in weakening or elimination of host–pathogen protein–protein interactions. Together they provide prerequisites for identification of off-target binding. Database URL: http://proline.biochem.iisc.ernet.in/sincre PMID:26130660

  15. Sin and mental illness in the Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Kroll, J; Bachrach, B

    1984-08-01

    The modern stereotype that in the Middle Ages there was a general belief that mental illness was caused by sin is reviewed. The authors examined 57 descriptions of mental illness (madness, possession, alcoholism, epilepsy, and combinations thereof) from pre-Crusade chronicles and saints' lives. In only 9 (16%) of these descriptions did the sources attribute the mental illness to sin or wrongdoing, and in these cases the medieval authors appeared to use this attribution for its propaganda value against an enemy of their patron saints, their monastery lands, or their religious values. The medieval sources indicate that the authors were well aware of the proximate causes of mental illness, such as humoral imbalance, intemperate diet and alcohol intake, overwork, and grief. The banality that, since God causes all things he also causes mental illness, was only used by medieval authors under special circumstances and in a minority of cases. It does not constitute evidence of superstitious and primitive notions about mental illness in the early Middle Ages.

  16. Measurement of the cp violation parameter sin

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, Kenneth Francis

    1999-02-01

    This thesis presents a measurement of the time-dependent asymmetry in the rate of $\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{d}$ versus B$0\\atop{d}$ decays to J/ΨK$0\\atop{s}$. In the context of the Standard Model this is interpreted as a measurement of the CP violation parameter sin(2β). A total of 198{+-}17 B$0\\atop{d}$/$\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{d}$ decays were observed in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s=1.8 TeV by the CDF detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The initial B flavor (whether B0 or $\\bar{B}$0) is determined by a same-side flavor tagging technique. The analysis results in sin(2β)=1.8±1.1(stat.)±0.3(syst.). This analysis demonstrates the feasibility of studying CP violation in the B0-$\\bar{B}$0 system at a hadron collider. By applying the methods used in this analysis, future, higher-statistics experiments should be able to tightly constrain the parameters of the Standard Model.

  17. [Acedia or the depressed between sin and illness].

    PubMed

    Alliez, J; Huber, J P

    1987-05-01

    Acedia is a term of the classical greek vocabulary that a christian author of the IVth century, Evagre the Pontic, uses in a special sense, to describe a mental state characterized among other things, by disgust and dejection, and which, according to him, falls into what became the first list of deadly sins. The word was conveyed to us by another monk of the egyptian deserts, Jean Cassien, with a change of meaning which made it very difficult to distinguish from sadness: his audience being very different from his predecessor's, as he wrote for Latins, little inclined to anachoretic life but among which developed the first great coenobitic institutions of the Occident. One century later, Pope Gregory the great removes acedia from the list of deadly sins, either because he does not distinguish it from sadness (and laziness) or because he considers it a morbid state and, as such, depending on medical care. The word has nevertheless survived until Thomas Aquinas and later, and its study provides valuable data on the mental states prefiguring our modern depressions.

  18. Nurse-driven protocols for febrile pediatric oncology patients.

    PubMed

    Dobrasz, Gina; Hatfield, Marianne; Jones, Laura Masak; Berdis, Jennifer Joan; Miller, Erin Elizabeth; Entrekin, Melanie Smith

    2013-05-01

    Infection is a frequent complication experienced by many children with cancer, with potentially life-threatening consequences that may result in hospitalization, prolonged length of stay, and increased mortality. The need for prompt assessment and early intervention for infection is widely recognized by ED staff as best practice; however, the average length of time to antibiotic administration varies widely in published studies. An interdisciplinary quality improvement initiative including physician, nursing, and pharmacy leaders was created to streamline the identification and treatment for this high-risk population. Based on published evidence for best practice and national recognition of the need for rapid treatment, the goal was set for administration of antibiotic therapy to less than 60 minutes after ED arrival. This project was conducted at 2 emergency departments in a pediatric health care system with 520 beds and a level I and level II trauma designation. Approximately 154,000 patients are seen annually. In the emergency departments, 271 staff members, including registered nurses, paramedics, and patient care technicians, required education about using the newly designed process. Records from all patients with fever and a known history of pediatric cancer who presented to the emergency departments were included in the retrospective review, including patients with solid tumors, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and chronic myelogenous leukemia. Exclusion criteria included patients in known remission, those with prior antibiotic therapy at another facility, congenital neutropenia, or parental concern or objection to treatment. A retrospective medical record review of febrile oncology patients treated from September 2008 until May 2012 was conducted to evaluate the impact of this evidence-based practice change to streamline the "door to drug" process. The average length of time until antibiotic administration, nurses' compliance initiating

  19. Structure and Organisation of SinR, the Master Regulator of Biofilm Formation in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Colledge, Vicki L.; Fogg, Mark J.; Levdikov, Vladimir M.; Leech, Andrew; Dodson, Eleanor J.; Wilkinson, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    sinR encodes a tetrameric repressor of genes required for biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis. sinI, which is transcribed under Spo0A control, encodes a dimeric protein that binds to SinR to form a SinR–SinI heterodimer in which the DNA-binding functions of SinR are abrogated and repression of biofilm genes is relieved. The heterodimer-forming surface comprises residues conserved between SinR and SinI. Each forms a pair of α-helices that hook together to form an intermolecular four-helix bundle. Here, we are interested in the assembly of the SinR tetramer and its binding to DNA. Size-exclusion chromatography with multi-angle laser light scattering and crystallographic analysis reveal that a DNA-binding fragment of SinR (residues 1–69) is a monomer, while a SinI-binding fragment (residues 74–111) is a tetramer arranged as a dimer of dimers. The SinR(74–111) chain forms two α-helices with the organisation of the dimer similar to that observed in the SinR–SinI complex. The tetramer is formed through interactions of residues at the C-termini of the four chains. A model of the intact SinR tetramer in which the DNA binding domains surround the tetramerisation core was built. Fluorescence anisotropy and surface plasmon resonance experiments showed that SinR binds to an oligonucleotide duplex, 5′-TTTGTTCTCTAAAGAGAACTTA-3′, containing a pair of SinR consensus sequences in inverted orientation with a Kd of 300 nM. The implications of these data for promoter binding and the curious quaternary structural transitions of SinR upon binding to (i) SinI and (ii) the SinR-like protein SlrR, which “repurposes” SinR as a repressor of autolysin and motility genes, are discussed. PMID:21708175

  20. [Epidemiology of febrile neutropenia in patients with hematological disease-a prospective multicentre survey in China].

    PubMed

    Yan, C H; Xu, T; Zheng, X Y; Sun, J; Duan, X L; Gu, J L; Zhao, C L; Zhu, J; Wu, Y H; Wu, D P; Hu, J D; Huang, H; Jiang, M; Li, J; Hou, M; Wang, C; Shao, Z H; Liu, T; Hu, Y; Huang, X J

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the incidence, clinical and microbiological features of febrile, and risk factors during neutropenia periods in patients with hematological diseases. From October 20, 2014 to March 20, 2015, consecutive patients who had hematological diseases and developed neutropenia during hospitalization were enrolled in the prospective, multicenter and observational study. A total of 784 episodes of febrile occurred in 1 139 neutropenic patients with hematological diseases. The cumulative incidence of febrile was 81.9% at 21 days after neutropenia. Multivariate analysis suggested that central venous catheterization (P<0.001, HR=3.407, 95% CI 2.276-4.496), gastrointestinal mucositis (P<0.001, HR=10.548, 95% CI 3.245-28.576), previous exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics within 90 days (P<0.001, HR=3.582, 95% CI 2.387-5.770) and duration of neutropenia >7 days (P<0.001,HR=4.194, 95% CI 2.572-5.618) were correlated with higher incidence of febrile during neutropenia. With the increase of the risk factors, the incidence of febrile increased gradually (35.4%, 69.2%, 86.1%, 95.6%, P<0.001). Of 784 febrile cases, 253 (32.3%) were unknown origin, 429 (54.7% )of clinical documented infections and 102(13.0%) of microbiological documented infections. The most common sites of infection were pulmonary (49.5%), upper respiratory (16.0%), crissum (9.8%), blood stream (7.7%). The most common pathogens were gram-negative bacteria (44.54%), followed by gram-positive bacteria (37.99% ) and fungi (17.47% ). There was no significant difference in mortality rates between cases with febrile and cases without febrile (9.2% vs 4.8%, P=0.099). Multivariate analysis also suggested that >40 years old (P=0.047, HR=5.000, 95% CI 0.853-28.013), hemodynamic instability (P=0.001, HR=13.185, 95% CI 2.983-54.915), prior colonization or infection by resistant pathogens (P=0.005, HR=28.734, 95% CI 2.921-313.744), blood stream infection (P=0.038, HR=9.715, 95% CI 1.110-81.969) and pulmonary

  1. Suppression of Sin3A activity promotes differentiation of pluripotent cells into functional neurons

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Debasish; Lee, Chang-Hee; Hyun, Ji Young; Chang, Gyeong-Eon; Cheong, Eunji; Shin, Injae

    2017-01-01

    Sin3 is a transcriptional corepressor for REST silencing machinery that represses multiple neuronal genes in non-neuronal cells. However, functions of Sin3 (Sin3A and Sin3B) in suppression of neuronal phenotypes are not well characterized. Herein we show that Sin3A knockdown impedes the repressive activity of REST and enhances differentiation of pluripotent P19 cells into electrophysiologically active neurons without inducing astrogenesis. It is also found that silencing Sin3B induces neurogenesis of P19 cells with a lower efficiency than Sin3A knockdown. The results suggest that Sin3A has a more profound effect on REST repressive machinery for silencing neuronal genes in P19 cells than Sin3B. Furthermore, we show that a peptide inhibitor of Sin3A-REST interactions promotes differentiation of P19 cells into functional neurons. Observations made in studies using genetic deletion and a synthetic inhibitor suggests that Sin3A plays an important role in the repression of neuronal genes by the REST regulatory mechanism. PMID:28303954

  2. Differentially expressed genes of LPS febrile symptom in rabbits and that treated with Bai-Hu-tang, a classical anti-febrile Chinese herb formula.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shidong; Wang, Dongsheng; Dong, Shuwei; Yang, Feng; Yan, Zuoting

    2015-07-01

    Bai-Hu-Tang (BHT) has been traditionally used to clear heat and engender fluids. To reveal the alteration of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between lipopolysaccharide (LPS) febrile syndrome in rabbits and treatment with BHT which is a classical anti-febrile formula in traditional Chinese medicine. Febrile model was induced by LPS injection (i.v.) in rabbits, and BHT was gavaged to another group of febrile rabbits. After sacrifice of animals, total RNA of liver tissue was isolated, processed, and hybridized to rabbit cDNA microarrays obtained from Agilent Co. The data of DEGs were obtained by lazer scanning and analyzed with Cluster program 3.0. Then bioinformatic analysis of DEGs was conducted through gene ontology (GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. In addition, expression levels of four relative genes were detected by quantitative real time ployenzyme chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to validate the accuracy of microarrays. The results demonstrated that genes expression pattern could be clustered into three groups significantly, and there were 606 up-regulated genes and 859 down-regulated genes in the model group, and 106 up-regulated genes and 429 down-regulated genes in BHT treated group. There were 286 DEGs existed as the common in two experimental groups. Enrichment analysis of GO annotations indicated that DEGs in model and BHT treated animals mainly referred catalytic activity and oxidoreductase activity for metabolic processes located in the membrane system at intracellular part, and binding activities increased significantly in treatment with BHT. Enrichment of KEGG analysis showed that the pathways of phagosome and protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum contained the most altered genes in the LPS group, but the percentage of phagosome pathway almost doubled in BHT group. Most DEGs involved in the LPS signal recognition system was up-regulated in LPS group, but partly decreased in BHT group. RT-PCR results of

  3. A hospital-based study on seroprevalence of leptospirosis among febrile cases in northeastern Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rafizah, A A Noor; Aziah, B D; Azwany, Y N; Imran, M Kamarul; Rusli, A Mohamed; Nazri, S Mohd; Nikman, A Mohd; Nabilah, I; Asma', H Siti; Zahiruddin, W M; Zaliha, I

    2013-06-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of leptospirosis among febrile inpatient cases in northeastern Malaysia. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 999 febrile cases admitted to 10 hospitals in northeastern Malaysia. A survey using a proforma sheet was used to obtain sociodemographic and occupational information. Serum samples were screened for leptospirosis by IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test (IgM ELISA) and confirmed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). There was an equivalent distribution of males and females in the 999 respondents enrolled in the study. The majority were Malay (94.7%) and their mean age was 39.4 (standard deviation 17.6) years. The overall seroprevalence of leptospirosis was 8.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 6.8-10.3) (n=84). The high-risk occupational group was found to have a higher seroprevalence, which was 56% (95% CI 45.3-66.1) (n=47). The predominant serogroup was Sejroe (82.1%, 95% CI 72.6-88.8) (n=69). This study revealed a possible high seroprevalence of leptospirosis among febrile cases, indicating the need to review the importance of adding leptospirosis to the case investigation of febrile illness, especially among high-risk occupational groups in Malaysia, as well as in other endemic countries. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk Factors for Febrile Neutropenia during Chemotherapy for HIV-Related Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinyong; Kim, Tae Min; Hwang, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Nak-Hyun; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Song, Kyoung-ho; Kim, Eu Suk; Park, Sang-Won; Kim, Hong Bin; Kim, Nam Joong; Oh, Myoung-don

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated risk factors for neutropenic fever and febrile prolonged neutropenia during vincristine-including chemotherapy to treat HIV-related lymphoma to investigate whether protease inhibitor (PI) treatment is associated with infectious complications due to drug interactions with chemotherapeutic agents. We included all HIV patients who received chemotherapy including vincristine for lymphoma at a single referral center in 1999-2010. Neutropenic fever was defined as absolute neutrophil count < 500 cells/µL with body temperature over 38℃; and prolonged neutropenia was defined if it persisted over 7 days. CODOX-M/IVAC and Stanford regimens were considered high-risk regimens for prolonged neutropenia. We analyzed 48 cycles of chemotherapy in 17 HIV patients with lymphoma. There were 22 neutropenic fever and 12 febrile prolonged neutropenia events. In multivariate analysis, neutropenic fever was associated with old age and low CD4 cell count, but not with PI use or ritonavir-boosted PI use. Low CD4 cell count and high-risk regimens were associated with febrile prolonged neutropenia. Neutropenic fever and febrile prolonged neutropenia is associated with old age, low CD4 cell count, and high-risk regimens, but not PI use, in HIV patients undergoing chemotherapy including vincristine for lymphoma. PMID:23255844

  5. Risk factors for febrile neutropenia during chemotherapy for HIV-related lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinyong; Kim, Tae Min; Hwang, Jeong-Hwan; Kim, Nak-Hyun; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Song, Kyoung-ho; Kim, Eu Suk; Park, Sang-Won; Kim, Hong Bin; Kim, Nam Joong; Park, Wan Beom; Oh, Myoung-don

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated risk factors for neutropenic fever and febrile prolonged neutropenia during vincristine-including chemotherapy to treat HIV-related lymphoma to investigate whether protease inhibitor (PI) treatment is associated with infectious complications due to drug interactions with chemotherapeutic agents. We included all HIV patients who received chemotherapy including vincristine for lymphoma at a single referral center in 1999-2010. Neutropenic fever was defined as absolute neutrophil count < 500 cells/µL with body temperature over 38℃; and prolonged neutropenia was defined if it persisted over 7 days. CODOX-M/IVAC and Stanford regimens were considered high-risk regimens for prolonged neutropenia. We analyzed 48 cycles of chemotherapy in 17 HIV patients with lymphoma. There were 22 neutropenic fever and 12 febrile prolonged neutropenia events. In multivariate analysis, neutropenic fever was associated with old age and low CD4 cell count, but not with PI use or ritonavir-boosted PI use. Low CD4 cell count and high-risk regimens were associated with febrile prolonged neutropenia. Neutropenic fever and febrile prolonged neutropenia is associated with old age, low CD4 cell count, and high-risk regimens, but not PI use, in HIV patients undergoing chemotherapy including vincristine for lymphoma.

  6. Frequent Respiratory Viral Infections in Children with Febrile Neutropenia - A Prospective Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Söderman, Martina; Rhedin, Samuel; Tolfvenstam, Thomas; Rotzén-Östlund, Maria; Albert, Jan; Broliden, Kristina; Lindblom, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Febrile neutropenia is common in children undergoing chemotherapy for the treatment of malignancies. In the majority of cases, the cause of the fever is unknown. Although respiratory viruses are commonly associated with this condition, the etiologic significance of this finding remains unclear and is therefore the subject of this study. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected during 87 episodes of febrile neutropenia in children age 0-18 years, being treated at a children's oncology unit between January 2013 and June 2014. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the presence of 16 respiratory viruses. Follow-up samples were collected from children who tested positive for one or more respiratory viruses. Rhinoviruses were genotyped by VP4/VP2 sequencing. Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for group comparisons. At least one respiratory virus was detected in samples from 39 of 87 episodes of febrile neutropenia (45%), with rhinoviruses the most frequently detected. Follow-up samples were collected after a median of 28 days (range, 9-74 days) in 32 of the 39 virus-positive episodes. The respiratory viral infection had resolved in 25 episodes (78%). The same virus was detected at follow-up in one coronavirus and six rhinovirus episodes. Genotyping revealed a different rhinovirus species in two of the six rhinovirus infections. The frequency of respiratory viral infections in this group of patients suggests an etiologic role in febrile neutropenia. However, these findings must be confirmed in larger patient cohorts.

  7. Temperature management in haematology patients with febrile neutropenia: a practice survey.

    PubMed

    Weinkove, Robert; Clay, Jennifer; Wood, Catherine

    2013-04-19

    To assess the attitudes of clinicians to temperature management in haematology patients with febrile neutropenia. An online scenario-based survey was circulated to consultant members of the New Zealand branch of the Haematology Society of Australia and New Zealand, to haematology advanced trainees, and to nursing representatives at each haematology department in New Zealand. Eighty-eight responses were obtained, from 34 doctors and 54 nurses. Most respondents would advise a neutropenic patient to take paracetamol as needed for pain. Median temperature intervention threshold for an asymptomatic patient with febrile neutropenia was higher for doctors than for nurses (38.5 versus 38.0 degrees Celcius), despite considerable heterogeneity. Both groups indicated they would intervene at a median 38.0 degrees Celcius for a patient with rigors. Paracetamol was the preferred first-line cooling measure, with physical methods second-line, and pethidine third-line. All respondents favoured oral over intravenous or rectal paracetamol. Most believed a clinical trial of antipyretic treatment for febrile neutropenia was warranted, and indicated willingness to enrol their patients in such a study. This survey documents clinicians' preferred temperature intervention thresholds and methods for haematology patients with neutropenic fever, and shows considerable variation in practice. Most respondents supported a trial of antipyretic management in febrile neutropenia.

  8. Pediatric Oncology Discharges With Febrile Neutropenia: Variation in Location of Care.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Elysia; Chamberlain, Lisa J; Aftandilian, Catherine; Saynina, Olga; Wise, Paul

    2017-01-01

    We examined the use of Pediatric Cancer Specialty Centers (PCSCs) over time and the length of stay (LOS) in pediatric oncology patients with a diagnosis of febrile neutropenia. PCSCs were defined as Children's Oncology Group and California Children's Services designated centers. We performed a retrospective analysis on all discharges of pediatric (0 to 18) oncology patients with febrile neutropenia in California (1983 to 2011) using the private Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development database. We examined influence of age, sex, race/ethnicity, payer, income, distance, tumor type, and complications on utilization of PCSCs and LOS (SAS 9.2). Analysis of 24,559 pediatric oncology febrile neutropenia discharges showed hospitalizations in PCSCs increasing from 48% in 1983 to 94% in 2011. The adjusted regression analysis showed decreased PCSC utilization for ages 15 to 18, Hispanic patients, and those living >40 miles away. The median PCSC LOS was 9 days compared with 7 days at a non-PCSC (P<0.0001). Discharge from a PCSC was associated with a LOS >8 days after controlling for complications. Inpatient PCSC care for febrile neutropenia in California has increased since 1983. Receiving care at a PCSC is influenced by age, tumor type, ethnicity, geography, and complications.

  9. Possible Role of Rickettsia felis in Acute Febrile Illness among Children in Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Mourembou, Gaël; Lekana-Douki, Jean Bernard; Mediannikov, Oleg; Nzondo, Sydney Maghendji; Kouna, Lady Charlene; Essone, Jean Claude Biteghe Bi; Fenollar, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsia felis has been reported to be a cause of fever in sub-Saharan Africa, but this association has been poorly evaluated in Gabon. We assessed the prevalence of this bacterium among children <15 years of age in 4 areas of Gabon; the locations were in urban, semiurban, and rural areas. DNA samples from 410 febrile children and 60 afebrile children were analyzed by quantitative PCR. Overall, the prevalence of R. felis among febrile and afebrile children was 10.2% (42/410 children) and 3.3% (2/60 children), respectively. Prevalence differed among febrile children living in areas that are urban (Franceville, 1.3% [1/77]), semiurban (Koulamoutou, 2.1% [3/141]), and rural (Lastourville, 11.2% [15/134]; Fougamou, 39.7% [23/58]). Furthermore, in a rural area (Fougamou), R. felis was significantly more prevalent in febrile (39.7% [23/58]) than afebrile children (5.0% [1/20]). Additional studies are needed to better understand the pathogenic role of R. felis in this part of the world. PMID:26402580

  10. Diagnosis and Management of Borrelia turicatae Infection in Febrile Soldier, Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Anna M; Pietralczyk, Elizabeth; Lopez, Job E; Brooks, Christopher; Schriefer, Martin E; Wozniak, Edward; Stermole, Benjamin

    2017-05-01

    In August 2015, a soldier returned from field exercises in Texas, USA, with nonspecific febrile illness. Culture and sequencing of spirochetes from peripheral blood diagnosed Borrelia turicatae infection. The patient recovered after receiving doxycycline. No illness occurred in asymptomatic soldiers potentially exposed to the vector tick and prophylactically given treatment.

  11. First Complete Genome Sequences of Zika Virus Isolated from Febrile Patient Sera in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Márquez, S; Carrera, J; Pullan, S T; Lewandowski, K; Paz, V; Loman, N; Quick, J; Bonsall, D; Powell, R; Thézé, J; Pybus, O G; Klenerman, P; Eisenberg, J; Coloma, J; Carroll, M W; Trueba, G; Logue, C H

    2017-02-23

    Here, we present the complete genome sequences of two Zika virus (ZIKV) strains, EcEs062_16 and EcEs089_16, isolated from the sera of febrile patients in Esmeraldas City, in the northern coastal province of Esmeraldas, Ecuador, in April 2016. These are the first complete ZIKV genomes to be reported from Ecuador.

  12. First case of human "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" infection in a febrile patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Welinder-Olsson, Christina; Kjellin, Eva; Vaht, Krista; Jacobsson, Stefan; Wennerås, Christine

    2010-05-01

    An immunocompromised patient presented with febrile episodes, an erysipelas-like rash, and thromboembolic complications. Amplification of 16S rRNA gene sequences from blood and sequence analysis revealed "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis." We report the first case of human disease caused by "Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis."

  13. First Complete Genome Sequences of Zika Virus Isolated from Febrile Patient Sera in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Márquez, S.; Carrera, J.; Pullan, S. T.; Lewandowski, K.; Paz, V.; Loman, N.; Quick, J.; Bonsall, D.; Powell, R.; Thézé, J.; Pybus, O. G.; Klenerman, P.; Eisenberg, J.; Coloma, J.; Carroll, M. W.; Trueba, G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we present the complete genome sequences of two Zika virus (ZIKV) strains, EcEs062_16 and EcEs089_16, isolated from the sera of febrile patients in Esmeraldas City, in the northern coastal province of Esmeraldas, Ecuador, in April 2016. These are the first complete ZIKV genomes to be reported from Ecuador. PMID:28232448

  14. Prenatal undernutrition increases the febrile response to lipopolysaccharides in adulthood in male rats.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Kuwahara, Akira; Yasui, Toshiyuki; Irahara, Minoru

    2015-08-01

    It has been reported that prenatal undernutrition affects the development of the peripheral immune system. In this study, the effects of prenatal undernutrition on the febrile response and hypothalamic innate immune system were evaluated in male rats. Pregnant rats were divided into normally nourished (NN) and undernourished groups (UN). The febrile and anorectic responses to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were evaluated in the offspring of NN and UN dams. The hypothalamic expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were also evaluated. The UN rats exhibited significantly lighter body weights than the NN rats at birth; however, their mean body weight was the same as that of the NN rats by postnatal day 10. In adulthood, the UN rats exhibited significantly stronger febrile responses than the NN rats, and the anorectic responses of the UN rats also tended to be stronger than those of the NN rats. On the other hand, no differences in hypothalamic interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, TLR4, or NPY mRNA expression were detected between the NN and UN rats. These results suggest that prenatal undernutrition has long-lasting effects on the febrile response to LPS. However, the precise mechanism underlying these effects and their pathophysiological significance remain unclear.

  15. Chikungunya Virus in Febrile Humans and Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes, Yucatan, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Cigarroa-Toledo, Nohemi; Blitvich, Bradley J.; Cetina-Trejo, Rosa C.; Talavera-Aguilar, Lourdes G.; Baak-Baak, Carlos M.; Torres-Chablé, Oswaldo M.; Hamid, Md-Nafiz; Friedberg, Iddo; González-Martinez, Pedro; Alonzo-Salomon, Gabriela; Rosado-Paredes, Elsy P.; Rivero-Cárdenas, Nubia; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe C.; Farfan-Ale, Jose A.; Garcia-Rejon, Julian E.

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was isolated from 12 febrile humans in Yucatan, Mexico, in 2015. One patient was co-infected with dengue virus type 1. Two additional CHIKV isolates were obtained from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes collected in the homes of patients. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the CHIKV isolates belong to the Asian lineage. PMID:27347760

  16. Prenatal Stress and Risk of Febrile Seizures in Children: A Nationwide Longitudinal Study in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jorn; Obel, Carsten; Christensen, Jakob; Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether exposure to prenatal stress following maternal bereavement is associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures. In a longitudinal population-based cohort study, we followed 1,431,175 children born in Denmark. A total of 34,777 children were born to women who lost a close relative during pregnancy or within 1 year…

  17. Surveillance of transcriptomes in basic military trainees with normal, febrile respiratory illness, and convalescent phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Thach, D C; Agan, B K; Olsen, C; Diao, J; Lin, B; Gomez, J; Jesse, M; Jenkins, M; Rowley, R; Hanson, E; Tibbetts, C; Stenger, D A; Walter, E

    2005-10-01

    Gene expression profiles permit analysis of host immune response at the transcriptome level. We used the Pax gene Blood RNA (PAX) System and Affymetrix microarrays (HG-U133A&B) to survey profiles in basic military trainees and to classify them as healthy, febrile respiratory illness (FRI) without adenovirus, FRI with adenovirus, and convalescent from FRI with adenovirus. We assessed quality metrics of RNA processing for microarrays. Class prediction analysis discovered nested sets of transcripts that could categorize the phenotypes with optimized accuracy of 99% (nonfebrile vs febrile, P<0.0005), 87% (healthy vs convalescent, P=0.001), and 91% (febrile without vs with adenovirus, P<0.0005). The discovered set for classification of nonfebrile vs febrile patients consisted of 40 transcripts with functions related to interferon induced genes, complement cascades, and TNF and IL1 signaling. The set of seven transcripts for distinguishing healthy vs convalescent individuals included those associated with ribosomal structure, humoral immunity, and cell adhesion. The set of 10 transcripts for distinguishing FRI without vs with adenovirus had functions related to interferon induced genes, IL1 receptor accessory protein, and cell interactions. These results are the first in vivo demonstration of classification of infectious diseases via host signature transcripts and move us towards using the transcriptome in bio-surveillance.

  18. Treatment of febrile seizures: historical perspective, current opinions, and potential future directions.

    PubMed

    Lux, Andrew L

    2010-01-01

    Although most febrile seizures do no harm and two-thirds of initial cases have no witnessed recurrence, the seizures cause much family anxiety, and are sometimes prolonged. In rare cases they are the first evidence of important epilepsy syndromes or are implicated in the development of epilepsy with mesial temporal sclerosis in later life. There have been trials of prophylactic treatment with antiepileptic drugs including carbamazepine, diazepam, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and sodium valproate. Several strategies have been employed with these drugs, including continuous secondary prophylaxis, intermittent secondary prophylaxis in response to later episodes of fever, and rescue medication early in the course of further seizures. Another treatment strategy has been using one or more antipyretic agents in early response to fever using agents such as acetaminophen and ibuprofen. Over the years, researchers have identified a variety of clinical, genetic, and environmental risk factors for more severe or prolonged febrile seizures and higher risk of recurrence. This review evaluates the rationale for secondary prophylaxis of febrile seizures, the potential effectiveness of such treatment, and whether it can be recommended as a general approach to treating febrile seizures or as an approach to be used in groups identified to be at increased risk.

  19. Technical report—Diagnosis and management of an initial UTI in febrile infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Finnell, S Maria E; Carroll, Aaron E; Downs, Stephen M

    2011-09-01

    The diagnosis and management of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in young children are clinically challenging. This report was developed to inform the revised, evidence-based, clinical guideline regarding the diagnosis and management of initial UTIs in febrile infants and young children, 2 to 24 months of age, from the American Academy of Pediatrics Subcommittee on Urinary Tract Infection. The conceptual model presented in the 1999 technical report was updated after a comprehensive review of published literature. Studies with potentially new information or with evidence that reinforced the 1999 technical report were retained. Meta-analyses on the effectiveness of antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent recurrent UTI were performed. Review of recent literature revealed new evidence in the following areas. Certain clinical findings and new urinalysis methods can help clinicians identify febrile children at very low risk of UTI. Oral antimicrobial therapy is as effective as parenteral therapy in treating UTI. Data from published, randomized controlled trials do not support antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent febrile UTI when vesicoureteral reflux is found through voiding cystourethrography. Ultrasonography of the urinary tract after the first UTI has poor sensitivity. Early antimicrobial treatment may decrease the risk of renal damage from UTI. Recent literature agrees with most of the evidence presented in the 1999 technical report, but meta-analyses of data from recent, randomized controlled trials do not support antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent febrile UTI. This finding argues against voiding cystourethrography after the first UTI.

  20. Urinary Biomarkers for Screening for Renal Scarring in Children with Febrile Urinary Tract Infection: Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Kitao, Tetsuya; Kimata, Takahisa; Yamanouchi, Sohsaku; Kato, Shogo; Tsuji, Shoji; Kaneko, Kazunari

    2015-09-01

    Recurrent febrile urinary tract infections during infancy cause renal scarring, which is characterized by progressive focal interstitial fibrosis and may lead to renal failure. Renal scarring can be diagnosed through scintigraphy, although it seems impractical to perform renal scintigraphy for all infants with febrile urinary tract infections. Therefore, it is important to search for a biomarker to identify the presence of renal scarring. We hypothesized that urinary biomarkers of nephropathy may increase in infants with renal scarring following febrile urinary tract infections. A total of 49 infants who underwent renal scintigraphy for febrile urinary tract infections were enrolled in the study. Several measurements were performed using urine samples, including total proteins, beta2-microglobulins, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin, liver-type fatty acid binding protein and angiotensinogen. Values were corrected by creatinine and compared between patients with and without renal scarring. Among urinary biomarkers only angiotensinogen in patients with scarring (median 14.6 μg/gm creatinine) demonstrated significantly higher levels than in patients without scarring (3.6 μg/gm creatinine, p <0.001). Urinary angiotensinogen may be useful for diagnosing the presence of renal scarring. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Suggestion of a major gene for familial febrile convulsions mapping to 8q13-21.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, R H; Berkovic, S F; Howell, R A; Sutherland, G R; Mulley, J C

    1996-01-01

    Febrile convulsions affect 2 to 5% of all children under the age of 5 years. These convulsions probably have a variety of causes, but a genetic component has long been recognised. A large and remarkable family is described in which febrile convulsions appear to result from autosomal dominant inheritance at a single major locus. A gene for febrile convulsions was excluded from regions of previously mapped epilepsy genes and extension of exclusion mapping, using microsatellite markers, to the entire genome implied that a locus on chromosome 8q13-21 may be involved. Linkage analysis of markers on chromosome 8 gave a multipoint lod score of 3.40, maximised over different values of penetrance and phenocopy rate, for linkage between the gene for febrile convulsions and the region flanked by markers D8S553 and D8S279. This lod score was calculated assuming the disease has a penetrance of 60% and a phenocopy rate of 3%. Although there was no indication of linkage other than to markers on chromosome 8, linkage remains suggestive rather than significant because of the maximisation procedure applied. The support for linkage involving a major gene, as opposed to an alternative hypothesis of a complex inheritance pattern, relied upon the assumption of low penetrance. PMID:8730286

  2. National survey of childhood febrile illness cases with fever of unknown origin in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Kazuko; Mori, Masaaki; Hara, Ryoki; Miyamae, Takako; Imagawa, Tomoyuki; Yokota, Shumpei

    2011-08-01

    In Japan, an actual condition survey on childhood febrile diseases with fever of unknown origin has never been performed. We carried out a national survey on childhood febrile illnesses in order to collect useful information for the differential diagnosis. A nationwide survey using questionnaires was performed on febrile illness cases with fever of unknown origin (FUO) experienced by 2843 pediatrics institutions with sick beds during a 5-year period before 2007. FUO was defined as a febrile illness of at least 2 weeks' duration with a temperature ≥ 38°C, and failure to establish a diagnosis in spite of intensive evaluation during seven days' hospitalization. Two hundred fifty-five of 2843 questionnaire-surveyed institutions had 960 FUO cases, of which 132 could not be diagnosed, and 828 could be diagnosed after detailed medical examinations. The diagnoses they clarified included infectious diseases in 190 cases (23%), rheumatic diseases in 448 cases (54%), neoplasms in 67 cases (8%), and others in 123 cases (15%). Clarification of illnesses that ought to be differentiated in the diagnostic approach to an FUO case is essential for arriving at its definitive diagnosis by exclusion. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  3. Serum and CSF levels of cytokines in acute encephalopathy following prolonged febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Ichiyama, Takashi; Suenaga, Naoko; Kajimoto, Madoka; Tohyama, Jun; Isumi, Hiroshi; Kubota, Masaya; Mori, Masato; Furukawa, Susumu

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that an acute encephalopathy occasionally follows prolonged febrile seizures. We measured the concentrations of interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNFR1) in serum and CSF during the acute stage in 13 children with acute encephalopathy following prolonged febrile seizures (AEPFS) and 23 with prolonged febrile seizures without encephalopathy (PFS) to investigate the pathogenesis of AEPFS. Serum IL-6, IL-10, sTNFR1, and CSF IL-6 levels were significantly higher in AEPFS and PFS compared with control subjects. CSF IL-6 levels in AEPFS were significantly higher than those in PFS, but not serum IL-6, IL-10, or sTNFR1. The CSF IL-6 levels were significantly higher than the serum levels in AEPFS, but not PFS. The serum levels of sTNFR1 and IL-10 were significantly higher than those in the CSF in AEPFS and PFS. The serum IL-10 and sTNFR1 levels in patients who did not experience a second seizure were significantly higher than those in patients who experienced a second seizure, which was characterized by clusters of complex partial seizures several days after the initial prolonged febrile seizure. Our results suggest that serum IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha, and CSF IL-6 are part of the regulatory system of cytokines in AEPFS.

