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Sample records for fecal coliform bacteria

  1. The Interaction between Heterotrophic Bacteria and Coliform, Fecal Coliform, Fecal Streptococci Bacteria in the Water Supply Networks

    PubMed Central

    AMANIDAZ, Nazak; ZAFARZADEH, Ali; MAHVI, Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and coliform, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria in water supply networks. Methods: This study was conducted during 2013 on water supply distribution network in Aq Qala City, Golestan Province, Northern Iran and standard methods were applied for microbiological analysis. The surface method was applied to test the heterotrophic bacteria and MPN method was used for coliform, fecal coliform and fecal streptococci bacteria measurements. Results: In 114 samples, heterotrophic bacteria count were over 500 CFU/ml, which the amount of fecal coliform, coliform, and fecal streptococci were 8, 32, and 20 CFU/100 ml, respectively. However, in the other 242 samples, with heterotrophic bacteria count being less than 500 CFU/ml, the amount of fecal coliform, coliform, and fecal streptococci was 7, 23, and 11 CFU/100ml, respectively. The relationship between heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms and fecal streptococci was highly significant (P<0.05). We observed the concentration of coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria being high, whenever the concentration of heterotrophic bacteria in the water network systems was high. Conclusion: Interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and coliform, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria in the Aq Qala City water supply networks was not notable. It can be due to high concentrations of organic carbon, bio-films and nutrients, which are necessary for growth, and survival of all microorganisms. PMID:26811820

  2. The Interaction between Heterotrophic Bacteria and Coliform, Fecal Coliform, Fecal Streptococci Bacteria in the Water Supply Networks.

    PubMed

    Amanidaz, Nazak; Zafarzadeh, Ali; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and coliform, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria in water supply networks. This study was conducted during 2013 on water supply distribution network in Aq Qala City, Golestan Province, Northern Iran and standard methods were applied for microbiological analysis. The surface method was applied to test the heterotrophic bacteria and MPN method was used for coliform, fecal coliform and fecal streptococci bacteria measurements. In 114 samples, heterotrophic bacteria count were over 500 CFU/ml, which the amount of fecal coliform, coliform, and fecal streptococci were 8, 32, and 20 CFU/100 ml, respectively. However, in the other 242 samples, with heterotrophic bacteria count being less than 500 CFU/ml, the amount of fecal coliform, coliform, and fecal streptococci was 7, 23, and 11 CFU/100ml, respectively. The relationship between heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms and fecal streptococci was highly significant (P<0.05). We observed the concentration of coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria being high, whenever the concentration of heterotrophic bacteria in the water network systems was high. Interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and coliform, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria in the Aq Qala City water supply networks was not notable. It can be due to high concentrations of organic carbon, bio-films and nutrients, which are necessary for growth, and survival of all microorganisms.

  3. Fecal-coliform bacteria in extended-aeration plant sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.; Kester, G.; Arant, S.

    1998-07-01

    The concentration of fecal-coliform bacteria in sludge from extended-aeration plants was analyzed for compliance with new state and federal land application requirements. This study was initiated to determine if additional digestion would be necessary for plants to meet the new pathogen standards of less than 2 million CFU per gm of solids. Sludge was found to contain less than 2 million fecal coliform bacteria/gm of sludge as a result of a combination or aerobic digestion and/or long term storage.

  4. Isolation of Fecal Coliform Bacteria from the Diamondback Terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin centrata)

    PubMed Central

    Harwood, Valerie J.; Butler, Joseph; Parrish, Danny; Wagner, Victoria

    1999-01-01

    Total and fecal coliform bacteria were isolated from the cloaca and feces of the estuarine diamondback terrapin. The majority of samples contained fecal coliforms. Escherichia coli was the predominant fecal coliform species isolated, and members of the genus Salmonella were isolated from 2 of 39 terrapins. Fecal coliform numbers are used to regulate shellfish harvests, and diamondback terrapins inhabit the brackish-water habitats where oyster beds are found; therefore, these findings have implications for the efficacy of current regulatory parameters in shellfishing waters. PMID:9925633

  5. Isolation of fecal coliform bacteria from the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin centrata).

    PubMed

    Harwood, V J; Butler, J; Parrish, D; Wagner, V

    1999-02-01

    Total and fecal coliform bacteria were isolated from the cloaca and feces of the estuarine diamondback terrapin. The majority of samples contained fecal coliforms. Escherichia coli was the predominant fecal coliform species isolated, and members of the genus Salmonella were isolated from 2 of 39 terrapins. Fecal coliform numbers are used to regulate shellfish harvests, and diamondback terrapins inhabit the brackish-water habitats where oyster beds are found; therefore, these findings have implications for the efficacy of current regulatory parameters in shellfishing waters.

  6. Evaluating spatial and temporal variability of fecal coliform bacteria loads at Pelahatchie Watershed in Mississippi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial contaminations of surface waters are an increasing concern for scientists because pathogenic bacteria can cause adverse effects on human health. This research was performed to investigate spatial and seasonal variability of fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) concentrations from the Pelahatchie ...

  7. Concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria in creeks, Anchorage, Alaska, August and September 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorava, Joseph M.; Love, Andra

    1999-01-01

    Water samples were collected from five creeks in undeveloped, semi-developed, and developed areas of Anchorage, Alaska, during August and September 1998 to determine concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria. In undeveloped areas of Ship, Chester, and Campbell Creeks, and the semi-developed area of Rabbit Creek, concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria ranged from less than 1 to 16 colonies per 100 milliliters of water. In the semi-developed area of Little Rabbit Creek, concentrations ranged from 30 to 860 colonies per 100 milliliters of water. In developed areas of the creeks, concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria ranged from 6 to 80 colonies per 100 milliliters of water.

  8. Occurrence of fecal coliform bacteria in selected streams in Wyoming, 1990-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Norris, Jodi R.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (WDEQ), is collecting water samples for analysis of fecal coliform bacteria at 18 stream sites as part of a statewide network. Contamination by bacteria of fecal origin in streams where contact recreation is a designated water use is a concern because of potential public-health risk from the presence of enteric pathogens. Fecal coliform concentrations are temporally and spatially variable in Wyoming streams-concentrations ranged from less than 1 to 45,000 colonies per 100 milliliters of water during 1990-99. Fecal coliform concentrations were less than the water-quality criterion of 400 colonies per 100 milliliters in 83 percent of the samples, indicating fecal coliform contamination is not a widespread problem in these Wyoming streams. However, 14 of the 18 monitoring sites had at least one sample in which the fecal coliform concentration exceeded 400 colonies per 100 milliliters at some time during the 10-year period. Fecal coliform concentrations generally are higher during April through September than during October through March. The higher concentrations coincide with the time period when the public-health risk is higher because summer months are when contact recreation use is more likely occurring. Fecal coliform concentrations were positively correlated with discharge and stream temperature and generally were negatively correlated with pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen.

  9. Patterns and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in three streams in Virginia, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyer, Kenneth; Moyer, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    Surface-water impairment by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the Commonwealth's 1998 303(d) list of impaired waters because of elevated concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria. These fecal coliform-impaired stream segments require the development of total maximum daily load (TMDL) and associated implementation plans, but accurate information on the sources contributing these bacteria usually is lacking. The development of defendable fecal coliform TMDLs and management plans can benefit from reliable information on the bacteria sources that are responsible for the impairment. Bacterial source tracking (BST) recently has emerged as a powerful tool for identifying the sources of fecal coliform bacteria that impair surface waters. In a demonstration of BST technology, three watersheds on Virginia's 1998 303(d) list with diverse land-use practices (and potentially diverse bacteria sources) were studied. Accotink Creek is dominated by urban land uses, Christians Creek by agricultural land uses, and Blacks Run is affected by both urban and agricultural land uses. During the 20-month field study (March 1999?October 2000), water samples were collected from each stream during a range of flow conditions and seasons. For each sample, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, turbidity, flow, and water temperature were measured. Fecal coliform concentrations of each water sample were determined using the membrane filtration technique. Next, Escherichia coli (E. coli) were isolated from the fecal coliform bacteria and their sources were identified using ribotyping (a method of 'genetic fingerprinting'). Study results provide enhanced understanding of the concentrations and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in these three watersheds. Continuum sampling (sampling along the length of the streams) indicated that elevated concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria

  10. Fate and Enumeration Problems of Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Runoff Waters from Terrestrial Ecosystems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    manure or wastewater sludges, might exceed present point -source criteria for fecal coliform bacteria. i56 b. Determining the bacterial sorptive...fecal wastes: application rttes were varied to determine best treatment conditions. The fecal colifo’.. (N-PC) test isolates were identified to... determine their origin, fate, and evume, ation problem. Modifications to (Co tin OD 3 Wsee or Iy Rev asisesma Unclassified 11YNT CLMSSPICATIbS. OF YW" P0"t

  11. The Impact of Rainfall on Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Bayou Dorcheat (North Louisiana)

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Dagne D.; Owens, William E.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2006-01-01

    Fecal coliform bacteria are the most common pollutant in rivers and streams. In Louisiana, it has been reported that 37% of surveyed river miles, 31% of lakes, and 23% of estuarine water had some level of contamination. The objective of this research was to assess the effect of surface runoff amounts and rainfall amount parameters on fecal coliform bacterial densities in Bayou Dorcheat in Louisiana. Bayou Dorcheat has been designated by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality as a waterway that has uses such as primary contact recreation, secondary contact recreation, propagation of fish and wildlife, agriculture and as being an outstanding natural resource water. Samples from Bayou Dorcheat were collected monthly and analyzed for the presence of fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. The analysis of the bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Information regarding the rainfall amounts and surface runoff amounts for the selected years was retrieved from the Louisiana Office of State Climatology. It was found that a significant increase in the fecal coliform numbers may be associated with average rainfall amounts. Possible sources of elevated coliform counts could include sewage discharges from municipal treatment plants and septic tanks, storm water overflows, and runoff from pastures and range lands. It can be concluded that non-point source pollution that is carried by surface runoff has a significant effect on bacterial levels in water resources. PMID:16823083

  12. Interaction of ambient conditions and fecal coliform bacteria in southern Lake Michigan beach waters: Monitoring program implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith Becker; Gerovac, Paul J.

    1999-01-01

    Excessive fecal coliform bacteria in public swimming waters can potentially threaten visitor health. Fecal coliform bacteria (1984-1989) and Escherichia coli (1990-1995) density were monitored weekly at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore beaches for 12 summers, and park officials closed swimming areas when fecal coliform density exceeded the state water quality criteria (400 CFU fecal coliforms/ 100 ml; 235 CFU E. coli/100 ml water). Due to a 24-hour incubation in the fecal coliform and E. coli assays, beaches were closed the day after collection of high fecal coliform. Our analysis suggests that it is not possible to predict one day's fecal coliform count based on the previous day's results in waters taken from southern Lake Michigan beaches. Dispersal and deposition of bacteria were not uniform among sites or across time apparently due to interactions among environmental variables including rainfall, wind direction, water temperature, and bacteria source. Rainfall combined with northwest winds increased bacteria concentrations. Escherichia coli followed a seasonal trend with similar fluctuations in density among beaches. We suggest that the current beach monitoring protocol is inadequate for predicting fecal coliform density at the time of beach closure, and, subsequently, its use for ensuring visitor safety remains questionable.

  13. Association of dry cow therapy with the antimicrobial susceptibility of fecal coliform bacteria in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mollenkopf, Dixie F; Glendening, Candace; Wittum, Thomas E; Funk, Julie A; Tragesser, Lesley A; Morley, Paul S

    2010-08-01

    The prophylactic use of intramammary antimicrobial drugs at the end of lactation in dairy cows, known as dry cow therapy (DCT), is widely practiced in US dairy herds. This extremely common use of high-dose, slow-release antimicrobials may influence the ecology of bacterial flora on dairy farms. We investigated the association between the antimicrobial used for intramammary DCT and the relative number of fecal coliform bacteria with reduced susceptibility to three antimicrobial drugs in dairy cattle. Most probable number (MPN) data were estimated from 463 individual fecal samples collected from lactating cows in 15 dairy herds in Ohio, USA. These data were used to calculate the relative number of fecal coliform bacteria with reduced susceptibility to cephalothin, streptomycin, and tetracycline for individual cow samples. The farms included in this project were classified based on DCT, with 8 farms using a cephalosporin-based product and the remaining 7 using a penicillin/streptomycin therapy. Results of a linear mixed model indicate that herds using a cephalosporin DCT had higher (P<0.01) relative numbers of fecal coliform bacteria with reduced susceptibility to cephalothin and streptomycin compared to those using a penicillin/streptomycin intramammary therapy. Relative numbers of fecal coliform bacteria with reduced susceptibility to tetracycline was not associated with DCT. These results suggest that high-dose slow-release antimicrobials applied locally in the udder to populations of dairy cows might influence the antimicrobial susceptibility of the enteric flora. However, the potential animal and public health implications of this result are not clear.

  14. Historical trends and concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria in the Brandywine Creek basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Town, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    The Brandywine Creek in Chester County is used for recreation and as an important source of drinking water. For this study, 40 sites were established for collection of water samples for analysis of fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria in 1998-99. Samples were collected during base-flow conditions and during five storms in which rainfall exceeded 0.5 inch. During base- flow conditions, the median concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria exceeded 200 col/100 mL at 26 of the 40 sites (65 percent). During stormflow conditions, the median concentration of fecal coliform bacteria exceeded the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP) criterion of 200 col/100 mL at 30 of 33 sites sampled (91 percent). Trends in fecal coliform bacteria concentrations were downward for the period 1973-99 at three long-term water-quality monitor stations, the result of upgrades in wastewater treatment plants, decreases in point-source discharges, and a decrease in agricultural land. A positive relation exists between streamflow and concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria at two of the long-term stations, but concentrations are elevated in base flow and stormflow at all three stations. Factors affecting bacteria concentrations in the Brandywine Creek Basin include nonpoint-source contaminants, reservoirs, seasonality, and stormflow. Nonpoint sources of bacterial contamination in the basin include, but are not limited to, land-surface runoff, urbanization, agricultural processes, groundwater contamination, and wildlife. Bacteria concentrations in streams that flow directly from the reservoirs are much lower than the concentrations in the streams flowing into the reservoirs. During March, April, May, October, and November, the Brandywine Creek tends to have lower water temperatures and bacteria concentrations than during June, July, August, and September. The 10-year median concentrations of bacteria at West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena and East Branch

  15. An Assessment of Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Cruise Ship Wastewater Discharge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    An Assessment of Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Cruise Ship Wastewater Discharge Charles D. McGee Orange County Sanitation District* 10844 Ellis...Alaska Cruise Ship Initiative in 1999. This initiative required investigation, understanding and oversight of discharges from large cruise ships...into the waters of Alaska. As part of the overall assessment of impacts from cruise ship waste discharges on the environment, a Science Advisory

  16. Bacteria holding times for fecal coliform by mFC agar method and total coliform and Escherichia coli by Colilert-18 Quanti-Tray method.

    PubMed

    Aulenbach, Brent T

    2010-02-01

    Bacteria holding-time experiments of up to 62 h were performed on five surface-water samples from four urban stream sites in the vicinity of Atlanta, GA, USA that had relatively high densities of coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli densities were all well above the US Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 126 colonies (100 ml)(-1) for recreational waters). Holding-time experiments were done for fecal coliform using the membrane filtration modified fecal coliform (mFC) agar method and for total coliform and E. coli using the Colilert-18 Quanti-Tray method. The precisions of these analytical methods were quantified. Precisions determined for fecal coliform indicated that the upper bound of the ideal range of counts could reasonably be extended upward and would improve precision. For the Colilert-18 method, analytical precisions were similar to the theoretical precisions for this method. Fecal and total coliform densities did not change significantly with holding times up to about 27 h. Limited information indicated that fecal coliform densities might be stable for holding times of up to 62 h, whereas total coliform densities might not be stable for holding times greater than about 27 h. E. coli densities were stable for holding times of up to 18 h--a shorter period than indicated from a previous studies. These results should be applicable to non-regulatory monitoring sampling designs for similar urban surface-water sample types.

  17. Escherichia coli and fecal-coliform bacteria as indicators of recreational water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, D.S.; Myers, Donna N.; Metzker, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended that Escherichia coli (E. coli) be used in place of fecal-coliform bacteria in State recreational water-quality standards as an indicator of fecal contamination. This announcement followed an epidemiological study in which E. coli concentration was shown to be a better predictor of swimming-associated gastrointestinal illness than fecal-coliform concentration. Water-resource managers from Ohio have decided to collect information specific to their waters and decide whether to use E. coli or fecal-coliform bacteria as the basis for State recreational water-quality standards. If one indicator is a better predictor of recreational water quality than the other and if the relation between the two indicators is variable, then the indicator providing the most accurate measure of recreational water quality should be used in water-quality standards. Water-quality studies of the variability of concentrations of E. coli to fecal-coliform bacteria have shown that (1) concentrations of the two indicators are positively correlated, (2) E. coli to fecal-coliform ratios differ considerably from site to site, and (3) the E. coli criteria recommended by USEPA may be more difficult to meet than current (1992) fecal-coliform standards. In this study, a statistical analysis was done on concentrations of E. coli and fecal-coliform bacteria in water samples collected by two government agencies in Ohio-- the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO). Data were organized initially into five data sets for statistical analysis: (1) Cuyahoga River, (2) Olentangy River, (3) Scioto River, (4) Ohio River at Anderson Ferry, and (5) Ohio River at Cincinnati Water Works and Tanners Creek. The USGS collected the data in sets 1, 2, and 3, whereas ORSANCO collected the data in sets 4 and 5. The relation of E. coli to fecal-coliform concentration was investigated by use of linear

  18. Selection of Potential Probiotic Lactobacillus with Inhibitory Activity Against Salmonella and Fecal Coliform Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Abhisingha, Mattika; Dumnil, Jureeporn; Pitaksutheepong, Chetsadaporn

    2017-07-15

    Three hundred and sixty presumptive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from pregnant sows, newborn, suckling, and weaned piglets were preliminarily screened for anti-Salmonella activity. Fifty-eight isolates consisting of Lactobacillus reuteri (n = 32), Lactobacillus salivarius (n = 10), Lactobacillus mucosae (n = 8), Lactobacillus johnsonii (n = 5), and Lactobacillus crispatus (n = 3) were selected and further characterized for probiotic properties including production of antimicrobial substances, acid and bile tolerance, and cell adherence to Caco-2 cells. Eight isolates including Lact. johnsonii LJ202 and Lact. reuteri LR108 were identified as potential probiotics. LJ202 was selected for further use in co-culture studies of two-bacterial and multiple-bacterial species to examine its inhibitory activity against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis DMST7106 (SE7106). Co-culture of LJ202 and SE7106 showed that LJ202 could completely inhibit the growth of SE7106 in 10 h of co-culture. In co-culture of multiple-bacterial species, culturable fecal bacteria from pig feces were used as representative of multiple-bacterial species. The study was performed to examine whether interactions among multiple-bacterial species would influence antagonistic activity of LJ202 against SE7106 and fecal coliform bacteria. Co-culture of SE7106 with different combinations of fecal bacteria and probiotic (LJ202 and LR108) or non-probiotic (Lact. mucosae LM303) strains revealed that the growth of SE7106 was completely inhibited either in the presence or in the absence of probiotic strains. Intriguingly, LJ202 exhibited notable inhibitory activity against fecal coliform bacteria while LR108 did not. Taken together, the results of co-culture studies suggested that LJ202 is a good probiotic candidate for further study its inhibitory effects against pathogen infections in pigs.

  19. Bacteria holding times for fecal coliform by mFC agar method and total coliform and Escherichia coli by Colilert®-18 Quanti-Tray® method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aulenbach, Brent T.

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria holding-time experiments of up to 62 h were performed on five surface-water samples from four urban stream sites in the vicinity of Atlanta, GA, USA that had relatively high densities of coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli densities were all well above the US Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 126 colonies (100 ml) − 1 for recreational waters). Holding-time experiments were done for fecal coliform using the membrane filtration modified fecal coliform (mFC) agar method and for total coliform and E. coli using the Colilert®-18 Quanti-Tray® method. The precisions of these analytical methods were quantified. Precisions determined for fecal coliform indicated that the upper bound of the ideal range of counts could reasonably be extended upward and would improve precision. For the Colilert®-18 method, analytical precisions were similar to the theoretical precisions for this method. Fecal and total coliform densities did not change significantly with holding times up to about 27 h. Limited information indicated that fecal coliform densities might be stable for holding times of up to 62 h, whereas total coliform densities might not be stable for holding times greater than about 27 h. E. coli densities were stable for holding times of up to 18 h—a shorter period than indicated from a previous studies. These results should be applicable to non-regulatory monitoring sampling designs for similar urban surface-water sample types.

  20. Effects of two diesel fuel mixtures on fecal coliform bacteria densities

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, J.M.; Scott, G.I.

    1989-03-01

    One of the major potential environmental impacts from synthetic fuel production plants and conventional petroleum refinement operations is the spillage of the refined product into natural waters. Impacts upon aquatic ecosystems resulting from spills of synthetic fuel would likely be different from those associated with conventional petroleum since products extracted from coal or shale are generally richer in phenolics, aromatic amines and other soluble organic compounds. Also, synfuels have higher water solubilities than equivalent petroleum products giving the potential for higher water concentrations of hydrocarbons. This study tested the effects of the water soluble fractions (WSFs) of a shale diesel fuel mixture (SDFM) and a petroleum diesel fuel mixture (PDFM) on the growth of fecal coliform bacteria, the group used almost universally as an indicator of bacteriological water quality. The WSF was tested instead of whole oil because acute toxicity results primarily from this fraction. A wild group of fecal coliform bacteria was used since the objective was to observe effects upon this indicator group encountered in the environment instead of pure laboratory cultures by the routine ambient monitoring and measurement technique of membrane filter colony counts as employed by most water quality management agencies.

  1. Modeling Fate and Transport of Fecal Coliform Bacteria Using SWAT 2005 (Case Study: Jajrood River Watershed, Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghrebi, M.; Tajrishy, M.

    2010-12-01

    Jajrood River watershed is one of the main drinking water resources of the capital city of Tehran, Iran. In addition it has been available as many recreational usages especially in the warm months. As a result of being located near one of the crowded cities of the world, a variety of microbial pollutions is commonly perceived in the Jajrood River. Among them, there are strong concerns about fecal coliform bacteria concentration. This article aimed to model fate and transport of fecal coliform bacteria in Jajrood River watershed using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model version 2005. Potential pollutant sources in the study area were detected and quantified for modeling purposes. In spite of being lack of knowledge about bacteria die-off rate in small river bodies, as well as in other watershed-based forms, fecal coliform bacteria die-off rates were estimated using both laboratory and field data investigations with some simplifications. The SWAT model was calibrated over an extended time period (1997-2002) for this watershed. The river flow calibrated using SUFI-2 software and resulted in a very good outputs (R2=0.82, E=0.81). Furthermore SWAT model was validated over January 2003 to September 2005 in the study area and has resulted in good outputs (R2=0.61, E=0.57). This research illustrates SWAT 2005 capability to model fecal coliform bacteria in a populated watershed, and deals with most of watershed microbial pollution sources that are usually observed in developing countries. Fecal coliform concentration simulation results were mostly in the same order in comparison with real data. However, Differences were judged to be related to lack of input data. In this article different aspects of SWAT capabilities for modeling of fecal coliform bacteria concentration will be reviewed and it will present new insights in bacteria modeling procedures especially for mountainous, high populated and small sized watersheds.

  2. Fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria in the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway, Summer 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kroening, Sharon E.

    1999-01-01

    Fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations were determined in the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway to assess whether pathogenic organisms pose a potential problem for recreational use. Samples were collected from May through September 1999 at 22 locations on the St. Croix and Namekagon Rivers. No concentrations exceeded water-quality criteria or standards set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin. Maximum fecal coliform and E. coli concentrations were measured in the St. Croix River at St. Croix Falls, Wisconsin. Median fecal coliform and E. coli concentrations were greater in the St. Croix River near Woodland Corner, Wisconsin, and at Marine on St. Croix, Minnesota than at other locations sampled. There were no consistent short-term variations in fecal coliform or E. coli concentrations during the summer period or any significant relations between concentrations and stream discharge, based on these results.

  3. Presence and Sources of Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Epilithic Periphyton Communities of Lake Superior▿

    PubMed Central

    Ksoll, Winfried B.; Ishii, Satoshi; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Hicks, Randall E.

    2007-01-01

    Epilithic periphyton communities were sampled at three sites on the Minnesota shoreline of Lake Superior from June 2004 to August 2005 to determine if fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli were present throughout the ice-free season. Fecal coliform densities increased up to 4 orders of magnitude in early summer, reached peaks of up to 1.4 × 105 CFU cm−2 by late July, and decreased during autumn. Horizontal, fluorophore-enhanced repetitive-PCR DNA fingerprint analyses indicated that the source for 2% to 44% of the E. coli bacteria isolated from these periphyton communities could be identified when compared with a library of E. coli fingerprints from animal hosts and sewage. Waterfowl were the major source (68 to 99%) of periphyton E. coli strains that could be identified. Several periphyton E. coli isolates were genotypically identical (≥92% similarity), repeatedly isolated over time, and unidentified when compared to the source library, suggesting that these strains were naturalized members of periphyton communities. If the unidentified E. coli strains from periphyton were added to the known source library, then 57% to 81% of E. coli strains from overlying waters could be identified, with waterfowl (15 to 67%), periphyton (6 to 28%), and sewage effluent (8 to 28%) being the major potential sources. Inoculated E. coli rapidly colonized natural periphyton in laboratory microcosms and persisted for several weeks, and some cells were released to the overlying water. Our results indicate that E. coli from periphyton released into waterways confounds the use of this bacterium as a reliable indicator of recent fecal pollution. PMID:17468280

  4. Water quality and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Meduxnekeag River, Houlton, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Culbertson, Charles W.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Stoeckel, Donald M.; Caldwell, James M.; O'Donnell, Cara

    2014-01-01

    In response to bacterial contamination in the Meduxnekeag River and the desire to manage the watershed to reduce contaminant sources, the Houlton Band of Maliseet Indians (HBMI) and the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative effort to establish a baseline of water-quality data that can be used in future studies and to indicate potential sources of nutrient and bacterial contamination. This study was conducted during the summer of 2005 in the Meduxnekeag River Basin near Houlton, Maine. Continuously recorded specific conductance can be a good indicator for water quality. Specific conductance increased downstream from the town of Houlton, between runoff events, and decreased sharply following major runoff events. Collections of discrete samples during the summer of 2005 indicated seasonal positive concentration-discharge relations for total phosphorus and total nitrogen; these results indicate that storm runoff may mobilize and transport these nutrients from the terrestrial environment to the river. Data collected by the HBMI on fecal coliform bacteria indicated that bacterial contamination enters the Meduxnekeag River from multiple paths including tributaries and surface drains (ditches) in developed areas in Houlton, Maine. The Houlton wastewater treatment discharge was not an important source of bacterial contamination. Bacteroidales-based tests for general fecal contamination (Bac32 marker) were predominantly positive in samples that had excessive fecal contamination as indicated by Enterococci density greater than 104 colony-forming units per 100 millilters. Of the 22 samples tested for Bacteroidales-based markers of human-associated fecal contamination (HF134 and HF183), 8 were positive. Of the 22 samples tested for Bacteroidales-based markers of ruminant-associated fecal contamination (CF128 and CF193), 7 were positive. Human fecal contamination was detected consistently at two sites (surface drains in urban areas in the town of Houlton) and occasionally

  5. Thermotolerant non-fecal source Klebsiella pneumoniae: validity of the fecal coliform test in recreational waters.

    PubMed Central

    Caplenas, N R; Kanarek, M S

    1984-01-01

    Wisconsin pulp and paper mill processing plants were evaluated for fecal coliform and total Klebsiella (i.e., thermotolerant and thermointolerant) bacterial concentrations. Using the standard fecal coliform test, up to 90 per cent of non-fecal source thermotolerant K. pneumoniae was falsely identified as fecal source bacteria. Since there is a lack of specificity in the currently used standard for fecal coliform evaluation, a more reliable health risk assessment for fecal coliform bacteria is recommended. PMID:6388365

  6. Increases in fecal coliform bacteria resulting from centrifugal dewatering of digested biosolids.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yinan; Dentel, Steven K; Herson, Diane S

    2007-02-01

    In many countries, the classification of biosolids for disposal purposes can be based, in part, on fecal coliform levels, with alternative criteria also available based on the stabilization process used, such as anaerobic digestion. The assumption that these alternative criteria provide equivalent protection may be flawed. This paper demonstrates that fecal coliform levels determined after digestion do not always indicate the bacterial levels after the same biosolids have been dewatered by centrifugation. In samples from mesophilic digestion, half had significant increases in coliform numbers (P<0.05) with up to one order of magnitude increase during centrifugation, suggesting coliform regrowth. Thermophilically digested samples had significant increases of several orders of magnitude during dewatering, more likely from reactivation of viable but non-culturable coliforms than from regrowth. In other cases, centrifugation induced coliform regrowth or reactivation upon incubation and storage of dewatered samples, but not digested samples. These 2-3 order of magnitude increases occurred with both 25 and 37 degrees C incubations. Coliform increases continued for up to 5 days, then gradually declined. However, by day 20 coliform numbers were still 2 orders of magnitude greater than when originally sampled. The magnitude of the increases could be due either to regrowth or reactivation, but the nature of the longer-term increases--also seen in biosolids/soil mixtures--suggests regrowth. Differences in numbers between digested and dewatered samples could not be duplicated with high shear processing in lab-scale devices, with nitrogen purging to remove volatile or gaseous constituents, or with redilution using centrate. They could not be attributed to enumeration methods, to interference of Bacillus spp. on apparent coliform counts, or to temperature changes. The increases have practical implications in the use of fecal coliform or alternative criteria to define pathogen

  7. Comparison and continuous estimates of fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria in selected Kansas streams, May 1999 through April 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2003-01-01

    The sanitary quality of water and its use as a public-water supply and for recreational activities, such as swimming, wading, boating, and fishing, can be evaluated on the basis of fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria densities. This report describes the overall sanitary quality of surface water in selected Kansas streams, the relation between fecal coliform and E. coli, the relation between turbidity and bacteria densities, and how continuous bacteria estimates can be used to evaluate the water-quality conditions in selected Kansas streams. Samples for fecal coliform and E. coli were collected at 28 surface-water sites in Kansas. Of the 318 samples collected, 18 percent exceeded the current Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) secondary contact recreational, single-sample criterion for fecal coliform (2,000 colonies per 100 milliliters of water). Of the 219 samples collected during the recreation months (April 1 through October 31), 21 percent exceeded the current (2003) KDHE single-sample fecal coliform criterion for secondary contact rec-reation (2,000 colonies per 100 milliliters of water) and 36 percent exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended single-sample primary contact recreational criterion for E. coli (576 colonies per 100 milliliters of water). Comparisons of fecal coliform and E. coli criteria indicated that more than one-half of the streams sampled could exceed USEPA recommended E. coli criteria more frequently than the current KDHE fecal coliform criteria. In addition, the ratios of E. coli to fecal coliform (EC/FC) were smallest for sites with slightly saline water (specific conductance greater than 1,000 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius), indicating that E. coli may not be a good indicator of sanitary quality for those streams. Enterococci bacteria may provide a more accurate assessment of the potential for swimming-related illnesses in these streams. Ratios of EC/FC and

  8. Efficacy of Vegetated Buffers in Preventing Transport of Fecal Coliform Bacteria from Pasturelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Timothy J.; Moore, James A.; Thomas, David R.; Mallery, Eric; Snyder, Kai U.; Wustenberg, Mark; Wustenberg, Judith; Mackey, Sam D.; Moore, Deian L.

    2007-12-01

    An experimental study was conducted in Tillamook, Oregon, USA, to quantify the effectiveness of edge-of-field vegetated buffers for reducing transport of fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) from agricultural fields amended with dairy cow manure. Installation of vegetated buffers on loamy soils dramatically reduced the bacterial contamination of runoff water from manure-treated pasturelands, but the size of the vegetated buffer was not an important determinant of bacterial removal efficiency. Only 10% of the runoff samples collected from treatment cells having vegetated buffers exhibited FCB concentrations >200 colony forming units (cfu)/100 mL (a common water quality standard value), and the median concentration for all cells containing vegetated buffers was only 6 cfu/100 mL. The presence of a vegetated buffer of any size, from 1 to 25 m, generally reduced the median FCB concentration in runoff by more than 99%. Results for FCB load calculations were similar. Our results suggest that where substantial FCB contamination of runoff occurs from manure-treated pasturelands, it might be disproportionately associated with specific field or management conditions, such as the presence of soils that exhibit low water infiltration and generate larger volumes of runoff or the absence of a vegetated buffer. Buffer size regulations that do not consider such differences might not be efficient or effective in reducing bacterial contamination of runoff.

  9. FECAL COLIFORM INCREASE AFTER CENTRIFUGATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bacte...

  10. FECAL COLIFORM INCREASE AFTER CENTRIFUGATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bacte...

  11. Interaction of fecal coliforms with soil aggregates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Land-applied manures may contain various contaminants that cause water pollution and concomitant health problems. Some of these pollutants are bacteria, and fecal coliforms (FC) have been widely used as an indicator of bacterial contamination. Experiments on bacteria attachment to soil are tradition...

  12. Comparison of fecal coliform bacteria before and after wastewater treatment plant in the Izmir Bay (Eastern Aegean Sea).

    PubMed

    Kacar, Asli; Gungor, Fatma

    2010-03-01

    The distribution of fecal coliforms was investigated and determined in Izmir Bay from 1996 to 2005. Izmir Bay severely was polluted from industrial and domestic discharges during decades. In early 2000, a wastewater treatment plant began to treat domestic and industrial wastes. This plant treats the wastes about 80% capacity after 2001. The sampling periods cover before and after treatment plant. Assessment method for determining the number of fecal coliform has evolved membrane filtrations. Maximum surface fecal coliform concentration was 4.9 x 10(5) cfu 100 ml(-1) in 1996-2000 period. Following the opening treatment system, fecal coliform density decreased 2.1 x 10(4) cfu 100 ml(-1) during 2001-2005. A continuous improvement can be sustained in the water quality if direct inflow of untreated wastewater is prevented.

  13. The Seasonality of Fecal Coliform Bacteria Pollution and its Influence on Closures of Shellfish Harvesting Areas in Mississippi Sound

    PubMed Central

    Chigbu, Paulinus; Gordon, Scott; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2005-01-01

    Runoff from agricultural lands and farm animal feedlots is one of the major sources of fecal coliforms in surface waters, and fecal coliform (FC) bacteria concentrations tend to vary with season because of seasonal variations in climatic factors. However, El Niño -Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events may affect the extent and patterns of seasonality in FC levels in coastal waters. Water quality monitoring data for shellfish management collected during El Niño (1990, 1992, 1997), and La Niña (1999, 2000) years were analyzed to evaluate the extent to which these events influenced Pearl River stage, and bacterial levels, water temperature, and salinity in the western part of Mississippi Sound. Models to predict FC levels in relation to various environmental factors were also developed. In 1990, 1992 and 1997, FC geometric mean counts peaked in late winter (January/February) reaching 120 MPN (February 1990), 165 MPN (January 1992), and 86 MPN (January 1997), and then decreased considerably during spring and summer (1.2 – 19 MPN). Thereafter, FC abundance increased slightly in fall and early winter (1.9 – 24 MPN). Fecal coliform abundance during the 2000 La Niña year was much lower (1.0 – 10.3 MPN) than in 1992 (1.2 – 165 MPN), and showed no seasonal pattern from January to August, perhaps due to the relative scarcity of rainfall in 2000. In 1995 (ENSO neutral year), peak geometric mean FC count (46 MPN) was lower than during El Niño years and occurred in early spring (March). The seasonal and between year variations in FC levels determined the number of days during which the conditionally approved shellfish growing area was opened for harvesting shellfish. For example, from January to April 1997, the area was not opened for shellfish harvesting, whereas in 2000, the number of days during which the area was opened ranged from 6 – 27 (January to April) to 24 – 26 (October to December). ENSO events thus influenced the extent and timing of the peak levels of

  14. Comparison of the New Millipore HC with Conventional Membrane Filters for the Enumeration of Fecal Coliform Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Green, Barbara L.; Clausen, Elizabeth; Litsky, Warren

    1975-01-01

    Fecal coliform recoveries were determined for six types of membrane filters using 65 nonchlorinated water samples. Results showed that the membranes could be ranked in order of decreasing recovery as follows: Millipore HC > Gelman > Johns-Manville ∼ Sartorius > Millipore HA > Schleicher & Schuell. PMID:1103735

  15. Fecal coliform analyses. Method evaluation for stressed organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L B; Winston, H G

    1986-01-01

    No significant difference was found between two tests for fecal coliform densities using water samples from the treated sanitary waste outfalls at the Savannah River Plant, a nuclear materials production site located near Aiken, SC. These two methods of concern were the most probable number index (MPN) and the membrane filtration procedure (MF). The MPN method is the accepted method for determining fecal coliform densities in chlorinated effluents, but requires more than the MF procedure. Per Microbiological Methods for Monitoring the Environment (1978) by EPA, any decision to use the MF test for stressed organisms requires parallel testing with the MPN test. The MPN index is the number of fecal coliform bacteria that, more probably than any other number, would give the results shown by laboratory examination. It is not an actual count of coliform bacteria. The MF procedure is a direct plating method and the colonies are directly counted.

  16. FECAL COLIFORM INCREASE AFTER CENTRIFUGATION: EPA PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bacte...

  17. FECAL COLIFORM INCREASE AFTER CENTRIFUGATION: EPA PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bacte...

  18. ANALYZING BIOSOLIDS FOR FECAL COLIFORM AND SALMONELLAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current federal regulations required monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Standard protocols designed to quantify these organisms in water or wastewater were identified and specified in these regulations. However, proto...

  19. ANALYZING BIOSOLIDS FOR FECAL COLIFORM AND SALMONELLAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current federal regulations required monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Standard protocols designed to quantify these organisms in water or wastewater were identified and specified in these regulations. However, proto...

  20. Fecal Coliform Removal by River Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Wollheim, W. M.; Stewart, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial pathogens are a major cause of water quality impairment in the United States. Freshwater ecosystems provide the ecosystem service of reducing pathogen levels by diluting and removing pathogens as water flows from source areas through the river network. However, the integration of field-scale monitoring data and watershed-scale hydrologic models to estimate pathogen loads and removal in varied aquatic ecosystems is still limited. In this study we applied a biogeochemical river network model (the Framework for Aquatic Modeling in the Earth System or FrAMES) and utilized available field data the Oyster R. watershed, a small (51.7 km2) draining coastal New Hampshire (NH, USA), to quantify pathogen removal at the river network scale, using fecal coliform as an indicator. The Oyster R. Watershed is comprised of various land use types, and has had its water quality monitored for fecal coliform, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity since 2001. Water samples were also collected during storm events to account for storm responses. FrAMES was updated to incorporate the dominant processes controlling fecal coliform concentrations in aquatic ecosystems: spatially distributed terrestrial loading, in-stream removal, dilution, and downstream transport. We applied an empirical loading function to estimate the terrestrial loading of fecal coliform across flow conditions. Data was collected from various land use types across a range of hydrologic conditions. The loading relationship includes total daily precipitation, antecedent 24-hour rainfall, air temperature, and catchment impervious surface percentage. Attenuation is due to bacterial "die-off" and dilution processes. Results show that fecal coliform input loads varied among different land use types. At low flow, fecal coliform concentrations were similar among watersheds. However, at high flow the concentrations were significantly higher in urbanized watersheds than forested watersheds. The mainstem had lower fecal coliform

  1. Evaluation of Colilert-18 for detection and enumeration of fecal coliform bacteria in wastewater using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Alternative Test procedure Protocol.

    PubMed

    Warden, Paul S; DeSarno, Monique S; Volk, Sarah E; Eldred, Bradley J

    2011-01-01

    This study compared recovery of fecal coliform bacteria from sewage by Colilert-18 and Standard Methods 9222D (membrane-Fecal Coliform medium) in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Alternative Test Protocol (ATP). Samples were collected from 10 different wastewater treatment plants in the northeastern United States and tested in a single laboratory. Twenty replicates of each sample were analyzed by each method, and 200 positive and 200 negative responses were confirmed for each method. Recovery of fecal coliforms by Colilert-18 was significantly higher than (8 of 10 sites) or statistically equivalent to (1 of 10 sites) recovery by the reference method (Standard Methods 9222D) for samples from all but one site. Both methods had low false-positive rates (< 2%); however, the false-negative rate observed with Standard Methods 9222D (21.5%) was substantially higher than that observed with Colilert-18 (7%). The accuracy rates of the two methods were calculated as 96.5 and 88.9% for Colilert-18 and Standard Methods 9222D, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate that Colilert-18 meets the acceptance criteria for alternative methods specified in the EPA ATP.

  2. Fecal coliform loadings and stocks in buttermilk bay, Massachusetts, USA, and management implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiela, Ivan; Alber, Merryl; Lamontagne, Michael

    1991-09-01

    Abundance of fecal caliform bacteria is a weak index of the presence of human pathogens in wastewater entering coastal waters. In spite of this, use of fecal caliform indices for management purposes is widespread. To gain insight into interpretation of fecal coliform data, we evaluated size of stocks of fecal coliforms in water, sediments, and sea wrack, in Buttermilk Bay, a coastal embayment in Massachusetts. Sediments contained most of the fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms in sediments were as much as one order of magnitude more abundant than in the water column or in sea wrack. The fecal coliforms in sediments of Buttermilk Bay were so abundant that resuspension of fecal coliforms from just the top 2 cm of muddy sediments could add sufficient cells to the water column to have the whole bay exceed the federal limit of fecal coliforms for shellfishing. The major sources of fecal coliforms to the bay were water-fowls, surface runoff, groundwater, and streams. Waterfowl were the largest source of fecal coliforms during cold months; surface runoff, streams, and groundwater were most important during warm months. Redirection of surface runoff pipes is unlikely to be a very successful management action since contributions via this source are insufficient to account for the measured increases in concentrations of fecal coliforms in water. Removal of waterfowl is also unlikely to be useful, since fecal coliform concentrations leading to closures of shellfish beds and swimming areas are most frequent during warm months when waterfowl are rarest. Rates of loss of fecal caliform cells from the water column by death and tidal exchange were high. Mortality of cells was about an order of magnitude larger than losses by tidal exchange. The amounts of fecal coliforms brought into the bay by waterfowl, surface runoff, groundwater, and streams are an order of magnitude smaller than the losses by mortality and tidal removal. This implies that there is an additional source of fecal

  3. Fecal-coliform bacteria concentrations in streams of the Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area, Metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, May-October 1994 and 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregory, M. Brian; Frick, Elizabeth A.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction: The Metropolitan Atlanta area has been undergoing a period of rapid growth and development. The population in the 10-county metropolitan area almost doubled from about 1.5 million people in 1970 to 2.9 million people in 1995 (Atlanta Regional Commission, written commun., 2000). Residential, commercial, and other urban land uses more than tripled during the same period (Frick and others, 1998). The Chattahoochee River is the most utilized water resource in Georgia. The rapid growth of Metropolitan Atlanta and its location downstream of the headwaters of the drainage basin make the Chattahoochee River a vital resource for drinking-water supplies, recreational opportunities, and wastewater assimilation. In 1978, the U.S. Congress declared the natural, scenic, recreation, and other values of 48 miles of the Chattahoochee River from Buford Dam to Peachtree Creek to be of special national significance. To preserve this reach of the Chattahoochee River, the U.S. Congress created the Chattahoochee River National Recreational Area (CRNRA), which includes the Chattahoochee River downstream from Buford Dam to the mouth of Peachtree Creek and a series of park areas adjacent to the river in northern Metropolitan Atlanta Even with this protection, waters of the Chattahoochee River and many of its tributaries in Metropolitan Atlanta did not meet water-quality standards set for designated uses during 1994 and 1995 (fig. 1 and table 1). Much of the degradation of water quality has been associated with areas undergoing rapid urban growth and sprawling suburban development. The resulting conversion of mostly forested land to urban land has multiple adverse effects on water quality. Degradation of water quality may be caused by a number of factors including an increase in nutrient concentrations, sediment and sedimentbound contaminant concentrations (e.g., metals and pesticides) (Frick and others, 1998), and fecal-coliform bacteria concentrations (Center for Watershed

  4. What do fecal coliforms indicate in tropical waters

    SciTech Connect

    Hazen, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    High densities of total and fecal coliform bacteria have been detected in pristine streams and in ground water samples collected from many tropical parts of the world, even in epiphytic vegetation 10 m above ground in the rain forest of Puerto Rico. Nucleic acid (DNA) analyses of Escherichia coli from pristine tropical environs has indicated that they are identical to clinical isolates of E. coli. Many tropical source waters have been shown to have enteric pathogens in the complete absence of coliforms. Diffusion chamber studies with E. coli at several tropical sites reveal that this bacterium can survive indefinitely in most freshwaters in Puerto Rico. An evaluation of methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms showed that currently used media have poor reliability as a result of large numbers of false positive and false negative results when applied to tropical water samples. Total and fecal coliform bacteria are not reliable indicators of recent biological contamination of waters in tropical areas. Fecal streptococci and coliphages in tropical waters, violate the same under lying assumptions of indicator assays as the coliforms. Anaerobic bacteria like Bifidobacterium spp. and Clostridium perfringens show some promise in terms of survival but not in ease of enumeration and media specificity. The best course at present lies in using current techniques for direct enumeration of pathogens by fluorescent staining and nucleic acid analysis and developing tropical maximum containmant levels for certain resistant pathogens in tropical waters. 66 refs.

  5. Fecal coliform population dynamics associated with the thermophilic stabilization of treated sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Ziemba, Chris; Peccia, Jordan

    2012-10-26

    The inactivation of fecal coliforms in anaerobic batch reactors has been investigated at the thermophilic temperatures of 50, 55 and 60 °C. Throughout inactivation experiments at each temperature, individual colonies were isolated and identified by 16S rDNA gene sequencing to illustrate how the diversity of fecal coliforms is affected by thermophilic treatment. Results indicate that even though fecal coliforms in raw sewage sludge are comprised of several different bacterial species, each with variable temperature induced decay rates, the overall inactivation of fecal coliforms in raw sewage sludge was found to follow a first-order relationship. No tailing was observed across the range of fecal coliform concentrations measured. Fecal coliforms in raw sludge contained six different genera of bacteria and were 62% enriched in E. coli. Within 1.5 log removal of fecal coliform concentration by thermophilic treatment, the populations had shifted to, and remained at 100% E. coli. Subsequent inactivation rates measured in isolated fecal coliform strains confirmed that E. coli cells isolated post-treatment were more thermotolerant than E. coli and non-E coli bacteria isolated prior to thermal treatment. Overall, this study describes the potential enrichment of thermotolerant E. coli in biosolids fecal coliforms and demonstrates that while thermotolerant species are present at the end of treatment, pure first-order approximations are appropriate for estimating residence times to reduce fecal coliforms to levels promulgated in U.S. Class A biosolids standards.

  6. Three-dimensional modeling of fecal coliform in the Tidal Basin and Washington Channel, Washington, DC.

    PubMed

    Bai, Sen; Lung, Wu-Seng

    2006-01-01

    Fecal coliform are widely used as bacterial indicator in the United States and around the world. Fecal coliform impaired water is highly possible to be polluted by pathogenic bacteria. The Tidal Basin and Washington Channel in Washington, DC are on the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) list due to the high fecal coliform level. To support TMDL development, a three-dimensional numerical model of fecal coliform was developed using the EFDC framework. The model calculates the transport of fecal coliform under the influences of flap gate operations and tidal elevation. The original EFDC code was modified to calculate the die-off of fecal coliform under the impact of temperature and solar radiation intensity. The watershed contribution is expressed as storm water inflow and the load carried by the runoff. Model results show that fecal coliform vary strongly in space in both the Tidal Basin and Washington Channel. The storm water only impacts a small area around the storm water outfall in the Tidal Basin and the impacts are negligible in the Washington Channel due to dilution. The water from the Potomac River may affect the fecal coliform level in the area close to the flap gate in the Tidal Basin. The fecal coliform level in the Washington Channel is mainly controlled by the fecal coliform level in the Anacostia River, which is located at the open boundary of the Washington Channel. The potential sediment layer storage of fecal coliform was analyzed and it was found that the sediment layer fecal coliform level could be much higher than the water column fecal coliform level and becomes a secondary source under high bottom shear stress condition. The developed model built solid connection of fecal coliform source and concentration in the water column and has been used to develop TMDL.

  7. Molecular detection by analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of fecal coliform bacteria from the two Korean Apodemus species (Apodemus agrarius and A. peninsulae).

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Yoon, K B; Lim, S J; Jeon, M G; Kim, H J; Kim, H Y; Cho, J Y; Chae, H M; Park, Y C

    2017-05-18

    Wild mouse feces can disseminate zoonotic microorganisms throughout a farm, which is a great threat to human health and can lead to economic loss through contaminated agricultural produce. To assess the microbial communities, especially fecal coliform bacteria, we used two methods. First, we isolated bacterial colonies onto the common media LB (lactose broth) agar, TSA (tryptic soy agar), and MRS (de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe) agar, and then randomly select colonies from each plate and stocked them to the mother plate for genomic DNA isolation. Second, we analyzed bacterial colonies using the 16S rRNA gene molecular diagnostic method. Based on bacterial cultures and bacterial 16S rRNA gene markers, we detected four different bacterial species (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus xylosus, and Serratia liquefaciens) from fecal coliforms of the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius and A. peninsulae in agricultural areas in South Korea. These results could help us to better understand the pathogen reservoirs of mice and initiate some preventive measures to mitigate the microbial risks associated with mouse fecal matter in agricultural production areas.

  8. Microbiological Quality of Ready-to-Eat Vegetables Collected in Mexico City: Occurrence of Aerobic-Mesophilic Bacteria, Fecal Coliforms, and Potentially Pathogenic Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cerna-Cortes, Jorge Francisco; Leon-Montes, Nancy; Cortes-Cueto, Ana Laura; Salas-Rangel, Laura P.; Helguera-Repetto, Addy Cecilia; Lopez-Hernandez, Daniel; Rivera-Gutierrez, Sandra; Fernandez-Rendon, Elizabeth; Gonzalez-y-Merchand, Jorge Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the microbiological quality and the occurrence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in a variety of salads and sprouts from supermarkets and street vendors in Mexico City. Aerobic-mesophilic bacteria (AMB) were present in 100% of RTE-salads samples; 59% of samples were outside guidelines range (>5.17 log10 CFU per g). Although fecal coliforms (FC) were present in 32% of samples, only 8% of them exceeded the permissible limit (100 MPN/g). Regarding the 100 RTE-sprouts, all samples were also positive for AMB and total coliforms (TC) and 69% for FC. Seven NTM species were recovered from 7 salad samples; they included three M. fortuitum, two M. chelonae, one M. mucogenicum, and one M. sp. Twelve RTE-sprouts samples harbored NTM, which were identified as M. porcinum (five), M. abscessus (two), M. gordonae (two), M. mucogenicum (two), and M. avium complex (one). Most RTE-salads and RTE-sprouts had unsatisfactory microbiological quality and some harbored NTM associated with illness. No correlation between the presence of coliforms and NTM was found. Overall, these results suggest that RTE-salads and RTE-sprouts might function as vehicles for NTM transmission in humans; hence, proper handling and treatment before consumption of such products might be recommendable. PMID:25918721

  9. Microbiological Quality of Ready-to-Eat Vegetables Collected in Mexico City: Occurrence of Aerobic-Mesophilic Bacteria, Fecal Coliforms, and Potentially Pathogenic Nontuberculous Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Cerna-Cortes, Jorge Francisco; Leon-Montes, Nancy; Cortes-Cueto, Ana Laura; Salas-Rangel, Laura P; Helguera-Repetto, Addy Cecilia; Lopez-Hernandez, Daniel; Rivera-Gutierrez, Sandra; Fernandez-Rendon, Elizabeth; Gonzalez-y-Merchand, Jorge Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the microbiological quality and the occurrence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in a variety of salads and sprouts from supermarkets and street vendors in Mexico City. Aerobic-mesophilic bacteria (AMB) were present in 100% of RTE-salads samples; 59% of samples were outside guidelines range (>5.17 log10 CFU per g). Although fecal coliforms (FC) were present in 32% of samples, only 8% of them exceeded the permissible limit (100 MPN/g). Regarding the 100 RTE-sprouts, all samples were also positive for AMB and total coliforms (TC) and 69% for FC. Seven NTM species were recovered from 7 salad samples; they included three M. fortuitum, two M. chelonae, one M. mucogenicum, and one M. sp. Twelve RTE-sprouts samples harbored NTM, which were identified as M. porcinum (five), M. abscessus (two), M. gordonae (two), M. mucogenicum (two), and M. avium complex (one). Most RTE-salads and RTE-sprouts had unsatisfactory microbiological quality and some harbored NTM associated with illness. No correlation between the presence of coliforms and NTM was found. Overall, these results suggest that RTE-salads and RTE-sprouts might function as vehicles for NTM transmission in humans; hence, proper handling and treatment before consumption of such products might be recommendable.