  4. Autism after infection, febrile episodes, and antibiotic use during pregnancy: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Atladóttir, Hjördis Ósk; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Schendel, Diana E; Parner, Erik T

    2012-12-01

    Results of animal studies suggest that maternal immune activation during pregnancy causes deficiencies in fetal neurodevelopment. Infectious disease is the most common path to maternal immune activation during pregnancy. The goal of this study was to determine the occurrence of common infections, febrile episodes, and use of antibiotics reported by the mother during pregnancy and the risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and infantile autism in the offspring. We used a population-based cohort consisting of 96 736 children aged 8 to 14 years and born from 1997 to 2003 in Denmark. Information on infection, febrile episodes, and use of antibiotics was self-reported through telephone interviews during pregnancy and early postpartum. Diagnoses of ASD and infantile autism were retrieved from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register; 976 children (1%) from the cohort were diagnosed with ASD. Overall, we found little evidence that various types of mild common infectious diseases or febrile episodes during pregnancy were associated with ASD/infantile autism. However, our data suggest that maternal influenza infection was associated with a twofold increased risk of infantile autism, prolonged episodes of fever caused a threefold increased risk of infantile autism, and use of various antibiotics during pregnancy were potential risk factors for ASD/infantile autism. Our results do not suggest that mild infections, febrile episodes, or use of antibiotics during pregnancy are strong risk factors for ASD/infantile autism. The results may be due to multiple testing; the few positive findings are potential chance findings.

  5. Parental perspectives on inpatient versus outpatient management of pediatric febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Diorio, Caroline; Martino, Julia; Boydell, Katherine Mary; Ethier, Marie-Chantal; Mayo, Chris; Wing, Richard; Teuffel, Oliver; Sung, Lillian; Tomlinson, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    To describe parent preference for treatment of febrile neutropenia and the key drivers of parental decision making, structured face-to-face interviews were used to elicit parent preferences for inpatient versus outpatient management of pediatric febrile neutropenia. Parents were presented with 4 different scenarios and asked to indicate which treatment option they preferred and to describe reasons for this preference during the face-to-face interview. Comments were recorded in writing by research assistants. A consensus approach to thematic analysis was used to identify themes from the written comments of the research assistants. A total of 155 parents participated in the study. Of these, 80 (51.6%) parents identified hospital-based intravenous treatment as the most preferred treatment scenario for febrile neutropenia. The major themes identified included convenience/disruptiveness, physical health, emotional well-being, and modifiers of parental decision making. Most parents preferred hospital-based treatment for febrile neutropenia. An understanding of issues that influence parental decision making may assist health care workers in planning program implementation and further support families in their decision-making process.

  6. [Leptospirosis frequency and socio-demographic characteristics associated in febrile patients from northern Perú].

    PubMed

    Silva-Díaz, Heber; Llatas-Cancino, Dunalia N; Campos-Sánchez, Marcos J; Aguilar-Gamboa, Franklin R; Mera-Villasis, Katya M; Valderrama-Ayén, Mayra Y

    2015-10-01

    INDRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is a frequent cause of febrile illness around the world, particularly in tropical and subtropical areas such as Perú. To estimate the frequency and socio-demographic characteristics associated with leptospirosis in febrile patients in northern Perú. A cross sectional study was conducted from January to December 2014 in 143 fever cases admitted to the Hospital Regional Lambayeque, Perú. Structured for socio-demographic information and sanitation questionnaire was used. Serum samples were examined to quantitatively determine the presence of IgM antibodies to leptospira using ELISA IgM. The frequency was 26.6% (95% CI 19.3 to 33.8) and independently associated features were: be between 20-54 years (OR: 3.36, 95% CI 1.17 to 9, 64), work in agriculture-livestock (OR: 6.15, 95% CI 1.99 to 19.05),contact with animals (OR: 4,13, IC 95%: 1,76-9,65) and consumption of unsafe water(OR: 3,33, IC 95%: 1,49-7,43). This study reveals a high frequency of leptospirosis among febrile patients from northern Perú. These results indicate the need to investigate routinely leptospirosis in febrile patients, especially those exhibiting risk characteristics.

  7. Iron Status and Febrile Seizure- A Case Control Study in Children Less Than 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    SADEGHZADEH, Mansour; KHOSHNEVIS ASL, Parisa; MAHBOUBI, Esrafil

    2012-01-01

    Objective Febrile seizure is one of the most common neurological conditions of childhood. Several theories, such as iron deficiency anemia have been proposed as the pathogenesis of this condition. The aim of this study was to find the association between iron deficiency anemia and febrile seizures in children aged 6 months to 3 years admitted in Valie Asr hospital in Zanjan. Materials &Methods Hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum iron (SI), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and SI/TIBC ratio were assessed in one hundred children with febrile seizures and compared to the values of one hundred healthy children presenting in a heath care center in the same period as the control group. Results A total of 6% of cases had iron deficiency anemia which was similar to the control group. In the case group SI/TIBC ratio below 12% was seen in 58% of children which was significantly higher than that of the control group (29%). Conclusion The results of this study suggest that although anemia was not common among febrile seizure patients, iron deficiency was more frequent in these patients. PMID:24665277

  8. [Frequency of recurrent convulsions after a first febrile seizure: two-year observation results].

    PubMed

    Mustafić, Nevzeta; Tahirović, Husref; Trnovcević, Jasmina

    2010-01-01

    Febrile convulsions are the most frequent neurological disorder of early childhood. One third of children with febrile convulsions will have a recurrence, and only a small number will develop afebrile convulsions with epilepsy variation. The aim of the work was to establish the frequency of convulsion recurrence through the retrospective study with regard to age, type of recurrence, and applied prophylaxis in children in Tuzla Canton in a two-year period after the first febrile convulsion. Amongst 716 patients, 21.9% had a recurrence. Recurrence of simple febrile convulsions occurred in 124 (78.9%), complex in 18 (11.5%), and 14 (9.8%) patients had afebrile convulsions. There was no statistically significant difference in recurrence appearance between patients who received continuous and intermittent prophylaxis or different type of continuous prophylaxis. Knowledge of recurrence frequency according to age groups opens the possibility of recurrence prevention with adequate therapeutic measures, especially in home care conditions. Good parent education would represent the first step in recurrence prevention.

  9. Expression Profiling after Prolonged Experimental Febrile Seizures in Mice Suggests Structural Remodeling in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Jongbloets, Bart C.; van Gassen, Koen L. I.; Kan, Anne A.; Olde Engberink, Anneke H. O.; de Wit, Marina; Wolterink-Donselaar, Inge G.; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J. A.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Onno; Holstege, Frank C. P.; de Graan, Pierre N. E.

    2015-01-01

    Febrile seizures are the most prevalent type of seizures among children up to 5 years of age (2–4% of Western-European children). Complex febrile seizures are associated with an increased risk to develop temporal lobe epilepsy. To investigate short- and long-term effects of experimental febrile seizures (eFS), we induced eFS in highly febrile convulsion-susceptible C57BL/6J mice at post-natal day 10 by exposure to hyperthermia (HT) and compared them to normotherm-exposed (NT) mice. We detected structural re-organization in the hippocampus 14 days after eFS. To identify molecular candidates, which entrain this structural re-organization, we investigated temporal changes in mRNA expression profiles eFS 1 hour to 56 days after eFS. We identified 931 regulated genes and profiled several candidates using in situ hybridization and histology at 3 and 14 days after eFS. This is the first study to report genome-wide transcriptome analysis after eFS in mice. We identify temporal regulation of multiple processes, such as stress-, immune- and inflammatory responses, glia activation, glutamate-glutamine cycle and myelination. Identification of the short- and long-term changes after eFS is important to elucidate the mechanisms contributing to epileptogenesis. PMID:26684451

  10. Upregulated H-Current in Hyperexcitable CA1 Dendrites after Febrile Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Dyhrfjeld-Johnsen, Jonas; Morgan, Robert J.; Földy, Csaba; Soltesz, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Somatic recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells indicated a persistent upregulation of the h-current (Ih) after experimental febrile seizures. Here, we examined febrile seizure-induced long-term changes in Ih and neuronal excitability in CA1 dendrites. Cell-attached recordings showed that dendritic Ih was significantly upregulated, with a depolarized half-activation potential and increased maximal current. Although enhanced Ih is typically thought to be associated with decreased dendritic excitability, whole-cell dendritic recordings revealed a robust increase in action potential firing after febrile seizures. We turned to computational simulations to understand how the experimentally observed changes in Ih influence dendritic excitability. Unexpectedly, the simulations, performed in three previously published CA1 pyramidal cell models, showed that the experimentally observed increases in Ih resulted in a general enhancement of dendritic excitability, primarily due to the increased Ih-induced depolarization of the resting membrane potential overcoming the excitability-depressing effects of decreased dendritic input resistance. Taken together, these experimental and modeling results reveal that, contrary to the exclusively anti-convulsive role often attributed to increased Ih in epilepsy, the enhanced Ih can co-exist with, and possibly even contribute to, persistent dendritic hyperexcitability following febrile seizures in the developing hippocampus. PMID:18946517

  11. Rickettsia felis Infection in Febrile Patients, Western Kenya, 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Maina, Alice N.; Knobel, Darryn L.; Jiang, Ju; Halliday, Jo; Feikin, Daniel R.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Ng’ang’a, Zipporah; Junghae, Muthoni; Breiman, Robert F.; Richards, Allen L.

    2012-01-01

    To determine previous exposure and incidence of rickettsial infections in western Kenya during 2007–2010, we conducted hospital-based surveillance. Antibodies against rickettsiae were detected in 57.4% of previously collected serum samples. In a 2008–2010 prospective study, Rickettsia felis DNA was 2.2× more likely to be detected in febrile than in afebrile persons. PMID:22304807

  12. Unsuspected rickettsioses among patients with acute febrile illness, Sri Lanka, 2007.

    PubMed

    Reller, Megan E; Bodinayake, Champica; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Devasiri, Vasantha; Kodikara-Arachichi, Wasantha; Strouse, John J; Flom, Judith E; Østbye, Truls; Woods, Christopher W; Dumler, J Stephen

    2012-05-01

    We studied rickettsioses in southern Sri Lanka. Of 883 febrile patients with paired serum samples, 156 (17.7%) had acute rickettsioses; rickettsioses were unsuspected at presentation. Additionally, 342 (38.7%) had exposure to spotted fever and/or typhus group rickettsioses and 121 (13.7%) scrub typhus. Increased awareness of rickettsioses and better tests are needed.

  13. Study of viremic profile in febrile specimens of chikungunya in Bandung, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Riswari, S F; Ma'roef, C N; Djauhari, H; Kosasih, H; Perkasa, A; Yudhaputri, F A; Artika, I M; Williams, M; van der Ven, A; Myint, K S; Alisjahbana, B; Ledermann, J P; Powers, A M; Jaya, U A

    2016-01-01

    Data regarding the viremia profile of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infected patients especially during the pre-febrile period is limited. To obtain virological kinetic data on CHIKV infections. A two-week community observation for dengue transmission was conducted in Bandung, Indonesia, from 2005 to 2009. Acute specimens from non-dengue febrile patients were screened by pan-alphavirus conventional RT-PCR. The positives were confirmed for CHIKV RNA by a specific RT-PCR followed by sequencing. Simultaneously these specimens were also cultured in Vero cells and tested for anti-CHIK IgM MAC-ELISA. All the available serial specimens,including the pre-febrile specimens, from confirmed CHIK cases, were tested by virus isolation, RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, and CHIK IgM ELISA. There were five laboratory confirmed CHIK cases identified and studied. Among these, viremia was determined to extend from as early as 6 days prior to until 13 days post fever onset. Quantitative RT-PCR showed viremia peaked at or near onset of illness. In this study, individuals were identified with viremia prior to fever onset and extending beyond the febrile phase. This extended viremic phase has the potential to impact transmission dynamics and thus the public health response to CHIK outbreaks. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Home intravenous antibiotic treatment for febrile episodes in immune-compromised pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Shemesh, E; Yaniv, I; Drucker, M; Hadad, S; Goshen, Y; Stein, J; Ash, S; Fisher, S; Zaizov, R

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the feasibility of home intravenous antibiotic treatment (HIAT) for febrile episodes in immune-compromised (neutropenic, splenectomized), low-risk pediatric patients. Thirty hematology-oncology patients who presented to our emergency room from January 1993 to January 1995 and who suffered from a febrile episode and were considered at low risk for septic complications were immediately discharged on HIAT. Patients were followed for at least 3 weeks after recovery. Patients and parents were retrospectively questioned about adverse effects and about their degree of satisfaction with home treatment. Patients who required hospitalization during this period were considered unresponsive to HIAT and were analyzed for causes and adverse effects. Thirteen out of 60 (22%) febrile episodes, or eight out of 42 (19%) episodes of fever and neutropenia eventually led to hospitalization. Pseudomonas species infections were associated with the highest rate of unresponsiveness (88%). A central venous catheter infection developed in two cases following HIAT (two cases out of 640 days of therapy). No other complications were identified. No infection-related morbidity was observed. Patients and parents were highly satisfied with HIAT and wanted to use it again, if necessary. Immediate discharge on HIAT for low-risk pediatric immune-compromised patients suffering from a febrile episode is feasible, safe, and well accepted by patients and families. Patients who are found to have Pseudomonas infections should probably be hospitalized. Our results are preliminary and must be confirmed by a prospective, randomized trial before definite recommendations can be made.

  15. [Complex febrile seizures: study of the associated pathology and practical use of complementary tests].

    PubMed

    Berzosa López, R; Ramos Fernández, J M; Martínez Antón, J; Espinosa Fernández, M G; Urda Cardona, A

    2014-06-01

    Although one third of febrile seizures are complex, a consensus has still not been reached on how to manage them, as is the case with simple febrile seizures. The objective of this study is to estimate the usefulness of complementary examinations and the risk of associated serious intracranial pathology. A retrospective review was conducted from 2003 until 2011 on patients from 6 months to 6 years presenting with a complex febrile seizure admitted to a tertiary care hospital, excluding the cases with previous neurological disease. Epidemiological and clinic variables were collected, as well as complementary tests and complications. We found 65 patients (31 females and 34 males), of whom 44 had repeated seizures in the first 24 hours, with 15 having focal seizures. The vast majority (90%) of the recurrences occurred before 15 hours. The mean age was 20.7 months and temperature was 39.1 ± 0.12°C. None of the patients had severe intracranial pathology. The electroencephalogram gave no helpful information for the diagnosis. Neuroimaging was normal in all studied cases. The incidence of complications in complex febrile seizure in our series did not justify the systematic admission or the systematic study with complementary tests when the neurological examination was normal. The routine electroencephalogram does not appear to be justified. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Prenatal Stress and Risk of Febrile Seizures in Children: A Nationwide Longitudinal Study in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jorn; Obel, Carsten; Christensen, Jakob; Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether exposure to prenatal stress following maternal bereavement is associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures. In a longitudinal population-based cohort study, we followed 1,431,175 children born in Denmark. A total of 34,777 children were born to women who lost a close relative during pregnancy or within 1 year…

  17. Febrile neutropenia in chemotherapy treated small-cell lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Kukec, Renata Rezonja; Grabnar, Iztok; Vovk, Tomaz; Mrhar, Ales; Kovac, Viljem; Cufer, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Background. Chemotherapy with platinum agent and etoposide for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is supposed to be associated with intermediate risk (10–20%) of febrile neutropenia. Primary prophylaxis with granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSFs) is not routinely recommended by the treatment guidelines. However, in clinical practice febrile neutropenia is often observed with standard etoposide/platinum regimen. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the frequency of neutropenia and febrile neutropenia in advanced SCLC patients in the first cycle of standard chemotherapy. Furthermore, we explored the association between severe neutropenia and etoposide peak plasma levels in the same patients. Methods. The case series based analysis of 17 patients with advanced SCLC treated with standard platinum/etoposide chemotherapy, already included in the pharmacokinetics study with etoposide, was performed. Grade 3/4 neutropenia and febrile neutropenia, observed after the first cycle are reported. The neutrophil counts were determined on day one of the second cycle unless symptoms potentially related to neutropenia occurred. Adverse events were classified according to Common Toxicity Criteria 4.0. Additionally, association between severe neutropenia and etoposide peak plasma concentrations, which were measured in the scope of pharmacokinetic study, was explored. Results. Two out of 17 patients received primary GCS-F prophylaxis. In 15 patient who did not receive primary prophylaxis the rates of both grade 3/4 neutropenia and febrile neutropenia were high (8/15 (53.3%) and 2/15 (13.3%), respectively), already in the first cycle of chemotherapy. One patient died due to febrile neutropenia related pneumonia. Neutropenic events are assumed to be related to increased etoposide plasma concentrations after a standard etoposide and cisplatin dose. While the mean etoposide peak plasma concentration in the first cycle of chemotherapy was 17.6 mg/l, the highest levels of 27.07 and

  18. Association of RNA Biosignatures With Bacterial Infections in Febrile Infants Aged 60 Days or Younger

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Prashant; Kuppermann, Nathan; Mejias, Asuncion; Suarez, Nicolas; Chaussabel, Damien; Casper, T. Charles; Smith, Bennett; Alpern, Elizabeth R.; Anders, Jennifer; Atabaki, Shireen M.; Bennett, Jonathan E.; Blumberg, Stephen; Bonsu, Bema; Borgialli, Dominic; Brayer, Anne; Browne, Lorin; Cohen, Daniel M.; Crain, Ellen F.; Cruz, Andrea T.; Dayan, Peter S.; Gattu, Rajender; Greenberg, Richard; Hoyle, John D.; Jaffe, David M.; Levine, Deborah A.; Lillis, Kathleen; Linakis, James G.; Muenzer, Jared; Nigrovic, Lise E.; Powell, Elizabeth C.; Rogers, Alexander J.; Roosevelt, Genie; Ruddy, Richard M.; Saunders, Mary; Tunik, Michael G.; Tzimenatos, Leah; Vitale, Melissa; Dean, J. Michael; Ramilo, Octavio

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Young febrile infants are at substantial risk of serious bacterial infections; however, the current culture-based diagnosis has limitations. Analysis of host expression patterns (“RNA biosignatures”) in response to infections may provide an alternative diagnostic approach. OBJECTIVE To assess whether RNA biosignatures can distinguish febrile infants aged 60 days or younger with and without serious bacterial infections. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective observational study involving a convenience sample of febrile infants 60 days or younger evaluated for fever (temperature >38° C) in 22 emergency departments from December 2008 to December 2010 who underwent laboratory evaluations including blood cultures. A random sample of infants with and without bacterial infections was selected for RNA biosignature analysis. Afebrile healthy infants served as controls. Blood samples were collected for cultures and RNA biosignatures. Bioinformatics tools were applied to define RNA biosignatures to classify febrile infants by infection type. EXPOSURE RNA biosignatures compared with cultures for discriminating febrile infants with and without bacterial infections and infants with bacteremia from those without bacterial infections. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Bacterial infection confirmed by culture. Performance of RNA biosignatures was compared with routine laboratory screening tests and Yale Observation Scale (YOS) scores. RESULTS Of 1883 febrile infants (median age, 37 days; 55.7%boys), RNA biosignatures were measured in 279 randomly selected infants (89 with bacterial infections—including 32 with bacteremia and 15 with urinary tract infections—and 190 without bacterial infections), and 19 afebrile healthy infants. Sixty-six classifier genes were identified that distinguished infants with and without bacterial infections in the test set with 87%(95%CI, 73%-95%) sensitivity and 89% (95%CI, 81%-93%) specificity. Ten classifier genes distinguished

  19. Association of RNA Biosignatures With Bacterial Infections in Febrile Infants Aged 60 Days or Younger.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Prashant; Kuppermann, Nathan; Mejias, Asuncion; Suarez, Nicolas; Chaussabel, Damien; Casper, T Charles; Smith, Bennett; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Anders, Jennifer; Atabaki, Shireen M; Bennett, Jonathan E; Blumberg, Stephen; Bonsu, Bema; Borgialli, Dominic; Brayer, Anne; Browne, Lorin; Cohen, Daniel M; Crain, Ellen F; Cruz, Andrea T; Dayan, Peter S; Gattu, Rajender; Greenberg, Richard; Hoyle, John D; Jaffe, David M; Levine, Deborah A; Lillis, Kathleen; Linakis, James G; Muenzer, Jared; Nigrovic, Lise E; Powell, Elizabeth C; Rogers, Alexander J; Roosevelt, Genie; Ruddy, Richard M; Saunders, Mary; Tunik, Michael G; Tzimenatos, Leah; Vitale, Melissa; Dean, J Michael; Ramilo, Octavio

    Young febrile infants are at substantial risk of serious bacterial infections; however, the current culture-based diagnosis has limitations. Analysis of host expression patterns ("RNA biosignatures") in response to infections may provide an alternative diagnostic approach. To assess whether RNA biosignatures can distinguish febrile infants aged 60 days or younger with and without serious bacterial infections. Prospective observational study involving a convenience sample of febrile infants 60 days or younger evaluated for fever (temperature >38° C) in 22 emergency departments from December 2008 to December 2010 who underwent laboratory evaluations including blood cultures. A random sample of infants with and without bacterial infections was selected for RNA biosignature analysis. Afebrile healthy infants served as controls. Blood samples were collected for cultures and RNA biosignatures. Bioinformatics tools were applied to define RNA biosignatures to classify febrile infants by infection type. RNA biosignatures compared with cultures for discriminating febrile infants with and without bacterial infections and infants with bacteremia from those without bacterial infections. Bacterial infection confirmed by culture. Performance of RNA biosignatures was compared with routine laboratory screening tests and Yale Observation Scale (YOS) scores. Of 1883 febrile infants (median age, 37 days; 55.7% boys), RNA biosignatures were measured in 279 randomly selected infants (89 with bacterial infections-including 32 with bacteremia and 15 with urinary tract infections-and 190 without bacterial infections), and 19 afebrile healthy infants. Sixty-six classifier genes were identified that distinguished infants with and without bacterial infections in the test set with 87% (95% CI, 73%-95%) sensitivity and 89% (95% CI, 81%-93%) specificity. Ten classifier genes distinguished infants with bacteremia from those without bacterial infections in the test set with 94% (95% CI, 70

  20. Pharmacokinetic studies of levofloxacin after oral administration in healthy and febrile cow calves.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Subodh; Kumar, Vijay; Singh, Kaushal K; Roy, Birendra K

    2009-12-01

    The present experiment was designed to study the pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin in six healthy cross bred female cow calves (4 to 6 months age) weighing between 40 to 80 kg. Plasma from blood was separated by centrifugation at 10,000 rpm. Quantitative estimation of levofloxacin was done by UV-VIS spectrophotometer at 286 nm. The mean maximum plasma concentration (Cp(max)) of levofloxacin in febrile calves (5.28±0.32 μg/ml) did not differ significantly as compared with healthy calves (4.50±0.22 μg/ml) after single dose (20 mg/kg) oral administration. The mean therapeutic plasma concentration (Cp(ther)) of levofloxacin was maintained for longer period in febrile calves (10 h) as compared to healthy calves ( 8 h). The mean maximum urine concentration (Cu(max)) in febrile (40.86±2.19 μg/ml) also did not differ significantly as compared with healthy calves (39.38±2.43 μg/ml). No significant difference in various pharmacokinetic parameters of plasma was observed in healthy calves ( β=0.23±0.01/h ; t½β=3.00±0.17 h and MRT=4.66±0.14 h ) and febrile calves ( β=0.23±0.01/ h; t½β=3.05±0.16 h and MRT=5.04±0.14 h). The mean value of β, and t½β calculated in urine also did not differ between healthy and febrile calves. However, the value of MRT(3.79±0.07 h) and Cl(B) (1.65±0.09 ml/kg/min) calculated in urine of febrile calves significantly (p<0.05) differ to healthy calves (MRT=3.15±0.03 h;Cl(B)=2.09±0.13 ml/kg/min). Based on kinetic profile levofloxacin may be given orally at the dose rate of 1.49 mg/kg B.W.at 8 h intervals in febrile calves.

  1. Comparison of Serum Zinc Levels Measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry in Preschool Children with Febrile and Afebrile Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun-Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Background Changes in levels of trace elements have been proposed to underlie febrile seizures. Particularly, low zinc levels have been proposed as related factor of febrile seizure. In this study, we investigated whether mean serum zinc levels differed between children with febrile seizure and afebrile seizure. Methods Using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, serum zinc levels were measured in 288 children who had been diagnosed with febrile seizures (N=248) and afebrile seizures (N=40). Mean serum zinc levels were compared between the 2 groups. Results Mean serum zinc level was 60.5±12.7 µg/dL in the febrile seizure group and 68.9 ±14.5 µg/dL in the afebrile seizure group. A significant difference in serum zinc levels was observed between the febrile and afebrile seizure groups (P<0.001). Conclusions Zinc levels in children with febrile seizure were significantly lower than those in children with afebrile seizure. PMID:22563553

  2. The Effect of Quercetin on Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines in a Prenatally Stressed Rat Model of Febrile Seizures.

    PubMed

    Mkhize, Nombuso Valencia Pearl; Qulu, Lihle; Mabandla, Musa Vuyisile

    2017-01-01

    Febrile seizures are childhood convulsions resulting from an infection that leads to an inflammatory response and subsequent convulsions. Prenatal stress has been shown to heighten the progression and intensity of febrile seizures. Current medications are costly and have adverse effects associated with prolonged use. Quercetin flavonoid exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant, and anti-stress effects. This study was aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of quercetin in a prenatally stressed rat model of febrile seizures. We hypothesized that quercetin will alleviate the effects of prenatal stress in a febrile seizure rat model. On gestational day 13, Sprague-Dawley rat dams were subjected to restraint stress for 1 hour/d for 7 days. Febrile seizures were induced on postnatal day 14 on rat pups by intraperitoneally injecting lipopolysaccharide followed by kainic acid and quercetin on seizure onset. Hippocampal tissue was harvested to profile cytokine concentrations. Our results show that quercetin suppresses prenatal stress-induced pro-inflammatory marker (interleukin 1 beta) levels, subsequently attenuating febrile seizures. This shows that quercetin can be therapeutic for febrile seizures in prenatally stressed individuals.

  3. The Effect of Quercetin on Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines in a Prenatally Stressed Rat Model of Febrile Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Mkhize, Nombuso Valencia Pearl; Qulu, Lihle; Mabandla, Musa Vuyisile

    2017-01-01

    Febrile seizures are childhood convulsions resulting from an infection that leads to an inflammatory response and subsequent convulsions. Prenatal stress has been shown to heighten the progression and intensity of febrile seizures. Current medications are costly and have adverse effects associated with prolonged use. Quercetin flavonoid exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-convulsant, and anti-stress effects. This study was aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of quercetin in a prenatally stressed rat model of febrile seizures. We hypothesized that quercetin will alleviate the effects of prenatal stress in a febrile seizure rat model. On gestational day 13, Sprague-Dawley rat dams were subjected to restraint stress for 1 hour/d for 7 days. Febrile seizures were induced on postnatal day 14 on rat pups by intraperitoneally injecting lipopolysaccharide followed by kainic acid and quercetin on seizure onset. Hippocampal tissue was harvested to profile cytokine concentrations. Our results show that quercetin suppresses prenatal stress–induced pro-inflammatory marker (interleukin 1 beta) levels, subsequently attenuating febrile seizures. This shows that quercetin can be therapeutic for febrile seizures in prenatally stressed individuals. PMID:28579828

  4. Quantitative evaluation of medial temporal lobe morphology in children with febrile status epilepticus: Results of the FEBSTAT study

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Andrew C.; Gomes, William A.; Shinnar, Shlomo; Hesdorffer, Dale C; Bagiella, Emilia; Lewis, Darrell V; Bello, Jacqueline A; Chan, Stephen; MacFall, James; Chen, Min; Pellock, John M; Nordli, Douglas R; Frank, L. Mathew; Moshe, Solomon; Shinnar, Ruth C; Sun, Shumei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The pathogenesis of febrile status epilepticus is poorly understood, but prior studies suggest an association with temporal lobe abnormalities including hippocampal malrotation. We employ a quantitative morphometric method to assess the association between temporal lobe morphology and febrile status epilepticus. Methods Brain MR imaging was obtained in children presenting with febrile status epilepticus and control subjects as part of the FEBSTAT study. Medial temporal lobe morphologic parameters were measured manually, including distance of the hippocampus from midline, hippocampal height:width ratio, hippocampal angle, collateral sulcus angle, and width of the temporal horn. Results Temporal lobe morphologic parameters are correlated with presence of visual hippocampal malrotation; the strongest association is with left temporal horn width (p < 0.001, Adjusted OR 10.59). Multiple morphologic parameters correlate with febrile status epilepticus, encompassing both right and left sides. This association is statistically strongest in the right temporal lobe, whereas hippocampal malrotation is almost exclusively left-sided in this cohort. The association between temporal lobe measurements and febrile status epilepticus persists when the analysis is restricted to cases with visually normal imaging without hippocampal malrotation or other visually apparent abnormality. Conclusions Several component morphological features of hippocampal malrotation are independently associated with febrile status epilepticus, even when complete hippocampal malrotation is absent. Unexpectedly, this association predominantly involves the right temporal lobe. These findings suggest that a spectrum of bilateral temporal lobe anomalies are associated with febrile status epilepticus in children. Hippocampal malrotation may represent a visually apparent subset of this spectrum. PMID:27633809

  5. Therapeutic burst-suppression coma in pediatric febrile refractory status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jainn-Jim; Chou, Cheng-Che; Lan, Shih-Yun; Hsiao, Hsiang-Ju; Wang, Yu; Chan, Oi-Wa; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Wang, Huei-Shyong; Lin, Kuang-Lin

    2017-09-01

    Evidence for the beneficial effect of therapeutic burst-suppression coma in pediatric patients with febrile refractory status epilepticus is limited, and the clinical outcomes of this treatment strategy are largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the outcomes of therapeutic burst-suppression coma in a series of children with febrile refractory status epilepticus. We retrospectively reviewed consecutive pediatric patients with febrile refractory status epilepticus admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit between January 2000 and December 2013. The clinical characteristics were analyzed. Thirty-five patients (23 boys; age range: 1-18years) were enrolled, of whom 28 (80%) developed super-refractory status epilepticus. All of the patients received the continuous administration of intravenous antiepileptic drugs for febrile refractory status epilepticus, and 26 (74.3%) achieved therapeutic burst-suppression coma. All of the patients received mechanical ventilatory support, and 26 (74.3%) received inotropic agents. Eight (22.9%) patients died within 1month. The neurologically functional outcomes at 6months were good in six (27.3%) of the 22 survivors, of whom two returned to clinical baseline. The patients with therapeutic burst-suppression coma were significantly associated with hemodynamic support than the patients with electrographic seizures control (p=0.03), and had a trend of higher 1-month mortality rate, worse 6months outcomes, and a longer duration of hospitalization. Our results suggest that therapeutic burst-suppression coma to treat febrile refractory status epilepticus may lead to an increased risk of hemodynamic instability and a trend of worse outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Causative Pathogens of Febrile Neutropaenia in Children Treated for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Lam, Joyce Cm; Chai, Jie Yang; Wong, Yi Ling; Tan, Natalie Wh; Ha, Christina Tt; Chan, Mei Yoke; Tan, Ah Moy

    2015-11-01

    Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) using intensive chemotherapy has resulted in high cure rates but also substantial morbidity. Infective complications represent a significant proportion of treatment-related toxicity. The objective of this study was to describe the microbiological aetiology and clinical outcome of episodes of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropaenia in a cohort of children treated for ALL at our institution. Patients with ALL were treated with either the HKSGALL93 or the Malaysia-Singapore (Ma-Spore) 2003 chemotherapy protocols. The records of 197 patients who completed the intensive phase of treatment, defined as the period of treatment from induction, central nervous system (CNS)-directed therapy to reinduction from June 2000 to January 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. There were a total of 587 episodes of febrile neutropaenia in 197 patients, translating to an overall rate of 2.98 episodes per patient. A causative pathogen was isolated in 22.7% of episodes. An equal proportion of Gram-positive bacteria (36.4%) and Gram-negative bacteria (36.4%) were most frequently isolated followed by viral pathogens (17.4%), fungal pathogens (8.4%) and other bacteria (1.2%). Fungal organisms accounted for a higher proportion of clinically severe episodes of febrile neutropaenia requiring admission to the high-dependency or intensive care unit (23.1%). The overall mortality rate from all episodes was 1.5%. Febrile neutropaenia continues to be of concern in ALL patients undergoing intensive chemotherapy. The majority of episodes will not have an identifiable causative organism. Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria were the most common causative pathogens identified. With appropriate antimicrobial therapy and supportive management, the overall risk of mortality from febrile neutropaenia is extremely low.

  7. Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and febrile neutropenia in patients with gynecologic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Yasunori; Kasai, Mari; Fukuda, Takeshi; Ichimura, Tomoyuki; Yasui, Tomoyo; Sumi, Toshiyuki

    2015-11-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is a common complication in cancer treatment. In this study, we investigated chemotherapy-induced neutropenia that was recently detected in all patients with gynecologic malignancy. Between January 2009 and December 2011, we examined cases of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia reported in our hospital. We analyzed the incidence and clinical features of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and febrile neutropenia in patients with gynecologic malignancy. During the study period, we administered over 1614 infusions (29 regimens) to 291 patients. The median age of the patients was 60 years (range 24-84 years). Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia occurred in 147 (50.5%) patients over 378 (23.4%) chemotherapy cycles. Febrile neutropenia occurred in 20 (6.9%) patients over 25 (1.5%) cycles. The mean duration of neutropenia and fever was 3.6 days (range 1-12 days) and 3.4 days (range 1-9 days), respectively. The source of fever was unexplained by examination or cultures in 14 (56.0%) cycles. There were two cases of neutropenia-related death. Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia was associated with older age (over 70 years) (P<0.0001), less than five previous chemotherapy cycles (P=0.02), disseminated disease (P=0.03), platinum-based regimens (P<0.0001), taxane-containing regimens (P<0.0001), and combined therapy (P<0.0001). Febrile neutropenia was associated with poor performance status (P<0.0001), no previous chemotherapy (P<0.05), disseminated disease (P<0.0001), and distant metastatic disease (P=0.03). Neither chemotherapy-induced neutropenia nor febrile neutropenia was associated with bone marrow metastases or previous radiotherapy. By identifying risk factors for febrile neutropenia, such as performance status, no previous chemotherapy, disseminated disease, and distant metastatic disease, the safe management of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia may be possible in patients with gynecologic malignancy.

  8. Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and febrile neutropenia in patients with gynecologic malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, Mari; Fukuda, Takeshi; Ichimura, Tomoyuki; Yasui, Tomoyo; Sumi, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is a common complication in cancer treatment. In this study, we investigated chemotherapy-induced neutropenia that was recently detected in all patients with gynecologic malignancy. Between January 2009 and December 2011, we examined cases of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia reported in our hospital. We analyzed the incidence and clinical features of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and febrile neutropenia in patients with gynecologic malignancy. During the study period, we administered over 1614 infusions (29 regimens) to 291 patients. The median age of the patients was 60 years (range 24–84 years). Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia occurred in 147 (50.5%) patients over 378 (23.4%) chemotherapy cycles. Febrile neutropenia occurred in 20 (6.9%) patients over 25 (1.5%) cycles. The mean duration of neutropenia and fever was 3.6 days (range 1–12 days) and 3.4 days (range 1–9 days), respectively. The source of fever was unexplained by examination or cultures in 14 (56.0%) cycles. There were two cases of neutropenia-related death. Chemotherapy-induced neutropenia was associated with older age (over 70 years) (P<0.0001), less than five previous chemotherapy cycles (P=0.02), disseminated disease (P=0.03), platinum-based regimens (P<0.0001), taxane-containing regimens (P<0.0001), and combined therapy (P<0.0001). Febrile neutropenia was associated with poor performance status (P<0.0001), no previous chemotherapy (P<0.05), disseminated disease (P<0.0001), and distant metastatic disease (P=0.03). Neither chemotherapy-induced neutropenia nor febrile neutropenia was associated with bone marrow metastases or previous radiotherapy. By identifying risk factors for febrile neutropenia, such as performance status, no previous chemotherapy, disseminated disease, and distant metastatic disease, the safe management of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia may be possible in patients with gynecologic malignancy. PMID:26267078

  9. Imipenem-cilastatin versus piperacillin-tazobactam as monotherapy in febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Vural, Sema; Erdem, Ela; Gulec, Seda Geylani; Yildirmak, Yildiz; Kebudi, Rejin

    2010-04-01

    In view of the recent trend toward monotherapy in the treatment of febrile neutropenia, we evaluated the clinical efficacy and safety of imipenem-cilastatin versus piperacillin-tazobactam as an empiric therapy for febrile neutropenia in children with malignant diseases. Febrile neutropenic patients received either imipenem-cilastatin or piperacillin-tazobactam randomly. Improvement without any changes in the initial antibiotic treatment was defined as "success" and improvement with modification of the initial treatment and death was defined as "failure". Over 12 months, 99 febrile neutropenic episodes were treated with monotherapy in 63 patients with a median age of 5 years. At admission, median absolute neutrophil count was 50/mm(3) and in 67% of episodes, neutrophil count was under 100/mm(3). Median duration of neutropenia was 5 days. In 22% of episodes, neutropenia persisted for more than 10 days. Piperacillin-tazobactam was used in 52 episodes and imipenem-cilastatin was used in 47 episodes. There was no difference between groups in terms of age, sex, primary diseases, neutrophil count or duration of neutropenia. In the whole group, the success rate was 67% and the failure rate was 33%, whereas in the piperacillin-tazobactam group, the rates were 71% and 29%; and in the imipenem-cilastatin group they were 62% and 38%, respectively (P > 0.05). There were no deaths. No major adverse effects were seen in either group. Although failure was slightly higher in the imipenem-cilastatin group, this was statistically insignificant. Both of these antibiotics can be used safely for initial empirical monotherapy of febrile neutropenia.

  10. Reducing premature KCC2 expression rescues seizure susceptibility and spine morphology in atypical febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Awad, Patricia N; Sanon, Nathalie T; Chattopadhyaya, Bidisha; Carriço, Josianne Nunes; Ouardouz, Mohamed; Gagné, Jonathan; Duss, Sandra; Wolf, Daniele; Desgent, Sébastien; Cancedda, Laura; Carmant, Lionel; Di Cristo, Graziella

    2016-07-01

    Atypical febrile seizures are considered a risk factor for epilepsy onset and cognitive impairments later in life. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and a history of atypical febrile seizures often carry a cortical malformation. This association has led to the hypothesis that the presence of a cortical dysplasia exacerbates febrile seizures in infancy, in turn increasing the risk for neurological sequelae. The mechanisms linking these events are currently poorly understood. Potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2 affects several aspects of neuronal circuit development and function, by modulating GABAergic transmission and excitatory synapse formation. Recent data suggest that KCC2 downregulation contributes to seizure generation in the epileptic adult brain, but its role in the developing brain is still controversial. In a rodent model of atypical febrile seizures, combining a cortical dysplasia and hyperthermia-induced seizures (LHS rats), we found a premature and sustained increase in KCC2 protein levels, accompanied by a negative shift of the reversal potential of GABA. In parallel, we observed a significant reduction in dendritic spine size and mEPSC amplitude in CA1 pyramidal neurons, accompanied by spatial memory deficits. To investigate whether KCC2 premature overexpression plays a role in seizure susceptibility and synaptic alterations, we reduced KCC2 expression selectively in hippocampal pyramidal neurons by in utero electroporation of shRNA. Remarkably, KCC2 shRNA-electroporated LHS rats show reduced hyperthermia-induced seizure susceptibility, while dendritic spine size deficits were rescued. Our findings demonstrate that KCC2 overexpression in a compromised developing brain increases febrile seizure susceptibility and contribute to dendritic spine alterations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Febrile Seizure: Measuring Adherence to AAP Guidelines Among Community ED Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Hampers, Louis C.; Thompson, David A.; Bajaj, Lalit; Tseng, Brian S.; Rudolph, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective In 1996, the American Academy of Pediatrics published practice parameters for the acute management of febrile seizure. These guidelines emphasize the typically benign nature of the condition and discourage aggressive neurodiagnostic evaluation. The extent to which these suggestions have been adopted by general emergency medicine practitioners is unknown. We sought to describe recent patterns of the emergency department (ED) evaluation of febrile seizures with respect to these parameters. Methods A retrospective review of records of children between 6 month and 6 years of age diagnosed with “febrile seizure” (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification 780.31) at 42 community hospital general EDs nationwide was performed. Electronic records of an ED physician billing service from October 2002 to September 2003 were used to identify relevant records. Data had been entered into a proprietary template documentation system, and all charts were reviewed by a professional coder blinded to outcomes of interest. Rates of resource utilization (including lumbar puncture, radiography, hospital admission) were noted. Results A total of 1029 charts met inclusion criteria. The overall rate of lumbar puncture was 5.2%, and variations were strongly associated with age (8.4% <18 months old vs 3.3% >18 months old). This low rate and age discrimination were consistent with the guidelines of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Although not recommended in the routine evaluation of febrile seizure, computed tomography was part of the evaluation in 11%. The overall rate of admissions or transfers was 12%. Conclusions Six years after publication of practice parameters, the use of lumbar puncture in the evaluation of febrile seizure is uncommon and most patients are discharged home. However, the relatively frequent use of head computed tomography is inconsistent with these practice guidelines and merits further investigation. PMID:16871103

  12. Etiology of Severe Febrile Illness in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Namrata; Murdoch, David R.; Reyburn, Hugh; Crump, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background With apparent declines in malaria worldwide during the last decade and more widespread use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests, healthcare workers in low-resource areas face a growing proportion of febrile patients without malaria. We sought to describe current knowledge and identify information gaps of the etiology severe febrile illness in low-and middle-income countries. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review of studies conducted in low-and-middle income countries 1980–2013 that prospectively assessed consecutive febrile patients admitted to hospital using rigorous laboratory-based case definitions. We found 45 eligible studies describing 54,578 patients; 9,771 (17.9%) had a positive result for ≥1 pathogen meeting diagnostic criteria. There were no eligible studies identified from Southern and Middle Africa, Eastern Asia, Oceania, Latin American and Caribbean regions, and the European region. The median (range) number of diagnostic tests meeting our confirmed laboratory case definitions was 2 (1 to 11) per study. Of diagnostic tests, 5,052 (10.3%) of 49,143 had confirmed bacterial or fungal bloodstream infection; 709 (3.8%) of 18,142 had bacterial zoonosis; 3,488 (28.5%) of 12,245 had malaria; and 1,804 (17.4%) of 10,389 had a viral infection. Conclusions We demonstrate a wide range of pathogens associated with severe febrile illness and highlight the substantial information gaps regarding the geographic distribution and role of common pathogens. High quality severe febrile illness etiology research that is comprehensive with respect to pathogens and geographically representative is needed. PMID:26126200

  13. Knowledge, attitude and practices of parents of children with febrile convulsion.

    PubMed

    Parmar, R C; Sahu, D R; Bavdekar, S B

    2001-01-01

    Parental anxiety and apprehension is related to inadequate knowledge of fever and febrile convulsion. To study the knowledge, attitude, and practices of the parents of children with febrile convulsions. Prospective questionnaire based study in a tertiary care centre carried over a period of one year. 140 parents of consecutive children presenting with febrile convulsion were enrolled. Chi-square test. 83 parents (59.3%) could not recognise the convulsion; 90.7% (127) did not carry out any intervention prior to getting the child to the hospital. The commonest immediate effect of the convulsion on the parents was fear of death (n= 126, 90%) followed by insomnia (n= 48, 34.3%), anorexia (n= 46, 32.9%), crying (n= 28, 20%) and fear of epilepsy (n= 28, 20%). Fear of brain damage, fear of recurrence and dyspepsia were voiced by the fathers alone (n= 20, cumulative incidence 14.3%). 109 (77.9%) parents did not know the fact that the convulsion can occur due to fever. The long-term concerns included fear of epilepsy (n= 64, 45.7%) and future recurrence (n= 27, 19.3%) in the affected child. For 56 (40%) of the parents every subsequent episode of fever was like a nightmare. Only 21 parents (15%) had thermometer at home and 28 (20%) knew the normal range of body temperature. Correct preventive measures were known only to 41 (29.2%). Awareness of febrile convulsion and the preventive measures was higher in socio-economic grade (P< 0.05). The parental fear of fever and febrile convulsion is a major problem with serious negative consequences affecting daily familial life.

  14. Hypothalamic neuronal histamine modulates febrile response but not anorexia induced by lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Seiichi; Itateyama, Emi; Oka, Kyoko; Masaki, Takayuki; Sakata, Toshiie; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu

    2005-05-01

    This study examined the contribution of hypothalamic neuronal histamine (HA) to the anorectic and febrile responses induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an exogenous pyrogen, and the endogenous pyrogens interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Intraperitoneal (ip) injection of LPS, IL-1beta, or TNF-alpha suppressed 24-hr cumulative food intake and increased rectal temperature in rats. To analyze the histaminergic contribution, rats were pretreated with intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of 2.44 mmol/kg or ip injection of 244 mmol/kg of alpha-fluoromethylhistidine (FMH), a suicide inhibitor of histidine decarboxylase (HDC), to deplete neural HA. The depletion of neural HA augmented the febrile response to ip injection of LPS and IL-1beta and alleviated the anorectic response to ip injection of IL-1beta. However, the depletion of neural HA did not modify the LPS-induced anorectic response or TNF-alpha-induced febrile and anorectic responses. Consistent with these results, the rate of hypothalamic HA turnover, assessed by the accumulation of tele-methylhistamine (t-MH), was elevated with ip injections of LPS and IL-1beta, but unaffected by TNF-alpha at equivalent doses. This suggests that (i) LPS and IL-1beta activate hypothalamic neural HA turnover; (ii) hypothalamic neural HA suppresses the LPS- and IL-1beta-induced febrile responses and accelerates the IL-1beta-induced anorectic response; and (iii) TNF-alpha modulates the febrile and anorectic responses via a neural HA-independent pathway. Therefore, hypothalamic neural HA is involved in the IL-1beta-dominant pathway, rather than the TNF-alpha-dominant pathway, preceding the systemic inflammatory response induced by exogenous pyrogens, such as LPS. Further research on this is needed.

  15. Beliefs and expectations of Canadian parents who bring febrile children for medical care.

    PubMed

    Enarson, Mark C; Ali, Samina; Vandermeer, Ben; Wright, Robert B; Klassen, Terry P; Spiers, Judith A

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this survey was to study the beliefs, expectations, and satisfaction of Canadian parents regarding fever and the treatment of their febrile children. A survey was developed exploring caregiver beliefs and treatment strategies, as well as expectations and satisfaction with medical care. Some items were modeled after previous studies to allow comparison. Caregivers with febrile children were recruited from 2005 to 2007 at 3 urgent care centers and emergency departments in Edmonton, Canada: a pediatric emergency department (n = 376), an urban urgent care center (n = 227), and a suburban urgent care clinic (n = 173). High and rapidly rising temperature, as well as physical symptoms associated with fever, caused concern in most parents surveyed. Seventy-four percent of parents felt that the elevated temperature from fever was dangerous and 90.3% always try to treat it. Forty degrees Celsius was the most commonly sited threshold for danger. Identifying the cause (80.6%) and seriousness (87.4%) of fever were the most com-mon stressors identified. Caregivers expected to receive information about the child's illness and appropriate treatment. The parents most often wanted information about febrile seizures and the potential dangers of febrile illness. Only 16.7% of caregivers expected anti-biotics. Nearly 92% of subjects were usually satisfied with medical care. Fever phobia continues to be a significant issue for Canadian parents. As a result, they treat fever aggressively and often seek medical attention. Good communication is important for medical staff caring for febrile children and typically leads to satisfied parents.

  16. Costs and Infant Outcomes After Implementation of a Care Process Model for Febrile Infants

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Carolyn C.; Korgenski, Kent; Sheng, Xiaoming; Valentine, Karen J.; Nelson, Richard E.; Daly, Judy A.; Osguthorpe, Russell J.; James, Brent; Savitz, Lucy; Pavia, Andrew T.; Clark, Edward B.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Febrile infants in the first 90 days may have life-threatening serious bacterial infection (SBI). Well-appearing febrile infants with SBI cannot be distinguished from those without by examination alone. Variation in care resulting in both undertreatment and overtreatment is common. METHODS: We developed and implemented an evidence-based care process model (EB-CPM) for the management of well-appearing febrile infants in the Intermountain Healthcare System. We report an observational study describing changes in (1) care delivery, (2) outcomes of febrile infants, and (3) costs before and after implementation of the EB-CPM in a children’s hospital and in regional medical centers. RESULTS: From 2004 through 2009, 8044 infants had 8431 febrile episodes, resulting in medical evaluation. After implementation of the EB-CPM in 2008, infants in all facilities were more likely to receive evidence-based care including appropriate diagnostic testing, determination of risk for SBI, antibiotic selection, decreased antibiotic duration, and shorter hospital stays (P < .001 for all). In addition, more infants had a definitive diagnosis of urinary tract infection or viral illness (P < .001 for both). Infant outcomes improved with more admitted infants positive for SBI (P = .011), and infants at low risk for SBI were more often managed without antibiotics (P < .001). Although hospital admissions were shortened by 27%, there were no cases of missed SBI. Health Care costs were also reduced, with the mean cost per admitted infant decreasing from $7178 in 2007 to $5979 in 2009 (−17%, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The EB-CPM increased evidence-based care in all facilities. Infant outcomes improved and costs were reduced, substantially improving value. PMID:22732178

  17. Febrile morbidity in severe and critical ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Abramov, Y; Elchalal, U; Schenker, J G

    1998-11-01

    The objective of this study was to define the incidence of febrile morbidity and its causes in severe and critical ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). For this purpose, we reviewed the medical records of all OHSS patients hospitalized in 16 out of 19 tertiary medical centres in Israel between January 1987 and December 1996. Febrile morbidity was defined as at least one episode of temperature rise above 38 degrees C lasting > or =24 h. A total of 2902 patients (3305 hospitalizations) with OHSS was identified, of whom 196 had severe, and 13 critical, OHSS. Among the 209 patients investigated the incidence of febrile morbidity was 82.3%, of which 20.5% was attributed to urinary tract infection, 3.8% to pneumonia, 3.3% to upper respiratory tract infection, 2.0% to intravenous line phlebitis, 1.0% to cellulitis at an abdominal puncture site, 1.0% to postoperative wound infections and 0.5 % to gluteal abscess at the site of progesterone injection. Non-typical organisms were frequently isolated, such as Pseudomonas, Proteus, Klebsiella and Enterobacter species. No infectious aetiology was found in 105 patients (50.2%). Hypoglobulinaemia was recorded in most patients, while ascitic and pleural fluids aspirated from these patients contained high globulin concentrations. We conclude that infection-related febrile morbidity in severe and critical OHSS is high, and may be attributed to some degree of immunodeficiency associated with loss of plasma globulins to the third space. However, non-infection-related febrile morbidity is even higher and may be attributed to endogenous pyrogenic mechanisms.

  18. Unexpected Death of a Child with Complex Febrile Seizures-Pathophysiology Similar to Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy?

    PubMed

    Dlouhy, Brian J; Ciliberto, Michael A; Cifra, Christina L; Kirby, Patricia A; Shrock, Devin L; Nashelsky, Marcus; Richerson, George B

    2017-01-01

    Febrile seizures are usually considered relatively benign. Although some cases of sudden unexplained death in childhood have a history of febrile seizures, no documented case of febrile seizure-induced death has been reported. Here, we describe a child with complex febrile seizures who died suddenly and unexpectedly after a suspected seizure while in bed at night during the beginning phases of sleep. She was resuscitated and pronounced brain dead 2 days later at our regional medical center. Autopsy revealed multiorgan effects of hypoperfusion and did not reveal an underlying (precipitating) disease, injury, or toxicological cause of death. Although a seizure was not witnessed, it was suspected as the underlying cause of death based on the medical examiner and forensic pathologist (author Marcus Nashelsky) investigation, the post-resuscitation clinical findings, and multiple aspects of the clinical history. The child had a history of complex febrile seizures that had previously caused apnea and oxygen desaturation. She had two febrile seizures earlier on the same day of the fatal event. Interestingly, her mother also experienced a febrile seizure as a child, which led to respiratory arrest requiring cardiorespiratory resuscitation. This case suggests that in a child with complex febrile seizures, a seizure can induce death in a manner that is consistent with the majority of cases of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Further work is needed to better understand how and why certain individuals, with a history of epilepsy or not, die suddenly and unexpectedly from seizures. This will only occur through better understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying epileptic and febrile seizures and death from seizures including SUDEP.

  19. Unexpected Death of a Child with Complex Febrile Seizures—Pathophysiology Similar to Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy?

    PubMed Central

    Dlouhy, Brian J.; Ciliberto, Michael A.; Cifra, Christina L.; Kirby, Patricia A.; Shrock, Devin L.; Nashelsky, Marcus; Richerson, George B.

    2017-01-01

    Febrile seizures are usually considered relatively benign. Although some cases of sudden unexplained death in childhood have a history of febrile seizures, no documented case of febrile seizure-induced death has been reported. Here, we describe a child with complex febrile seizures who died suddenly and unexpectedly after a suspected seizure while in bed at night during the beginning phases of sleep. She was resuscitated and pronounced brain dead 2 days later at our regional medical center. Autopsy revealed multiorgan effects of hypoperfusion and did not reveal an underlying (precipitating) disease, injury, or toxicological cause of death. Although a seizure was not witnessed, it was suspected as the underlying cause of death based on the medical examiner and forensic pathologist (author Marcus Nashelsky) investigation, the post-resuscitation clinical findings, and multiple aspects of the clinical history. The child had a history of complex febrile seizures that had previously caused apnea and oxygen desaturation. She had two febrile seizures earlier on the same day of the fatal event. Interestingly, her mother also experienced a febrile seizure as a child, which led to respiratory arrest requiring cardiorespiratory resuscitation. This case suggests that in a child with complex febrile seizures, a seizure can induce death in a manner that is consistent with the majority of cases of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Further work is needed to better understand how and why certain individuals, with a history of epilepsy or not, die suddenly and unexpectedly from seizures. This will only occur through better understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying epileptic and febrile seizures and death from seizures including SUDEP. PMID:28203222

  20. Matrix-metalloproteinases and proinflammatory cytokines in children with febrile convulsions and epilepsy--cause or consequence?

    PubMed

    Haberlandt, Edda; Rauchenzauner, Markus; Morass, Maike; Wondrak, Petra; Scholl-Bürgi, Sabine; Rostásy, Kevin; Karall, Daniela

    2013-07-01

    This is the first investigation of MMPs in children with febrile seizures. In a prospective, cross sectional study, serum levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP8/9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP1/2), of children with FS (n=13), children with febrile infection (FI, n=13) and children with unprovoked generalized seizures (US, n=11) were compared. Neither provoked nor unprovoked seizures in FS and US seem to elevate levels of MMPs or TIMPs, whereas in case of febrile infection blood level of MMP8 was significant elevated. Seizures in general might have no influence on this distinctive inflammatory process or even might have suppressive impact.

  1. Identification of Genetic Suppressors of the Sin3A Knockdown Wing Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Stephanie; Gammouh, Sarah; Pile, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    The role of the Sin3A transcriptional corepressor in regulating the cell cycle is established in various metazoans. Little is known, however, about the signaling pathways that trigger or are triggered by Sin3A function. To discover genes that work in similar or opposing pathways to Sin3A during development, we have performed an unbiased screen of deficiencies of the Drosophila third chromosome. Additionally, we have performed a targeted loss of function screen to identify cell cycle genes that genetically interact with Sin3A. We have identified genes that encode proteins involved in regulation of gene expression, signaling pathways and cell cycle that can suppress the curved wing phenotype caused by the knockdown of Sin3A. These data indicate that Sin3A function is quite diverse and impacts a wide variety of cellular processes. PMID:23166712

  2. Electronic properties of a new structured Sin/O superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S.; Zhang, L.; Xu, Y. X.; Wu, S. Q.; Zhu, Z. Z.

    2016-11-01

    Silicon is a material which dominants the semiconductor industry and has a well-established processing technology based on it. However, silicon has an indirect-bandgap and is not efficient in light emitting. This limits its applications in optoelectronics. In this paper, we proposed a new structural model for the silicon-based superlattice, i.e., the Sin/O one. The model consists of alternating films of n-layers of Si and a monolayer of oxygen along z-direction, together with a surface cell of Si(001) (2×1) reconstruction in the x-y plane. The importance of employing such a Si(001) (2×1) reconstruction is that all the electrons at interface can be strongly bonded. Our results showed interesting electronic properties, e.g., the band folding and large band gap of bulk Si, when the thickness of the silicon layers was increased (but still thin). Our structure might also offer other interesting properties.

  3. Sin and suffering in a Catholic understanding of medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Garcia, J L A

    2006-08-01

    Drawing chiefly on recent sources, in Part One I sketch an untraditional way of articulating what I claim to be central elements of traditional Catholic morality, treating it as based in virtues, focused on the recipients ("patients") of our attention and concern, and centered in certain person-to-person role-relationships. I show the limited and derivative places of "natural law," and therefore of sin, within that framework. I also sketch out some possible implications for medical ethics of this approach to moral theory, and briefly contrast these with the influential alternative offered by the "principlism" of Beauchamp and Childress. In Part Two, I turn to a Catholic understanding of the nature and meaning of human suffering, drawing especially on writings and addresses of the late Pope John Paul II. He reminds us that physical and mental suffering can provide an opportunity to share in Christ's salvific sacrifice, better to see the nature of our earthly vocation, and to reflect on the dependence that inheres in human existence. At various places, and especially in my conclusion, I suggest a few ways in which this can inform bioethical reflection on morally appropriate responses to those afflicted by physical or mental pain, disability, mental impairment, disease, illness, and poor health prospects. My general point is that mercy must be informed by appreciation of the person's dignity and status. Throughout, my approach is philosophical rather than theological.

  4. Chronological Evolution of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Children With Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Coppola, Marianna S; Shah, Namrata; Choudhri, Asim F; Morgan, Robin; Wheless, James W

    2016-02-01

    To describe and analyze the chronological evolution of the radiological findings in seven children with febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome. This is a retrospective study describing the radiological findings and evolution in seven children with febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome who presented from 2009 to 2013. The children all fit the defined clinical criteria for febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome; all had a history of normal psychomotor development who presented with acute-onset catastrophic partial status epilepticus associated with a febrile illness or unspecific infectious process. The children were identified from the author's weekly review of the pediatric inpatient service, and then the data were collected and analyzed retrospectively. Six males and one female ranging from 3 months to 9 years of age presented with status epilepticus preceded by a febrile illness. Extensive investigations for infectious, autoimmune, and metabolic etiologies were unremarkable. Multiple antiepileptic medications were attempted, including drug-induced coma in all of them, with poor response. Immunotherapy with intravenous steroids or intravenous immunoglobulin (three patients had both) was tried in six of seven patients with a poor response. Ketogenic diet was initiated in four of seven patients with limited response. Serial magnetic resonance imaging studies, done from the initial presentation through 18 months of follow-up, showed evolution from normal imaging to severe cerebral atrophy. Progressive cytotoxic edema involving mostly bilateral hippocampi and temporal lobes was appreciated in one to three weeks. At one month from seizure onset, mild to moderate cerebral atrophy and hippocampal sclerosis was appreciated that continued to progress over the next year. After six to twelve months, most of the patients showed moderate to severe cerebral atrophy and by one year, cerebellar atrophy was also appreciated. Febrile infection-related epilepsy

  5. Performance of infrared ear and forehead thermometers: a comparative study in 205 febrile and afebrile children.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Patricia A; Marcos, Lorenzo S; Secic, Michelle

    2013-09-01

    This study compared readings from two professional-grade, commercially available infrared (IR) thermometers, the ThermoScan® PRO 4000 prewarmed tip ear thermometer and the Temporal Scanner(™) TAT-5000 temporal artery thermometer. The repeatability and precision of readings from IR thermometers for professional use were questioned in the past, but in recent years, these types of thermometers have been technologically improved, so their ability to replicate standard temperature readings reliably should be re-examined. Febrile and afebrile children were recruited from the emergency department, overflow treatment areas and the paediatric intensive care unit of a large hospital in Argentina. Each child had a randomised sequence of seven temperature readings, including three from the ear, three from the forehead or behind the ear and one reference oral or rectal reading. Temperature readings were taken with the ThermoScan PRO 4000, the Temporal Scanner TAT-5000 and the monitor mode of SureTemp® Plus, a widely used professional-grade contact thermometer, for reference. Of 205 children, 46% were febrile, per reference thermometer readings. While mean ThermoScan PRO 4000 febrile measurements did not differ significantly from reference, mean Temporal Scanner TAT-5000 febrile measurements were significantly lower (by a mean of 0·42 °C) than the reference. Overall bias of the ThermoScan PRO 4000 was significantly lower than that of the Temporal Scanner TAT-5000; repeatability was 1·5 times higher, and overall false-negative rate was about a third that of Temporal Scanner TAT-5000, when compared to the reference. This study indicates that the ThermoScan PRO 4000 provides measurements closer to those of a professional-grade contact thermometer when compared to the Temporal Scanner TAT-5000. The odds of misclassifying a febrile child as non-febrile were about threefold higher with the Temporal Scanner TAT-5000 temporal artery thermometer than with the ThermoScan® PRO 4000

  6. Risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection in children with prenatal hydronephrosis: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Braga, Luis H; Farrokhyar, Forough; D'Cruz, Jennifer; Pemberton, Julia; Lorenzo, Armando J

    2015-05-01

    We prospectively investigated the impact of risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection in infants with postnatally confirmed prenatal hydronephrosis. Patients seen for prenatal hydronephrosis from 2010 to 2013 were prospectively followed. Those with ectopic ureters and ureteroceles, posterior urethral valves and neuropathic bladders were excluded. The primary outcome was febrile catheter specimen urinary tract infection. We performed univariate analysis of 7 a priori risk factors, including age, hydronephrosis grade (low-I or II vs high-III or IV), type (isolated hydronephrosis vs hydroureteronephrosis), continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, vesicoureteral reflux grade, gender and circumcision status. Time to febrile urinary tract infection curves analyzed by Cox proportional regression were generated to adjust for confounders. We collected data on 334 patients, of whom 78% were male. A febrile urinary tract infection developed in 65 patients (19%) at a median of 4 months (range 1 to 31). High grade hydronephrosis was present in 192 infants (57%). Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis was prescribed in 96 cases (29%). Of patients on continuous antibiotic prophylaxis 69% had high grade hydronephrosis. Vesicoureteral reflux was identified in 57 of 238 patients in whom voiding cystourethrogram was done. Reflux was grade I to III in 14 cases and grade IV or V in 43. Two-thirds of the patients with reflux were on continuous antibiotic prophylaxis. Circumcision was performed in 95 males (36%). Cox proportional regression identified female gender (HR 3.3, p = 0.02), uncircumcised males (HR 3.2, p = 0.02), hydroureteronephrosis (HR 10.9, p <0.01), vesicoureteral reflux (HR 20.8, p <0.01) and lack of continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (HR 5.2, p <0.01) as risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection. Subgroup analysis excluding vesicoureteral reflux showed that high grade prenatal hydronephrosis was also a significant risk factor (HR 3.0, p = 0.04). After patients

  7. Quantitative Evaluation of Medial Temporal Lobe Morphology in Children with Febrile Status Epilepticus: Results of the FEBSTAT Study.

    PubMed

    McClelland, A C; Gomes, W A; Shinnar, S; Hesdorffer, D C; Bagiella, E; Lewis, D V; Bello, J A; Chan, S; MacFall, J; Chen, M; Pellock, J M; Nordli, D R; Frank, L M; Moshé, S L; Shinnar, R C; Sun, S

    2016-12-01

    The pathogenesis of febrile status epilepticus is poorly understood, but prior studies have suggested an association with temporal lobe abnormalities, including hippocampal malrotation. We used a quantitative morphometric method to assess the association between temporal lobe morphology and febrile status epilepticus. Brain MR imaging was performed in children presenting with febrile status epilepticus and control subjects as part of the Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Seizures in Childhood study. Medial temporal lobe morphologic parameters were measured manually, including the distance of the hippocampus from the midline, hippocampal height:width ratio, hippocampal angle, collateral sulcus angle, and width of the temporal horn. Temporal lobe morphologic parameters were correlated with the presence of visual hippocampal malrotation; the strongest association was with left temporal horn width (P < .001; adjusted OR, 10.59). Multiple morphologic parameters correlated with febrile status epilepticus, encompassing both the right and left sides. This association was statistically strongest in the right temporal lobe, whereas hippocampal malrotation was almost exclusively left-sided in this cohort. The association between temporal lobe measurements and febrile status epilepticus persisted when the analysis was restricted to cases with visually normal imaging findings without hippocampal malrotation or other visually apparent abnormalities. Several component morphologic features of hippocampal malrotation are independently associated with febrile status epilepticus, even when complete hippocampal malrotation is absent. Unexpectedly, this association predominantly involves the right temporal lobe. These findings suggest that a spectrum of bilateral temporal lobe anomalies are associated with febrile status epilepticus in children. Hippocampal malrotation may represent a visually apparent subset of this spectrum. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  8. Risk of febrile seizure after measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shu-Juan; Xiong, Yi-Quan; Jiang, Li-Na; Chen, Qing

    2015-07-17

    Considering the febrile seizure rate, there is no longer a clear preference for use of measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccine over separate measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and varicella (V) vaccine. This work was undertaken to assess the risk of febrile seizure after MMRV vaccine in children. We searched PubMed, Embase, BIOSIS Previews, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and other databases through 12 December 2014. Meta-analysis was conducted using R version 3.1.2 and Stata version 12.0. A total of thirty-nine studies were included. Thirty-one published or unpublished clinical trials involving about 40,000 subjects did not show significant differences in incidence of febrile seizure or vaccine related febrile seizure between MMRV and MMR with or without varicella vaccine after any doses, in the risk windows of 0-28, 0-42 or 0-56 days and 7-10 days. In addition, these studies showed that the receipt of concomitant use of MMRV and other pediatric vaccines was not a significant predictor of febrile seizure. Eight post-marketing observations involving more than 3,200,000 subjects were included. No evidence suggested elevated risk of febrile seizure associated with MMRV vaccine among children aged 4-6 years old during 7-10 days or 0-42 days after vaccination. However, an approximately 2-fold increase in risk of seizure or febrile seizure during 7-10 days or 5-12 days after MMRV vaccination was found among children aged 10-24 months, although the highest incidence of seizure was still lower than 2.95‰. First MMRV vaccine dose in children aged 10-24 months was associated with an elevated risk of seizure or febrile seizure. Further post-marketing restudies based on more rigorous study design are needed to confirm the findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Febrile seizures after 2009 influenza A (H1N1) vaccination and infection: a nationwide registry-based study.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Inger Johanne; Aaberg, Kari Modalsli; Ghaderi, Sara; Gunnes, Nina; Trogstad, Lill; Magnus, Per; Håberg, Siri Eldevik

    2015-11-09

    During the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, a monovalent pandemic strain vaccine containing the oil-in-water adjuvant AS03 (Pandemrix®) was offered to the Norwegian population. The coverage among children reached 54%. Our aim was to estimate the risk of febrile seizure in children after exposure to pandemic influenza vaccination or infection. The study population comprised 226,889 children born 2006-2009 resident in Norway per October 1st, 2009. Febrile seizure episodes were defined by emergency hospital admissions / emergency outpatient hospital care with International Classification of Diseases, Version 10, codes R56.0 or R56.8. The self-controlled case series method was applied to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) in pre-defined risk periods compared to the background period. The total observation window was ± 180 days from exposure day. Among 113,068 vaccinated children, 656 (0.6%) had at least one febrile seizure episode. The IRR of febrile seizures 1-3 days after vaccination was 2.00 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15-3.51). In the period 4-7 days after vaccination, no increased risk was observed. Among the 8172 children diagnosed with pandemic influenza, 84 (1.0%) had at least one febrile seizure episode. The IRR of febrile seizures on the same day as a diagnosis of influenza was 116.70 (95% CI: 62.81-216.90). In the period 1-3 days after a diagnosis of influenza, a tenfold increased risk was observed (IRR 10.12, 95% CI: 3.82 - 26.82). In this large population-based study with precise timing of exposures and outcomes, we found a twofold increased risk of febrile seizures 1-3 days after pandemic influenza vaccination. However, we found that pandemic influenza infection was associated with a much stronger increase in risk of febrile seizures.

  10. Community Knowledge and Attitudes and Health Workers' Practices regarding Non-malaria Febrile Illnesses in Eastern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Chipwaza, Beatrice; Mugasa, Joseph P.; Mayumana, Iddy; Amuri, Mbaraka; Makungu, Christina; Gwakisa, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although malaria has been the leading cause of fever for many years, with improved control regimes malaria transmission, morbidity and mortality have decreased. Recent studies have increasingly demonstrated the importance of non-malaria fevers, which have significantly improved our understanding of etiologies of febrile illnesses. A number of non-malaria febrile illnesses including Rift Valley Fever, dengue fever, Chikungunya virus infection, leptospirosis, tick-borne relapsing fever and Q-fever have been reported in Tanzania. This study aimed at assessing the awareness of communities and practices of health workers on non-malaria febrile illnesses. Methods Twelve focus group discussions with members of communities and 14 in-depth interviews with health workers were conducted in Kilosa district, Tanzania. Transcripts were coded into different groups using MaxQDA software and analyzed through thematic content analysis. Results The study revealed that the awareness of the study participants on non-malaria febrile illnesses was low and many community members believed that most instances of fever are due to malaria. In addition, the majority had inappropriate beliefs about the possible causes of fever. In most cases, non-malaria febrile illnesses were considered following a negative Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (mRDT) result or persistent fevers after completion of anti-malaria dosage. Therefore, in the absence of mRDTs, there is over diagnosis of malaria and under diagnosis of non-malaria illnesses. Shortages of diagnostic facilities for febrile illnesses including mRDTs were repeatedly reported as a major barrier to proper diagnosis and treatment of febrile patients. Conclusion Our results emphasize the need for creating community awareness on other causes of fever apart from malaria. Based on our study, appropriate treatment of febrile patients will require inputs geared towards strengthening of diagnostic facilities, drugs availability and optimal

  11. A prospectively validated nomogram for predicting the risk of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Bozcuk, H; Yıldız, M; Artaç, M; Kocer, M; Kaya, Ç; Ulukal, E; Ay, S; Kılıç, M P; Şimşek, E H; Kılıçkaya, P; Uçar, S; Coskun, H S; Savas, B

    2015-06-01

    There is clinical need to predict risk of febrile neutropenia before a specific cycle of chemotherapy in cancer patients. Data on 3882 chemotherapy cycles in 1089 consecutive patients with lung, breast, and colon cancer from four teaching hospitals were used to construct a predictive model for febrile neutropenia. A final nomogram derived from the multivariate predictive model was prospectively confirmed in a second cohort of 960 consecutive cases and 1444 cycles. The following factors were used to construct the nomogram: previous history of febrile neutropenia, pre-cycle lymphocyte count, type of cancer, cycle of current chemotherapy, and patient age. The predictive model had a concordance index of 0.95 (95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.91-0.99) in the derivation cohort and 0.85 (95 % CI = 0.80-0.91) in the external validation cohort. A threshold of 15 % for the risk of febrile neutropenia in the derivation cohort was associated with a sensitivity of 0.76 and specificity of 0.98. These figures were 1.00 and 0.49 in the validation cohort if a risk threshold of 50 % was chosen. This nomogram is helpful in the prediction of febrile neutropenia after chemotherapy in patients with lung, breast, and colon cancer. Usage of this nomogram may help decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with febrile neutropenia and deserves further validation.

  12. [Dengue infection: A common cause of febrile syndrome in patients from Quibdó, Chocó, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Berta Nelly; Piedrahita, Leidy Diana; Agudelo, Ivony Yireth; Marín, Katherine; Ramírez, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Quibdó, a municipality in Chocó, has poor public services and weather and social conditions that favor dengue transmission. However, there are few studies about this problem in this district. To determine the frequency of dengue infection in patients with acute febrile syndrome and to compare clinical features among dengue infected patients with other febrile diseases. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January, 2008, to March, 2010. The study population comprised patients with febrile syndrome of seven or fewer days of evolution, recruited from hospitals in the town. Dengue diagnosis was made in serum samples by detection of IgM antibodies, NS1 antigen, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and virus isolation. Clinical and laboratory information from the patients was obtained. During the study period, 469 patients with acute febrile syndrome were recruited, of whom 98.3% were Afro-descendant. Dengue fever was found in 28.4% of the cases. Four dengue serotypes were identified with DENV-1 predominance. The ages ranged from zero to 76 years. From all patients, 70.7% of cases were classified as dengue without warning signs. Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, cough, nasal congestion and sore throat were significantly more frequent in patients with another febrile disease. Active surveillance of the acute febrile syndrome allowed for the detection of undiagnosed cases of dengue; the observed frequency of this infection suggests that the study area has a high risk of dengue infection.