  10. Coliform bacteria, fabrics, and the environment.

    PubMed

    Colclasure, Victoria J; Soderquist, Thomas J; Lynch, Thomas; Schubert, Nina; McCormick, Deirdre S; Urrutia, Erika; Knickerbocker, Corey; McCord, Devon; Kavouras, Jerry H

    2015-02-01

    People come into contact with coliform bacteria at recreational sites. Previous research on bacteria adhering to fabrics and surfaces focused on the viability of clinically significant microbes, but did not examine the quantity of bacteria. This study examined the viability and quantity of coliform bacteria adhered to common fabrics. The fabrics of 100% cotton, blended cotton, and silk were exposed to a mixture of environmental coliform isolates. Fabrics were incubated in the dark at 25°C or 37°C or in direct sunlight at room temperature for 30, 60, 90, and 120 days. The quantity and viability of the bacteria were determined by the Most Probable Number technique using Colilert reagent (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, ME) and eosin methylene blue agar, respectively. The highest numbers of bacteria were detected for each type of fabric when stored in the dark at 25°C, whereas the lowest numbers of bacteria were detected when fabrics were stored in the dark at 37°C. Low numbers of bacteria were detected on silk and blended cotton exposed to sunlight at room temperature, but not 100% cotton. It appears that coliform bacteria can survive on fabrics longer than previous studies have reported. Coliform bacteria survive better in the dark, at lower temperatures, and on fabrics that can retain moisture. These findings can be applied directly to the viability of bacteria on clothing and potential human exposure to fecal pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimated fecal coliform bacteria concentrations using near real-time continuous water-quality and streamflow data from five stream sites in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 2007–16

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.

    2017-09-15

    Several streams used for recreational activities, such as fishing, swimming, and boating, in Chester County, Pennsylvania, are known to have periodic elevated concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria, a type of bacteria used to indicate the potential presence of fecally related pathogens that may pose health risks to humans exposed through water contact. The availability of near real-time continuous stream discharge, turbidity, and other water-quality data for some streams in the county presents an opportunity to use surrogates to estimate near real-time concentrations of fecal coliform (FC) bacteria and thus provide some information about associated potential health risks during recreational use of streams.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Chester County Health Department (CCHD) and the Chester County Water Resources Authority (CCWRA), has collected discrete stream samples for analysis of FC concentrations during March–October annually at or near five gaging stations where near real-time continuous data on stream discharge, turbidity, and water temperature have been collected since 2007 (or since 2012 at 2 of the 5 stations). In 2014, the USGS, in cooperation with the CCWRA and CCHD, began to develop regression equations to estimate FC concentrations using available near real-time continuous data. Regression equations included possible explanatory variables of stream discharge, turbidity, water temperature, and seasonal factors calculated using Julian Day with base-10 logarithmic (log) transformations of selected variables.The regression equations were developed using the data from 2007 to 2015 (101–106 discrete bacteria samples per site) for three gaging stations on Brandywine Creek (West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena, East Branch Brandywine Creek below Downingtown, and Brandywine Creek at Chadds Ford) and from 2012 to 2015 (37–38 discrete bacteria samples per site) for one station each on French Creek near Phoenixville and

  12. Enhancing fecal coliform total maximum daily load models through bacterial source tracking

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyer, K.E.; Moyer, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Surface water impairment by fecal coliform bacteria is a water quality issue of national scope and importance. In Virginia, more than 400 stream and river segments are on the Commonwealth's 2002 303(d) list because of fecal coliform impairment. Total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) will be developed for most of these listed streams and rivers. Information regarding the major fecal coliform sources that impair surface water quality would enhance the development of effective watershed models and improve TMDLs. Bacterial source tracking (BST) is a recently developed technology for identifying the sources of fecal coliform bacteria and it may be helpful in generating improved TMDLs. Bacterial source tracking was performed, watershed models were developed, and TMDLs were prepared for three streams (Accotink Creek, Christians Creek, and Blacks Run) on Virginia's 303(d) list of impaired waters. Quality assurance of the BST work suggests that these data adequately describe the bacteria sources that are impairing these streams. Initial comparison of simulated bacterial sources with the observed BST data indicated that the fecal coliform sources were represented inaccurately in the initial model simulation. Revised model simulations (based on BST data) appeared to provide a better representation of the sources of fecal coliform bacteria in these three streams. The coupled approach of incorporating BST data into the fecal coliform transport model appears to reduce model uncertainty and should result in an improved TMDL.

  13. The modified SWAT model for predicting fecal coliform in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fecal contamination has been an issue for water quality because fecal coliform bacteria are used as an indicator organism to detect pathogens in water. In order to assess fecal contamination in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed in Massachusetts, USA, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a comm...

  14. Identification of the sources of fecal coliforms in an urban watershed using antibiotic resistance analysis.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, John E; Jones, David T; Harwood, Valerie J

    2002-10-01

    Bacteria such as fecal coliforms are used as indicators of fecal pollution in natural waters. These bacteria are found in the feces of most wild and domestic animals and thus provide no information as to the source of fecal contamination, yet identification of indicator bacteria sources allows improved risk assessment, remediation, and total daily maximum load (TDML) assessment of environmental waters. This bacterial source tracking study was initiated in order to identify the dominant source(s) of fecal contamination in the urban watershed of Stevenson Creek in Clearwater, Florida. Five sites that represent areas where routine monitoring has previously shown high levels of fecal coliforms were sampled over 7 months. Fecal coliforms were enumerated by membrane filtration, and antibiotic resistance analysis was used to "fingerprint" a subset of randomly selected isolates and statistically match them to fingerprints of fecal coliforms from known sources (the library). A field test of the classification accuracy of the library was carried out by isolating fecal coliforms from the soil and waters surrounding a failing onsite wastewater treatment and disposal system (OSTDS). The vast majority of the isolates were classified into the human category. The major sources of fecal pollution in Stevenson Creek over the course of the study were wild animal, human, and, to a lesser extent, dog. Overall, wild animal feces were identified as the dominant source when fecal coliform levels were high, but when fecal coliform levels were low, the dominant source was identified as human. The results of this study demonstrate that the sources of fecal indicator bacteria within one urban watershed can vary substantially over temporal and spatial distances.

  15. Photoelectrocatalytic inactivation of fecal coliform bacteria in urban wastewater using nanoparticulated films of TiO2 and TiO2/Ag.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Espíndola, Ruth Belinda; Varia, Jeet C; Álvarez-Gallegos, Alberto; Ortiz-Hernández, Ma Laura; Peña-Camacho, Justina Leticia; Silva-Martínez, Susana

    2017-03-01

    Photocatalysis has shown the ability to inactivate a wide range of harmful microorganisms with traditional use of chlorination. Photocatalysis combined with applied bias potential (photoelectrocatalysis) increases the efficiency of photocatalysis and decreases the charge recombination. This work examines the inactivation of fecal coliform bacteria present in real urban wastewater by photoelectrocatalysis using nanoparticulated films of TiO2 and TiO2/Ag (4%w/w) under UV light irradiation. The catalysts were prepared with different thicknesses by the sol-gel method and calcined at 400°C and 600°C. The urban wastewater samples were collected from the sedimentation tank effluent of the university sewage treatment facility. The rate of bacteria inactivation increases with increasing the applied potential and film thicknesses; also, the presence of silver on the catalyst surface annealed at 400°C shows better inactivation than that at 600°C. Finally, a structural cell damage of Escherichia coli (DH5α), inoculated in water, is observed during the photoelectrocatalytic process.

  16. Occurrence of dissolved solids, nutrients, atrazine, and fecal coliform bacteria during low flow in the Cheney Reservoir watershed, south-central Kansas, 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, V.G.; Pope, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    A network of 34 stream sampling sites was established in the 1,005-square-mile Cheney Reservoir watershed, south-central Kansas, to evaluate spatial variability in concentrations of selected water-quality constituents during low flow. Land use in the Cheney Reservoir watershed is almost entirely agricultural, consisting of pasture and cropland. Cheney Reservoir provides 40 to 60 percent of the water needs for the city of Wichita, Kansas. Sampling sites were selected to determine the relative contribution of point and nonpoint sources of water-quality constituents to streams in the watershed and to identify areas of potential water-quality concern. Water-quality constituents of interest included dissolved solids and major ions, nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients, atrazine, and fecal coliform bacteria. Water from the 34 sampling sites was sampled once in June and once in September 1996 during Phase I of a two-phase study to evaluate water-quality constituent concentrations and loading characteristics in selected subbasins within the watershed and into and out of Cheney Reservoir. Information summarized in this report pertains to Phase I and was used in the selection of six long-term monitoring sites for Phase II of the study. The average low-flow constituent concentrations in water collected during Phase I from all sampling sites was 671 milligrams per liter for dissolved solids, 0.09 milligram per liter for dissolved ammonia as nitrogen, 0.85 milligram per liter for dissolved nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, 0.19 milligram per liter for total phosphorus, 0.20 microgram per liter for dissolved atrazine, and 543 colonies per 100 milliliters of water for fecal coliform bacteria. Generally, these constituents were of nonpoint-source origin and, with the exception of dissolved solids, probably were related to agricultural activities. Dissolved solids probably occur naturally as the result of the dissolution of rocks and ancient marine sediments containing large salt

  17. Environmental factors influencing the distribution of total and fecal coliform bacteria in six water storage reservoirs in the Pearl River Delta Region, China.

    PubMed

    Hong, Huachang; Qiu, Jianwen; Liang, Yan

    2010-01-01

    The Pearl River Delta (PRD) is one of the most developed and densely populated regions in China. Quantifying the amount of pathogens in the source of drinking water is important for improving water quality. We collected water samples from six major water storage reservoirs in the PRD region in both wet and dry seasons in 2006. Results showed that external environmental factors, such as precipitation, location, as well as the internal environmental factors, i.e., physicochemical properties of the water, were closely related with the distribution of coliforms. Seasonally, the coliform bacterial concentrations in wet season were one to two orders of magnitude greater than those in dry season. Spatially, coliform bacterial levels in reservoirs near urban and industrial areas were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those in remote areas. Correlation analyses showed that the levels of coliforms had close relationships with pH, temperature, suspended solid, organic and inorganic nutrients in water. Principal components analysis further demonstrated that total coliforms in the reservoirs were closely related with water physicochemical properties, while fecal coliforms were more associated with external input brought in by seasonal runoff.

  18. Escherichia coli and fecal coliforms in freshwater and estuarine sediments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It has been known for some time that substantial populations of fecal coliforms and E. coli are harbored in freshwater bottom sediments, bank soils, and beach sands. However, the relative importance of sediments as bacterial habitats and as a source of water-borne fecal coliforms and E. coli has not...

  19. Rapid seven-hour fecal coliform test.

    PubMed Central

    Reasoner, D J; Blannon, J C; Geldreich, E E

    1979-01-01

    A rapid 7-h fecal coliform (FC) test for the detection of FC in water has been developed. This membrane filter test utilizes a lightly buffered lactose-based medium (m-7-h FC medium) combined with a sensitive pH indicator system. FC colonies appeared yellow against a light purple background after incubation at 41.5 degrees C for 7 to 7.25 h. Comparison of FC test results showed that the mean verified FC count ratio (7-h FC count/24-h FC count) for surface water samples was 1.08. The mean FC count ratio (7-h FC count/24-h FC count) for unchlorinater wastewater ranged from 1.95 to 5.05. Verification of yellow FC colonies from m-7-h FC medium averaged 97%. Data from field tests on Lake Michigan bathing beach water samples showed that unverified 7-h FC counts averaged 96% of the 24-h FC counts. The 7-h FC test was found to be suitable for the examination of surface waters and unchlorinated sewage and could serve as an emergency test for detection of sewage or fecal contamination of potable water. PMID:42349

  20. Prevalence of bacterial contamination with antibiotic-resistant and enterotoxigenic fecal coliforms in treated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Pathak, S P; Gopal, K

    2008-01-01

    Pollution indicator bacteria such as coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci were enumerated using a multiple-tube fermentation method in 100 treated drinking-water samples from 20 locations in residential, commercial, and industrial areas of a tropical city during summer. Thirty-four percent of the samples were bacteriologically nonpotable. Maximum coliform-contaminated (27%) samples were derived from industrial areas, while samples contaminated with fecal coliform (23%) and fecal streptococci (20%) originated from commercial areas. Coliforms identified as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Enterobacter sp., and Citrobacter sp. were present in 29%, 26%, 24%, and 15% of samples, respectively. Fecal coliforms were examined for antibiotic susceptibility with disc diffusion method. All test isolates exhibited multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) for kanamycin, nalidixic acid, tetracycline, and trimethoprim. Escherichia coli isolates were examined for enterotoxigenicity using the suckling mice bioassay and 60% of the isolates displayed enterotoxigenicity. Data indicate that drinking water contaminated with antibiotic-resistant enterotoxigenic fecal bacteria may be responsible for presence of waterborne diarrheal diseases attributed to therapeutic agents used by urban populations in the tropics.

  1. Comparison of Fecal Coliform Agar and Violet Red Bile Lactose Agar for Fecal Coliform Enumeration in Foods

    PubMed Central

    Leclercq, A.; Wanegue, C.; Baylac, P.

    2002-01-01

    A 24-h direct plating method for fecal coliform enumeration with a resuscitation step (preincubation for 2 h at 37 ± 1°C and transfer to 44 ± 1°C for 22 h) using fecal coliform agar (FCA) was compared with the 24-h standardized violet red bile lactose agar (VRBL) method. FCA and VRBL have equivalent specificities and sensitivities, except for lactose-positive non-fecal coliforms such as Hafnia alvei, which could form typical colonies on FCA and VRBL. Recovery of cold-stressed Escherichia coli in mashed potatoes on FCA was about 1 log unit lower than that with VRBL. When the FCA method was compared with standard VRBL for enumeration of fecal coliforms, based on counting carried out on 170 different food samples, results were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Based on 203 typical identified colonies selected as found on VRBL and FCA, the latter medium appears to allow the enumeration of more true fecal coliforms and has higher performance in certain ways (specificity, sensitivity, and negative and positive predictive values) than VRBL. Most colonies clearly identified on both media were E. coli and H. alvei, a non-fecal coliform. Therefore, the replacement of fecal coliform enumeration by E. coli enumeration to estimate food sanitary quality should be recommended. PMID:11916678

  2. Alternative methods for fecal coliform load reductions in South Georgia watersheds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Of the 11,285 miles of streams and rivers assessed in the state of Georgia, roughly 57% have been classified as impaired. Of the impaired water bodies, impairments due to fecal coliform (FC) bacteria are the most prevalent form of pollutant. FC bacteria are found in both urban and rural settings a...

  3. Variability in the characterization of total coliforms, fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in recreational water supplies of north Mississippi, USA.

    PubMed

    Fiello, M; Mikell, A T; Moore, M T; Cooper, C M

    2014-08-01

    The fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, is a historical organism for the detection of fecal pollution in water supplies. The presence of E. coli indicates a potential contamination of the water supply by other more hazardous human pathogens. In order to accurately determine the presence and degree of fecal contamination, it is important that standard methods approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency are designed to determine the presence of E. coli in a water supply, and distinguish E. coli from other coliform bacteria (e.g. Citrobacter, Klebsiella and Enterobacter). These genera of bacteria are present not only in fecal matter, but also in soil and runoff water and are not good indicators of fecal contamination. There is also ambiguity in determining a positive result for fecal coliforms on M-FC filters by a blue colony. When all variations of blue, including light blue or glossy blue, were examined, confirmation methods agreed with the positive M-FC result less often than when colonies that the technician would merely call "blue", with no descriptors, were examined. Approximately 48 % of M-FC positive colonies were found to be E. coli with 4 methylumbelliferyl-β-D-glucuronide (MUG), and only 23 % of samples producing a positive result on M-FC media were found to be E. coli using API-20E test strips and current API-20E profiles. The majority of other M-FC blue colonies were found to be Klebsiella or were unidentifiable with current API-20E profiles. Two positive M-FC colonies were found to be Kluyvera with API-20E, both of which cleaved MUG and produced fluorescence under UV light, a characteristic used to differentiate E. coli from other fecal coliforms.

  4. Enterococci vs coliforms as a possible fecal contamination indicator: baseline data for Karachi.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Mushtaq; Rasool, Sheikh Ajaz; Khan, Muhammad Tanweer; Wajid, Abdul

    2007-04-01

    Fecal contamination of drinking water is the major cause of water borne illnesses. For long time coliforms are exploited as fecal contamination indicator. However, recent studies indicate low survival rate of coliforms in stress conditions, hence it's use as indicator of fecal pollution is being abandoned in many parts of the developed world. Implementation of such strategy demands availability of local data in the cities like Karachi. The present study provides a comparison between coliforms and enterococcal load and its variation in sewage samples collected (June, August and November, 2006) from eighteen towns of Karachi. All the diluted samples were selective media to obtain colony-forming units (CFU) mainly for coliforms and enterococci. The bacteria isolated were identified on the basis of conventional microbiological methods. Observations thus obtained were subjected to rigorous statistical analysis. The total load of enterococci was found in range of 1.27-8.47 X 10(7) as compared to coliforms (3.03-13.9 X 10(7)). However, segregation of data reveals greater inter town variability in CFU/ml both in coliforms and enterococci as suggested by their cumulative standard deviation +/-1.5 X 107. Furthermore, CFU/ml of both coliforms and enterococci also varies to variable scale when collected at different time intervals and at intra town level. Conclusively, the studies suggest high survival rate and lower variability of Enterococci compared to escherichia hence indicating its potential advantage to be used as fecal contamination indicator.

  5. An Environmental Health Assessment: Fecal Coliform Contamination in San Francisco Waterbodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devillier, K. N.; Devine, M.; Negrete, R.; Rawley, A. L.; Neiss, J.

    2007-12-01

    Fecal coliform is a group of bacteria that exists in the digestive system and excrement of warm-blooded animals. It enters aquatic environments through fecal contamination of water. In the urban environment, contamination can occur not only by direct input from warm-blooded animals but also from storm water run-off and municipal sewer overflow. Fecal coliform itself does not cause disease but it is an indicator of the presence of pathogens that exist in the wastes of humans and animals that are a hazard to human health. We examined 12 locations in San Francisco for fecal coliform and recorded the types of human contact with water at each location. We found low levels of coliform in areas open to the San Francisco Bay and Pacific Ocean and high levels of coliform in inland lakes and ponds. Using Environmental Protection Agency guidelines for fecal coliform concentrations, we found all sites at acceptable levels for the recreational and human activities we observed.

  6. A MECHANISTIC MODEL OF RUNOFF-ASSOCIATED FECAL COLIFORM FATE AND TRANSPORT THROUGH A COASTAL LAGOON. (R828676C003)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal coliform (FC) contamination in coastal waters is an ongoing public health problem worldwide. Coastal wetlands and lagoons are typically expected to protect coastal waters by attenuating watershed pollutants including FC bacteria. However, new evidence suggests that coast...

  7. Determination of fecal contamination origin in reclaimed water open-air ponds using biochemical fingerprinting of enterococci and fecal coliforms.

    PubMed

    Casanovas-Massana, Arnau; Blanch, Anicet R

    2013-05-01

    Low levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were recently detected in two reclaimed water open-air ponds used to irrigate a golf course located in Northeastern Spain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a biochemical fingerprinting method to track the origin of fecal contamination in water with low FIB levels, as in the aforementioned ponds. We also aimed to determine whether FIB presence was due to regrowth of the reclaimed water populations or to a contribution of fecal matter whose source was in the golf facility. Three hundred and fifty enterococcal strains and 308 fecal coliform strains were isolated from the ponds and reclamation plant, and they were biochemically phenotyped. In addition, the inactivation of several microbial fecal pollution indicators (fecal coliforms, total bifidobacteria, sorbitol-fermenting bifidobacteria, somatic bacteriophages, and bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron) was studied using a mesocosm in situ in order to obtain information about their decay rate. Although FIB concentration was low, the biochemical fingerprinting provided evidence that the origin of the fecal contamination in the ponds was not related to the reclaimed water. Biochemical fingerprinting thus proved to be a successful approach, since other microbial source-tracking methods perform poorly when dealing with low fecal load matrices. Furthermore, the mesocosm assays indicated that none of the microbial fecal indicators was able to regrow in the ponds. Finally, the study highlights the fact that reclaimed water may be recontaminated in open-air reservoirs, and therefore, its microbial quality should be monitored throughout its use.

  8. Modeling seasonal variability of fecal coliform in natural surface waters using the modified SWAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Kyung Hwa; Pachepsky, Yakov A.; Kim, Minjeong; Pyo, JongCheol; Park, Mi-Hyun; Kim, Young Mo; Kim, Jung-Woo; Kim, Joon Ha

    2016-04-01

    Fecal coliforms are indicators of pathogens and thereby, understanding of their fate and transport in surface waters is important to protect drinking water sources and public health. We compiled fecal coliform observations from four different sites in the USA and Korea and found a seasonal variability with a significant connection to temperature levels. In all observations, fecal coliform concentrations were relatively higher in summer and lower during the winter season. This could be explained by the seasonal dominance of growth or die-off of bacteria in soil and in-stream. Existing hydrologic models, however, have limitations in simulating the seasonal variability of fecal coliform. Soil and in-stream bacterial modules of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model are oversimplified in that they exclude simulations of alternating bacterial growth. This study develops a new bacteria subroutine for the SWAT in an attempt to improve its prediction accuracy. We introduced critical temperatures as a parameter to simulate the onset of bacterial growth/die-off and to reproduce the seasonal variability of bacteria. The module developed in this study will improve modeling for environmental management schemes.

  9. Seasonality of Coliform Bacteria Detection Rates in New Jersey Domestic Wells.

    PubMed

    Atherholt, Thomas B; Procopio, Nicholas A; Goodrow, Sandra M

    2017-05-01

    It is important that indicators of fecal pollution are reliable. Coliform bacteria are a commonly used indicator of fecal pollution. As other investigators have reported elsewhere, we observed a seasonal pattern of coliform bacteria detections in domestic wells in New Jersey. Examination of a statewide database of 10 years of water quality data from 93,447 samples, from 78,207 wells, generated during real estate transactions, revealed that coliform bacteria were detected in a higher proportion of wells during warm weather months. Further examination of the seasonal pattern of other data, including well water pH, precipitation, ground and surface water temperatures, surface water coliform bacteria concentrations, and vegetation, resulted in the hypothesis that these bacteria may be derived from nonfecal (or environmentally adapted) as well as fecal sources. We provide evidence that the coliform seasonality may be the result of seasonal changes in groundwater extraction volumes (and to a lesser extent precipitation), and temperature-driven changes in the concentration of surface or near-surface coliform sources. Nonfecal coliform sources may not indicate the presence of fecal wastes and hence the potential presence of pathogens, or do so in an inconsistent fashion. Additional research is needed to identify the sources of the coliforms detected in groundwater. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  10. The fecal bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sadowsky, Michael J.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    The Fecal Bacteria offers a balanced, integrated discussion of fecal bacteria and their presence and ecology in the intestinal tract of mammals, in the environment, and in the food supply. This volume covers their use in examining and assessing water quality in order to offer protection from illnesses related to swimming in or ingesting contaminated water, in addition to discussing their use in engineering considerations of water quality, modeling, monitoring, and regulations. Fecal bacteria are additionally used as indicators of contamination of ready-to-eat foods and fresh produce. The intestinal environment, the microbial community structure of the gut microbiota, and the physiology and genomics of this broad group of microorganisms are explored in the book. With contributions from an internationally recognized group of experts, the book integrates medicine, public health, environmental, and microbiological topics in order to provide a unique, holistic understanding of fecal bacteria. Moreover, it shows how the latest basic science and applied research findings are helping to solve problems and develop effective management strategies. For example, readers will discover how the latest tools and molecular approaches have led to our current understanding of fecal bacteria and enabled us to improve human health and water quality. The Fecal Bacteria is recommended for microbiologists, clinicians, animal scientists, engineers, environmental scientists, food safety experts, water quality managers, and students. It will help them better understand fecal bacteria and use their knowledge to protect human and environmental health. They can also apply many of the techniques and molecular tools discussed in this book to the study of a broad range of microorganisms in a variety of habitats.

  11. STANDARDIZATION AND VALIDATION OF METHODS FOR ENUMERATION OF FECAL COLIFORM AND SALMONELLA IN BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current federal regulations require monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Methods used for analysis of fecal coliforms and Salmonella were reviewed and a standard protocol was developed. The protocols were then evaluated by testi...

  12. STANDARDIZATION AND VALIDATION OF METHODS FOR ENUMERATION OF FECAL COLIFORM AND SALMONELLA IN BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current federal regulations require monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Methods used for analysis of fecal coliforms and Salmonella were reviewed and a standard protocol was developed. The protocols were then evaluated by testi...

  13. Fecal bacteria source characterization and sensitivity analysis of SWAT 2005

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) version 2005 includes a microbial sub-model to simulate fecal bacteria transport at the watershed scale. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate methods to characterize fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) source loads and to assess the model sensitivity t...

  14. Fecal Coliform Determinations. Training Module 5.115.3.77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with multiple tube and membrane filter techniques for determining fecal coliform concentrations in a wastewater sample. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This module considers proper…

  15. Estimation and modeling of direct rapid sand filtration for total fecal coliform removal from secondary clarifier effluents.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Yu, Jingjing; Liu, Zhigang; Ma, Tian

    2012-01-01

    The filtration of fecal coliform from a secondary clarifier effluent was investigated using direct rapid sand filters as tertiary wastewater treatment on a pilot scale. The effect of the flocculation dose, flow loading rate, and grain size on fecal coliform removal was determined. Direct rapid sand filters can remove 0.6-1.5 log-units of fecal coliform, depending on the loading rate and grain size distribution. Meanwhile, the flocculation dose has little effect on coliform removal, and increasing the loading rate and/or grain size decreases the bacteria removal efficiency. A model was then developed for the removal process. Bacteria elimination and inactivation both in the water phase and the sand bed can be described by first-order kinetics. Removal was successfully simulated at different loading rates and grain size distributions and compared with the data obtained using pilot-scale filters.

  16. Modeling the transport and distribution of fecal coliform in a tidal estuary.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Huang, Wei-Cher

    2012-08-01

    A laterally averaged two-dimensional fecal coliform transport model incorporated into hydrodynamic and salt modules was developed to simulate the fate and transport of fecal coliform in the tidal Danshui River estuary of northern Taiwan. We validated the developed model with measured data, including longitudinal velocity, salinity, and fecal coliform concentration, collected in 2000. The simulated results of current, salinity, and fecal coliform concentration quantitatively agreed well with the measured data. The model sensitivity analysis indicated that the mortality rate plays an important role in the distribution of fecal coliform concentrations along the tidal Danshui River estuary to Tahan Stream. The validated model was applied to investigate the effects of different freshwater discharges at upstream boundaries on the distributions of fecal coliform. The results revealed that low freshwater discharge resulted in a higher fecal coliform concentration at upstream reaches but had little influence on the downstream of the estuary. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of the surface structure, metal binding, and fecal coliform recoveries of nine membrane filters.

    PubMed Central

    Tobin, R S; Dutka, B J

    1977-01-01

    A comparative study was made of nine commonly used membrane filters from five manufacturers, all recommended for enumeration of coliform bacteria. Bacterial recoveries and flow rates were examined from three types of water and were found to correlate with the surface pore structure determined by scanning electron microscopy. The sorption of metals was also determined. The results of these studies indicate that the five best membranes for fecal coliform recovery could be placed in two groups: Millipore HC and Gelman, followed by Johns-Manville SG and AG and Sartorius 13806. Images PMID:329763

  18. Survival of Fecal Coliforms in Dry-Composting Toilets

    PubMed Central

    Redlinger, Thomas; Graham, Jay; Corella-Barud, Verónica; Avitia, Raquel

    2001-01-01

    The dry-composting toilet, which uses neither water nor sewage infrastructure, is a practical solution in areas with inadequate sewage disposal and where water is limited. These systems are becoming increasingly popular and are promoted to sanitize human excreta and to recycle them into fertilizer for nonedible plants, yet there are few data on the safety of this technology. This study analyzed fecal coliform reduction in approximately 90 prefabricated, dry-composting toilets (Sistema Integral de Reciclamiento de Desechos Orgánicos [SIRDOs]) that were installed on the U.S.-Mexico border in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to determine fecal coliform reduction over time and the most probable method of this reduction. Biosolid waste samples were collected and analyzed at approximately 3 and 6 months and were classified based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. Results showed that class A compost (high grade) was present in only 35.8% of SIRDOs after 6 months. The primary mechanism for fecal coliform reduction was found to be desiccation rather than biodegradation. There was a significant correlation (P = 0.008) between classification rating and percent moisture categories of the biosolid samples: drier samples had a greater proportion of class A samples. Solar exposure was critical for maximal class A biosolid end products (P = 0.001). This study only addressed fecal coliforms as an indicator organism, and further research is necessary to determine the safety of composting toilets with respect to other pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are more resistant to desiccation. PMID:11526002

  19. Survival of fecal coliforms in dry-composting toilets.

    PubMed

    Redlinger, T; Graham, J; Corella-Barud, V; Avitia, R

    2001-09-01

    The dry-composting toilet, which uses neither water nor sewage infrastructure, is a practical solution in areas with inadequate sewage disposal and where water is limited. These systems are becoming increasingly popular and are promoted to sanitize human excreta and to recycle them into fertilizer for nonedible plants, yet there are few data on the safety of this technology. This study analyzed fecal coliform reduction in approximately 90 prefabricated, dry-composting toilets (Sistema Integral de Reciclamiento de Desechos Orgánicos [SIRDOs]) that were installed on the U.S.-Mexico border in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to determine fecal coliform reduction over time and the most probable method of this reduction. Biosolid waste samples were collected and analyzed at approximately 3 and 6 months and were classified based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. Results showed that class A compost (high grade) was present in only 35.8% of SIRDOs after 6 months. The primary mechanism for fecal coliform reduction was found to be desiccation rather than biodegradation. There was a significant correlation (P = 0.008) between classification rating and percent moisture categories of the biosolid samples: drier samples had a greater proportion of class A samples. Solar exposure was critical for maximal class A biosolid end products (P = 0.001). This study only addressed fecal coliforms as an indicator organism, and further research is necessary to determine the safety of composting toilets with respect to other pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are more resistant to desiccation.

  20. Antibiotic resistance analysis of fecal coliforms to determine fecal pollution sources in a mixed-use watershed.

    PubMed

    Burnes, Brian S

    2003-06-01

    Antibiotic resistance analysis was performed on fecal coliform (FC) bacteria from a mixed-use watershed to determine the source, human or nonhuman, of fecal coliform contamination. The study consisted of discriminant analysis of antibiotic resistance patterns generated by exposure to four concentrations of six antibiotics (ampicillin, gentamicin sulfate, kanamycin, spectinomycin dihydrochloride, streptomycin sulfate, and tetracycline hydrochloride). A reference database was constructed from 1125 fecal coliform isolates from the following sources: humans, domestic animals (cats and dogs), agricultural animals (chickens, cattle, and horses), and wild animals. Based on similar antibiotic resistance patterns, cat and dog isolates were grouped as domestic animals and horse and cattle isolates were grouped as livestock. The resulting average rate of correct classification (ARCC) for human and nonhuman isolates was 94%. A total of 800 FC isolates taken from the watershed during either a dry event or a wet event were classified according to source. Human sources contribute a majority (> 50%) of the baseflow FC isolates found in the watershed in urbanized areas. Chicken and livestock sources are responsible for the majority of the baseflow FC isolates found in the rural reaches of the watershed. Stormwater introduces FC isolates from domestic (approximately 16%) and wild (approximately 21%) sources throughout the watershed and varying amounts (up to 60%) from chicken and livestock sources. These results suggest that antibiotic resistance patterns of FC may be used to determine sources of fecal contamination and aid in the direction of water quality improvement.

  1. Sequential modeling of fecal coliform removals in a full-scale activated-sludge wastewater treatment plant using an evolutionary process model induction system.

    PubMed

    Suh, Chang-Won; Lee, Joong-Won; Hong, Yoon-Seok Timothy; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2009-01-01

    We propose an evolutionary process model induction system that is based on the grammar-based genetic programming to automatically discover multivariate dynamic inference models that are able to predict fecal coliform bacteria removals using common process variables instead of directly measuring fecal coliform bacteria concentration in a full-scale municipal activated-sludge wastewater treatment plant. A sequential modeling paradigm is also proposed to derive multivariate dynamic models of fecal coliform removals in the evolutionary process model induction system. It is composed of two parts, the process estimator and the process predictor. The process estimator acts as an intelligent software sensor to achieve a good estimation of fecal coliform bacteria concentration in the influent. Then the process predictor yields sequential prediction of the effluent fecal coliform bacteria concentration based on the estimated fecal coliform bacteria concentration in the influent from the process estimator with other process variables. The results show that the evolutionary process model induction system with a sequential modeling paradigm has successfully evolved multivariate dynamic models of fecal coliform removals in the form of explicit mathematical formulas with high levels of accuracy and good generalization. The evolutionary process model induction system with sequential modeling paradigm proposed here provides a good alternative to develop cost-effective dynamic process models for a full-scale wastewater treatment plant and is readily applicable to a variety of other complex treatment processes.

  2. VIABILITY OF COLIFORM BACTERIA IN ANTARCTIC SOIL

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, William L.; Boyd, Josephine W.

    1963-01-01

    Boyd, William L. (Ohio State University, Columbus) and Josephine W. Boyd. Viability of coliform bacteria in antarctic soil. J. Bacteriol. 85:1121–1123. 1963.—The distribution of coliform bacteria in soils of Ross Island and the nearby mainland was studied. None was found in almost all of the samples collected, including some from the Adelie penguin rookeries at Cape Royds and Cape Crozier and in soil at the McMurdo Base which had been recently contaminated by human sewage. Samples of pony manure left from previous expeditions were also negative, with one exception where Escherichia coli were present. Studies carried out with two freshly isolated human strains of E. coli and the isolate from pony manure showed that the death rate was extremely rapid, although the animal strain was much more resistant to the various factors of the environment causing death. PMID:14044003

  3. VIABILITY OF COLIFORM BACTERIA IN ANTARCTIC SOIL.

    PubMed

    BOYD, W L; BOYD, J W

    1963-05-01

    Boyd, William L. (Ohio State University, Columbus) and Josephine W. Boyd. Viability of coliform bacteria in antarctic soil. J. Bacteriol. 85:1121-1123. 1963.-The distribution of coliform bacteria in soils of Ross Island and the nearby mainland was studied. None was found in almost all of the samples collected, including some from the Adelie penguin rookeries at Cape Royds and Cape Crozier and in soil at the McMurdo Base which had been recently contaminated by human sewage. Samples of pony manure left from previous expeditions were also negative, with one exception where Escherichia coli were present. Studies carried out with two freshly isolated human strains of E. coli and the isolate from pony manure showed that the death rate was extremely rapid, although the animal strain was much more resistant to the various factors of the environment causing death.

  4. Predicting fecal coliform using the interval-to-interval approach and SWAT in the Miyun watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jianwen; Shen, Zhenyao; Yan, Tiezhu; Qiu, Jiali; Li, Yangyang

    2017-06-01

    Pathogens in manure can cause waterborne-disease outbreaks, serious illness, and even death in humans. Therefore, information about the transformation and transport of bacteria is crucial for determining their source. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to simulate fecal coliform bacteria load in the Miyun Reservoir watershed, China. The data for the fecal coliform were obtained at three sampling sites, Chenying (CY), Gubeikou (GBK), and Xiahui (XH). The calibration processes of the fecal coliform were conducted using the CY and GBK sites, and validation was conducted at the XH site. An interval-to-interval approach was designed and incorporated into the processes of fecal coliform calibration and validation. The 95% confidence interval of the predicted values and the 95% confidence interval of measured values were considered during calibration and validation in the interval-to-interval approach. Compared with the traditional point-to-point comparison, this method can improve simulation accuracy. The results indicated that the simulation of fecal coliform using the interval-to-interval approach was reasonable for the watershed. This method could provide a new research direction for future model calibration and validation studies.

  5. Distribution of total and fecal coliform organisms from septic effluent in selected coastal plain soils.

    PubMed Central

    Reneau, R B; Pettry, D E; Shanholtz, M I; Graham, S A; Weston, C W

    1977-01-01

    Distribution of total and fecal coliform bacteria in three Atlantic coastal plain soils in Virginia were monitored in situ over a 3-year period. The soils studied were Varina, Goldsboro, and Beltsville sandy loams. These and similar soils are found extensively along the populous Atlantic seaboard of the United States. They are considered only marginally suitable for septic tank installation because the restricting soil layers result in the subsequent development of seasonal perched water tables. To determine both horizontal and vertical movement of indicator organisms, samples were collected from piezometers placed at selected distances and depths from the drainfields in the direction of the ground water flow. Large reductions in total and fecal coliform bacteria were noted in the perched ground waters above the restricting layers as distance from the drainfield increased. These restricting soil layers appear to be effective barriers to the vertical movement of indicator organisms. The reduction in the density of the coliform bacteria above the restricting soil layers can probably be attributed to dilution, filtration, and dieoff as the bacteria move through the natural soil systems. PMID:325589

  6. Distribution of total and fecal coliform organisms from septic effluent in selected coastal plain soils.

    PubMed

    Reneau, R B; Pettry, D E; Shanholtz, M I; Graham, S A; Weston, C W

    1977-01-01

    Distribution of total and fecal coliform bacteria in three Atlantic coastal plain soils in Virginia were monitored in situ over a 3-year period. The soils studied were Varina, Goldsboro, and Beltsville sandy loams. These and similar soils are found extensively along the populous Atlantic seaboard of the United States. They are considered only marginally suitable for septic tank installation because the restricting soil layers result in the subsequent development of seasonal perched water tables. To determine both horizontal and vertical movement of indicator organisms, samples were collected from piezometers placed at selected distances and depths from the drainfields in the direction of the ground water flow. Large reductions in total and fecal coliform bacteria were noted in the perched ground waters above the restricting layers as distance from the drainfield increased. These restricting soil layers appear to be effective barriers to the vertical movement of indicator organisms. The reduction in the density of the coliform bacteria above the restricting soil layers can probably be attributed to dilution, filtration, and dieoff as the bacteria move through the natural soil systems.

  7. Effect of dredge spoil deposition on fecal coliform counts in sediments at a disposal site.

    PubMed Central

    Babinchak, J A; Graikoski, J T; Dudley, S; Nitkowski, M F

    1977-01-01

    The most-probable-number of fecal coliforms in sediments was monitored at the New London dump site in Long Island Sound during the deposition of dredge spoil from the Thames River. Although the geometric mean for fecal coliforms at five stations in the river was 14,000/100 ml before dredging commenced, the deposition of this material did not increase the incidence of fecal coliforms at 17 spoil stations and 13 control stations in the disposal and surrounding areas. Fecal coliforms appear to occur only in the surface sediment material and are diluted by the subsurface material during the dredging operation. Fecal coliform analyses of bottom waters during high and low tides indicated that the flow of water from the Thames River played a major role in determining the most-probable-number of fecal coliforms in the sediments at the disposal site. PMID:329761

  8. Comparison of four membrane filter methods for fecal coliform enumeration.

    PubMed Central

    Pagel, J E; Qureshi, A A; Young, D M; Vlassoff, L T

    1982-01-01

    Four membrane filter methods fecal coliform enumeration were evaluated and compared in six laboratories based on determination of accuracy, specificity, upper counting limit, and recovery comparability. Recovery accuracy with pure cultures ranged from 89 to 100% for m-FC, mTEC (a procedure developed for thermotolerant Escherichia coli), and m-FC2 methods (the latter incorporating a 2-h, 35 degrees C resuscitation period), but was less than 60% for the MacConkey membrane broth method. These figures dropped by approximately 40 to 55% when the cultures were subjected to temperature (10 degrees C) stress. Close to 800 colonies were verified to determine specificity. False-positive colonies occurred most frequently with the m-FC2 method (18%), whereas false-negative colonies were most common on MacConkey membrane broth (26%). In counting range experiments using a variety of samples, the highest upper counting limit was 130 colonies per filter with the mTEC procedure. Recovery comparisons were based on over 130 samples including raw surface waters, raw sewage, and chlorinated and unchlorinated sewage effluents. In general, recoveries were significantly higher with the m-FC2 and mTEC methods; however, on m-FC2, growth of nontarget background organisms was also higher in most cases. Highest recoveries from chlorinated sewage effluents were obtained by the mTEC method, and the addition of a similar resuscitation period to the m-FC procedure (m-FC2) improved fecal coliform recovery from such samples. The best overall performance for fecal coliform enumeration was obtained with the mTEC method with high recovery and low levels of background colonies, good specificity and accuracy, and a high upper counting limit. This procedure also offers the advantage of enumerating E. coli within 24 h. PMID:7044309

  9. Use of the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN and bacterial source tracking for development of the fecal coliform total maximum daily load (TMDL) for Blacks Run, Rockingham County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyer, Douglas; Hyer, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    Impairment of surface waters by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each State identify surface waters that do not meet applicable water-quality standards. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the 1998 Section 303(d) list of impaired waters because of violations of the water-quality standard for fecal coliform bacteria. A total maximum daily load (TMDL) will need to be developed by 2006 for each of these impaired streams and rivers by the Virginia Departments of Environmental Quality and Conservation and Recreation. A TMDL is a quantitative representation of the maximum load of a given water-quality constituent, from all point and nonpoint sources, that a stream can assimilate without violating the designated water-quality standard. Blacks Run, in Rockingham County, Virginia, is one of the stream segments listed by the State of Virginia as impaired by fecal coliform bacteria. Watershed modeling and bacterial source tracking were used to develop the technical components of the fecal coliform bacteria TMDL for Accotink Creek. The Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN (HSPF) was used to simulate streamflow, fecal coliform concentrations, and source-specific fecal coliform loading in Blacks Run. Ribotyping, a bacterial source tracking technique, was used to identify the dominant sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Blacks Run watershed. Ribotyping also was used to determine the relative contributions of specific sources to the observed fecal coliform load in Blacks Run. Data from the ribotyping analysis were incorporated into the calibration of the fecal coliform model. Study results provide information regarding the calibration of the streamflow and fecal coliform bacteria models and also identify the reductions in fecal coliform loads required to meet the TMDL for Blacks Run. The calibrated streamflow model simulated observed streamflow

  10. Use of the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN and Bacterial Source Tracking for Development of the fecal coliform Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for Accotink Creek, Fairfax County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyer, Douglas; Hyer, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    Impairment of surface waters by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each State identify surface waters that do not meet applicable water-quality standards. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the 1998 Section 303(d) list of impaired waters because of violations of the water-quality standard for fecal coliform bacteria. A total maximum daily load (TMDL) will need to be developed by 2006 for each of these impaired streams and rivers by the Virginia Departments of Environmental Quality and Conservation and Recreation. A TMDL is a quantitative representation of the maximum load of a given water-quality constituent, from all point and nonpoint sources, that a stream can assimilate without violating the designated water-quality standard. Accotink Creek, in Fairfax County, Virginia, is one of the stream segments listed by the State of Virginia as impaired by fecal coliform bacteria. Watershed modeling and bacterial source tracking were used to develop the technical components of the fecal coliform bacteria TMDL for Accotink Creek. The Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN (HSPF) was used to simulate streamflow, fecal coliform concentrations, and source-specific fecal coliform loading in Accotink Creek. Ribotyping, a bacterial source tracking technique, was used to identify the dominant sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Accotink Creek watershed. Ribotyping also was used to determine the relative contributions of specific sources to the observed fecal coliform load in Accotink Creek. Data from the ribotyping analysis were incorporated into the calibration of the fecal coliform model. Study results provide information regarding the calibration of the streamflow and fecal coliform bacteria models and also identify the reductions in fecal coliform loads required to meet the TMDL for Accotink Creek. The calibrated streamflow model simulated observed

  11. Assessment of the climate change impacts on fecal coliform contamination in a tidal estuarine system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Chan, Wen-Ting

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is one of the key factors affecting the future microbiological water quality in rivers and tidal estuaries. A coupled 3D hydrodynamic and fecal coliform transport model was developed and applied to the Danshuei River estuarine system for predicting the influences of climate change on microbiological water quality. The hydrodynamic and fecal coliform model was validated using observational salinity and fecal coliform distributions. According to the analyses of the statistical error, predictions of the salinity and the fecal coliform concentration from the model simulation quantitatively agreed with the observed data. The validated model was then applied to predict the fecal coliform contamination as a result of climate change, including the change of freshwater discharge and the sea level rise. We found that the reduction of freshwater discharge under climate change scenarios resulted in an increase in the fecal coliform concentration. The sea level rise would decrease fecal coliform distributions because both the water level and the water volume increased. A reduction in freshwater discharge has a negative impact on the fecal coliform concentration, whereas a rising sea level has a positive influence on the fecal coliform contamination. An appropriate strategy for the effective microbiological management in tidal estuaries is required to reveal the persistent trends of climate in the future.

  12. Fecal coliforms, caffeine and carbamazepine in stormwater collection systems in a large urban area.

    PubMed

    Sauvé, Sébastien; Aboulfadl, Khadija; Dorner, Sarah; Payment, Pierre; Deschamps, Guy; Prévost, Michèle

    2012-01-01

    Water samples from streams, brooks and storm sewer outfall pipes that collect storm waters across the Island of Montréal were analyzed for caffeine, carbamazepine and fecal coliforms. All samples contained various concentrations of these tracers, indicating a widespread sanitary contamination in urban environments. Fecal coliforms and caffeine levels ranged over several orders of magnitude with a modest correlation between caffeine and fecal coliforms (R(2) value of 0.558). An arbitrary threshold of 400 ng caffeine L(-1) allows us to identify samples with an elevated fecal contamination, as defined by more than 200 colony-forming units per 100 mL (cfu 100 mL(-1)) of fecal coliforms. Low caffeine levels were sporadically related to high fecal coliform counts. Lower levels of caffeine and fecal coliforms were observed in the brooks while the larger streams and storm water discharge points contained over ten times more. The carbamazepine data showed little or no apparent correlation to caffeine. These data suggest that this storm water collection system, located in a highly urbanized urban environment, is widely contaminated by domestic sewers as indicated by the ubiquitous presence of fecal contaminants as well as caffeine and carbamazepine. Caffeine concentrations were relatively well correlated to fecal coliforms, and could potentially be used as a chemical indicator of the level of contamination by sanitary sources. The carbamazepine data was not significantly correlated to fecal coliforms and of little use in this dataset.

  13. Variability in the characterization of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and escherichia coli in recreational water supplies of North Mississippi, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, is a historical organism for the detection of fecal pollution in water supplies. The presence of E. coli indicates a potential contamination of the water supply by other more hazardous human pathogens. In order to accurately determine the presence and degree o...

  14. [Coliform bacteria in raw and pasteurized milk].

    PubMed

    Kaloianov, I; Gogov, I

    1977-01-01

    Studied were 360 samples of raw and 1404 samples of pasteurized milk, collected from three milk centers, for the presence of coliform bacteria. It was found that the coli titer of the raw milk varied from 10(-5) up to 10(-7), depending on the season. The regimes of pasteurization applied kill 100 per cent of the present coli organisms. After the thermic treatment the milk was additionally contaminated with coli forms from the containers and the equipment in dependence on the conditions of washing and disinfection. The coli titer of the pasteurized milk varied from 1 to 10(-3). A total of 602 strains of coliform bacteria were isolated from the pasteurized and the raw milk; the bacteria were differentiated by the scheme of Kauffmann. Most commonly encountered were the coli forms of the following genera:Citrobacter (35 per cent), Enterobacter (29.8 per cent), Klebsiella (23.9 per cent), and Escherichia (11.3 per cent). The following species were prevailing in raw milk: Kl. aerogenes, Ent. aerogenes, Ent. cloacae, C. freundi, and C. intermedium. In pasteurized milk dominating were Kl. aerogenes, C. freundi. Ent. aerogenes, and Ent. cloacae.

  15. Evaluation of fecal contamination indicators (fecal coliforms, somatic phages, and helminth eggs) in ryegrass sward farming.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Martha; Moreno, Gerardo; Campos, Claudia

    2009-02-15

    The effect of soil supplementation with biosolids at various ratios on fecal-origin microorganism activity was evaluated in a ryegrass sward farm. Fifteen plots with 3 different soil and biosolid mixture ratios were assessed. Soil and grass were sampled over a period of 4 months (days 0, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 120) for soil and on days 75 and 120 for grass, corresponding to first and second grass harvest periods. We analyzed fecal coliforms, somatic phages, helminth eggs, and environmental factors, such as rainfall, temperature, and moisture. The fecal coliforms decreased by 2 logarithmic units (LU) in all soils containing biosolids and by 1 LU in the soil alone and in biosolid control plots alone. The concentration of somatic phages decreased to 2 to 3 LU in the soil containing biosolids and to 1 to 2 LU in the control plots. In contrast, however, there was a noticeable increase in helminth eggs on days 75 ad 120, but not in the soil control alone. Maximum concentrations (10(2) CFU/g TS; colony forming units per gram total solids) of fecal coliforms were found on the grass and in other samples, but the concentrations of phages and helminth eggs were below detection limits. Environmental factors did not significantly influence the results, and grass production increased from 35 to 50 Ton/Ha (tons per hectare) with biosolid supplementation, as compared with controls (14 Ton/Ha).

  16. STANDARDIZATION AND VALIDATION OF METHODS FOR ENUMERATION OF FECAL COLIFORM AND SALMONELLA IN BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current federal regulations required monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Methods used for analysis of fecal coliforms and Salmonella were reviewed and a standard protocol was developed. The protocols were then...

  17. Modeling seasonal variability of fecal coliform in natural surface waters using the modified SWAT

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fecal coliforms are indicators of pathogens and thereby, understanding of their fate and transport in surface waters is important to protect drinking water sources and public health. We compiled fecal coliform observations from four different sites in the USA and Korea and found a seasonal variabili...

  18. 33 CFR 159.319 - Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.319 Fecal coliform and total suspended solids... suspended solids standards. 159.319 Section 159.319 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Alaska shall not have a fecal coliform bacterial count of greater than 200 per 100 ml nor total suspended...

  19. STANDARDIZATION AND VALIDATION OF METHODS FOR ENUMERATION OF FECAL COLIFORM AND SALMONELLA IN BIOSOLIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current federal regulations required monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Methods used for analysis of fecal coliforms and Salmonella were reviewed and a standard protocol was developed. The protocols were then...