  13. Significance of C-reactive protein during febrile neutropenia in pediatric malignancies.

    PubMed

    Avabratha, K Shreedhara; Rau, A T K; Venkataravanamma, P; Rau, Aarthi

    2009-09-01

    Fifty episodes of febrile neutropenia (FN) in 33 children with malignancies were studied to evaluate the usefulness of C-reactive protein (CRP) levels as an indicator of infection, and the efficacy of antibiotic therapy. Nineteen FN episodes occurred in children with documented infection whereas, 9 and 22 episodes occurred with probable infection and fever of unknown origin, respectively. CRP positivity during episodes of documented and probable infection was significantly higher than with febrile episodes of unknown origin. Blood culture was positive in 15 episodes; of these, CRP was positive in 11. CRP declined to normal on 7th day of antibiotic therapy. CRP is a useful indicator of infection in neutropenic children and also in determining the efficacy of antibiotic therapy.

  14. High Prevalence of Intermediate Leptospira spp. DNA in Febrile Humans from Urban and Rural Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Chiriboga, Jorge; Barragan, Verónica; Arroyo, Gabriela; Sosa, Andrea; Birdsell, Dawn N.; España, Karool; Mora, Ana; Espín, Emilia; Mejía, María Eugenia; Morales, Melba; Pinargote, Carmina; Gonzalez, Manuel; Hartskeerl, Rudy; Keim, Paul; Bretas, Gustavo; Eisenberg, Joseph N.S.

    2015-01-01

    Leptospira spp., which comprise 3 clusters (pathogenic, saprophytic, and intermediate) that vary in pathogenicity, infect >1 million persons worldwide each year. The disease burden of the intermediate leptospires is unclear. To increase knowledge of this cluster, we used new molecular approaches to characterize Leptospira spp. in 464 samples from febrile patients in rural, semiurban, and urban communities in Ecuador; in 20 samples from nonfebrile persons in the rural community; and in 206 samples from animals in the semiurban community. We observed a higher percentage of leptospiral DNA–positive samples from febrile persons in rural (64%) versus urban (21%) and semiurban (25%) communities; no leptospires were detected in nonfebrile persons. The percentage of intermediate cluster strains in humans (96%) was higher than that of pathogenic cluster strains (4%); strains in animal samples belonged to intermediate (49%) and pathogenic (51%) clusters. Intermediate cluster strains may be causing a substantial amount of fever in coastal Ecuador. PMID:26583534

  15. High Prevalence of Intermediate Leptospira spp. DNA in Febrile Humans from Urban and Rural Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Chiriboga, Jorge; Barragan, Verónica; Arroyo, Gabriela; Sosa, Andrea; Birdsell, Dawn N; España, Karool; Mora, Ana; Espín, Emilia; Mejía, María Eugenia; Morales, Melba; Pinargote, Carmina; Gonzalez, Manuel; Hartskeerl, Rudy; Keim, Paul; Bretas, Gustavo; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Trueba, Gabriel

    2015-12-01

    Leptospira spp., which comprise 3 clusters (pathogenic, saprophytic, and intermediate) that vary in pathogenicity, infect >1 million persons worldwide each year. The disease burden of the intermediate leptospires is unclear. To increase knowledge of this cluster, we used new molecular approaches to characterize Leptospira spp. in 464 samples from febrile patients in rural, semiurban, and urban communities in Ecuador; in 20 samples from nonfebrile persons in the rural community; and in 206 samples from animals in the semiurban community. We observed a higher percentage of leptospiral DNA-positive samples from febrile persons in rural (64%) versus urban (21%) and semiurban (25%) communities; no leptospires were detected in nonfebrile persons. The percentage of intermediate cluster strains in humans (96%) was higher than that of pathogenic cluster strains (4%); strains in animal samples belonged to intermediate (49%) and pathogenic (51%) clusters. Intermediate cluster strains may be causing a substantial amount of fever in coastal Ecuador.

  16. Is preemptive antifungal therapy a good alternative to empirical treatment in prolonged febrile neutropenia?

    PubMed

    Koch, Erica; Rada, Gabriel

    2016-06-09

    Patients with prolonged febrile neutropenia are at high risk of invasive fungal infection, so it has been standard practice to initiate empirical antifungal therapy in these cases. However, this strategy is associated with important toxicity, so diagnostic test-guided preemptive antifungal therapy has been proposed as an alternative. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified three systematic reviews including twelve studies overall. Four randomized controlled trials addressed the question of this article. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded it is not clear whether preemptive strategy affects mortality because the certainty of the evidence is very low, but it might slightly decrease the use of antifungal agents in patients with prolonged febrile neutropenia.

  17. Itaya virus, a Novel Orthobunyavirus Associated with Human Febrile Illness, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Hontz, Robert D.; Guevara, Carolina; Halsey, Eric S.; Silvas, Jesus; Santiago, Felix W.; Widen, Steven G.; Wood, Thomas G.; Casanova, Wilma; Vasilakis, Nikos; Watts, Douglas M.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Ebihara, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Our genetic analyses of uncharacterized bunyaviruses isolated in Peru identified a possible reassortant virus containing small and large gene segment sequences closely related to the Caraparu virus and a medium gene segment sequence potentially derived from an unidentified group C orthobunyavirus. Neutralization tests confirmed serologic distinction among the newly identified virus and the prototype and Caraparu strains. This virus, named Itaya, was isolated in 1999 and 2006 from febrile patients in the cities of Iquitos and Yurimaguas in Peru. The geographic distance between the 2 cases suggests that the Itaya virus could be widely distributed throughout the Amazon basin in northeastern Peru. Identification of a new Orthobunyavirus species that causes febrile disease in humans reinforces the need to expand viral disease surveillance in tropical regions of South America. PMID:25898901

  18. Itaya virus, a Novel Orthobunyavirus Associated with Human Febrile Illness, Peru.

    PubMed

    Hontz, Robert D; Guevara, Carolina; Halsey, Eric S; Silvas, Jesus; Santiago, Felix W; Widen, Steven G; Wood, Thomas G; Casanova, Wilma; Vasilakis, Nikos; Watts, Douglas M; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Ebihara, Hideki; Aguilar, Patricia V

    2015-05-01

    Our genetic analyses of uncharacterized bunyaviruses isolated in Peru identified a possible reassortant virus containing small and large gene segment sequences closely related to the Caraparu virus and a medium gene segment sequence potentially derived from an unidentified group C orthobunyavirus. Neutralization tests confirmed serologic distinction among the newly identified virus and the prototype and Caraparu strains. This virus, named Itaya, was isolated in 1999 and 2006 from febrile patients in the cities of Iquitos and Yurimaguas in Peru. The geographic distance between the 2 cases suggests that the Itaya virus could be widely distributed throughout the Amazon basin in northeastern Peru. Identification of a new Orthobunyavirus species that causes febrile disease in humans reinforces the need to expand viral disease surveillance in tropical regions of South America.

  19. Bacillus anthracis sin Locus and Regulation of Secreted Proteases ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Pflughoeft, Kathryn J.; Sumby, Paul; Koehler, Theresa M.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis shares many regulatory loci with the nonpathogenic Bacillus species Bacillus subtilis. One such locus is sinIR, which in B. subtilis controls sporulation, biofilm formation, motility, and competency. As B. anthracis is not known to be motile, to be naturally competent, or to readily form biofilms, we hypothesized that the B. anthracis sinIR regulon is distinct from that of B. subtilis. A genome-wide expression microarray analysis of B. anthracis parental and sinR mutant strains indicated limited convergence of the B. anthracis and B. subtilis SinR regulons. The B. anthracis regulon includes homologues of some B. subtilis SinR-regulated genes, including the signal peptidase gene sipW near the sinIR locus and the sporulation gene spoIIE. The B. anthracis SinR protein also negatively regulates transcription of genes adjacent to the sinIR locus that are unique to the Bacillus cereus group species. These include calY and inhA1, structural genes for the metalloproteases camelysin and immune inhibitor A1 (InhA1), which have been suggested to be associated with virulence in B. cereus and B. anthracis, respectively. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed direct binding of B. anthracis SinR to promoter DNA from strongly regulated genes, such as calY and sipW, but not to the weakly regulated inhA1 gene. Assessment of camelysin and InhA1 levels in culture supernates from sinR-, inhA1-, and calY-null mutants showed that the concentration of InhA1 in the culture supernatant is inversely proportional to the concentration of camelysin. Our data are consistent with a model in which InhA1 protease levels are controlled at the transcriptional level by SinR and at the posttranslational level by camelysin. PMID:21131488

  20. Dengue and Chikungunya fever among viral diseases in outpatient febrile children in Kilosa district hospital, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Chipwaza, Beatrice; Mugasa, Joseph P; Selemani, Majige; Amuri, Mbaraka; Mosha, Fausta; Ngatunga, Steve D; Gwakisa, Paul S

    2014-11-01

    Viral etiologies of fever, including dengue, Chikungunya, influenza, rota and adeno viruses, cause major disease burden in tropical and subtropical countries. The lack of diagnostic facilities in developing countries leads to failure to estimate the true burden of such illnesses, and generally the diseases are underreported. These diseases may have similar symptoms with other causes of acute febrile illnesses including malaria and hence clinical diagnosis without laboratory tests can be difficult. This study aimed to identify viral etiologies as a cause of fever in children and their co-infections with malaria. A cross sectional study was conducted for 6 months at Kilosa district hospital, Tanzania. The participants were febrile children aged 2-13 years presented at the outpatient department. Diagnostic tests such as IgM and IgG ELISA, and PCR were used. A total of 364 patients were enrolled, of these 83(22.8%) had malaria parasites, 76 (20.9%) had presumptive acute dengue infection and among those, 29(38.2%) were confirmed cases. Dengue was more likely to occur in children ≥ 5 years than in <5 years (OR 2.28, 95% CI: 1.35-3.86). Presumptive acute Chikungunya infection was identified in 17(4.7%) of patients. We observed no presenting symptoms that distinguished patients with Chikungunya infection from those with dengue infection or malaria. Co-infections between malaria and Chikungunya, malaria and dengue fever as well as Chikungunya and dengue were detected. Most patients with Chikungunya and dengue infections were treated with antibacterials. Furthermore, our results revealed that 5(5.2%) of patients had influenza virus while 5(12.8%) had rotavirus and 2(5.1%) had adenovirus. Our results suggest that even though viral diseases are a major public health concern, they are not given due recognition as a cause of fever in febrile patients. Emphasis on laboratory diagnostic tests for proper diagnosis and management of febrile patients is recommended.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of filgrastim and pegfilgrastim as primary prophylaxis against febrile neutropenia in lymphoma patients.

    PubMed

    Lathia, Nina; Isogai, Pierre K; De Angelis, Carlo; Smith, Thomas J; Cheung, Matthew; Mittmann, Nicole; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Walker, Scott

    2013-08-07

    Febrile neutropenia is a serious toxicity of cancer chemotherapy that is usually treated in hospital. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of filgrastim and pegfilgrastim as primary prophylaxis against febrile neutropenia in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients undergoing chemotherapy. We used a Markov model that followed patients through induction chemotherapy to compare the three prophylaxis strategies: 1) no primary prophylaxis against febrile neutropenia; 2) primary prophylaxis with 10 days of filgrastim therapy; and 3) primary prophylaxis with a single dose of pegfilgrastim. The target population was a hypothetical cohort of 64-year-old men and women with DLBCL. Data sources included published literature and current clinical practice. The analysis was conducted from a publicly funded health-care system perspective. The main outcome measures included costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). In the base-case analysis, costs associated with no primary prophylaxis, primary prophylaxis with 10 days of filgrastim, and primary prophylaxis with pegfilgrastim were CaD $7314, CaD $13947, and CaD $16290, respectively. The QALYs associated with the three strategies were 0.2004, 0.2015, and 0.2024, respectively. The ICER for the filgrastim vs no primary prophylaxis strategy was CaD $5796000 per QALY. The ICER for the pegfilgrastim vs filgrastim primary prophylaxis strategy was CaD $2611000 per QALY. All one-way sensitivity analyses yielded ICERs greater than CaD $400000 per QALY. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves show that 20.0% of iterations are cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of CaD $1595000 for the filgrastim strategy and CaD $561000 for the pegfilgrastim strategy. Primary prophylaxis against febrile neutropenia with either filgrastim or pegfilgrastim is not cost-effective in DLBCL patients.

  2. Adrenomedullin--A New Marker in Febrile Neutropenia: Comparison With CRP and Procalcitonin.

    PubMed

    Demirkaya, Metin; Tugcu, Deniz; Akcay, Arzu; Aydogan, Gönül; Akıcı, Ferhan; Salcioglu, Zafer; Ekmekci, Hakan; Sevinir, Betül; Balci Ekmekci, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine serum adrenomedullin levels and compare them with levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT). Cancer patients aged 0-18 years who experienced febrile neutropenia attacks were included in the study. Adrenomedullin, CRP, and PCT were analyzed at admission, day 3, and days 7-10 later. Fifty episodes of febrile neutropenia that developed in 37 patients were analyzed in this study. The mean age of the patients was 7.5 ± 4.7 (1-18) years. The patients had leukemia (73%), solid tumors (19%), and lymphoma (8%). The percentages of the patients in the clinically documented infection (CDI), fever of unknown origin (FUO), sepsis, and microbiological documented infection (MDI) categories were 34%, 34%, 20%, and 12%, respectively. During the study period, four patients were lost. In the MDI group, adrenomedullin levels on day 3 were significantly higher than those in the CDI and FUO groups. PCT levels were significantly higher in the sepsis group than those in the CDI group at admission, day 3, and days 7-10. In the sepsis group, PCT levels on days 7-10 days were significantly higher than those in the sepsis group. PCT values from the deceased patients on days 7-10 were significantly higher than those from patients who survived. CRP levels did not differ significantly among the febrile neutropenia groups. First, in our study, adrenomedullin was used as a biomarker in the febrile neutropenia episodes of children with cancer. Among adrenomedullin, CRP, and PCT, procalcitonin demonstrates the highest correlation with the severity of infection.

  3. Circulating D-dimer and thrombomodulin levels in acute febrile phase of measles.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, K; Kato, Y

    2002-10-01

    Circulating D-dimer and thrombomodulin (TM) levels are now routinely measured in clinical laboratories. Plasma levels of D-dimer are used as a marker of fibrin formation and degradation, and serum TM is used to assess the state of endothelial cell injuries. While the levels of circulating D-dimer and TM have been investigated in many diseases, to our knowledge they have not been studied in patients with measles. We measured circulating levels of D-dimer in patients with measles to discuss whether fibrin formation and degradation occur and TM whether endothelial injury occur. The plasma levels of D-dimer and serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatinine were measured of 14 adolescent and adult Japanese patients with measles, and the serum or plasma levels of TM of 10 of these 14 patients were measured in the acute febrile phase and convalescent afebrile phase with commercially available kits. Plasma D-dimer levels were significantly higher in the acute febrile phase than in the convalescent afebrile phase in patients with measles, and no significant difference was shown in serum and plasma TM levels between the two phases. Plasma D-dimer levels were not correlated with serum or plasma TM levels in either phase. No significant differences were identified in the serum ALT and creatinine levels between the acute febrile and convalescent afebrile phases, and the levels of plasma D-dimer were not significantly correlated with the serum ALT levels. Our results indicate that while clot formation and fibrinolysis may tend to occur in patients with the acute febrile phase of measles, there may be little risk that such patients will suffer endothelial injury.

  4. Hyperthermia-Induced Febrile Seizures Have Moderate and Transient Effects on Spatial Learning in Immature Rats.

    PubMed

    Yagoubi, Nawel; Jomni, Yosra; Sakly, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize a novel animal model hyperthermia-induced febrile seizure and to investigate the impacts of repetitive febrile seizures on spatial learning and memory performances in immature rats. Methods. Rats were subjected to hyperthermia exposure one, two, or three times in 10-day intervals during 30 min in a water bath warmed at 45-50°C and their behaviour was monitored. Morris water maze spatial learning and memory were examined for control and treated groups. Results showed that rats subjected to 30-minute hyperthermia hot water developed rapidly myoclonic jerks and then generalized seizures. After a single hyperthermia exposure, the time for generalised tonic-clonic seizures appearance was 16.08 ± 0.60 min and it decreased gradually with repetitive exposure to reach 12.46 ± 0.39 min by the third exposure. Febrile seizures altered the spatial learning and memory abilities in Morris water maze and increased the time spent to attain the platform after one or two exposures, while after a third exposure rats exhibited the same latency compared to controls. Similar results were obtained in probe test where rats, subjected to hyperthermia for one or two episodes, spent less time in the target quadrant compared to corresponding controls. Further, when platform was moved from northwest to southwest quadrant, memory transfer test indicated that after one or two hyperthermia exposures cognitive performances were slightly altered, while after a third exposure the latency to escape increased significantly compared to untreated group. It was concluded that 30 min of hyperthermia hot water was sufficient to induce febrile seizures in immature rats and an increase of susceptibility was observed with repetitive hyperthermia exposure. Hyperthermia treatment impaired cognitive performances but the effects were mostly transient and moderate.

  5. The prevalence of Familial Mediterranean Fever common gene mutations in patients with simple febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Ozen, F; Kocak, N; Kelekci, S; Yildirim, I H; Hacimuto, G; Ozdemir, O

    2014-01-01

    Febrile seizures (FS) represent the most common form of childhood seizures that occurs in 2-5 % of the children younger than 6 years. There have been many recent reports on the molecular genetic and pathogenesis of FC. It has been recognized that there is significant genetic component for susceptibility of FC with different reported mutation. FEB1, FEB2, FEB4, SCNA1, SCNA2, GABRG2 and IL-1β are related to with febrile convulsions (FCs). Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) is a cytokine that contributes to febrile inflammatory responses. There are conflicting results on increasing this cytokine in serum during FC. The determine the association between mutations of MEFV gene product pyrine and febrile seizures. The study was carried out on 104 children that were diagnosed as FS and 96 healthy children. MEFV gene mutations were detected and analyzed with PyroMark Q24. PCR was performed using the PyroMark PCR Kit and pyrosequencing reaction was conducted on instrument instructions. M694V is the most common mutation in our patient group and we found a significant association between MEFV gene mutations and FSs. Of 104 patients, 68 were heterozygotes for any mutation and 10 patients were compound. 17.7% of control group were heterozygotes for any studied mutation.Statistical analyses showed that there was strongly significant statistical difference between results obtained from FS and control group (X = 46.20, p < 0.0001). MEFV gene mutations, especially M694V mutation, are positively associated with FSs.

  6. Hyperthermia-Induced Febrile Seizures Have Moderate and Transient Effects on Spatial Learning in Immature Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yagoubi, Nawel; Jomni, Yosra; Sakly, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize a novel animal model hyperthermia-induced febrile seizure and to investigate the impacts of repetitive febrile seizures on spatial learning and memory performances in immature rats. Methods. Rats were subjected to hyperthermia exposure one, two, or three times in 10-day intervals during 30 min in a water bath warmed at 45–50°C and their behaviour was monitored. Morris water maze spatial learning and memory were examined for control and treated groups. Results showed that rats subjected to 30-minute hyperthermia hot water developed rapidly myoclonic jerks and then generalized seizures. After a single hyperthermia exposure, the time for generalised tonic-clonic seizures appearance was 16.08 ± 0.60 min and it decreased gradually with repetitive exposure to reach 12.46 ± 0.39 min by the third exposure. Febrile seizures altered the spatial learning and memory abilities in Morris water maze and increased the time spent to attain the platform after one or two exposures, while after a third exposure rats exhibited the same latency compared to controls. Similar results were obtained in probe test where rats, subjected to hyperthermia for one or two episodes, spent less time in the target quadrant compared to corresponding controls. Further, when platform was moved from northwest to southwest quadrant, memory transfer test indicated that after one or two hyperthermia exposures cognitive performances were slightly altered, while after a third exposure the latency to escape increased significantly compared to untreated group. It was concluded that 30 min of hyperthermia hot water was sufficient to induce febrile seizures in immature rats and an increase of susceptibility was observed with repetitive hyperthermia exposure. Hyperthermia treatment impaired cognitive performances but the effects were mostly transient and moderate. PMID:26063965

  7. Once daily ceftriaxone and gentamicin for the treatment of febrile neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, R.; Ronghe, M.; Goodbourne, C.; Price, C.; Lilleyman, J.; Das, S.; Saha, V.

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of once daily (OD) gentamicin and its effectiveness as part of an OD regimen for the empirical treatment of febrile neutropenia in children with cancer.
SUBJECTS—59 children aged 6 months to 16 years (mean (SD) 5.7 (4) years) with febrile neutropenia (neutrophil count < 0.5 × 109/l) after chemotherapy.
METHODS—Over one year, 113 febrile neutropenic episodes were treated empirically with an OD antibiotic regimen of ceftriaxone (80 mg/kg; maximum 4 g) and gentamicin (7 mg/kg; infused over 60 minutes, no maximum). The patients were assessed after 48hours.
RESULTS—86 of the 113 episodes settled with the first line antibiotic regimen. In 29 episodes, blood cultures identified a causative bacterial pathogen; for 17 of these, the first line antibiotic regimen was adequate; in four episodes, although the episode settled, ceftriaxone was replaced by a more appropriate antibiotic and OD gentamicin was continued; in the remaining eight episodes, a glycopeptide antibiotic was deemed necessary. There was no failure of treatment in organisms sensitive to gentamicin, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In 27 episodes (24%), resolution was obtained by the empirical introduction of a second line regimen of ceftazidime and a glycopeptide antibiotic, and/or amphotericin. Gentamicin concentrations were measured in 110 episodes and they were all below the 24 hour line indicating that there was no need to change the dosing interval. In two episodes (2%), serum creatinine rose transiently by more than 50% of the baseline concentration. Although there was no vestibular toxicity, three of 30 children who underwent pure tone audiometry reported high frequency hearing loss in one ear.
CONCLUSION—OD gentamicin can be used safely and effectively to treat febrile neutropenia in children with cancer. When used for a short period (< 5 days), in children not receiving other nephrotoxic drugs and who have normal serum creatinine, serum

  8. [Pharmaceutical analysis and clinical efficacy of Kampo medicine, maoto, extract suppository against pediatric febrile symptoms].

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Nobuhiro; Doi, Norio; Uemura, Tomochika; Taketani, Takeshi; Hayashi, George; Kasai, Takeshi; Kanai, Rie; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Iwamoto, Kikuo; Naora, Kohji

    2009-06-01

    A traditional Chinese herbal medicine, Kampo medicine, maoto, has been widely used in the treatment of febrile symptoms caused by viral infection. This herbal extract granule for oral use, however, is not well accepted by infants or young children due to its unpleasant taste and odor. Therefore, we prepared Kampo medicine, maoto, suppository and investigated the pharmaceutical and clinical efficacy of the suppository. Kampo medicine, maoto, granules were micro-pulverized and homogeneously dispersed into Hosco-H15 to prepare suppositories containing 0.25 to 1.0 g herbal extract by the conventional fusion method. Content of l-ephedrine, an index compound of Kampo medicine, maoto, in the extract granules and suppositories was determined by using a high performance liquid chromatographic method. Physicochemical experiments revealed that the suppository containing 0.5 g herbal extract had the most suitable melting point of 34 degrees C. Contents of l-ephedrine in the suppository were constant, 93-96% of those in the same amount of the extract granules in different three lots. Upper and lower portions of the suppository had the same content of l-ephedrine. The suppository maintained more than 95% of l-ephedrine content through 6 months at 4 degrees C, room temperature and 40 degrees C, although maldistribution of the extract constituent was observed after storage at 40 degrees C. The suppository was administered to 21 pediatric febrile patients at a dose of 1/3 to 2 full pieces depending on their body weight and physical status. Significant reduction (p<0.001) of body temperature from 39.5 to 37.5 degrees C without serious adverse effects was observed in 17 patients who were monitored the clinical effects on the febrile symptoms. In conclusion, Kampo medicine, maoto, suppository was found to satisfy the physicochemical quality and quantity standards as well as to be clinically applicable to neonates, infants and children with viral febrile symptoms without any adverse

  9. Risk factors of leptospirosis among febrile hospital admissions in northeastern Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rafizah, A A Noor; Aziah, B D; Azwany, Y N; Imran, M Kamarul; Rusli, A Mohamed; Nazri, S Mohd; Nikman, A Mohd; Nabilah, I; Asma', H Siti; Zahiruddin, W M; Zaliha, I

    2013-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease. Risk factors for the disease may vary among countries. This study was conducted to determine the risk factors of leptospirosis among febrile cases. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 999 febrile patients admitted to 10 hospitals in northeastern Malaysia, from August 2010 to February 2011. An interviewer-guided proforma sheet on sociodemography, type of occupation and social history data was distributed to all adult patients with fever on admission. Serum sample for leptospirosis was screened by IgM Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (IgM ELISA) test and confirmed by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). The cut-off point for positive MAT was ≥ 1:400 titer in single acute specimens. Seroprevalence of leptospirosis was 8.4% (95% CI: 6.8, 10.3) (n=84/999) by MAT. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the high risk occupation group (OR: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.22, 3.13) (p=0.005) and history of recent recreational activity (OR: 2.36, 95% CI: 1.46, 3.85) (p<0.001) were significant associated factors for leptospirosis. This study shows a relatively high seroprevalence of leptospirosis in northeastern Malaysia. Identification of high risk occupational group and history of recent recreational activity will help to increase the index of suspicion to diagnose leptospirosis among febrile inpatients due to its mimicking other common febrile illnesses in Malaysia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. C-reactive protein and procalcitonin during febril attacks in PFAPA syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yazgan, Hamza; Keleş, Esengül; Yazgan, Zerrin; Gebeşçe, Arzu; Demirdöven, Mehmet

    2012-08-01

    To assess the levels of procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in children diagnosed with PFAPA (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis) during their febrile attacks. 23 patients with diagnosis of PFAPA included into the study prospectively during a three years period. In these patients, CRP and PCT values were recorded during 78 febrile episodes. Furthermore, 20 patients with diagnosis of pneumonia were chosen as a control group and their CRP and PCT values were measured. Normal reference values for CRP and PCT were 0-10 mg/L and 0-0.5 ng/mL, respectively. Mean CRP and PCT values of patients with PFAPA were 94.8±71.6 mg/L and 0.29±0.14 ng/mL, respectively. In control group, mean CRP value was 153.2±26 mg/L and PCT was 1.59±0.53 ng/mL. CRP and PCT were high in control group. CRP was detected high and PCT was normal in PFAPA. Compared to control group, in PFAPA group, CRP values were not significantly (p>0.05) and PCT values were significantly lower (p<0.001). During febrile episodes in the patients with diagnosis of PFAPA, CRP values were substantially elevated, whereas PCT values were within normal levels. Concomitant assessment of CRP and PCT in addition to clinical diagnostic criteria may be of help in making diagnosis and distinguishing febrile attacks from infections. However, studies in larger groups are required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. First febrile convulsions: inquiry about the knowledge, attitudes and concerns of the patients' mothers.

    PubMed

    Kolahi, Ali-Asghar; Tahmooreszadeh, Shahrokh

    2009-02-01

    In comparison with other diseases, febrile convulsion, despite its excellent prognosis, is a cause of high anxiety among mothers. The objective of our study was to evaluate the knowledge, concerns, attitudes and practices of the mothers of children with first febrile convulsion. A prospective questionnaire-based study was carried out at the Mofid Children's Hospital. One hundred and twenty-six mothers of consecutive children presenting with febrile convulsion were enrolled. Only 58 (46%) mothers recognised the convulsion. Forty-nine (39%) of them interpreted the seizure as death. Others interpreted it as other causes. Eighty-five (68%) parents did not carry out any intervention prior to getting the child to the hospital. The most common cause of concern among parents was the state of their child's health in the future (n=120, 95%), followed by the fear of recurrence (n=83, 66%), mental retardation (n=60, 48%), paralysis (n=39, 31%), physical disability (n=37, 30%) and learning dysfunction (n=28, 22%). In 41 (33%) mothers, there were other causes of concerns, including fear of visual defect, hearing loss, memory loss, brain defect, delay in walking, drug adverse effects, coma and death. Sixty-eight percent of mothers had acceptable information about the measures that should be taken to prevent recurrence. Awareness of preventive measures was higher in mothers with high educational level (P<0.01). Seventy-six percent of mothers did not know anything about the necessary measures in case of recurrence. From this study, we conclude that parental fear of febrile convulsion is a major problem, with serious negative consequences affecting daily familial life.

  12. Cost and radiation exposure in the workup of febrile pediatric urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Jason E; Gupta, Natasha; Baumgartner, Timothy S; Kim, Brian; Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Wang, Ming-Hsien

    2016-06-15

    Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scans are often used in the evaluation of pediatric patients with febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs). Given the prevalence of febrile UTIs, we sought to quantify the cost, radiation exposure, and clinical utility of DMSA scans when compared with dedicated pediatric renal ultrasounds (RUSs). An institutional review board approved retrospective study of children under the age of 18 years evaluated at our institution for febrile UTIs between the years 2004-2013 was conducted. The patients had to meet all of the following inclusion criteria: a diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux, a fever >38°C, a positive urine culture, and evaluation with a DMSA scan and RUS. A chart review was used to construct a cost analysis of technical and professional fees, radiographic results, and radiation dose equivalents. Overall, 104 children met the inclusion criteria. A total of 122 RUS and 135 DMSA scans were performed. The technical costs of a DMSA scan incurred a 35% cost premium as compared to an RUS. The average effective radiation dose of a single DMSA scan was 2.84 mSv. New radiographic findings were only identified on 7% of those patients who underwent greater than 1 DMSA scan. The utility of the unique information acquired from a DMSA scan as compared to a RUS in the evaluation of febrile UTI must be evaluated on an individual case-by-case basis given the increased direct costs and radiation exposure to the patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Silent acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in febrile children: does this entity exist?

    PubMed

    Shaoul, R; Novikov, J; Maor, I; Jaffe, M

    2004-05-01

    Several descriptions of acetaminophen-associated liver injury caused by therapeutic or a dosage slightly above the recommended dosage have been described. Our hypothesis is that in sick febrile infants and children, who may also be calorie depleted, there might be an increased hepatic vulnerability to acetaminophen. (1) To correlate serum acetaminophen levels in febrile infants and children with the following parameters: aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, fever, vomiting and/or decreased caloric intake; and (2) to assess parental knowledge regarding the medication dosage and hazards of acetaminophen. Healthy children with an acute febrile illness, who had received acetaminophen, were eligible to participate in the study. AST and acetaminophen levels were drawn, and a detailed questionnaire was completed for every child. 107 children participated in the study; 50 girls and 57 boys with ages ranging from 1 mo to 16 y (mean 33 mo). All serum acetaminophen levels were within the safety range. Although 32% of parents administered a single acetaminophen dose above 15 mg/kg and 46% gave a daily dose above 60 mg/kg/d, no significant differences were observed in the serum acetaminophen and AST levels compared to those who received the appropriate dose. In about 60% of cases, the high doses were recommended by a physician. Young age and high fever were associated with significantly higher acetaminophen levels. We could not find an association between acetaminophen levels and vomiting, decreased caloric intake and AST levels. Only 24 parents (22%) were aware of the possible toxicity of acetaminophen. No evidence of increased hepatic vulnerability to acetaminophen was noted in a cohort of febrile infants and children. Furthermore, significant numbers of parents and physicians were unaware of acetaminophen dangers.

  14. The Yale Observation Scale Score and the Risk of Serious Bacterial Infections in Febrile Infants.

    PubMed

    Nigrovic, Lise E; Mahajan, Prashant V; Blumberg, Stephen M; Browne, Lorin R; Linakis, James G; Ruddy, Richard M; Bennett, Jonathan E; Rogers, Alexander J; Tzimenatos, Leah; Powell, Elizabeth C; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Casper, T Charles; Ramilo, Octavio; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2017-07-01

    To assess the performance of the Yale Observation Scale (YOS) score and unstructured clinician suspicion to identify febrile infants ≤60 days of age with and without serious bacterial infections (SBIs). We performed a planned secondary analysis of a prospective cohort of non-critically ill, febrile, full-term infants ≤60 days of age presenting to 1 of 26 participating emergency departments in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network. We defined SBIs as urinary tract infections, bacteremia, or bacterial meningitis, with the latter 2 considered invasive bacterial infections. Emergency department clinicians applied the YOS (range: 6-30; normal score: ≤10) and estimated the risk of SBI using unstructured clinician suspicion (<1%, 1%-5%, 6%-10%, 11%-50%, or >50%). Of the 4591 eligible infants, 444 (9.7%) had SBIs and 97 (2.1%) had invasive bacterial infections. Of the 4058 infants with YOS scores of ≤10, 388 (9.6%) had SBIs (sensitivity: 51/439 [11.6%]; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.8%-15.0%; negative predictive value: 3670/4058 [90.4%]; 95% CI: 89.5%-91.3%) and 72 (1.8%) had invasive bacterial infections (sensitivity 23/95 [24.2%], 95% CI: 16.0%-34.1%; negative predictive value: 3983/4055 [98.2%], 95% CI: 97.8%-98.6%). Of the infants with clinician suspicion of <1%, 106 had SBIs (6.4%) and 16 (1.0%) had invasive bacterial infections. In this large prospective cohort of febrile infants ≤60 days of age, neither the YOS score nor unstructured clinician suspicion reliably identified those with invasive bacterial infections. More accurate clinical and laboratory predictors are needed to risk stratify febrile infants. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. The Yale Observation Scale Score and the Risk of Serious Bacterial Infections in Febrile Infants.

    PubMed

    Nigrovic, Lise E; Mahajan, Prashant V; Blumberg, Stephen M; Browne, Lorin R; Linakis, James G; Ruddy, Richard M; Bennett, Jonathan E; Rogers, Alexander J; Tzimenatos, Leah; Powell, Elizabeth C; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Casper, T Charles; Ramilo, Octavio; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2017-06-06

    To assess the performance of the Yale Observation Scale (YOS) score and unstructured clinician suspicion to identify febrile infants ≤60 days of age with and without serious bacterial infections (SBIs). We performed a planned secondary analysis of a prospective cohort of non-critically ill, febrile, full-term infants ≤60 days of age presenting to 1 of 26 participating emergency departments in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network. We defined SBIs as urinary tract infections, bacteremia, or bacterial meningitis, with the latter 2 considered invasive bacterial infections. Emergency department clinicians applied the YOS (range: 6-30; normal score: ≤10) and estimated the risk of SBI using unstructured clinician suspicion (<1%, 1%-5%, 6%-10%, 11%-50%, or >50%). Of the 4591 eligible infants, 444 (9.7%) had SBIs and 97 (2.1%) had invasive bacterial infections. Of the 4058 infants with YOS scores of ≤10, 388 (9.6%) had SBIs (sensitivity: 51/439 [11.6%]; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.8%-15.0%; negative predictive value: 3670/4058 [90.4%]; 95% CI: 89.5%-91.3%) and 72 (1.8%) had invasive bacterial infections (sensitivity 23/95 [24.2%], 95% CI: 16.0%-34.1%; negative predictive value: 3983/4055 [98.2%], 95% CI: 97.8%-98.6%). Of the infants with clinician suspicion of <1%, 106 had SBIs (6.4%) and 16 (1.0%) had invasive bacterial infections. In this large prospective cohort of febrile infants ≤60 days of age, neither the YOS score nor unstructured clinician suspicion reliably identified those with invasive bacterial infections. More accurate clinical and laboratory predictors are needed to risk stratify febrile infants. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Knowledge of using acetaminophen syrup and comprehension of written medication instruction among caregivers with febrile children.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Chuan; Chen, Yueh-Chih; Chang, Shu-Chuan; Smith, Graeme D

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to explore caregivers' knowledge of acetaminophen and comprehension of written medication instructions about acetaminophen syrup when administered to febrile children. Fever is one of the most common problems about which primary caregivers seek medical advice for their children. Administration of acetaminophen is the most common form of treatment for febrile children. Medication safety is of the upmost importance for medication administration in this patient group. A cross-sectional study design was used. The study included 102 caregivers with febrile children under six years old. A self-designed questionnaire was used to solicit participants' responses concerning: (1) approaches to fever management prior to hospital admission; and (2) knowledge and comprehension of antipyretic medication administration. Caregivers were asked to answer specific questions about the instructions provided with the medication. Results.  Antipyretic by oral (66%) and antipyretic suppository (60%) were the most commonly used forms of fever management in febrile children. After reading the written medication instructions, one-third of the participants had more than one misunderstanding of the instructions for medication with timing, time interval of administration and/or medication dosage. Almost two-thirds of the participants misunderstood the side effects of acetaminophen. Participants with a poorer academic background were associated with poorer comprehension of the provided instructions. Administration of antipyretic medication is the most common approach taken to reduce children's temperature. A significant percentage of primary caregivers appear to lack a thorough understanding of the instructions provided with antipyrexial medication. Written medication instruction is a major source of information for primary caregivers. Clinical nurses have a potentially important role to play to provide caregivers with legible and understandable medication instructions and to

  17. Colonization with Escherichia coli Strains among Female Sex Partners of Men with Febrile Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Torsten; Scheutz, Flemming; Clabots, Connie; Johnston, Brian D.; Thuras, Paul; Johnson, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Of 23 unique Escherichia coli strains from 10 men with febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs) and their female sex partners, 6 strains (all UTI causing) were shared between partners. Molecularly, the 6 shared strains appeared more virulent than the 17 nonshared strains, being associated with phylogenetic group B2, sequence types ST73 and ST127, and multiple specific virulence genes. This indicates that UTIs are sometimes sexually transmitted. PMID:25832302

  18. Use of alarm features in referral of febrile children to the emergency department: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    van Ierland, Yvette; Elshout, Gijs; Moll, Henriëtte A; Nijman, Ruud G; Vergouwe, Yvonne; van der Lei, Johan; Berger, Marjolein Y; Oostenbrink, Rianne

    2014-01-01

    Background The diagnostic value of alarm features of serious infections in low prevalence settings is unclear. Aim To explore to what extent alarm features play a role in referral to the emergency department (ED) by GPs who face a febrile child during out-of-hours care. Design and setting Observational study using semi-structured, routine clinical practice data of febrile children (<16 years) presenting to GP out-of-hours care. Method Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between alarm features of serious infections (selected from two guidelines and one systematic review) and referral to the ED. Adherence to the guideline was explored by a 2×2 contingency table. Results In total 794 (8.1%) of 9794 eligible patients were referred to the ED. Alarm signs most strongly associated with referral were ‘age <1 month’, ‘decreased consciousness’, ‘meningeal irritation’, and ‘signs of dehydration’. Nineteen percent of 3424 children with a positive referral indication according to the guideline were referred to the ED. The majority of those not referred had only one or two alarm features present. A negative referral indication was adhered to for the majority of children. Still, in 20% of referred children, alarm features were absent. Conclusion In contrast to guidance, GPs working in primary out-of-hours care seem more conservative in referring febrile children to the ED, especially if only one or two alarm features of serious infection are present. In addition, in 20% of referred children, alarm features were absent, which suggests that other factors may be important in decisions about referral of febrile children to the hospital ED. PMID:24567576

  19. Use of alarm features in referral of febrile children to the emergency department: an observational study.

    PubMed

    van Ierland, Yvette; Elshout, Gijs; Moll, Henriëtte A; Nijman, Ruud G; Vergouwe, Yvonne; van der Lei, Johan; Berger, Marjolein Y; Oostenbrink, Rianne

    2014-01-01

    The diagnostic value of alarm features of serious infections in low prevalence settings is unclear. To explore to what extent alarm features play a role in referral to the emergency department (ED) by GPs who face a febrile child during out-of-hours care. Observational study using semi-structured, routine clinical practice data of febrile children (<16 years) presenting to GP out-of-hours care. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between alarm features of serious infections (selected from two guidelines and one systematic review) and referral to the ED. Adherence to the guideline was explored by a 2×2 contingency table. In total 794 (8.1%) of 9794 eligible patients were referred to the ED. Alarm signs most strongly associated with referral were 'age <1 month', 'decreased consciousness', 'meningeal irritation', and 'signs of dehydration'. Nineteen percent of 3424 children with a positive referral indication according to the guideline were referred to the ED. The majority of those not referred had only one or two alarm features present. A negative referral indication was adhered to for the majority of children. Still, in 20% of referred children, alarm features were absent. In contrast to guidance, GPs working in primary out-of-hours care seem more conservative in referring febrile children to the ED, especially if only one or two alarm features of serious infection are present. In addition, in 20% of referred children, alarm features were absent, which suggests that other factors may be important in decisions about referral of febrile children to the hospital ED.

  20. Association of Acetaminophen and Ibuprofen Use With Wheezing in Children With Acute Febrile Illness.

    PubMed

    Matok, Ilan; Elizur, Arnon; Perlman, Amichai; Ganor, Shani; Levine, Hagai; Kozer, Eran

    2017-03-01

    Many infants and children receive acetaminophen and/or ibuprofen during febrile illness. Previously, some studies have linked acetaminophen and ibuprofen use to wheezing and exacerbation of asthma symptoms in infants and children. To assess whether acetaminophen or ibuprofen use are associated with wheezing in children presenting to the emergency department (ED) with febrile illness. This was a cross-sectional study of children who presented with fever to the pediatric ED between 2009 and 2013. The data were collected from questionnaires and from the children's medical files. Patients with wheezing in the ED were compared with nonwheezing patients. Associations between medication use and wheezing were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. The multivariate analysis adjusted for potential confounding variables (ie, age, atopic dermatitis, allergies, smoking, antibiotics use, etc) via propensity scores. During the study period, 534 children admitted to the ED met our inclusion criteria, of whom 347 (65%) were included in the study. The use of acetaminophen was similar in children diagnosed with wheezing compared with those without wheezing (n = 39, 81.3%, vs n = 229, 82.7%, respectively). Ibuprofen use was significantly lower in children diagnosed with wheezing (n = 22, 52.4%, vs n = 168, 69.4%, respectively). In multivariate analysis, acetaminophen was not associated with a higher rate of wheezing during acute febrile illness (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.24- 2.39), whereas ibuprofen was associated with a lower risk of wheezing (adjusted OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.13-0.96). Our study suggests that acetaminophen and ibuprofen are not associated with increased risk for wheezing during acute febrile illness.

  1. Frequent Respiratory Viral Infections in Children with Febrile Neutropenia - A Prospective Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Söderman, Martina; Rhedin, Samuel; Tolfvenstam, Thomas; Rotzén-Östlund, Maria; Albert, Jan; Broliden, Kristina; Lindblom, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objective Febrile neutropenia is common in children undergoing chemotherapy for the treatment of malignancies. In the majority of cases, the cause of the fever is unknown. Although respiratory viruses are commonly associated with this condition, the etiologic significance of this finding remains unclear and is therefore the subject of this study. Study design Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected during 87 episodes of febrile neutropenia in children age 0–18 years, being treated at a children’s oncology unit between January 2013 and June 2014. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the presence of 16 respiratory viruses. Follow-up samples were collected from children who tested positive for one or more respiratory viruses. Rhinoviruses were genotyped by VP4/VP2 sequencing. Fisher’s exact test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for group comparisons. Results At least one respiratory virus was detected in samples from 39 of 87 episodes of febrile neutropenia (45%), with rhinoviruses the most frequently detected. Follow-up samples were collected after a median of 28 days (range, 9–74 days) in 32 of the 39 virus-positive episodes. The respiratory viral infection had resolved in 25 episodes (78%). The same virus was detected at follow-up in one coronavirus and six rhinovirus episodes. Genotyping revealed a different rhinovirus species in two of the six rhinovirus infections. Conclusion The frequency of respiratory viral infections in this group of patients suggests an etiologic role in febrile neutropenia. However, these findings must be confirmed in larger patient cohorts. PMID:27309354

  2. Comparison between febrile and afebrile seizures associated with mild rotavirus gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ben; Kim, Dong Hyun; Hong, Young Jin; Son, Byong Kwan; Kim, Dong Wook; Kwon, Young Se

    2013-09-01

    We aimed on identifying the differences of febrile and afebrile seizures associated with mild rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in the pediatric population. Medical charts of pediatric patients who had been admitted between July 1999 and June 2011 due to RVGE were retrospectively reviewed. Subjects were ultimately divided into three groups; 'no seizure' (NS: patients without seizure), 'febrile seizure' (FS: patients with fever during seizure), 'afebrile seizure' (AFS: patients without fever during seizure). Comparisons between groups were carried out on demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory test results, electroencephalogram findings, brain magnetic resonance imaging findings, antiepileptic treatment, and prognosis. Among the 755 subjects who had been admitted due to mild rotavirus enteritis, 696 (90.3%) did not have any seizures, 17 (2.2%) had febrile seizures, 42 (5.5%) had afebrile seizures. The duration of gastrointestinal symptoms before the onset of seizures were significantly shorter in the FS group compared to the AFS group (1.3±0.8 vs. 2.8±1.0 days; p<0.0001). A single seizure attack was significantly higher in the AFS group (3.0±1.6 vs. 1.7±1.0 episodes; p=0.0003), and the frequency of seizures that were of focal type with or without secondary generalization were significantly higher in the AFS group (33.3% vs. 6.0%; p=0.0139). All patients among the FS and AFS group had not received further antiepileptic treatment after discharge, and none developed epilepsy during follow up period. Despite some differences in seizure characteristics, both febrile and afebrile seizures associated with mild RVGE were mostly benign with a favorable prognosis. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cognitive functioning one month and one year following febrile status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Erica F; Masur, David; Shinnar, Shlomo; Hesdorffer, Dale C; Hinton, Veronica J; Bonner, Melanie; Rinaldi, Julie; Van de Water, Virginia; Culbert, James; Shinnar, Ruth C; Seinfeld, Syndi; Gallentine, William; Nordli, Douglas R; Frank, L Mathew; Epstein, Leon; Moshé, Solomon L; Sun, Shumei

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine early developmental and cognitive outcomes of children with febrile status epilepticus (FSE) one month and one year after FSE. One hundred ninety four children with FSE were evaluated on measures of cognition, receptive language, and memory as part of the FEBSTAT study and compared with 100 controls with simple febrile seizures (FSs). Children with FSE did not differ dramatically on tasks compared with FS controls at one month after FSE but demonstrated slightly weaker motor development (p=0.035) and receptive language (p=0.034) at one year after FSE. Performances were generally within the low average to average range. Within the FSE cohort, non-White children performed weaker on many of the tasks compared with Caucasian children. At the one-year visit, acute hippocampal T2 findings on MRI were associated with weaker receptive language skills (p=0.0009), and human herpes virus 6 or 7 (HHV6/7) viremia was associated with better memory performances (p=0.047). Febrile status epilepticus does not appear to be associated with significant cognitive impairment on early developmental measures, although there is a trend for possible receptive language and motor delay one year after FSE. Further follow-up, which is in progress, is necessary to track long-term cognitive functioning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dengue fever causing febrile neutropenia in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: an unknown entity.

    PubMed

    Ramzan, Mohammed; Yadav, Satya Prakash; Dinand, Veronique; Sachdeva, Anupam

    2013-06-01

    Dengue fever is endemic in many parts of the world but it has not been described as a cause of febrile neutropenia. We describe here clinical features, laboratory values and outcome in 10 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and with dengue fever as a cause of febrile neutropenia. These data are compared to an age-matched control population of 22 children with proven dengue infection without ALL. Except for fever in all patients and plethoric face in one patient, typical symptoms of dengue such as abdominal pain, myalgias, and headaches, were absent. Mean duration of hospital stay was 6.3±2.0 days in ALL patients vs. 5.0±2.0 in controls (p=0.096). Median platelet count was 13,000/cmm (range 1000-28,000) in cases vs. 31,500 (range 13,000-150,000) in controls (p=0.018). Mean time for recovery for platelet was 6.0±1.3days in ALL patients vs. 2.5±0.9days in controls (p<0.001). All 10 patients survived. In endemic areas, high suspicion of dengue fever should be maintained in children with ALL and febrile neutropenia although typical symptoms may be lacking. Platelet recovery may be significantly delayed. Copyright © 2013 King Faisal Specialist Centre & Research Hospital. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mucosal barrier injury, fever and infection in neutropenic patients with cancer: introducing the paradigm febrile mucositis.

    PubMed

    van der Velden, Walter J F M; Herbers, Alexandra H E; Netea, Mihai G; Blijlevens, Nicole M A

    2014-11-01

    Infection remains one of the most prominent complications after cytotoxic treatment for cancer. The connection between neutropenia and both infections and fever has long been designated as 'febrile neutropenia', but treatment with antimicrobial agents and haematopoietic growth factors has failed to significantly reduce its incidence. Moreover, emerging antimicrobial resistance is becoming a concern that necessitates the judicious use of available antimicrobial agents. In addition to neutropenia, patients who receive cytotoxic therapy experience mucosal barrier injury (MBI) or 'mucositis'. MBI creates a port-de-entrée for resident micro-organisms to cause blood stream infections and contributes directly to the occurrence of fever by disrupting the highly regulated host-microbe interactions, which, even in the absence of an infection, can result in strong inflammatory reactions. Indeed, MBI has been shown to be a pivotal factor in the occurrence of inflammatory complications after cytotoxic therapy. Hence, the concept 'febrile neutropenia' alone may no longer suffice and a new concept 'febrile mucositis' should be recognized as the two are at least complementary. This review we summarizes the existing evidence for both paradigms and proposes new therapeutic approaches to tackle the perturbed host-microbe interactions arising from cytotoxic therapy-induced tissue damage in order to reduce fever in neutropenic patients with cancer. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Fever profile of febrile neutropenia in patients treated with cancer chemotherapy for hematological malignancies].

    PubMed

    Tamai, Yotaro; Imataki, Osamu; Kawakami, Kimihiro

    2010-05-01

    It is important to diagnose infectious events in cancer patients during chemotherapy. Since many of them have complications of febrile neutropenia (FN), determining its cause is critical for their treatment course. We analyzed all febrile events (>38.0 degrees C, single axillary temperature) in hospitalized cancer patients treated at Shizuoka Cancer Center over a period of 8 months. Based on the clinical presentation at the onset, we estimated the cause of fever and classified it as infection, tumor fever, immunologic reaction or unknown. Clinical presentations found at the onset of FN were categorized into 4 groups: (1) oral mucositis, and (2) respiratory, (3) gastrointestinal and (4) cutaneous findings. We detected 85 febrile episodes (median age 58, range 26 approximately 86; 37 males and 48 females). Neutropenia was observed (500/mL) in 52. 9% (45/85) of the patients and clinical symptoms were detected in 74.1% (63/85). In eleven of 18 infection-proven cases, we successfully predicted the infection focus at the onset of fever. Multivariate analysis revealed that initial high fever, antimicrobial prophylaxis, cutaneous findings and severe neutropenia were important influencing factors in predicting infectious disease during FN. Physical examination can support the diagnosis of the cause of fever in FN patients.

  7. Outpatient management of febrile neutropenia: time to revise the present treatment strategy.

    PubMed

    Carstensen, Mads; Sørensen, Jens Benn

    2008-01-01

    We reviewed medical literature on the efficacy and safety of outpatient versus hospital-based therapy of low-risk febrile neutropenia in adult cancer patients. A PubMed search for all studies evaluating the outpatient treatment of adults diagnosed with solid tumors who suffered from low-risk febrile neutropenia was completed; reference lists from identified articles also were used. In all, 10 trials were included in the analysis, which showed no significant difference in clinical failure rates and mortality for ambulatory regimens and standard hospital-based therapy. Subgroup analysis according to the type of fever episode showed no significant differences in clinical failure rates for fever of unknown origin and fever due to documented infections. Subgroup analyses in two independent trials identified an absolute neutrophil count < 100 cells/ mm3 as being predictive of outpatient treatment failure (P < 0.04). These findings need to be confirmed by further trials. Thus, outpatient management of adult cancer patients with low-risk febrile neutropenia is safe, effective, and comparable to standard hospital-based therapy. Patients at low risk are outpatients and are hemodynamically stable; they have no organ failure, they are able to take oral medications, and they do not suffer from acute leukemia. Low-risk prediction also may be based on the Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer risk index.

  8. Orofacial injuries associated with prehospital management of febrile convulsion in Nigerian children.

    PubMed

    Ndukwe, Kizito C; Folayan, Morenike O; Ugboko, Vincent I; Elusiyan, Jerome B E; Laja, Olajumoke O

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to determine in a population of pediatric patients with febrile convulsions the prevalence and pattern of orofacial and dental injuries caused by traditional remedies used in a suburban Nigerian community. Over the study period of 28 months, 75 cases of febrile convulsion presented to the Children's Emergency unit of our hospital. Of these, 27 children (36%) sustained orofacial injuries caused by forceful insertion of a spoon into the mouth (96.3%) or a bite (3.7%) during convulsive episodes. The ages of the patients ranged from 12 to 84 months with a mean 39.8 +/- 18.3 months. There were 15 males and 11 females with a male to female ratio of 1.4:1. The orofacial and dental injuries sustained from prehospital treatment at home were lacerations and bruising of soft tissues including lips, tongue, mucosa and commissures and tooth subluxation, displacement or avulsion. Other injuries sustained outside the mouth include second-degree burns to the feet, a chin laceration and facial bruises resulting from a fall. Many oral injuries were overlooked by pediatricians. Prompt recognition and appropriate management of febrile convulsion would be of great benefit to the pediatric patients.

  9. Long-term consequences of a prolonged febrile seizure in a dual pathology model.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Steve; Chattopadhyaya, Bidisha; Desgent, Sébastien; Awad, Patricia N; Clerk-Lamalice, Olivier; Levesque, Maxime; Vianna, Rose-Mari; Rébillard, Rose-Marie; Delsemme, Andrée-Anne; Hébert, David; Tremblay, Luc; Lepage, Martin; Descarries, Laurent; Di Cristo, Graziella; Carmant, Lionel

    2011-08-01

    Clinical evidence suggests that febrile status epilepticus (SE) in children can lead to acute hippocampal injury and subsequent temporal lobe epilepsy. The contribution of febrile SE to the mechanisms underlying temporal lobe epilepsy are however poorly understood. A rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy following hyperthermic SE was previously established in our laboratory, wherein a focal cortical lesion induced at postnatal day 1 (P1), followed by a hyperthermic SE (more than 30 min) at P10, leads to hippocampal atrophy at P22 (dual pathology model) and spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) with mild visuospatial memory deficits in adult rats. The goal of this study was to identify the long term electrophysiological, anatomical and molecular changes in this model. Following hyperthermic SE, all cortically lesioned pups developed progressive SRS as adults, characterized by the onset of highly rhythmic activity in the hippocampus. A reduction of hippocampal volume on the side of the lesion preceded the SRS and was associated with a loss of hippocampal neurons, a marked decrease in pyramidal cell spine density, an increase in the hippocampal levels of NMDA receptor NR2A subunit, but no significant change in GABA receptors. These findings suggest that febrile SE in the abnormal brain leads to hippocampal injury that is followed by progressive network reorganization and molecular changes that contribute to the epileptogenesis as well as the observed memory deficits.

  10. Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus: novel SCN1A mutation.

    PubMed

    Dimova, Petia S; Yordanova, Iglika; Bojinova, Veneta; Jordanova, Albena; Kremenski, Ivo

    2010-02-01

    Genetic generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) is an idiopathic generalized epileptic syndrome of heterogeneous phenotype. The cases described here are of two brothers, one with severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (Dravet syndrome) and the other myoclonic-astatic epilepsy. Their father experienced one simple febrile seizure in infancy and two generalized tonic-clonic seizures after head trauma in adulthood, and had generalized epileptiform activity in the electroencephalogram. He died in a severe sport accident before genetic testing could be performed. In both siblings, but not in their healthy mother, DNA analysis identified an unreported point mutation (c.3925 C>T) in exon 20 of the SCN1A gene. The missense mutation was therefore assumed to be inherited from the father, who had a very mild clinical picture, with a single febrile seizure and only occasional generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The offspring have GEFS+ phenotypes with opposite severity, an illustration of the broad intrafamilial variability of SCN1A gene mutations.

  11. Variability in the management of the febrile infant under 2 months of age.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, C D; Orr, D P; Uchiyama, N; Tully, S B; Reiff, M I; Marble, R; Stein, M

    1985-01-01

    The management in the emergency department of febrile infants less than 2 months of age is influenced by the standard of practice in the community. We sought to determine if uniform practices existed across the United States. Individual academically based faculty from 154 (61%) United States pediatric residency programs responding to a questionnaire on the emergency department management of febrile infants less than 2 months of age showed great variability. Twenty-nine respondents reported written policies and 103 reported informal but defined guidelines for the evaluation and management of infants seen at their institutions. There was little consensus among the respondents as to the definition of fever in this age group. Those at institutions with formal policies reported using more laboratory tests in the evaluation. Respondents differed on the number and types of tests used and on antibiotic administration. University affiliation, type of population served, or presence of advanced training programs in ambulatory pediatrics were not related to the type of policy. The care of the young febrile infant varies greatly.

  12. Association of time to antibiotics and clinical outcomes in adult hematologic malignancy patients with febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Butts, Allison R; Bachmeier, Christina Carracedo; Dressler, Emily V; Liu, Meng; Cowden, Ann; Talbert, Jeff; Adams, Val R

    2017-06-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the clinical impact of time to antibiotic administration in adult inpatients who have hematologic malignancies and develop febrile neutropenia. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted to screen for all febrile neutropenia events amongst adult hematologic malignancy patients between 1 January 2010 and 1 September 2014. All included patients were admitted to the hospital at the time of fever onset, having been admitted for a diagnosis other than febrile neutropenia. Descriptive statistics and logistic generalized estimated equations were used to analyze the data. Results Two hundred forty-four neutropenic fever events met inclusion criteria. Thirty-five events (14.34%) led to negative clinical outcomes (in-hospital mortality, intensive care unit transfer, or vasopressor requirement), with an in-house mortality rate of 7.4%. The time to antibiotics ranged from 10 min to 1495 min. The median time to antibiotics in the events that led to negative outcomes was 120 min compared to 102 min in the events that did not lead to the negative outcome ( p = 0.93). Conditional order sets were used to order empiric antibiotics in 176 events (72.1%) and significantly reduced time to antibiotics from 287 min to 143 min ( p = 0.0019). Conclusion Prolonged time to antibiotic administration in hematologic malignancy patients who develop neutropenic fever was not shown to be associated with negative clinical outcomes.

  13. Cefotaxime, cefazolin, or ampicillin prophylaxis of febrile morbidity in emergency cesarean sections.

    PubMed

    Louie, T J; Binns, B A; Baskett, T F; Ross, J; Koss, J

    1982-01-01

    Cefotaxime, a new third-generation cephalosporin, was compared with ampicillin and cefazolin in a randomized double-blind trial to evaluate the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis of febrile morbidity associated with emergency cesarean sections. A 1-gm intravenous dose of one of the three antibiotics was given by bolus injection immediately after clamping of the umbilical cord and six and 12 hours later. All patients were in labor with membranes ruptured and had a temperature less than or equal to 37.8 C, and none had a history of penicillin or cephalosporin allergy. A total of 195 women were entered into the trial. Initially, the study included a placebo control group which was switched to ampicillin after 30 patients. Of the 188 evaluable patients, 51 of 59 (86.5%) ampicillin recipients, 59 of 67 (88.1%) cefazolin recipients, 48 of 55 (87.3%) cefotaxime recipients, and two of seven (28.5%) placebo recipients had uneventful postoperative courses. During the study, an additional 39 women who were in labor with ruptured membranes but who were allergic to penicillin or who declined antibiotic prophylaxis were classified as untreated patients and observed for postoperative complications. Standard febrile morbidity, primarily related to endometritis or wound infections, occurred in 6 of 59 (10.1%) ampicillin, 5 of 67 (7.5%) cefazolin, 5 of 55 (9.1%) cefotaxime, and 18 (40.0%) of placebo or untreated patients. Cefotaxime, cefazolin, and ampicillin were equally effective in reducing febrile morbidity in emergency cesarean sections.

  14. Permanent renal parenchymal defects after febrile UTI are closely associated with vesicoureteric reflux.

    PubMed

    Polito, Cesare; Rambaldi, Pier Francesco; Signoriello, Giuseppe; Mansi, Luigi; La Manna, Angela

    2006-04-01

    The finding of scintigraphic renal defects in children with febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) even in the absence of vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) has led to the conclusion that VUR is a weak predictor of renal defects in these patients. We used isotopic cystography (IC) for diagnosis of VUR in children with febrile UTI. Dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy was performed 6 months after cure of the last UTI. Renal defects were defined by the finding of focal defects of radionuclide uptake and/or by a split renal function <43%. The study included 206 children with primary VUR and 77 without VUR. Among the subjects with and without VUR, respectively, renal defects were found in 40 and 6% (p=0.0001), focal uptake defects in 33 and 5% (p=0.0001) and split renal function <43% in 26 and 5% (p=0.0001). Permanent renal defects in children with febrile UTI are closely associated with VUR. The possibility that a child will have permanent renal defects can reasonably be ruled out on the basis of the absence of VUR by IC.

  15. Risk factors for febrile status epilepticus: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hesdorffer, Dale C; Shinnar, Shlomo; Lewis, Darrell V; Nordli, Douglas R; Pellock, John M; Moshé, Solomon L; Shinnar, Ruth C; Litherland, Claire; Bagiella, Emilia; Frank, L Matthew; Bello, Jacqueline A; Chan, Stephen; Masur, David; Macfall, James; Sun, Shumei

    2013-10-01

    To identify risk factors for developing a first febrile status epilepticus (FSE) among children with a first febrile seizure (FS). Cases were children with a first FS that was FSE drawn from the Consequences of Prolonged Febrile Seizures in Childhood and Columbia cohorts. Controls were children with a first simple FS and separately, children with a first complex FS that was not FSE. Identical questionnaires were administered to family members of the 3 cohorts. Magnetic resonance imaging protocol and readings were consistent across cohorts, and seizure phenomenology was assessed by the same physicians. Risk factors were analyzed using logistic regression. Compared with children with simple FS, FSE was associated with younger age, lower temperature, longer duration (1-24 hours) of recognized temperature before FS, female sex, structural temporal lobe abnormalities, and first-degree family history of FS. Compared with children with other complex FS, FSE was associated with low temperature and longer duration (1-24 hours) of temperature recognition before FS. Risk factors for complex FS that was not FSE were similar in magnitude to those for FSE but only younger age was significant. Among children with a first FS, FSE appears to be due to a combination of lower seizure threshold (younger age and lower temperatures) and impaired regulation of seizure duration. Clinicians evaluating FS should be aware of these factors as many episodes of FSE go unnoticed. Further work is needed to develop strategies to prevent FSE. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Presumptive self-diagnosis of malaria and other febrile illnesses in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Ansumana, Rashid; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Gbakima, Aiah Albert; Hodges, Mary Hamer; Lamin, Joseph Morrison; Leski, Tomasz Andrzej; Malanoski, Anthony Peter; Lin, Baochuan; Bockarie, Moses John; Stenger, David Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-diagnosis of malaria and other febrile illnesses in Bo, Sierra Leone. Methods All households in two neighboring sections of Bo were invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey. Results A total of 882 households (an 85% participation rate) that were home to 5410 individuals participated in the study. Of the 910 individuals reported to have had what the household considered to be malaria in the past month, only 41% were diagnosed by a healthcare professional or a laboratory test. Of the 1402 individuals reported to have had any type of febrile illness within the past six months, only 34% had sought a clinical or laboratory diagnosis. Self-diagnosis of influenza, yellow fever, typhoid, and pneumonia was also common. Conclusion Self-diagnosis and presumptive treatment with antimalarial drugs and other antibiotic medications that are readily available without a prescription may compromise health outcomes for febrile adults and children. PMID:24009810

  17. Association of Interleukin-1 Gene Cluster and Interleukin-1 Receptor Polymorphisms With Febrile Seizures.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Samaneh; Zare-Shahabadi, Ameneh; Shahrokhi, Amin; Rezaei, Arezou; Zoghi, Samaneh; Zamani, Gholam Reza; Mohammadi, Mahmoud; Ashrafi, Mahmoud Reza; Rezaei, Nima

    2016-05-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) plays a key role in inflammation, has an effect on a wide variety of cells, and often leads to tissue destruction. While the ratio between IL-1 and IL-1Ra could influence the development of different diseases of the central nervous system, its gene polymorphisms were investigated in a group of patients with febrile seizures. Ninety patients with febrile seizures were enrolled and compared with 140 controls. The allele and genotype frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms within the IL-1α, β, IL-1 R and IL-1Ra gene were determined. The frequency of the IL-1Ra/C allele at position Mspa-I 11100 was decreased significantly (P= .002) and the IL-1Ra/T frequency was significantly increased in patients (P= .002). In addition, the CT genotype frequency at the same position was significantly overrepresented in controls compared to patients (P= .001). Certain alleles and genotypes in the IL-1 gene were overrepresented in patients with febrile seizures, which possibly could predispose individuals to this disease. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Involvement of the SIN4 global transcriptional regulator in the chromatin structure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Y W; Stillman, D J

    1992-01-01

    We have cloned and sequenced the SIN4 gene and determined that SIN4 is identical to TSF3, identified as a negative regulator of GAL1 gene transcription (S. Chen, R.W. West, Jr., S.L. Johnson, H. Gans, and J. Ma, submitted for publication). Yeast strains bearing a sin4 delta null mutation have been constructed and are temperature sensitive for growth and display defects in both negative and positive regulation of transcription. Transcription of the CTS1 gene is reduced in sin4 delta mutants, suggesting that Sin4 functions as a positive transcriptional regulator. Additionally, a Sin4-LexA fusion protein activates transcription from test promoters containing LexA binding sites. The sin4 delta mutant also shows phenotypes common to histone and spt mutants, including suppression of delta insertion mutations in the HIS4 and LYS2 promoters, expression of promoters lacking upstream activation sequence elements, and decreased superhelical density of circular DNA molecules. These results suggest that the sin4 delta mutation may alter the structure of chromatin, and these changes in chromatin structure may affect transcriptional regulation. Images PMID:1406639

  19. Measurement of sin2θw and ϱ in deep inelastic neutrino-nucleon scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reutens, P. G.; Merritt, F. S.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Messner, R. L.; Novikoff, D. B.; Purohit, M. V.; Blair, R. E.; Sciulli, F. J.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Fisk, H. E.; Fukushima, Y.; Jin, B. N.; Kondo, T.; Rapidis, P. A.; Yovanovitch, D. D.; Bodek, A.; Coleman, R. N.; Marsh, W. L.; Fackler, O. D.; Jenkins, K. A.

    1985-03-01

    We describe a high statistics measurement from deep inelastic neutrino-nucleon scattering of the electroweak parameters ϱ and sin2θw, performed in the Fermilab narrow-band neutrino beam. Our measurement uses a radius-dependent cut in y = EH/Ev which reduces the systematic error in sin2θw, and incorporates electromagnetic and electroweak radiative corrections. In a renormalization scheme where sin2θw ≡ 1-m2W/m2Z, a value of sin2θw = 0.242+/-0.011+/-0.005 is obtained fixing ϱ = 1. If both sin2θw and ϱ are allowed to vary in a fit to our data, we measure ϱ = 0.991 +/- 0.025 +/- 0.009. Present address: IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, PO Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA.

  20. Arboviral Etiologies of Acute Febrile Illnesses in Western South America, 2000–2007

    PubMed Central

    Forshey, Brett M.; Guevara, Carolina; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Cespedes, Manuel; Vargas, Jorge; Gianella, Alberto; Vallejo, Efrain; Madrid, César; Aguayo, Nicolas; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Suarez, Victor; Morales, Ana Maria; Beingolea, Luis; Reyes, Nora; Perez, Juan; Negrete, Monica; Rocha, Claudio; Morrison, Amy C.; Russell, Kevin L.; J. Blair, Patrick; Olson, James G.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are among the most common agents of human febrile illness worldwide and the most important emerging pathogens, causing multiple notable epidemics of human disease over recent decades. Despite the public health relevance, little is know about the geographic distribution, relative impact, and risk factors for arbovirus infection in many regions of the world. Our objectives were to describe the arboviruses associated with acute undifferentiated febrile illness in participating clinics in four countries in South America and to provide detailed epidemiological analysis of arbovirus infection in Iquitos, Peru, where more extensive monitoring was conducted. Methodology/Findings A clinic-based syndromic surveillance system was implemented in 13 locations in Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Paraguay. Serum samples and demographic information were collected from febrile participants reporting to local health clinics or hospitals. Acute-phase sera were tested for viral infection by immunofluorescence assay or RT-PCR, while acute- and convalescent-phase sera were tested for pathogen-specific IgM by ELISA. Between May 2000 and December 2007, 20,880 participants were included in the study, with evidence for recent arbovirus infection detected for 6,793 (32.5%). Dengue viruses (Flavivirus) were the most common arbovirus infections, totaling 26.0% of febrile episodes, with DENV-3 as the most common serotype. Alphavirus (Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus [VEEV] and Mayaro virus [MAYV]) and Orthobunyavirus (Oropouche virus [OROV], Group C viruses, and Guaroa virus) infections were both observed in approximately 3% of febrile episodes. In Iquitos, risk factors for VEEV and MAYV infection included being male and reporting to a rural (vs urban) clinic. In contrast, OROV infection was similar between sexes and type of clinic. Conclusions/Significance Our data provide a better understanding of the geographic range of arboviruses in South

  1. Management of febrile children under five years in hospitals and health centres of rural Ghana.

    PubMed

    Webster, Jayne; Baiden, Frank; Bawah, Justina; Bruce, Jane; Tivura, Mathilda; Delmini, Rupert; Amenga-Etego, Seeba; Chandramohan, Daniel; Owusu-Agyei, Seth

    2014-07-09

    The case management of febrile children in hospitals' and health centres' pre-roll out of the new WHO policy on parasitological diagnosis was assessed. The delivery of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) at these two levels of the health system was compared. Structured observations and exit interviews of 1,222 febrile children attending five hospitals and 861 attending ten health centres were conducted in six districts of the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana. Effectiveness of delivery of case management of malaria was assessed. Proportions of children receiving ACT, anti-malarial monotherapy and antibiotics were described. Predictors of: a febrile child being given an ACT, a febrile child being given an antibiotic and of carers knowing how to correctly administer the ACT were assessed using logistic regression models stratified by hospitals and health centres. The system's effectiveness of delivering an ACT to febrile children diagnosed with malaria (parasitologically or clinically) was 31.4 and 42.4% in hospitals and health centres, respectively. The most ineffective process was that of ensuring that carers knew how to correctly administer the ACT. Overall 278 children who were not given an ACT were treated with anti-malarial monotherapy other than quinine. The majority of these children, 232/278 were given amodiaquine, 139 of these were children attending hospitals and 93 attending health centres. The cadre of health staff conducting consultation was a common predictor of the outcomes of interest. Presenting symptoms and examinations conducted were predictive of being given an ACT in hospitals and antibiotic in hospitals and health centres but not of being given an ACT in health centres. Treatment-seeking factors were predictive of being given an ACT if it was more than seven days since the fever began and an antibiotic in hospitals but not in health centres. Interventions to improve adherence to negative parasitological tests are needed, together with guidance on

  2. [Chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia: about 200 episodes. Clinical, microbiological and therapeutic characteristics].