  20. Automated electrical impedance technique for rapid enumeration of fecal coliforms in effluents from sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Silverman, M P; Munoz, E F

    1979-03-01

    Fecal coliforms growing in a selective lactose-based broth medium at 44.5 degrees C generate a change in the electrical impedance of the culture relative to a sterile control when populations reach 10(6) to 10(7) per ml. The ratio of these changes was measured automatically, and the data were processed by computer. A linear relation was found between the log10 of the number of fecal coliforms in an inoculum and the time required for an electrical impedance ratio signal to be detected. Pure culture inocula consisting of 100 fecal coliforms in log phase or stationary phase were detected in 6.5 and 7.7 h, respectively. Standard curves of log10 fecal coliforms in wastewater inocula versus detection time, based on samples collected at a sewage treatment plant over a 4-month period, were found to vary from one another with time. Nevertheless, detection times were rapid and ranged from 5.8 to 7.9 h for 200 fecal coliforms to 8.7 to 11.4 h for 1 fecal coliform. Variations in detection times for a given number of fecal coliforms were also found among sewage treatment plants. A strategy is proposed which takes these variations into account and allows for rapid, automated enumeration of fecal coliforms in wastewater by the electrical impedance ratio technique.

  1. 33 CFR 159.319 - Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... suspended solids standards. 159.319 Section 159.319 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.319 Fecal coliform and total suspended solids... Alaska shall not have a fecal coliform bacterial count of greater than 200 per 100 ml nor total...

  2. Automated electrical impedance technique for rapid enumeration of fecal coliforms in effluents from sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, M P; Munoz, E F

    1979-01-01

    Fecal coliforms growing in a selective lactose-based broth medium at 44.5 degrees C generate a change in the electrical impedance of the culture relative to a sterile control when populations reach 10(6) to 10(7) per ml. The ratio of these changes was measured automatically, and the data were processed by computer. A linear relation was found between the log10 of the number of fecal coliforms in an inoculum and the time required for an electrical impedance ratio signal to be detected. Pure culture inocula consisting of 100 fecal coliforms in log phase or stationary phase were detected in 6.5 and 7.7 h, respectively. Standard curves of log10 fecal coliforms in wastewater inocula versus detection time, based on samples collected at a sewage treatment plant over a 4-month period, were found to vary from one another with time. Nevertheless, detection times were rapid and ranged from 5.8 to 7.9 h for 200 fecal coliforms to 8.7 to 11.4 h for 1 fecal coliform. Variations in detection times for a given number of fecal coliforms were also found among sewage treatment plants. A strategy is proposed which takes these variations into account and allows for rapid, automated enumeration of fecal coliforms in wastewater by the electrical impedance ratio technique. PMID:378128

  3. Modeling fecal coliform contamination in a tidal Danshuei River estuarine system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Chan, Wen-Ting; Young, Chih-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional fecal coliform transport model was developed and incorporated into a hydrodynamic model to obtain a better understanding of local microbiological water quality in the tidal Danshuei River estuarine system of northern Taiwan. The model was firstly validated with the salinity and fecal coliform data measured in 2010. The concentration comparison showed quantitatively good agreement between the simulation and measurement results. Further, the model was applied to investigate the effects of upstream freshwater discharge variation and fecal coliform loading reduction on the contamination distributions in the tidal estuarine system. The qualitative and quantitative analyses clearly revealed that low freshwater discharge resulted in higher fecal coliform concentration. The fecal coliform loading reduction considerably decreased the contamination along the Danshuei River-Tahan Stream, the Hsintien Stream, and the Keelung River.

  4. Assessing climate variability impact on thermotolerant coliform bacteria in surface water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study investigated the impacts of climate variability on fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) transport in the Upper Pearl River Watershed (UPRW) in Mississippi. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to the UPRW using observed flow and FCB concentrations. The SWAT hydrologic model was ...

  5. Microplate fecal coliform method to monitor stream water pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Maul, A; Block, J C

    1983-01-01

    A study has been carried out on the Moselle River by means of a microtechnique based on the most-probable-number method for fecal coliform enumeration. This microtechnique, in which each serial dilution of a sample is inoculated into all 96 wells of a microplate, was compared with the standard membrane filter method. It showed a marked overestimation of about 14% due, probably, to the lack of absolute specificity of the method. The high precision of the microtechnique (13%, in terms of the coefficient of variation for log most probable number) and its relative independence from the influence of bacterial density allowed the use of analysis of variance to investigate the effects of spatial and temporal bacterial heterogeneity on the estimation of coliforms. Variability among replicate samples, subsamples, handling, and analytical errors were considered as the major sources of variation in bacterial titration. Variances associated with individual components of the sampling procedure were isolated, and optimal replications of each step were determined. Temporal variation was shown to be more influential than the other three components (most probable number, subsample, sample to sample), which were approximately equal in effect. However, the incidence of sample-to-sample variability (16%, in terms of the coefficient of variation for log most probable number) caused by spatial heterogeneity of bacterial populations in the Moselle River is shown and emphasized. Consequently, we recommend that replicate samples be taken on each occasion when conducting a sampling program for a stream pollution survey. PMID:6360044

  6. Fresh steam-flaked corn in cattle feedlots is an important site for fecal coliform contamination by house flies.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anuradha; Zurek, Ludek

    2015-03-01

    House flies are a common pest at food animal facilities, including cattle feedlots. Previously, house flies were shown to play an important role in the ecology of Escherichia coli O157:H7; house flies in cattle feedlots carried this zoonotic pathogen and were able to contaminate cattle through direct contact and/or by contamination of drinking water and feed. Because house flies aggregate in large numbers on fresh ( # 6 h) steam-flaked corn (FSFC) used in cattle feed, the aim of this study was to assess FSFC in a cattle feedlot as a potentially important site of fecal coliform contamination by house flies. House flies and FSFC samples were collected, homogenized, and processed for culturing of fecal coliforms on membrane fecal coliform agar. Selected isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and representative isolates from each phylogenetic group were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Fecal coliforms were undetectable in FSFC shortly (0 h) after flaking; however, in summer, after 4 to 6 h, the concentrations of fecal coliforms ranged from 1.9 × 10(3) to 3.7 × 10(4) CFU/g FSFC (mean, 1.1 ± 3.0 × 10(4) CFU/g). House flies from FSFC carried between 7.6 × 10(2) and 4.1 × 10(6) CFU of fecal coliforms per fly (mean, 6.0 ± 2.3 × 10(5) CFU per fly). Fecal coliforms were represented by E. coli (85.1%), Klebsiella spp. (10.6%), and Citrobacter spp. (4.3%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated clonal matches of E. coli and Klebsiella spp. between house flies and FSFC. In contrast, in winter and in the absence of house flies, the contamination of corn by fecal coliforms was significantly (∼10-fold) lower. These results indicate that FSFC is an important site for bacterial contamination by flies and possible exchange of E. coli and other bacteria among house flies. Further research is needed to evaluate the potential use of screens or blowers to limit the access of house flies to FSFC and therefore their effectiveness in preventing

  7. Characterization of genetic determinants involved in antibiotic resistance in Aeromonas spp. and fecal coliforms isolated from different aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Carnelli, Alessandro; Mauri, Federica; Demarta, Antonella

    2017-03-02

    Aeromonas spp. and fecal coliforms, two abundant and cultivable bacterial populations that can be found in water ecosystems, might substantially contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance. We investigated the presence and spread of transposons (elements that can move from one location to another in the genome), integrons (structures able to capture and incorporate gene cassettes) and resistance plasmids in strains isolated from polluted and unpolluted water. We recovered 231 Aeromonas and 250 fecal coliforms from water samplings with different degrees of pollution (hospital sewage, activated sludge of a wastewater treatment plant, river water before and after treatment and water from an alpine lake). Sixteen Aeromonas spp. and 22 fecal coliforms carried intI, coding for the site-specific integrase of class 1 integrons, while 22 Aeromonas spp. and 14 fecal coliforms carried tnpA, the transposase gene of the Tn3-family of replicative transposons. The majority of intI and tnpA-positive strains were phenotypically resistant to at least four antibiotics. Integrons and transposons were mainly located on mobilizable plasmids. Our results did not detect common mobile structures in the two populations and therefore relativize the role played by Aeromonas spp. as vectors of antimicrobial resistance determinants between water and commensal gut bacteria.

  8. Significance of Fecal Coliform-Positive Klebsiella1

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Susan T.; Seidler, Ramon J.

    1977-01-01

    A total of 191 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates of human clinical, bovine mastitis, and a wide variety of environmental sources were tested for fecal coliform (FC) response with the membrane filtration and most probable number techniques. Twenty-seven Escherichia coli cultures of human clinical and environmental origins were also tested. Eighty-five percent (49/58) of known pathogenic K. pneumoniae were FC positive, compared with 16% (19/120) of the environmental strains. E. coli results indicated 93% (13/14) of the clinical and 85% (11/13) of the environmental strains as FC positive. There was no significant difference in the incidence of FC-positive cultures between pathogenic Klebsiella and E. coli. pH measurements of K. pneumoniae and E. coli cultures growing in m-FC broth at 44.5°C revealed three distinct pH ranges correlating with colony morphology. β-Galactosidase assays of Klebsiella and E. coli cultures at 44.5°C indicated all were able to hydrolyze lactose, even if they were FC negative by the membrane filtration or most probable number techniques. The FC response pattern appears stable in K. pneumoniae. Three pathogenic cultures showed no change in FC responses after 270 generations of growth in sterile pulp mill effluent. Since K. pneumoniae is carried in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals and 85% of the tested pathogenic strains were FC positive, the isolation of FC-positive Klebsiella organisms from the environment would indicate their fecal or clinical origin or both. The added fact that K. pneumoniae is an opportunistic pathogen of increasing importance makes the occurrence of FC-positive environmental Klebsiella, particularly in large numbers, a potential human and animal health hazard. PMID:18086

  9. Detection of false-positives among total and fecal coliform counts by factorial analysis of correspondence.

    PubMed Central

    Joncas, M; Michaud, S; Carmichael, J P; Lavoie, M C

    1985-01-01

    Application of an analysis of correspondence to the biochemical characteristics of total and fecal coliforms isolated in the Ivory Coast permitted us to separate two small clusters of isolates different from the main clusters, which included isolates from human and animal feces. The isolates grouped in the small clusters were from water samples. An analysis of the biochemical characteristics which permitted the segregation of the "water-specific" isolates from the main clusters indicates that water-specific total coliforms were citrate positive, indole negative, and amygdaline positive. Water-specific fecal coliforms were either citrate positive, indole negative, amygdaline positive, and inositol negative or indole negative, amygdaline positive, and inositol positive. Any isolates not fitting the above patterns could be considered of fecal origin. If this observation is confirmed under temperate climates and for a greater number of isolates, these simple tests could be used to confirm the fecal origin of coliforms. PMID:2983607

  10. Increasing Efficiency of Fecal Coliform Testing Through EPA-Approved Alternate Method Colilert*-18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornwell, Brian

    2017-01-01

    The 21 SM 9221 E multiple-tube fermentation method for fecal coliform analysis requires a large time and reagent investment for the performing laboratory. In late 2010, the EPA approved an alternative procedure for the determination of fecal coliforms designated as Colilert*-18. However, as of late 2016, only two VELAP-certified laboratories in the Commonwealth of Virginia have been certified in this method.

  11. COMPOSITE SAMPLING FOR DETECTION OF COLIFORM BACTERIA IN WATER SUPPLY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Low densities of coliform bacteria introduced into distribution systems may survive in protected habitats. These organisms may interfere with and cause confusion in the use of the coliforms as indicators of sewage contamination of drinking water. Methods of increasing the probabi...

  12. Survival of Coliform Bacteria in Natural Waters: Field and Laboratory Studies with Membrane-Filter Chambers

    PubMed Central

    McFeters, Gordon A.; Stuart, David G.

    1972-01-01

    Chambers with membrane-filter side walls were designed for studies of the survival of coliform bacteria in natural and artificial waters. Experiments were carried out in the field and in the laboratory. The initial uptake rate of inorganic ions, total carbon, and glucose into the chamber was greater than twice as fast as the accumulation of each into dialysis tubing. When the survival of a water-isolated fecal coliform bacterium was examined in two adjacent mountain streams, it was found that the organism persisted longer in Bozeman Creek than in Middle Creek. These data may be a reflection of the water chemistry because the concentration of inorganic constituents of the former was greater. Laboratory studies of the survival of a fecal coliform bacterium in artificial and natural water with continuous flow were used to determine the effect of chemical composition, temperature, and pH. The relation of this type of data to the use of fecal coliform bacteria as indicators of health hazard in water is discussed. Images PMID:4565639

  13. Method of Detecting Coliform Bacteria from Reflected Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting coliform bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  14. Fecal indicator bacteria variability in samples pumped from monitoring wells.

    PubMed

    Kozuskanich, J; Novakowski, K S; Anderson, B C

    2011-01-01

    The detection of microbiological contamination in drinking water from groundwater wells is often made with a limited number of samples that are collected using traditional geochemical sampling protocols. The objective of this study is to examine the variability of fecal indicator bacteria, as observed using discrete samples, due to pumping. Two wells were instrumented as multilevel piezometers in a bedrock aquifer, and bacterial enumeration was conducted on a total of 166 samples (for total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococci) using standard membrane filtration methods. Five tests were conducted using pumping rates ranging from 0.3 to 17 L/min in a variety of purging scenarios, which included constant and variable (incremental increase and decrease) flow. The results clearly show a rapid and reproducible, 1 to 2 log-unit decrease in fecal indicator bacteria at the onset of pumping to stabilized, low-level concentrations prior to the removal of three to five well volumes. The pumping rate was not found to be correlated with the magnitude of observed bacterial counts. Based on the results, we suggest sampling protocols for fecal indicator bacteria that include multiple collections during the course of pumping, including early-time samples, and consider other techniques such as microscopic enumeration when assessing the source of bacteria from the well-aquifer system.

  15. Comparison of four membrane filter methods for fecal coliform enumeration in tropical waters.

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Mercado, J; Hazen, T C

    1987-01-01

    Four membrane filter methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms were compared for accuracy, specificity, and recovery. Water samples were taken several times from 13 marine, 1 estuarine, and 4 freshwater sites around Puerto Rico, from pristine waters and waters receiving treated and untreated sewage and effluent from a tuna cannery and a rum distillery. Differences of 1 to 3 orders of magnitude in the levels of fecal coliforms were observed in some samples by different recovery techniques. Marine water samples gave poorer results, in terms of specificity, selectivity, and comparability, than freshwater samples for all four fecal coliform methods used. The method using Difco m-FC agar with a resuscitation step gave the best overall results; however, even this method gave higher false-positive error, higher undetected-target error, lower selectivity, and higher recovery of nontarget organisms than the method using MacConkey membrane broth, the worst method for temperate waters. All methods tested were unacceptable for the enumeration of fecal coliforms in tropical fresh and marine waters. Thus, considering the high densities of fecal coliforms observed at most sites in Puerto Rico by all these methods, it would seem that these density estimates are, in many cases, grossly overestimating the degree of recent fecal contamination. Since Escherichia coli appears to be a normal inhabitant of tropical waters, fecal contamination may be indicated when none is present. Using fecal coliforms as an indicator is grossly inadequate for the detection of recent human fecal contamination and associated pathogens in both marine and fresh tropical waters. PMID:3324970

  16. The Likelihood of Coliform Bacteria in NJ Domestic Wells Based on Precipitation and Other Factors.

    PubMed

    Procopio, Nicholas A; Atherholt, Thomas B; Goodrow, Sandra M; Lester, Lori A

    2017-03-29

    The influence of precipitation on coliform bacteria detection rates in domestic wells was investigated using data collected through the New Jersey Private Well Testing Act. Measured precipitation data from the National Weather Service (NWS) monitoring stations was compared to estimated data from the Multisensor Precipitation Estimate (MPE) in order to determine which source of data to include in the analyses. A strong concordance existed between these two precipitations datasets; therefore, MPE data was utilized as it is geographically more specific to individual wells. Statewide, 10 days of cumulative precipitation prior to testing was found to be an optimal period influencing the likelihood of coliform detections in wells. A logistic regression model was developed to predict the likelihood of coliform occurrence in wells from 10 days of cumulative precipitation data and other predictive variables including geology, season, coliform bacteria analysis method, pH, and nitrate concentration. Total coliform (TC) and fecal coliform or Escherichia coli (FC/EC) were detected more frequently when the preceding 10 days of cumulative precipitation exceeded 34.5 and 54 mm, respectively. Furthermore, the likelihood of coliform detection was highest in wells located in the bedrock region, during summer and autumn, analyzed with the enzyme substrate method, with pH between 5 and 6.99, and (for FC/EC but not TC) nitrate greater than 10 mg/L. Thus, the likelihood of coliform presence in domestic wells can be predicted from readily available environmental factors including timing and magnitude of precipitation, offering outreach opportunities and potential changes to coliform testing recommendations.

  17. [Effect of photoreactivating light intensity on photoreactivation of Escherichia coli and fecal coliform in the tertiary effluent disinfected by UV].

    PubMed

    Guo, Mei-ting; Hu, Hong-ying; Liu, Wen-jun

    2008-09-01

    The effect of photoreactivating light intensity on photoreactivation of E. coli and fecal coliform in tertiary effluent after UV disinfection were investigated. The response of the two species to intensity of photoreactivating light varied with UV dose and bacterial species. Photoreactivation of E. coli after UV irradiation of 5 mJ/cm2 achieved the same maximum under three selected intensities of photoreactivating light (0-43 microW/cm2). A threshold existed when UV dose increased to 20 mJ/cm2 and significant photoreactivation was detected only under intensity of light 43 microW/cm2. With different UV doses irradiation, fecal coliform showed little difference under selected intensities of photoreactivating light in this study. The different effects of photoreactivating light intensity on photoreactivation of different bacteria should be considered when proposing the control measurements.

  18. Use of the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN and bacterial source tracking for development of the fecal coliform total maximum daily load (TMDL) for Christians Creek, Augusta County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyer, Douglas; Hyer, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    Impairment of surface waters by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each State identify surface waters that do not meet applicable water-quality standards. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the 1998 Section 303(d) list of impaired waters because of violations of the water-quality standard for fecal coliform bacteria. A total maximum daily load (TMDL) will need to be developed by 2006 for each of these impaired streams and rivers by the Virginia Departments of Environmental Quality and Conservation and Recreation. A TMDL is a quantitative representation of the maximum load of a given water-quality constituent, from all point and nonpoint sources, that a stream can assimilate without violating the designated water-quality standard. Christians Creek, in Augusta County, Virginia, is one of the stream segments listed by the State of Virginia as impaired by fecal coliform bacteria. Watershed modeling and bacterial source tracking were used to develop the technical components of the fecal coliform bacteria TMDL for Christians Creek. The Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN (HSPF) was used to simulate streamflow, fecal coliform concentrations, and source-specific fecal coliform loading in Christians Creek. Ribotyping, a bacterial source tracking technique, was used to identify the dominant sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Christians Creek watershed. Ribotyping also was used to determine the relative contributions of specific sources to the observed fecal coliform load in Christians Creek. Data from the ribotyping analysis were incorporated into the calibration of the fecal coliform model. Study results provide information regarding the calibration of the streamflow and fecal coliform bacteria models and also identify the reductions in fecal coliform loads required to meet the TMDL for Christians Creek. The calibrated streamflow model simulated

  19. Coliform Bacteria Monitoring in Fish Systems: Current Practices in Public Aquaria.

    PubMed

    Culpepper, Erin E; Clayton, Leigh A; Hadfield, Catherine A; Arnold, Jill E; Bourbon, Holly M

    2016-06-01

    Public aquaria evaluate coliform indicator bacteria levels in fish systems, but the purpose of testing, testing methods, and management responses are not standardized, unlike with the coliform bacteria testing for marine mammal enclosures required by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. An online survey was sent to selected aquaria to document current testing and management practices in fish systems without marine mammals. The information collected included indicator bacteria species, the size and type of systems monitored, the primary purpose of testing, sampling frequency, test methods, the criteria for interpreting results, corrective actions, and management changes to limit human exposure. Of the 25 institutions to which surveys were sent, 19 (76%) responded. Fourteen reported testing for fecal indicator bacteria in fish systems. The most commonly tested indicator species were total (86%) and fecal (79%) coliform bacteria, which were detected by means of the membrane filtration method (64%). Multiple types and sizes of systems were tested, and the guidelines for testing and corrective actions were highly variable. Only three institutions performed additional tests to confirm the identification of indicator organisms. The results from this study can be used to compare bacterial monitoring practices and protocols in fish systems, as an aid to discussions relating to the accuracy and reliability of test results, and to help implement appropriate management responses. Received August 23, 2015; accepted December 29, 2015.

  20. Performance validation of chromogenic coliform agar for the enumeration of Escherichia coli and coliform bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lange, B; Strathmann, M; Oßmer, R

    2013-12-01

    The performance of chromogenic coliform agar (CCA) for the enumeration of Escherichia coli and coliform bacteria was validated according to ENV ISO 13843 using pure cultures and naturally contaminated water samples. The results indicate that for the detection of E. coli and coliform bacteria, respectively, the method is sensitive (94 and 91%), specific (97 and 94%), selective (selectivity -0·78 and -0·32) and efficient (96 and 92%). Relative recovery of E. coli and coliform bacteria on CCA in comparison with tryptone soy agar (TSA) was good (104 and 94% in mean, >80 and >70% in all cases), and repeatability and reproducibility were sufficient. The linear working range was defined for 10-100 total target colonies per 47-mm membrane filter. A high precision of the method was confirmed by low overdispersion in comparison with Poisson distribution. The robustness of the method with respect to the variable incubation time of 21 ± 3 h was found to be low, because an incidental increase in presumptive colonies especially between 18 and 21 h was observed. In conclusion, the CCA method was proved as a reliable method for the quantification of E. coli and coliform bacteria. The international standard for the detection and enumeration of E. coli and coliform bacteria by membrane filtration (ISO 9308-1) is currently under revision and will be published in 2014. In the new standard, lactose-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) agar will be replaced by a CCA. A performance validation of this revised method according to ENV ISO 13843 is presented in this study to determine fundamental data on its applicability and to provide reference data for secondary validation by users of this method. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Fecal coliform accumulation within a river subject to seasonally-disinfected wastewater discharges.

    PubMed

    Mitch, Azalea A; Gasner, Katherine C; Mitch, William A

    2010-09-01

    As pathogen contamination is a leading cause of surface water impairment, there has been increasing interest in the implications of seasonal disinfection practices of wastewater effluents for meeting water quality goals. For receiving waters designated for recreational use, disinfection during the winter months is often considered unnecessary due to reduced recreational usage, and assumptions that lower temperatures may reduce pathogen accumulation. For a river subject to seasonal disinfection, we sought to evaluate whether fecal coliforms accumulate during the winter to concentrations that would impair river water quality. Samples were collected from municipal wastewater outfalls along the river, as well as upstream and downstream of each outfall during the winter, when disinfection is not practiced, and during the summer, when disinfection is practiced. During both seasons, fecal coliform concentrations reached 2000-5000 CFU/100 mL, nearly an order of magnitude higher than levels targeted for the river to achieve primary contact recreational uses. During the summer, wastewater effluents were not significant contributors to fecal coliform loadings to the river. During the winter, fecal coliform accumulated along the river predominantly due to loadings from successive wastewater outfalls. In addition to the exceedance of fecal coliform criteria within the river, the accumulation of wastewater-derived fecal coliform along the river during the winter season suggests that wastewater outfalls may contribute elevated loads of pathogens to the commercial shellfish operations occurring at the mouth of the river. Reductions in fecal coliform concentrations between wastewater outfalls were attributed to dilution or overall removal. Combining discharge measurements from gauging stations, tributaries and wastewater outfalls to estimate seepage, dilution between wastewater outfalls was estimated, along with the percentage of the river deriving from wastewater outfalls. After

  2. Movement of coliform bacteria and nutrients in ground water flowing through basalt and sand aquifers.

    PubMed

    Entry, J A; Farmer, N

    2001-01-01

    Large-scale deposition of animal manure can result in contamination of surface and ground water and in potential transfer of disease-causing enteric bacteria to animals or humans. We measured total coliform bacteria (TC), fecal coliform bacteria (FC), NO3, NH4, total P, and PO4 in ground water flowing from basalt and sand aquifers, in wells into basalt and sand aquifers, in irrigation water, and in river water. Samples were collected monthly for 1 yr. Total coliform and FC numbers were always higher in irrigation water than in ground water, indicating that soil and sediment filtered most of these bacteria before they entered the aquifers. Total coliform and FC numbers in ground water were generally higher in the faster flowing basalt aquifer than in the sand aquifer, indicating that the slower flow and finer grain size may filter more TC and FC bacteria from water. At least one coliform bacterium/100 mL of water was found in ground water from both basalt and sand aquifers, indicating that ground water pumped from these aquifers is not necessarily safe for human consumption according to the American Public Health Association and the USEPA. The NO3 concentrations were usually higher in water flowing from the sand aquifer than in water flowing from the basalt aquifer or in perched water tables in the basalt aquifer. The PO4 concentrations were usually higher in water flowing from the basalt aquifer than in water flowing from the sand aquifer. The main concern is fecal contamination of these aquifers and health consequences that may arise from human consumption.

  3. Stimulation of fecal bacteria in ambient waters by experimental inputs of organic and inorganic phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Chudoba, Elizabeth A; Mallin, Michael A; Cahoon, Lawrence B; Skrabal, Stephen A

    2013-06-15

    Fecal microbial pollution of recreational and shellfishing waters is a major human health and economic issue. Microbial pollution sourced from stormwater runoff is especially widespread, and strongly associated with urbanization. However, non-point source nutrient pollution is also problematic, and may come from sources different from fecal-derived pollution (i.e. fertilization of farm fields, lawns and gardens, and ornamental urban areas). Fecal bacteria require nutrients; thus the impact of such nutrient loading on survival and abundance of fecal coliform bacteria in ambient waters was experimentally investigated in a constructed wetland in coastal North Carolina, USA. A series of nutrient-addition bioassays testing impacts of inorganic and organic nitrogen and phosphorus demonstrated that additions of neither organic nor inorganic nitrogen stimulated fecal coliform bacteria. However, phosphorus additions provided significant stimulation of fecal coliform growth at times; on other occasions such additions did not. Dilution bioassays combined with nutrient additions were subsequently devised to assess potential impacts of microzooplankton grazing on the target fecal bacteria populations. Results demonstrated grazing to be a significant bacterial reduction factor in 63% of tests, potentially obscuring nutrient effects. Thus, combining dilution experiments with nutrient addition bioassays yielded simultaneous information on microzooplankton grazing rates on fecal bacteria, fecal bacterial growth rates, and nutrient limitation. Overall, when tested against a non-amended control, additions of either organic or inorganic phosphorus significantly stimulated fecal coliform bacterial growth on 50% of occasions tested, with organic phosphorus generally providing greater stimulation. The finding of significant phosphorus stimulation of fecal bacteria indicates that extraneous nutrient loading can, at times, augment the impacts of fecal microbial pollution of shellfishing

  4. Membrane filter method for recovery of fecal coliforms in chlorinated sewage effluents.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, S D

    1976-01-01

    The standard one-step M-FC broth-membrane-filter procedure for recovery of fecal coliforms from chlorinated sewage effluents is much less effective than the multiple-tube (most-probable-number) technique. A two-step membrane-filter method, using a pre-enrichment technique with phenol red lactose broth and incubation at 35 degrees C for 4 h, followether 18+/-2 h, enhanced fecal coliform recovery from chlorinated effluents. The results of 126 comparisons using chlorinated effluents from five wastewater plants showed that fecal coliform recovery by using the two-step membrane-filter method is comparable to that using the multiple-tube procedure. PMID:791122

  5. Computer modeling of fecal coliform contamination of an urban estuarine system.

    PubMed

    Scarlatos, P D

    2001-01-01

    This study is focused on the investigation of the sources, distribution and fate of fecal coliform populations in the North Fork of the New River that flows through the City of Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA. The dynamics of this brackish river are driven by weak tides, regulated freshwater discharges, overland runoff, storm water drainage from sewers, and groundwater exchange. Extensive field studies failed to document any alleged source(s) of contamination, including birds, domesticated and undomesticated mammals, humans, septic tank leakage, urban runoff, non-point discharges from agricultural lands, waste disposal from live-aboard vessels and/or in situ re-growth of fecal coliform. In order to facilitate field sampling, and support the data analyses efforts, computer simulations were applied to assess the likelihood of the various possible pollution scenarios. The physically based computer model used is the WASP (Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program Modeling System) of the US Environmental Protection Agency. In addition, the Neural Network MATLAB Toolbox was utilized for data analysis. WASP was able to accurately simulate the water hydrodynamics and coliform concentrations within the North Fork, while the neural network assisted in identifying correlations between fecal coliform and the various parameters involved. The numerical results supported the conclusion that fecal coliform were introduced by the animal populations along the riverbanks and by storm water washout of the adjacent drainage basins and the banks. The problem is exaggerated due to the low flashing capacity of the river.

  6. Influence of pH, Oxygen, and Humic Substances on Ability of Sunlight To Damage Fecal Coliforms in Waste Stabilization Pond Water

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Thomas P.; Mara, D. Duncan; Silva, Salomao A.

    1992-01-01

    Simple beaker experiments established that light damages fecal coliforms in waste stabilization ponds by an oxygen-mediated exogenous photosensitization. Wavelengths of up to 700 nm were able to damage bacteria. The ability of wavelengths of >425 nm to damage fecal coliforms was dependent on the presence of dissolved sensitizers. The sensitizers were ubiquitous in raw sewage, unaffected by sewage treatment, not derivatives of bacteriochlorophyll or chlorophyll, absorbed well in UV light, and had a slight yellowish color; they are therefore believed to be humic substances. The ability of light to damage fecal coliforms was highly sensitive to, and completely dependent on, oxygen. Scavengers of H2O2 and singlet oxygen could protect the bacteria from the effects of sunlight, but scavengers of hydroxyl radicals and superoxides could not. Light-mediated damage of fecal coliforms was highly sensitive to elevated pH values, which also enabled light with wavelengths of >425 nm (in the presence of the sensitizer) to damage the bacteria. We conclude that humic substances, pH, and dissolved oxygen are important variables in the process by which light damages microorganisms in this and other environments and that these variables should be considered in future research on, and models of, the effects of light. PMID:16348698

  7. Assessing the sources of high fecal coliform levels at an urban tropical beach.

    PubMed

    Davino, Aline Mendonça Cavalcante; de Melo, Milena Bandeira; Caffaro Filho, Roberto Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Recreational water quality is commonly assessed by microbial indicators such as fecal coliforms. Maceió is the capital of Alagoas state, located in tropical northeastern Brazil. Its beaches are considered as the most beautiful urban beaches in the country. Jatiúca Beach in Maceió was found to be unsuitable for bathing continuously during the year of 2011. The same level of contamination was not observed in surrounding beaches. The aim of this study was to initiate the search for the sources of these high coliform levels, so that contamination can be eventually mitigated. We performed a retrospective analysis of historical results of fecal coliform concentrations from 2006 to 2012 at five monitoring stations located in the study region. Results showed that Jatiúca Beach consistently presented the worst quality among the studied beaches. A field survey was conducted to identify existing point and non-point sources of pollution in the area. Monitoring in the vicinity of Jatiúca was spatially intensified. Fecal coliform concentrations were categorized according to tide range and tide stage. A storm drain located in northern Jatiúca was identified as the main point source of the contamination. However, fecal coliform concentrations at Jatiúca were high during high tides and spring tides even when this point source was inactive (no rainfall). We hypothesize that high fecal coliform levels in Jatiúca Beach may also be caused by aquifer contamination or, more likely, from tide washing of contaminated sand. Both of these hypotheses will be further investigated.

  8. Assessing the sources of high fecal coliform levels at an urban tropical beach

    PubMed Central

    Davino, Aline Mendonça Cavalcante; de Melo, Milena Bandeira; Caffaro, Roberto Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Recreational water quality is commonly assessed by microbial indicators such as fecal coliforms. Maceió is the capital of Alagoas state, located in tropical northeastern Brazil. Its beaches are considered as the most beautiful urban beaches in the country. Jatiúca Beach in Maceió was found to be unsuitable for bathing continuously during the year of 2011. The same level of contamination was not observed in surrounding beaches. The aim of this study was to initiate the search for the sources of these high coliform levels, so that contamination can be eventually mitigated. We performed a retrospective analysis of historical results of fecal coliform concentrations from 2006 to 2012 at five monitoring stations located in the study region. Results showed that Jatiúca Beach consistently presented the worst quality among the studied beaches. A field survey was conducted to identify existing point and non-point sources of pollution in the area. Monitoring in the vicinity of Jatiúca was spatially intensified. Fecal coliform concentrations were categorized according to tide range and tide stage. A storm drain located in northern Jatiúca was identified as the main point source of the contamination. However, fecal coliform concentrations at Jatiúca were high during high tides and spring tides even when this point source was inactive (no rainfall). We hypothesize that high fecal coliform levels in Jatiúca Beach may also be caused by aquifer contamination or, more likely, from tide washing of contaminated sand. Both of these hypotheses will be further investigated. PMID:26691459

  9. Investigating the fate and transport of fecal coliform contamination in a tidal estuarine system using a three-dimensional model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Bo; Liu, Wen-Cheng

    2017-03-15

    A three-dimensional fecal coliform transport model was developed and incorporated into a hydrodynamic and suspended sediment transport model to better understand the microbiological water quality in the tidal Tamsui River estuarine system of northern Taiwan, which includes three main tributaries: Dahan River, Xindian River, and Keelung River. The model was calibrated using the water level, salinity, suspended sediment concentration, and fecal coliform data measured in 2010. The predictive skill, a statistical approach, is used to evaluate the model performance. There was quantitatively good agreement between the simulation and measurement results. Further, the calibrated model underwent model sensitivity analysis by varying the model parameters which include the settling velocity, darkness decay rate, partition coefficient, and fecal coliform concentration in the sediment bed. The results indicated that the settling velocity played the most important role in affecting fecal coliform concentrations followed by partition coefficient, darkness decay rate, and fecal coliform concentration in the sediment bed. The model was also used to investigate the effects of salinity and suspended sediment on fecal coliform contamination. The salinity module was excluded in the simulations, resulting in an increase of fecal coliform concentration. However the effect of salinity on fecal coliform concentration is minor. If the suspended sediment transport was excluded in the simulations, the predicted results of fecal coliform concentration decrease to be underestimated the measured data. The modeling results revealed that the inclusion of the suspended sediment transport model in the simulations was of crucial importance because the fecal coliform concentrations were significantly influenced by the suspended sediment concentration in the estuarine system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Removal of helminth eggs and fecal coliforms by anaerobic thermophilic sludge digestion.

    PubMed

    Cabirol, N; Rojas Oropeza, M; Noyola, A

    2002-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of two types of waste sludge was applied in order to assess the suitability of thermophilic conditions for the stabilization of organic matter and removal of fecal coliforms and helminth eggs. Feeding sludge was taken from an activated sludge municipal facility (BS) and from an enhanced primary treatment municipal plant (EPT). As an accompanying experiment, mesophilic digesters were also operated. The four digesters (M1, M2, T1, T2) had a 5 litre volume and an egg shape. A highly stabilized material was obtained at both temperatures with BS type of sludge, taking the reduction of volatile fraction of suspended solids (%Rvss) as indicator (84% for M1 and 74% for T1). In general, EPT sludge was a more difficult substrate, if compared with BS sludge; thermophilic condition was better adapted than mesophilic for this kind of sludge. Satisfactory reductions on counts of fecal coliforms and helminth eggs were achieved under thermophilic digestion for both types of feeding sludge. T1 digester, fed with biological sludge, removed fecal coliforms below 1000 MPN/gTS and helminth eggs down to 0.28 HELarval/gTS, at an HRT of 20 days. As a general conclusion, anaerobic thermophilic digestion may be an appropriate option for sludge stabilization, in order to meet EPA Class A biosolids final disposal regulations. However, further research is needed in order to consistently remove helminth eggs and fecal coliforms from waste sludge at shorter hydraulic retention times.

  11. 33 CFR 159.319 - Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards. 159.319 Section 159.319 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Discharge of Effluents...

  12. 33 CFR 159.319 - Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards. 159.319 Section 159.319 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Discharge of Effluents...

  13. 33 CFR 159.319 - Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards. 159.319 Section 159.319 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Discharge of Effluents...

  14. Molecular identification of coliform bacteria from colicky breastfed infants.

    PubMed

    Savino, F; Cordisco, L; Tarasco, V; Calabrese, R; Palumeri, E; Matteuzzi, D

    2009-10-01

    To determine the presence of intestinal coliform bacteria in colicky vs healthy infants. We isolated coliform strains from faeces and performed quantitative bacterial cultures in 41 colicky and 39 healthy breastfed infants, identified using PCR with species-specific primers, strain-specific Automated Ribotyping and the API-50E kit for Enterobacteriaceae to identify the most frequent strains. Coliform strains were more abundant in colicky infants (median 6.04 log(10) CFU/g faeces, range 2.00-8.76) vs controls (median 4.47 log(10) CFU/g faeces, range 1.00-8.08) (p = 0.026). Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, E. aerogenes and Enterococcus faecalis were the predominant species in colicky and healthy infants. The counts of each bacterial species differed between the two groups, and the difference was significant (p = 0.002) for E. coli: median 6.30 log(10) CFU/g faeces (range 3.00-8.74) in colicky infants, and median 4.70 log(10) CFU/g faeces (range 2.00-5.85) in controls. This is the first study to evaluate the colonization patterns of gas-forming coliforms in colicky infants and healthy controls identified by molecular methods. Coliform bacteria, particularly Escherichia coli, were found to be more abundant in colicky infants. Our data could help to shed light on the cause of infantile colic.

  15. Effect of Bovine Manure on Fecal Coliform Attachment to Soil and Soil Particles of Different Sizes▿

    PubMed Central

    Guber, Andrey K.; Pachepsky, Yakov A.; Shelton, Daniel R.; Yu, Olivia

    2007-01-01

    Manure-borne bacteria can be transported in runoff as free cells, cells attached to soil particles, and cells attached to manure particles. The objectives of this work were to compare the attachment of fecal coliforms (FC) to different soils and soil fractions and to assess the effect of bovine manure on FC attachment to soil and soil fractions. Three sand fractions of different sizes, the silt fraction, and the clay fraction of loam and sandy clay loam soils were separated and used along with soil samples in batch attachment experiments with water-FC suspensions and water-manure-FC suspensions. In the absence of manure colloids, bacterial attachment to soil, silt, and clay particles was much higher than the attachment to sand particles having no organic coating. The attachment to the coated sand particles was similar to the attachment to silt and clay. Manure colloids in suspensions decreased bacterial attachment to soils, clay and silt fractions, and coated sand fractions, but did not decrease the attachment to sand fractions without the coating. The low attachment of bacteria to silt and clay particles in the presence of manure colloids may cause predominantly free-cell transport of manure-borne FC in runoff. PMID:17369341

  16. Probabilistic assessment of compliance with the numerical criteria for fecal coliforms in rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, YoonKyung

    2017-04-01

    Most guidelines for assessing fecal contamination in surface waters suggest that a waterbody is impaired if a certain percent or the geometric mean of samples exceeds the numerical criteria for fecal indicator organisms. However, this raw score approach is not able to account for the uncertainty and variability in the sample statistics. In a Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach, the uncertainty in the mean parameter is expressed as a posterior distribution, and the probability of not violating the criterion is referred to as the confidence of compliance (COC). Further, the spatiotemporal variability in the mean parameter can be quantified by imposing the hierarchical structure on the model. The monitoring data spanning 91 sites across the four major rivers (the Han, Geum, Yeongsan, and Nakdong) of South Korea for the years 2007-2016 were used. The Bayesian hierarchical model was developed for each river to predict the COC with the criteria for fecal coliforms. The established criteria for fecal coliforms are less than 10, 100, 200, and 1,000 CFU/100mL in the river whose water quality goal corresponds to Class Ia, Ib, II, and III, respectively. The model results suggested that the COC varied significantly by site, ranging from 0.0 to 98.9 percent across the four rivers. In the Geum, Yeongsan, and Nakdong Rivers, COC values in the upper river sections were substantially lower than those in the upper river sections. The model suggested that for all four rivers the spatial component, compared with annual and seasonal components, made the largest contribution to the variability in mean fecal coliforms. In all four rivers, mean levels for fecal coliform during the summer (July to September) were distinctly higher than those during other seasons. A decreasing pattern was clearly shown in the Yeongsan River over the recent decade, while monotonic increases or decreases were not shown in other three rivers.

  17. Coliform bacteria in New Jersey domestic wells: influence of geology, laboratory, and method.

    PubMed

    Atherholt, Thomas B; Bousenberry, Raymond T; Carter, Gail P; Korn, Leo R; Louis, Judith B; Serfes, Michael E; Waller, Debra A

    2013-01-01

    Following passage of the New Jersey Private Well Testing Act, 50,800 domestic wells were tested between 2002 and 2007 for the presence of total coliform (TC) bacteria. Wells containing TC bacteria were further tested for either fecal coliform or Escherichia coli (FC/E. coli) bacteria. Analysis of the data, generated by 39 laboratories, revealed that the rate of coliform detections in groundwater (GW) was influenced by the laboratory and the method used, and also by geology. Based on one sample per well, TC and FC/E. coli were detected in wells located in bedrock 3 and 3.7 times more frequently, respectively, than in wells located in the unconsolidated strata of the Coastal Plain. In bedrock, detection rates were higher in sedimentary rock than in igneous or metamorphic rock. Ice-age glaciers also influenced detection rates, most likely by removing material in some areas and depositing thick layers of unconsolidated material in other areas. In bedrock, coliform bacteria were detected more often in wells with a pH of 3 to 6 than in wells with a pH of 7 to 10 whereas the reverse was true in the Coastal Plain. TC and FC/E. coli bacteria were detected in 33 and 9.5%, respectively, of sedimentary rock wells with pH 3 to 6. Conversely, for Coastal Plain wells with pH 3 to 6, detection rates were 4.4% for TC and 0.6% for FC/E. coli. © 2012, The Author(s). GroundWater © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  18. Occurrence of tetracycline-resistant fecal coliforms and their resistance genes in an urban river impacted by municipal wastewater treatment plant discharges.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chong-Miao; Du, Cong; Xu, Huan; Miao, Yan-Hui; Cheng, Yan-Yan; Tang, Hao; Zhou, Jin-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance of fecal coliforms in an urban river poses great threats to both human health and the environment. To investigate the occurrence and distribution of antibiotic resistant bacteria in an urban river, water samples were collected from the Chanhe River in Xi'an, China. After membrane filtration of water samples, the tetracycline resistance rate of fecal coliforms and their resistance genes were detected by plating and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. We found that fecal coliforms were generally resistant to tetracycline and saw average resistance rates of 44.7%. The genes tetA and tetB were widely detected, and their positive rate was 60%-100% and 40%-90%, respectively. We found few strains containing tetC, tetK, tetQ and tetX, and we did not identify any strains containing tetG, tetM or tetO. The prevalence of tetA and tetB over other genes indicated that the main mechanism for resistance to tetracycline is by changes to the efflux pump. Our analysis of the types and proportion of tetracycline resistance genes in the Chanhe River at locations upstream and downstream of the urban center suggests that the increased number of tetracycline-resistant fecal coliforms and spatial variation of tetracycline resistance genes diversity were related to municipal wastewater treatment plant discharge.

  19. Yeasts and coliform bacteria of water accumulated in bromeliads of mangrove and sand dune ecosystems of southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hagler, A N; Rosa, C A; Morais, P B; Mendonça-Hagler, L C; Franco, G M; Araujo, F V; Soares, C A

    1993-10-01

    Yeasts and coliform bacteria were isolated from water that accumulated in the central cups and adjacent leaf axilae of two bromeliads, Neoregelia cruenta of a coastal sand dune and Quesnelia quesneliana of a mangrove ecosystem near the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The mean total coliform counts were above 10,000 per 100 mL for waters of both plants, but the mean fecal coliform counts were only 74 per 100 mL for Q. quesneliana and mostly undetected in water from N. cruenta. Of 90 fecal coliform isolates, 51 were typical of Escherichia coli in colony morphology and indol, methyl red, Volges-Proskauer, and citrate (IMViC) tests. Seven representatives of the typical E. coli cultures were identified as this species, but the identifications of nine other coliform bacteria were mostly dubious. The yeast community of N. cruenta was typical of plant surfaces with basidiomycetous yeasts anamorphs, and the black yeast Aureobasidium pullulans was prevalent. Quesnelia quesneliana had a substantial proportion of ascomycetous yeasts and their anamorphs, including a probable new biotype of Saccharomyces unisporus. Our results suggested that the microbial communities in bromeliad waters are typically autochtonous and not contaminants.

  20. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Fecal Coliform and Associated with Suspended Solids and Water within Five Northern California Estuaries.

    PubMed

    Lewis, David J; Atwill, Edward R; Pereira, Maria das Graças C; Bond, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Fecal coliform and associated with suspended solids (SS) and water in five northern California estuaries were studied to document process influences and water quality monitoring biases affecting indicator bacteria concentrations. We collected and analyzed 2371 samples during 10 sampling events for the five studied estuaries. Concentrations during wet-season stormflow conditions were greater than during wet-season base flow and dry-season base flow conditions. Results also document concentration gradients across the length of the studied estuaries and with depth of sample collection. Highest concentrations were associated with shallow samples collected furthest inland. Corresponding decreases occurred the deeper and closer to the estuary mouth a sample was collected. Results also identify direct relationships of wind speed and discharge velocity and indirect relationship of tide stage to indicator bacteria concentrations. Bacteria associated with suspended solids (SS), after conversion to the same units of measurement (mass), were three orders of magnitude greater than in the water fraction. However, the mean proportion contributed by SS to composite water sample concentrations was 8% (SE 0.3) for fecal coliform and 7% (SE 0.3) for . Bacteria from the SS proportion is related to seasonality, tide stage, and discharge velocity that are consistent with mechanisms for entrainment, transport of SS, and reduced particle settling. These results are important for both managing and monitoring these systems by improving sample spatial and temporal context and corresponding bacteria concentration values across the freshwater-saltwater interface. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. Influence of Seasonal Environmental Variables on the Distribution of Presumptive Fecal Coliforms around an Antarctic Research Station

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Kevin A.

    2003-01-01

    Factors affecting fecal microorganism survival and distribution in the Antarctic marine environment include solar radiation, water salinity, temperature, sea ice conditions, and fecal input by humans and local wildlife populations. This study assessed the influence of these factors on the distribution of presumptive fecal coliforms around Rothera Point, Adelaide Island, Antarctic Peninsula during the austral summer and winter of February 1999 to September 1999. Each factor had a different degree of influence depending on the time of year. In summer (February), although the station population was high, presumptive fecal coliform concentrations were low, probably due to the biologically damaging effects of solar radiation. However, summer algal blooms reduced penetration of solar radiation into the water column. By early winter (April), fecal coliform concentrations were high, due to increased fecal input by migrant wildlife, while solar radiation doses were low. By late winter (September), fecal coliform concentrations were high near the station sewage outfall, as sea ice formation limited solar radiation penetration into the sea and prevented wind-driven water circulation near the outfall. During this study, environmental factors masked the effect of station population numbers on sewage plume size. If sewage production increases throughout the Antarctic, environmental factors may become less significant and effective sewage waste management will become increasingly important. These findings highlight the need for year-round monitoring of fecal coliform distribution in Antarctic waters near research stations to produce realistic evaluations of sewage pollution persistence and dispersal. PMID:12902283

  2. Diversity of fecal coliforms and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in wastewater treatment model plant.

    PubMed

    Luczkiewicz, A; Fudala-Ksiazek, S; Jankowska, K; Quant, B; Olańczuk-Neyman, K

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of resistance patterns among wastewater fecal coliforms was determined in the study. Susceptibility of the isolates was tested against 19 antimicrobial agents: aminoglycosides, aztreonam, carbapenems, cephalosporines, beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors, penicillines, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and fluoroquinolones. Additionally the removal of resistant isolates was evaluated in the laboratory-scale wastewater treatment model plant (M-WWTP), continuously supplied with the wastewater obtained from the full-scale WWTP. Number of fecal coliforms in raw (after mechanical treatment) and treated wastewater, as well as in aerobic chamber effluent was determined using selective medium. The selected strains were identified and examined for antibiotic resistance using Phoenix Automated Microbiology System (BD Biosciences, USA). The strains were identified as Escherichia coli (n=222), Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. ozaenae (n=9), and Pantoea agglomerans (n=1). The isolate of P. agglomerans as well as 48% of E. coli isolates were sensitive to all antimicrobials tested. The most frequent resistance patterns were found for ampicillin: 100% of K. pneumoniae ssp. ozaenae and 41% of E. coli isolates. Among E. coli isolates 12% was regarded as multiple antimicrobial resistant (MAR). In the studied M-WWTP, the applied activated sludge processes reduced considerably the number of fecal coliforms, but increased the ratio of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli isolates to sensitive ones, especially among strains with MAR patterns.

  3. Rapid, single-step most-probable-number method for enumerating fecal coliforms in effluents from sewage treatment plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, E. F.; Silverman, M. P.

    1979-01-01

    A single-step most-probable-number method for determining the number of fecal coliform bacteria present in sewage treatment plant effluents is discussed. A single growth medium based on that of Reasoner et al. (1976) and consisting of 5.0 gr. proteose peptone, 3.0 gr. yeast extract, 10.0 gr. lactose, 7.5 gr. NaCl, 0.2 gr. sodium lauryl sulfate, and 0.1 gr. sodium desoxycholate per liter is used. The pH is adjusted to 6.5, and samples are incubated at 44.5 deg C. Bacterial growth is detected either by measuring the increase with time in the electrical impedance ratio between the innoculated sample vial and an uninnoculated reference vial or by visual examination for turbidity. Results obtained by the single-step method for chlorinated and unchlorinated effluent samples are in excellent agreement with those obtained by the standard method. It is suggested that in automated treatment plants impedance ratio data could be automatically matched by computer programs with the appropriate dilution factors and most probable number tables already in the computer memory, with the corresponding result displayed as fecal coliforms per 100 ml of effluent.

  4. Rapid, single-step most-probable-number method for enumerating fecal coliforms in effluents from sewage treatment plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, E. F.; Silverman, M. P.

    1979-01-01

    A single-step most-probable-number method for determining the number of fecal coliform bacteria present in sewage treatment plant effluents is discussed. A single growth medium based on that of Reasoner et al. (1976) and consisting of 5.0 gr. proteose peptone, 3.0 gr. yeast extract, 10.0 gr. lactose, 7.5 gr. NaCl, 0.2 gr. sodium lauryl sulfate, and 0.1 gr. sodium desoxycholate per liter is used. The pH is adjusted to 6.5, and samples are incubated at 44.5 deg C. Bacterial growth is detected either by measuring the increase with time in the electrical impedance ratio between the innoculated sample vial and an uninnoculated reference vial or by visual examination for turbidity. Results obtained by the single-step method for chlorinated and unchlorinated effluent samples are in excellent agreement with those obtained by the standard method. It is suggested that in automated treatment plants impedance ratio data could be automatically matched by computer programs with the appropriate dilution factors and most probable number tables already in the computer memory, with the corresponding result displayed as fecal coliforms per 100 ml of effluent.

  5. Status and trends of fecal indicator bacteria in two urban watersheds.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Tina M; Suarez, Monica P; Rifai, Hanadi S; Jensen, Paul; Su, Yu-Chun; Stein, Ron

    2006-11-01

    This paper examines bacterial levels and their causes in two Houston bayous (Texas). Buffalo and Whiteoak bayous are two of the most contaminated water bodies in Texas for indicator bacteria, based on the frequency and magnitude of contact recreation water quality exceedances. Examination of historical data indicates frequent exceedances, although some improvement has been made since the 1970s. Statistical analyses showed some correlation between in-stream fecal coliform concentrations and rainfall and with land use. Differences in fecal coliform concentrations were found between high- and low-flow conditions in Whiteoak Bayou, while reservoir releases confounded this relationship in Buffalo Bayou. Wastewater treatment plant effluent was found to make up two-thirds to three-fourths of the median flow in both bayous. Effluent sampling was conducted at 72 of the approximately 140 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the watersheds, providing evidence that WWTP effluent could act to maintain low-flow concentrations of fecal coliform in the bayous.

  6. Molecular identification of coliform bacteria isolated from drinking water reservoirs with traditional methods and the Colilert-18 system.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Nienhüser, Anita; Packroff, Gabriele; Wernicke, Frank; Mehling, Arnd; Nixdorf, Katja; Fiedler, Stefanie; Kolauch, Claudia; Esser, Michael

    2008-07-01

    The accuracy of a traditional method (lactose utilization with acid and gas production) for the detection of coliform bacteria and E. coli was tested in comparison with method ISO 9308-1 (based on acid formation from lactose) and the Colilert-18 system (detection of beta-galactosidase). A total of 345 isolates were identified after isolation from water samples using API 20E strips. The Colilert-18 led to the highest number of positive findings (95% of the isolates were assigned to coliforms), whereas the ISO-9308-1 method resulted only in 29% coliform findings. With the traditional method only 15% were rated positive. Most of the isolates were identified by the API 20E system as Enterobacter spp. (species of the Enterobacter cloacae complex), Serratia spp., Citrobacter spp.and Klebsiella spp.; but species identification remained vague in several cases. A more detailed identification of 126 pure cultures by using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and analysis of the hsp60 gene resulted in the identification of Enterobacter nimipressuralis, E. amnigenus, E. asburiae, E. hormaechei, and Serratia fonticola as predominat coliforms. These species are beta-galactosidase positive, but show acid formation from lactose often after a prolonged incubation time. They are often not of fecal origin and may interfere with the ability to accurately detect coliforms of fecal origin.

  7. Seasonal variation of fecal indicator bacteria in storm events within the US stormwater database.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xubin; Jones, Kim D

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria are one of the major causes of surface water impairments in the USA. Over the past several years, best management practices, including detention basins, manufactured devices, grass swales, filters and bioretention cells have been used to remove bacteria and other pollutants from stormwater runoff. However, there are data gaps in the comprehensive studies of bacteria concentrations in stormwater runoff. In this paper, the event mean concentration (EMC) of fecal indicator bacteria (Enterococcus, Escherichia coli, fecal Streptococcus group bacteria, and fecal coliform) across the USA was retrieved from the international stormwater best management practices database to analyze the seasonal variations of inflow and outflow event mean concentrations and removal efficiencies. The Kruskal-Wallis test was employed to determine the seasonal variations of bacteria indicator concentrations and removals, and the two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used for comparing different seasonal outcomes. The results indicate that all the inflow EMC of FIB in stormwater runoff is above the water quality criteria. The seasonal differences of fecal Streptococcus group bacteria and fecal coliform are significant. Summer has the potential to increase the bacteria EMC and illustrate the seasonal differences.

  8. Method of Detecting Coliform Bacteria and Escherichia Coli Bacteria from Reflected Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting coliform bacteria in water from reflected light and a method of detecting Eschericha Coli bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  9. Classification of antibiotic resistance patterns of indicator bacteria by discriminant analysis: use in predicting the source of fecal contamination in subtropical waters.

    PubMed

    Harwood, V J; Whitlock, J; Withington, V

    2000-09-01

    The antibiotic resistance patterns of fecal streptococci and fecal coliforms isolated from domestic wastewater and animal feces were determined using a battery of antibiotics (amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, erythromycin, streptomycin, and vancomycin) at four concentrations each. The sources of animal feces included wild birds, cattle, chickens, dogs, pigs, and raccoons. Antibiotic resistance patterns of fecal streptococci and fecal coliforms from known sources were grouped into two separate databases, and discriminant analysis of these patterns was used to establish the relationship between the antibiotic resistance patterns and the bacterial source. The fecal streptococcus and fecal coliform databases classified isolates from known sources with similar accuracies. The average rate of correct classification for the fecal streptococcus database was 62.3%, and that for the fecal coliform database was 63.9%. The sources of fecal streptococci and fecal coliforms isolated from surface waters were identified by discriminant analysis of their antibiotic resistance patterns. Both databases identified the source of indicator bacteria isolated from surface waters directly impacted by septic tank discharges as human. At sample sites selected for relatively low anthropogenic impact, the dominant sources of indicator bacteria were identified as various animals. The antibiotic resistance analysis technique promises to be a useful tool in assessing sources of fecal contamination in subtropical waters, such as those in Florida.

  10. Classification of Antibiotic Resistance Patterns of Indicator Bacteria by Discriminant Analysis: Use in Predicting the Source of Fecal Contamination in Subtropical Waters

    PubMed Central

    Harwood, Valerie J.; Whitlock, John; Withington, Victoria

    2000-01-01

    The antibiotic resistance patterns of fecal streptococci and fecal coliforms isolated from domestic wastewater and animal feces were determined using a battery of antibiotics (amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, erythromycin, streptomycin, and vancomycin) at four concentrations each. The sources of animal feces included wild birds, cattle, chickens, dogs, pigs, and raccoons. Antibiotic resistance patterns of fecal streptococci and fecal coliforms from known sources were grouped into two separate databases, and discriminant analysis of these patterns was used to establish the relationship between the antibiotic resistance patterns and the bacterial source. The fecal streptococcus and fecal coliform databases classified isolates from known sources with similar accuracies. The average rate of correct classification for the fecal streptococcus database was 62.3%, and that for the fecal coliform database was 63.9%. The sources of fecal streptococci and fecal coliforms isolated from surface waters were identified by discriminant analysis of their antibiotic resistance patterns. Both databases identified the source of indicator bacteria isolated from surface waters directly impacted by septic tank discharges as human. At sample sites selected for relatively low anthropogenic impact, the dominant sources of indicator bacteria were identified as various animals. The antibiotic resistance analysis technique promises to be a useful tool in assessing sources of fecal contamination in subtropical waters, such as those in Florida. PMID:10966379

  11. Effects of oral orbifloxacin on fecal coliforms in healthy cats: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kazuki; Sasaki, Atsushi; Shimizu, Takae

    2016-01-01

    The study objective was to determine the effect of oral orbifloxacin (ORB) on antimicrobial susceptibility and composition of fecal coliforms in cats. Nine cats were randomized to two groups administered a daily oral dose of 2.5 and 5.0 mg ORB/kg for 7 days and a control group (three cats per group). Coliforms were isolated from stool samples and were tested for susceptibilities to ORB and 5 other drugs. ORB concentration in feces was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The coliforms were undetectable after 2 days of ORB administration, and their number increased in most cats after termination of the administration. Furthermore, only isolates of Escherichia coli were detected in all cats before administration, and those of Citrobacter freundii were detected after termination of the administration. E. coli isolates exhibited high ORB susceptibility [Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), ≤0.125 µg/ml] or relatively low susceptibility (MIC, 1-2 µg/ml) with a single gyrA mutation. C. freundii isolates largely exhibited intermediate ORB susceptibility (MIC, 4 µg/ml), in addition to resistance to ampicillin and cefazolin, and harbored qnrB, but not a gyrA mutation. HPLC revealed that the peaks of mean concentration were 61.3 and 141.0 µg/g in groups receiving 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg, respectively. Our findings suggest that oral ORB may alter the total counts and composition of fecal coliform, but is unlikely to yield highly fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants of E. coli and C. freundii in cats, possibly because of the high drug concentration in feces.

  12. Effects of oral orbifloxacin on fecal coliforms in healthy cats: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    HARADA, Kazuki; SASAKI, Atsushi; SHIMIZU, Takae

    2015-01-01

    The study objective was to determine the effect of oral orbifloxacin (ORB) on antimicrobial susceptibility and composition of fecal coliforms in cats. Nine cats were randomized to two groups administered a daily oral dose of 2.5 and 5.0 mg ORB/kg for 7 days and a control group (three cats per group). Coliforms were isolated from stool samples and were tested for susceptibilities to ORB and 5 other drugs. ORB concentration in feces was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The coliforms were undetectable after 2 days of ORB administration, and their number increased in most cats after termination of the administration. Furthermore, only isolates of Escherichia coli were detected in all cats before administration, and those of Citrobacter freundii were detected after termination of the administration. E. coli isolates exhibited high ORB susceptibility [Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), ≤0.125 µg/ml] or relatively low susceptibility (MIC, 1−2 µg/ml) with a single gyrA mutation. C. freundii isolates largely exhibited intermediate ORB susceptibility (MIC, 4 µg/ml), in addition to resistance to ampicillin and cefazolin, and harbored qnrB, but not a gyrA mutation. HPLC revealed that the peaks of mean concentration were 61.3 and 141.0 µg/g in groups receiving 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg, respectively. Our findings suggest that oral ORB may alter the total counts and composition of fecal coliform, but is unlikely to yield highly fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants of E. coli and C. freundii in cats, possibly because of the high drug concentration in feces. PMID:26311787

  13. Predicting Fecal Indicator Bacteria Fate and Removal in Urban Stormwater at the Watershed Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfand, J.; Hogue, T. S.; Luthy, R. G.

    2016-12-01

    Urban stormwater is a major cause of water quality impairment, resulting in surface waters that fail to meet water quality standards and support their designated uses. Of the many stormwater pollutants, fecal indicator bacteria are particularly important to track because they are directly linked to pathogens which jeopardize public health; yet, their fate and transport in urban stormwater is poorly understood. Monitoring fecal bacteria in stormwater is possible, but due to the high variability of fecal indicators both spatially and temporally, single grab or composite samples do not fully capture fecal indicator loading. Models have been developed to predict fecal indicator bacteria at the watershed scale, but they are often limited to agricultural areas, or areas that receive frequent rainfall. Further, it is unclear whether best management practices (BMPs), such as bioretention or engineered wetlands, are able to reduce bacteria to meet water quality standards at watershed outlets. This research seeks to develop a model to predict fecal indicator bacteria in urban stormwater in a semi-arid climate at the watershed scale. Using the highly developed Ballona Creek watershed (89 mi2) located in Los Angeles County as a case study, several existing mechanistic models are coupled with a hydrologic model to predict fecal indicator concentrations (E. coli, enterococci, fecal coliform, and total coliform) at the outfall of Ballona Creek watershed, Santa Monica Bay. The hydrologic model was developed using InfoSWMM Sustain, calibrated for flow from WY 1998-2006 (NSE = 0.94; R2 = 0.95), and validated from WY 2007-2015 (NSE = 0.93; R2 = 0.95). The developed coupled model is being used to predict fecal indicator fate and transport and evaluate how BMPs can be optimized to reduce fecal indicator loading to surface waters and recreational beaches.

  14. Influence of Coliform Source on Evaluation of Membrane Filters

    PubMed Central

    Brodsky, M. H.; Schiemann, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    Four brands of membrane filters were examined for total and fecal coliform recovery performance by two experimental approaches. Using diluted EC broth cultures of water samples, Johns-Manville filters were superior to Sartorius filters for fecal coliform but equivalent for total coliform recovery. Using river water samples, Johns-Manville filters were superior to Sartorius filters for total coliform but equivalent for fecal coliform recovery. No differences were observed between Johns-Manville and Millipore or Millipore and Sartorius filters for total or fecal coliform recoveries using either approach, nor was any difference observed between Millipore and Gelman filters for fecal coliform recovery from river water samples. These results indicate that the source of the coliform bacteria has an important influence on the conclusions of membrane filter evaluation studies. PMID:1106318

  15. Effect of Tetracycline Dose and Treatment Mode on Selection of Resistant Coliform Bacteria in Nursery Pigs.

    PubMed

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Damborg, Peter; Mellerup, Anders; Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Larsen, Inge; Holm, Anders; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Angen, Øystein; Ahmed, Shahana; Folkesson, Anders; Olsen, John Elmerdahl

    2017-06-15

    This study describes the results of a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of oxytetracycline treatment dose and mode of administration on the selection of antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria in fecal samples from nursery pigs. Nursery pigs (pigs of 4 to 7 weeks of age) in five pig herds were treated with oxytetracycline for Lawsonia intracellularis-induced diarrhea. Each group was randomly allocated to one of five treatment groups: oral flock treatment with a (i) high (20 mg/kg of body weight), (ii) medium (10 mg/kg), or (iii) low (5 mg/kg) dose, (iv) oral pen-wise (small-group) treatment (10 mg/kg), and (v) individual intramuscular injection treatment (10 mg/kg). All groups were treated once a day for 5 days. In all groups, treatment caused a rise in the numbers and proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliform bacteria right after treatment, followed by a significant drop by the time that the pigs left the nursery unit. The counts and proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliforms did not vary significantly between treatment groups, except immediately after treatment, when the highest treatment dose resulted in the highest number of resistant coliforms. A control group treated with tiamulin did not show significant changes in the numbers or proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliforms. Selection for tetracycline-resistant coliforms was significantly correlated to selection for ampicillin- and sulfonamide-resistant strains but not to selection for cefotaxime-resistant strains. In conclusion, the difference in the dose of oxytetracycline and the way in which the drug was applied did not cause significantly different levels of selection of tetracycline-resistant coliform bacteria under the conditions tested.IMPORTANCE Antimicrobial resistance is a global threat to human health. Treatment of livestock with antimicrobials has a direct impact on this problem, and there is a need to improve the ways that we use antimicrobials in livestock

  16. Evaluation of surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) as a filter for removal of E. coli and fecal coliforms from drinking water wells in Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, S. P.; Mtethiwa, A.; Ghambi, C.; Lusangasi, B.

    2012-12-01

    Unsafe drinking water is a problem faced by millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa and in developing nations around the world. While effective water treatments exist, their generally high costs preclude their use by the low-income populations that need them most. Surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) is a low-cost filter medium that has previously been demonstrated to efficiently remove bacteria and viruses in laboratory settings. The first known field test of SMZ as a drinking water filter was conducted in rural villages near Lilongwe, Malawi. Water was drawn from hand-dug wells and filtered through SMZ packs constructed from local materials. This filtration step was repeated over a period of several weeks to determine the effective lifetime of the filters. Pre-filtration and post-filtration samples were analyzed for E. coli and fecal coliforms by culturing and colorimetric presence/absence tests. All unfiltered water samples were contaminated with E. coli and fecal coliforms. The aforementioned pathogens were not detected in any of the initial filtered samples. After filtering an average of approximately 40 liters, E. coli and fecal coliforms were found to be present in the filtered water, presumably indicating that the filters had become saturated with the pathogens. The results demonstrate that SMZ could serve as an effective, affordable filter medium for treatment of drinking water in rural settings and developing countries. It is anticipated that the design of the filters could be further enhanced, leading to an increase in their effective lifespan.

  17. Effects of repeated-low level sodium chlorate administration on ruminal and fecal coliforms in sheep.

    PubMed

    Arzola, Claudio; Copado, Ramon; Epps, Sharon V R P; Rodriguez-Almeida, Felipe; Ruiz-Barrera, Oscar; Rodriguez-Muela, Carlos; Corral-Luna, Agustin; Castillo-Castillo, Yamicela; Diaz-Plascencia, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral sodium chlorate administration on reducing total coliform populations in ewes. A 30% sodium chlorate product or a sodium chloride placebo was administered to twelve lactating Dorper X Blackbelly or Pelibuey crossbred ewes averaging 65 kg body weight. The ewes were adapted to diet and management. Ewes were randomly assigned (4/treatment) to one of three treatments which were administered twice daily by oral gavage for five consecutive days: a control (TC) consisting of 3 g sodium chloride/animal/d, a T3 treatment consisting of 1.8 g of sodium chlorate/animal/d, and a T9 treatment consisting of 5.4 g sodium chlorate/animal/d; the latter was intended to approximate a lowest known effective dose. Ruminal samples collected by stomach tube and freshly voided fecal samples were collected daily beginning 3 days before treatment initiation and for 6 days thereafter. Contents were cultured quantitatively to enumerate total coliforms. There were no significant differences in total coliform numbers (log10 cfu/g) in the feces between treatments (P = 0.832). There were differences (P < 0.02) in ruminal coliform counts (log10 cfu/mL) between treatments (4.1, 4.3 and 5.0 log10/mL contents in TC, T3 and T9 Treatments, respectively) which tended to increase from the beginning of treatment until the 5th day of treatment (P < 0.05). Overall, we did not obtain the expected results with oral administration of sodium chloride at the applied doses. By comparing the trends in coliform populations in the rumen contents in all treatments, there was an increase over the days. The opposite trend occurred in the feces, due mainly to differences among rumen contents and feces in ewes administered the T9 treatment (P = 0.06). These results suggest that the low chlorate doses used here were suboptimal for the control of coliforms in the gastrointestinal tract of ewes.

  18. Coliform bacteria and nitrate contamination of wells in major soils of Frederick, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Tuthill, A.; Meikle, D.B.; Alavanja, M.C.R.

    1998-04-01

    An investigation was conducted on the hypothesis that inadequate septic system construction or placement may cause contamination of wells with coliform bacteria and/or nitrates. Specifically, two predictions were tested: (1) A negative correlation between lot size and coliform bacteria and nitrate contamination will exist in unsewered areas. (2) Coliform bacteria and nitrate contamination will decrease with increasing casing length. The relationship of coliform bacteria and nitrate levels to lot size and casing length was tested for all wells in unsewered areas (n = 832) and for wells in 10 soil groups in Frederick County, Maryland, to determine if septic system construction or placement contributed to well contamination. Coliform bacteria and nitrate contamination were negatively correlated with lot size. In addition, coliform bacteria levels were negatively correlated with casing length, and there was a trend toward nitrate levels being associated with casing length. The results suggest that septic systems may be a source of coliform bacteria and nitrate contamination of wells. The casing length required in well construction should be increased in areas where wells may be prone to coliform bacteria contamination if the minimum amount of casing is used.

  19. Environmental sources of fecal bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Ishii, Satoshi; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides a review of the research on environmental occurrences of faecal indicator bacteria in a variety of terrestrial and aquatic habitats under different geographic and climatic conditions, and discusses how these external sources may affect surface water quality.

  20. Disinfection of waterborne coliform bacteria using Luffa cylindrica fruit and seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Shaheed, Ameer; Templeton, Michael R; Matthews, Robert L; Tripathi, Sabitri K; Bhattarai, Kiran

    2009-12-01

    This study examined the potential of extracts of the plant Luffa cylindrica to act as disinfectants of drinking water. Aqueous extracts of the seeds and fruit of L. cylindrica were tested against total and faecal coliform bacteria in surface water by varying the extract doses and contact times. Inactivation of both faecal coliforms and total coliforms was highly variable and dose-dependent. The maximum coliform inactivation achieved in any trial was 86%. Fruit extracts were more successful at inactivating total coliforms than faecal coliforms. Seed extracts achieved higher coliform inactivation levels than fruit extracts generally. Overall, the antimicrobial potential of seeds and fruit from L. cylindrica was demonstrated; however the disinfection performance was less than would be required for these extracts to be considered reliable disinfectants for drinking water treatment.

  1. Determination of Escherichia coli Contamination with Chromocult Coliform Agar Showed a High Level of Discrimination Efficiency for Differing Fecal Pollution Levels in Tropical Waters of Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Byamukama, Dennis; Kansiime, Frank; Mach, Robert L.; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

    2000-01-01

    Escherichia coli, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and sulfite-reducing anaerobic spore formers from different polluted sites in a tropical environment were determined in order to test for their indication ability for fecal contamination. Quantification of E. coli contamination with Chromocult coliform agar proved to be efficient and feasible for determining fecal pollutions in the investigated area within 24 h. The other microbial parameters showed a lower ability to differentiate sites and cannot be recommended for monitoring fecal pollution in the studied tropical surface waters. PMID:10653767

  2. Removal of native coliphages and coliform bacteria from municipal wastewater by various wastewater treatment processes: implications to water reuse.

    PubMed

    Zhang, K; Farahbakhsh, K

    2007-06-01

    The efficacy of a conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment process and the membrane bioreactor technology in removing microbial pathogens was investigated. Total and fecal coliforms and somatic and F-specific coliphages were used as indicators of pathogenic bacteria and viruses. Up to 5.7 logs removal of coliforms and 5.5 logs of coliphages were observed in the conventional treatment process with advanced tertiary treatment. Addition of chemical coagulants seemed to improve the efficacy of primary and secondary treatment for microorganism removal. Complete removal of fecal coliforms and up to 5.8 logs removal of coliphages was observed in the MBR system. It was shown that the MBR system was capable of high removal of coliphages despite the variation in feed coliphage concentrations. The results of this study indicated that the MBR system can achieve better microbial removal in far fewer steps than the conventional activated sludge process with advanced tertiary treatment. The final effluent from either treatment processes can be potentially reused.

  3. Impacts of sanitation upgrading to the decrease of fecal coliforms entering into the environment in China.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yindong; Yao, Ruihua; He, Wei; Zhou, Feng; Chen, Cen; Liu, Xianhua; Lu, Yiren; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun; Lin, Yan; Zhou, Min

    2016-08-01

    Identifying the sanitation efficacy of reducing fecal contaminations in the environment is important for evaluating health risks of the public and developing future management strategies to improve sanitation conditions. In this study, we estimated the fecal coliforms (FC) entering into the environment in 31 provinces in China under three sanitation scenarios. Our calculation results indicated that, the current FC release is disparate among regions, and the human releases in the rural regions were dominant, accounting for over 90% of the total human releases. Compared with the human release, the FC release from the livestock was of similar magnitude, but has a quite different spatial distribution. In China Women's Development Program, the Chinese government set the target to make over 85% of the population in the rural access to the toilets in 2020. If the target set by the Chinese government is achieved, a decrease of 34% (12-54%) in the FC releases would be anticipated. In the future, the improvement in sanitation and accesses to the safe drinking water in the less developed regions, such as Tibet, Qinghai, and Ningxia, should be considered as a priority. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.126 Coliform test: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of effluent... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coliform test: Type II devices...

  5. 33 CFR 159.123 - Coliform test: Type I devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.123 Coliform test: Type I devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples of effluent... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coliform test: Type I devices...

  6. Fecal-indicator bacteria in streams alonga gradient of residential development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frenzel, Steven A.; Couvillion, Charles S.

    2002-01-01

    Fecal-indicator bacteria were sampled at 14 stream sites in Anchorage, Alaska, USA, as part of a study to determine the effects of urbanization on water quality. Population density in the subbasins sampled ranged from zero to 1,750 persons per square kilometer. Higher concentrations of fecal-coliform, E. coli, and enterococci bacteria were measured at the most urbanized sites. Although fecal-indicator bacteria concentrations were higher in summer than in winter, seasonal differences in bacteria concentrations generally were not significant. Areas served by sewer systems had significantly higher fecal-indicator bacteria concentrations than did areas served by septic systems. The areas served by sewer systems also had storm drains that discharged directly to the streams, whereas storm sewers were not present in the areas served by septic systems. Fecal-indicator bacteria concentrations were highly variable over a two-day period of stable streamflow, which may have implications for testing of compliance to water-quality standards.

  7. [Total and fecal coliforms, some enterobacteria staphylococcus sp. and moulds in salads for hot dogs sold in Maracay, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Acevedo, L; Mendoza, C; Oyón, R

    2001-12-01

    Fast food sold on the streets are good vehicle to transmit gastrointestinal diseases to consumers because they are highly manipulated. The vegetables are a good media for pathogens growth. Raw vegetables salads for hot dog sold in Maracay were studied. Total and fecal Coliforms and Staphylococcus sp. were quantified by the Most Probable Number Technique, Coliforms and Staphylococcus isolated were partially identified. Also the mould population was quantified and identified. Microbial growth was correlated with pH and acidity measurements. MPN/g of Total Coliforms was 1.44 x 10(5) and 4.57 x 10(4) for fecal Coliforms. E. coli was no detected. 87 isolated from the Coliforms were partially identified as Citrobacter freundii variety 1 (45.09% of the isolated), C. freundii variety II (21.57%), Enterobacter aerogenes variety I (17.65%) and E. aerogenes variety II (15.69%); Staphylococcus sp. 3.93 x 10(6) MPN/g and all of its isolated (52) were coagulase negative. The mould population was 4.5 x 10(4) ufc/g, Penicillium sp., Aspergillus, sp., Fusarium sp. were partially identified. The salads presented a pH of 5.92 and an acidity of 0.78 ml of NaOH.

  8. Vegetable Contamination by the Fecal Bacteria of Poultry Manure: Case Study of Gardening Sites in Southern Benin

    PubMed Central

    Atidégla, Séraphin C.; Huat, Joël; Agbossou, Euloge K.; Saint-Macary, Hervé; Glèlè Kakai, Romain

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted in southern Benin to assess the contamination of vegetables by fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and fecal streptococci as one consequence of the intensification of vegetable cropping through fertilization with poultry manure. For this purpose, on-farm trials were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at Yodo-Condji and Ayi-Guinnou with three replications and four fertilization treatments including poultry manure and three vegetable crops (leafy eggplant, tomato, and carrot). Sampling, laboratory analyses, and counts of fecal bacteria in the samples were performed in different cropping seasons. Whatever the fertilization treatment, the logs of mean fecal bacteria count per g of fresh vegetables were variable but higher than AFNOR criteria. The counts ranged from 8 to 10 fecal coliforms, from 5 to 8 fecal streptococci, and from 2 to 6 Escherichia coli, whereas AFNOR criteria are, respectively, 0, 1, and 0. The long traditional use of poultry manure and its use during the study helped obtain this high population of fecal pathogens. Results confirmed that the contamination of vegetables by fecal bacteria is mainly due to the use of poultry manure. The use of properly composted poultry manure with innovative cropping techniques should help reduce the number and incidence of pathogens. PMID:27069914

  9. Micro-zooplankton grazing as a means of fecal bacteria removal in stormwater BMPs.

    PubMed

    Burtchett, Jade M; Mallin, Michael A; Cahoon, Lawrence B

    2017-06-01

    A priority for environmental managers is control of stormwater runoff pollution, especially fecal microbial pollution. This research was designed to determine if fecal bacterial grazing by micro-zooplankton is a significant control on fecal bacteria in aquatic best management practices (BMPs); if grazing differs between a wet detention pond and a constructed wetland; and if environmental factors enhance grazing. Both 3-day grazing tests and 24-h dilution assays were used to determine grazing differences between the two types of BMP. Micro-zooplankton grazing was a stronger bacteria removal mechanism in stormwater wetlands rich in aquatic vegetation compared to a standard wet detention pond, although grazing was important in detention ponds as well. Our experiments indicated that the majority of grazers that fed on fecal bacteria were <20 μm in size. Grazing rates were positively correlated with fecal coliform abundance and increased water temperatures. Enumeration of grazers demonstrated that protozoans were significantly more abundant among wetland vegetation than in open water, and open wetland waters contained more flagellates and dinoflagellates than open wet detention pond waters. Grazing on fecal bacteria in BMPs is enhanced by aquatic vegetation, and grazing in aquatic BMPs in warmer climates should be greater than in cooler climates.

  10. Influence of seasonal and inter-annual hydro-meteorological variability on surface water fecal coliform concentration under varying land-use composition.

    PubMed

    St Laurent, Jacques; Mazumder, Asit

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the influence of hydro-meteorological variability on surface source water fecal contamination is critical to the maintenance of safe drinking water. Historically, this has not been possible due to the scarcity of data on fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). We examined the relationship between hydro-meteorological variability and the most commonly measured FIB, fecal coliform (FC), concentration for 43 surface water sites within the hydro-climatologically complex region of British Columbia. The strength of relationship was highly variable among sites, but tended to be stronger in catchments with nival (snowmelt-dominated) hydro-meteorological regimes and greater land-use impacts. We observed positive relationships between inter-annual FC concentration and hydro-meteorological variability for around 50% of the 19 sites examined. These sites are likely to experience increased fecal contamination due to the projected intensification of the hydrological cycle. Seasonal FC concentration variability appeared to be driven by snowmelt and rainfall-induced runoff for around 30% of the 43 sites examined. Earlier snowmelt in nival catchments may advance the timing of peak contamination, and the projected decrease in annual snow-to-precipitation ratio is likely to increase fecal contamination levels during summer, fall, and winter among these sites. Safeguarding drinking water quality in the face of such impacts will require increased monitoring of FIB and waterborne pathogens, especially during periods of high hydro-meteorological variability. This data can then be used to develop predictive models, inform source water protection measures, and improve drinking water treatment.

  11. Source specific fecal bacteria modeling using soil and water assessment tool model.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Prem B; Mankin, Kyle R; Barnes, Philip L

    2009-01-01

    Fecal bacteria can contaminate water and result in illness or death. It is often difficult to accurately determine sources of fecal bacteria contamination, but bacteria source tracking can help identify non-point sources of fecal bacteria such as livestock, humans and wildlife. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) microbial sub-model 2005 was used to evaluate source-specific fecal bacteria using three years (2004-2006) of observed modified deterministic probability of bacteria source tracking data, as well as measure hydrologic and water quality data. This study modeled source-specific bacteria using a model previously calibrated for flow, sediment and total fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) concentration. The SWAT model was calibrated at the Rock Creek sub-watershed, validated at the Deer Creek sub-watershed, and verified at the Auburn sub-watershed and then at the entire Upper Wakarusa watershed for predicting daily flow, sediment, nutrients, total fecal bacteria, and source-specific fecal bacteria. Watershed characteristics for livestock, humans, and wildlife fecal bacterial sources were first modeled together then with three separate sources and combinations of source-specific FCB concentration: livestock and human, livestock and wildlife and human and wildlife. Model results indicated both coefficient of determination (R(2)) and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency Index (E) parameters ranging from 0.52 to 0.84 for daily flow and 0.50-0.87 for sediment (good to very good agreement); 0.14-0.85 for total phosphorus (poor to very good agreement); -3.55 to 0.79 for total nitrogen (unsatisfactory to very good agreement) and -2.2 to 0.52 for total fecal bacteria (unsatisfactory to good agreement). Model results generally determined decreased agreement for each single source of bacteria (R(2) and E range from -5.03 to 0.39), potentially due to bacteria source tracking (BST) uncertainty and spatial variability. This study contributes to new knowledge in bacteria modeling and

  12. Modeling the relationship between most probable number (MPN) and colony-forming unit (CFU) estimates of fecal coliform concentration.

    PubMed

    Gronewold, Andrew D; Wolpert, Robert L

    2008-07-01

    Most probable number (MPN) and colony-forming-unit (CFU) estimates of fecal coliform bacteria concentration are common measures of water quality in coastal shellfish harvesting and recreational waters. Estimating procedures for MPN and CFU have intrinsic variability and are subject to additional uncertainty arising from minor variations in experimental protocol. It has been observed empirically that the standard multiple-tube fermentation (MTF) decimal dilution analysis MPN procedure is more variable than the membrane filtration CFU procedure, and that MTF-derived MPN estimates are somewhat higher on average than CFU estimates, on split samples from the same water bodies. We construct a probabilistic model that provides a clear theoretical explanation for the variability in, and discrepancy between, MPN and CFU measurements. We then compare our model to water quality samples analyzed using both MPN and CFU procedures, and find that the (often large) observed differences between MPN and CFU values for the same water body are well within the ranges predicted by our probabilistic model. Our results indicate that MPN and CFU intra-sample variability does not stem from human error or laboratory procedure variability, but is instead a simple consequence of the probabilistic basis for calculating the MPN. These results demonstrate how probabilistic models can be used to compare samples from different analytical procedures, and to determine whether transitions from one procedure to another are likely to cause a change in quality-based management decisions.

  13. [Preliminary study on bacteroides as the potential fecal contamination indicator bacteria].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing-yan; Chen, Zhi-jin; Ding, Xiao-bei; Huang, Wei; Yang, Rui-jia; Pei, Xiao-fang

    2011-03-01

    To explore the possibility of Bacteroides spp. as fecal contamination indicator bacteria with real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) assay through analyzing the correlation between Bacteroides spp. and coliform group in external environment. Quantity of coliform group and Bacteroides in water samples were detected by most-probable-number method (MPN) and RT-PCR, respectively, and their detection correlation was evaluated with linear correlation analysis. Both methods were also applied to detect the contaminated time limits and river water samples collected at four sampling sites in three different times. Seventy two hours were needed for the numeration of coliform group with MPN method, while RT-PCR could detect Bacteroides within 3 hours. The contaminated time limit of indoor and outdoor water samples of coliform group was more than 40 days and 9 days, and Bacteroides 13 days and 5 days, respectively. Also, the positive correlation between the quantity of Bacteroides and coliform group in outdoor water samples was obtained, the quantity of Bacteroides was from 8.3 × 10(6) copies/ml to less than 10(4) copies/ml during the first day to the fifth day, while coliform group was 4.3 × 10(6) MPN/100 ml to 2.4 × 10(3) MPN/100 ml. A 100% coincidence rate of the detection results with both methods was also observed. These results indicated that the detection results of both methods had perfect consistency. Bacteroides spp. can be potentially used as fecal contamination indicator bacteria with RT-PCR rapid detection.

  14. Mortality of fecal bacteria in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Lara, J.; Menon, P.; Servais, P.; Billen, G. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors propose a method for determining the mortality rate for allochthonous bacteria released in aquatic environments without interference due to the loss of culturability in specific culture media. This method consists of following the disappearance of radioactivity from the trichloracetic acid-insoluble fraction in water samples to which ({sup 3}H)thymidine-prelabeled allochthonous bacteria have been added. In coastal seawater, they found that the actual rate of disappearance of fecal bacteria was 1 order of magnitude lower than the rate of loss of culturability on specific media. Minor adaptation of the procedure may facilitate assessment of the effect of protozoan grazing and bacteriophage lysis on the overall bacterial mortality rate.

  15. Comparison of media for enumeration of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli in non-disinfected water.

    PubMed

    Pitkänen, Tarja; Paakkari, Piia; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Paulin, Lars; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2007-03-01

    In this work alternative media for detection and enumeration of E. coli and coliform bacteria were compared to the reference method ISO 9308-1 (LTTC) using non-disinfected water samples with background flora. The alternative media included LES Endo agar medium (LES Endo), Colilert-18 with 51-well Quanti-tray (Colilert), Chromocult Coliform agar (CC), Harlequin E. coli/Coliform medium (HECM) and Chromogenic Escherichia coli/Coliform medium (CECM). A total of 110 samples of groundwater, bathing water and spiked water was used. Our results revealed that confirmation of coliform bacteria counts is necessary, not only on lactose-based LTTC and LES Endo media, but also on the chromogenic agar media tested, due to the growth of oxidase positive colonies. LTTC and CC media also allowed the growth of some morphologically typical coliform colonies containing gram-positive bacteria. The recovery of coliform bacteria was lower on LES Endo than on LTTC. In most cases Colilert, CC, HECM and CECM gave higher coliform counts than LTTC. The use of the LTTC medium led to higher E. coli counts than obtained with any of the alternative mediums. There are three explanations for this: (1) high sensitivity of LTTC, (2) false positives on LTTC or (3) false negatives especially with Colilert, but also with chromogenic agar media. Although LTTC was found to be a very sensitive medium, the high degree of background growth of non-disinfected waters disturbed substantially the use of it. In conclusion, our results suggest that Colilert, CC and CECM are potential alternative media for detection of coliform bacteria and E. coli from non-disinfected water.

  16. [Comparison of techniques for coliform bacteria extraction from sediment of Xochimilco Lake, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rendón, Carlos L; Barrera-Escorcia, Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    The need to separate bacteria from sediment in order to appropriately count them has led to test the efficacy of different techniques. In this research, traditional techniques such as manual shaking, homogenization, ultrasonication, and surfactant are compared. Moreover, the possibility of using a set of enzymes (pancreatine) and an antibiotic (ampicillin) for sediment coliform extraction is proposed. Samples were obtained from Xochimilco Lake in Mexico City. The most probable number of coliform bacteria was determined after applying the appropriate separation procedure. Most of the techniques tested led to numbers similar to those of the control (manual shaking). Only with the use of ampicillin, a greater total coliform concentration was observed (Mann-Whitney, z = 2.09; p = 0.03). It is possible to propose the use of ampicillin as a technique for total coliform extraction; however, it is necessary to consider sensitivity of bacteria to the antibiotic.

  17. Isolation of faecal coliform bacteria from the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Johnston, M A; Porter, D E; Scott, G I; Rhodes, W E; Webster, L F

    2010-03-01

    To determine whether American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) are an unrecognized poikilothermic source of faecal coliform and/or potential pathogenic bacteria in South Carolina's coastal waters. Bacteria from the cloaca of American alligators, as well as bacteria from surface water samples from their aquatic habitat, were isolated and identified. The predominant enteric bacteria identified from alligator samples using biochemical tests included Aeromonas hydrophila, Citrobacter braakii, Edwardsiella tarda, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Plesiomonas shigelloides and putative Salmonella, and these were similar to bacteria isolated from the surface waters in which the alligators inhabited. Based on most-probable-number enumeration estimates from captive alligator faeces, faecal coliform bacteria numbered 8.0x10(9) g(-1) (wet weight) of alligator faecal material, a much higher concentration than many other documented endothermic animal sources. A prevalence of enteric bacteria, both faecal coliforms and potential pathogens, was observed in American alligators. The high faecal coliform bacterial density of alligator faeces may suggest that alligators are a potential source of bacterial contamination in South Carolina coastal waters. These findings help to increase our understanding of faecal coliform and potential pathogenic bacteria from poikilothermic reptilian sources, as there is the potential for these sources to raise bacterial water quality levels above regulatory thresholds.

  18. Survival of Salmonella adelaide and fecal coliforms in coarse sands of the swan costal plain, Western Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, W F; Mee, B J

    1982-01-01

    The survival of Salmonella adelaide and fecal coliforms in two coarse sands influenced by two sources of septic tank effluent was studied. The experiments were conducted in conditions that reflected the soil environment beneath functioning septic tank systems. Significant differences in survival were found with different effluent sources. In one experiment the survival of S. adelaide was similar to that of fecal coliforms; in the other it was not. The nonuniform, multiphasic nature of survival curves was variability observed in these experiments suggests that the application of such survival data for establishing management criteria for septic tank systems--by, for example, the use of soil moisture characteristic curves to give estimates of movement in the soil--is inappropriate. PMID:7103482

  19. Environmental monitoring of bacterial contamination and antibiotic resistance patterns of the fecal coliforms isolated from Cauvery River, a major drinking water source in Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Mahajanakatti, Arpitha Badarinath; Grandhi, Nisha Jayaprakash; Prasanna, Akshatha; Sen, Ballari; Sharma, Narasimha; Vasist, Kiran S; Narayanappa, Rajeswari

    2015-05-01

    The present study focuses prudent elucidation of microbial pollution and antibiotic sensitivity profiling of the fecal coliforms isolated from River Cauvery, a major drinking water source in Karnataka, India. Water samples were collected from ten hotspots during the year 2011-2012. The physiochemical characteristics and microbial count of water samples collected from most of the hotspots exhibited greater biological oxygen demand and bacterial count especially coliforms in comparison with control samples (p ≤ 0.01). The antibiotic sensitivity testing was performed using 48 antibiotics against the bacterial isolates by disk-diffusion assay. The current study showed that out of 848 bacterial isolates, 93.51% (n = 793) of the isolates were found to be multidrug-resistant to most of the current generation antibiotics. Among the major isolates, 96.46% (n = 273) of the isolates were found to be multidrug-resistant to 30 antibiotics and they were identified to be Escherichia coli by 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Similarly, 93.85% (n = 107), 94.49% (n = 103), and 90.22% (n = 157) of the isolates exhibited multiple drug resistance to 32, 40, and 37 antibiotics, and they were identified to be Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas trivialis, and Shigella sonnei, respectively. The molecular studies suggested the prevalence of bla TEM genes in all the four isolates and dhfr gene in Escherichia coli and Sh. sonnei. Analogously, most of the other Gram-negative bacteria were found to be multidrug-resistant and the Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus spp. isolated from the water samples were found to be methicillin and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This is probably the first study elucidating the bacterial pollution and antibiotic sensitivity profiling of fecal coliforms isolated from River Cauvery, Karnataka, India.

  20. Fecal coliform concentrations in runoff from a grazed, reclaimed surface mine

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, D.G.; Perry, H.D.

    1987-10-01

    The relatively scarcity of flat or moderately sloping land in Central Appalachia make reclaimed surface mined lands attractive for agricultural uses. A reclaimed surface coal mine in southern West Virginia was placed under grazing management during the 1984 and 1985 grown seasons. Discharge was collected from summer-grazed watersheds of about 2.8 ha and 8.9 ha and analyzed, by the membrane-filtration method, for fecal coliforms (FC). Prior to grazing in 1984, FC counts were < 200/100 ml. During the grazing season, FC ranged from < 0/100 ml to > 1000/100 ml in 1984 and from 0/100 ml to > 2500/100 ml in 1985. FC counts remained high during warm periods for several months after grazing ceased. It was concluded that the bacteriological quality of receiving streams was impacted by grazing the reclaimed area and recommended standards for point sources were often exceeded; however, the FC counts did not appear to be any greater than what would have been expected from grazed, undisturbed areas. Reclaimed surface mines areas in Appalachia have the potential to be a valuable flat land resource and grazing appears to be an alternative post mine land use that affects bacteriological water quality in a similar manner as natural pastures. However, good management practices may be necessary to avoid bacterial contamination of adjacent bodies of water.

  1. Comparative reduction of Giardia cysts, F+ coliphages, sulphite reducing clostridia and fecal coliforms by wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Abidelfatah M; Benisti, Neta-Lee; Ofer, Naomi; Hovers, Sivan; Nitzan, Yeshayahu

    2017-01-28

    Advanced wastewater treatment processes are applied to prevent the environmental dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms. Giardia lamblia causes a severe disease called giardiasis, and is highly prevalent in untreated wastewater worldwide. Monitoring the microbial quality of wastewater effluents is usually based on testing for the levels of indicator microorganisms in the effluents. This study was conducted to compare the suitability of fecal coliforms, F+ coliphages and sulfide reducing clostridia (SRC) as indicators for the reduction of Giardia cysts in two full-scale wastewater treatment plants. The treatment process consists of activated sludge, coagulation, high rate filtration and either chlorine or UV disinfection. The results of the study demonstrated that Giardia cysts are highly prevalent in raw wastewater at an average concentration of 3600 cysts/L. Fecal coliforms, F+ coliphages and SRC were also detected at high concentrations in raw wastewater. Giardia cysts were efficiently removed (3.6 log10) by the treatment train. The greatest reduction was observed for fecal coliforms (9.6 log10) whereas the least reduction was observed for F+ coliphages (2.1 log10) following chlorine disinfection. Similar reduction was observed for SRC by filtration and disinfection by either UV (3.6 log10) or chlorine (3.3 log10). Since F+ coliphage and SRC were found to be more resistant than fecal coliforms for the tertiary treatment processes, they may prove to be more suitable as indicators for Giardia. The results of this study demonstrated that advanced wastewater treatment may prove efficient for the removal of Giardia cysts and may prevent its transmission when treated effluents are applied for crop irrigation or streams restoration.

  2. Application of the Pearl model to analyze fecal coliform data from conditionally approved shellfish harvest areas in seven Texas bays.

    PubMed

    Conte, F S; Ahmadi, A

    2014-09-01

    The U.S. National Shellfish Sanitation Program (NSSP) 14/43 standard states that conditionally approved shellfish growing areas must be closed for harvest when the geometric mean of fecal coliform concentration exceeds the NSSP limit of 14 most probable number (MPN)/100 mL, or the estimated 90th percentile of fecal coliform concentrations exceeds 43 MPN/100 mL for a five-tube test. The authors hypothesized that the NSSP 14/43 standard is not sufficient to protect the public from risks from consumption of biologically contaminated shellfish and the standard should be modified to 8/26 MPN/100 mL. To verify this hypothesis, the authors analyzed fecal coliform data from conditionally approved shellfish harvest areas of seven Texas bays using the Pearl sanitation model. Results showed that the shellfish closure rules mandated by the Texas Department of State Health Services actually enforced the "Pearl" limits of 8/26 MPN/100 mL, and not the NSSP limit of 14/43 MPN/100 mL.

  3. [Presence of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and DNAse- and coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus, in "colonial" cheese sold in the city of Blumenau, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Reibnitz, M G; Tavares, L B; García, J A

    1998-01-01

    Twenty cheese samples were collected at Blumenau (SC) and were submitted to analysis in order to verify the presence of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Among the 20 samples of cheese, analysis revealed that 70% and 20% respectively, were not within present legal specifications (Norma 001/87-DNVSA) for fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli. For Staphylococcus, 95% of the samples were not within present legal specifications.

  4. Distribution and variability of fecal-indicator bacteria in Scioto and Olentangy rivers in the Columbus, Ohio, area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Donna N.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Columbus, Ohio, to determine the distribution and variability of fecal-indicator bacteria in Scioto and Olentangy Rivers. Fecal-indicator bacteria are among the contaminants of concern to recreational users of these rivers in the Columbus area. Samples were collected to be analyzed for fecal-coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria and selected water-quality constituents and physical properties at 10 sites-- 4 on the Olentangy River and 6 on the Scioto River during the recreational seasons in 1987, 1988, and 1989. Measurements of streamflow also were made at these sites at various frequencies during base flow and runoff. The concentrations of fecal-coliform and E. coli bacteria in the Scioto and Olentangy Rivers spanned a range of five orders of magnitude, from less than 20 to greater than 2,000,000 col/100 mL (colonies per 100 milliliters). In addition, the concentrations of fecal coliform and E. coli bacteria are well correlated (r=0.97) in the study area. At times, relatively high concentrations, for fecal-indicator bacteria (concentrations greater than 51,000 col/100 mL for fecal-coliform and E. coli ) were found in Olentangy River at Woody Hayes Drive and at Goodale Street, and in Scioto River at Greenlawn Avenue and at Columbus. Intermediate concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria (from 5,100 to 50,000 col/100 mL for fecal coliform and (from 510 to 50,000 col/100 mL for E. coli ) were found in Scioto River at Town Street and below O'Shaughnessy Dam near Dublin, Ohio, and in Olentangy River at Henderson Road. The lowest (median) concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria (from 20 to 5,000 col/100 mL for fecal coliform and from 20 to 500 col/100 mL for E. coli ) were found at Olentangy River near Worthington, Ohio, Scioto River at Dublin Road Water Treatment Plant and below Griggs Reservoir. Fecal-coliform concentrations exceeded the geometric

  5. The performance of Electro-Fenton oxidation in the removal of coliform bacteria from landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Othman, Osama Mohammed; Abu Amr, Salem S

    2013-02-01

    Leachate pollution is one of the main problems in landfilling. Researchers have yet to find an effective solution to this problem. The technology that can be used may differ based on the type of leachate produced. Coliform bacteria were recently reported as one of the most problematic pollutants in semi-aerobic (stabilized) leachate. In the present study, the performance of the Electro-Fenton process in removing coliform from leachate was investigated. The study focused on two types of leachate: Palau Borung landfill leachate with low Coliform content (200 MPN/100 m/L) and Ampang Jajar landfill leachate with high coliform content (>24 × 10(4)MPN/100 m/L). Optimal conditions for the Electro-Fenton treatment process were applied on both types of leachate. Then, the coliform was examined before and after treatment using the Most Probable Number (MPN) technique. Accordingly, 100% removal of coliform was obtained at low initial coliform content, whereas 99.9% removal was obtained at high initial coliform content. The study revealed that Electro-Fenton is an efficient process in removing high concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms from stabilized leachate.

  6. Detection of the coliform bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. in water by a sensitive and rapid immunomagnetic electrochemiluminescence (ECL) technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Bruno, J.

    1995-10-01

    Hemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other fecal coliform bacteria, such as species of Salmonella, could pose a serious health threat in contaminated water resources. Traditional bacterial culture methods and ELISA based assays for identification of fecal coliforms are relatively slow and ambiguous. Polymerase chain reaction of extracted DNA from such bacteria and immunomagnetic separation (IMS) methods appear promising for this application. Although PCR can be a definitive identification technique, it is relatively time consuming when compared to IMS. In this work, the IMS technique has been coupled with an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) technology to separate specific bacteria from their media and quantitatively detect the bacteria within one hour. The sensitivity of the IMS-ECL assay for E.coli O157 strain and Salmonella sp. is as low as 10 - 100 cells/mL in water samples. In addition, IMS was accomplished in dense washings of food and environmental samples followed by ECL assay. These results suggest strongly use of the IMS-ECL methodology for rapid and facile screening of various bacterial contaminations in water resources or other environmental samples for the low level presence of pathogenic coliforms.

  7. RNA-Based Methods Increase the Detection of Fecal Bacteria and Fecal Identifiers in Environmental Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated the use of qPCR RNA-based methods in the detection of fecal bacteria in environmental waters. We showed that RNA methods can increase the detection of fecal bacteria in multiple water matrices. The data suggest that this is a viable alternative for the detection of a...

  8. RNA-Based Methods Increase the Detection of Fecal Bacteria and Fecal Identifiers in Environmental Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated the use of qPCR RNA-based methods in the detection of fecal bacteria in environmental waters. We showed that RNA methods can increase the detection of fecal bacteria in multiple water matrices. The data suggest that this is a viable alternative for the detection of a...

  9. Characterizing relationships among fecal indicator bacteria ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Bed sediments of streams and rivers may store high concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens. Due to resuspension events, these contaminants can be mobilized into the water column and affect overall water quality. Other bacterial indicators such as microbial source tracking (MST) markers, developed to determine potential sources of fecal contamination, can also be resuspended from bed sediments. The primary objective of this study was to predict occurrence of waterborne pathogens in water and streambed sediments using a simple statistical model that includes traditionally measured FIB, environmental parameters and source allocation, using MST markers as predictor variables. Synoptic sampling events were conducted during baseflow conditions downstream from agricultural (AG), forested (FORS), and wastewater pollution control plant (WPCP) land uses. Concentrations of FIB and MST markers were measured in water and sediments, along with occurrences of the enteric pathogens Campylobacter, Listeria and Salmonella, and the virulence gene that carries Shiga toxin, stx2. Pathogens were detected in water more often than in underlying sediments. Shiga toxin was significantly related to land use, with concentrations of the ruminant marker selected as an independent variable that could correctly classify 76% and 64% of observed Shiga toxin occurrences in water and sediment, respectively. FIB concentrations and water quality parameters were also selected a

  10. Characterizing relationships among fecal indicator bacteria ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Bed sediments of streams and rivers may store high concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens. Due to resuspension events, these contaminants can be mobilized into the water column and affect overall water quality. Other bacterial indicators such as microbial source tracking (MST) markers, developed to determine potential sources of fecal contamination, can also be resuspended from bed sediments. The primary objective of this study was to predict occurrence of waterborne pathogens in water and streambed sediments using a simple statistical model that includes traditionally measured FIB, environmental parameters and source allocation, using MST markers as predictor variables. Synoptic sampling events were conducted during baseflow conditions downstream from agricultural (AG), forested (FORS), and wastewater pollution control plant (WPCP) land uses. Concentrations of FIB and MST markers were measured in water and sediments, along with occurrences of the enteric pathogens Campylobacter, Listeria and Salmonella, and the virulence gene that carries Shiga toxin, stx2. Pathogens were detected in water more often than in underlying sediments. Shiga toxin was significantly related to land use, with concentrations of the ruminant marker selected as an independent variable that could correctly classify 76% and 64% of observed Shiga toxin occurrences in water and sediment, respectively. FIB concentrations and water quality parameters were also selected a

  11. A Synoptic Study of Fecal-Indicator Bacteria in the Wind River, Bighorn River, and Goose Creek Basins, Wyoming, June-July 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Gamper, Merry E.