    PubMed

    Gharbi, O; Ben Hadj Hassen, S; Kaabia, N; Limam, S; Hadj Amor, M; Ben Fatma, L; Landolsi, A; Hochlef, M; Letaief, A; Boukadida, J; Ben Ahmed, S

    2008-05-01

    Cytotoxic chemotherapy suppresses the haematopoietic system, febrile neutropenia is the most serious haematological toxicity associated with the risk of life-threatening infections. We present a retrospective study of 200 episodes of febrile neutropenia in 128 patients treated in department of medical oncology. The aim of this study was to determinate the clinical, therapeutic and evolutive characteristics in patients treated essentially for solid tumors. Among these patients, 72% of them have at least two episodes, the median age was 34 years with extremes six and 75 years. It has been noticed that 26.3% of patients have diabetes, the dominate neoplasm was solid tumors in 79.7%, 65% of patients have received preventive colony-stimulating factors, 83% have received preventive buccal disinfection with antifungic. The median duration of hospitalisation was 12 days, the median delay of febrile neutropenia was 10 days with extremes two and 31 days, median duration of febrile neutropenia was 5.45 days with extremes one and 24 days. Among these cases, 9.45% of them have nadir zero, 68% of patients have clinical documented infections, ORL in 47% of cases. According to the study, 12% of cases have documented microbiological fever, the sites was urinary in 33% of cases, blood in 33% of cases, derm in 30% of cases. The microbe was staphylococcus negative coagulase in 37.5% essentially in blood and derm, the Escherichia coli in 20.8% essentially in urinary and blood. First line antibiotherapy was cefotaxim associated with amikacine in 93.5%, second line antibiotherapy was association of imipenam and amikacine in 82% of cases. Among these cases,7% of them have received anti-staphylococcus, and antifungic treatment in 50% of cases. The thermic defervescence was obtained in median delay of 2.8 days. We have noted nine deaths (22% of cases). Recent surveys indicate that neutropenia remains a prevalent problem associated with substantial morbidity, mortality and costs. The colony

  3. Arboviral etiologies of acute febrile illnesses in Western South America, 2000-2007.

    PubMed

    Forshey, Brett M; Guevara, Carolina; Laguna-Torres, V Alberto; Cespedes, Manuel; Vargas, Jorge; Gianella, Alberto; Vallejo, Efrain; Madrid, César; Aguayo, Nicolas; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Suarez, Victor; Morales, Ana Maria; Beingolea, Luis; Reyes, Nora; Perez, Juan; Negrete, Monica; Rocha, Claudio; Morrison, Amy C; Russell, Kevin L; Blair, Patrick J; Olson, James G; Kochel, Tadeusz J

    2010-08-10

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are among the most common agents of human febrile illness worldwide and the most important emerging pathogens, causing multiple notable epidemics of human disease over recent decades. Despite the public health relevance, little is know about the geographic distribution, relative impact, and risk factors for arbovirus infection in many regions of the world. Our objectives were to describe the arboviruses associated with acute undifferentiated febrile illness in participating clinics in four countries in South America and to provide detailed epidemiological analysis of arbovirus infection in Iquitos, Peru, where more extensive monitoring was conducted. A clinic-based syndromic surveillance system was implemented in 13 locations in Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Paraguay. Serum samples and demographic information were collected from febrile participants reporting to local health clinics or hospitals. Acute-phase sera were tested for viral infection by immunofluorescence assay or RT-PCR, while acute- and convalescent-phase sera were tested for pathogen-specific IgM by ELISA. Between May 2000 and December 2007, 20,880 participants were included in the study, with evidence for recent arbovirus infection detected for 6,793 (32.5%). Dengue viruses (Flavivirus) were the most common arbovirus infections, totaling 26.0% of febrile episodes, with DENV-3 as the most common serotype. Alphavirus (Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus [VEEV] and Mayaro virus [MAYV]) and Orthobunyavirus (Oropouche virus [OROV], Group C viruses, and Guaroa virus) infections were both observed in approximately 3% of febrile episodes. In Iquitos, risk factors for VEEV and MAYV infection included being male and reporting to a rural (vs urban) clinic. In contrast, OROV infection was similar between sexes and type of clinic. Our data provide a better understanding of the geographic range of arboviruses in South America and highlight the diversity of pathogens in

  4. Cultural categorization of febrile illnesses in correlation with herbal remedies used for treatment in Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajaiyeoba, E O; Oladepo, O; Fawole, O I; Bolaji, O M; Akinboye, D O; Ogundahunsi, O A T; Falade, C O; Gbotosho, G O; Itiola, O A; Happi, T C; Ebong, O O; Ononiwu, I M; Osowole, O S; Oduola, O O; Ashidi, J S; Oduola, A M J

    2003-04-01

    The ethnographic study was conducted in two communities in Oyo State in Southwestern Nigeria. The study sites consisted of a rural and an urban local government area located in the tropical rain forest zone of Nigeria. The study was designed to obtain information on febrile illnesses and herbal remedies for treatment with the aim of identifying potential antimalarial drugs. The study revealed that fever is a general term for describing illnesses associated with elevated body temperature. The indigenous Yoruba ethnic population has categorized fever based on symptoms and causes. The present communication is the result of focus group discussion and semi-structured questionnaire administered to traditional healers, herb sellers, elders and mothers. This was on types of fevers, symptoms and causes of febrile illnesses. The investigation also included use of traditional herbs in the prevention and treatment of the illnesses in the two communities.A total of 514 respondents were interviewed. This was made up of 266 (51.8%) from Atiba local government area (LGA), an urban centre while 248 (48.2%) respondents were interviewed from Itesiwaju LGA, a rural community. The LGAs are located in Oyo State of Nigeria. The respondents proffered 12 types of febrile illnesses in a multiple response answering system in Yoruba language. The most common ones (direct translation into English) were: yellow fever (39.1%), typhoid (34.8%), ordinary (28.8%), rainy season (20.8%) and headache (10.5%) fevers, respectively. Perceived causes of each of the febrile illnesses included stress, mosquito bites, unclean water, rains and over exposure to the sun. Methods of fever prevention were mainly with the use of herbal decoctions, powdered herbs, orthodox medications and maintenance of proper hygiene. Of a total of 112 different herbal remedies used in the treatment of the febrile illnesses compiled from the study, 25 recipes are presented. Recipes consisted of 2-7 ingredients. Oral decoctions (84

  5. Thiol/disulfide homeostasis as a novel indicator of oxidative stress in children with simple febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Elmas, Bahri; Erel, Özcan; Ersavaş, Dilek; Yürümez, Yusuf

    2017-08-14

    Simple febrile seizures are generally benign, but during the seizure, elevated levels of glutamate and high levels of oxygen use due to the high metabolic brain activity result in oxidative stress. However, the relationship between febrile seizures and oxidative stress remains unclear. In this study, we investigated thiol/disulfide homeostasis as a new oxidative stress parameter in patients with simple febrile seizures. This study was performed between February 2016 and May 2016 at the Pediatric Emergency Unit. The study population consisted of 40 patients with a diagnosis of simple febrile seizure and 30 control participants aged 8-59 months. Total thiol, native thiol and disulfide levels, disulfide/native thiol, disulfide/total thiol, and native thiol/total thiol ratios were used as thiol/disulfide homeostasis parameters and were quantified in patient and control groups. Furthermore, correlations with seizure duration were investigated. In the patient group, native and total thiol levels and native thiol/total thiol ratios were low, and disulfide levels, disulfide/native thiol, and disulfide/total thiol ratios were significantly higher than in the control group. Negative correlations were observed between seizure duration, total and native thiol levels, and native thiol/total thiol ratio, whereas positive correlations were observed between seizure duration and disulfide/native thiol and disulfide/total thiol ratio. The sensitivities of both disulfide/native thiol and disulfide/total thiol ratios were high for simple febrile seizures. Simple febrile seizures may cause impairment in favor of disulfide bonds in thiol/disulfide homeostasis. Overall, these changes may contribute to neuronal cell damage after simple febrile seizures.

  6. Risk Adapted Management of Febrile Neutrepenia and Early Cessation of Empirical Antibiotherapy in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Setting

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Ali Hakan; Tekgündüz, Emre; Duygu, Fazilet; Koca, Dicle; Bekdemir, Filiz; Batgi, Hikmetullah; Ulu Uncu, Bahar; Yiğenoğlu, Tuğçe Nur; Dal, Mehmet Sinan; Çakar Kızıl, Merih; Altuntaş, Fevzi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a curative treatment option for many haematological disorders. Infection following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is one of the major causes of mortality. Aims: To investigate the outcomes of early cessation of empirical antibiotic treatment per protocol in febrile neutropenia patients who have undergone haematopoietic stem cell transplantation at our clinic. Study Design: Descriptive study. Methods: The present study retrospectively evaluated febrile neutropenia attacks in haematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients during the period June 2014 - January 2015 at our haematopoietic stem cell transplantation clinic. Results: A total of 72 febrile neutropenia attacks were evaluated in 53 patients. In 46 febrile neutropenia attacks, microbiologic cultures revealed positive results. In culture-positive febrile neutropenia episodes a single bacterium was isolated in 32 cases and multiple strains were isolated in 14. In 15 patients, empirical antibiotic therapy was discontinued after 72 hours. These patients were clinically stable, without evident focus of infection and had negative culture results. Only 4 recurrent episodes were observed (27%) after cessation of antibiotherapy. No patient died as a result of recurrent infection. The 30-day and 100-day post-transplantation mortality rates of patients with febrile neutropenia episodes were 11.3% (6/53) and 3.8% (2/53), respectively. Infection-related 30-day and 100-day mortality rates were 7.5% (4/53) and 0% (0/53), respectively. Conclusion: The main message of our study is that early cessation of empirical antibiotherapy seems to be feasible in eligible patients without increasing febrile neutropenia mortality rates. PMID:28418340

  7. Neutropenia and febrile neutropenia in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with doxorubicin (Adriamycin), bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chand, Vikram K; Link, Brian K; Ritchie, Justine M; Shannon, Mary; Wooldridge, James E

    2006-04-01

    When uncomplicated neutropenia during doxorubicin (Adriamycin), bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy for the treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma is encountered, it is unclear whether or not treatment should be modified. In the present study, we determined the incidence of neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, and the relationship of febrile neutropenia to grade III/IV neutropenia and dose modification, in a large university patient population. We reviewed the charts of patients diagnosed with Hodgkin's lymphoma between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2002 who were treated with ABVD chemotherapy, and seen at the University of Iowa with complete diagnosis, staging, and treatment dosing records. Adequate data was available on 894 treatments in 81 patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma treated with ABVD chemotherapy. Grade III/IV neutropenia was present on the scheduled day of treatment in 187 (20.9%) treatments in 64 (79%) patients. Grade III/IV neutropenia was most common at cycle 1 day 15. Febrile neutropenia developed nine times in eight patients, and eight episodes of febrile neutropenia developed when the treatment-day absolute neutrophil count (ANC) > or =1000. Dose delay of >4 days and/or dose reduction to <80% of original doxorubicin dose following grade III/IV neutropenia occurred in 29 of 187 treatments, with no episodes of febrile neutropenia. With grade III/IV neutropenia on the day of therapy, 158 treatments were administered without dose reduction or dose delay with one subsequent episode of febrile neutropenia. Neutropenia during ABVD is common, and dose modification for uncomplicated neutropenia on the day of treatment may not reduce the risk of febrile neutropenia. It may be possible to maintain dose intensity in the face of uncomplicated neutropenia during ABVD therapy.

  8. Dma1-dependent degradation of SIN proteins during meiosis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Krapp, Andrea; Simanis, Viesturs

    2014-07-15

    The Schizosaccharomyces pombe septation initiation network (SIN) is required for cytokinesis during vegetative growth and for spore formation during meiosis. Regulation of the SIN during mitosis has been studied extensively, but less is known about its meiotic regulation. Here, we show that several aspects of SIN regulation differ between mitosis and meiosis. First, the presence of GTP-bound Spg1p is not the main determinant of the timing of Cdc7p and Sid1p association with the spindle pole body (SPB) during meiosis. Second, the localisation dependencies of SIN proteins differ from those in mitotic cells, suggesting a modified functional organisation of the SIN during meiosis. Third, there is stage-specific degradation of SIN components in meiosis; Byr4p is degraded after meiosis I, whereas the degradation of Cdc7p, Cdc11p and Sid4p occurs after the second meiotic division and depends upon the ubiquitin ligase Dma1p. Finally, Dma1p-dependent degradation is not restricted to the SIN, as we show that Dma1p is needed for the degradation of Mcp6p (also known as Hrs1p) during meiosis I. Taken together, these data suggest that stage-specific targeted proteolysis plays an important role in regulating meiotic progression.

  9. Distinct requirements for Sin3a in perinatal male gonocytes and differentiating spermatogonia.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Shannon J; Kofman, Amber E; Huszar, Jessica M; Dannenberg, Jan-Hermen; DePinho, Ronald A; Braun, Robert E; Payne, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Chromatin modifier Swi-independent 3a (SIN3A), together with associated histone deacetylases, influences gene expression during development and differentiation through a variety of transcription factors in a cell-specific manner. Sin3a is essential for the maintenance of inner cell mass cells of mouse blastocysts, embryonic fibroblasts, and myoblasts, but is not required for the survival of trophectoderm or Sertoli cells. To better understand how this transcriptional regulator modulates cells at different developmental stages within a single lineage, we used conditional gene targeting in mice to ablate Sin3a from perinatal quiescent male gonocytes and from postnatal differentiating spermatogonia. Mitotic germ cells expressing stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8) that lacked Sin3a exhibited increased DNA damage and apoptosis, yet collectively progressed through meiosis and spermiogenesis and generated epididymal sperm at approximately 50% of control levels, sufficient for normal fertility. In contrast, perinatal gonocytes lacking Sin3a underwent rapid depletion that coincided with cell cycle reentry, exhibiting 2.5-fold increased histone H3 phosphorylation upon cycling that suggested a prophase/metaphase block; germ cells were almost entirely absent two weeks after birth, resulting in sterility. Gene expression profiling of neonatal testes containing Sin3a-deleted gonocytes identified upregulated transcripts highly associated with developmental processes and pattern formation, and downregulated transcripts involved in nuclear receptor activity, including Nr4a1 (Nur77). Interestingly, Nr4a1 levels were elevated in testes containing Stra8-expressing, Sin3a-deleted spermatogonia. SIN3A directly binds to the Nr4a1 promoter, and Nr4a1 expression is diminished upon spermatogonial differentiation in vitro. We conclude that within the male germline, Sin3a is required for the mitotic reentry of gonocytes, but is dispensable for the maintenance of differentiating

  10. Ceramic Technology Project database: September 1990 summary report. [SiC, SiN, whisker-reinforced SiN, ZrO-toughened aluminas, zirconias, joints

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, B.L.P.

    1992-06-01

    Data generated within the Ceramic Technology Project (CTP) represent a valuable resource for both research and industry. The CTP database was created to provide easy access to this information in electronic and hardcopy forms by using a computerized database and by issuing periodic hardcopy reports on the database contents. This report is the sixth in a series of semiannual database summaries and covers recent additions to the database, including joined brazed specimen test data. It covers 1 SiC, 34 SiN, 10 whisker-reinforced SiN, 2 zirconia-toughened aluminas, 8 zirconias, and 34 joints.

  11. Epidemiology of febrile neutropenia in children with central nervous system tumor: results from a single center prospective study.

    PubMed

    Castagnola, Elio; Garrè, Maria Luisa; Bertoluzzo, Luisella; Pignatelli, Sara; Pavanello, Marco; Caviglia, Ilaria; Caruso, Silvia; Bagnasco, Francesca; Moroni, Cristina; Tacchella, Angela; Haupt, Riccardo

    2011-10-01

    Data regarding the epidemiology febrile neutropenia during chemotherapy for pediatric central nervous system neoplasia are scarce. Data retrieved from a prospective study performed from January 2002 to December 2004 at G.Gaslini Children Hospital, Genoa, Italy, where analyzed to evaluate proportions, rate for 1000 neutropenic days and etiology of fever in neutropenic children receiving gentle, standard, or peripheral blood stem cell transplant (PBSCT) therapy for central nervous system tumor. During the study duration, 243 periods of neutropenia (granulocyte count <1000/cmm), accounting for 3544 patient-days at risk, were documented in 62 children. A total of 72 febrile episodes were observed in 66 (27%) neutropenic periods, for a rate of 20.31. A primary febrile episode was observed in 10% of neutropenic periods after gentle chemotherapy, in 30% after standard chemotherapy, and in 48% after PBSCT (P<0.0001). The rate of primary febrile episodes was 6.19 after a gentle chemotherapy, 27.02 after standard treatment, and 31.02 after PBSCT (P<0.0001). In a multivariable regression model, the type of chemotherapy (gentle vs. standard and PBSCT) and the thresholds of granulocyte count at neutropenia onset (999-501/cmm and 500-101/cmm vs. ≤100/cmm) were the only factors significantly associated with the development of febrile neutropenia.

  12. Incidence and predictors of febrile morbidity after radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for early stage cervical cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kietpeerakool, Chumnan; Lattiwongsakorn, Worashorn; Srisomboon, Jatupol

    2008-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the incidence and independent predictors for febrile morbidity after radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Patients with FIGO stage IB-IIA cervical cancers who had undergone RHPL at Chiang Mai University Hospital between January 2003 and December 2005, were reviewed. The clinical variables including the age at diagnosis, menopausal status, body mass index, previous cervical conization, tumor size, preoperative chemotherapy, preoperative anemia, operative time, and estimated blood loss were analyzed for prediction of postoperative febrile morbidity. During the study period, 357 women were reviewed. The mean age was 44.7 years. Sixty-five (18.2%) women were postmenopausal. The majority of women (77.3%) were in FIGO stage IB1. The most common histology was squamous cell carcinoma (69.2%). Febrile morbidity was noted in 94 women (26.3%, 95% CI= 21.8-31.2) in whom 25 (7.0%) had urinary tract infection (19), abdominal wound infection (4), and vaginal cuff infection (2), respectively. Only massive blood loss (>1,500 ml) was noted as the significantly independent predictor for febrile morbidity (aOR= 2.7, 95% CI=1.1-6.6, P=0.028). In conclusion, approximately one-fourth of the women undergoing RHPL at our institute had postoperative febrile morbidity. Only massive blood loss is a significant predictor for this complication.

  13. Prevalence of non-febrile seizures in children with idiopathic autism spectrum disorder and their unaffected siblings: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    McCue, Lena M; Flick, Louise H; Twyman, Kimberly A; Xian, Hong; Conturo, Thomas E

    2016-11-28

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized not only by deficits in communication and social interactions but also a high rate of co-occurring disorders, including metabolic abnormalities, gastrointestinal and sleep disorders, and seizures. Seizures, when present, interfere with cognitive development and are associated with a higher mortality rate in the ASD population. To determine the relative prevalence of non-febrile seizures in children with idiopathic ASD from multiplex and simplex families compared with the unaffected siblings in a cohort of 610 children with idiopathic ASD and their 160 unaffected siblings, participating in the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange project, the secondary analysis was performed comparing the life-time prevalence of non-febrile seizures. Statistical models to account for non-independence of observations, inherent with the data from multiplex families, were used in assessing potential confounding effects of age, gender, and history of febrile seizures on odds of having non-febrile seizures. The life-time prevalence of non-febrile seizures was 8.2% among children with ASD and 2.5% among their unaffected siblings. In a logistic regression analysis that adjusted for familial clustering, children with ASD had 5.27 (95%CI: 1.51-18.35) times higher odds of having non-febrile seizures compared to their unaffected siblings. In this comparison, age, presence of gastrointestinal dysfunction, and history of febrile seizures were significantly associated with the prevalence of non-febrile seizures. Children with idiopathic ASD are significantly more likely to have non-febrile seizures than their unaffected siblings, suggesting that non-febrile seizures may be ASD-specific. Further studies are needed to determine modifiable risk factors for non-febrile seizures in ASD.

  14. Prevalence of malaria, typhoid, toxoplasmosis and rubella among febrile children in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Achonduh-Atijegbe, Olivia A; Mfuh, Kenji O; Mbange, Aristid H E; Chedjou, Jean P; Taylor, Diane W; Nerurkar, Vivek R; Mbacham, Wilfred F; Leke, Rose

    2016-11-08

    The current roll-out of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in many endemic countries has resulted in the reporting of fewer cases of malaria-attributed illnesses. However, lack of knowledge of the prevalence of other febrile illnesses and affordable diagnostic tests means that febrile patients are not managed optimally. This study assessed the prevalence of commonly treatable or preventable febrile illnesses in children between 6 months and 15 years using rapid diagnostic tests at the point-of-care. Febrile children were enrolled between February-April 2014 at a health facility after obtaining informed consent from parent. Eligible participants were aged 6 months-15 years with a history of fever in the last 24 h or axillary temperature ≥38 °C at consultation. All participants were tested using RDTs for malaria, typhoid, toxoplasmosis and rubella. Malaria parasites were further identified by microscopy and PCR. Clinical and household characteristics were recorded and association with pathogens determined. Of the 315 children enrolled, the mean age was 5.8 ± 3.8 years. Stomach pain (41.2 %) was the most reported symptom. Prior to attending the health facility, 70.8 % had taken antipyretics, 27.9 % antimalarials, 11.4 % antibiotics and 13.3 % antifungal drugs. Among 315 children with fever, based on RDTs, 56.8 % were infected with malaria, 4.4 % with typhoid, 3.2 % with acute toxoplasmosis, and 1.3 % with rubella (all positive for rubella were in the same family and not vaccinated). All non-malarial infections were co-infections and approximately 30 % of the fever cases went un-diagnosed. Malaria prevalence by microscopy and PCR was 43.4 and 70.2 % respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of RDTs for the diagnosis of malaria were 75.98 and 100 % respectively, with 0.73 measurement agreement between RDTs and microscopy while that of RDT and PCR were 81 and 100 % respectively with a K value of 0.72. The use of Insecticide Treated Bednets was

  15. Accuracy of Diagnosis Codes to Identify Febrile Young Infants Using Administrative Data

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, Paul L.; Williams, Derek J.; Thurm, Cary; Tieder, Joel S.; Alpern, Elizabeth R.; Nigrovic, Lise E.; Schondelmeyer, Amanda C.; Balamuth, Fran; Myers, Angela L.; McCulloh, Russell J.; Alessandrini, Evaline A.; Shah, Samir S.; Browning, Whitney L.; Hayes, Katie L.; Feldman, Elana A.; Neuman, Mark I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Administrative data can be used to determine optimal management of febrile infants and aid clinical practice guideline development. Objective Determine the most accurate International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision (ICD-9) diagnosis coding strategies for identification of febrile infants. Design Retrospective cross-sectional study. Setting Eight emergency departments in the Pediatric Health Information System. Patients Infants age < 90 days evaluated between July 1, 2012 and June 30, 2013 were randomly selected for medical record review from one of four ICD-9 diagnosis code groups: 1) discharge diagnosis of fever, 2) admission diagnosis of fever without discharge diagnosis of fever, 3) discharge diagnosis of serious infection without diagnosis of fever, and 4) no diagnosis of fever or serious infection. Exposure The ICD-9 diagnosis code groups were compared in four case-identification algorithms to a reference standard of fever ≥ 100.4°F documented in the medical record. Measurements Algorithm predictive accuracy was measured using sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values. Results Among 1790 medical records reviewed, 766 (42.8%) infants had fever. Discharge diagnosis of fever demonstrated high specificity (98.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 97.8-98.6) but low sensitivity (53.2%, 95% CI: 50.0-56.4). A case-identification algorithm of admission or discharge diagnosis of fever exhibited higher sensitivity (71.1%, 95% CI: 68.2-74.0), similar specificity (97.7%, 95% CI: 97.3-98.1), and the highest positive predictive value (86.9%, 95% CI: 84.5-89.3). Conclusions A case-identification strategy that includes admission or discharge diagnosis of fever should be considered for febrile infant studies using administrative data, though under-classification of patients is a potential limitation. PMID:26248691

  16. Transient neutropenia in children with febrile illness and associated infectious agents: 2 years' follow-up.

    PubMed

    Alexandropoulou, Ourania; Kossiva, Lydia; Haliotis, Fotis; Giannaki, Maria; Tsolia, Maria; Panagiotou, I P; Karavanaki, Kyriaki

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the relationship of acquired neutropenia with childhood infections and to assess its clinical course, complications, and outcome. Children admitted to two pediatric wards over a 4-year period with febrile neutropenia were prospectively investigated for underlying infections with inflammatory markers, cultures of body fluids, and serological tests. The study included 161 previously healthy children with febrile neutropenia/leukopenia aged (mean ± SD) 3.02 ± 3.86 years (range, 0.1-14). One hundred and thirty-six out of 161 patients (84.5 %) had transient neutropenia (TN), while in 25 patients, neutropenia was chronic (CN) and persisted for ≥180 days. An infectious agent was isolated in 98/161 (60.9 %) cases, in 68.4 % patients with TN, and in 20 % of those with CN (p = 0.001). Among the patients with CN, seven had positive antineutrophil antibodies (autoimmune neutropenia) and four were eventually diagnosed with hematological malignancy. In all age groups, TN was of short duration (<1 month), of mild to moderate severity, and was predominantly associated with viral infections. Two years after diagnosis, 143/161 children (88.8 %) were available for follow-up. One hundred and thirty-seven of 143 (95.8 %) had recovered completely, while the rest remained neutropenic. The latter patients had a benign course despite severe neutropenia. In conclusion, febrile neutropenia during childhood is usually transient, often following viral and common bacterial infections, without serious complications and in the majority of cases it resolves spontaneously. However, in a considerable percentage of patients, neutropenia is discovered incidentally during the course of an infection on the ground of an underlying hematological disease.

  17. Preemptive Antifungal Therapy for Febrile Neutropenic Hematological Malignancy Patients in China

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Wei; Ren, Jinhai; Guo, Xiaonan; Guo, Xiaoling; Cai, Shengxin

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency, adverse effects, and pharmacoeconomic impact of empirical and preemptive antifungal therapy for febrile neutropenic hematological malignancy patients in China. Material/Methods Patients with febrile neutropenia during hematological malignancy were randomly divided into an empirical group and a preemptive group. The preemptive antifungal treatment was initiated if patient status was confirmed by clinical manifestation, imaging diagnosis, 1-3-β-D glucan(G) testing, and galactomannan (GM) test. The treatment was ended 2 weeks later if the patient was recovered from neutropenia. Voriconazole was used as the first-line medicine. All patients received intravenous administration of voriconazole every 12 h, with an initiating dose of 400 mg, then the dose was reduced to 200 mg. Results The overall survival rate was 97.1% and 94.6% in the empirical group and preemptive group, respectively, with no significant difference observed (χ2=1.051, P=0.305). However, the occurrence rate of invasive fungal disease (IFD) in the preemptive group was 9.2% vs. 2.2% in the empirical group. Moreover, the mortality rate due to IFD was 0.7% and 2.3% for the empirical group and preemptive group, respectively. The average duration and cost of preemptive antifungal therapy were 13.8±4.7 days and 8379.00±2253.00 RMB, respectively, which were lower than for empirical therapy. However, no significant differences were observed for incidence of adverse effects and hospital stay between the 2 groups. Conclusions Preemptive antifungal therapy for patients with febrile neutropenic hematological malignancy demonstrated a similar survival rate as with empirical therapy but is economically favorable in a Chinese population. PMID:27819257

  18. [Assessing the use of procalcitonin in the hospitalised young febrile infant].

    PubMed

    Parada, E; Calavia, O; Durán-Ballén, M; Vasquez, A; Ayats, R; Ferré, N

    2016-05-01

    The use of procalcitonin (PCT) in the evaluation of the febrile infant in the emergency care unit has been widespread. The aim of this study is to assess whether the introduction of PCT has changed the management of hospitalised febrile infants and the cost/effectiveness of this marker. A retrospective study was performed comparing 2 periods: January-December 2009 (without PCT) and January-December 2011 (routine use of PCT). Infants aged 7 to 90 days with fever who were admitted to a university hospital and had a blood test performed were included in the study. Bacterial infection rate, antibiotic use, hospitalisation days, and analytical costs were compared. Evaluations were made using PCT, C-reactive protein (CRP), white cell count, Rochester score, and the lab-score proposed by Galetto-Lacour for the diagnosis of bacterial infection. A total of 109 patients were included in period 1, and 111 in period 2 (87 of which had a PCT value). The prevalence of bacterial infection, use of antibiotics, number of blood tests, and days of hospital admission was similar in both periods. The blood test cost was significantly higher in the second period. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 70.6, 58.1, 52.6 and 75%, respectively for the CRP (cut-off 1mg/dL) and 41.7; 78.4; 57.7, and 65.6% for the PCT (cut-off value 0.5ng/ml). The use of PCT does not seem to have a significant impact on the management of the hospitalised febrile infant. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Bartonella henselae as a cause of acute-onset febrile illness in cats

    PubMed Central

    Broadhurst, Jack J; Cherry, Natalie A

    2015-01-01

    Case series summary At different time points spanning 6 months, three adopted feral flea-infested cats, residing in the household of a veterinary technician, became acutely anorexic, lethargic and febrile. Enrichment blood culture/PCR using Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) confirmed initial infection with the same Bartonella henselae genotype in all three cases. With the exception of anemia and neutropenia, complete blood counts, serum biochemical profiles and urinalysis results were within reference intervals. Also, tests for feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, Toxoplasma gondii and feline coronavirus antibodies were negative. Serial daily temperature monitoring in one case confirmed a cyclic, relapsing febrile temperature pattern during 1 month, with resolution during and after treatment with azithromycin. Bartonella henselae Western immunoblot (WB) results did not consistently correlate with BAPGM enrichment blood culture/PCR results or B henselae indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) titers, and WB titration results were not informative for establishing antibiotic treatment failure. During the respective follow-up periods, no illnesses or additional febrile episodes were reported, despite repeat documentation of B henselae bacteremia in two cats available for follow-up (one with the same genotype and the other with a different B henselae genotype); one cat was, unfortunately, killed by dogs before follow-up testing. Relevance and novel information We conclude that microbiological diagnosis and treatment of B henselae infection in cats can be challenging, that antibody titration results and resolution of clinical abnormalities may not correlate with a therapeutic cure, and that fever and potentially neutropenia should be differential diagnostic considerations for young cats with suspected bartonellosis. PMID:28491382

  20. Bartonella henselae as a cause of acute-onset febrile illness in cats.

    PubMed

    Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Broadhurst, Jack J; Cherry, Natalie A

    2015-01-01

    At different time points spanning 6 months, three adopted feral flea-infested cats, residing in the household of a veterinary technician, became acutely anorexic, lethargic and febrile. Enrichment blood culture/PCR using Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM) confirmed initial infection with the same Bartonella henselae genotype in all three cases. With the exception of anemia and neutropenia, complete blood counts, serum biochemical profiles and urinalysis results were within reference intervals. Also, tests for feline leukemia virus, feline immunodeficiency virus, Toxoplasma gondii and feline coronavirus antibodies were negative. Serial daily temperature monitoring in one case confirmed a cyclic, relapsing febrile temperature pattern during 1 month, with resolution during and after treatment with azithromycin. Bartonella henselae Western immunoblot (WB) results did not consistently correlate with BAPGM enrichment blood culture/PCR results or B henselae indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) titers, and WB titration results were not informative for establishing antibiotic treatment failure. During the respective follow-up periods, no illnesses or additional febrile episodes were reported, despite repeat documentation of B henselae bacteremia in two cats available for follow-up (one with the same genotype and the other with a different B henselae genotype); one cat was, unfortunately, killed by dogs before follow-up testing. We conclude that microbiological diagnosis and treatment of B henselae infection in cats can be challenging, that antibody titration results and resolution of clinical abnormalities may not correlate with a therapeutic cure, and that fever and potentially neutropenia should be differential diagnostic considerations for young cats with suspected bartonellosis.

  1. Plasma levels of procalcitonin and eight additional inflammatory molecules in febrile neutropenic patients

    PubMed Central

    Neuenschwander, Letícia Carvalho; Bittencourt, Henrique; Tibúrcio Ribeiro, Ana Flávia; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Teixeira, Jairo Cerqueira; Nobre, Vandack

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between different inflammatory markers and specific clinical endpoints in patients with febrile neutropenia. METHOD: We prospectively evaluated the expression of procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin 8 (IL-8), induced protein-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), two soluble TNF-α receptors (sTNF-R I and sTNF-R II), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha, and eotaxin in 37 episodes of febrile neutropenia occurring in 31 hospitalized adult onco-hematologic patients. Peripheral blood samples were collected in the morning at inclusion (day of fever onset) and on days 1, 3, and 7 after the onset of fever. Approximately 2–3 ml of plasma was obtained from each blood sample and stored at -80°C. RESULTS: The sTNF-R II level at inclusion (day 1), the PCT level on the day of fever onset, and the change (day 3 - day 1) in the IL-8 and eotaxin levels were significantly higher in patients who died during the 28-day follow-up. A requirement for early adjustment of antimicrobial treatment was associated with higher day 3 levels of IL-8, sTNF-R II, PCT, and MCP-1. CONCLUSION: Procalcitonin, sTNF-R II, IL-8, MCP-1, and eotaxin could potentially be used to assess the risk of death and the requirement for early adjustment of antimicrobial treatment in febrile, neutropenic onco-hematologic patients. The levels of the other markers showed no association with any of the evaluated endpoints. PMID:22012040

  2. Sequence Analysis of the Human Virome in Febrile and Afebrile Children

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Kristine M.; Mihindukulasuriya, Kathie A.; Sodergren, Erica; Weinstock, George M.; Storch, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    Unexplained fever (UF) is a common problem in children under 3 years old. Although virus infection is suspected to be the cause of most of these fevers, a comprehensive analysis of viruses in samples from children with fever and healthy controls is important for establishing a relationship between viruses and UF. We used unbiased, deep sequencing to analyze 176 nasopharyngeal swabs (NP) and plasma samples from children with UF and afebrile controls, generating an average of 4.6 million sequences per sample. An analysis pipeline was developed to detect viral sequences, which resulted in the identification of sequences from 25 viral genera. These genera included expected pathogens, such as adenoviruses, enteroviruses, and roseoloviruses, plus viruses with unknown pathogenicity. Viruses that were unexpected in NP and plasma samples, such as the astrovirus MLB-2, were also detected. Sequencing allowed identification of virus subtype for some viruses, including roseoloviruses. Highly sensitive PCR assays detected low levels of viruses that were not detected in approximately 5 million sequences, but greater sequencing depth improved sensitivity. On average NP and plasma samples from febrile children contained 1.5- to 5-fold more viral sequences, respectively, than samples from afebrile children. Samples from febrile children contained a broader range of viral genera and contained multiple viral genera more frequently than samples from children without fever. Differences between febrile and afebrile groups were most striking in the plasma samples, where detection of viral sequence may be associated with a disseminated infection. These data indicate that virus infection is associated with UF. Further studies are important in order to establish the range of viral pathogens associated with fever and to understand of the role of viral infection in fever. Ultimately these studies may improve the medical treatment of children with UF by helping avoid antibiotic therapy for

  3. Childhood febrile illness and the risk of myopia in UK Biobank participants.

    PubMed

    Guggenheim, J A; Williams, C

    2016-04-01

    Historical reports suggest febrile illness during childhood is a risk factor for myopia. The establishment of the UK Biobank provided a unique opportunity to investigate this relationship. We studied a sample of UK Biobank participants of White ethnicity aged 40-69 years old who underwent autorefraction (N=91 592) and were classified as myopic (≤-0.75 Dioptres (D)), highly myopic (≤-6.00 D), or non-myopic (>-0.75 D). Self-reported age at diagnosis of past medical conditions was ascertained during an interview with a nurse at a Biobank assessment centre. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for myopia or high myopia associated with a diagnosis before age 17 years of each of nine febrile illnesses, after adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, highest educational qualification, and birth order). Rubella, mumps, and pertussis were associated with myopia: rubella, OR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.03-1.85, P=0.030; mumps, OR=1.32, 95% CI: 1.07-1.64, P=0.010; and pertussis, OR=1.39, 95% CI 1.03-1.87, P=0.029. Measles, rubella, and pertussis were associated with high myopia: measles, OR=1.48, 95% CI: 1.07-2.07, P=0.019; rubella, OR=1.94, 95% CI: 1.12-3.35, P=0.017; and pertussis, OR=2.15, 95% CI: 1.24-3.71, P=0.006. The evidence did not support an interaction between education and febrile illness in explaining the above risks. A history of childhood measles, rubella, or pertussis was associated with high myopia, whereas a history of childhood rubella, mumps, or pertussis was associated with any myopia. The reasons for these associations are unclear.