    2003-01-01

    A synoptic study of fecal-indicator bacteria was conducted during June and July 2000 in the Wind River, Bighorn River, and Goose Creek Basins in Wyoming as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program for the Yellowstone River Basin. Fecal-coliform concentrations ranged from 2 to 3,000 col/100 mL (colonies per 100 milliliters) for 100 samples, and Escherichia coli concentrations ranged from 1 to 2,800 col/100 mL for 97 samples. Fecal-coliform concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit for a single sample for recreational contact with water in 37.0 percent of the samples. Escherichia coli concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit for a single sample for moderate use, full-body recreational contact with water in 38.1 percent of the samples and the recommended limit for infrequent use, full-body recreational contact with water in 24.7 percent of the samples. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations varied by basin. Samples from the Bighorn River Basin had the highest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 340 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 300 col/100 mL. Samples from the Wind River Basin had the lowest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 50 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 62 col/100 mL. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations varied by land cover. Samples from sites with an urban land cover had the highest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 540 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 420 col/100 mL. Maximum concentrations for fecal coliform of 3,000 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 2,800 col/100 mL were in samples from sites with an agricultural land cover. The lowest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 130 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 67 col/100 mL were for samples from sites with a forested land cover. A strong and positive relation existed between fecal coliform and Escherichia coli

  12. Enumeration and Identification of Coliform Bacteria Injured by Chlorine or Fungicide Mixed with Agricultural Water.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Hidemi; Nakata, Yuji; Inoue, Ayano

    2016-10-01

    Chemical sanitizers may induce no injury (bacteria survive), sublethal injury (bacteria are injured), or lethal injury (bacteria die). The proportion of coliform bacteria that were injured sublethally by chlorine and fungicide mixed with agricultural water (pond water), which was used to dilute the pesticide solution, was evaluated using the thin agar layer (TAL) method. In pure cultures of Enterobacter cloacae , Escherichia coli , and E. coli O157:H7 (representing a human pathogen), the percentage of chlorine-injured cells was 69 to 77% for dilute electrolyzed water containing an available chlorine level of 2 ppm. When agricultural water was mixed with electrolyzed water, the percentage of injured coliforms in agricultural water was 75%. The isolation and identification of bacteria on TAL and selective media suggested that the chlorine stress caused injury to Enterobacter kobei . Of the four fungicide products tested, diluted to their recommended concentrations, Topsin-M, Sumilex, and Oxirane caused injury to coliform bacteria in pure cultures and in agricultural water following their mixture with each pesticide, whereas Streptomycin did not induce any injury to the bacteria. The percentage of injury was 45 to 97% for Topsin-M, 80 to 87% for Sumilex, and 50 to 97% for Oxirane. A comparison of the coliforms isolated from the pesticide solutions and then grown on either TAL or selective media indicated the possibility of fungicide-injured Rahnella aquatilis , Yersinia mollaretii , and E. coli . These results suggest the importance of selecting a suitable sanitizer and the necessity of adjusting the sanitizer concentration to a level that will kill the coliforms rather than cause sanitizer-induced cell injury that can result in the recovery of the coliforms.

  13. Antimicrobial resistant coliform bacteria in the Gomti river water and determination of their tolerance level.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Asma; Imran, Mohd; Akhter, Firoz

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, tetracycline, and streptomycin among coliform in the Gomti river water samples was investigated. The coliform populations were isolated on Mac Conky and eosin methylene blue (EMB) agar plates supplemented with antibiotics. The incidence of resistance among the coliform population varied considerably in different drug and water sampling sites. Coliform bacteria showed lower drug resistant viable count in sampling site-III (receiving treated wastewater) as compared to more polluted site-I and site-II. Viable count of coliform population obtained on both medium was recorded higher against erythromycin from sampling site-III. Lower viable count of coliforms was recorded against tetracycline in site-II and III. Similar resistance pattern was obtained in the frequency of E. coli and Enterobacter species from all the three sampling sites. Percentage of antibiotic resistant E. coli was observed higher than Enterobacter spp among the total coliforms against all antibiotics tested without Erythromycin and penicillin in site-I and II respectively. Isolates of E. coli and Enterobacter spp. showed their tolerance level (MIC) in the range of 2-100 against the antibiotics tested. Maximum number of isolates of both genus exhibited their MICs at lower concentration range 2-5µg/ml against ciprofloxacin, tetracyclin and amoxycillin. EMB - Eosin methylene blue, IMViC tests - Indole, Methyl Red, Voges Proskauer and Citrate Utilization Tests, MIC - Minimum inhibitory concentration.

  14. [The value of glucose-positive coliform bacteria and potentially pathogenic bacteria as indicators of epidemiological safety of tap water].

    PubMed

    Zhuravlev, P V; Aleshnia, V V; Panasovets, O P; Morozova, A A; Artemova, T Z; Talaeva, Iu G; Zagaĭnova, A V; Gipp, E K

    2012-01-01

    Due to intensive anthropogenic pollution of water environment generally accepted indicators of epidemic security of water bodies - common bacteria and thermotolerant coliform bacteria do not always permit to obtain an objective characterization of bacterial contamination of tap water. From the point of view of authors the integral index - glucose positive coliform bacteria most adequately reflect the sanitary-hygienic and epidemiological situation of water bodies. In monitoring for bacterial quality of tap water it is advisable to determine glucose positive coliform bacteria, that will provide the relevance of estimation of the epidemiological safety of water use. According to the method developed by the authors the calculation of the index of population risk of acute intestinal infections occurrence in dependence on the quality of tap water in Azov and Tsimlyansk towns.

  15. [The significance of glucose positive coliform bacteria and potentially pathogenic bacteria as an indicator of epidemiological safety of tap water].

    PubMed

    Zhuravlev, P V; Aleshnya, V V; Panasovets, O P; Morozova, A A; Artemova, T Z; Talaeva, Yu G; Zagaynova, A V

    2013-01-01

    Due to intensive anthropogenic pollution of water environment generally accepted indicators of epidemic security of water bodies--common bacteria (CB) and thermotolerant coliform bacteria (TCB) do not always permit to obtain an objective characterization of bacterial contamination of tap water. From the point of view of authors the integral index--glucose positive coliform bacteria most adequately reflect the sanitary-hygienic and epidemiological situation of water bodies. In monitoring for bacterial quality of tap water it is advisable to determine glucose positive coliform bacteria, that will provide the relevance of estimation of the epidemiological safety of water use. According to the method developed by the authors the calculation of the index of population risk of acute intestinal infections (AHI) occurrence in dependence on the quality of tap water in Azov and Tsimlyansk towns.

  16. Control of coliform bacteria detected from diarrhea associated patients by extracts of Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Rahman, M M; Akhter, S; Jamal, M A H M; Pandeya, D R; Haque, M A; Alam, M F; Rahman, A

    2010-03-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the total population of coliform bacteria in the samples collected from diarrhea associated patients from the local area of Bangladesh and to examine the antibacterial efficacy of leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) against the isolated coliform bacteria. The coliform bacteria detected in these samples by some microbial-biochemical tests such as Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella sp., Enterobacter sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae and Serratia marcescens. The total isolation rate of coliform bacterial species was ranged from 38.01-3.51%. At the concentration of 300 ig/disc, the organic extracts of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Moringa oleifera leaf exhibited a remarkable antibacterial effect against all the tested bacterial pathogens. The zones of inhibition against all the tested bacterial pathogens were found in the range of 8.0 to 23.2 mm, along with their respective minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 62.5-1000 ig/mL. The results obtained in this study suggest that the extracts from Moringa oleifera leaf can be a source of natural antimicrobials with potential applications in pharmaceutical industry to control coliform bacteria.

  17. Distribution and occurrence of total coliform bacteria in Floridan aquifer wells, western Lake County, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.F.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents total coliform bacteria data for Floridan aquifer wells in western Lake County, central Florida. Included are data collected from 1966 to 1979 by the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation for 98 public supply wells, and data collected during 1982 by the US Geological Survey for 29 wells. The data for the 98 public supplies indicate that 85% have a record of total coliform occurrence in the raw water. Data from the 29 wells sampled by the Geological Survey indicate that 55% have a record of total coliform occurrence. Further comparison of the two data sets indicates that the Geological Survey data generally indicate a lower percentage of sites with coliform occurrence and, in some cases, a different pattern of occurrence than did the Department of Environmental Regulation data. 3 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Temporal and spatial variability of fecal indicator bacteria in the surf zone off Huntington Beach, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfeld, L.K.; McGee, C.D.; Robertson, G.L.; Noble, M.A.; Jones, B.H.

    2006-01-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations measured in the surf zone off Huntington Beach, CA from July 1998-December 2001 were analyzed with respect to their spatial patterns along 23 km of beach, and temporal variability on time scales from hourly to fortnightly. The majority of samples had bacterial concentrations less than, or equal to, the minimum detection limit, but a small percentage exceeded the California recreational water standards. Areas where coliform bacteria exceeded standards were more prevalent north of the Santa Ana River, whereas enterococci exceedances covered a broad area both north and south of the river. Higher concentrations of bacteria were associated with spring tides. No temporal correspondence was found between these bacterial events and either the timing of cold water pulses near shore due to internal tides, or the presence of southerly swell in the surface wave field. All three fecal indicator bacteria exhibited a diel cycle, but enterococci rebounded to high nighttime values almost as soon as the sun went down, whereas coliform levels were highest near the nighttime low tide, which was also the lower low tide. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling coliform-bacteria concentrations and pH in the salt-wedge reach of the Duwamish River Estuary, King County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haushild, W.L.; Prych, Edmund A.

    1976-01-01

    Total- and fecal-coliform bacteria, plus pH, alkalinity, and dissolved inorganic carbon are water-quality parameters that have been added to an existing numerical model of water quality in the salt-wedge reach of the Duwamish River estuary in Washington. The coliform bacteria are modeled using a first-order decay (death) rate, which is a function of the local salinity, temperature, and daily solar radiation. The pH is computed by solving a set of chemical-equilibrium equations for carbonate-bicarbonate buffered aqueous solutions. Concentrations of total- and fecal-coliform bacteria computed by the model for the Duwamish River estuary during June-September 1971 generally agreed with observed concentrations within about 40 and 60 percent, respectively. The computed pH generally agreed with observed pH within about a 0.2 pH unit; however, for one 3-week period the computed pH was about a 0.4 unit lower than the observed pH. (Woodard-USGS)

  20. Fecal-indicator bacteria concentrations in the Illinois River between Hennepin and Peoria, Illinois: 2007-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dupre, David H.; Hortness, Jon E.; Terrio, Paul J.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    The Illinois Environmental Protection Agency has designated portions of the Illinois River in Peoria, Woodford, and Tazewell Counties, Illinois, as impaired owing to the presence of fecal coliform bacteria. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Tri-County Regional Planning Commission, examined the water quality in the Illinois River and major tributaries within a 47-mile reach between Peoria and Hennepin, Ill., during water year 2008 (October 2007–September 2008). Investigations included synoptic (snapshot) sampling at multiple locations in a 1-day period: once in October 2007 during lower streamflow conditions, and again in June 2008 during higher streamflow conditions. Five locations in the study area were monitored for the entire year at monthly or more frequent intervals. Two indicator bacteria were analyzed in each water sample: fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Streamflow information from previously established monitoring locations in the study area was used in the analysis. Correlation analyses were used to characterize the relation between the two fecal-indicator bacteria and the relation of either indicator to streamflow. Concentrations of the two measured fecal-indicator bacteria correlated well for all samples analyzed (r = 0.94, p E. coli: rho = -0.43, p = 0.0157). The correlation between fecal indicators and streamflow in tributaries or in the Illinois River at Hennepin was found to be statistically significant, yet moderate in strength with coefficient values ranging from r = 0.4 to 0.6. Indirect observations from the June 2008 higher flow synoptic event may indicate continued effects from combined storm and sanitary sewers in the vicinity of the Illinois River near Peoria, Ill., contributing to observed single-sample exceedance of the State criterion for fecal coliform.

  1. Increase of intestinal Bifidobacterium and suppression of coliform bacteria with short-term yogurt ingestion.

    PubMed

    Chen, R M; Wu, J J; Lee, S C; Huang, A H; Wu, H M

    1999-11-01

    To determine whether ingestion of yogurt would alter human intestinal bacterial composition and whether Bifidobacterium numbers would increase in the intestine, 34 healthy volunteers were studied. The experimental period was 26 d, including an initial 8 d without yogurt, 10 d with three bottles (230 ml each) of AB yogurt per day (President Enterprise Corporation, Tainan, Taiwan), and 8 d without yogurt. Stool samples were taken at 3- to 4-d intervals. The bacteria of each fresh stool sample were promptly analyzed by dilution and culture on blood, MacConkey, Center for Disease Control and NNLP agars, the agar contained nalidixic acid, neomycin sulfate, LiCl, and paromomycin sulfate for aerobes, coliforms, anaerobes, and bifidobacteria, respectively. The number of bacteria was determined as colony-forming units per gram of dried stool. Results indicated that ingestion of AB yogurt increased the counts of anaerobic bacteria, suppressed aerobic bacteria, and significantly elevated the bifidus to coliform ratio. Arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction was used to differentiate the identity of bifidobacteria in four volunteers before and after yogurt ingestion and confirmed that B. bifidum ingested from the yogurt survived and proliferated in the stool throughout the experiment. However, the elevated bifidus to coliform ratio gradually diminished and disappeared after yogurt consumption was discontinued. In conclusion, ingestion of yogurt increased the numbers of stool bifidobacteria and suppressed coliform bacteria. The ingested bifidobacteria survived for more than 8 d after yogurt consumption was discontinued.

  2. An advanced PCR method for the specific detection of viable total coliform bacteria in pasteurized milk.

    PubMed

    Soejima, Takashi; Minami, Jun-ichi; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-07-01

    Pasteurized milk is a complex food that contains various inhibitors of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and may contain a large number of dead bacteria, depending on the milking conditions and environment. Ethidium monoazide bromide (EMA)-PCR is occasionally used to distinguish between viable and dead bacteria in foods other than pasteurized milk. EMA is a DNA-intercalating dye that selectively permeates the compromised cell membranes of dead bacteria and cleaves DNA. Usually, EMA-PCR techniques reduce the detection of dead bacteria by up to 3.5 logs compared with techniques that do not use EMA. However, this difference may still be insufficient to suppress the amplification of DNA from dead Gram-negative bacteria (e.g., total coliform bacteria) if they are present in pasteurized milk in large numbers. Thus, false positives may result. We developed a new method that uses real-time PCR targeting of a long DNA template (16S-23S rRNA gene, principally 2,451 bp) following EMA treatment to completely suppress the amplification of DNA of up to 7 logs (10(7) cells) of dead total coliforms. Furthermore, we found that a low dose of proteinase K (25 U/ml) removed PCR inhibitors and simultaneously increased the signal from viable coliform bacteria. In conclusion, our simple protocol specifically detects viable total coliforms in pasteurized milk at an initial count of ≥1 colony forming unit (CFU)/2.22 ml within 7.5 h of total testing time. This detection limit for viable cells complies with the requirements for the analysis of total coliforms in pasteurized milk set by the Japanese Sanitation Act (which specifies <1 CFU/2.22 ml).

  3. Growth kinetics of coliform bacteria under conditions relevant to drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Camper, A K; McFeters, G A; Characklis, W G; Jones, W L

    1991-08-01

    The growth of environmental and clinical coliform bacteria under conditions typical of drinking water distribution systems was examined. Four coliforms (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter cloacae) were isolated from an operating drinking water system for study; an enterotoxigenic E. coli strain and clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae and E. coli were also used. All but one of the coliforms tested were capable of growth in unsupplemented mineral salts medium; the environmental isolates had greater specific growth rates than did the clinical isolates. This trend was maintained when the organisms were grown with low levels (less than 1 mg liter-1) of yeast extract. The environmental K. pneumoniae isolate had a greater yield, higher specific growth rates, and a lower Ks value than the other organisms. The environmental E. coli and the enterotoxigenic E. coli strains had comparable yield, growth rate, and Ks values to those of the environmental K. pneumoniae strain, and all three showed significantly more successful growth than the clinical isolates. The environmental coliforms also grew well at low temperatures on low concentrations of yeast extract. Unsupplemented distribution water from the collaborating utility supported the growth of the environmental isolates. Growth of the K. pneumoniae water isolate was stimulated by the addition of autoclaved biofilm but not by tubercle material. These findings indicate that growth of environmental coliforms is possible under the conditions found in operating municipal drinking water systems and that these bacteria could be used in tests to determine assimilable organic carbon in potable water.

  4. Fast detection of coliform bacteria by means of gas chromatography-differential mobility spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Saptalena, Lena Ganda; Kuklya, Andriy; Telgheder, Ursula

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that the combination of an enzymatic method (based on Colilert-18 medium) and gas chromatography-differential mobility spectrometry (GC-DMS) can reduce the time required for detection of coliform bacteria (including Escherichia coli) from 18 to 2.5 h. The presented method includes the incubation (~2.5 h) of the sample containing coliform bacteria in Colilert-18 medium. The incubation time of 2.5 h is required for the activation of the β-galactosidase enzyme. Produced during the incubation biomarker o-nitrophenol (ONP) can be detected by means of GC-DMS within just 200 s. The detection limit for ONP was 45 ng (on-column). The method developed in this work provides significantly shorter analysis time compared with standard methods, and can be potentially adapted to the field conditions. Therefore, this method is a promising tool for an early detection of coliform bacteria (including E. coli). Graphical Abstract Fast detection of coliform bacteria by means of GC-DMS.

  5. Fecal-indicator bacteria in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers and selected tributaries, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, 2001-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckwalter, Theodore F.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Fulton, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria were determined in 1,027 water-quality samples collected from July 2001 through August 2005 during dry- (72-hour dry antecedent period) and wet-weather (48-hour dry antecedent period and at least 0.3 inch of rain in a 24-hour period) conditions in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers (locally referred to as the Three Rivers) and selected tributaries in Allegheny County. Samples were collected at five sampling sites on the Three Rivers and at eight sites on four tributaries to the Three Rivers having combined sewer overflows. Water samples were analyzed for three fecal-indicator organisms fecal coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and enterococci bacteria. Left-bank and right-bank surface-water samples were collected in addition to a cross-section composite sample at each site. Concentrations of fecal coliform, E. coli, and enterococci were detected in 98.6, 98.5, and 87.7 percent of all samples, respectively. The maximum fecal-indicator bacteria concentrations were collected from Sawmill Run, a tributary to the Ohio River; Sawmill Run at Duquesne Heights had concentrations of fecal coliform, E. coli, and enterococci of 410,000, 510,000, and 180,000 col/100 mL, respectively, following a large storm. The samples collected in the Three Rivers and selected tributaries frequently exceeded established recreational standards and criteria for bacteria. Concentrations of fecal coliform exceeded the Pennsylvania water-quality standard (200 col/100 mL) in approximately 63 percent of the samples. Sample concentrations of E. coli and enterococci exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) water-quality criteria (235 and 61 col/100 mL, respectively) in about 53 and 47 percent, respectively, of the samples. Fecal-indicator bacteria were most strongly correlated with streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity. These correlations most frequently were observed in samples collected from tributary sites. Fecal

  6. Fecal-Indicator Bacteria in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers and Selected Tributaries, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, 2001-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckwalter, Theodore F.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Fulton, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria were determined in 1,027 water-quality samples collected from July 2001 through August 2005 during dry- (72-hour dry antecedent period) and wet-weather (48-hour dry antecedent period and at least 0.3 inch of rain in a 24-hour period) conditions in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers (locally referred to as the Three Rivers) and selected tributaries in Allegheny County. Samples were collected at five sampling sites on the Three Rivers and at eight sites on four tributaries to the Three Rivers having combined sewer overflows. Water samples were analyzed for three fecal-indicator organisms fecal coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and enterococci bacteria. Left-bank and right-bank surface-water samples were collected in addition to a cross-section composite sample at each site. Concentrations of fecal coliform, E. coli, and enterococci were detected in 98.6, 98.5, and 87.7 percent of all samples, respectively. The maximum fecal-indicator bacteria concentrations were collected from Sawmill Run, a tributary to the Ohio River; Sawmill Run at Duquesne Heights had concentrations of fecal coliform, E. coli, and enterococci of 410,000, 510,000, and 180,000 col/100 mL, respectively, following a large storm. The samples collected in the Three Rivers and selected tributaries frequently exceeded established recreational standards and criteria for bacteria. Concentrations of fecal coliform exceeded the Pennsylvania water-quality standard (200 col/100 mL) in approximately 63 percent of the samples. Sample concentrations of E. coli and enterococci exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) water-quality criteria (235 and 61 col/100 mL, respectively) in about 53 and 47 percent, respectively, of the samples. Fecal-indicator bacteria were most strongly correlated with streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity. These correlations most frequently were observed in samples collected from tributary sites. Fecal

  7. Analysis of fecal coliform levels at selected storm water monitoring points at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Skaggs, B.E.

    1995-07-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency staff published the final storm water regulation on November 16, 1990. The storm water regulation is included in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations. It specifies the permit application requirements for certain storm water discharges such as industrial activity or municipal separate storm sewers serving populations of 100,000 or greater. Storm water discharge associated with industrial activity is discharge from any conveyance used for collecting and conveying storm water that is directly related to manufacturing, processing, or raw material storage areas at an industrial plant. Quantitative testing data is required for these discharges. An individual storm water permit application was completed and submitted to Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) personnel in October 1992. After reviewing this data in the permit application, TDEC personnel expressed concern with the fecal coliform levels at many of the outfalls. The 1995 NPDES Permit (Part 111-N, page 44) requires that an investigation be conducted to determine the validity of this data. If the fecal coliform data is valid, the permit requires that a report be submitted indicating possible causes and proposed corrective actions.

  8. Assessment of the characteristic of nutrients, total metals, and fecal coliform in Sibu Laut River, Sarawak, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soo, Chen-Lin; Ling, Teck-Yee; Lee, Nyanti; Apun, Kasing

    2016-03-01

    The concentrations of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), total metals, and fecal coliform (FC) coupling with chlorophyll- a (chl- a), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and other general environmental parameters were evaluated at the sub-surface and near-bottom water columns of 13 stations in the Sibu Laut River during low and high slack waters. The results indicated that inorganic nitrogen (mainly nitrate) was the primary form of nitrogen whereas organic phosphorus was the major form of phosphorus. The abundance of total heavy metals in Sibu Laut River and its tributaries was in the order of Pb < Cu < Zn < Cd. Fecal coliform concentration was relatively low along Sibu Laut River. The shrimp farm effluents contributed a substantial amount of chl- a, BOD5, nutrients, and FC to the receiving creek except for total metals. Nevertheless, the influence was merely noticeable in the intake creek and amended rapidly along Selang Sibu River and brought minimal effects on the Sibu Laut River. Besides, the domestic sewage effluents from villages nearby also contributed a substantial amount of pollutants.

  9. Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Environmental Observations: Validation of Virtual Beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contamination of recreational waters by fecal material is often assessed using indicator bacteria such as enterococci. Enumeration based on culturing methods can take up to 48 hours to complete, limiting the accuracy of water quality evaluations. Molecular microbial techniques em...

  10. Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Environmental Observations: Validation of Virtual Beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contamination of recreational waters by fecal material is often assessed using indicator bacteria such as enterococci. Enumeration based on culturing methods can take up to 48 hours to complete, limiting the accuracy of water quality evaluations. Molecular microbial techniques em...

  11. Transport of fecal bacteria by boots and vehicle tires in a rural Alaskan community.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Molly K; Ford, Malcolm R; White, Daniel M; Barnes, David L; Schiewer, Silke

    2009-02-01

    People living without piped water and sewer can be at increased risk for diseases transmitted via the fecal-oral route. One rural Alaskan community that relies on hauling water into homes and sewage from homes was studied to determine the pathways of fecal contamination of drinking water and the human environment so that barriers can be established to protect health. Samples were tested for the fecal indicator, Escherichia coli, and the less specific indicator group, total coliforms. Shoes transported fecal contamination from outside to floor material inside buildings. Contamination in puddles on the road, in conjunction with contamination found on all-terrain vehicle (ATV) tires, supports vehicle traffic as a mechanism for transporting contamination from the dumpsite or other source areas to the rest of the community. The abundance of fecal bacteria transported around the community on shoes and ATV tires suggests that centralized measures for waste disposal as well as shoe removal in buildings could improve sanitation and health in the community.

  12. Inactivation of indigenous coliform bacteria in unfiltered surface water by ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, Raymond E; Hofmann, Ron

    2008-05-01

    This study examined the potential for naturally occurring particles to protect indigenous coliform from ultraviolet (UV) disinfection in four surface waters. Tailing in the UV dose-response curve of the bacteria was observed in 3 of the 4 water samples after 1.3-2.6-log of log-linear inactivation, implying particle-related protection. The impact of particles was confirmed by comparing coliform UV inactivation data for parallel filtered (11 microm pore-size nylon filters) and unfiltered surface water. In samples from the Grand River (UVT: 65%/cm; 5.4 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU)) and the Rideau Canal (UVT: 60%/cm; 0.84 NTU), a limit of approximately 2.5 log inactivation was achieved in the unfiltered samples for a UV dose of 20 mJ/cm2 while both the filtered samples exhibited >3.4-log inactivation of indigenous coliform bacteria. The results suggest that particles as small as 11 microm, naturally found in surface water with low turbidity (<3NTU), are able to harbor indigenous coliform bacteria and offer protection from low-pressure UV light.

  13. Removal of fluoride, arsenic and coliform bacteria by modified homemade filter media from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Devi, Rani; Alemayehu, Esayas; Singh, Vijender; Kumar, Ashok; Mengistie, Embialle

    2008-05-01

    An attempt was made to investigate the removal of fluoride, arsenic and coliform bacteria from drinking water using modified homemade filter media. Batch mode experimental study was conducted to test the efficiency of modified homemade filter for reduction of impurities under the operating condition of treatment time. The physico-chemical and biological analysis of water samples had been done before and after the treatment with filter media, using standard methods. Optimum operating treatment time was determined for maximum removal of these impurities by running the experiment for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12h, respectively. The maximum reduction of fluoride, arsenic and coliform bacteria in percentage was 85.60%, 93.07% and 100% and their residual values were 0.72 mg/l, 0.009 mg/l and 0 coliform cells/100ml, respectively after a treatment time of 10h. These residual values were under the permissible limits prescribed by WHO. Hence this could be a cheap, easy and an efficient technique for removal of fluoride, arsenic and coliform bacteria from drinking water.

  14. Comparison of fecal indicators with pathogenic bacteria and rotavirus in groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Andrew S.; Layton, Alice C.; Mailloux, Brian J; Culligan, Patricia J.; Williams, Daniel E.; Smartt, Abby E.; Sayler, Gary S.; Feighery, John; McKay, Larry; Knappett, Peter S.K.; Alexandrova, Ekaterina; Arbit, Talia; Emch, Michael; Escamilla, Veronica; Ahmed, Kazi Matin; Alam, Md. Jahangir; Streatfield, P. Kim; Yunus, Mohammad; van Geen, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater is routinely analyzed for fecal indicators but direct comparisons of fecal indicators to the presence of bacterial and viral pathogens are rare. This study was conducted in rural Bangladesh where the human population density is high, sanitation is poor, and groundwater pumped from shallow tubewells is often contaminated with fecal bacteria. Five indicator microorganisms (E. coli, total coliform, F+RNA coliphage, Bacteroides and human-associated Bacteroides) and various environmental parameters were compared to the direct detection of waterborne pathogens by quantitative PCR in groundwater pumped from 50 tubewells. Rotavirus was detected in groundwater filtrate from the largest proportion of tubewells (40%), followed by Shigella (10%), Vibrio (10%), and pathogenic E. coli (8%). Spearman rank correlations and sensitivity-specificity calculations indicate that some, but not all, combinations of indicators and environmental parameters can predict the presence of pathogens. Culture-dependent fecal indicator bacteria measured on a single date did not predict total bacterial pathogens, but annually averaged monthly measurements of culturable E. coli did improve prediction for total bacterial pathogens. A qPCR-based E. coli assay was the best indicator for the bacterial pathogens. F+RNA coliphage were neither correlated nor sufficiently sensitive towards rotavirus, but were predictive of bacterial pathogens. Since groundwater cannot be excluded as a significant source of diarrheal disease in Bangladesh and neighboring countries with similar characteristics, the need to develop more effective methods for screening tubewells with respect to microbial contamination is necessary. PMID:22705866

  15. Identification and characterization of psychrotolerant coliform bacteria isolated from pasteurized fluid milk.

    PubMed

    Masiello, S N; Martin, N H; Trmčić, A; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2016-01-01

    The presence of coliform bacteria in pasteurized fluid milk typically indicates that product contamination occurred downstream of the pasteurizer, but it may also indicate pasteurization failure. Although coliform detection is frequently used as a hygiene indicator for dairy products, our understanding of the taxonomic and phenotypic coliform diversity associated with dairy products is surprisingly limited. Therefore, using Petrifilm Coliform Count plates (3M, St. Paul, MN), we isolated coliforms from high-temperature, short-time (HTST)-pasteurized fluid milk samples from 21 fluid milk processing plants in the northeast United States. Based on source information and initial characterization using partial 16S rDNA sequencing, 240 nonredundant isolates were obtained. The majority of these isolates were identified as belonging to the genera Enterobacter (42% of isolates), Hafnia (13%), Citrobacter (12%), Serratia (10%), and Raoultella (9%); additional isolates were classified into the genera Buttiauxella, Cedecea, Kluyvera, Leclercia, Pantoea, and Rahnella. A subset of 104 representative isolates was subsequently characterized phenotypically. Cold growth analysis in skim milk broth showed that all isolates displayed at least a 2-log increase over 10 d at 6°C; the majority of isolates (n=74) displayed more than a 5-log increase. In total, 43% of the representative isolates displayed lipolysis when incubated on spirit blue agar at 6°C for 14 d, whereas 71% of isolates displayed proteolysis when incubated on skim milk agar at 6°C for 14 d. Our data indicate that a considerable diversity of coliforms is found in HTST-pasteurized fluid milk and that a considerable proportion of these coliforms have phenotypic characteristics that will allow them to cause fluid milk spoilage. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of external or internal fecal contamination on numbers of bacteria on prechilled broiler carcasses.

    PubMed

    Smith, D P; Northcutt, J K; Cason, J A; Hinton, A; Buhr, R J; Ingram, K D

    2007-06-01

    During processing, fecal material may contact broiler carcasses externally or internally. A study was conducted to determine the effect of external vs. internal fecal contamination on numbers of bacteria on broiler carcasses. In each of 3 trials, 12 carcasses just prior to evisceration were obtained from a commercial processing plant, placed on a shackle line, and eviscerated with commercial equipment in a pilot scale processing plant. Also, approximately 20 intestinal tracts were collected from the processing plant; then cecal contents were collected and pooled. One gram of cecal content was placed on the exterior breast skin (external), inside the carcass cavity (internal), or not applied (control). All carcasses were held 10 min, then placed on the shackle line and passed through a commercial inside-outside bird washer set at 552 kPa, 5 s dwell time, using approximately 189 L per min of tap water at ambient temperature. After a 1-min drip, whole carcass rinses were conducted on each carcass, and coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter counts were determined and reported as log cfu/mL of rinse. External carcass contamination resulted in significantly higher (P<0.05) coliform, E. coli, and Campylobacter numbers than internal contamination (5.0 vs. 4.5, 4.9 vs. 4.2, and 3.6 vs. 2.6, respectively). Control carcass counts were significantly lower than external or internal carcass contamination counts for coliforms (3.7), E. coli (3.6), and Campylobacter (2.2). External contamination resulted in higher numbers of bacteria after carcass washing, but carcasses with internal contamination still have higher numbers of bacteria after washing than carcasses without applied contamination.

  17. Simulation of Streamflow and Water Quality to Determine Fecal Coliform and Nitrate Concentrations and Loads in the Mad River Basin, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reutter, David C.; Puskas, Barry M.; Jagucki, Martha L.

    2006-01-01

    The Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) was used to simulate the concentrations and loads of fecal coliform and nitrate for streams in the Mad River Basin in west-central Ohio during the period 1999 through 2003. The Mad River Basin was divided into subbasins that were defined either by the 14-digit Hydrologic Unit (HU) boundaries or by streamflow-gaging-station locations used in the model. Model calibration and simulation processes required the formation of nine meteorologic zones to input meteorologic time-series data and water-quality data. Sources of fecal coliform and nitrate from wastewater-treatment discharges and combined sewer overflow discharges (CSOs) within the City of Springfield were point sources simulated in the model. Failing septic systems and cattle with direct access to streams were nonpoint sources included in the study but treated in the model as point sources. Other nonpoint sources were addressed by adjusting interflow and ground-water concentrations in the subsurface and maximum storage capacities and accumulation rates of the simulated constituents on the land surface for each meteorologic zone. Simulation results from the calibrated model show that several HUs exceeded the water-quality standard of 1,000 colony-forming units per 100 mL for fecal coliform based on the maximum 30-day geometric mean. Most HUs with high fecal coliform counts were within or downstream from the City of Springfield. No water-quality standard has been set for instream nitrate concentrations; however, the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA) considered a concentration of 5 mg/L or greater to be of concern. Simulation results indicate that several HUs in the agricultural areas of the basin exceeded this level. The calibrated model was modified to create scenarios that simulated loads of fecal coliform and nitrate that were either reduced or eliminated from selected sources. The revised models included the elimination of failing septic systems

  18. Fecal-indicator bacteria in the Newfound Creek watershed, western North Carolina, during a high and low streamflow condition, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giddings, Elise M.; Oblinger, Carolyn J.

    2004-01-01

    Water quality in the Newfound Creek watershed has been shown to be affected by bacteria, sediment, and nutrients. In this study, Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria were sampled at five sites in Newfound Creek and five tributary sites during low flow on May 28, 2003, and high flow on November 19, 2003. In addition, a subset of five sites was sampled for fecal coliform bacteria, E. coli bacteria in streambed sediments (low flow only), and coliphage virus for serotyping. Coliphage virus serotyping has been used to identify human and animal sources of bacterial contamination. A streamflow gage was installed and operated to support ongoing water-quality studies in the watershed. Fecal coliform densities ranged from 92 to 27,000 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters of water for E. coli and 140 to an estimated 29,000 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters of water for fecal coliform during the two sampling visits. Ninety percent of the E. coli and fecal coliform samples exceeded corresponding U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or North Carolina water-quality criteria for recreational and ambient waters. During low flow, the middle part of the Newfound Creek watershed and the Dix Creek tributary had the highest densities of E. coli bacteria. During the high-flow sampling, all tributaries contained high densities of E. coli bacteria, although Dix Creek and Round Hill Branch were the largest contributors of these bacteria to Newfound Creek. Coliphage virus serotyping results were inconclusive because most samples did not contain the male-specific RNA coliphage needed for serotyping. Positive results indicated, however, that during low flow, non-human sources of bacteria were present in Sluder Branch, and during high flow, human sources of bacteria were present in Round Hill Branch. Sampling of bacteria in streambed sediments during low flow indicated that sediments do not appear to be a substantial source of bacteria relative to the water column, with the exception

  19. Improved detection of Escherichia coli and coliform bacteria by multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Molina, Felipe; López-Acedo, Elena; Tabla, Rafael; Roa, Isidro; Gómez, Antonia; Rebollo, José E

    2015-06-04

    The presence of coliform bacteria is routinely assessed to establish the microbiological safety of water supplies and raw or processed foods. Coliforms are a group of lactose-fermenting Enterobacteriaceae, which most likely acquired the lacZ gene by horizontal transfer and therefore constitute a polyphyletic group. Among this group of bacteria is Escherichia coli, the pathogen that is most frequently associated with foodborne disease outbreaks and is often identified by β-glucuronidase enzymatic activity or by the redundant detection of uidA by PCR. Because a significant fraction of essential E. coli genes are preserved throughout the bacterial kingdom, alternative oligonucleotide primers for specific E. coli detection are not easily identified. In this manuscript, two strategies were used to design oligonucleotide primers with differing levels of specificity for the simultaneous detection of total coliforms and E. coli by multiplex PCR. A consensus sequence of lacZ and the orphan gene yaiO were chosen as targets for amplification, yielding 234 bp and 115 bp PCR products, respectively. The assay designed in this work demonstrated superior detection ability when tested with lab collection and dairy isolated lactose-fermenting strains. While lacZ amplicons were found in a wide range of coliforms, yaiO amplification was highly specific for E. coli. Additionally, yaiO detection is non-redundant with enzymatic methods.

  20. Comparing wastewater chemicals, indicator bacteria concentrations, and bacterial pathogen genes as fecal pollution indicators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, S.K.; Duris, J.W.; Fogarty, L.R.; Kolpin, D.W.; Focazio, M.J.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli [EC], and enterococci [ENT]) concentrations with a wide array of typical organic wastewater chemicals and selected bacterial genes as indicators of fecal pollution in water samples collected at or near 18 surface water drinking water intakes. Genes tested included esp (indicating human-pathogenic ENT) and nine genes associated with various animal sources of shiga-toxin-producing EC (STEC). Fecal pollution was indicated by genes and/or chemicals for 14 of the 18 tested samples, with little relation to FIB standards. Of 13 samples with <50 EC 100 mL-1, human pharmaceuticals or chemical indicators of wastewater treatment plant effluent occurred in six, veterinary antibiotics were detected in three, and stx1 or stx2 genes (indicating varying animal sources of STEC) were detected in eight. Only the EC eaeA gene was positively correlated with FIB concentrations. Human-source fecal pollution was indicated by the esp gene and the human pharmaceutical carbamazepine in one of the nine samples that met all FIB recreational water quality standards. Escherichia coli rfbO157 and stx2c genes, which are typically associated with cattle sources and are of potential human health significance, were detected in one sample in the absence of tested chemicals. Chemical and gene-based indicators of fecal contamination may be present even when FIB standards are met, and some may, unlike FIB, indicate potential sources. Application of multiple water quality indicators with variable environmental persistence and fate may yield greater confidence in fecal pollution assessment and may inform remediation decisions. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparing wastewater chemicals, indicator bacteria concentrations, and bacterial pathogen genes as fecal pollution indicators.

    PubMed

    Haack, Sheridan K; Duris, Joseph W; Fogarty, Lisa R; Kolpin, Dana W; Focazio, Michael J; Furlong, Edward T; Meyer, Michael T

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli [EC], and enterococci [ENT]) concentrations with a wide array of typical organic wastewater chemicals and selected bacterial genes as indicators of fecal pollution in water samples collected at or near 18 surface water drinking water intakes. Genes tested included esp (indicating human-pathogenic ENT) and nine genes associated with various animal sources of shiga-toxin-producing EC (STEC). Fecal pollution was indicated by genes and/or chemicals for 14 of the 18 tested samples, with little relation to FIB standards. Of 13 samples with <50 EC 100 mL(-1), human pharmaceuticals or chemical indicators of wastewater treatment plant effluent occurred in six, veterinary antibiotics were detected in three, and stx1 or stx2 genes (indicating varying animal sources of STEC) were detected in eight. Only the EC eaeA gene was positively correlated with FIB concentrations. Human-source fecal pollution was indicated by the esp gene and the human pharmaceutical carbamazepine in one of the nine samples that met all FIB recreational water quality standards. Escherichia coli rfbO157 and stx2c genes, which are typically associated with cattle sources and are of potential human health significance, were detected in one sample in the absence of tested chemicals. Chemical and gene-based indicators of fecal contamination may be present even when FIB standards are met, and some may, unlike FIB, indicate potential sources. Application of multiple water quality indicators with variable environmental persistence and fate may yield greater confidence in fecal pollution assessment and may inform remediation decisions.

  2. Ferrrate(VI) and freeze-thaw treatment for oxidation of hormones and inactivation of fecal coliforms in sludge.

    PubMed

    Diak, James; Örmeci, Banu

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the individual and combined effects of potassium ferrate(VI) additions and freeze-thaw conditioning for the treatment and dewatering of wastewater sludge in cold climates, with particular focus on the inactivation of fecal coliforms and oxidation of estrogens, androgens, and progestogens. The first phase of the study evaluated the effects of potassium ferrate(VI) pre-treatment followed by freeze-thaw at -20 °C using a low (0.5 g/L) and high (5.0 g/L) dose of potassium ferrate(VI). The results showed that pre-treatment of anaerobically digested sludge with 5 g/L of potassium ferrate(VI) reduced the concentration of fecal coliforms in the sludge cake to below 100 MPN/g DS. The second phase evaluated the ability of ferrate(VI) to oxidise selected hormones in sludge. Anaerobically digested sludge samples were spiked with 10 different hormones: estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol, 17β-estradiol (E2), estriol (E3), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), equilin, mestranol, testosterone, norethindrone and norgestrel in two groups of low (3-75 ng/mL) and high (12-300 ng/L) concentration ranges of hormones. The samples were treated with either 0.5 or 1.0 g/L of potassium ferrate(VI), and hormone concentrations were measured again after treatment. Potassium ferrate(VI) additions as low as 1.0 g/L reduced the concentration of estrogens in sludge. Potassium ferrate(VI) additions of 0.5 and 1.0 g/L were less effective at reducing the concentrations of androgens and progestogens. Increasing ferrate(VI) dose would likely result in more substantial decreases in the concentrations of fecal coliforms and hormones. The results of this study indicate that the combined use of freeze-thaw and ferrate(VI) has the potential to provide a complete sludge treatment solution in cold regions.

  3. Asellus aquaticus as a potential carrier of Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria into drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Sarah C B; Arvin, Erik; Nissen, Erling; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2013-03-01

    Individuals of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, enter drinking water distribution systems in temperate parts of the world, where they establish breeding populations. We analysed populations of surface water A. aquaticus from two ponds for associated faecal indicator bacteria and assessed the risk of A. aquaticus transporting bacteria into distribution systems. Concentrations of up to two E. coli and five total coliforms·mL-1 were measured in the water and 200 E. coli and >240 total coliforms·mL-1 in the sediments of the investigated ponds. Concentrations of A. aquaticus associated bacteria never exceeded three E. coli and six total coliforms·A. aquaticus-1. During exposure to high concentrations of coliforms, concentrations reached 350 coliforms·A. aquaticus-1. A. aquaticus associated E. coli were only detected as long as E. coli were present in the water and sediment. The calculated probability of exceeding drinking water guideline values in non-disinfected systems by intrusion of A. aquaticus was low. Only in scenarios with narrow pipes and low flows, did total coliforms exceed guideline values, implying that the probability of detection by routine monitoring is also low. The study expands the knowledge base for evaluating incidents with presence of coliform indicators in drinking water by showing that intruding A. aquaticus were not important carriers of E. coli or other coliform bacteria even when emerging from faecally contaminated waters.

  4. Asellus aquaticus as a Potential Carrier of Escherichia coli and Other Coliform Bacteria into Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Sarah C. B.; Arvin, Erik; Nissen, Erling; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Individuals of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, enter drinking water distribution systems in temperate parts of the world, where they establish breeding populations. We analysed populations of surface water A. aquaticus from two ponds for associated faecal indicator bacteria and assessed the risk of A. aquaticus transporting bacteria into distribution systems. Concentrations of up to two E. coli and five total coliforms·mL−1 were measured in the water and 200 E. coli and >240 total coliforms·mL−1 in the sediments of the investigated ponds. Concentrations of A. aquaticus associated bacteria never exceeded three E. coli and six total coliforms·A. aquaticus−1. During exposure to high concentrations of coliforms, concentrations reached 350 coliforms·A. aquaticus−1. A. aquaticus associated E. coli were only detected as long as E. coli were present in the water and sediment. The calculated probability of exceeding drinking water guideline values in non-disinfected systems by intrusion of A. aquaticus was low. Only in scenarios with narrow pipes and low flows, did total coliforms exceed guideline values, implying that the probability of detection by routine monitoring is also low. The study expands the knowledge base for evaluating incidents with presence of coliform indicators in drinking water by showing that intruding A. aquaticus were not important carriers of E. coli or other coliform bacteria even when emerging from faecally contaminated waters. PMID:23455399

  5. Survival and detection of coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, and gram-negative bacteria in Greek yogurt.

    PubMed

    Hervert, C J; Martin, N H; Boor, K J; Wiedmann, M

    2017-02-01

    Despite the widespread use of coliforms as indicator bacteria, increasing evidence suggests that the Enterobacteriaceae (EB) and total gram-negative groups more accurately reflect the hygienic status of high-temperature, short-time pasteurized milk and processing environments. If introduced into milk as postpasteurization contamination, these bacteria may grow to high levels and produce a wide range of sensory-related defects. However, limited information is available on the use and survival of bacterial hygiene indicators in dairy products outside of pasteurized fluid milk and cheese. The goal of this study was to (1) provide information on the survival of a diverse set of bacterial hygiene indicators in the low pH environment of Greek yogurt, (2) compare traditional and alternative detection methods for their ability to detect bacterial hygiene indicators in Greek yogurt, and (3) offer insight into optimal hygiene indicator groups for use in low-pH fermented dairy products. To this end, we screened 64 bacterial isolates, representing 24 dairy-relevant genera, for survival and detection in Greek yogurt using 5 testing methods. Before testing, isolates were inoculated into plain, 0% fat Greek yogurt (pH 4.35 to 4.65), followed by a 12-h hold period at 4 ± 1°C. Yogurts were subsequently tested using Coliform Petrifilm (3M, St. Paul, MN) to detect coliforms; Enterobacteriaceae Petrifilm (3M), violet red bile glucose agar and the D-Count (bioMérieux, Marcy-l'Étoile, France) to detect EB; and crystal violet tetrazolium agar (CVTA) to detect total gram-negative bacteria. Overall, the non-EB gram-negative isolates showed significantly larger log reductions 12 h after inoculation into Greek yogurt (based on bacterial numbers recovered on CVTA) compared with the coliform and noncoliform EB isolates tested. The methods evaluated varied in their ability to detect different microbial hygiene indicators in Greek yogurt. Crystal violet tetrazolium agar detected the highest

  6. Coliform bacteria in Sierra Nevada wilderness lakes and streams: what is the impact of backpackers, pack animals, and cattle?

    PubMed

    Derlet, Robert W; Carlson, James R

    2006-01-01

    The presence of coliform bacteria indicates a watershed risk for harboring microbes capable of causing human disease. We hypothesized that water from watersheds that have different human- or animal-use patterns would have differing risks for the presence of coliform bacteria. METHODS; Water was collected in wilderness areas of the Sierra Nevada range in California. A total of 60 sites from lakes or streams were selected to statistically differentiate the risk categories: 1) high use by backpackers, 2) high use by pack animals, 3) cattle- and sheep-grazing tracts, and 4) natural areas rarely visited by humans or domestic animals. Water was collected in sterile test tubes and Millipore coliform samplers during the summer of 2004. Water was analyzed at the university microbiology lab, where bacteria were harvested and then subjected to analysis by standardized techniques. Confirmation was performed with a Phoenix 100 bacteria analyzer. Statistical analysis to compare site categories was performed with Fisher exact test. Only 1 of 15 backpacker sites yielded coliforms. In contrast, 12 of 15 sites with heavy pack-animal traffic yielded coliforms. All 15 sites below the cattle-grazing areas grew coliforms. Differences between backpacker and cattle or pack-animal areas were significant (P < or = .05). Only 1 of the 15 wild sites rarely visited by humans grew coliforms. All coliforms were identified as Escherichia coli. All samples grew normal aquatic bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Ralstonia, and Serratia and nonpathogenic strains of Yersinia. No correlation could be made with temperature or elevation. Sites below cattle-grazing tracts and pack-animal usage areas tended to have more total bacteria. Alpine wilderness water below cattle-grazing tracts or areas used by pack animals are at risk for containing coliform organisms. Areas exclusively used by backpackers were nearly free of coliforms.

  7. The occurrence of coliform bacteria in the cave waters of Slovak Karst, Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Seman, Milan; Gaálová, Barbora; Cíchová, Marianna; Prokšová, Miloslava; Haviarová, Dagmar; Fľaková, Renáta

    2015-05-01

    The diversity and abundance of coliform bacteria (taxonomically enterobacterias), an important quality water indicator, were determined for four representative caves in Slovak Karst: Domica Cave, Gombasecká Cave, Milada Cave and Krásnohorská Cave. Three hundred and fifty-two enterobacterial isolates were successfully identified by biochemical testing (commercial ENTEROtest 24) and selected isolates confirmed by molecular techniques (PCR, 16S rDNA sequence analysis). A total of 39 enterobacterial species were isolated from cave waters, with predominance of Escherichia coli, Serratia spp. and Enterobacter spp. PCR amplification of lacZ gene is not specific enough to provide a reliable detection of coliform bacteria isolated from the environment. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA confirmed that all of the selected isolates belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae. In general, physical and chemical parameters of cave waters in Slovak Karst corresponded to national drinking water quality standards.

  8. Chapter A7. Section 7.1. Fecal Indicator Bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Donna N.; Sylvester, Marc A.

    1997-01-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria are used to assess the microbiological quality of water because, although not typically disease causing, they are correlated with the presence of several waterborne disease-causing organisms. The concentration of indicator bacteria is a measure of water safety for body-contact recreation or for consumption. This report provides information on the equipment, sampling protocols, and identification, enumeration, and calculation procedures that are in standard use by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel for the collection of data on fecal indicator bacteria.

  9. Inactivation of fecal bacteria in drinking water by solar heating.

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, T M; McGuigan, K G; Elmore-Meegan, M; Conroy, R M

    1996-01-01

    We report simulations of the thermal effect of strong equatorial sunshine on water samples contaminated with high populations of fecal coliforms. Water samples, heavily contaminated with a wild-type strain of Escherichia coli (starting population = 20 x 10(5) CFU/ml), are heated to those temperatures recorded for 2-liter samples stored in transparent plastic bottles and exposed to full Kenyan sunshine (maximum water temperature, 55 degrees C). The samples are completely disinfected within 7 h, and no viable E. coli organisms are detected at either the end of the experiment or a further 12 h later, showing that no bacterial recovery has occurred. The feasibility of employing solar disinfection for highly turbid, fecally contaminated water is discussed. PMID:8593045

  10. Inactivation of fecal bacteria in drinking water by solar heating.

    PubMed

    Joyce, T M; McGuigan, K G; Elmore-Meegan, M; Conroy, R M

    1996-02-01

    We report simulations of the thermal effect of strong equatorial sunshine on water samples contaminated with high populations of fecal coliforms. Water samples, heavily contaminated with a wild-type strain of Escherichia coli (starting population = 20 x 10(5) CFU/ml), are heated to those temperatures recorded for 2-liter samples stored in transparent plastic bottles and exposed to full Kenyan sunshine (maximum water temperature, 55 degrees C). The samples are completely disinfected within 7 h, and no viable E. coli organisms are detected at either the end of the experiment or a further 12 h later, showing that no bacterial recovery has occurred. The feasibility of employing solar disinfection for highly turbid, fecally contaminated water is discussed.

  11. Associations between fecal indicator bacteria prevalence and demographic data in private water supplies in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tamara; Krometis, Leigh-Anne H; Hagedorn, Charles; Lawrence, Annie H; Benham, Brian; Ling, Erin; Ziegler, Peter; Marmagas, Susan West

    2014-12-01

    Over 1.7 million Virginians rely on private water sources to provide household water. The heaviest reliance on these systems occurs in rural areas, which are often underserved with respect to available financial resources and access to environmental health education. This study aimed to identify potential associations between concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (coliforms, Escherichia coli) in over 800 samples collected at the point-of-use from homes with private water supply systems and homeowner-provided demographic data (household income and education). Of the 828 samples tested, 349 (42%) of samples tested positive for total coliform and 55 (6.6%) tested positive for E. coli. Source tracking efforts targeting optical brightener concentrations via fluorometry and the presence of a human-specific Bacteroides marker via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) suggest possible contamination from human septage in over 20 samples. Statistical methods implied that household income has an association with the proportion of samples positive for total coliform, though the relationship between education level and FIB is less clear. Further exploration of links between demographic data and private water quality will be helpful in building effective strategies to improve rural drinking water quality.

  12. Tracing the contamination origin of coliform bacteria in two small food-processing factories.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, Tatsuya; Sekine, Masahiro; Oyaizu, Hiroshi

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to trace contamination sources of coliform bacteria by comparing the types of coliforms between food samples and the processing environments in two small food-processing factories (factories A and B). Fermentation tests of five sugars enabled the successful classification of 16 representative type strains into eight distinct groups. The grouping procedure was then applied to comparison of the coliform flora between food products and various locations in their processing environments. The consistency between each food and the tested locations was evaluated using the Jaccard index. The air conditioner and refrigeration room floor in factory A showed an index of 1.00, while the shaping machine in factory B showed an index of 0.98, indicating that these locations could be contamination sources. The validity of our results was confirmed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA, which showed 100% matched profiles between the air conditioner and the food in factory A, and highly matched profiles between the machine and the food in factory B. This method for comparing the coliform flora between food and environments has the potential to be a reliable tracing tool for various food industries.

  13. Occurrence of fecal-indicator bacteria and protocols for identification of fecal-contamination sources in selected reaches of the West Branch Brandywine Creek, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cinotto, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    bacteria samplers, and the use of optical brighteners. For the purposes of this report, sources of bacteria were defined as geographic locations where elevated concentrations of bacteria are observed within, or expected to enter, the main branch of the West Branch Brandywine Creek. Biologic sources (for example, waterfowl) were noted where applicable; however, no specific study of biologic sources (such as bacterial source tracking) was conducted. Data indicated that specific bacterial populations within fluvial sediments could be related to specific particle-size ranges. This relation is likely the result of the reduced porosity and permeability associated with finer sediments and the ability of specific bacteria to tolerate particular environments. Escherichia coli (E. coli) showed a higher median concentration (2,160 colonies per gram of saturated sediment) in the 0.125 to 0.5-millimeter size range of natural sediments than in other ranges, and enterococcus bacteria showed a higher median concentration (61,830 colonies per gram of saturated sediment) in the 0.062 to 0.25-millimeter size range of natural sediments than in other ranges. There were insufficient data to assess the particle-size relation to fecal coliform bacteria and (or) fecal streptococcus bacteria. Climatic conditions were shown to affect bacteria concentrations in both the water column and fluvial sediments. Drought conditions in 2002 resulted in lower overall bacteria concentrations than the more typically wet year of 2003. E. coli concentrations in fluvial sediment along the Coatesville study reach in 2002 had a median concentration of 92 colonies per gram of saturated sediment; in 2003, the median concentration had risen to 4,752 colonies per gram of saturated sediment. Symbiotic relations between bacteria and aquatic growth were likely responsible for increased bacteria concentrations observed within an impoundment area on the Coatesville study reach. This reach showed evidence of

  14. Fecal-indicator bacteria in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers, near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, July-September 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulton, John W.; Buckwalter, Theodore F.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to determine the concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers (Three Rivers) in Allegheny County, Pittsburgh, Pa. Water-quality samples and river-discharge measurements were collected from July to September 2001 during dry- (72-hour dry antecedent period), mixed-, and wet-weather (48-hour dry antecedent period and at least 0.3 inch of rain in a 6-hour period) conditions at five sampling sites on the Three Rivers in Allegheny County. Water samples were collected weekly to establish baseline conditions and during successive days after three wet-weather events. Water samples were analyzed for fecal-indicator organisms including fecal-coliform (FC) bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and enterococci bacteria. Water samples were collected by the USGS and analyzed by the ACHD Laboratory. At each site, left-bank and right-bank surface-water samples were collected in addition to a composite sample (discharge-weighted sample representative of the channel cross section as a whole) at each site. Fecal-indicator bacteria reported in bank and composite samples were used to evaluate the distribution and mixing of bacteria-source streams in receiving waters such as the Three Rivers. Single-event concentrations of enterococci, E. coli, and FC during dry-weather events were greater than State and Federal water-quality standards (WQS) in 11, 28, and 28 percent of the samples, respectively; during mixed-weather events, concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria were greater than WQS in 28, 37, and 43 percent of the samples, respectively; and during wet-weather events, concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria were greater than WQS in 56, 71, and 81 percent of samples, respectively. Single-event, wet-weather concentrations exceeded those during dry-weather events for all sites except the Allegheny River at

  15. Phenotypic and Phylogenetic Identification of Coliform Bacteria Obtained Using 12 Coliform Methods Approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya; Hong, Pei-Ying; LeChevallier, Mark W; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2015-09-01

    The current definition of coliform bacteria is method dependent, and when different culture-based methods are used, discrepancies in results can occur and affect the accuracy of identification of true coliforms. This study used an alternative approach to the identification of true coliforms by combining the phenotypic traits of the coliform isolates and the phylogenetic affiliation of 16S rRNA gene sequences with the use of lacZ and uidA genes. A collection of 1,404 isolates detected by 12 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved coliform-testing methods were characterized based on their phylogenetic affiliations and responses to their original isolation media and lauryl tryptose broth, m-Endo, and MI agar media. Isolates were phylogenetically classified into 32 true-coliform, or targeted Enterobacteriaceae (TE), groups and 14 noncoliform, or nontargeted Enterobacteriaceae (NTE), groups. It was shown statistically that detecting true-positive (TP) events is more challenging than detecting true-negative (TN) events. Furthermore, most false-negative (FN) events were associated with four TE groups (i.e., Serratia group I and the Providencia, Proteus, and Morganella groups) and most false-positive (FP) events with two NTE groups, the Aeromonas and Plesiomonas groups. In Escherichia coli testing, 18 out of 145 E. coli isolates identified by enzymatic methods were validated as FN. The reasons behind the FP and FN reactions could be explained through analysis of the lacZ and uidA genes. Overall, combining the analyses of the 16S rRNA, lacZ, and uidA genes with the growth responses of TE and NTE on culture-based media is an effective way to evaluate the performance of coliform detection methods.

  16. Phenotypic and Phylogenetic Identification of Coliform Bacteria Obtained Using 12 Coliform Methods Approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya; Hong, Pei-Ying; LeChevallier, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    The current definition of coliform bacteria is method dependent, and when different culture-based methods are used, discrepancies in results can occur and affect the accuracy of identification of true coliforms. This study used an alternative approach to the identification of true coliforms by combining the phenotypic traits of the coliform isolates and the phylogenetic affiliation of 16S rRNA gene sequences with the use of lacZ and uidA genes. A collection of 1,404 isolates detected by 12 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved coliform-testing methods were characterized based on their phylogenetic affiliations and responses to their original isolation media and lauryl tryptose broth, m-Endo, and MI agar media. Isolates were phylogenetically classified into 32 true-coliform, or targeted Enterobacteriaceae (TE), groups and 14 noncoliform, or nontargeted Enterobacteriaceae (NTE), groups. It was shown statistically that detecting true-positive (TP) events is more challenging than detecting true-negative (TN) events. Furthermore, most false-negative (FN) events were associated with four TE groups (i.e., Serratia group I and the Providencia, Proteus, and Morganella groups) and most false-positive (FP) events with two NTE groups, the Aeromonas and Plesiomonas groups. In Escherichia coli testing, 18 out of 145 E. coli isolates identified by enzymatic methods were validated as FN. The reasons behind the FP and FN reactions could be explained through analysis of the lacZ and uidA genes. Overall, combining the analyses of the 16S rRNA, lacZ, and uidA genes with the growth responses of TE and NTE on culture-based media is an effective way to evaluate the performance of coliform detection methods. PMID:26116679

  17. Reduction of faecal coliform, coliform and heterotrophic plate count bacteria in the household kitchen and bathroom by disinfection with hypochlorite cleaners.

    PubMed

    Rusin, P; Orosz-Coughlin, P; Gerba, C

    1998-11-01

    Fourteen sites evenly divided between the household kitchen and bathroom were monitored on a weekly basis for numbers of faecal coliforms, total coliforms and heterotrophic plate count bacteria. The first 10 weeks comprised the control period, hypochlorite cleaning products were introduced into the household during the second 10 weeks, and a strict cleaning regimen using hypochlorite products was implemented during the last 10 weeks. The kitchen was more heavily contaminated than the bathroom, with the toilet seat being the least contaminated site. The highest concentrations of all three classes of bacteria were found on sites that were moist environments and/or were frequently touched; these included the sponge/dishcloth, the kitchen sink drain area, the bath sink drain area, and the kitchen faucet handle(s). The implementation of a cleaning regimen with common household hypochlorite products resulted in the significant reduction of all three classes of bacteria at these four sites and other household sites.

  18. An analysis of wilderness water in Kings Canyon, Sequoia, and Yosemite national parks for coliform and pathologic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Derlet, Robert W; Carlson, James R

    2004-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of coliform and potentially pathogenic bacteria in remote backcountry alpine lakes and streams of national parks in the Sierra Nevada mountains. Water was sampled at 55 predetermined lakes and streams that would stratify the risk, based on sites used by backpackers, sites used by pack animals, and uncontaminated wild areas. Sites were distributed among Kings Canyon (15), Sequoia (17), and Yosemite (23). Water was collected using Millipore bacterial samplers, which provided specific counts of coliform and other bacteria in each water sample and also served as a transport media from the wilderness to the laboratory. On return to the laboratory, bacteria were harvested from the samplers and subjected to specific identification and qualitative analysis using standard microbiology techniques for the analysis of water. Coliform bacteria were detected in 22 of the 55 sites. All of these sites were below areas used by backpackers or pack animals. Thirty-three sites were free of coliforms. These sites included both those used lightly by backpackers and those with no human or domestic animal use. All samples contained expected amounts of normal aquatic bacteria including Pseudomonas, Rahnella aquatilis, Serratia spp, and nonpathogenic species of Yersinia. Most sampling sites in these national parks are free of coliform or pathogenic organisms. Low levels of coliform bacteria are found in some bodies of water where the watershed has been affected by human or pack animal travel.

  19. Coliform Bacteria and Nitrogen Fixation in Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent Treatment Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Francis; Neufeld, Josh D.; Driscoll, Brian T.; Archibald, Frederick S.

    2000-01-01

    The majority of pulp and paper mills now biotreat their combined effluents using activated sludge. On the assumption that their wood-based effluents have negligible fixed N, and that activated-sludge microorganisms will not fix significant N, these mills routinely spend large amounts adding ammonia or urea to their aeration tanks (bioreactors) to permit normal biomass growth. N2 fixation in seven Eastern Canadian pulp and paper mill effluent treatment systems was analyzed using acetylene reduction assays, quantitative nitrogenase (nifH) gene probing, and bacterial isolations. In situ N2 fixation was undetectable in all seven bioreactors but was present in six associated primary clarifiers. One primary clarifier was studied in greater detail. Approximately 50% of all culturable cells in the clarifier contained nifH, of which >90% were Klebsiella strains. All primary-clarifier coliform bacteria growing on MacConkey agar were identified as klebsiellas, and all those probed contained nifH. In contrast, analysis of 48 random coliform isolates from other mill water system locations showed that only 24 (50%) possessed the nifH gene, and only 13 (27%) showed inducible N2-fixing activity. Thus, all the pulp and paper mill primary clarifiers tested appeared to be sites of active N2 fixation (0.87 to 4.90 mg of N liter−1 day−1) and a microbial community strongly biased toward this activity. This may also explain why coliform bacteria, especially klebsiellas, are indigenous in pulp and paper mill water systems. PMID:11097883

  20. The ultraviolet absorbance spectrum of coliform bacteria and its relationship to astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, F.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.; Jansz, E. R.; Jayatissa, P. M.

    1983-09-01

    The ultraviolet absorbance spectrum of a mixed culture of coliform bacteria is obtained and compared to recent measurements of the extinction curve of starlight. The absorbance of the bacterial suspensions over the wavebands 3500-2000 A and 7000-3400 A are presented along with a comparison of the extinction values for the star HD 14250 with the alpha function of the coliform suspension, which is a measure of the total amount of the material in the line of sight of the star. The agreement is excellent and is just as good as the agreement obtained by Karim et al. (1983) for typtophan in isolation, supporting the contention that the tryptophan responsible for the astronomical extinction is present in the interstellar grains in protein form.

  1. Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd Medi·Ca CC for Enumeration of Coliform Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Saito, Fumihiko; Shimizu, Mai; Suzuki, Takeo; Hamada, Chie; Iwase, Tatsuhiko; Okochi, Norihiko; Yamazaki, Mamoru; Kyotani, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    A ready-made dry medium method for coliform count, the Medi·Ca CC method, was compared to the Violet Red Bile Agar method (Bacteriological Analytical Manual, Chapter 4, Enumeration of Escherichia coli and the Coliform Bacteria, Section G) for nine raw foods from four food categories: raw ground pork, raw lamb, raw ground chicken, raw tuna fillet, raw salmon fillet, raw shrimp, fresh peeled banana, fresh cut pineapple, and fresh cut apple. The 95% confidence interval for the mean difference between the two methods at each contamination level for seven matrixes from all four categories fell within the range of -0.50 to 0.50, and no statistical difference was observed at all three contamination levels for four matrixes from three categories. These results demonstrated that the Medi·Ca CC method is a reasonable alternative to the reference method for raw meat, raw poultry, raw fish, and fresh fruits.

  2. Profiling Living Bacteria Informs Preparation of Fecal Microbiota Transplantations

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Nathaniel D.; Smith, Mark B.; Perrotta, Allison R.; Kassam, Zain; Alm, Eric J.

    2017-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation is a compelling treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections, with potential applications against other diseases associated with changes in gut microbiota. But variability in fecal bacterial communities—believed to be the therapeutic agent—can complicate or undermine treatment efficacy. To understand the effects of transplant preparation methods on living fecal microbial communities, we applied a DNA-sequencing method (PMA-seq) that uses propidium monoazide (PMA) to differentiate between living and dead fecal microbes, and we created an analysis pipeline to identify individual bacteria that change in abundance between samples. We found that oxygen exposure degraded fecal bacterial communities, whereas freeze-thaw cycles and lag time between donor defecation and transplant preparation had much smaller effects. Notably, the abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii—an anti-inflammatory commensal bacterium whose absence is linked to inflammatory bowel disease—decreased with oxygen exposure. Our results indicate that some current practices for preparing microbiota transplant material adversely affect living fecal microbial content and highlight PMA-seq as a valuable tool to inform best practices and evaluate the suitability of clinical fecal material. PMID:28125667

  3. Profiling Living Bacteria Informs Preparation of Fecal Microbiota Transplantations.

    PubMed

    Chu, Nathaniel D; Smith, Mark B; Perrotta, Allison R; Kassam, Zain; Alm, Eric J

    2017-01-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation is a compelling treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infections, with potential applications against other diseases associated with changes in gut microbiota. But variability in fecal bacterial communities-believed to be the therapeutic agent-can complicate or undermine treatment efficacy. To understand the effects of transplant preparation methods on living fecal microbial communities, we applied a DNA-sequencing method (PMA-seq) that uses propidium monoazide (PMA) to differentiate between living and dead fecal microbes, and we created an analysis pipeline to identify individual bacteria that change in abundance between samples. We found that oxygen exposure degraded fecal bacterial communities, whereas freeze-thaw cycles and lag time between donor defecation and transplant preparation had much smaller effects. Notably, the abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii-an anti-inflammatory commensal bacterium whose absence is linked to inflammatory bowel disease-decreased with oxygen exposure. Our results indicate that some current practices for preparing microbiota transplant material adversely affect living fecal microbial content and highlight PMA-seq as a valuable tool to inform best practices and evaluate the suitability of clinical fecal material.

  4. Effect of feeding a direct-fed microbial on total and antimicrobial-resistant fecal coliform counts in preweaned dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Erik M; Norby, Bo; Halbert, Lisa W; Henderson, Scott T; Grooms, Daniel L; Manning, Shannon D; Kaneene, John B

    2015-09-01

    To determine whether feeding a direct-fed microbial (DFM) to dairy calves would reduce total and antimicrobial-resistant coliform counts in feces and affect average daily gain (ADG). 21 preweaned Holstein heifer calves. The study had a randomized complete block design. Within each block, 3 consecutively born calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups within 24 hours after birth (day 0). Calves were fed the DFM at 1.0 g (DFM1; n = 7) or 0.5 g (DFM2; 7) twice daily or no DFM (control; 7) from days 0 through 29. A fecal sample was collected from each calf daily on days 0 through 3 and then every other day through day 29. Fecal samples were cultured, and mean numbers of total coliforms and coliforms resistant to ampicillin, ceftiofur, and tetracycline were compared among the 3 treatment groups. Calves were weighed on days 0 and 29 to calculate ADG. Mean total fecal coliform counts did not differ significantly among the 3 treatment groups. Mean ceftiofur-resistant and tetracycline-resistant coliform counts for the control group were significantly lower, compared with those for the DFM1 and DFM2 groups. Mean ADG did not differ significantly between the DFM1 and DFM2 groups; however, the mean ADG for all calves fed the DFM was 0.15 kg less than that for control calves. Results suggested that the DFM fed to the preweaned calves of this study did not reduce total or antimicrobial-resistant coliform counts in feces.

  5. Effect of fecal contamination and cross-contamination on numbers of coliform, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, and Salmonella on immersion-chilled broiler carcasses.

    PubMed

    Smith, D P; Cason, J A; Berrang, M E

    2005-07-01

    The effect of prechill fecal contamination on numbers of bacteria on immersion-chilled carcasses was tested in each of three replicate trials. For each trial, 16 eviscerated broiler carcasses were split into 32 halves and assigned to one of two groups. Cecal contents (0.1 g inoculated with Campylobacter and nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella) were applied to each of eight halves in one group (direct contamination) that were placed into one paddle chiller (contaminated), whereas the other paired halves were placed into another chiller (control). From the second group of eight split birds, one of each paired half was placed in the contaminated chiller (to determine cross-contamination) and the other half was placed in the control chiller. Postchill carcass halves were sampled by a 1-min rinse in sterile water, which was collected and cultured. Bacterial counts were reported as log CFU per milliliter of rinsate. There were no significant statistical differences (paired t test, P < 0.05) from direct contamination for coliforms (mean 3.0 log CFU) and Escherichia coli (mean 2.7 log CFU), although Campylobacter numbers significantly increased from control values because of direct contamination (1.5 versus 2.1 log CFU), and the incidence increased from 79 to 100%. There was no significant effect of cross-contamination on coliform (mean 2.9 log CFU) or E. coli (mean 2.6 log CFU) numbers. Nevertheless, Campylobacter levels were significantly higher after exposure to cross-contamination (1.6 versus 2.0 log CFU), and the incidence of this bacterium increased from 75 to 100%. Salmonella-positive halves increased from 0 to 42% postchill because of direct contamination and from 0 to 25% as a result of cross-contamination after chilling. Water samples and surface swabs taken postchill from the contaminated chiller were higher for Campylobacter than those taken from the control chiller. Immersion chilling equilibrated bacterial numbers between contaminated and control halves

  6. Growth of infant fecal bacteria on commercial prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Bunešová, Věra; Vlková, Eva; Rada, Vojtěch; Kňazovická, Vladimíra; Ročková, Sárka; Geigerová, Martina; Božik, Matěj

    2012-07-01

    Fecal bacteria from 33 infants (aged 1 to 6 months) were tested for growth on commercial prebiotics. The children were born vaginally (20) or by caesarean section (13). Bifidobacteria, lactobacilli, gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, and total anaerobes in fecal samples were enumerated by selective agars and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The total fecal bacteria were inoculated into cultivation media containing 2 % Vivinal® (galactooligosaccharides-GOS) or Raftilose® P95 (fructooligosaccharides-FOS) as a single carbon source and bacteria were enumerated again after 24 h of anaerobic cultivation. Bifidobacteria dominated, reaching counts of 9-10 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g in 17 children born vaginally and in seven children delivered by caesarean section. In these infants, lactobacilli were more frequently detected and a lower number of E. coli and gram-negative bacteria were determined compared to bifidobacteria-negative infants. Clostridia dominated in children without bifidobacteria, reaching counts from 7 to 9 log CFU/g. Both prebiotics supported all groups of bacteria tested. In children with naturally high counts of bifidobacteria, bifidobacteria dominated also after cultivation on prebiotics, reaching counts from 8.23 to 8.77 log CFU/mL. In bifidobacteria-negative samples, clostridia were supported by prebiotics, reaching counts from 7.17 to 7.69 log CFU/mL. There were no significant differences between bacterial growth on Vivinal® and Raftilose® P95 and counts determined by cultivation and FISH. Prebiotics should selectively stimulate the growth of desirable bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli. However, our results showed that commercially available FOS and GOS may stimulate also other fecal bacteria.

  7. An Assessment of Coliform Bacteria in Water Sources Near Appalachian Trail Shelters Within the Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    PubMed

    Reed, Brian C; Rasnake, Mark S

    2016-03-01

    Hikers and campers are exposed to risks while in the wilderness. One of these risks is the possibility of contracting an illness, including infectious diarrhea. This project tested for coliform bacteria in water samples taken near popular Appalachian Trail shelters. Water was collected from access points within the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Samples were collected in sterile bottles and inoculated on a commercially available coliform detection kit for quantitative determination of total coliform and Escherichia coli counts. Water samples were taken during summer and fall seasons. During summer, 7 of 10 samples were positive for coliform bacteria and 6 of those 7 for E coli. The most probable number (MPN) of colony-forming units (CFU) for coliform bacteria ranged from 0 to 489 CFU/100 mL, with the MPN for E coli varying from 0 to 123 CFU/100 mL. These data differed from the fall collection, revealing 3 of 7 samples positive for coliform bacteria and 1 of those 3 for E coli. The MPN of CFU for coliform bacteria in fall samples varied from 0 to 119 CFU/100 mL and 0 to 5 to CFU/100 mL for E coli. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standards set the standard of 0 CFU/100 mL to be considered safe. This analysis of water samples along the Appalachian Trail emphasizes that the majority of water access points require treatment during the summer season. Coliform burden was not as high through the fall months. These data suggest one infectious disease risk for wilderness travelers. Copyright © 2016 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Host Distributions of Uncultivated Fecal Bacteroidales Bacteria Reveal Genetic Markers for Fecal Source Identification

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Linda K.; Bernhard, Anne E.; Brodeur, Timothy J.; Santo Domingo, Jorge W.; Simpson, Joyce M.; Walters, Sarah P.; Field, Katharine G.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine host distribution patterns among fecal bacteria in the order Bacteroidales, with the goal of using endemic sequences as markers for fecal source identification in aquatic environments. We analyzed Bacteroidales 16S rRNA gene sequences from the feces of eight hosts: human, bovine, pig, horse, dog, cat, gull, and elk. Recovered sequences did not match database sequences, indicating high levels of uncultivated diversity. The analysis revealed both endemic and cosmopolitan distributions among the eight hosts. Ruminant, pig, and horse sequences tended to form host- or host group-specific clusters in a phylogenetic tree, while human, dog, cat, and gull sequences clustered together almost exclusively. Many of the human, dog, cat, and gull sequences fell within a large branch containing cultivated species from the genus Bacteroides. Most of the cultivated Bacteroides species had very close matches with multiple hosts and thus may not be useful targets for fecal source identification. A large branch containing cultivated members of the genus Prevotella included cloned sequences that were not closely related to cultivated Prevotella species. Most ruminant sequences formed clusters separate from the branches containing Bacteroides and Prevotella species. Host-specific sequences were identified for pigs and horses and were used to design PCR primers to identify pig and horse sources of fecal pollution in water. The primers successfully amplified fecal DNAs from their target hosts and did not amplify fecal DNAs from other species. Fecal bacteria endemic to the host species may result from evolution in different types of digestive systems. PMID:15933020

  9. Occurrence of heterotrophic and coliform bacteria in liquid hand soaps from bulk refillable dispensers in public facilities.

    PubMed

    Chattman, Marisa; Gerba, Sheri L; Maxwell, Charles P

    2011-03-01

    The goal of the study discussed in this article was to determine the occurrence of heterotrophic and coliform bacteria in liquid soap from bulk refillable dispensers, obtained from restrooms in a variety of public facilities. A total of 541 samples was collected from five U.S. cities. Liquid soap from dispensers in public areas was found to contain heterotrophic and coliform bacterial numbers averaging more than 106 CFU/mL in 24.8% of the dispensers.

  10. Removal of fecal indicator organisms and parasites (fecal coliforms and helminth eggs) from municipal biologic sludge by anaerobic mesophilic and thermophilic digestion.

    PubMed

    Rojas Oropeza, M; Cabirol, N; Ortega, S; Castro Ortiz, L P; Noyola, A

    2001-01-01

    In this work, two egg-shaped, 5L-volume, anaerobic sludge digesters were used, one under mesophilic conditions (35 degrees C, M1), and the other under thermophilic conditions (55 degrees C, T1). Both digesters were fed with the purged sludge from an anaerobic treatment plant (start-up period) and from an activated sludge plant (stabilization period), treating municipal wastewaters. The purpose of the study was to establish the technical feasibility of the anaerobic thermophilic sludge treatment comparatively, during the stages of start-up and stabilization of the process, for removing pathogenic microorganisms and parasites efficiently. The results show that, in both stages, the anaerobic thermophilic digester presents higher efficiency on the removal of pathogens and parasites, than the mesophilic digester. Anaerobic thermophilic digestion is close to complying with the EPA (1998) limits for "Class A" type biosolids, referring to the number of parasitic helminth eggs (0.25 HELarval/gTS), and to the pathogen indicator fecal coliforms (< 1000 MPN/gTS). Therefore, the results show that thermophilic anaerobic digestion of biologic sludge may be considered as a suitable technology for the production of Class A biosolids, for further use in agriculture without restrictions.

  11. Occurrence and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria and gene markers of pathogenic bacteria in Great Lakes tributaries, March-October 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, Angela K.; Johnson, Heather E.; Totten, Alexander R.; Duris, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    Water samples were analyzed for the presence of FIB concentrations (FIB; fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli [E. coli], and enterococci) by using membrane filtration and serial dilution methods. The resulting enrichments from standard culturing of the samples were then analyzed by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the occurrence of pathogen gene markers for Shigella species, Campylobacter jejuni and coli, Salmonellaspecies, and pathogenic E. coli, including Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC).

  12. Populations of antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria change rapidly in a wastewater effluent dominated stream.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Tatsuya; Savin, Mary C

    2010-11-15

    Incomplete elimination of bacteria and pharmaceutical drugs during wastewater treatment results in the entry of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria into receiving streams with effluent inputs. In Mud Creek in Fayetteville, AR, ofloxacin, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole have been detected in water and sediment, and tetracycline has been detected in sediment downstream of treated effluent input. These antibiotics have been measured repeatedly, but at low concentrations (<1μg/L) in the stream. To determine if effluent input results in detectable and stable changes in antibiotic resistances downstream of effluent input, antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli and total coliform bacteria in Mud Creek stream water and sediment were determined using a culture-based method. Isolated E. coli colonies were characterized for multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) patterns on solid media and to evaluate E. coli isolate richness by amplification of a partial uidA gene followed by denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Despite temporal variability, proportions of antibiotic-resistant E. coli were generally high in effluent and 640m downstream. The MAR pattern ampicillin-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was associated with a DGGE profile that was detected in effluent and downstream E. coli isolates, but not upstream. Percent resistance among coliform bacteria to trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole was higher 640m downstream compared to upstream sediment and water (with one exception). Resistance to ofloxacin was too low to analyze statistically and tetracycline resistance was fairly constant across sites. Resistances changed from 640m to 2000m downstream, although dissolved nutrient concentrations within that stream stretch resembled effluent. Antibiotic resistant bacteria are entering the stream, but resistances change within a short distance of effluent inputs, more quickly than indicated based on chemical water properties. Results illustrate the difficulty in

  13. Linking Near Real-Time Water Quality Measurements to Fecal Coliforms and Trace Organic Pollutants in Urban Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henjum, M.; Wennen, C.; Hondzo, M.; Hozalski, R. M.; Novak, P. J.; Arnold, W. A.

    2009-05-01

    Anthropogenic pollutants, including pesticides, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, and estrogens are detected in urban water bodies. Effective examination of dilute organic and microbial pollutant loading rates within surface waters is currently prohibitively expensive and labor intensive. Effort is being placed on the development of improved monitoring methodologies to more accurately assess surface water quality and evaluate the effectiveness of water quality management practices. Throughout the summer and fall of 2008 a "real-time" wireless network equipped with high frequency fundamental water quality parameter sensors measured turbidity, conductivity, pH, depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen and nitrate above and below stormwater inputs at two urban stream locations. At each location one liter grab samples were concurrently collected by ISCO automatic samplers at two hour intervals for 24 hour durations during three dry periods and five rain events. Grab samples were analyzed for fecal coliforms, atrazine (agricultural herbicide), prometon (residential herbicide) and caffeine (wastewater indicator). Surrogate relationships between easy-to-measure water quality parameters and difficult-to-measure pollutants were developed, subsequently facilitating monitoring of these pollutants without the development of new, and likely costly, technologies. Additionally, comparisons were made between traditional grab sampling techniques and the "real-time" monitoring to assess the accuracy of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) calculations.

  14. Effect of pre- and post-UV disinfection conditions on photoreactivation of fecal coliforms in wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Hallmich, Catherine; Gehr, Ronald

    2010-05-01

    Photoreactivation of microorganisms following UV disinfection can represent a disadvantage to using UV technology for wastewater treatment since recovery may, in some cases, reach several logs. Thus, decreasing photoreactivation can lead to considerable savings in capital and operating costs. Objectives of this study were to determine pre- and post-UV irradiation conditions which could decrease fecal coliform (FC) photoreactivation in wastewater effluents. Results indicated that delaying exposure to photoreactivating light for 3 h suppressed photoreactivation after relatively low UV doses of 10 and 20 mJ/cm(2). Moreover, at least 440 lux (0.065 mW/cm(2)) of visible light was needed to initiate photoreactivation. Additionally, photoreactivation decreased significantly when samples were exposed to visible light simultaneously or prior to UV irradiation. This was more significantly observed for winter samples, where photoreactivation decreased by nearly 50%. Finally, summer FC populations were more sensitive to inactivation and less able to photoreactivate than winter populations. The effect of visible light on photoreactivation levels may be explained by several photo-mechanisms of FC photolyase, such as photodecomposition of the MTHF co-factor and reduction of FAD. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhanced anaerobic biodegradability and inactivation of fecal coliforms and Salmonella spp. in wastewater sludge by using microwaves.

    PubMed

    Pino-Jelcic, Sergio A; Hong, Seung Mo; Park, Jae K

    2006-02-01

    During continuous operation of three mesophilic-anaerobic digesters, the effect of microwave irradiation, as sludge thermal pretreatment (60 to 65 degrees C), was studied. The fecal coliforms log inactivation for microwaved/digested sludge was 4.2 +/- 0.4, whereas for conventionally heated/digested sludge and control were 2.9 +/- 0.5 and 1.5 +/- 0.5, respectively. In the case of Salmonella spp., no colonies were detected in 85% of the microwaved/digested samples. Considering the detection limit, the log inactivation of these samples was greater than 2.0 +/- 0.3. The conventionally heated/digested sludge and control showed log inactivations of 1.9 +/- 0.2 and 1.1 +/- 0.3, respectively. At the 95% confidence level, microwaved/digested sludge increased the biogas production by 16.4 +/- 5.6% and 6.3 +/- 2.4%, as compared to control and conventionally heated/digested sludge, respectively. When thermally treated sludge was analyzed for soluble chemical oxygen demand, microwaved waste-activated sludge showed considerable solubilization between 37 and 60 degrees C. Microwaved/digested sludge showed a reduction of capillary suction times by 11.1 +/- 5.9% and 10.7 +/- 5.6%, as compared to control and conventionally heated/digested sludge, respectively.

  16. Fecal-borne bacteria in stormwater and treatment systems in coastal New Hampshire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S. H.

    2005-05-01

    Bacterial contamination is the most common use limitation in New Hampshire's coastal waters. Past studies have shown consistently elevated levels of fecal-borne bacteria in surface waters occur during and following runoff events. Follow-up investigations have shown many stormwater conduits in urban areas that discharge directly into tidal rivers to contain high levels of bacteria, even during dry weather conditions. One of the results of these conditions is the need to close shellfishing waters throughout coastal New Hampshire, especially in Hampton Harbor, following rainfall events. Several recent studies have involved investigation of stormwater treatment system impacts on bacterial pollutants. Influent and effluent water samples from parking lot and storm drain treatment systems, runoff from urban streets, effluent from urban storm drains and receiving water samples were collected during different stages of stormwater runoff and analyzed for fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and enterococci. E. coli isolates from one storm drain system were also ribotyped to identify source species. The stormwater treatment systems showed different capabilities for removing bacteria. Most were inconsistent at removing bacteria while others showed evidence of possible re-growth of bacteria between storms, especially during warmer weather. Re-growth or illicit connections appear to impact effluent bacterial levels in many urban storm drains. The source species identified for E. coli isolates in one storm drain changed between different stages of a storm event, reflecting runoff dynamics and human behavior patterns. Further work is focused on identifying the most significant sources of bacterial contaminants in receiving waters to help focus ongoing pollution abatement measures.

  17. Effect of coliform and Proteus bacteria on growth of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    DiGiacinto, J V; Frazier, W C

    1966-01-01

    Cultures of coliform and Proteus bacteria, mostly from foods, were tested for their effect on growth of Staphylococcus aureus in Trypticase Soy Broth. Inhibition of the staphylococcus by these competitors increased with increasing proportions of inhibiting (effector) bacteria in the inoculum and decreasing incubation temperatures (37 to 10 C). Time required for 2 x 10(4) staphylococci to increase to 5 x 10(6) cells per milliliter, the minimal number assumed to be necessary for food poisoning, varied with the species of effector, the original ratio of effector bacteria to staphylococci in the medium, and the incubation temperature. When the original ratio was 100:1, the staphylococci did not reach 5 x 10(6) cells per milliliter at 10, 15, 22, or 30 C (with one exception), when growing with cultures representing six species of coliform bacteria and two of Proteus. When the ratio was 1:1, all effectors either greatly delayed the staphylococcus or prevented it from reaching hazardous numbers at 15 C, six of the eight caused a delay of 2 to 3 hr at 22 C, and only Escherichia coli delayed the coccus at 30 C. All effectors were ineffective at 22 and 30 C when original numbers of effectors and staphylococci were in the ratio 1:100. Greatest overall inhibition was by E. coli, E. freundii, and Proteus vulgaris, and these species were more effective than the others at 22 and 30 C. Aerobacter cloacae and Paracolobactrum aerogenoides were more effective at 15 C. In general, results were similar with different strains of a species. Except for Aerobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella sp., and P. aerogenoides, which apparently did not compete for nutrients, inhibition of the staphylococcus was by a combination of antibiotic substances and competition for nutrients.

  18. Fecal indicator bacteria persistence under natural conditions in an ice-covered river.

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, C V; Sparrow, E B; Gordon, R C

    1976-01-01

    Total coliform (TC), fecal coliform (FC), and fecal streptococcus (FS) survival characteristics, under natural conditions at 0 degrees C in an ice-covered river, were examined during February and March 1975. The membrane filter (MF) technique was used throughout the study, and the multiple-tube (MPN) method was used in parallel on three preselected days for comparative recovery of these bacteria. Survival was studied at seven sample stations downstream from all domestic pollution sources in a 317-km reach of the river having 7.1 days mean flow time (range of 6.0 to 9.1 days). The mean indicator bacteria densities decreased continuously at successive stations in this reach and, after adjustment for dilution, the most rapid die-off was found to occur during the first 1.9 days, followed by a slower decrease. After 7.1 days, the relative survival was TC less than FC less than FS, with 8.4%, 15.7%, and 32.8% of the initial populations remaining viable, respectively. These rates are higher than previously reported and suggest that the highest survival rates for these bacteria in receiving streams can be expected at 0 degree C under ice cover. Additionally, the FC-FS ratio was greater than 5 at all stations, indicating that this ratio may be useable for determining the source of fecal pollution in receiving streams for greater than 7 days flow time at low water temperatures. The MPN and MF methods gave comparable results for the TC and FS at all seven sample stations, with both the direct and verified MF counts within the 95% confidence limits of the respective MPNs in most samples, but generally lower than the MPN index. Although FC recovery on membrane filters was comparable results at stations near the pollution source. However, the results became more comparable with increasing flow time. The results of this study indicate that heat shock is a major factor in suppression of the FC counts on the membrane filters at 44.5 degree C. Heat shock may be minimized by extended

  19. Sunlight Inactivation of Fecal Bacteriophages and Bacteria in Sewage-Polluted Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Sinton, Lester W.; Finlay, Rochelle K.; Lynch, Philippa A.

    1999-01-01

    Sunlight inactivation rates of somatic coliphages, F-specific RNA bacteriophages (F-RNA phages), and fecal coliforms were compared in seven summer and three winter survival experiments. Experiments were conducted outdoors, using 300-liter 2% (vol/vol) sewage-seawater mixtures held in open-top chambers. Dark inactivation rates (kDs), measured from exponential survival curves in enclosed (control) chambers, were higher in summer (temperature range: 14 to 20°C) than in winter (temperature range: 8 to 10°C). Winter kDs were highest for fecal coliforms and lowest for F-RNA phages but were the same or similar for all three indicators in summer. Sunlight inactivation rates (kS), as a function of cumulative global solar radiation (insolation), were all higher than the kDs with a consistent kS ranking (from greatest to least) as follows: fecal coliforms, F-RNA phages, and somatic coliphages. Phage inactivation was exponential, but bacterial curves typically exhibited a shoulder. Phages from raw sewage exhibited kSs similar to those from waste stabilization pond effluent, but raw sewage fecal coliforms were inactivated faster than pond effluent fecal coliforms. In an experiment which included F-DNA phages and Bacteroides fragilis phages, the kS ranking (from greatest to least) was as follows: fecal coliforms, F-RNA phages, B. fragilis phages, F-DNA phages, and somatic coliphages. In a 2-day experiment which included enterococci, the initial concentration ranking (from greatest to least: fecal coliforms, enterococci, F-RNA phages, and somatic coliphages) was reversed during sunlight exposure, with only the phages remaining detectable by the end of day 2. Inactivation rates under different optical filters decreased with the increase in spectral cutoff wavelength (50% light transmission) and indicated that F-RNA phages and fecal coliforms are more susceptible than somatic coliphages to longer solar wavelengths, which predominate in seawater. The consistently superior survival

  20. Microbiological Indices for total coliform and E. coli bacteria in estuarine waters.

    PubMed

    Neill, Michael

    2004-11-01

    Bacterial counts for total coliforms and E. coli in estuaries are normally orders of magnitude greater at the freshwater end than at the seaward end and tidal movements and variations in freshwater flows produce continual change in the freshwater/seawater mix--this causes the bacterial counts to vary greatly throughout the estuary and the complexity creates difficulty in appraising or assessing the bacterial counts (i.e. difficulties arise when deciding if the bacterial counts for estuarine water samples are within an acceptable range--relative to their corresponding salinities). The situation is further complicated in estuaries where sewage is discharged directly. Microbiological criteria and indices that can be used in a practical way to overcome these difficulties were developed. The procedure is summarised as follows: 1. Primary criteria are proposed for total coliform and for E. coli bacteria in the freshwater at the head of the estuary and in full seawater at the mouth of the estuary. 2. For estuarine or transitional waters (i.e. waters with salinity ranging from 0 per thousand to 35 per thousand), distinct criteria are calculated for each individual sample--with a separate criterion for total coliforms and for E. coli--the individual criteria are founded on the primary criteria and vary with salinity on a pro-rata or linear basis. 3. Finally, the Microbiological Index for each result is obtained by dividing the actual bacterial count by the corresponding criterion--the acceptable Index is then equal to 1--at any salinity (i.e. where the Index is <1 then the bacterial count complies with the criterion, and where the Index is >1 then the count breaches the criterion). The Index also indicates the extent of the compliance or non-compliance with the corresponding criteria. An example of the application of the Microbiological Index is also presented--including examples of graphs that demonstrate how microbiological data for estuarine waters can be summarised and

  1. Inactivation and injury of total coliform bacteria after primary disinfection of drinking water by TiO2 photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Luigi

    2009-06-15

    In this study the potential application of TiO(2) photocatalysis as primary disinfection system of drinking water was investigated in terms of coliform bacteria inactivation and injury. As model water the effluent of biological denitrification unit for nitrate removal from groundwater, which is characterized by high organic matter and bacteria release, was used. The injury of photocatalysis on coliform bacteria was characterized by means of selective (mEndo) and less selective (mT7) culture media. Different catalyst loadings as well as photolysis and adsorption effects were investigated. Photocatalysis was effective in coliform bacteria inactivation (91-99% after 60 min irradiation time, depending on both catalyst loading and initial density of coliform bacteria detected by mEndo), although no total removal was observed after 60 min irradiation time. The contribution of adsorption mechanism was significant (60-98% after 60 min, depending on catalyst loading) compared to previous investigations probably due to the nature of source water rich in particulate organic matter and biofilm. Photocatalysis process did not result in any irreversible injury (98.8% being the higher injury) under investigated conditions, thus a bacteria regrowth may take place under optimum environment conditions if any final disinfection process (e.g., chlorine or chlorine dioxide) is not used.

  2. Fecal indicator bacteria contamination of fomites and household demand for surface disinfection products: a case study from Peru.

    PubMed

    Julian, Timothy R; MacDonald, Luke H; Guo, Yayi; Marks, Sara J; Kosek, Margaret; Yori, Pablo P; Pinedo, Silvia Rengifo; Schwab, Kellogg J

    2013-11-01

    Surface-mediated disease transmission is understudied in developing countries, particularly in light of the evidence that surface concentrations of fecal bacteria typically exceed concentrations in developed countries by 10- to 100-fold. In this study, we examined fecal indicator bacterial contamination of dinner plates at 21 households in four peri-urban communities in the Peruvian Amazon. We also used surveys to estimate household use of and demand for surface disinfectants at 280 households. Despite detecting total coliform, enterococci, and Escherichia coli on 86%, 43%, and 24% of plates sampled, respectively, less than one-third of households were regularly using bleach to disinfect surfaces. Among non-users of bleach, only 3.2% of respondents reported a new demand for bleach, defined as a high likelihood of using bleach within the next year. This study highlights the potential for marketing approaches to increase use of and demand for surface disinfectants to improve domestic hygiene.

  3. Fecal Indicator Bacteria Contamination of Fomites and Household Demand for Surface Disinfection Products: A Case Study from Peru

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Timothy R.; MacDonald, Luke H.; Guo, Yayi; Marks, Sara J.; Kosek, Margaret; Yori, Pablo P.; Pinedo, Silvia Rengifo; Schwab, Kellogg J.

    2013-01-01

    Surface-mediated disease transmission is understudied in developing countries, particularly in light of the evidence that surface concentrations of fecal bacteria typically exceed concentrations in developed countries by 10- to 100-fold. In this study, we examined fecal indicator bacterial contamination of dinner plates at 21 households in four peri-urban communities in the Peruvian Amazon. We also used surveys to estimate household use of and demand for surface disinfectants at 280 households. Despite detecting total coliform, enterococci, and Escherichia coli on 86%, 43%, and 24% of plates sampled, respectively, less than one-third of households were regularly using bleach to disinfect surfaces. Among non-users of bleach, only 3.2% of respondents reported a new demand for bleach, defined as a high likelihood of using bleach within the next year. This study highlights the potential for marketing approaches to increase use of and demand for surface disinfectants to improve domestic hygiene. PMID:24019431

  4. Coliform bacteria removal from sewage in constructed wetlands planted with Mentha aquatica.

    PubMed

    Avelar, Fabiana F; de Matos, Antonio T; de Matos, Mateus P; Borges, Alisson C

    2014-08-01

    The present study evaluated the performance of the species Mentha aquatica in constructed wetlands of horizontal subsurface flow (CW-HSSF) with regard to the removal of coliforms bacteria in an effluent from the primary treatment of sewage as well as to obtain adjustment parameters of the bacterial decay kinetic model along the length of the CW-HSSF. Therefore, four CW-HSSFs measuring 24.0 m x 1.0 m x 0.35 m were built and filled with number 0 gravel as the support medium to a height of 0.20m. Two of the CW-HSSFs were planted with the species M. aquatica, while the other two remained uncultivated. Cultivation of M. aquatica in CW-HSSF resulted in total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli (EC) removals from 0.9 to 1.3 log units greater than those obtained in the uncultivated experimental plots, for the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 4.5 and 6.0 days. For HRT ranged from 1.5 to 6.0 days, the highest removal efficiencies in counts of TC and EC were obtained when using longer HRT. The mathematical models evaluated showed good fit to average counts of TC and EC highlighting the modified first-order kinetic model with the inclusion of the power parameter in the HRT variable.

  5. Fecal-indicator bacteria in the Yakima River Basin, Washington-An examination of 1999 and 2000 synoptic-sampling data and their relation to historical data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morace, Jennifer L.; McKenzie, Stuart W.

    2002-11-27

    Looking forward relative to future monitoring goals, research needs, and best management practice development, four hypotheses that deal with processes and sources of bacteria were identified: (1) overland runoff transports bacteria from land surfaces to streams, (2) bacteria in the water column tend to associate with suspended matter, (3) with increasing densities of warm-blooded animals, the likelihood of fecal-coliform contamination in streams also increases, and (4) identifi- cation of bacterial sources is difficult, but must be attempted for remediation to be possible. 

  6. Level and transport pattern of faecal coliform bacteria from tropical urban catchments.

    PubMed

    Chow, M F; Yusop, Z; Toriman, M E

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization and frequent storms play important roles in increasing faecal bacteria pollution, especially for tropical urban catchments. However, only little information on the faecal bacteria levels from different land use types and the factors that influence bacteria concentrations is available. Thus, the objectives of this study were to quantify the levels and transport mechanism of faecal coliforms (FCs) from residential and commercial catchments. Stormwaters were sampled and the runoff flow rates were measured from both catchments during four storm events in Skudai, Malaysia. The samples were then analysed for FC, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and ammoniacal-nitrogen (NH3-N) concentrations. Intra-storm and inter-storm characteristics of FC bacteria were investigated in order to identify the level and transport pattern of FC. The commercial catchment showed significantly higher event mean concentration (EMC) of FC than the residential catchment. For the residential catchment, the highest bacterial concentrations occurred during the early part of stormwater runoff with peak concentrations usually preceding the peak flow. First flush effect was more prevalent at the residential catchment.

  7. A geospatial analysis of land use and stormwater management on fecal coliform contamination in North Carolina streams.

    PubMed

    Vitro, Kristen A; BenDor, Todd K; Jordanova, Tania V; Miles, Brian

    2017-12-15

    Although non-point source (NPS) pathogen pollution is a leading cause of stream impairment in the United States, the sources of NPS pollution are often difficult to ascertain. While previous studies have employed land use regression methods to develop a greater understanding of the sources and dynamics of microbial NPS pollution, little work has explicitly considered the effects of local, state, and federal stormwater management policies on water quality across multiple watersheds or at larger spatial scales. How do land use and stormwater management efforts collectively influence fecal coliform (FC) levels at a regional or multiple-watershed scale? We construct a unique spatial regression model of stream FC pollution (n=327 monitoring stations) throughout the state of North Carolina (USA), incorporating both land cover and urban development variables. We then use a subset of our data (nbmp=80 monitoring stations) to incorporate local stormwater control measures and stormwater management policies. Results demonstrate that the inclusion of policy and management variables improves the explanatory capacity for FC levels (R(2)=0.4412 versus R(2)=0.5323). Locally, this model can be used to better target stream restoration and water quality mitigation actions and investments, as well as help to predict FC levels at unmonitored locations throughout North Carolina's stream network. More generally, the novel structure of this model can also help examine the large-scale effects of stormwater regulations on surface water pathogen levels, helping researchers and planners better predict water quality in the absence of extensive monitoring station data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cultivation-Independent Analysis of Bacteria in IDEXX Quanti-Tray/2000 Fecal Indicator Assays ▿

    PubMed Central

    Sercu, Bram; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie C.; Murray, Jill L. S.; Holden, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring microbiological water quality is important for protecting water resources and the health of swimmers. Routine monitoring relies on cultivating fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), frequently using defined substrate technology. Defined substrate technology is designed to specifically enrich for FIB, but a complete understanding of the assay microbiology requires culture-independent analysis of the enrichments. This study aimed to identify bacteria in positive wells of Colilert and Enterolert Quanti-Tray/2000 (IDEXX Laboratories) FIB assays in environmental water samples and to quantify the degree of false-positive results for samples from an urban creek by molecular methods. Pooled Escherichia coli- and Enterococcus-positive Quanti-Tray/2000 enrichments, either from urban creek dry weather flow or municipal sewage, harbored diverse bacterial populations based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses. Target taxa (coliforms or enterococci) and nontarget taxa (Vibrio spp., Shewanella spp., Bacteroidetes, and Clostridium spp.) were identified in pooled and individual positive Colilert and Enterolert wells based on terminal restriction fragments that were in common with those generated in silico from clone sequences. False-positive rates of between 4 and 23% occurred for the urban creek samples, based on the absence of target terminal restriction fragments in individual positive wells. This study suggests that increased selective inhibition of nontarget bacteria could improve the accuracy of the Colilert and Enterolert assays. PMID:21097584

  9. Comparison of media for recovery of total coliform bacteria from chemically treated water.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, E W; Fox, K R; Nash, H D; Read, E J; Smith, A P

    1987-01-01

    Five broth media and two solid media were compared for their ability to quantitatively recover total coliform bacteria from chemically treated water. M-Endo LES and mT7 media were used in the membrane filter technique. Lauryl tryptose broth, lactose broth, presence-absence broth, lactose broth with twice the amount of lactose, and lauryl tryptose broth with twice the amount of sodium lauryl sulfate were used in the fermentation tube procedure. The differences in recovery were not significant for the five broth media and M-Endo LES agar. The M-Endo LES and mT7 media were not significantly different; however, the five broth media did yield significantly higher counts than mT7. PMID:3662507

  10. Effect of coliform bacteria, feed deprivation, and pH on ruminal D-lactic acid production by steer or continuous-culture microbial populations changed from forage to concentrates.

    PubMed

    Slyter, L L; Rumsey, T S

    1991-07-01

    Fecal coliform bacteria were isolated from three herbivores (cattle, horse, and red panda) and shown to produce primarily the D-form of lactate, plus acetate and ethanol when grown anaerobically in 1.0% glucose broth. To evaluate coliform contribution to D-lactate acidosis in cattle, experiments involving a forage-adapted steer (fasted or normally fed) and four 500-ml fermentors were compared during 3 d of grain overload. In both systems, coliforms and D- and L-lactic acid production were greater from fasted than from normally fed steer inoculum. With fasted inoculum, coliform counts peaked (3 x 10(7)/ml at 7 h after initial engorgement) and receded to 10(3)/ml by the time D-lactate concentration peaked, indicating that bacteria other than coliform were responsible for the delayed peaking of D- (48 h) compared with L-lactate (24 h). Increases in lactobacilli more closely mimicked D-lactate increases than did changes in coliforms. The comparisons between the steer and fermentors showed many similar shifts in end-products and groups of bacteria, more so with the experiment initiated with fasted than with normal inoculum. With normal inoculum, VFA content and moles of butyrate/100 mol of VFA were greater in vitro than in vivo; VFA content presumably was larger because of VFA absorption in vivo. In a separate experiment, cultures initiated with identical inoculum and given the same amount of feed accumulated more lactate when pH was permitted to decrease to 5.0 than when pH was maintained at 5.5 for 6.0 or above, indicating the role buffers can have in controlling acidosis during diet change to concentrates.

  11. Risk factors for coliform bacteria in backcountry lakes and streams in the Sierra Nevada mountains: a 5-year study.

    PubMed

    Derlet, Robert W; Ger, K Ali; Richards, John R; Carlson, James R

    2008-01-01

    To provide a 5-year longitudinal assessment of risk of acquiring disease from Sierra Nevada Wilderness area lakes and streams. This study examines the relative risk factors for harmful water microorganisms, using coliforms as an indicator. Streams and lakes in the backcountry of Yosemite and Kings Canyon National Parks and neighboring wilderness areas were selected and water was analyzed each year over a 5-year period. A total of 364 samples from lakes or streams were chosen to statistically differentiate the risk categories based on land usage, as follows: 1) areas rarely visited by humans (Wild), 2) human day-use-only areas (Day Hike), 3) areas used by backpackers with overnight camping allowed (Backpack), 4) areas primarily impacted by horses or pack animals (Pack Animal), and 5) cattle and sheep grazing tracts (Cattle). Water was collected in sterile test tubes and Millipore coliform samplers. Water was analyzed at the university microbiology lab, where bacteria were harvested and then subjected to analysis using standardized techniques. Statistical analysis to compare site categories was performed utilizing Fisher exact test and analysis of variance. A total of 364 sampling sites were analyzed. Coliforms were found in 9% (4/47) of Wild site samples, 12% (5/42) of Day Hike site samples, and 18% (20/111) of Backpacker site samples. In contrast, 63% (70/111) of Pack Animal site samples yielded coliforms, and 96% (51/53) of samples from the Cattle areas grew coliforms. Differences between Backpacker vs Cattle or Pack Animal areas were significant at P bacteria. Surface water from watersheds below cattle areas and those used by pack animals is at high risk for containing coliform organisms. Water from Wild, Day Hike, or Backpack sites poses far less risk for contamination by coliforms.