  4. Can Procalcitonin Reduce Unnecessary Voiding Cystoureterography in Children with First Febrile Urinary Tract Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Halimi-asl, Aliasghar; Hosseini, Amir Hossein; Nabavizadeh, Pooneh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Recently, new predictors of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children with a first febrile UTI such as Procalcitonin (PCT) were introduced as selective approaches for cystography. This study wants to show the capability of PCT in predicting presence of VUR at the first febrile UTI in children. Methods: Patients between 1 month and 15 years of age with febrile UTI were included in this prospective study. PCT values were measured through a semi-quantitative method in four grades comprising values less than 0.5, 0.5-2.0, 2.0-10.0 and above 10.0 ng/ml. The independence of PCT levels in predicting VUR were assessed after adjustment for all potential confounders using a logistic-regression model. Findings: A total of 68 patients, 54 (79.4%) girls and 14 (20.6%) boys were evaluated. PCT level demonstrated a significant difference between patients with positive VUR and those with negative VUR (P=0.012). To calculate the independent factors that may predict the presence of VUR, all included variables were adjusted for age and sex. Results of logistic regression showed that a PCT level between 2.0 and 10.0 ng/mL could independently predict presence of VUR (Odds ratio=6.11, CI 95%= 1.22-30.77, P=0.03). Conclusion: Our finding in this study showed that readily available semi-quantitative measures for PCT are feasible for detecting patients with VUR. We suggest that in semi-quantitative measurements of PCT, levels between 2.0 and 10.0 ng/ml could be an independent predictor of positive VUR. PMID:25755864

  5. Sub-microscopic gametocyte carriage in febrile children living in different areas of Gabon.

    PubMed

    Mawili-Mboumba, Denise Patricia; Nikiéma, Rosalie; Bouyou-Akotet, Marielle Karine; Bahamontes-Rosa, Noemi; Traoré, Alfred; Kombila, Maryvonne

    2013-10-29

    Considering malaria prevalence declines in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, such as Gabon, identification of the human infectious reservoir is important for successful malaria control. Microscopic and sub-microscopic parasites contribute to malaria transmission. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the proportion of microscopic and sub-microscopic gametocyte carriers among febrile patients in two different areas of Gabon. Samples from febrile children aged less than 11 years old were collected from February 2008 to January 2009 at two health centres of Gabon. Patients were screened for the presence of asexual Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Gametocyte carriage was determined by microscopy and QT-NASBA. Gametocytes were detected in 5.3% (n = 16/304) of children by microscopy compared to 45.7% (n = 139/304) by QT-Nasba. Sub-microscopic gametocyte carriage (ie microscopy negative and QT-Nasba positive) was found in 89.2% (n = 124/139) of patients. Among patients with microscopically detected trophozoites, the proportion of sub-microscopic gametocyte (SMG) carriers was 58.4% (n = 118/202) and 6% in samples from children with negative slides (p < 0.01). In Oyem, where malaria prevalence is three-fold higher than in Owendo, SMG carriage was more frequent (49.0% vs 32.6% in Owendo; p < 0.01). Sub-microscopic gametocytaemia is common among Gabonese febrile children. They might strongly contribute to maintain malaria transmission. However, further analysis of sub-microscopic parasite carriage among asymptomatic individuals will be helpful to better characterize malaria transmission.

  6. Sub-microscopic gametocyte carriage in febrile children living in different areas of Gabon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Considering malaria prevalence declines in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, such as Gabon, identification of the human infectious reservoir is important for successful malaria control. Microscopic and sub-microscopic parasites contribute to malaria transmission. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the proportion of microscopic and sub-microscopic gametocyte carriers among febrile patients in two different areas of Gabon. Methods Samples from febrile children aged less than 11 years old were collected from February 2008 to January 2009 at two health centres of Gabon. Patients were screened for the presence of asexual Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Gametocyte carriage was determined by microscopy and QT-NASBA. Results Gametocytes were detected in 5.3% (n = 16/304) of children by microscopy compared to 45.7% (n = 139/304) by QT-Nasba. Sub-microscopic gametocyte carriage (ie microscopy negative and QT-Nasba positive) was found in 89.2% (n = 124/139) of patients. Among patients with microscopically detected trophozoites, the proportion of sub-microscopic gametocyte (SMG) carriers was 58.4% (n = 118/202) and 6% in samples from children with negative slides (p < 0.01). In Oyem, where malaria prevalence is three-fold higher than in Owendo, SMG carriage was more frequent (49.0% vs 32.6% in Owendo; p < 0.01). Conclusion Sub-microscopic gametocytaemia is common among Gabonese febrile children. They might strongly contribute to maintain malaria transmission. However, further analysis of sub-microscopic parasite carriage among asymptomatic individuals will be helpful to better characterize malaria transmission. PMID:24168323

  7. Risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection in infants with prenatal hydronephrosis: comprehensive single center analysis.

    PubMed

    Zareba, Piotr; Lorenzo, Armando J; Braga, Luis H

    2014-05-01

    We assessed risk factors for urinary tract infection in children with prenatal hydronephrosis We identified 376 infants with prenatal hydronephrosis in an institutional database. The occurrence of febrile urinary tract infection in the first 2 years of life was ascertained by chart review. Febrile urinary tract infection was defined as a positive culture from a catheterized urine specimen in a patient with a fever of 38.0C or greater. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess gender, circumcision status, hydronephrosis grade, vesicoureteral reflux grade and antibiotic prophylaxis as predictors of the risk of urinary tract infection. Included in analysis were 277 males and 99 females. Hydronephrosis was high grade in 128 infants (34.0%) and vesicoureteral reflux was present in 79 (21.0%). Antibiotic prophylaxis was prescribed in 60.4% of patients, preferentially to females vs males (70.7% vs 56.7%), those with high vs low grade hydronephrosis (70.3% vs 55.2%) and those with vs without vesicoureteral reflux (96.2% vs 50.8%). On multivariate analysis there was an association between high grade hydronephrosis and an increased risk of urinary tract infection (adjusted OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.26-4.56). Females (adjusted OR 3.16, 95% CI 0.98-10.19) and uncircumcised males (adjusted OR 3.63, 95% CI 1.18-11.22) were also at higher risk than circumcised males. Antibiotic prophylaxis was not associated with a decreased risk of urinary tract infection (adjusted OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.45-1.94). High grade hydronephrosis, female gender and uncircumcised status in males are independent risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection in infants with prenatal hydronephrosis. Antibiotic prophylaxis did not reduce the risk of urinary tract infection in the study group. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Protracted febrile myalgia syndrome in a kidney transplant recipient with familial Mediterranean fever.

    PubMed

    Abdel Halim, Medhat M; Al-Otaibi, Torki; Donia, Farouk; Gheith, Osama; Asif, Ponnambath; Nawas, Moideen; Rashad, Rashad H; Said, Tarek; Nair, Prasad; Nampoory, Narayanan

    2015-04-01

    Drug-induced toxic myopathy is a complication of familial Mediterranean fever in patients who receive colchicine, especially when combined with cyclosporine. Protracted febrile myalgia syndrome is a severe form of familial Mediterranean fever. A 34-year-old man who had familial Mediterranean fever for > 15 years developed kidney failure because of secondary amyloidosis. He received living-unrelated-donor kidney transplant that functioned normally. He was on colchicine prophylaxis that was continued after transplant, and he received immuno-suppression induction with antithymocyte globulin and maintenance with prednisolone, mycophenolate mofetil, and cyclosporine. After 2 months, he presented with severe myopathy and elevated creatine kinase. Muscle biopsy showed evidence of drug-induced toxic myopathy, most likely caused by cyclosporine in combination with colchicine. Cyclosporine was replaced with sirolimus and colchicine was stopped. Symptoms partially improved and creatine kinase decreased to normal. The prednisolone dosage was reduced gradually to 5 mg daily. At 8 months after transplant, he was readmitted because of severe arthralgia, prolonged fever, pleuritic chest pain, diffuse abdominal pain, purpuric rash, macroscopic hematuria, proteinuria, and diarrhea. The C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were elevated. The clinical diagnosis was recurrent familial Mediterranean fever presenting as protracted febrile myalgia syndrome. Despite the history of toxic myopathy, he was restarted on colchicine (0.5 mg, twice daily), and colchicine was well tolerated. There was marked improvement of most symptoms within several days. Follow-up 5 years later showed normal kidney graft function and no familial Mediterranean fever activity on colchicine prophylaxis. In summary, familial Mediterranean fever reactivation and protracted febrile myalgia syndrome after kidney transplant may be treated with colchicine and modulation of immunosuppressive therapy.

  9. [Aetiology and outcomes of potentially serious infections in febrile infants less than 3 months old].

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Mercedes; de Lucas, Nieves; Velasco, Roberto; Gómez, Borja; Mintegi, Santiago

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies have shown changes in the aetiology of serious bacterial infections in febrile infants ≤ 90 days of age. The aim of this study was to describe the current microbiology and outcomes of these infections in Spain. Sub-analysis of a prospective multicentre study focusing on febrile infants of less than 91 days of life, admitted between October 2011 and September 2013 to Emergency Departments of 19 Spanish hospitals, members of the Spanish Paediatric Emergency Research Group of the Spanish Society of Paediatric Emergencies (RISeuP/SPERG). The analysis included 3,401 febrile infants ≤90 days of age with fever without source. There were 896 positive cultures: 766 urine (85.5%), 100 blood (11.2%), 18 cerebrospinal fluid (2%), 10 stool, and 2 umbilical cultures. Among the 3,401 infants included, 784 (23%) were diagnosed with a serious bacterial infection, and 107 of them (3.1%) with an invasive infection. E. coli was the most common pathogen isolated from urine (628; 82%), blood (46; 46%), and cerebrospinal fluid cultures (7; 38.9%), followed by S. agalactiae that was isolated from 24 (24%) blood cultures and 3 (16.7%) cerebrospinal fluid cultures. There were only 2 L. monocytogenes infections. Four children died, and seven had severe complications. Among infants ≤ 90 days of age with fever without source, E. coli was the most common pathogen isolated from urine, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid cultures. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Midazolam fails to prevent neurological damage in children with convulsive refractory febrile status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Nagase, Hiroaki; Nishiyama, Masahiro; Nakagawa, Taku; Fujita, Kyoko; Saji, Yohsuke; Maruyama, Azusa

    2014-07-01

    We conducted a retrospective study to compare the outcome of intravenous midazolam infusion without electroencephalography or targeted temperature management and barbiturate coma therapy with electroencephalography and targeted temperature management for treating convulsive refractory febrile status epilepticus. Of 49 consecutive convulsive refractory febrile status epilepticus patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit of our hospital, 29 were excluded because they received other treatments or because of various underlying illnesses. Thus, eight patients were treated with midazolam and 10 with barbiturate coma therapy using thiamylal. Midazolam-treated patients were intubated only when necessary, whereas barbiturate coma therapy patients were routinely intubated. Continuous electroencephalography monitoring was utilized only for the barbiturate coma group. The titration goal for anesthesia was clinical termination of status epilepticus in the midazolam group and suppression or burst-suppression patterns on electroencephalography in the barbiturate coma group. Normothermia was maintained using blankets and neuromuscular blockade in the barbiturate coma group and using antipyretics in the midazolam group. Prognoses were measured at 1 month after onset; children were classified into poor and good outcome groups. Good outcome was achieved in all the barbiturate coma group patients and 50% of the midazolam group patients (P = 0.02, Fisher's exact test). Although the sample size was small and our study could not determine which protocol element is essential for the neurological outcome, the findings suggest that clinical seizure control using midazolam without continuous electroencephalography monitoring or targeted temperature management is insufficient in preventing neurological damage in children with convulsive refractory febrile status epilepticus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dengue and Chikungunya Fever among Viral Diseases in Outpatient Febrile Children in Kilosa District Hospital, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Chipwaza, Beatrice; Mugasa, Joseph P.; Selemani, Majige; Amuri, Mbaraka; Mosha, Fausta; Ngatunga, Steve D.; Gwakisa, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Viral etiologies of fever, including dengue, Chikungunya, influenza, rota and adeno viruses, cause major disease burden in tropical and subtropical countries. The lack of diagnostic facilities in developing countries leads to failure to estimate the true burden of such illnesses, and generally the diseases are underreported. These diseases may have similar symptoms with other causes of acute febrile illnesses including malaria and hence clinical diagnosis without laboratory tests can be difficult. This study aimed to identify viral etiologies as a cause of fever in children and their co-infections with malaria. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted for 6 months at Kilosa district hospital, Tanzania. The participants were febrile children aged 2–13 years presented at the outpatient department. Diagnostic tests such as IgM and IgG ELISA, and PCR were used. Results A total of 364 patients were enrolled, of these 83(22.8%) had malaria parasites, 76 (20.9%) had presumptive acute dengue infection and among those, 29(38.2%) were confirmed cases. Dengue was more likely to occur in children ≥ 5 years than in <5 years (OR 2.28, 95% CI: 1.35–3.86). Presumptive acute Chikungunya infection was identified in 17(4.7%) of patients. We observed no presenting symptoms that distinguished patients with Chikungunya infection from those with dengue infection or malaria. Co-infections between malaria and Chikungunya, malaria and dengue fever as well as Chikungunya and dengue were detected. Most patients with Chikungunya and dengue infections were treated with antibacterials. Furthermore, our results revealed that 5(5.2%) of patients had influenza virus while 5(12.8%) had rotavirus and 2(5.1%) had adenovirus. Conclusion Our results suggest that even though viral diseases are a major public health concern, they are not given due recognition as a cause of fever in febrile patients. Emphasis on laboratory diagnostic tests for proper diagnosis and management of

  12. Use of computed tomography abdomen and pelvis for investigation of febrile neutropenia in adult haematology patients.

    PubMed

    Lim, H Y; Ashby, M; Williams, B; Grigg, A

    2016-11-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the use of computed tomography abdomen and pelvis (CTAP) in febrile neutropenic autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients. CTAP was more common in ASCT patients (59%) compared with AML (31%; P  < 0.001). Although abnormal findings were reported in 51%, only 10% resulted in therapy change (addition of anaerobic antibiotic/bowel rest), which would have otherwise been instituted based on clinical grounds. CTAP in these patients rarely provide useful information unsuspected clinically. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  13. Increase in Antibiotic-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections in Febrile Neutropenic Children

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of bacteremia caused by Gram-negative bacteria has increased recently in febrile neutropenic patients with the increase of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections. This study aimed to identify the distribution of causative bacteria and the proportion of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in bacteremia diagnosed in febrile neutropenic children. Materials and Methods The medical records of febrile neutropenic children diagnosed with bacteremia between 2010 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The causative bacteria and proportion of antibiotic-resistant bacteria were investigated and compared yearly during the study period. The clinical impact of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections was also determined. Results A total of 336 bacteremia episodes were identified. During the entire study period, 181 (53.9%) and 155 (46.1%) episodes were caused by Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. Viridans streptococci (25.9%), Klebsiella spp. (16.7%), and Escherichia coli (16.4%) were the most frequent causative bacteria. The overall distribution of causative bacteria was not significantly different annually. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were identified in 85 (25.3%) episodes, and the proportion of antibiotic-resistant bacteria was not significantly different annually. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli and Klebsiella spp. were most common among antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, and they accounted for 30.6% (n = 34) of the identified E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci were most common among antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria, and it accounted for 88.5% (n = 23) of the identified coagulase-negative staphylococci. Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, especially antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections, caused significantly higher mortality due to bacteremia compared with non-antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections (P <0

  14. [Septic shock following platelet transfusion contaminated with Citrobacter koseri in a child with postchemotherapy febrile neutropenia].

    PubMed

    Tichit, R; Saumet, L; Marchandin, H; Haouy, S; Latry, P; Sirvent, N

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial transfusion risk is currently the greatest infectious risk of blood transfusion. We report the case of a child with postchemotherapy febrile neutropenia who presented septic shock following platelet transfusion contaminated with Citrobacter koseri. The life-threatening development could have been avoided by strict compliance with good clinical practice. The stability of mortality rates due to adverse effects of bacterial proliferation during platelet transfusions in France since 1994 calls for optimization of all preventive measures throughout the transfusion chain and perfect knowledge of transfusion rules by medical staff and care givers.

  15. Leptospirosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-Infection Among Febrile Inpatients in Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, Holly M.; Galloway, Renee L.; Bui, Duy M.; Morrissey, Annie B.; Maro, Venance P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Leptospirosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are prevalent in many areas, including northern Tanzania, yet little is known about their interaction. Methods We enrolled febrile inpatients at two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania, over 1 year and performed HIV antibody testing and the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for leptospirosis. Confirmed leptospirosis was defined as ≥four-fold rise in MAT titer between acute and convalescent serum samples, and probable leptospirosis was defined as any reciprocal MAT titer ≥800. Results Confirmed or probable leptospirosis was found in 70 (8.4%) of 831 participants with at least one serum sample tested. At total of 823 (99.0%) of 831 participants had HIV testing performed, and 203 (24.7%) were HIV infected. Among HIV-infected participants, 9 (4.4%) of 203 had confirmed or probable leptospirosis, whereas among HIV-uninfected participants 61 (9.8%) of 620 had leptospirosis. Leptospirosis was less prevalent among HIV-infected as compared to HIV-uninfected participants [odds ratio (OR) 0.43, p=0.019]. Among those with leptospirosis, HIV-infected patients more commonly presented with features of severe sepsis syndrome than HIV-uninfected patients, but differences were not statistically significant. Among HIV-infected patients, severe immunosuppression was not significantly different between those with and without leptospirosis (p=0.476). Among HIV-infected adolescents and adults, median CD4 percent and median CD4 count were higher among those with leptospirosis as compared to those with other etiologies of febrile illness, but differences in CD4 count did not reach statistical significance (p=0.015 and p=0.089, respectively). Conclusions Among febrile inpatients in northern Tanzania, leptospirosis was not more prevalent among HIV-infected patients. Although some indicators of leptospirosis severity were more common among HIV-infected patients, a statistically significant difference was not

  16. Antipyretic efficacy of ibuprofen and acetaminophen in children with febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Van Esch, A; Van Steensel-Moll, H A; Steyerberg, E W; Offringa, M; Habbema, J D; Derksen-Lubsen, G

    1995-06-01

    To compare the antipyretic efficacy of ibuprofen syrup (5 mg/kg per dose) and acetaminophen syrup (10 mg/kg per dose) in children with a history of febrile seizures. Randomized, multiple-dose, double-blind, cross-over trial. The outpatient department of a university-affiliated teaching hospital. Seventy outpatients (mean age, 2.1 years; range, 10 months to 4 years) who had visited the hospital because of a febrile seizure were randomized to treatment at a temperature of 38.5 degrees C or higher. Study medication was given every 6 hours for 1 to 3 days. Rectal temperatures were recorded at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours after the first dose. The temperature 4 hours after the first dose, the mean temperature during treatment, and the highest temperature during treatment were evaluated. Analysis of covariance corrected for the initial temperature, age, weight, and cause of the fever. Ibuprofen lowered the initial temperature from 39.1 degrees C to a mean temperature of 37.7 degrees C during treatment; acetaminophen lowered the initial temperature from 39.2 degrees C to 38.0 degrees C. Ibuprofen reduced fever 0.50 degree C more than did acetaminophen at 4 hours (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.98 to -0.02). The mean temperature was 0.26 degree C lower during ibuprofen treatment (95% CI, -0.59 to 0.07); the highest temperature was 0.30 degree C lower (95% CI, -0.73 to 0.13). In 22 patients, a second fever was treated with the opposite medication than the first. In the cross-over analysis, the respective differences were 0.66 degree C (95% CI, -1.29 to -0.06), 0.40 degree C (95% CI, -0.83 to 0.03), and 0.36 degree C (95% CI, -0.81 to 0.08) in favor of ibuprofen. Ibuprofen and acetaminophen are effective antipyretic agents in children with a history of febrile seizures. Ibuprofen yielded significantly greater fever reduction than did acetaminophen 4 hours after the first dose. Research is needed on the value of antipyretic agents for the prevention of febrile seizure

  17. A national health facility survey of malaria infection among febrile patients in Kenya, 2014.

    PubMed

    Githinji, Sophie; Noor, Abdisalan M; Malinga, Josephine; Macharia, Peter M; Kiptui, Rebecca; Omar, Ahmeddin; Njagi, Kiambo; Waqo, Ejersa; Snow, Robert W

    2016-12-08

    The use of malaria infection prevalence among febrile patients at clinics has a potential to be a valuable epidemiological surveillance tool. However, routine data are incomplete and not all fevers are tested. This study was designed to screen all fevers for malaria infection in Kenya to explore the epidemiology of fever test positivity rates. Random sampling was used within five malaria epidemiological zones of Kenya (i.e., high lake endemic, moderate coast endemic, highland epidemic, seasonal low transmission and low risk zones). The selected sample was representative of the number of hospitals, health centres and dispensaries within each zone. Fifty patients with fever presenting to each sampled health facility during the short rainy season were screened for malaria infection using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Details of age, pregnancy status and basic demographics were recorded for each patient screened. 10,557 febrile patients presenting to out-patient clinics at 234 health facilities were screened for malaria infection. 1633 (15.5%) of the patients surveyed were RDT positive for malaria at 124 (53.0%) facilities. Infection prevalence among non-pregnant patients varied between malaria risk zones, ranging from 0.6% in the low risk zone to 41.6% in the high lake endemic zone. Test positivity rates (TPR) by age group reflected the differences in the intensity of transmission between epidemiological zones. In the lake endemic zone, 6% of all infections were among children aged less than 1 year, compared to 3% in the coast endemic, 1% in the highland epidemic zone, less than 1% in the seasonal low transmission zone and 0% in the low risk zone. Test positivity rate was 31% among febrile pregnant women in the high lake endemic zone compared to 9% in the coast endemic and highland epidemic zones, 3.2% in the seasonal low transmission zone and zero in the low risk zone. Malaria infection rates among febrile patients, with supporting data on age and pregnancy status

  18. Parovirus B19 infection in an HIV-infected patient with febrile pancytopenia and acute hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Alliot, C; Barrios, M; Taib, J; Brunel, M

    2001-01-01

    The case of a 34-year-old male patient with HIV infection referred for severe febrile pancytopenia is reported. Clinical and laboratory evaluations revealed acute hepatitis B infection and concomitant parvovirus B19 infection. The patient died just before treatment with immune globulin was to be administered. Parvovirus B19 has been found to cause a wide variety of hematologic disorders such as neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, and hemophagocytic syndrome. The role of parvovirus B19 in the pathogenesis of bone marrow or liver involvement is briefly discussed.

  19. High dengue NS1 antigenemia in febrile patients in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyero, Olufunmilayo G; Ayukekbong, James A

    2014-10-13

    We conducted a dengue seroprevalence survey among febrile patients positive or negative for malaria in Ibadan, Nigeria. Dengue IgG and NS1 seroprevalence of 73% and 35%, respectively, was observed, and 43% of those with malaria had acute dengue infection (NS1 determination). On the other hand, all participants with malaria were IgG dengue seropositive consistent with the endemicity of both arthropod-borne infections in the region. These data indicate that dengue is emerging as a major and neglected cause of fever in Nigeria.

  20. Super-refractory status epilepticus and febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome treated with anakinra

    PubMed Central

    Kenney-Jung, Daniel L.; Kahoud, Robert J.; Vezzani, Annamaria; LaFrance-Corey, Reghann G.; Ho, Mai-Lan; Muskardin, Theresa Wampler; Gleich, Stephen J.; Wirrell, Elaine C.; Howe, Charles L.; Payne, Eric T.

    2017-01-01

    Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is a devastating epileptic encephalopathy with limited treatment options and an unclear etiology. Anakinra is a recombinant version of the human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist used to treat autoinflammatory disorders. This is the first report of anakinra for treatment of a child with super-refractory status epilepticus secondary to FIRES. Anakinra was well-tolerated and effective. Cerebral spinal fluid analysis revealed elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines before treatment that normalized on anakinra, suggesting a potential pathogenic role for neuroinflammation in FIRES. Further studies are required to assess anakinra efficacy and dosing, and to further delineate disease etiology. PMID:27770579

  1. Performance analysis of device-level SINS/ACFSS deeply integrated navigation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Qin, Shiqiao; Wang, Xingshu; Jiang, Guangwen; Tan, Wenfeng

    2016-10-01

    The Strap-Down Inertial Navigation System (SINS) is a widely used navigation system. The combination of SINS and the Celestial Navigation System (CNS) is one of the popular measures to constitute the integrated navigation system. A Star Sensor (SS) is used as a precise attitude determination device in CNS. To solve the problem that the star image obtained by SS under dynamic conditions is motion-blurred, the Attitude Correlated Frames (ACF) is presented and the star sensor which works based on ACF approach is named ACFSS. Depending on the ACF approach, a novel device-level SINS/ACFSS deeply integrated navigation method is proposed in this paper. Feedback to the ACF process from the error of the gyro is one of the typical characters of the SINS/CNS deeply integrated navigation method. Herein, simulation results have verified its validity and efficiency in improving the accuracy of gyro and it can be proved that this method is feasible in theory.

  2. Integrated Positioning for Coal Mining Machinery in Enclosed Underground Mine Based on SINS/WSN

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Jing; Wu, Lei; Yan, Wenxu; Zhou, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    To realize dynamic positioning of the shearer, a new method based on SINS/WSN is studied in this paper. Firstly, the shearer movement model is built and running regularity of the shearer in coal mining face has been mastered. Secondly, as external calibration of SINS using GPS is infeasible in enclosed underground mine, WSN positioning strategy is proposed to eliminate accumulative error produced by SINS; then the corresponding coupling model is established. Finally, positioning performance is analyzed by simulation and experiment. Results show that attitude angle and position of the shearer can be real-timely tracked by integrated positioning strategy based on SINS/WSN, and positioning precision meet the demand of actual working condition. PMID:24574891

  3. Integrated positioning for coal mining machinery in enclosed underground mine based on SINS/WSN.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qigao; Li, Wei; Hui, Jing; Wu, Lei; Yu, Zhenzhong; Yan, Wenxu; Zhou, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    To realize dynamic positioning of the shearer, a new method based on SINS/WSN is studied in this paper. Firstly, the shearer movement model is built and running regularity of the shearer in coal mining face has been mastered. Secondly, as external calibration of SINS using GPS is infeasible in enclosed underground mine, WSN positioning strategy is proposed to eliminate accumulative error produced by SINS; then the corresponding coupling model is established. Finally, positioning performance is analyzed by simulation and experiment. Results show that attitude angle and position of the shearer can be real-timely tracked by integrated positioning strategy based on SINS/WSN, and positioning precision meet the demand of actual working condition.

  4. Online calibration technique for LDV in SINS/LDV integrated navigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Gao, Chunfeng; Wei, Guo; Long, Xingwu

    2017-05-01

    There are the scale factor error of LDV (laser Doppler velocimeter) and the misalignment between the SINS (Strapdown inertial navigation system) and the vehicle in a SINS/LDV integrated navigation system. In this paper, the effects of these errors on the attitude, velocity and position of dead reckoning are derived, and a new online calibration method aiming to calibrate the scale factor of LDV and the misalignment between the SINS and the vehicle for the integrated system is put forward. This method, which is utilize the velocity and position of the Global Position System (GPS) as references, use the velocity error and position error of dead reckoning to estimate these errors. Through simulation and experiment, the validity and feasibility of the method are verified. The results show that the scale factor and the misalignment can be calibrated with satisfying accuracy, and the related research can provide technical support for high precision navigation of SINS/LDV integrated navigation systems.

  5. Sin(x)**2 + cos(x)**2 = 1. [programming identities using comparative combinatorial substitutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoutemyer, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Attempts to achieve tasteful automatic employment of the identities sin sq x + cos sq x = 1 and cos sq h x -sin sq h x = 1 in a manner which truly minimizes the complexity of the resulting expression are described. The disappointments of trigonometric reduction, trigonometric expansion, pattern matching, Poisson series, and Demoivre's theorem are related. The advantages of using the method of comparative combinatorial substitutions are illustrated.

  6. Sin(x)**2 + cos(x)**2 = 1. [programming identities using comparative combinatorial substitutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoutemyer, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Attempts to achieve tasteful automatic employment of the identities sin sq x + cos sq x = 1 and cos sq h x -sin sq h x = 1 in a manner which truly minimizes the complexity of the resulting expression are described. The disappointments of trigonometric reduction, trigonometric expansion, pattern matching, Poisson series, and Demoivre's theorem are related. The advantages of using the method of comparative combinatorial substitutions are illustrated.

  7. People Who Have Committed a Certain Sin Ought to Be Dead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenaars, Antoon A.

    2006-01-01

    People who have committed a certain sin ought to be dead; I am a person who has committed that sin; therefore, I ought to be dead. Thus is the logic of a suicidal mind. Lester, Szaz, and others argue the "sinner" should always be allowed to kill him/herself. Shneidman, Leenaars and others do not agree. Once one knows the suicidal mind, it is easy…

  8. People Who Have Committed a Certain Sin Ought to Be Dead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenaars, Antoon A.

    2006-01-01

    People who have committed a certain sin ought to be dead; I am a person who has committed that sin; therefore, I ought to be dead. Thus is the logic of a suicidal mind. Lester, Szaz, and others argue the "sinner" should always be allowed to kill him/herself. Shneidman, Leenaars and others do not agree. Once one knows the suicidal mind, it is easy…

  9. Acute HIV-1 infection is as common as malaria in young febrile adults seeking care in coastal Kenya.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Eduard J; Mugo, Peter; Prins, Henrieke A B; Wahome, Elizabeth; Thiong'o, Alexander N; Mwashigadi, Grace; van der Elst, Elisabeth M; Omar, Anisa; Smith, Adrian D; Graham, Susan M

    2014-06-01

    Febrile adults are usually not tested for acute HIV-1 infection (AHI) in Africa. We assessed a strategy to diagnose AHI among young adult patients seeking care. Young adults (<30 years) who met predefined AHI criteria at care seeking, including fever, sexually transmitted disease symptoms, diarrhoea, body pains or multiple partners were referred from five pharmacies and screened at five health facilities. Prevalent HIV-1 was diagnosed by nationally recommended serial rapid HIV-1 testing. Willing HIV-1-negative patients were evaluated for AHI, defined as a positive p24 antigen test, and subsequent seroconversion or RNA detection. Febrile patients evaluated for AHI were also screened for malaria using a rapid test, with PCR confirmation of positives. In 3602 adults seeking care, overall HIV-1 prevalence was 3.9%: 7.6% (68/897) among patients meeting AHI criteria vs. 2.6% (71/2705) among those who did not (P < 0.001). AHI was diagnosed in five of 506 HIV-1-negative or discordant patients who met AHI risk criteria and were completely evaluated [prevalence 1.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.3-2.3%]. Of these five AHI cases, four were diagnosed among the 241 patients with fever (prevalence 1.7%, 95% CI 0.5-4.2%), vs. one among 265 non-febrile patients (prevalence 0.4%, 95% CI 0.0-2.0%, P = 0.1). Malaria was confirmed by PCR in four (1.7%) of the 241 febrile patients. AHI was as common as confirmed malaria in young febrile adults seeking care. An AHI detection strategy targeting young febrile adults seeking care at pharmacies and health facilities is feasible and should be considered as an HIV-prevention strategy in high-transmission settings.

  10. Epidemiological characteristics of febrile seizures--comparing between Bedouin and Jews in the southern part of Israel.

    PubMed

    Shimony, Avi; Afawi, Zaid; Asher, Tal; Mahajnah, Muhammad; Shorer, Zamir

    2009-01-01

    Febrile seizures are the most common convulsive disorder in young children. Reviewing worldwide literature, one can see that seizures characteristics and source of fever are greatly varied. To evaluate whether febrile seizures are associated with different features in Bedouin and Jewish children. Retrospective data from 374 files children diagnosed with febrile convulsions during 1989-1991 was analyzed. The children aged 3 months to 7 years comprised 261 Jews and 113 Bedouins. Data was taken from admission files and follow-up notes. Febrile convulsions were diagnosed before the age of 2 in 75% and 81.4% of the Jewish and Bedouin children, respectively. Simple seizure was found among 80.4% and 72.2% of the Jewish and Bedouin groups, respectively. Complex seizure was found among 19.6% and 28.8% of the Jewish and Bedouin groups, respectively. 18.4% of the Jews and 17.8% of the Bedouin experienced more than one febrile convulsion. The most common diagnosis between the two groups by the time of the febrile seizure was otitis media however pneumonia was diagnosed in 15% of the Bedouins and only 3.8% of the Jews (P<0.005). Then again 19.1% of the Jewish population was found to suffer from upper respiratory tract infections, as opposed to 9.7% of the Bedouin (P<0.05). The two groups were similar in some aspects (gender, age and type of seizures) nevertheless there were differences concerning the source of fever. Further studies are needed to find whether these differences are related to demographic, genetic or other factors.

  11. Widespread Collaboration of Isw2 and Sin3-Rpd3 Chromatin Remodeling Complexes in Transcriptional Repression

    PubMed Central

    Fazzio, Thomas G.; Kooperberg, Charles; Goldmark, Jesse P.; Neal, Cassandra; Basom, Ryan; Delrow, Jeffrey; Tsukiyama, Toshio

    2001-01-01

    The yeast Isw2 chromatin remodeling complex functions in parallel with the Sin3-Rpd3 histone deacetylase complex to repress early meiotic genes upon recruitment by Ume6p. For many of these genes, the effect of an isw2 mutation is partially masked by a functional Sin3-Rpd3 complex. To identify the full range of genes repressed or activated by these factors and uncover hidden targets of Isw2-dependent regulation, we performed full genome expression analyses using cDNA microarrays. We find that the Isw2 complex functions mainly in repression of transcription in a parallel pathway with the Sin3-Rpd3 complex. In addition to Ume6 target genes, we find that many Ume6-independent genes are derepressed in mutants lacking functional Isw2 and Sin3-Rpd3 complexes. Conversely, we find that ume6 mutants, but not isw2 sin3 or isw2 rpd3 double mutants, have reduced fidelity of mitotic chromosome segregation, suggesting that one or more functions of Ume6p are independent of Sin3-Rpd3 and Isw2 complexes. Chromatin structure analyses of two nonmeiotic genes reveals increased DNase I sensitivity within their regulatory regions in an isw2 mutant, as seen previously for one meiotic locus. These data suggest that the Isw2 complex functions at Ume6-dependent and -independent loci to create DNase I-inaccessible chromatin structure by regulating the positioning or placement of nucleosomes. PMID:11533234

  12. AUV Positioning Method Based on Tightly Coupled SINS/LBL for Underwater Acoustic Multipath Propagation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Shi, Hongfei; Chen, Liping; Li, Yao; Tong, Jinwu

    2016-03-11

    This paper researches an AUV (Autonomous Underwater Vehicle) positioning method based on SINS (Strapdown Inertial Navigation System)/LBL (Long Base Line) tightly coupled algorithm. This algorithm mainly includes SINS-assisted searching method of optimum slant-range of underwater acoustic propagation multipath, SINS/LBL tightly coupled model and multi-sensor information fusion algorithm. Fuzzy correlation peak problem of underwater LBL acoustic propagation multipath could be solved based on SINS positional information, thus improving LBL positional accuracy. Moreover, introduction of SINS-centered LBL locating information could compensate accumulative AUV position error effectively and regularly. Compared to loosely coupled algorithm, this tightly coupled algorithm can still provide accurate location information when there are fewer than four available hydrophones (or within the signal receiving range). Therefore, effective positional calibration area of tightly coupled system based on LBL array is wider and has higher reliability and fault tolerance than loosely coupled. It is more applicable to AUV positioning based on SINS/LBL.