  12. Effect of oral administration of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9 strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Lopamudra; Gandhi, D N

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effect of oral administration of two Bacillus strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model. An in vivo experiment was conducted for 49-day period on 36 adult male albino Wister rats divided equally into to four groups. After 7-day adaptation period, one group (T1) was fed on sterile skim milk along with basal diet for the next 28 days. Second (T2) and (T3) groups received spore biomass of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9, respectively, suspended in sterilized skim milk at 8-9 log colony-forming units/ml plus basal diet for 28 days, while control group (T4) was supplied with clean water along with basal diet. There was a 14-day post-treatment period. A total of 288 fecal samples (8 fecal collections per rat) were collected at every 7-day interval starting from 0 to 49 days and subjected to the enumeration of the counts of coliforms and lactobacilli and Bacillus spores using respective agar media. In vitro acid and bile tolerance tests on both the strains were performed. The rats those (T2 and T3) received either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 spore along with non-fermented skim milk showed decrease (p<0.01) in fecal coliform counts and increase (p<0.05) in both fecal lactobacilli and Bacillus spore counts as compared to the control group (T4) and the group fed only skim milk (T1). In vitro study indicated that both the strains were found to survive at pH 2.0 and 3.0 even up to 3 h and tolerate bile up to 2.0% concentration even after 12 h of exposure. This study revealed that oral administration of either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 strains might be useful in reducing coliform counts accompanied by concurrent increase in lactobacilli counts in the intestinal flora in rats.

  13. Effect of oral administration of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9 strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Lopamudra; Gandhi, D. N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of oral administration of two Bacillus strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model. Materials and Methods: An in vivo experiment was conducted for 49-day period on 36 adult male albino Wister rats divided equally into to four groups. After 7-day adaptation period, one group (T1) was fed on sterile skim milk along with basal diet for the next 28 days. Second (T2) and (T3) groups received spore biomass of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9, respectively, suspended in sterilized skim milk at 8-9 log colony-forming units/ml plus basal diet for 28 days, while control group (T4) was supplied with clean water along with basal diet. There was a 14-day post-treatment period. A total of 288 fecal samples (8 fecal collections per rat) were collected at every 7-day interval starting from 0 to 49 days and subjected to the enumeration of the counts of coliforms and lactobacilli and Bacillus spores using respective agar media. In vitro acid and bile tolerance tests on both the strains were performed. Results: The rats those (T2 and T3) received either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 spore along with non-fermented skim milk showed decrease (p<0.01) in fecal coliform counts and increase (p<0.05) in both fecal lactobacilli and Bacillus spore counts as compared to the control group (T4) and the group fed only skim milk (T1). In vitro study indicated that both the strains were found to survive at pH 2.0 and 3.0 even up to 3 h and tolerate bile up to 2.0% concentration even after 12 h of exposure. Conclusions: This study revealed that oral administration of either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 strains might be useful in reducing coliform counts accompanied by concurrent increase in lactobacilli counts in the intestinal flora in rats. PMID:27536040

  14. EFFECT OF OZONATED WATER ON THE ASSIMILABLE ORGANIC CARBON AND COLIFORM GROWTH RESPONSE VALUES AND ON PATHOGENIC BACTERIA SURVIVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and coliform growth response (CGR) are bioassays used to determine water quality. AOC and CGR are better indexes in determining whether water can support the growth of bacteria than biological oxygen demand (BOD). The AOC value of reconditione...

  15. EFFECT OF OZONATED WATER ON THE ASSIMILABLE ORGANIC CARBON AND COLIFORM GROWTH RESPONSE VALUES AND ON PATHOGENIC BACTERIA SURVIVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and coliform growth response (CGR) are bioassays used to determine water quality. AOC and CGR are better indexes in determining whether water can support the growth of bacteria than biological oxygen demand (BOD). The AOC value of reconditione...

  16. Confirmation of E. coli among other thermotolerant coliform bacteria in paper mill effluents, wood chips screening rejects and paper sludges.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Chantal J; Simao-Beaunoir, Anne-Marie; Beaulieu, Carole; Chalifour, François-Philippe

    2006-07-01

    Paper sludges are solid wastes material generated from the paper production, which have been characterized for their chemical contents. Some are rich in wood fiber and are a good carbon source, for example the primary and de-inking paper sludges. Others are made rich in nitrogen and phosphorus by pressing the activated sludge, resulting from the biological water treatments, with the primary sludge, yielding the combined paper sludge. Still, in the absence of sanitary effluents very few studies have addressed the characterization of their coliform microflora. Therefore, this study investigated the thermotolerant coliform population of one paper mill effluent and two paper mill sludges and wood chips screening rejects using chromogenic media. For the first series of analyses, the medium used was Colilert broth and positive tubes were selected to isolate bacteria in pure culture on MacConkey agar. In a second series of analyses, double selective media, based on ss-galactosidase and ss-glucuronidase activities, were used to isolate bacteria. First, the presence of thermotolerant coliforms was detected in low numbers in most water effluents, but showed that the entrance of the thermotolerant coliforms was early in the industrial process. Also, large numbers of thermotolerant coliforms, i.e., 7,000,000 MPN/g sludge (dry weight; d.w.), were found in combined sludges. From this first series of isolations, bacteria were purified on MacConkey medium and identified as Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter sp, E. sakazakii, E. cloacae, Escherichia coli, K. pneumoniae, K. pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis, K. pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae, K. pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, Pantoea sp, Raoultella terrigena, R. planticola. Second, the presence of thermotolerant coliforms was measured at more than 3,700-6,000 MPN/g (d.w) sludge, whereas E. coli was detected from 730 to more than 3,300 MPN/g (d.w.) sludge. The presence of thermotolerant coliform bacteria and E. coli was sometimes detected

  17. Fecal Indicator Bacteria Entrainment from Streambed to Water Column: Transport by Unsteady Flow over a Sand Bed.

    PubMed

    Surbeck, Cristiane Q; Douglas Shields, F; Cooper, Alexandra M

    2016-05-01

    Storms cause a substantial increase in the fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations in stream water as a result of FIB-laden runoff and the release of FIB from stream sediments. Previous work has emphasized the association between FIB and bed sediments finer than sand. The objectives of this work were to elucidate the effect of various velocities on the entrainment of bed-dwelling coliforms in sand-bed streams and to refine methodologies for quantifying sandy streambeds as sources of FIB. Pump-induced hydrographs were created using a stainless steel nonrecirculating flume. Experiments consisted of simulating four storm hydrographs and collecting water samples upstream and downstream of a sand bed at selected intervals. Bed sediment samples were collected before and after each event. The highest concentrations of total coliform and suspended sediments generally occurred in the downstream samples during the rising limb of the hydrographs as a result of entrainment of coliforms and sand from the bed to the water column. There was a first flush effect in the system, as the upper layer of sand was influenced by a rapidly increasing velocity at ∼0.2 m s. Coliforms downstream of the sand bed increased rapidly as velocity exceeded this threshold but then declined even as velocity and discharge continued to increase. This likely reflects the depletion of coliforms as the more densely populated sediment layer was flushed out. There is evidence that streams with sand beds harbor enough FIB that development of total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) should include consideration of them as a source.

  18. Diversity, abundance, and possible sources of fecal bacteria in the Yangtze River.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haohao; He, Xiwei; Ye, Lin; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Wu, Bing; Ren, Hongqiang

    2017-03-01

    The fecal bacteria in natural waters may pose serious risks on human health. Although many source tracking methods have been developed and used to determine the possible sources of the fecal pollution, little is known about the overall diversity and abundance of fecal bacterial community in natural waters. In this study, a method based on fecal bacterial sequence library was introduced to evaluate the fecal bacterial profile in the Yangtze River (Nanjing section). Our results suggested that the Yangtze River water harbors diverse fecal bacteria. Fifty-eight fecal operational taxonomic units (97% identity level) were detected in the Yangtze River water samples and the relative abundance of fecal bacteria in these samples ranged from 0.1 to 8%. It was also found that the relative abundances of the fecal bacteria in locations near to the downstream of wastewater treatment plants were obviously higher than those in other locations. However, the high abundance of fecal bacteria could decrease to the normal level in 2~4 km in the river due to degradation or dilution, and the overall fecal bacteria level changed little when the Yangtze River flew through the Nanjing City. Moreover, the fecal bacteria in the Yangtze River water were found to be highly associated (Spearman rho = 0.804, P < 0.001) with the potential pathogenic bacteria. Collectively, the findings in this study reveal the diversity, abundance, and possible sources of fecal bacteria in the Yangtze River and advance our understandings of the fecal bacteria community in the natural waters.

  19. Revised Total Coliform Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR) aims to increase public health protection through the reduction of potential pathways for fecal contamination in the distribution system of a public water system (PWS).

  20. Climate change and land use drivers of fecal bacteria in tropical hawaiian rivers.

    PubMed

    Strauch, Ayron M; Mackenzie, Richard A; Bruland, Gregory L; Tingley, Ralph; Giardina, Christian P

    2014-07-01

    Potential shifts in rainfall driven by climate change are anticipated to affect watershed processes (e.g., soil moisture, runoff, stream flow), yet few model systems exist in the tropics to test hypotheses about how these processes may respond to these shifts. We used a sequence of nine watersheds on Hawaii Island spanning 3000 mm (7500-4500 mm) of mean annual rainfall (MAR) to investigate the effects of short-term (24-h) and long-term (MAR) rainfall on three fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) (enterococci, total coliforms, and ). All sample sites were in native Ohia dominated forest above 600 m in elevation. Additional samples were collected just above sea level where the predominant land cover is pasture and agriculture, permitting the additional study of interactions between land use across the MAR gradient. We found that declines in MAR significantly amplified concentrations of all three FIB and that FIB yield increased more rapidly with 24-h rainfall in low-MAR watersheds than in high-MAR watersheds. Because storm frequency decreases with declining MAR, the rate of change in water potential affects microbial growth, whereas increased rainfall intensity dislodges more soil and bacteria as runoff compared with water-logged soils of high-MAR watersheds. As expected, declines in % forest cover and increased urbanization increased FIB. Taken together, shifts in rainfall may alter bacterial inputs to tropical streams, with land use change also affecting water quality in streams and near-shore environments.

  1. Beverages obtained from soda fountain machines in the U.S. contain microorganisms, including coliform bacteria.

    PubMed

    White, Amy S; Godard, Renee D; Belling, Carolyn; Kasza, Victoria; Beach, Rebecca L

    2010-01-31

    Ninety beverages of three types (sugar sodas, diet sodas and water) were obtained from 20 self-service and 10 personnel-dispensed soda fountains, analyzed for microbial contamination, and evaluated with respect to U.S. drinking water regulations. A follow-up study compared the concentration and composition of microbial populations in 27 beverages collected from 9 soda fountain machines in the morning as well as in the afternoon. Ice dispensed from these machines was also examined for microbial contamination. While none of the ice samples exceeded U.S. drinking water standards, coliform bacteria was detected in 48% of the beverages and 20% had a heterotrophic plate count greater than 500cfu/ml. Statistical analyses revealed no difference in levels of microbial contamination between beverage types or between those dispensed from self-service and personnel-dispensed soda fountains. More than 11% of the beverages analyzed contained Escherichia coli and over 17% contained Chryseobacterium meningosepticum. Other opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms isolated from the beverages included species of Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, Stenotrophomonas, Candida, and Serratia. Most of the identified bacteria showed resistance to one or more of the 11 antibiotics tested. These findings suggest that soda fountain machines may harbor persistent communities of potentially pathogenic microorganisms which may contribute to episodic gastric distress in the general population and could pose a more significant health risk to immunocompromised individuals. These findings have important public health implications and signal the need for regulations enforcing hygienic practices associated with these beverage dispensers.

  2. Antibiotic resistance in triclosan tolerant fecal coliforms isolated from surface waters near wastewater treatment plant outflows (Morris County, NJ, USA).

    PubMed

    Middleton, June H; Salierno, James D

    2013-02-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is a common antimicrobial agent that has been detected in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent outflows. A link between TCS exposure and increased antibiotic resistance in microbes has been postulated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether fecal coliforms (FC) isolated from surface waters located near (WWTP) outflows display TCS resistance and, if so, whether such organisms exhibit increased resistance to antibiotics. Water samples were collected at two streams in Morris County, NJ that receive WWTP effluent: Loantaka Brook and the Whippany River. Water samples were collected at three sites within each location near the WWTP effluent outflow. Abiotic river parameters were measured and FCs were enumerated for each sample. River parameters were analyzed to determine if TCS or antibiotic resistance was correlated to water quality. Triclosan resistance levels were determined for individual isolates, and isolates were screened against seven classes of antibiotics at clinically relevant levels to assess cross-resistance. At Loantaka Brook, 78.8% of FC isolates were resistant to TCS with an average minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 43.2 μg ml(-1). In addition, 89.6% of isolates were resistant to four classes of antibiotics and all were identified as Citrobacter freundii. There was a significant effect of stream location on mean TCS MIC values in the Loantaka Brook, with effluent isolates maintaining significantly higher MIC values compared to upstream isolates. At Whippany River sites, TCS resistant isolates were detected on 94% of sampling dates with a significant relationship between TCS resistance and multiple antibiotic resistances (≥ three antibiotic classes, p<0.001). TCS resistant isolates were significantly more resistant to chloramphenicol (p=0.007) and to nitrofurantoin (p=0.037) when compared to TCS sensitive isolates. Environmental FC isolates resistant to high level TCS included species of Escherichia, Enterobacter

  3. Interactions of slope and canopy of herbage of three herbage species on transport of faecal indicator bacteria by rain splash

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The movement of fecal pathogens from land to surface and ground water are of great interest because of the public health implications. Sequential downhill movement of fecal coliform bacteria by repeated rain splash could transport fecal coliforms directly to water bodies or areas of saturation exce...

  4. Development of multiplex PCR for the detection of total coliform bacteria for Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Tantawiwat, Suwalee; Tansuphasiri, Unchalee; Wongwit, Waranya; Wongchotigul, Varee; Kitayaporn, Dwip

    2005-01-01

    Multiplex PCR amplification of lacZ, uidA and plc genes was developed for the simultaneous detection of total coliform bacteria for Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens, in drinking water. Detection by agarose gel electrophoresis yielded a band of 876 bp for the lacZ gene of all coliform bacteria; a band of 147 bp for the uidA gene and a band of 876 bp for the lacZ gene of all strains of E. coli; a band of 280 bp for the p/c gene for all strains of C. perfringens; and a negative result for all three genes when tested with other bacteria. The detection limit was 100 pg for E. coli and C. perfringens, and 1 ng for coliform bacteria when measured with purified DNA. This assay was applied to the detection of these bacteria in spiked water samples. Spiked water samples with 0-1,000 CFU/ml of coliform bacteria and/or E. coli and/or C. perfringens were detected by this multiplex PCR after a pre-enrichment step to increase the sensitivity and to ensure that the detection was based on the presence of cultivable bacteria. The result of bacterial detection from the multiplex PCR was comparable with that of a standard plate count on selective medium (p=0.62). When using standard plate counts as a gold standard, the sensitivity for this test was 99.1% (95% CI 95.33, 99.98) and the specificity was 90.9 % (95% CI 75.67, 98.08). Multiplex PCR amplification with a pre-enrichment step was shown to be an effective, sensitive and rapid method for the simultaneous detection of these three microbiological parameters in drinking water.

  5. Coliform bacteria isolated from recreational lakes carry class 1 and class 2 integrons and virulence-associated genes.

    PubMed

    Koczura, R; Krysiak, N; Taraszewska, A; Mokracka, J

    2015-08-01

    To characterize the integron-harbouring Gram-negative bacteria in recreational lakes, with focus on the genetic content of integrons, antimicrobial resistance profiles and virulence-associated genes. The presence and structure of integrons in coliform bacteria isolated from the water of four recreational lakes located in Poznań, Poland, was determined by PCR method. Antimicrobial resistance testing was done by disc diffusion method. Virulence-associated genes in integron-bearing Escherichia coli isolates were detected by PCR. A total of 155 integron-bearing strains of coliform bacteria were cultured. Sequence analysis showed the presence of dfrA7, aadA1, dfrA1-aadA1, dfrA17-aadA5 and dfrA12-orfF-aadA2 gene cassette arrays in class 1 integrons and dfrA1-sat2-aadA1 in class 2 integrons. Higher frequency of integron-positive bacteria and higher antimicrobial resistance ranges were noted in colder months (January and November) compared with spring and summer months. The integron-harbouring E. coli carried up to nine virulence-associated genes, with the highest frequency of kpsMT (84.6%) and traT (783%), coding for group 2 capsule and determining human serum resistance respectively. Integron-bearing multidrug resistant coliform bacteria carrying virulence genes are present in waters of recreational lakes. This study presents antimicrobial resistance and virulence-associated genes in integron-bearing coliform bacteria present in the waters of recreational lakes, which showed that multidrug resistant bacteria with virulence traits might pose a threat to public health. Moreover, the presence of genes typical for enterotoxigenic and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli is a concern. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. A short review of fecal indicator bacteria in tropical aquatic ecosystems: knowledge gaps and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Nguyen, Thi Mai Huong; Le, Thi Phuong Quynh; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth; Ribolzi, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Given the high numbers of deaths and the debilitating nature of diseases caused by the use of unclean water it is imperative that we have an understanding of the factors that control the dispersion of water borne pathogens and their respective indicators. This is all the more important in developing countries where significant proportions of the population often have little or no access to clean drinking water supplies. Moreover, and notwithstanding the importance of these bacteria in terms of public health, at present little work exists on the persistence, transfer and proliferation of these pathogens and their respective indicator organisms, e.g., fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) such as Escherichia coli and fecal coliforms in humid tropical systems, such as are found in South East Asia or in the tropical regions of Africa. Both FIB and the waterborne pathogens they are supposed to indicate are particularly susceptible to shifts in water flow and quality and the predicted increases in rainfall and floods due to climate change will only exacerbate the problems of contamination. This will be furthermore compounded by the increasing urbanization and agricultural intensification that developing regions are experiencing. Therefore, recognizing and understanding the link between human activities, natural process and microbial functioning and their ultimate impacts on human health are prerequisites for reducing the risks to the exposed populations. Most of the existing work in tropical systems has been based on the application of temperate indicator organisms, models and mechanisms regardless of their applicability or appropriateness for tropical environments. Here, we present a short review on the factors that control FIB dynamics in temperate systems and discuss their applicability to tropical environments. We then highlight some of the knowledge gaps in order to stimulate future research in this field in the tropics. PMID:25941519

  7. Exploring the Role of Coliform Bacteria in Class 1 Integron Carriage and Biofilm Formation During Drinking Water Treatment.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Anca; Crăciunaş, Cornelia; Chiriac, Cecilia; Szekeres, Edina; Coman, Cristian; Butiuc-Keul, Anca

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates the role of coliforms in the carriage of class 1 integron and biocide resistance genes in a drinking water treatment plant and explores the relationship between the carriage of such genes and the biofouling abilities of the strain. The high incidence of class 1 integron and biocide resistance genes (33.3 % of the isolates) highlights the inherent risk of genetic contamination posed by coliform populations during drinking water treatment. The association between the presence of intI1 gene and qac gene cassettes, especially qacH, was greater in biofilm cells. In coliforms recovered from biofilms, a higher frequency of class 1 integron elements and higher diversity of genetic patterns occurred, compared to planktonic cells. The coliform isolates under the study proved to mostly carry non-classical class 1 integrons lacking the typical qacEΔ1/sul1 genes or a complete tni module, but bearing the qacH gene. No link was found between the carriage of integron genes and the biofouling degree of the strain, neither in aerobic or in anaerobic conditions. Coliform bacteria isolated from established biofilms rather adhere in oxygen depleted environments, while the colonization ability of planktonic cells is not significantly affected by oxygen availability.

  8. Addressing uncertainty in fecal indicator bacteria dark inactivation rates.

    PubMed

    Gronewold, Andrew D; Myers, Luke; Swall, Jenise L; Noble, Rachel T

    2011-01-01

    Assessing the potential threat of fecal contamination in surface water often depends on model forecasts which assume that fecal indicator bacteria (FIB, a proxy for the concentration of pathogens found in fecal contamination from warm-blooded animals) are lost or removed from the water column at a certain rate (often referred to as an "inactivation" rate). In efforts to reduce human health risks in these water bodies, regulators enforce limits on easily-measured FIB concentrations, commonly reported as most probable number (MPN) and colony forming unit (CFU) values. Accurate assessment of the potential threat of fecal contamination, therefore, depends on propagating uncertainty surrounding "true" FIB concentrations into MPN and CFU values, inactivation rates, model forecasts, and management decisions. Here, we explore how empirical relationships between FIB inactivation rates and extrinsic factors might vary depending on how uncertainty in MPN values is expressed. Using water samples collected from the Neuse River Estuary (NRE) in eastern North Carolina, we compare Escherichia coli (EC) and Enterococcus (ENT) dark inactivation rates derived from two statistical models of first-order loss; a conventional model employing ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression with MPN values, and a novel Bayesian model utilizing the pattern of positive wells in an IDEXX Quanti-Tray®/2000 test. While our results suggest that EC dark inactivation rates tend to decrease as initial EC concentrations decrease and that ENT dark inactivation rates are relatively consistent across different ENT concentrations, we find these relationships depend upon model selection and model calibration procedures. We also find that our proposed Bayesian model provides a more defensible approach to quantifying uncertainty in microbiological assessments of water quality than the conventional MPN-based model, and that our proposed model represents a new strategy for developing robust relationships between

  9. Comparison of two methods for detection of fecal indicator bacteria used in water quality monitoring of the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaodan; Xiao, Guosheng; Zhou, Nong; Qi, Wenhua; Han, Lin; Ruan, Yu; Guo, Dongqin; Zhou, Hong

    2015-12-01

    Scientifically sound methods to rapidly measure fecal indicator bacteria are important to ensure safe water for drinking and recreational purposes. A total of 200 water samples obtained from the Three Gorges Reservoir during three successive one-year study periods (October 2009 to September 2012) were analyzed using multiple-tube fermentation (MTF) and most probable numbers combined with polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR). The MPN-PCR method was found to be significantly more sensitive than the MTF method for detecting Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp., and of equal sensitivity for detecting total coliforms when all surface water samples were grouped together. The two analytical methods had a strong, significant relationship, but MPN-PCR took only 12-18hr, compared with the 3-8days needed using the MTF method. Bacterial concentrations varied per sampling site but were significantly lower in the mainstream of the Yangtze River than those in the backwater areas of tributaries. The water quality of 85.8% of water samples from the mainstream was suitable for use as a centralized potable water source, while the water quality of 52.5% of water samples from the backwater areas was unsuitable for recreational activities. Relationships between fecal indicator bacteria showed significant correlation (r=0.636-0.909, p<0.01, n=200), while a weak but significant correlation was found between fecal indicators and water turbidity, water temperature, daily inflow, and total dissolved solids (r=0.237-0.532, p<0.05, n=200). The study indicated that MPN-PCR is a rapid and easily performed deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-based method for quantitative detection of viable total coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus spp. in surface water.

  10. Discrimination efficacy of fecal pollution detection in different aquatic habitats of a high-altitude tropical country, using presumptive coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores.

    PubMed

    Byamukama, Denis; Mach, Robert L; Kansiime, Frank; Manafi, Mohamad; Farnleitner, Andreas H

    2005-01-01

    The performance of rapid and practicable techniques that presumptively identify total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores (CP) by testing them on a pollution gradient in differing aquatic habitats in a high-altitude tropical country was evaluated during a 12-month period. Site selection was based on high and low anthropogenic influence criteria of paired sites including six spring, six stream, and four lakeshore sites spread over central and eastern parts of Uganda. Unlike the chemophysical water quality, which was water source type dependent (i.e., spring, lake, or stream), fecal indicators were associated with the anthropogenic influence status of the respective sites. A total of 79% of the total variability, including all the determined four bacteriological and five chemophysical parameters, could be assigned to either a pollution, a habitat, or a metabolic activity component by principal-component analysis. Bacteriological indicators revealed significant correlations to the pollution component, reflecting that anthropogenic contamination gradients were followed. Discrimination sensitivity analysis revealed high ability of E. coli to differentiate between high and low levels of anthropogenic influence. CP also showed a reasonable level of discrimination, although FC and TC were found to have worse discrimination efficacy. Nonpoint influence by soil erosion could not be detected during the study period by correlation analysis, although a theoretical contamination potential existed, as investigated soils in the immediate surroundings often contained relevant concentrations of fecal indicators. The outcome of this study indicates that rapid techniques for presumptive E. coli and CP determination may be reliable for fecal pollution monitoring in high-altitude tropical developing countries such as those of Eastern Africa.

  11. Discrimination Efficacy of Fecal Pollution Detection in Different Aquatic Habitats of a High-Altitude Tropical Country, Using Presumptive Coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens Spores

    PubMed Central

    Byamukama, Denis; Mach, Robert L.; Kansiime, Frank; Manafi, Mohamad; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

    2005-01-01

    The performance of rapid and practicable techniques that presumptively identify total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores (CP) by testing them on a pollution gradient in differing aquatic habitats in a high-altitude tropical country was evaluated during a 12-month period. Site selection was based on high and low anthropogenic influence criteria of paired sites including six spring, six stream, and four lakeshore sites spread over central and eastern parts of Uganda. Unlike the chemophysical water quality, which was water source type dependent (i.e., spring, lake, or stream), fecal indicators were associated with the anthropogenic influence status of the respective sites. A total of 79% of the total variability, including all the determined four bacteriological and five chemophysical parameters, could be assigned to either a pollution, a habitat, or a metabolic activity component by principal-component analysis. Bacteriological indicators revealed significant correlations to the pollution component, reflecting that anthropogenic contamination gradients were followed. Discrimination sensitivity analysis revealed high ability of E. coli to differentiate between high and low levels of anthropogenic influence. CP also showed a reasonable level of discrimination, although FC and TC were found to have worse discrimination efficacy. Nonpoint influence by soil erosion could not be detected during the study period by correlation analysis, although a theoretical contamination potential existed, as investigated soils in the immediate surroundings often contained relevant concentrations of fecal indicators. The outcome of this study indicates that rapid techniques for presumptive E. coli and CP determination may be reliable for fecal pollution monitoring in high-altitude tropical developing countries such as those of Eastern Africa. PMID:15640171

  12. Holding-time and method comparisons for the analysis of fecal-indicator bacteria in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Bushon, Rebecca N; Brady, Amie M G; Lindsey, Bruce D

    2015-11-01

    As part of the US Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program, groundwater samples from domestic- and public-supply wells were collected and analyzed for fecal-indicator bacteria. A holding time comparison for total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and enterococci was done by analyzing samples within 8 h using presence/absence methods and within 18-30 h using quantitative methods. The data indicate that results obtained within 18-30 h were not significantly different from those obtained within 8 h for total coliforms and enterococci, by Colilert® and Enterolert® methods (IDEXX Laboratories Inc., Westbrook, ME), respectively. Quantitative laboratory methods for samples analyzed within 18-30 h showed a statistically significant higher detection frequency when compared to presence/absence methods done within 8 h for the following methods, E. coli by Colilert and enterococci by membrane filtration on mEI agar. Additionally, a comparison of methods for the enumeration of enterococci was done. Using non-parametric statistical analyses, results from the two methods were statistically different. In this study, the membrane filtration method on mEI agar was more sensitive, resulted in more detections of enterococci, and results were easier to interpret than with the quantitative Enterolert method. The quantitative Enterolert method produced varying levels of fluorescence, which required additional verification steps to eliminate false-positive results. It may be more advantageous to analyze untreated groundwater for enterococci using the membrane filtration method on mEI agar.

  13. 75 FR 40925 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... distribution system whereby fecal contamination and/or waterborne pathogens, including bacteria, viruses and... a group of closely related bacteria that, with a few exceptions, are not harmful to humans..., in soil, and on vegetation. Coliform bacteria may be transported to surface water by run-off or...

  14. Estimates of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, and Fecal Coliforms Entering the Environment Due to Inadequate Sanitation Treatment Technologies in 108 Low and Middle Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmeister, Erica R; Schwab, Kellogg J; Julian, Timothy R

    2015-10-06

    Understanding the excretion and treatment of human waste (feces and urine) in low and middle income countries (LMICs) is necessary to design appropriate waste management strategies. However, excretion and treatment are often difficult to quantify due to decentralization of excreta management. We address this gap by developing a mechanistic, stochastic model to characterize phosphorus, nitrogen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and fecal coliform pollution from human excreta for 108 LMICs. The model estimates excretion and treatment given three scenarios: (1) use of existing sanitation systems, (2) use of World Health Organization-defined "improved sanitation", and (3) use of best available technologies. Our model estimates that more than 10(9) kg/yr each of phosphorus, nitrogen and BOD are produced. Of this, 22(19-27)%, 11(7-15)%, 17(10-23)%, and 35 (23-47)% (mean and 95% range) BOD, nitrogen, phosphorus, and fecal coliforms, respectively, are removed by existing sanitation systems. Our model estimates that upgrading to "improved sanitation" increases mean removal slightly to between 17 and 53%. Under the best available technology scenario, only approximately 60-80% of pollutants are treated. To reduce impact of nutrient and microbial pollution on human and environmental health, improvements in both access to adequate sanitation and sanitation treatment efficiency are needed.

  15. Sources and seasonal variation of coliform bacteria abundance in groundwater around the slopes of Mount Meru, Arusha, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Elisante, Eliapenda; Muzuka, Alfred N N

    2016-07-01

    The quality of the groundwater along the slopes of Mount Meru, Tanzania, is poorly understood. Water access and sanitation practices may pose health risks to communities. This study was undertaken to assess the sources, abundance and seasonal variation of coliform bacteria in groundwater and factors contributing to such variations along slopes of Mount Meru, Tanzania. Water samples collected from 67 randomly selected water sources (springs, shallow wells which ranged from 4 to 35 m deep and Boreholes above 40 m deep) during dry and wet seasons were analysed for total coliform (TC), faecal coliform (FC), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and faecal streptococci (FS), using the membrane filtration method. The fraction of springs and shallow wells contaminated was generally higher compared to the fraction of boreholes. The highest TC, FC, E. coli and FS counts were significantly higher (p < 0.05) during the wet than the dry season owing to rising of water table and leaching during rainy season. Water sources that were located within 10 m of pit latrines had the highest coliform counts relative to those located beyond 10 m. Similarly, the highest coliform counts were observed in all shallow wells that (i) had low well head above the ground, (ii) were not covered, (iii) had casing materials which were not concrete and (iv) utilised traditional pumping (bucket/pulley) systems. This was due to contaminated storm water access, inoculation of microbes by exposed buckets and inefficiency of the casing material. Furthermore, the counts decreased with depths of boreholes and shallow wells during the two seasons probably due to retention and die-off. It is recommended that groundwater in this area be treated against coliform contamination prior to utilisation as portable water.

  16. Modeling the dry-weather tidal cycling of fecal indicator bacteria in surface waters of an intertidal wetland.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Brett F; Arega, Feleke; Sutula, Martha

    2005-09-01

    Recreational water quality at beaches in California and elsewhere is often poor near the outlets of rivers, estuaries, and lagoons. This condition has prompted interest in the role of wetlands in modulating surface water concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), the basis of water quality standards internationally. A model was developed and applied to predict the dry-weather tidal cycling of FIB in Talbert Marsh, an estuarine, intertidal wetland in Huntington Beach, California, in response to loads from urban runoff, bird feces, and resuspended sediments. The model predicts the advection, dispersion and die-off of total coliform, Escherichia coli, and enterococci using a depth-integrated formulation. We find that urban runoff and resuspension of contaminated wetland sediments are responsible for surface water concentrations of FIB in the wetland. Model predictions show that urban runoff controls surface water concentrations at inland sites and sediment resuspension controls surface water concentrations near the mouth. Direct wash-off of bird feces into the surface water is not a significant contributor, although bird feces can contribute to the sediment bacteria load. The key parameters needed to accurately predict FIB concentrations, using a validated hydrodynamic model, are: the load due to urban runoff, sediment erodibility parameters, and sediment concentrations and surface water die-off rates of enteric bacteria. In the present study, literature values for sediment erodibility and water column die-off rates are used and average concentrations of FIB are predicted within 1/2 log unit of measurements. Total coliform are predicted more accurately than E. coli or enterococci, both in terms of magnitude and tidal variability. Since wetland-dependent animals are natural sources of FIB, and FIB survive for long periods of time and may multiply in wetland sediments, these results highlight limitations of FIB as indicators of human fecal pollution in and near

  17. Presence of antimicrobial resistance in coliform bacteria from hatching broiler eggs with emphasis on ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mezhoud, H; Chantziaras, I; Iguer-Ouada, M; Moula, N; Garmyn, A; Martel, A; Touati, A; Smet, A; Haesebrouck, F; Boyen, F

    2016-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is recognized as one of the most important global health challenges. Broilers are an important reservoir of antimicrobial resistant bacteria in general and, more particularly, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Since contamination of 1-day-old chicks is a potential risk factor for the introduction of antimicrobial resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the broiler production chain, the presence of antimicrobial resistant coliform bacteria in broiler hatching eggs was explored in the present study. Samples from 186 hatching eggs, collected from 11 broiler breeder farms, were inoculated on MacConkey agar with or without ceftiofur and investigated for the presence of antimicrobial resistant lactose-positive Enterobacteriaceae, particularly, ESBL/AmpC-producers. Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae were obtained from the eggshells in 10 out of 11 (10/11) sampled farms. The majority of the isolates were recovered from crushed eggshells after external decontamination suggesting that these bacteria are concealed from the disinfectants in the egg shell pores. Antimicrobial resistance testing revealed that approximately 30% of the isolates showed resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, trimethoprim and sulphonamides, while the majority of isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, nitrofurantoin, aminoglycosides, florfenicol, neomycin and apramycin. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins was detected in eight Enterobacteriaceae isolates from five different broiler breeder farms. The ESBL phenotype was confirmed by the double disk synergy test and blaSHV-12, blaTEM-52 and blaACT-39 resistance genes were detected by PCR. This report is the first to present broiler hatching eggs as carriers and a potential source of ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae for broiler chicks.

  18. Anti-Biofilm Activity of Polyazolidinammonium Modified with Iodine Hydrate Ions against Microbial Biofilms of Uropathogenic Coliform Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nechaeva, O V; Tikhomirova, E I; Zayarsky, D A; Bespalova, N V; Glinskaya, E V; Shurshalova, N F; Al Bayati, B M; Babailova, A I

    2017-04-01

    The dynamics of microbial biofilm formation by standard strain and by clinical strains of uropathogenic coliform bacteria was investigated in vitro and the effect of sublethal concentrations of the polymer compound polyazolidinammonium modified with iodine hydrate ions on the initial stages of biofilm formation was assessed. Treatment of immunological plate wells with the polymeric compound prevented film formation, especially in case of clinical E. coli strain carrying FimH virulence gene.

  19. Spatio-Temporal Variability in Fecal Indicator Bacteria Concentrations at Huntington Beach: Connections to Physical Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rippy, M. A.; Feddersen, F.; Leichter, J.; Omand, M.; Moore, D. F.; McGee, C.; Franks, P. J.

    2007-05-01

    Two major factors determine the spatial and temporal distributions of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) at a given beach: local circulation & mixing patterns, and bacterial inactivation rates. High frequency and spatial resolution bacterial sampling combined with measurements of physical processes can be used to infer inactivation rates, enabling differentiation between dilution & mortality as factors driving variability in nearshore FIB abundance. A FIB sampling experiment (HB06) took place on 16 October 2006, at Huntington State Beach, a site selected due to its persistent problems with FIB pollution. Water samples were taken at 20-minute intervals (from 6:50am to 11:50am) at ten locations; four in an alongshore transect spanning 1 km at the shoreline, and the remainder in a 300-m long cross-shore transect. All samples were analyzed for FIB concentration (Total Coliforms, E. coli & Enterococci) and, for a subset, species level Enterococcus composition was determined. As part of the HB06 experiment, currents, temperature, waves, and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured simultaneously in the cross-shore direction with rapid CTD casts 300 m offshore. Results indicate that E. coli and Enterococcus concentrations exhibit exponential decreases with time, with smaller decay rates associated with depth and with sites in the Talbert Marsh and Santa Ana River. FIB concentrations are also noticeably lower farther offshore (300 m). Spatio-temporal patterns in FIB concentration will be presented in conjunction with the nearshore physical data allowing the relationship between physical dynamics and biological variability to be addressed.

  20. Description and field test of an in situ coliform monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype in situ system for monitoring the levels of fecal coliforms in shallow water bodies was developed and evaluated. This system was based on the known relationship between the concentration of the coliform bacteria and the amount of hydrogen they produce during growth in a complex organic media. The prototype system consists of a sampler platform, which sits on the bottom; a surface buoy, which transmits sampler-generated data; and a shore station, which receives, displays the data, and controls the sampler. The concept of remote monitoring of fecal coliform concentrations by utilizing a system based on the electrochemical method was verified during the evaluation of the prototype.

  1. Significance of beach geomorphology on fecal indicator bacteria levels.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Allison; Feng, Zhixuan; Kelly, Elizabeth; Reniers, Ad; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2017-08-15

    Large databases of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) measurements are available for coastal waters. With the assistance of satellite imagery, we illustrated the power of assessing data for many sites by evaluating beach features such as geomorphology, distance from rivers and canals, presence of piers and causeways, and degree of urbanization coupled with the enterococci FIB database for the state of Florida. We found that beach geomorphology was the primary characteristic associated with enterococci levels that exceeded regulatory guidelines. Beaches in close proximity to marshes or within bays had higher enterococci exceedances in comparison to open coast beaches. For open coast beaches, greater enterococci exceedances were associated with nearby rivers and higher levels of urbanization. Piers and causeways had a minimal contribution, as their effect was often overwhelmed by beach geomorphology. Results can be used to understand the potential causes of elevated enterococci levels and to promote public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Longitudinal Poisson regression to evaluate the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and fecal indicator bacteria in coastal California wetlands.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Jennifer N; Daniels, Miles E; Watson, Fred G; Conrad, Patricia A; Oates, Stori C; Miller, Melissa A; Hardin, Dane; Byrne, Barbara A; Dominik, Clare; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A; Miller, Woutrina A

    2012-05-01

    Fecal pathogen contamination of watersheds worldwide is increasingly recognized, and natural wetlands may have an important role in mitigating fecal pathogen pollution flowing downstream. Given that waterborne protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are transported within surface waters, this study evaluated associations between fecal protozoa and various wetland-specific and environmental risk factors. This study focused on three distinct coastal California wetlands: (i) a tidally influenced slough bordered by urban and agricultural areas, (ii) a seasonal wetland adjacent to a dairy, and (iii) a constructed wetland that receives agricultural runoff. Wetland type, seasonality, rainfall, and various water quality parameters were evaluated using longitudinal Poisson regression to model effects on concentrations of protozoa and indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and total coliform). Among wetland types, the dairy wetland exhibited the highest protozoal and bacterial concentrations, and despite significant reductions in microbe concentrations, the wetland could still be seen to influence water quality in the downstream tidal wetland. Additionally, recent rainfall events were associated with higher protozoal and bacterial counts in wetland water samples across all wetland types. Notably, detection of E. coli concentrations greater than a 400 most probable number (MPN) per 100 ml was associated with higher Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. These findings show that natural wetlands draining agricultural and livestock operation runoff into human-utilized waterways should be considered potential sources of pathogens and that wetlands can be instrumental in reducing pathogen loads to downstream waters.

  3. Longitudinal Poisson Regression To Evaluate the Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Coastal California Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Jennifer N.; Daniels, Miles E.; Watson, Fred G.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Oates, Stori C.; Miller, Melissa A.; Hardin, Dane; Byrne, Barbara A.; Dominik, Clare; Melli, Ann; Jessup, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Fecal pathogen contamination of watersheds worldwide is increasingly recognized, and natural wetlands may have an important role in mitigating fecal pathogen pollution flowing downstream. Given that waterborne protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, are transported within surface waters, this study evaluated associations between fecal protozoa and various wetland-specific and environmental risk factors. This study focused on three distinct coastal California wetlands: (i) a tidally influenced slough bordered by urban and agricultural areas, (ii) a seasonal wetland adjacent to a dairy, and (iii) a constructed wetland that receives agricultural runoff. Wetland type, seasonality, rainfall, and various water quality parameters were evaluated using longitudinal Poisson regression to model effects on concentrations of protozoa and indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and total coliform). Among wetland types, the dairy wetland exhibited the highest protozoal and bacterial concentrations, and despite significant reductions in microbe concentrations, the wetland could still be seen to influence water quality in the downstream tidal wetland. Additionally, recent rainfall events were associated with higher protozoal and bacterial counts in wetland water samples across all wetland types. Notably, detection of E. coli concentrations greater than a 400 most probable number (MPN) per 100 ml was associated with higher Cryptosporidium oocyst and Giardia cyst concentrations. These findings show that natural wetlands draining agricultural and livestock operation runoff into human-utilized waterways should be considered potential sources of pathogens and that wetlands can be instrumental in reducing pathogen loads to downstream waters. PMID:22427504

  4. Coliform bacteria as indicators of diarrheal risk in household drinking water: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Joshua S; Ercumen, Ayse; Colford, John M

    2014-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend the use of Escherichia coli (EC) or thermotolerant ("fecal") coliforms (FC) as indicators of fecal contamination in drinking water. Despite their broad use as measures of water quality, there remains limited evidence for an association between EC or FC and diarrheal illness: a previous review found no evidence for a link between diarrhea and these indicators in household drinking water. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to update the results of the previous review with newly available evidence, to explore differences between EC and FC indicators, and to assess the quality of available evidence. We searched major databases using broad terms for household water quality and diarrhea. We extracted study characteristics and relative risks (RR) from relevant studies. We pooled RRs using random effects models with inverse variance weighting, and used standard methods to evaluate heterogeneity and publication bias. We identified 20 relevant studies; 14 studies provided extractable results for meta-analysis. When combining all studies, we found no association between EC or FC and diarrhea (RR 1.26 [95% CI: 0.98, 1.63]). When analyzing EC and FC separately, we found evidence for an association between diarrhea and EC (RR: 1.54 [95% CI: 1.37, 1.74]) but not FC (RR: 1.07 [95% CI: 0.79, 1.45]). Across all studies, we identified several elements of study design and reporting (e.g., timing of outcome and exposure measurement, accounting for correlated outcomes) that could be improved upon in future studies that evaluate the association between drinking water contamination and health. Our findings, based on a review of the published literature, suggest that these two coliform groups have different associations with diarrhea in household drinking water. Our results support the use of EC as a fecal indicator in household drinking water.

  5. Fecal-indicator bacteria and Escherichia coli pathogen data collected near a novel sub-irrigation water-treatment system in Lenawee County, Michigan, June-November 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duris, Joseph W.; Beeler, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Lenawee County Conservation District in Lenawee County, Mich., conducted a sampling effort over a single growing season (June to November 2007) to evaluate the microbiological water quality around a novel livestock reservoir wetland sub-irrigation system. Samples were collected and analyzed for fecal coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, and six genes from pathogenic strains of E. coli.A total of 73 water-quality samples were collected on nine occasions from June to November 2007. These samples were collected within the surface water, shallow ground water, and the manure-treatment system near Bakerlads Farm near Clayton in Lenawee County, Mich. Fecal coliform bacteria concentrations ranged from 10 to 1.26 million colony forming units per 100 milliliters (CFU/100 mL). E. coli bacteria concentrations ranged from 8 to 540,000 CFU/100 mL. Data from the E. coli pathogen analysis showed that 73 percent of samples contained the eaeA gene, 1 percent of samples contained the stx2 gene, 37 percent of samples contained the stx1 gene, 21 percent of samples contained the rfbO157 gene, and 64 percent of samples contained the LTIIa gene.

  6. Addressing Uncertainty in Fecal Indicator Bacteria Dark Inactivation Rates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal contamination is a leading cause of surface water quality degradation. Roughly 20% of all total maximum daily load assessments approved by the United States Environmental Protection Agency since 1995, for example, address water bodies with unacceptably high fecal indicator...

  7. Addressing Uncertainty in Fecal Indicator Bacteria Dark Inactivation Rates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal contamination is a leading cause of surface water quality degradation. Roughly 20% of all total maximum daily load assessments approved by the United States Environmental Protection Agency since 1995, for example, address water bodies with unacceptably high fecal indicator...

  8. The capacity of the Gunderboom in Mamaroneck Harbor on the reduction of E. coli and coliform bacteria from water and soft-shelled clams (Mya arenaria).

    PubMed

    Yeung-Cheung, Anna K; Melendez, Nadilynn J

    2007-02-01

    Harbor Island Park of Mamaroneck Harbor is one of the beaches that has been frequently closed to the public due to unsanitary swimming conditions. In 2002, a Gunderboom BPS (Beach Protection System) was reinstalled in Harbor Island Park to lower bacterial levels in swimming areas. The first Gunderboom had been destroyed by an oil spill several years before. The current Gunderboom is an 800 foot curtain made of a treated polypropylene/polyester fabric and the company claims a 99.1% coliform reduction with its use. In this study, water inside and outside the Gunderboom was tested weekly from June to August 2005, and bi-weekly from September to December 2005. Coliscan Membrane Filtration plates were used to recover the relative amounts of Escherichia coli and coliform bacteria from the water. Soft-shelled clams (Mya arenaria) living in both these areas were also tested for their E. coli and coliform bacteria level using 3M Petrifilm plates. Water was also tested from Hudson Park in New Rochelle, a frequently closed beach due to high levels of coliform bacteria, as well as from Read Sanctuary in Rye, a "pristine" beach. Our results showed the amount of E. coli and coliform bacteria recovered from the water inside the Gunderboom were significantly lower (P < 0.05) compared to outside the Gunderboom and Hudson Park. There was 81.9% reduction in E. coli and 51.6% reduction in coliform bacteria inside the Gunderboom as compared to the outside. In addition, significant differences (P < 0.05) were found with lower numbers of E. coli and coliform bacteria recovered from the clams inside the Gunderboom compared to outside the Gunderboom. In conclusion, the Gunderboom system installed in Mamaroneck Harbor resulted in a significant reduction of E. coli and coliform bacteria in the water and clam samples, thus proving its efficiency as a water filter.

  9. Total Coliform Rule (TCR) Federal Register Notice

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document provides the FR notice to 40 CFR Parts 141 and 142 Drinking Water: National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Total Coliforms (Including Fecal Coliforms and E. Coli); Final Rule (26 pp, 5 M).

  10. Survival, transport, and sources of fecal bacteria in streams and survival in land-applied poultry litter in the upper Shoal Creek basin, southwestern Missouri, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumacher, John G.

    2003-01-01

    Densities of fecal coliform bacteria along a 5.7-mi (mile) reach of Shoal Creek extending upstream from State Highway 97 (site 3) to State Highway W (site 2) and in two tributaries along this reach exceeded the Missouri Department of Natural Resources (MDNR) standard of 200 col/100 mL (colonies per 100 milliliters) for whole-body contact recreation. A combination of techniques was used in this report to provide information on the source, transport, and survival of fecal bacteria along this reach of Shoal Creek. Results of water-quality samples collected during dye-trace and seepage studies indicated that at summer low base-flow conditions, pastured cattle likely were a substantial source of fecal bacteria in Shoal Creek at the MDNR monitoring site (site 3) at State Highway 97. Using repeat element Polymerase Chain Reaction (rep-PCR), cattle were the presumptive source of about 50 percent of the Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates in water samples from site 3. Cattle, horses, and humans were the most common presumptive source of E. coli isolates at sites further upstream. Poultry was identified by rep-PCR as a major source of E. coli in Pogue Creek, a tributary in the upper part of the study area. Results of the rep-PCR were in general agreement with the detection and distribution of trace concentrations of organic compounds commonly associated with human wastewater, such as caffeine, the antimicrobial agent triclosan, and the pharmaceutical compounds acetaminophen and thiabendazole (a common cattle anthelmintic). Significant inputs of fecal bacteria to Shoal Creek occurred along a 1.6-mi reach of Shoal Creek immediately upstream from site 3. During a 36-hour period in July 2001, average densities of fecal coliform and E. coli bacteria increased from less than or equal to 500 col/100 mL upstream from this stream reach (sample site 2c) to 2,100 and 1,400 col/100 mL, respectively, at the MDNR sampling site. Fecal bacteria densities exhibited diurnal variability at all

  11. Spatial and temporal variability of fecal indicator bacteria in an urban stream under different meteorological regimes.

    PubMed

    Cha, Sung Min; Lee, Seung Won; Park, Yong Eun; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Lee, Seungyoon; Kim, Joon Ha

    2010-01-01

    As a representative urban stream in Korea, the Gwangju (GJ) stream suffers from chronic fecal contamination. In this study, to characterize levels of fecal pollution in the GJ stream, the monthly monitoring data for seven years (from 2001 to 2007) and the hourly monitoring data from two field experiments were examined with respect to seasonal/daily variations and spatial distribution under wet and dry weather conditions. This research revealed that concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria strongly varied depending on the prevalent meteorological conditions. That is, during the dry daytime, fecal indicator bacteria concentrations decreased due to inactivation from solar irradiation, but rapidly increased in the absence of sunlight, suggesting external source inputs. In addition, bacterial concentrations substantially increased during rainfall events, due probably to a major contribution from combined sewer overflow. The observations in this study can be useful for implementing fecal pollution management strategies and for predicting fecal contamination as a function of meteorological conditions.

  12. Coliform Bacteria as Indicators of Diarrheal Risk in Household Drinking Water: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Joshua S.; Ercumen, Ayse; Colford, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Current guidelines recommend the use of Escherichia coli (EC) or thermotolerant (“fecal”) coliforms (FC) as indicators of fecal contamination in drinking water. Despite their broad use as measures of water quality, there remains limited evidence for an association between EC or FC and diarrheal illness: a previous review found no evidence for a link between diarrhea and these indicators in household drinking water. Objectives We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to update the results of the previous review with newly available evidence, to explore differences between EC and FC indicators, and to assess the quality of available evidence. Methods We searched major databases using broad terms for household water quality and diarrhea. We extracted study characteristics and relative risks (RR) from relevant studies. We pooled RRs using random effects models with inverse variance weighting, and used standard methods to evaluate heterogeneity and publication bias. Results We identified 20 relevant studies; 14 studies provided extractable results for meta-analysis. When combining all studies, we found no association between EC or FC and diarrhea (RR 1.26 [95% CI: 0.98, 1.63]). When analyzing EC and FC separately, we found evidence for an association between diarrhea and EC (RR: 1.54 [95% CI: 1.37, 1.74]) but not FC (RR: 1.07 [95% CI: 0.79, 1.45]). Across all studies, we identified several elements of study design and reporting (e.g., timing of outcome and exposure measurement, accounting for correlated outcomes) that could be improved upon in future studies that evaluate the association between drinking water contamination and health. Conclusions Our findings, based on a review of the published literature, suggest that these two coliform groups have different associations with diarrhea in household drinking water. Our results support the use of EC as a fecal indicator in household drinking water. PMID:25250662

  13. Physical dynamics controlling variability in nearshore fecal pollution: fecal indicator bacteria as passive particles.