  13. Pits, a protein interacting with Ttk69 and Sin3A, has links to histone deacetylation

    PubMed Central

    Liaw, Gwo-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylation plays an important role in transcriptional repression. Previous results showed that the genetic interaction between ttk and rpd3, which encodes a class I histone deacetylase, is required for tll repression. This study investigated the molecular mechanism by which Ttk69 recruits Rpd3. Using yeast two-hybrid screening and datamining, one novel protein was found that weakly interacts with Ttk69 and Sin3A, designated as Protein interacting with Ttk69 and Sin3A (Pits). Pits protein expressed in the early stages of embryos and bound to the region of the tor response element in vivo. Expanded tll expression patterns were observed in embryos lacking maternal pits activity and the expansion was not widened by reducing either maternal ttk or sin3A activity. However, in embryos with simultaneously reduced maternal pits and sin3A activities or maternal pits, sin3A and ttk activities, the proportions of the embryos with expanded tll expression were significantly increased. These results indicate that all three gene activities are involved in tll repression. Level of histone H3 acetylation in the tll proximal region was found to be elevated in embryo with reduced these three gene activities. In conclusion, Ttk69 causes the histone deacetylation-mediated repression of tll via the interaction of Pits and Sin3A. PMID:27622813

  14. Pits, a protein interacting with Ttk69 and Sin3A, has links to histone deacetylation.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Gwo-Jen

    2016-09-13

    Histone deacetylation plays an important role in transcriptional repression. Previous results showed that the genetic interaction between ttk and rpd3, which encodes a class I histone deacetylase, is required for tll repression. This study investigated the molecular mechanism by which Ttk69 recruits Rpd3. Using yeast two-hybrid screening and datamining, one novel protein was found that weakly interacts with Ttk69 and Sin3A, designated as Protein interacting with Ttk69 and Sin3A (Pits). Pits protein expressed in the early stages of embryos and bound to the region of the tor response element in vivo. Expanded tll expression patterns were observed in embryos lacking maternal pits activity and the expansion was not widened by reducing either maternal ttk or sin3A activity. However, in embryos with simultaneously reduced maternal pits and sin3A activities or maternal pits, sin3A and ttk activities, the proportions of the embryos with expanded tll expression were significantly increased. These results indicate that all three gene activities are involved in tll repression. Level of histone H3 acetylation in the tll proximal region was found to be elevated in embryo with reduced these three gene activities. In conclusion, Ttk69 causes the histone deacetylation-mediated repression of tll via the interaction of Pits and Sin3A.

  15. Specific requirement of the chromatin modifier mSin3B in cell cycle exit and cellular differentiation.

    PubMed

    David, Gregory; Grandinetti, Kathryn B; Finnerty, Patricia M; Simpson, Natalie; Chu, Gerald C; Depinho, Ronald A

    2008-03-18

    The Sin3-histone deacetylase (HDAC) corepressor complex is conserved from yeast to humans. Mammals possess two highly related Sin3 proteins, mSin3A and mSin3B, which serve as scaffolds tethering HDAC enzymatic activity, and numerous sequence-specific transcription factors to enable local chromatin regulation at specific gene targets. Despite broad overlapping expression of mSin3A and mSin3B, mSin3A is cell-essential and vital for early embryonic development. Here, genetic disruption of mSin3B reveals a very different phenotype characterized by the survival of cultured cells and lethality at late stages of embryonic development with defective differentiation of multiple lineages-phenotypes that are strikingly reminiscent of those associated with loss of retinoblastoma family members or E2F transcriptional repressors. Additionally, we observe that, whereas mSin3B(-/-) cells cycle normally under standard growth conditions, they show an impaired ability to exit the cell cycle with limiting growth factors. Correspondingly, mSin3B interacts physically with the promoters of known E2F target genes, and its deficiency is associated with derepression of these gene targets in vivo. Together, these results reveal a critical role for mSin3B in the control of cell cycle exit and terminal differentiation in mammals and establish contrasting roles for the mSin3 proteins in the growth and development of specific lineages.

  16. Opposite side jet charge tagging and measurement of CP asymmetry parameter $\\sin_{2\\beta}$ at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaojian

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation describes the first CP asymmetry parameter sin(2β) measurement by the DO collaboration, sing the opposite side jet charge tagging algorithm in determining B-flavor. The time integrated measurement yields sin(2β) = 0.82 ± 1.80, and the time dependent measurement gives sin(2β) = 1.80 ± 1.15.

  17. Role of the sodium channel SCN9A in genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus and Dravet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mulley, John C; Hodgson, Bree; McMahon, Jacinta M; Iona, Xenia; Bellows, Susannah; Mullen, Saul A; Farrell, Kevin; Mackay, Mark; Sadleir, Lynette; Bleasel, Andrew; Gill, Deepak; Webster, Richard; Wirrell, Elaine C; Harbord, Michael; Sisodiya, Sanyjay; Andermann, Eva; Kivity, Sara; Berkovic, Samuel F; Scheffer, Ingrid E; Dibbens, Leanne M

    2013-09-01

    Mutations of the SCN1A subunit of the sodium channel is a cause of genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS(+) ) in multiplex families and accounts for 70-80% of Dravet syndrome (DS). DS cases without SCN1A mutation inherited have predicted SCN9A susceptibility variants, which may contribute to complex inheritance for these unexplained cases of DS. Compared with controls, DS cases were significantly enriched for rare SCN9A genetic variants. None of the multiplex febrile seizure or GEFS(+) families could be explained by highly penetrant SCN9A mutations.

  18. Exploring the optoelectronic properties of Nitrido-magneso-silicates: Ca[Mg3SiN4], Sr[Mg3SiN4], and Eu[Mg3SiN4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azam, Sikander; Ayaz Khan, Saleem; Goumri-Said, Souraya

    2017-05-01

    Optoelectronic properties of the Nitrido-magneso-silicates Ca[Mg3SiN4], Sr[Mg3SiN4], and Eu[Mg3SiN4] compounds have been investigated using the relativistic full-potential augmented plane-wave method (FLAPW) based on the density functional theory (DFT). The calculations of the electronic and optical properties were conducted by using the local density approximation (LDA), generalized gradient approximation (GGA), and modified Becke Johnson (mBJ) potential. A study of the band structures shows that these compounds are indirect band gap materials. We found a great variation in the obtained energy band gap value as we changed the functionals. The mBJ functional leads to a greater band-gap value compared to LDA and GGA cases. Based on the calculated electronic structure, the optical properties computed, such as the complex dielectric function, absorption coefficient, reflectivity, energy loss function and refractive index, were functions of the photon energy. Origins of the spectral peaks in the optical spectra were discussed and assigned to different electronic transitions observed from the electronic structure calculation.

  19. An investigation into febrile illnesses of unknown aetiology in Wipim, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Bande, Grace; Hetzel, Manuel W; Iga, Jonah; Barnadas, Celine; Mueller, Ivo; Siba, Peter M; Horwood, Paul F

    2014-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea the aetiology of febrile illnesses remains poorly characterized, mostly due to poor diagnostic facilities and the inaccessibility of much of the rural areas of the country. We investigated the aetiological agents of febrile illnesses for 136 people presenting to Wipim Health Centre in Western Province, Papua New Guinea. Arboviral and rickettsial real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, malaria blood smears and a malaria PCR test were used to identify pathogens associated with a history of fever. In 13% (n = 18) of cases an aetiological agent was identified. Dengue virus type 1 was detected in 11% (n = 15) of the samples tested and malaria in 2% (n = 3). None of the other arboviral or rickettsial pathogens tested for were detected in any of the samples. Although dengue viruses have been identified in Papua New Guinea using serological methods, this study represents the first direct detection of dengue in the country. The detection of malaria, on the other hand, was surprisingly low considering the previous notion that this was a hyperendemic region of Papua New Guinea.

  20. Review of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors in the treatment of established febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Pérez Velasco, Román

    2011-09-01

    To assess the value of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) in promoting recovery from established episodes of febrile neutropenia (FN) after chemotherapy in cancer patients. The literature was searched using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, and IPA databases. Reference lists from the retrieved papers and hand searches of relevant journals complemented the search. Eleven randomized controlled trials were selected for review. G-CSF use in established FN appears to be limited to a small reduction in neutropenia duration, length of hospitalization, and duration of antibiotic use. Overall, there are no significant reductions in time to neutrophil recovery and fever resolution. The cost analyses performed do not show significant cost savings. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) are biological agents typically used for prevention of febrile neutropenia (FN) or as adjunctive treatment with antibiotics of established FN. Most clinical guidelines discourage the general use of G-CSF for adjunctive treatment of ongoing neutropenic fever; however, its use in special situations, such as high-risk for infectious complications or adverse prognostic factors, is advised. G-CSF should be reserved for high-risk cancer patients, in accordance with the results of this review. This recommendation needs to be taken with caution in view of the disparities and methodological flaws found among trials. It is necessary to design further trials appropriately, well-powered and focused on high-risk patients. Moreover, it is necessary to perform an appropriate economic evaluation for this setting.

  1. Piperacillin/tazobactam versus cefozopran for the empirical treatment of pediatric cancer patients with febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Mizuho; Suzuki, Daisuke; Ohshima, Junjiro; Cho, Yuko; Kaneda, Makoto; Iguchi, Akihiro; Ariga, Tadashi

    2011-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of piperacillin/tazobactam (PIP/TAZO) and cefozopran (CZOP) monotherapy in pediatric cancer patients with febrile neutropenia (FN). A total of 119 febrile episodes in 49 neutropenic pediatric cancer patients (20 females and 29 males) with a median age of 6.8 years (range, 0.3-18.4 years) received randomized treatment either with PIP/TAZO 125 mg/kg every 8 hr or CZOP 25 mg/kg every 6 hr. Clinical response was determined at completion of therapy. Durations of fever and neutropenia, the need for modification of the therapy, and mortality rates were compared between the two groups. The frequency of success without modification of treatment was not significantly different between PIP/TAZO (59.6%) and CZOP (53.2%). Durations of fever and antibiotic therapy did not differ between the treatment groups, and no major side effects were observed in either group. PIP/TAZO and CZOP monotherapy were both effective and safe for the initial empirical treatment of pediatric cancer patients with FN. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effect and safety of granulocyte transfusions in pediatric patients with febrile neutropenia or defective granulocyte functions.

    PubMed

    Atay, Didem; Ozturk, Gulyuz; Akcay, Arzu; Yanasik, Melek; Anak, Sema; Devecioglu, Omer

    2011-08-01

    Despite the introduction of new broad-spectrum antibiotics and antifungal therapies over the past decade, infections remains the most frequent cause of death in patients with neutropenia. The aim of this study is to assess the effect and safety of granulocyte transfusions (GTX) for the treatment of severe life-threatening infections in pediatric patients with febrile neutropenia or defective granulocyte functions. In this study, 35 pediatric patients with high-risk febrile neutropenia or defective granulocyte functions, who received 111 GTX, were included. GTX were used for 3 consecutive days during infections not responding to antimicrobial therapy. The mean granulocyte content per concentrate was 27.4×10⁹ (min: 4.2×10⁹ to max: 68.4×10⁹) depending on donor's white blood cell count before harvest. GTX were well tolerated in all patients. The infection-related survival rate was 82.4% and overall survival rate was 77.1% at day 30. The overall survival rate was 65.7% and 52% at 3 and 48 months, respectively. GTX is safe and effective in controlling the life-threatening infections. Further randomized controlled studies with long-term follow-up are needed to assess the exact role of GTX in the outcome of patients with neutropenia and patients with defective granulocyte functions.

  3. Unsuspected Dengue as a Cause of Acute Febrile Illness in Children and Adults in Western Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Reller, Megan E.; de Silva, Aravinda M.; Miles, Jeremy J.; Jadi, Ramesh S.; Broadwater, Anne; Walker, Katie; Woods, Christopher; Mayorga, Orlando; Matute, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue is an emerging infectious disease of global significance. Suspected dengue, especially in children in Nicaragua’s heavily-urbanized capital of Managua, has been well documented, but unsuspected dengue among children and adults with undifferentitated fever has not. Methodology/Principal Findings To prospectively study dengue in semi-urban and rural western Nicaragua, we obtained epidemiologic and clinical data as well as acute and convalescent sera (2 to 4 weeks after onset of illness) from a convenience sample (enrollment Monday to Saturday daytime to early evening) of consecutively enrolled patients (n = 740) aged ≥ 1 years presenting with acute febrile illness. We tested paired sera for dengue IgG and IgM and serotyped dengue virus using reverse transcriptase-PCR. Among 740 febrile patients enrolled, 90% had paired sera. We found 470 (63.5%) were seropositive for dengue at enrollment. The dengue seroprevalance increased with age and reached >90% in people over the age of 20 years. We identified acute dengue (serotypes 1 and 2) in 38 (5.1%) patients. Only 8.1% (3/37) of confirmed cases were suspected clinically. Conclusions/Significance Dengue is an important and largely unrecognized cause of fever in rural western Nicaragua. Since Zika virus is transmitted by the same vector and has been associated with severe congenital infections, the population we studied is at particular risk for being devastated by the Zika epidemic that has now reached Central America. PMID:27792777

  4. Evaluation of Plasma Melatonin Levels in Children With Afebrile and Febrile Seizures.

    PubMed

    Dabak, Orçun; Altun, Demet; Arslan, Mutluay; Yaman, Halil; Vurucu, Sabahattin; Yesilkaya, Ediz; Unay, Bulent

    2016-04-01

    Melatonin modulates central nervous system neuronal activity. We compared the melatonin levels of patients with febrile and afebrile seizures during and after seizure with those of healthy controls. We enrolled 59 individuals with afebrile and febrile seizures (mean age, 6.09 ± 4.46 years) and 28 age-, sex-, and weight-matched healthy children. Melatonin levels were measured near the time of a seizure (0 to 1 hour) and at 12 and 24 hours post-seizure, and control melatonin levels were measured from a single venous blood sample. Plasma melatonin levels increased during seizures in the study group (P < 0.001). Post-seizure plasma melatonin levels were significantly lower in the study group than in the control group (P < 0.05). Plasma melatonin levels did not differ between patients with afebrile seizures who had and had not used antiepileptic drugs. Daytime (8 AM to 8 PM) and nighttime (8 PM to 8 AM) post-seizure melatonin levels were not significantly different. Melatonin levels were lower in pediatric patients prone to seizures than in healthy children and increased during seizures. Further research is needed to test the role of melatonin in the pathophysiology and treatment of epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Early-life febrile seizures worsen adult phenotypes in Scn1a mutants.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Stacey B B; Dutt, Karoni; Papale, Ligia A; Helmers, Sandra; Goldin, Alan L; Escayg, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    Mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene SCN1A, encoding the Nav1.1 channel, are responsible for a number of epilepsy disorders including genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) and Dravet syndrome (DS). Patients with SCN1A mutations often experience prolonged early-life febrile seizures (FSs), raising the possibility that these events may influence epileptogenesis and lead to more severe adult phenotypes. To test this hypothesis, we subjected 21-23-day-old mice expressing the human SCN1A GEFS+ mutation R1648H to prolonged hyperthermia, and then examined seizure and behavioral phenotypes during adulthood. We found that early-life FSs resulted in lower latencies to induced seizures, increased severity of spontaneous seizures, hyperactivity, and impairments in social behavior and recognition memory during adulthood. Biophysical analysis of brain slice preparations revealed an increase in epileptiform activity in CA3 pyramidal neurons along with increased action potential firing, providing a mechanistic basis for the observed worsening of adult phenotypes. These findings demonstrate the long-term negative impact of early-life FSs on disease outcomes. This has important implications for the clinical management of this patient population and highlights the need for therapeutic interventions that could ameliorate disease progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Results of a post-marketing surveillance of meropenem for febrile neutropenia].

    PubMed

    Wakisaka, Koji; Tani, Shunsuke; Ishibashi, Kazuo; Nukui, Kazuhiko; Nagao, Munehiko

    2015-08-01

    The post-marketing surveillance of meropenem (Meropen) for febrile neutropenia (FN) was conducted between July 2010 and June 2012 to evaluate safety and efficacy under actual clinical use. There were 1191 and 1124 evaluable cases for safety and efficacy respectively, of 1207 case cards collected from 180 institutions. In safety analysis, the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with use of meropenem (including abnormal laboratory findings) was 15.7% (187/1191 cases), and the main ADRs were alanine aminotransferase increased, aspartate aminotransferase increased, blood alkaline phosphatase increased, hepatic function abnormal, and liver disorder, which were similar to these observed in the clinical study for FN or post marketing surveillances of meropenem conducted before. In efficacy analysis, the overall efficacy was 81.8% (919/1124 cases). Also, it was 79.2% (708/894 cases) for hematological malignancy and 91.8% (213/232 cases) for solid cancer. These results confirmed meropenem (Meropen) is one of the well-tolerated and potent antimicrobial agents for febrile neutropenia.

  7. Biomarker candidates for the detection of an infectious etiology of febrile neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Richter, Martin E; Neugebauer, Sophie; Engelmann, Falco; Hagel, Stefan; Ludewig, Katrin; La Rosée, Paul; Sayer, Herbert G; Hochhaus, Andreas; von Lilienfeld-Toal, Marie; Bretschneider, Tom; Pausch, Christine; Engel, Christoph; Brunkhorst, Frank M; Kiehntopf, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Infections and subsequent septicemia are major complications in neutropenic patients with hematological malignancies. Here, we identify biomarker candidates for the early detection of an infectious origin, and monitoring of febrile neutropenia (FN). Proteome, metabolome, and conventional biomarkers from 20 patients with febrile neutropenia without proven infection (FNPI) were compared to 28 patients with proven infection, including 17 patients with bacteremia. Three peptides (mass to charge ratio 1017.4-1057.3; p-values 0.011-0.024), six proteins (mass to charge ratio 6881-17,215; p-values 0.002-0.004), and six phosphatidylcholines (p-values 0.007-0.037) were identified that differed in FNPI patients compared to patients with infection or bacteremia. Seven of these marker candidates discriminated FNPI from infection at fever onset with higher sensitivity and specificity (ROC-AUC 0.688-0.824) than conventional biomarkers i.e., procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, or interleukin-6 (ROC-AUC 0.535-0.672). In a post hoc analysis, monitoring the time course of four lysophosphatidylcholines, threonine, and tryptophan allowed for discrimination of patients with or without resolution of FN (ROC-AUC 0.648-0.919) with higher accuracy compared to conventional markers (ROC-AUC 0.514-0.871). Twenty-one promising biomarker candidates for the early detection of an infectious origin or for monitoring the course of FN were found which might overcome known shortcomings of conventional markers.

  8. Leptospirosis and malaria as causes of febrile illness during a dengue epidemic in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Lindo, John; Brown, Paul D; Vickers, Ivan; Brown, Michelle; Jackson, Sandra T; Lewis-Fuller, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemics of febrile illnesses are often associated with rainy seasons in the tropics. During 2007–2008 an epidemic of dengue was identified in Jamaica based on serological testing of sera. Methods: A subset of 3165 of 5400 sera submitted for dengue analysis was tested for Leptospira IgM and malaria IgG using ELISA to determine their role in causing epidemic fever. Findings: Seropositivity for dengue, leptospirosis, and malaria were 38.4 and 6.0 and 6.5%, respectively, indicative of three concurrent epidemics. Mixed exposure to all three diseases was rare (0.1%), as were mixed dengue/malaria (2.4%); dengue/leptospirosis (1.6%), and leptospirosis/malaria (0.03%) exposure. Exposure to dengue and malaria appeared to occur most frequently among children while leptospirosis was more common among adults. Conclusion: While serological diagnosis definitively established that dengue was the main cause of the epidemic febrile illness, the data suggested that there may be other causes of fever, which may occur simultaneously. Consequently, leptospirosis and malaria should be considered as causes of fever during epidemics of dengue in endemic areas. PMID:24188242

  9. Comparison of renal ultrasonography and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy in febrile urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Ayazi, Parviz; Mahyar, Abolfazl; Noroozian, Elham; Esmailzadehha, Neda; Barikani, Ameneh

    2015-12-01

    Accurate and early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of patient with urinary tract infection (UTI) are essential for the prevention or restriction of permanent damage to the kidneys in children. The aim of this study was to compare renal ultrasonography (US) and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scan in the diagnosis of patients with febrile urinary tract infection. This study involved the medical records of children with febrile urinary tract infection who were admitted to the children's hospital in Qazvin, Iran. Pyelonephritis was diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests and abnormal DMSA renal scans. The criteria for abnormality of renal US were an increase or a decrease in diffuse or focal parenchymal echogenicity, loss of corticomedullary differentiation, kidney position irregularities, parenchymal reduction and increased kidney size. Of the 100 study patients, 23% had an abnormal US and 46% had an abnormal DMSA renal scan. Of the latter patients, 15 had concurrent abnormal US (P value ≤ 0.03, concordance rate: 18%). Renal US had a sensitivity of 32%, specificity of 85%, positive predictive value of 65% and negative predictive value of 60%. Of the 77 patients with normal US, 31 (40.2%) had an abnormal DMSA renal scan. Despite the benefits and accessibility of renal US, its value in the diagnosis of pyelonephritis is limited.

  10. Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome: Clinical Review and Hypotheses of Epileptogenesis.

    PubMed

    van Baalen, Andreas; Vezzani, Annamaria; Häusler, Martin; Kluger, Gerhard

    2017-02-01

    Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES, AERRPS, or DESC) is one of the most severe, mostly irreversible, and presumably immune-mediated epileptic encephalopathies affecting healthy children. Refractory status epilepticus or a cluster of seizures start a few days after the onset of an acute febrile illness; however, encephalitis cannot be proved. Sequelae of FIRES are drug-resistant epilepsy and neuropsychological impairments occurring without latency. Clinical knowledge is limited because FIRES is sporadic and extremely rare. Therefore, based on literature and our data, this review includes clinical features, terminology, epidemiology, diagnostic criteria and procedures, differential diagnoses, acute and chronic therapeutic options, and outcome data. Particular attention is paid to the epileptogenesis. We hypothesize that FIRES is an immune but not an autoimmune disease and discuss GABAergic therapy at high doses, avoidance of burst-suppression coma, and early introduction of enteral or even parenteral ketogenic diet as the most promising treatment. The lack of evidence requires both a network and a multinational web-based clinical registry to define the clinical spectrum for improving diagnosis and treatment and at the very least, to clarify the cause of FIRES. We conclude that the term "fulminant inflammatory response epilepsy syndrome" may be more appropriate.

  11. Enhanced Surveillance for Fatal Dengue-Like Acute Febrile Illness in Puerto Rico, 2010-2012

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Aidsa; Torres-Velasquez, Brenda; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A.; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge L.; Sharp, Tyler M.; Rivera, Irma; Sanabria, Dario; Blau, Dianna M.; Galloway, Renee; Torres, Jose; Rodriguez, Rosa; Serrano, Javier; Chávez, Carlos; Dávila, Francisco; Perez-Padilla, Janice; Ellis, Esther M.; Caballero, Gladys; Wright, Laura; Zaki, Sherif R.; Deseda, Carmen; Rodriguez, Edda; Margolis, Harold S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue is a leading cause of morbidity throughout the tropics; however, accurate population-based estimates of mortality rates are not available. Methods/Principal Findings We established the Enhanced Fatal Acute Febrile Illness Surveillance System (EFASS) to estimate dengue mortality rates in Puerto Rico. Healthcare professionals submitted serum and tissue specimens from patients who died from a dengue-like acute febrile illness, and death certificates were reviewed to identify additional cases. Specimens were tested for markers of dengue virus (DENV) infection by molecular, immunologic, and immunohistochemical methods, and were also tested for West Nile virus, Leptospira spp., and other pathogens based on histopathologic findings. Medical records were reviewed and clinical data abstracted. A total of 311 deaths were identified, of which 58 (19%) were DENV laboratory-positive. Dengue mortality rates were 1.05 per 100,000 population in 2010, 0.16 in 2011 and 0.36 in 2012. Dengue mortality was highest among adults 19–64 years and seniors ≥65 years (1.17 and 1.66 deaths per 100,000, respectively). Other pathogens identified included 34 Leptospira spp. cases and one case of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Neisseria meningitidis. Conclusions/Significance EFASS showed that dengue mortality rates among adults were higher than reported for influenza, and identified a leptospirosis outbreak and index cases of melioidosis and meningitis. PMID:27727271

  12. Pharmacoeconomic analysis of voriconazole vs. caspofungin in the empirical antifungal therapy of febrile neutropenia in Australia.

    PubMed

    Al-Badriyeh, Daoud; Liew, Danny; Stewart, Kay; Kong, David C M

    2012-05-01

    In two major clinical trials, voriconazole and caspofungin were recommended as alternatives to liposomal amphotericin B for empirical use in febrile neutropenia. This study investigated the health economic impact of using voriconazole vs. caspofungin in patients with febrile neutropenia. A decision analytic model was developed to measure downstream consequences of empirical antifungal therapy. Clinical outcomes measured were success, breakthrough infection, persistent base-line infection, persistent fever, premature discontinuation and death. Treatment transition probabilities and patterns were directly derived from data in two relevant randomised controlled trials. Resource use was estimated using an expert clinical panel. Cost inputs were obtained from latest Australian sources. The analysis adopted the perspective of the Australian hospital system. The use of caspofungin led to a lower expected mean cost per patient than voriconazole (AU$40,558 vs. AU$41,356), with a net cost saving of AU$798 (1.9%) per patient. Results were most sensitive to the duration of therapy and the alternative therapy used post-discontinuation. In uncertainty analysis, the cost associated with caspofungin is less than that with voriconazole in 65.5% of cases. This is the first economic evaluation of voriconazole vs. caspofungin for empirical therapy. Caspofungin appears to have a higher probability of having cost-savings than voriconazole for empirical therapy. The difference between the two medications does not seem to be statistically significant however.

  13. Asymmetric dimethylarginine in the assessment of febrile neutropenia in hematological patients.

    PubMed

    Lappalainen, Marika; Hämäläinen, Sari; Juutilainen, Auni; Koivula, Irma; Pulkki, Kari; Jantunen, Esa

    2017-04-01

    Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) has been recognized as an independent prognostic factor for sepsis mortality in intensive care units. No data are available on kinetics or prognostic value of ADMA in hematological patients. We evaluated the ability of ADMA to act as a predictor for complicated course of febrile neutropenia, defined as bacteremia and/or septic shock in adult hematological patients receiving intensive chemotherapy. This prospective study included 87 adult hematological patients with febrile neutropenia after an intensive chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or after an autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Plasma ADMA and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured from the onset of fever (d0) and for 2 days (d1-d2) thereafter. The levels of ADMA were stable or had only minimal changes during the study period. There was no difference between the levels at any time-point in patients having complicated course compared to those without it. On the other hand, CRP levels were significantly higher on d1 (p = 0.016) in patients with bacteremia and/or septic shock than in those without. ADMA was not able to differentiate hematological patients with a complicated course from those without complications. Elevated ADMA levels are probably associated with organ dysfunction, which is rare in this group of patients, of whom about 95% can be successfully managed at the hematology ward.

  14. Does the pediatricians' work setting or years of experience influence febrile seizure education?

    PubMed

    Sakai, Rie; Okumura, A; Marui, E; Shimizu, T

    2010-06-01

    A febrile seizure is a benign condition. However, for parents, witnessing their child's FS can cause excessive anxiety. It is therefore important for pediatricians to provide appropriate information in order to reduce anxiety. In this study, we analyze whether work setting and years of experience influence the explanations given to caregivers. Questionnaires were mailed to members of the Japan Pediatric Society, Tokyo Chapter (n=1 870). The Mantel-Haenszel test was used for dichotomous variables. Differences for continuous variables were evaluated at 95% confidence intervals. A total of 482 pediatricians participated. There were no significant differences in responses to any questions according to work setting. Responders with less than 20 years of experience reported a higher prevalence of febrile seizures than those in the more experienced group. Compared to the experienced group, more responders with less than 20 years of experience stated that they would administer antiepileptic prophylaxis and advise parents not to use antipyretics, and indicated that they did not know the FS treatment guidelines. The findings suggest the importance of promoting a better understanding of FS among less-experienced pediatricians and encouraging adherence to the guidelines to maintain a consistent level of support for parents and caregivers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Management of febrile urinary tract infection among spinal cord injured patients.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Aurélien; Toumi, Adnène; Blanc, Constance; Descatha, Alexis; Bouchand, Frédérique; Salomon, Jérôme; Hanslik, Thomas; Bernuz, Benjamin; Denys, Pierre; Bernard, Louis

    2016-04-16

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) among patients with neurogenic bladder is a major problem but its management is not well known. We studied the relationship between antibiotic regimen use and the cure rate of those infections among 112 patients with neurogenic bladder. We studied a retrospective cohort of febrile UTI among patients with neurogenic bladder. Drug selection was left to the discretion of the treating physicians, in accordance with current guidelines. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to antibiotic treatment duration (<10 days, between 10 and 15 days, and >15 days). We analysed clinical and microbiogical cure rate one month after the end of antibiotic treatment. The three groups of patients were similar, especially in terms of drug treatment (equal distribution). The cure rates were not significantly different (71.4 %, 54.2 %, and 57.1 %, respectively; p = 0.34). Moreover, there was no difference in cure rate between mono and dual therapy (44 % for monotherapy vs. 40 % for dual therapy; p = 0.71). This descriptive study supports the efficacy of antimicrobial treatment duration of less than 10 days and the use of monotherapy to treat febrile UTI among patients with neurogenic bladder. A randomized control trial is required to confirm these data.

  16. Algorithms imaging tests comparison following the first febrile urinary tract infection in children.

    PubMed

    Tombesi, María M; Alconcher, Laura F; Lucarelli, Lucas; Ciccioli, Agustina

    2017-08-01

    To compare the diagnostic sensitivity, costs and radiation doses of imaging tests algorithms developed by the Argentine Society of Pediatrics in 2003 and 2015, against British and American guidelines after the first febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). Inclusion criteria: children ≤ 2 years old with their first febrile UTI and normal ultrasound, voiding cystourethrography and dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy, according to the algorithm established by the Argentine Society of Pediatrics in 2003, treated between 2003 and 2010. The comparisons between algorithms were carried out through retrospective simulation. Eighty (80) patients met the inclusion criteria; 51 (63%) had vesicoureteral reflux (VUR); 6% of the cases were severe. Renal scarring was observed in 6 patients (7.5%). Cost: ARS 404,000. Radiation: 160 millisieverts. With the Argentine Society of Pediatrics' algorithm developed in 2015, the diagnosis of 4 VURs and 2 cases of renal scarring would have been missed. The cost of this omission would have been ARS 301,800 and 124 millisieverts of radiation. British and American guidelines would have missed the diagnosis of all VURs and all cases of renal scarring, with a related cost of ARS 23,000 and ARS 40,000, respectively and 0 radiation. Intensive protocols are highly sensitive to VUR and renal scarring, but they imply high costs and doses of radiation, and result in questionable benefits.

  17. One death and a cluster of febrile complications related to saline abortions.

    PubMed

    Berger, G S; Gibson, J J; Harvey, R P; Tyler, C W; Pakter, J

    1973-07-01

    Case history of a 17-year-old Arkansas girl who died following a saline abortion performed in a New York City hospital in September, 1971, and a report of the subsequent investigation revealing possible contaminating techniques by the attending physician are given. The young woman was single, nulliparous, and at 16 weeks gestation when the abortion was performed by exchange of hypertonic saline and amniotic fluid. The procedure was uneventful, but febrile conditions developed 8 hours after delivery. Despite antibiotic treatment the fever continued and blood cultures later revealed an infection of Staphylococcus aureus. The patient died 12 days after the abortion. An epidemiologic investigation was conducted at the hospital that the girl had attended. Records of 911 patients receiving saline abortions between July 1971 and February 1972 were examined, revealing the development of fever in 44 cases. 57% of these febrile cases occurred in a 3-week period and were associated with 2 physicians whose patients' postinstillation fever rates were 17% compared with 2.5% for all other physicians in the hospital. There was no correlation between the incidence of fever and the patients' age, race, duration of retained placenta or operative removal of the placenta. It is concluded from epidemiologic evidence and direct observation of the physician's procedure that the infection was probably introduced through breaks in sterile technique at the time of fluid exchange. Rigorous aseptic procedures should be followed carefully in all saline abortion procedures.

  18. Serological Evidence of Chikungunya Virus among Acute Febrile Patients in Southern Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Gudo, Eduardo Samo; Pinto, Gabriela; Vene, Sirkka; Mandlaze, Arcildo; Muianga, Argentina Felisbela; Cliff, Julie; Falk, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has rapidly expanded to several geographical areas, causing frequent outbreaks in sub-Saharan Africa, South East Asia, South America, and Europe. Therefore, the disease remains heavily neglected in Mozambique, and no recent study has been conducted. Between January and September 2013, acute febrile patients with no other evident cause of fever and attending a health center in a suburban area of Maputo city, Mozambique, were consecutively invited to participate. Paired acute and convalescent serum samples were requested from each participant. Convalescent samples were initially screened for anti-CHIKV IgG using a commercial indirect immunofluorescence test, and if positive, the corresponding acute sample was screened using the same test. Four hundred patients were enrolled. The median age of study participants was 26 years (IQR: 21-33 years) and 57.5% (224/391) were female. Paired blood samples were obtained from 209 patients, of which 26.4% (55/208) were presented anti-CHIKV IgG antibodies in the convalescent sample. Seroconversion or a four-fold titer rise was confirmed in 9 (4.3%) patients. The results of this study strongly suggest that CHIKV is circulating in southern Mozambique. We recommend that CHIKV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute febrile illness in Mozambique and that systematic surveillance for CHIKV should be implemented.

  19. Transcriptomic evidence for modulation of host inflammatory responses during febrile Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Tuan M.; Jones, Marcus B.; Ongoiba, Aissata; Bijker, Else M.; Schats, Remko; Venepally, Pratap; Skinner, Jeff; Doumbo, Safiatou; Quinten, Edwin; Visser, Leo G.; Whalen, Elizabeth; Presnell, Scott; O’Connell, Elise M.; Kayentao, Kassoum; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Chaussabel, Damien; Lorenzi, Hernan; Nutman, Thomas B.; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.; Haks, Mariëlle C.; Traore, Boubacar; Kirkness, Ewen F.; Sauerwein, Robert W.; Crompton, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying molecular predictors and mechanisms of malaria disease is important for understanding how Plasmodium falciparum malaria is controlled. Transcriptomic studies in humans have so far been limited to retrospective analysis of blood samples from clinical cases. In this prospective, proof-of-principle study, we compared whole-blood RNA-seq profiles at pre-and post-infection time points from Malian adults who were either asymptomatic (n = 5) or febrile (n = 3) during their first seasonal PCR-positive P. falciparum infection with those from malaria-naïve Dutch adults after a single controlled human malaria infection (n = 5). Our data show a graded activation of pathways downstream of pro-inflammatory cytokines, with the highest activation in malaria-naïve Dutch individuals and significantly reduced activation in malaria-experienced Malians. Newly febrile and asymptomatic infections in Malians were statistically indistinguishable except for genes activated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. The combined data provide a molecular basis for the development of a pyrogenic threshold as individuals acquire immunity to clinical malaria. PMID:27506615

  20. Chikungunya and dengue fever among hospitalized febrile patients in northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Julian T; Munishi, O Michael; Ooi, Eng Eong; Howe, Shiqin; Lim, Wen Yan; Chow, Angelia; Morrissey, Anne B; Bartlett, John A; Onyango, Jecinta J; Maro, Venance P; Kinabo, Grace D; Saganda, Wilbrod; Gubler, Duane J; Crump, John A

    2012-01-01

    Consecutive febrile admissions were enrolled at two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Confirmed acute Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Dengue virus (DENV), and flavivirus infection were defined as a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) result. Presumptive acute DENV infection was defined as a positive anti-DENV immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunsorbent assay (ELISA) result, and prior flavivirus exposure was defined as a positive anti-DENV IgG ELISA result. Among 870 participants, PCR testing was performed on 700 (80.5%). Of these, 55 (7.9%) had confirmed acute CHIKV infection, whereas no participants had confirmed acute DENV or flavivirus infection. Anti-DENV IgM serologic testing was performed for 747 (85.9%) participants, and of these 71 (9.5%) had presumptive acute DENV infection. Anti-DENV IgG serologic testing was performed for 751 (86.3%) participants, and of these 80 (10.7%) had prior flavivirus exposure. CHIKV infection was more common among infants and children than adults and adolescents (odds ratio [OR] 1.9, P = 0.026) and among HIV-infected patients with severe immunosuppression (OR 10.5, P = 0.007). CHIKV infection is an important but unrecognized cause of febrile illness in northern Tanzania. DENV or other closely related flaviviruses are likely also circulating.