    PubMed

    Rippy, M A; Franks, P J S; Feddersen, F; Guza, R T; Moore, D F

    2013-01-15

    We present results from a 5-h field program (HB06) that took place at California's Huntington State Beach. We assessed the importance of physical dynamics in controlling fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations during HB06 using an individual based model including alongshore advection and cross-shore variable horizontal diffusion. The model was parameterized with physical (waves and currents) and bacterial (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) observations made during HB06. The model captured surfzone FIB dynamics well (average surfzone model skill: 0.84 {E. coli} and 0.52 {Enterococcus}), but fell short of capturing offshore FIB dynamics. Our analyses support the hypothesis that surfzone FIB variability during HB06 was a consequence of southward advection and diffusion of a patch of FIB originating north of the study area. Offshore FIB may have originated from a different, southern, source. Mortality may account for some of the offshore variability not explained by the physical model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Distribution of Fecal Indicator Bacteria along the Malibu, California, Coastline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John

    2011-01-01

    Each year, over 550 million people visit California's public beaches. To protect beach-goers from exposure to waterborne disease, California state law requires water-quality monitoring for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), such as enterococci and Escherichia coli (E. coli), at beaches having more than 50,000 yearly visitors. FIB are used to assess the microbiological quality of water because, although not typically disease causing, they are correlated with the occurrence of certain waterborne diseases. Tests show that FIB concentrations occasionally exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) public health standards for recreational water in Malibu Lagoon and at several Malibu beaches (Regional Water Quality Control Board, 2009). Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) California Water Science Center are doing a study to identify the distribution and sources of FIB in coastal Malibu waters (fig. 1). The study methods were similar to those used in a study of FIB contamination on beaches in the Santa Barbara, California, area (Izbicki and others, 2009). This report describes the study approach and presents preliminary results used to evaluate the distribution and source of FIB in the Malibu area. Results of this study will help decision-makers address human health issues associated with FIB contamination in Malibu, and the methods used in this study can be used in other coastal areas affected by FIB contamination.

  15. Enhanced recovery of coliforms by anaerobic incubation

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, N.A.

    1984-01-01

    A total of 529 well and distribution potable water samples were analyzed for total coliforms by the most probable number (MPN) and membrane filter (MF) techniques. Standard plate count (SPC) bacteria and MF non-coliform bacteria were also enumerated. Frequency of coliform detection, turbidity in MPN tubes and extensive overgrowth by non-coliforms on MF filters were directly proportional to SPC. Overgrowth by non-coliforms on MF filters suppressed sheen development and, in turn, masked coliform detection.

  16. The Effectiveness of Sanitary Inspections as a Risk Assessment Tool for Thermotolerant Coliform Bacteria Contamination of Rural Drinking Water: A Review of Data from West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Snoad, Christian; Nagel, Corey; Bhattacharya, Animesh; Thomas, Evan

    2017-01-23

    The use of sanitary inspections combined with periodic water quality testing has been recommended in some cases as screening tools for fecal contamination. We conducted sanitary inspections and tested for thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs), a fecal indicator bacteria, among 7,317 unique water sources in West Bengal, India. Our results indicate that the sanitary inspection score has poor ability to identify TTC-contaminated sources. Among deep and shallow hand pumps, the area under curve (AUC) for prediction of TTC > 0 was 0.58 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.53-0.61) and 0.58 (95% CI = 0.54-0.62), respectively, indicating that the sanitary inspection score was only marginally better than chance in discriminating between contaminated and uncontaminated sources of this type. A slightly higher AUC value of 0.64 (95% CI=0.57-0.71) was observed when the sanitary inspection score was used for prediction of TTC > 0 among the gravity-fed piped sources. Among unprotected springs (AUC = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.38-0.55) and unprotected dug wells (AUC = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.20-0.66), the sanitary inspection score performed more poorly than chance in discriminating between sites with TTC < 1 and TTC > 0. Aggregating over all source types, the sensitivity (true positive rate) of a high/very high sanitary inspection score for TTC contamination (TTC > 1 CFU/100 mL) was 29.4% and the specificity (true negative rate) was 77.9%, resulting in substantial misclassification of the sites when using the established risk categories. These findings suggest that sanitary surveys are inappropriate screening tools for identifying TTC contamination at water points.

  17. Predicting Fecal Indicator Bacteria Concentrations in the South Fork Broad River Watershed Using Virtual Beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach (VB) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) at recreational beaches. Although primarily designed for making decisions regarding beach closures or issuance of swimming advisories based on...

  18. Predicting Fecal Indicator Bacteria Concentrations in the South Fork Broad River Watershed Using Virtual Beach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Virtual Beach (VB) is a decision support tool that constructs site-specific statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) at recreational beaches. Although primarily designed for making decisions regarding beach closures or issuance of swimming advisories based on...

  19. Narrowing the Search for Sources of Fecal Indicator Bacteria with a Simple Salinity Mixing Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, K.; Ahn, J.; Litton, R.; Grant, S. B.

    2006-12-01

    Newport Bay, the second largest estuarine embayment in Southern California, provides critical natural habitat for terrestrial and aquatic species and is a regionally important recreational area. Unfortunately, the beneficial uses of Newport Bay are threatened by numerous sources of pollutant loading, either through direct discharge into the bay or through its tributaries. Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are associated with human pathogens and are present in high concentrations in sewage and urban runoff. Standardized and inexpensive assays used for the detection of FIB have allowed their concentrations to be used as a common test of water quality. In order to assess FIB impairment in Newport Bay, weekly transects of FIB concentrations were conducted, specifically Total Coliform, Escherichia coli and Enterococci spp., as well as salinity, temperature, and transmissivity, from the upper reaches of the estuary to an offshore control site. Using salinity as a conservative tracer for water mass mixing and determining the end-member values of FIB and transmissivity in both the creek sites and the offshore control site, we created a simple, two end-member mixing model of FIB and transmissivity within Newport Bay. Deviations from the mixing model would suggest either an additional source of FIB to the bay (e.g. bird feces) or regrowth of FIB within the bay. Our results indicate that, with a few notable exceptions, salinity is a good tracer for FIB concentrations along the transect, but is not particularly effective for transmissivity. This suggests that the largest contributor of FIB loading to Newport Bay comes from the discharge of creeks into the upper reaches of the estuary.

  20. Preliminary survey of antibiotic-resistant fecal indicator bacteria and pathogenic Escherichia coli from river-water samples collected in Oakland County, Michigan, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogarty, Lisa R.; Duris, Joseph W.; Aichele, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    A preliminary study was done in Oakland County, Michigan, to determine the concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliform bacteria and enterococci), antibiotic resistance patterns of these two groups, and the presence of potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli). For selected sites, specific members of these groups [E. coli, Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis)] were isolated and tested for levels of resistance to specific antibiotics used to treat human infections by pathogens in these groups and for their potential to transfer these resistances. In addition, water samples from all sites were tested for indicators of potentially pathogenic E. coli by three assays: a growth-based assay for sorbitol-negative E. coli, an immunological assay for E. coli O157, and a molecular assay for three virulence and two serotype genes. Samples were also collected from two non-urbanized sites outside of Oakland County. Results from the urbanized Oakland County area were compared to those from these two non-urbanized sites. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations exceeded State of Michigan recreational water-quality standards and (or) recommended U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards in samples from all but two Oakland County sites. Multiple-antibiotic-resistant fecal coliform bacteria were found at all sites, including two reference sites from outside the county. Two sites (Stony Creek and Paint Creek) yielded fecal coliform isolates resistant to all tested antibiotics. Patterns indicative of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)- producing fecal coliform bacteria were found at eight sites in Oakland County and E. coli resistant to clinically significant antibiotics were recovered from the River Rouge, Clinton River, and Paint Creek. Vancomycin-resistant presumptive enterococci were found at six sites in Oakland County and were not found at the reference sites. Evidence of acquired antibiotic resistances was

  1. Influence of thymol and a urease inhibitor on coliform bacteria, odor, urea, and methane from a swine production manure pit.

    PubMed

    Varel, Vincent H; Wells, James E

    2007-01-01

    Pathogens, ammonia, odor, and greenhouse gas emissions are serious environmental concerns associated with swine production. This study was conducted in two manure pits (33,000 L each) to determine the influence of 1.5 or 3.0 g thymol L(-1) and 80 mg L(-1) urease inhibitor amendments on urea accumulation, coliform bacteria, odor, and methane emission. Each experiment lasted 18 or 19 d, during which time 30 to 36 250-mL samples (six per day) were withdrawn from underneath each pit and analyzed for urea, thymol, volatile fatty acids, coliform bacteria, and Campylobacter. At the end of each experiment, six 50-g samples from each pit were placed in serum bottles, and gas volume and composition were determined periodically for 28 d. Compared with the control pit, volatile fatty acids production was reduced 64 and 100% for the thymol amendments of 1.5 and 3.0 g L(-1), respectively. Viable coliform cells were reduced 4.68 and 5.88 log10 colony-forming units kg(-1) of slurry for the 1.5 and 3.0 g thymol L(-1), respectively, and Escherichia coli were reduced 4.67 and 5.01 log10 colony-forming units kg(-1) of slurry, respectively. Campylobacter was not detected in the pits treated with thymol, in contrast to 63% of the samples being positive for the untreated pit. Urea accumulated in the treated pits from Day 3 to 6. Total gas production from serum bottles was reduced 65 and 76% for thymol amendments of 1.5 and 3.0 g L(-1), respectively, and methane was reduced 78 and 93%, respectively. These results suggest that thymol markedly reduces pathogens, odor, and greenhouse gas emissions from a swine production facility. The urease inhibitor produced a temporary response in conserving urea.

  2. Ammonia-induced injury in pure cultures and natural populations of coliform bacteria.

    PubMed

    Naundorf, G; Aumen, N G

    1989-11-01

    Ammonia-induced injury was investigated in pure cultures of Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes, and in natural coliform populations obtained from the oligotrophic Luxapallila and the eutrophic Sunflower Rivers in northern Mississippi. Pure cultures were affected by ammonia exposure as indicated by changes in the injury ratio (IR) of CFU on m-T7 agar/CFU on m-Endo agar. Ammonia concentrations between 0 and 20 (mg NH3-N/1) had little or no effect and concentrations between 40 and 80 caused the greatest injury. Natural coliform populations from the oligotrophic river were more prone to ammonia-induced injury than those from the eutrophic river. The results stress the need for the routine use of m-T7 media and the enumeration of injured cells when using the membrane filter procedure to ascertain domestic water quality.

  3. Survey of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli O157 and drug-resistant coliform bacteria from in-line milk filters on dairy farms in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Cízek, A; Dolejská, M; Novotná, R; Haas, D; Vyskocil, M

    2008-03-01

    To determine the occurrence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 and coliform bacteria isolates resistant to antimicrobial agents in dairy herds by examining milk filters and to analyse the influence of management factors and antibiotic use on antimicrobial resistance. A total of 192 in-line milk filters were sampled on 192 dairy farms in the Czech Republic. Information on feeding, husbandry, production, and antibiotic therapy were obtained by questionnaire. The milk filters were cultured for STEC O157 and coliform bacteria. All recovered isolates were examined for antimicrobial susceptibility and presence of antimicrobial-resistance genes. STEC O157 was detected in four (2%) of the filters. Resistant nonpathogenic E. coli and coliform bacteria isolates with specific genes were detected in 44 (23%) of the filters. The study demonstrated a high prevalence of resistant coliform bacteria in milk filters obtained on Czech dairy farms. The occurrence of resistant coliform bacteria in milk filters was significantly higher among isolates from farms where antibiotic therapy against mastitis was employed during the dry period (P < 0.05).

  4. Delayed accumulation of intestinal coliform bacteria enhances life span and stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans fed respiratory deficient E. coli

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies with the nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans have identified conserved biochemical pathways that act to modulate life span. Life span can also be influenced by the composition of the intestinal microbiome, and C. elegans life span can be dramatically influenced by its diet of Escherichia coli. Although C. elegans is typically fed the standard OP50 strain of E. coli, nematodes fed E. coli strains rendered respiratory deficient, either due to a lack coenzyme Q or the absence of ATP synthase, show significant life span extension. Here we explore the mechanisms accounting for the enhanced nematode life span in response to these diets. Results The intestinal load of E. coli was monitored by determination of worm-associated colony forming units (cfu/worm or coliform counts) as a function of age. The presence of GFP-expressing E. coli in the worm intestine was also monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Worms fed the standard OP50 E. coli strain have high cfu and GFP-labeled bacteria in their guts at the L4 larval stage, and show saturated coliform counts by day five of adulthood. In contrast, nematodes fed diets of respiratory deficient E. coli lacking coenzyme Q lived significantly longer and failed to accumulate bacteria within the lumen at early ages. Animals fed bacteria deficient in complex V showed intermediate coliform numbers and were not quite as long-lived. The results indicate that respiratory deficient Q-less E. coli are effectively degraded in the early adult worm, either at the pharynx or within the intestine, and do not accumulate in the intestinal tract until day ten of adulthood. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that the nematodes fed the respiratory deficient E. coli diet live longer because the delay in bacterial colonization of the gut subjects the worms to less stress compared to worms fed the OP50 E. coli diet. This work suggests that bacterial respiration can act as a virulence factor, influencing the ability of

  5. Delayed accumulation of intestinal coliform bacteria enhances life span and stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans fed respiratory deficient E. coli.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Fernando; Monsalve, Gabriela C; Tse, Vincent; Saiki, Ryoichi; Weng, Emily; Lee, Laura; Srinivasan, Chandra; Frand, Alison R; Clarke, Catherine F

    2012-12-20

    Studies with the nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans have identified conserved biochemical pathways that act to modulate life span. Life span can also be influenced by the composition of the intestinal microbiome, and C. elegans life span can be dramatically influenced by its diet of Escherichia coli. Although C. elegans is typically fed the standard OP50 strain of E. coli, nematodes fed E. coli strains rendered respiratory deficient, either due to a lack coenzyme Q or the absence of ATP synthase, show significant life span extension. Here we explore the mechanisms accounting for the enhanced nematode life span in response to these diets. The intestinal load of E. coli was monitored by determination of worm-associated colony forming units (cfu/worm or coliform counts) as a function of age. The presence of GFP-expressing E. coli in the worm intestine was also monitored by fluorescence microscopy. Worms fed the standard OP50 E. coli strain have high cfu and GFP-labeled bacteria in their guts at the L4 larval stage, and show saturated coliform counts by day five of adulthood. In contrast, nematodes fed diets of respiratory deficient E. coli lacking coenzyme Q lived significantly longer and failed to accumulate bacteria within the lumen at early ages. Animals fed bacteria deficient in complex V showed intermediate coliform numbers and were not quite as long-lived. The results indicate that respiratory deficient Q-less E. coli are effectively degraded in the early adult worm, either at the pharynx or within the intestine, and do not accumulate in the intestinal tract until day ten of adulthood. The findings of this study suggest that the nematodes fed the respiratory deficient E. coli diet live longer because the delay in bacterial colonization of the gut subjects the worms to less stress compared to worms fed the OP50 E. coli diet. This work suggests that bacterial respiration can act as a virulence factor, influencing the ability of bacteria to colonize and

  6. COMPARATIVE DIVERSITY OF FECAL BACTERIA IN AGRICULTURALLY SIGNIFICANT ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ALTERNATIVE TARGETS FOR MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animals of agricultural significance contribute a large percentage of fecal pollution to waterways via runoff contamination. The premise of microbial source tracking is to utilize fecal bacteria to identify target populations which are directly correlated to specific animal feces...

  7. COMPARATIVE DIVERSITY OF FECAL BACTERIA IN AGRICULTURALLY SIGNIFICANT ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ALTERNATIVE TARGETS FOR MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animals of agricultural significance contribute a large percentage of fecal pollution to waterways via runoff contamination. The premise of microbial source tracking is to utilize fecal bacteria to identify target populations which are directly correlated to specific animal feces...

  8. Sediment and Fecal Indicator Bacteria Loading in a Mixed Land Use Watershed: Contributions from Suspended and Bed Load Transport

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality studies that quantify sediment and fecal bacteria loading commonly focus on suspended contaminants transported during high flows. Fecal contaminants in bed sediments are typically ignored and need to be considered because of their potential to increase pathogen load...

  9. Sediment and Fecal Indicator Bacteria Loading in a Mixed Land Use Watershed: Contributions from Suspended and Bed Load Transport

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality studies that quantify sediment and fecal bacteria loading commonly focus on suspended contaminants transported during high flows. Fecal contaminants in bed sediments are typically ignored and need to be considered because of their potential to increase pathogen load...

  10. The Evolving Role of Coliforms As Indicators of Unhygienic Processing Conditions in Dairy Foods

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Nicole H.; Trmčić, Aljoša; Hsieh, Tsung-Han; Boor, Kathryn J.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Testing for coliforms has a long history in the dairy industry and has helped to identify raw milk and dairy products that may have been exposed to unsanitary conditions. Coliform standards are included in a number of regulatory documents (e.g., the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s Grade “A” Pasteurized Milk Ordinance). As a consequence, detection above a threshold of members of this method-defined, but diverse, group of bacteria can result in a wide range of regulatory outcomes. Coliforms are defined as aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, Gram negative, non-sporeforming rods capable of fermenting lactose to produce gas and acid within 48 h at 32–35°C; 19 genera currently include at least some strains that represent coliforms. Most bacterial genera that comprise the coliform group (e.g., Escherichia, Klebsiella, and Serratia) are within the family Enterobacteriaceae, while at least one genus with strains recognized as coliforms, Aeromonas, is in the family Aeromonadaceae. The presence of coliforms has long been thought to indicate fecal contamination, however, recent discoveries regarding this diverse group of bacteria indicates that only a fraction are fecal in origin, while the majority are environmental contaminants. In the US dairy industry in particular, testing for coliforms as indicators of unsanitary conditions and post-processing contamination is widespread. While coliforms are easily and rapidly detected, and are not found in pasteurized dairy products that have not been exposed to post-processing contamination, advances in knowledge of bacterial populations most commonly associated with post-processing contamination in dairy foods has led to questions regarding the utility of coliforms as indicators of unsanitary conditions for dairy products. For example, Pseudomonas spp. frequently contaminate dairy products after pasteurization, yet they are not detected by coliform tests. This review will address the role that coliforms play in raw and

  11. The Evolving Role of Coliforms As Indicators of Unhygienic Processing Conditions in Dairy Foods.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nicole H; Trmčić, Aljoša; Hsieh, Tsung-Han; Boor, Kathryn J; Wiedmann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Testing for coliforms has a long history in the dairy industry and has helped to identify raw milk and dairy products that may have been exposed to unsanitary conditions. Coliform standards are included in a number of regulatory documents (e.g., the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Grade "A" Pasteurized Milk Ordinance). As a consequence, detection above a threshold of members of this method-defined, but diverse, group of bacteria can result in a wide range of regulatory outcomes. Coliforms are defined as aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, Gram negative, non-sporeforming rods capable of fermenting lactose to produce gas and acid within 48 h at 32-35°C; 19 genera currently include at least some strains that represent coliforms. Most bacterial genera that comprise the coliform group (e.g., Escherichia, Klebsiella, and Serratia) are within the family Enterobacteriaceae, while at least one genus with strains recognized as coliforms, Aeromonas, is in the family Aeromonadaceae. The presence of coliforms has long been thought to indicate fecal contamination, however, recent discoveries regarding this diverse group of bacteria indicates that only a fraction are fecal in origin, while the majority are environmental contaminants. In the US dairy industry in particular, testing for coliforms as indicators of unsanitary conditions and post-processing contamination is widespread. While coliforms are easily and rapidly detected, and are not found in pasteurized dairy products that have not been exposed to post-processing contamination, advances in knowledge of bacterial populations most commonly associated with post-processing contamination in dairy foods has led to questions regarding the utility of coliforms as indicators of unsanitary conditions for dairy products. For example, Pseudomonas spp. frequently contaminate dairy products after pasteurization, yet they are not detected by coliform tests. This review will address the role that coliforms play in raw and finished

  12. Distribution and Significance of Fecal Indicator Organisms in the Upper Chesapeake Bay

    PubMed Central

    Sayler, G. S.; Nelson, J. D.; Justice, A.; Colwell, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    Total viable aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci were enumerated in samples collected at five stations located in the Upper Chesapeake Bay, December 1973 through December 1974. Significant levels of pollution indicator organisms were detected at all of the stations sampled. Highest counts were observed in samples collected at the confluence of the Susquehanna River and the Chesapeake Bay. The indicator organisms examined were observed to be quantitatively distributed independently of temperature and salinity. Counts were not found to be correlated with concentration of suspended sediment. However, significant proportions of both the total viable bacteria (53%) and fecal indicator organisms (>80%) were directly associated with suspended sediments. Correlation coefficients (r) for the indicator organisms examined in this study ranged from r = 0.80 to r = 0.99 for bottom water and suspended sediment, respectively. Prolonged survival of fecal streptococci in most of the sediment samples was observed, with concomitant reduction of the correlation coefficient from r = 0.99, fecal streptococci to total coliforms in water, to r = 0.01, fecal streptococci to fecal coliforms in sediments. The results of this study compared favorably with fecal coliforms: fecal streptococci ratios for the various sample types. Characterization of organisms beyond the confirmed most-probable-number procedure provided good correlation between bacterial indicator groups. PMID:811167

  13. Distribution and significance of fecal indicator organisms in the Upper Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Sayler, G S; Nelson, J D; Justice, A; Colwell, R R

    1975-10-01

    Total viable aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci were enumerated in samples collected at five stations located in the Upper Chesapeake Bay, December 1973 through December 1974. Significant levels of pollution indicator organisms were detected at all of the stations sampled. Highest counts were observed in samples collected at the confluence of the Susquehanna River and the Chesapeake Bay. The indicator organisms examined were observed to be quantitatively distributed independently of temperature and salinity. Counts were not found to be correlated with concentration of suspended sediment. However, significant proportions of both the total viable bacteria (53%) and fecal indicator organisms (greater than 80%) were directly associated with suspended sediments. Correlation coefficinets (r) for the indicator organisms examined in this study ranged from r = 0.80 to r = 0.99 for bottom water and suspended sediment, respectively. Prolonged survival of fecal streptococci in most of the sediment samples was observed, with concomitant reduction of the correlation coefficient from r = 0.99, fecal streptocicci to total coliforms in water, to r = 0.01, fecal streptococci to fecal coliforms in sediments. The results of this study compared favorably with fecal coliforms: fecal streptococci ratios for the various sample types. Characterization of organisms beyond the confirmed most-probable-number procedure provided good correlation between bacterial indicator groups.

  14. Automated Coliform Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishioka, K.; Nibley, D.; Jeffers, E.; Brooks, R.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrogen evolved by coliform bacteria transferred to separate measurement cell. Electroanalytic cell mounted in insulated temperature-control bath cycled between culturing temperature and sterilizing temperature. Flow of materials into and out of cell controlled by electrically operated valves.

  15. Automated Coliform Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishioka, K.; Nibley, D.; Jeffers, E.; Brooks, R.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrogen evolved by coliform bacteria transferred to separate measurement cell. Electroanalytic cell mounted in insulated temperature-control bath cycled between culturing temperature and sterilizing temperature. Flow of materials into and out of cell controlled by electrically operated valves.

  16. Matrix Extension Study: Validation of the Compact Dry CF Method for Enumeration of Total Coliform Bacteria in Selected Foods.

    PubMed

    Mizuochi, Shingo; Nelson, Maria; Baylis, Chris; Green, Becky; Jewell, Keith; Monadjemi, Farinaz; Chen, Yi; Salfinger, Yvonne; Fernandez, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The Compact Dry "Nissui" CF method, Performance Tested Method(SM) 110401, was originally certified for enumeration of coliform bacteria by the AOAC Research Institute Performance Tested Methods(SM) program for raw meat products. Compact Dry CF is a ready-to-use dry media sheet, containing a cold-soluble gelling agent, a chromogenic medium, and selective agents, which are rehydrated by adding 1 mL of diluted sample. Coliform bacteria produce blue/blue-green colonies on the Compact Dry CF, allowing a coliform colony count to be determined in the sample after 24 ± 2 h incubation. A validation study was organized by Campden BRI (formerly Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association Technology, Ltd), Chipping Campden, United Kingdom, to extend the method's claim to include cooked chicken, fresh bagged prewashed shredded iceberg lettuce, frozen fish, milk powder, and pasteurized 2% milk. Campden BRI collected single-laboratory data for cooked chicken, lettuce, frozen fish, and milk powder, whereas a multilaboratory study was conducted on pasteurized milk. Thirteen laboratories participated in the interlaboratory study. The Compact Dry CF method was compared to ISO 4832:2006 "Microbiology of food and animal feeding stuffs-Horizontal method for the enumeration of coliforms-Colony-count technique," the current version at the time this study was conducted. Each matrix was evaluated at either four or five contamination levels of coliform bacteria (including an uncontaminated level). After logarithmic transformation of counts at each level, the data for pasteurized whole milk were analyzed for sr, sR, RSDr, and RSDR. Regression analysis was also performed and r(2) was reported. Mean difference between methods with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. A log10 range of -0.5 to 0.5 for the CI was used as the acceptance criterion to establish significant statistical difference between methods. In the single-laboratory evaluation (for cooked chicken, lettuce, frozen

  17. [The importance of water testing for public health in two regions in Rio de Janeiro: a focus on fecal coliforms, nitrates, and aluminum].

    PubMed

    Freitas, M B; Brilhante, O M; Almeida, L M

    2001-01-01

    In developing countries, due to poor sanitation conditions and poor quality of drinking water, typical water-borne diseases and more recently diseases caused by drinking water with high concentrations of nitrates and certain metals like aluminum have increased the concern over the health effects of these compounds. Several articles have shown associations between nitrates and methemoglobinemia in children, and aluminum and Alzheimer disease in adults. This study identified water quality with several parameters in non-conformity with Brazilian drinking water standards (Ruling 36/90): more than 50% of all samples from both regions contained fecal coliforms; some 31% of water samples from wells in Duque de Caxias had excessive nitrate concentrations; 100% of all groundwater samples from both regions showed aluminum concentrations not conforming to the norm, with the same result for 100% of samples from the drinking water distribution system in São Gonçalo and 75% of same in Duque de Caxias. This lack of conformity poses several health risks for the local population.

  18. Survival of manure-borne and fecal coliforms in soil: temperature dependence as affected by site-specific factors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding pathogenic and indicator bacteria survival in soils is essential for assessing the potential of microbial contamination of water and produce, and making appropriate management decisions. The objective of this work was to evaluate effects of soil and management factors on temperature de...

  19. Relationships among bather density, levels of human waterborne pathogens, and fecal coliform counts in marine recreational beach water.

    PubMed

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Sunderland, Deirdre; Awantang, Grace N; Mashinski, Yessika; Lucy, Frances E; Graczyk, Zofi; Chomicz, Lidia; Breysse, Patrick N

    2010-04-01

    During summer months, samples of marine beach water were tested weekly for human waterborne pathogens in association with high and low bather numbers during weekends and weekdays, respectively. The numbers of bathers on weekends were significantly higher than on weekdays (P < 0.001), and this was associated with a significant (P < 0.04) increase in water turbidity. The proportion of water samples containing Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia duodenalis, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi was significantly higher (P < 0.03) on weekends than on weekdays, and significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with enterococci counts. The concentration of all three waterborne pathogens was significantly correlated with bather density (P < 0.01). The study demonstrated that: (a) human pathogens were present in beach water on days deemed acceptable for bathing according to fecal bacterial standards; (b) enterococci count was a good indicator for the presence of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and microsporidian spores in recreational marine beach water; (c) water should be tested for enterococci during times when bather numbers are high; (d) re-suspension of bottom sediments by bathers caused elevated levels of enterococci and waterborne parasites, thus bathers themselves can create a non-point source for water contamination; and (e) exposure to recreational bathing waters can play a role in epidemiology of microsporidiosis. In order to protect public health, it is recommended to: (a) prevent diapered children from entering beach water; (b) introduce bather number limits to recreational areas; (c) advise people with gastroenteritis to avoid bathing; and (d) use showers prior to and after bathing.

  20. Horizontal Transfer of a Multi-Drug Resistance Plasmid between Coliform Bacteria of Human and Bovine Origin in a Farm Environment

    PubMed Central

    Oppegaard, Hanne; Steinum, Terje M.; Wasteson, Yngvild

    2001-01-01

    Multi-drug-resistant coliform bacteria were isolated from feces of cattle exposed to antimicrobial agents and humans associated with the animals. Isolates from both cattle and humans harbored an R plasmid of 65 kb (pTMS1) that may have been transferred between them due to selective antibiotic pressure in the farm environment. PMID:11472956

  1. Validation of commercial luminometry swabs for total bacteria and coliform counts in colostrum-feeding equipment.

    PubMed

    Renaud, D L; Kelton, D F; LeBlanc, S J; Haley, D B; Jalbert, A B; Duffield, T F

    2017-09-13

    A sufficient quantity and quality of colostrum must be fed quickly to the newborn calf while minimizing bacterial contamination. Adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence swabs offer a potential rapid on-farm alternative to assess bacterial contamination of colostrum. The objective of this study was to validate the Hygiena (Camarillo, CA) AquaSnap Total (AS), SuperSnap (SS), PRO-Clean (PC), and MicroSnap Coliform (MS) swabs as well as visual hygiene assessment for detection of elevated bacterial counts in or on colostrum-feeding equipment. From April to October 2016, 18 esophageal tube feeders, 49 nipple bottles, and 6 pails from 52 dairy farms in Ontario were evaluated for cleanliness. Following visual hygiene assessment, sterile physiological saline (15 mL) was poured into each piece of equipment, mixed for 2 min to ensure total surface coverage, and poured into a sterile collection container through the feeding end. The fluid was split into equal aliquots, with one being evaluated by conventional culture and the other evaluated using the luminometry swabs. Nonparametric receiver operator curves were used to compare the test performance of the luminescence reading (relative light units; RLU) from each type of swab to conventional bacterial culture. The area under the curve comparing the AS swab to total bacterial count (cut point >100,000 cfu/mL) was 0.89, and using a cut point of 631 RLU correctly classified 84% of samples with a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 77%. The area under the curve comparing the MS swab to total coliform count (cut point >10,000 cfu/mL) was 0.85, and using a cut point of 44 RLU correctly classified 89% of samples with a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 90%. Visual hygiene assessment, PC and SS swabs were not reliable indicators for feeding equipment cleanliness. The results suggest that the AS and MS swabs can be used as an alternative to traditional laboratory bacterial counts to evaluate cleanliness of colostrum

  2. The removal of thermo-tolerant coliform bacteria by immobilized waste stabilization pond algae.

    PubMed

    Pearson, H W; Marcon, A E; Melo, H N

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of laboratory- scale columns of immobilized micro-algae to disinfect effluents using thermo-tolerant coliforms (TTC) as a model system. Cells of a Chlorella species isolated from a waste stabilization pond complex in Northeast Brazil were immobilized in calcium alginate, packed into glass columns and incubated in contact with TTC suspensions for up to 24 hours. Five to six log removals of TTC were achieved in 6 hours and 11 log removals in 12 hours contact time. The results were similar under artificial light and shaded sunlight. However little or no TTC removal occurred in the light in columns of alginate beads without immobilized algae present or when the immobilized algae were incubated in the dark suggesting that the presence of both algae and light were necessary for TTC decay. There was a positive correlation between K(b) values for TTC and increasing pH in the effluent from the immobilized algal columns within the range pH 7.2 and 8.9. The potential of immobilized algal technology for wastewater disinfection may warrant further investigation.

  3. Rapid determination of the presence of enteric bacteria in water.

    PubMed

    Kenard, R P; Valentine, R S

    1974-03-01

    A rapid and sensitive method is described for the detection of bacteria in water and various other natural substrates by the isolation of specific bacteriophage. By the addition of large numbers of the organism in question to the sample, the presence of virulent bacteriophage can be demonstrated in as little as 6 to 8 h. Fecal coliform, total coliform, and total coliphage counts were determined for over 150 water samples from several geographical areas over a period of 2 years. Computer analysis of the data shows a high degree of correlation between fecal coliforms and the coliphage present in the samples. With a high correlation coefficient between fecal coliform and coliphage counts, predictions of the fecal coliforms may be made by enumeration of the phage.

  4. Relation of bacteria in limestone aquifers to septic systems in Berkeley County, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathes, M.V.

    2000-01-01

    Water samples collected from 50 wells in Berkeley County, West Virginia, during June 2000 were analyzed for indicator bacteria. Of the 50 wells sampled, 62 percent (31 wells) contained total coliform bacteria, 32 percent (16 wells) contained Escherichia coli, and 30 percent (15 wells) contained fecal coliform bacteria. Although bacteria were present in many wells regardless of the number of septic systems in a 5-acre circular area around each well, no apparent correlation was detected between septic-system density and concentrations of bacteria colonies. There was also little difference in the frequency of total coliform bacteria detection between shallow and deep wells; however, the highest concentrations of E. coli and fecal coliform bacteria were found in the shallowest wells. At least one of the three bacteria types was found in samples of untreated water in 32 of the 50 wells. At 21 of the 32 wells with bacteria present, there was no treatment of the ground water to remove bacteria.

  5. Comparison of Membrane Filtration and Multiple-Tube Fermentation by the Colilert and Enterolert Methods for Detection of Waterborne Coliform Bacteria, Escherichia coli, and Enterococci Used in Drinking and Bathing Water Quality Monitoring in Southern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Eckner, Karl F.

    1998-01-01

    A total of 338 water samples, 261 drinking water samples and 77 bathing water samples, obtained for routine testing were analyzed in duplicate by Swedish standard methods using multiple-tube fermentation or membrane filtration and by the Colilert and/or Enterolert methods. Water samples came from a wide variety of sources in southern Sweden (Skåne). The Colilert method was found to be more sensitive than Swedish standard methods for detecting coliform bacteria and of equal sensitivity for detecting Escherichia coli when all drinking water samples were grouped together. Based on these results, Swedac, the Swedish laboratory accreditation body, approved for the first time in Sweden use of the Colilert method at this laboratory for the analysis of all water sources not falling under public water regulations (A-krav). The coliform detection study of bathing water yielded anomalous results due to confirmation difficulties. E. coli detection in bathing water was similar by both the Colilert and Swedish standard methods as was fecal streptococcus and enterococcus detection by both the Enterolert and Swedish standard methods. PMID:9687478

  6. Comparison of membrane filtration and multiple-tube fermentation by the colilert and enterolert methods for detection of waterborne coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli, and enterococci used in drinking and bathing water quality monitoring in southern sweden.

    PubMed

    Eckner, K F

    1998-08-01

    A total of 338 water samples, 261 drinking water samples and 77 bathing water samples, obtained for routine testing were analyzed in duplicate by Swedish standard methods using multiple-tube fermentation or membrane filtration and by the Colilert and/or Enterolert methods. Water samples came from a wide variety of sources in southern Sweden (Skåne). The Colilert method was found to be more sensitive than Swedish standard methods for detecting coliform bacteria and of equal sensitivity for detecting Escherichia coli when all drinking water samples were grouped together. Based on these results, Swedac, the Swedish laboratory accreditation body, approved for the first time in Sweden use of the Colilert method at this laboratory for the analysis of all water sources not falling under public water regulations (A-krav). The coliform detection study of bathing water yielded anomalous results due to confirmation difficulties. E. coli detection in bathing water was similar by both the Colilert and Swedish standard methods as was fecal streptococcus and enterococcus detection by both the Enterolert and Swedish standard methods.

  7. Quantitative role of shrimp fecal bacteria in organic matter fluxes in a recirculating shrimp aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Beardsley, Christine; Moss, Shaun; Malfatti, Francesca; Azam, Farooq

    2011-07-01

    Microorganisms play integral roles in the cycling of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) for fish and shellfish production. We quantified the pathways of shrimp fecal bacterial activities and their role in C- and N-flux partitioning relevant to culturing Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, in RAS. Freshly produced feces from P. vannamei contained 0.6-7 × 10(10) bacteria g(-1) dry wt belonging to Bacteroidetes (7%), Alphaproteobacteria (4%), and, within the Gammaproteobacteria, almost exclusively to the genus Vibrio (61%). Because of partial disintegration of the feces (up to 27% within 12 h), the experimental seawater became inoculated with fecal bacteria. Bacteria grew rapidly in the feces and in the seawater, and exhibited high levels of aminopeptidase, chitinase, chitobiase, alkaline phosphatase, α- and β-glucosidase, and lipase activities. Moreover, fecal bacteria enriched the protein content of the feces within 12 h, potentially enriching the feces for the coprophagous shrimp. The bacterial turnover time was much faster in feces (1-10 h) than in mature RAS water (350 h). Thus, shrimp fecal bacteria not only inoculate RAS water but also contribute to bacterial abundance and productivity, and regulate system processes important for shrimp health.

  8. Use of barcoded pyrosequencing and shared OTUs to determine sources of fecal bacteria in watersheds.

    PubMed

    Unno, Tatsuya; Jang, Jeonghwan; Han, Dukki; Kim, Joon Ha; Sadowsky, Michael J; Kim, Ok-Sun; Chun, Jongsik; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2010-10-15

    While many current microbial source tracking (MST) methods rely on the use of specific molecular marker genes to identify sources of fecal contamination, these methods often fail to determine all point and nonpoint contributors of fecal inputs into waterways. In this study, we developed a new library-dependent MST method that uses pyrosequencing-derived shared operational taxonomy units (OTUs) to define sources of fecal contamination in waterways. A total 56,841 pyrosequencing reads of 16S rDNA obtained from the feces of humans and animals were evaluated and used to compare fecal microbial diversity in three freshwater samples obtained from the Yeongsan river basin in Jeonnam Province, South Korea. Sites included an urbanized agricultural area (Y1) (Escherichia coli counts ≥ 1600 CFU/100 mL), an open area (Y2) with no major industrial activities (940 CFU/100 mL), and a typical agricultural area (Y3) (≥ 1600 CFU/100 mL). Data analyses indicated that the majority of bacteria in the feces of humans and domesticated animals were comprised of members of the phyla Bacteroidetes or Firmicutes, whereas the majority of bacteria in wild goose feces and freshwater samples were classified to the phylum Proteobacteria. Analysis of OTUs shared between the fecal and environmental samples suggested that the potential sources of the fecal contamination at the sites were of human and swine origin. Quantification of fecal contamination was also examined by comparing the density of pyrosequencing reads in each fecal sample within shared OTUs. Taken together, our results indicated that analysis of shared OTUs derived from barcoded pyrosequencing reads provide the necessary resolution and discrimination to be useful as a next generation platform for microbial source tracking studies.

  9. Natural soil reservoirs for human pathogenic and fecal indicator bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boschiroli, Maria L; Falkinham, Joseph; Favre-Bonte, Sabine; Nazaret, Sylvie; Piveteau, Pascal; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Delaquis, Pascal; Hartmann, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Soils receive inputs of human pathogenic and indicator bacteria through land application of animal manures or sewage sludge, and inputs by wildlife. Soil is an extremely heterogeneous substrate and contains meso- and macrofauna that may be reservoirs for bacteria of human health concern. The ability to detect and quantify bacteria of human health concern is important in risk assessments and in evaluating the efficacy of agricultural soil management practices that are protective of crop quality and protective of adjacent water resources. The present chapter describes the distribution of selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in soils. Methods for detecting and quantifying soilborne bacteria including extraction, enrichment using immunomagnetic capture, culturing, molecular detection and deep sequencing of metagenomic DNA to detect pathogens are overviewed. Methods for strain phenotypic and genotypic characterization are presented, as well as how comparison with clinical isolates can inform the potential for human health risk.

  10. INTERNAL AMPLIFICATION CONTROL FOR USE IN QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) can be used as a rapid method for detecting fecal indicator bacteria. Because false negative results can be caused by PCR inhibitors that co-extract with the DNA samples, an internal amplification control (IAC) should be run with eac...

  11. Interlaboratory Comparison of Real-time PCR Protocols for Quantification of General Fecal Indicator Bacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for the rapid identification of fecal bacteria in environmental waters is being considered for use as a national water quality metric in the United States. The transition from research tool to a standardized proto...

  12. INTERNAL AMPLIFICATION CONTROL FOR USE IN QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) can be used as a rapid method for detecting fecal indicator bacteria. Because false negative results can be caused by PCR inhibitors that co-extract with the DNA samples, an internal amplification control (IAC) should be run with eac...

  13. Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Total Propidium Monazide -Resistant Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    A real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method and a modification of this method incorporating pretreatment of samples with propidium monoazide (PMA) were evaluated for respective analyses of total and presumptively viable Enterococcus and Bacteroidales fecal indicator bacteria. Thes...

  14. Hydrological modeling of fecal indicator bacteria in a tropical mountain catchment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The occurrence of pathogen bacteria in surface waters is a threat to public health worldwide. In particular, inadequate sanitation resulting in high contamination of surface water with pathogens of fecal origin is a serious issue in developing countries such as Lao P.D.R. Despite the health implicat...

  15. Temporal Synchronization Analysis for Improving Regression Modeling of Fecal Indicator Bacteria Levels

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple linear regression models are often used to predict levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in recreational swimming waters based on independent variables (IVs) such as meteorologic, hydrodynamic, and water-quality measures. The IVs used for these analyses are traditiona...

  16. DNA analysis of fecal bacteria to augment an epikarst dye trace study at Crump's Cave, Kentucky

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A rainfall simulation experiment was performed to investigate the transport behavior of fecal-derived bacteria through shallow karst soils and through the epikarst. The experiment was conducted at Cave Springs Cavern located just south of Mammoth Cave National Park on the Sinkhole Plain of South Cen...

  17. Temporal Synchronization Analysis for Improving Regression Modeling of Fecal Indicator Bacteria Levels

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple linear regression models are often used to predict levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in recreational swimming waters based on independent variables (IVs) such as meteorologic, hydrodynamic, and water-quality measures. The IVs used for these analyses are traditiona...

  18. Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Total Propidium Monazide -Resistant Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    A real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method and a modification of this method incorporating pretreatment of samples with propidium monoazide (PMA) were evaluated for respective analyses of total and presumptively viable Enterococcus and Bacteroidales fecal indicator bacteria. Thes...

  19. Interlaboratory Comparison of Real-time PCR Protocols for Quantification of General Fecal Indicator Bacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for the rapid identification of fecal bacteria in environmental waters is being considered for use as a national water quality metric in the United States. The transition from research tool to a standardized proto...

  20. Decay of Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Microbial Source Tracking Markers in Cattle Feces

    EPA Science Inventory

    The survival of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and microbial source tracking (MST) markers in water microcosms and manure amended soils has been well documented; however, little is known about the survival of MST markers in bovine feces deposited on pastures. We conducted a study...

  1. Decay of Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Microbial Source Tracking Markers in Cattle Feces

    EPA Science Inventory

    The survival of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and microbial source tracking (MST) markers in water microcosms and manure amended soils has been well documented; however, little is known about the survival of MST markers in bovine feces deposited on pastures. We conducted a study...

  2. Comparison of FecalSwab and ESwab Devices for Storage and Transportation of Diarrheagenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kaukoranta, Suvi-Sirkku

    2014-01-01

    Using a collection (n = 12) of ATCC and known stock isolates, as well as 328 clinical stool specimens, we evaluated the ESwab and the new FecalSwab liquid-based microbiology (LBM) devices for storing and transporting diarrheagenic bacteria. The stock isolates were stored in these swab devices up to 48 h at refrigeration (4°C) or room (∼25°C) temperature and up to 3 months at −20°C or −70°C. With the clinical stool specimens, the performances of the ESwab and FecalSwab were compared to those of routinely used transport systems (Amies gel swabs and dry containers). At a refrigeration temperature, all isolates survived in FecalSwab up to 48 h, while in ESwab, only 10 isolates (83.3%) out of 12 survived. At −70°C, all isolates in FecalSwab were recovered after 3 months of storage, whereas in ESwab, none of the isolates were recovered. At −20°C, neither of the swab devices preserved the viability of stock isolates after 2 weeks of storage, and at room temperature, 7 (58.3%) of the stock isolates were recovered in both transport devices after 48 h. Of the 328 fecal specimens, 44 (13.4%) were positive for one of the common diarrheagenic bacterial species with all transport systems used. Thus, the suitability of the ESwab and FecalSwab devices for culturing fresh stools was at least equal to those of the Amies gel swabs and dry containers. Although the ESwab was shown to be an option for collecting and transporting fecal specimens, the FecalSwab device had clearly better preserving properties under different storage conditions. PMID:24740083

  3. Comparison of FecalSwab and ESwab devices for storage and transportation of Diarrheagenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hirvonen, Jari J; Kaukoranta, Suvi-Sirkku

    2014-07-01

    Using a collection (n = 12) of ATCC and known stock isolates, as well as 328 clinical stool specimens, we evaluated the ESwab and the new FecalSwab liquid-based microbiology (LBM) devices for storing and transporting diarrheagenic bacteria. The stock isolates were stored in these swab devices up to 48 h at refrigeration (4°C) or room (∼25°C) temperature and up to 3 months at -20°C or -70°C. With the clinical stool specimens, the performances of the ESwab and FecalSwab were compared to those of routinely used transport systems (Amies gel swabs and dry containers). At a refrigeration temperature, all isolates survived in FecalSwab up to 48 h, while in ESwab, only 10 isolates (83.3%) out of 12 survived. At -70°C, all isolates in FecalSwab were recovered after 3 months of storage, whereas in ESwab, none of the isolates were recovered. At -20°C, neither of the swab devices preserved the viability of stock isolates after 2 weeks of storage, and at room temperature, 7 (58.3%) of the stock isolates were recovered in both transport devices after 48 h. Of the 328 fecal specimens, 44 (13.4%) were positive for one of the common diarrheagenic bacterial species with all transport systems used. Thus, the suitability of the ESwab and FecalSwab devices for culturing fresh stools was at least equal to those of the Amies gel swabs and dry containers. Although the ESwab was shown to be an option for collecting and transporting fecal specimens, the FecalSwab device had clearly better preserving properties under different storage conditions.

  4. Occurrence of fecal indicator bacteria in surface waters and the subsurface aquifer in Key Largo, Florida.

    PubMed Central

    Paul, J H; Rose, J B; Jiang, S; Kellogg, C; Shinn, E A

    1995-01-01

    Sewage waste disposal facilities in the Florida Keys include septic tanks and individual package plants in place of municipal collection facilities in most locations. In Key Largo, both facilities discharge into the extremely porous Key Largo limestone. To determine whether there was potential contamination of the subsurface aquifer and nearby coastal surface waters by such waste disposal practices, we examined the presence of microbial indicators commonly found in sewage (fecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens, and enterococci) and aquatic microbial parameters (viral direct counts, bacterial direct counts, chlorophyll a, and marine vibriophage) in injection well effluent, monitoring wells that followed a transect from onshore to offshore, and surface waters above these wells in two separate locations in Key Largo in August 1993 and March 1994. Effluent and waters from onshore shallow monitoring wells (1.8- to 3.7-m depth) contained two or all three of the fecal indicators in all three samples taken, whereas deeper wells (10.7- to 12.2-m depth) at these same sites contained few or none. The presence of fecal indicators was found in two of five nearshore wells (i.e., those that were < or = 1.8 miles [< or = 2.9 km] from shore), whereas offshore wells (> or = 2.1 to 5.7 miles [< or = 3.4 to 9.2 km] from shore) showed little sign of contamination. Indicators were also found in surface waters in a canal in Key Largo and in offshore surface waters in March but not in August. Collectively, these results suggest that fecal contamination of the shallow onshore aquifer, parts of the nearshore aquifer, and certain surface waters has occurred.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7793943

  5. EFFECT OF DIETARY ANTIBIOTICS UPON COLIFORM BACTERIA AND LACTOBACILLI IN THE INTESTINAL TRACT OF URIC ACID-FED CHICKS1

    PubMed Central

    Bare, L. N.; Wiseman, R. F.; Abbott, O. J.

    1964-01-01

    Bare, L. N. (University of Kentucky, Lexington), R. F. Wiseman, and O. J. Abbott. Effect of dietary antibiotics upon coliform bacteria and lactobacilli in the intestinal tract of uric acid-fed chicks. J. Bacteriol. 87:329–331. 1964.—Male chicks (1-day-old; Vantress X Arbor Acre) were fed a basal glucose-soybean oil meal diet, a 2% uric acid-containing diet with and without 5 mg/lb of zinc bacitracin and 20 mg/lb of procaine penicillin G, and one supplemented with the antibiotics only. After 4 weeks, the chicks receiving the uric acid without antibiotics showed a weight depression. The presence of antibiotics in the ration with the uric acid reversed this growth depression. Bacteriological and chemical analyses of the contents of the small intestine revealed an increase in numbers of uricolytic Aerobacter spp. and an increased degradation of uric acid in the tract of the “uric-antibiotic”-fed chicks. The counts of lactobacilli were always lowest in this group of chicks PMID:14151052

  6. Development of a field enhanced photocatalytic device for biocide of coliform bacteria.

    PubMed

    Huber, Jeff M; Carlson, Krista L; Conroy-Ben, Otakuye; Misra, Mano; Mohanty, Swomitra K

    2016-06-01

    A field enhanced flow reactor using bias assisted photocatalysis was developed for bacterial disinfection in lab-synthesized and natural waters. The reactor provided complete inactivation of contaminated waters with flow rates of 50mL/min. The device consisted of titanium dioxide nanotube arrays, with an externally applied bias of up to 6V. Light intensity, applied voltage, background electrolytes and bacteria concentration were all found to impact the device performance. Complete inactivation of Escherichia coli W3110 (~8×10(3)CFU/mL) occurred in 15sec in the reactor irradiated at 25mW/cm(2) with an applied voltage of 4V in a 100ppm NaCl solution. Real world testing was conducted using source water from Emigration Creek in Salt Lake City, Utah. Disinfection of natural creek water proved more challenging, providing complete bacterial inactivation after 25sec at 6V. A reduction in bactericidal efficacy was attributed to the presence of inorganic and organic species, as well as the increase in robustness of natural bacteria. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Age-related changes in select fecal bacteria in foals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adult horses depend on the microbial community in the hindgut to produce VFAs that are utilized for energy. Microbial colonization in the gastrointestinal tract of foals is essential to develop a healthy symbiotic relationship and prevent proliferation of pathogenic bacteria. However, colonization i...

  8. Effects of hydrologic, biological, and environmental processes on sources and concentrations of fecal bacteria in the Cuyahoga River, with implications for management of recreational waters in Summit and Cuyahoga Counties, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Donna N.; Koltun, G.F.; Francy, Donna S.

    1998-01-01

    Discharges of fecal bacteria (fecal coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli ) to the middle main stem of the Cuyahoga River from storm water, combined sewers, and incompletely disinfected wastewater have resulted in frequent exceedances of bacteriological water-quality standards in a 23-mile reach of the river that flows through the Cuyahoga Valley National Recreation Area. Contamination of the middle main stem of the Cuyahoga River by bacteria of fecal origin and subsequent transport to downstream areas where water-contact recreation is an important use of the river are a concern because of the potential public-health risk from the presence of enteric pathogens. Independent field investigations of bacterial decay, dilution, dispersion, transport, and sources, and bacterial contamination of streambed sediments, were completed in 1991-93 during periods of rainfall and runoff. The highest concentration of fecal coliform bacteria observed in the middle main stem during three transport studies exceeded the single-sample fecal coliform standard applicable to primary-contact recreation by a factor of approximately 1,300 and exceeded the Escherichia coli standard by a factor of approximately 8,000. The geometric-mean concentrations of fecal bacteria in the middle main stem were 6.7 to 12.3 times higher than geometric-mean concentrations in the monitored tributaries, and 1.8 to 7.0 times larger than the geometric-mean concentrations discharged from the Akron Water Pollution Control Station. Decay rates of fecal bacteria measured in field studies in 1992 ranged from 0.0018 per hour to 0.0372 per hour for fecal coliform bacteria and from 0.0022 per hour to 0.0407 per hour for Escherichia coli. Most of the decay rates measured in June and August were significantly higher than decay rates measured in April and October. Results of field studies demonstrated that concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria were 1.2 to 58 times higher in streambed sediments than in the overlying

  9. Enzyme Characteristics of β-d-Galactosidase- and β-d-Glucuronidase-Positive Bacteria and Their Interference in Rapid Methods for Detection of Waterborne Coliforms and Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Tryland, I.; Fiksdal, L.

    1998-01-01

    Bacteria which were β-d-galactosidase and β-d-glucuronidase positive or expressed only one of these enzymes were isolated from environmental water samples. The enzymatic activity of these bacteria was measured in 25-min assays by using the fluorogenic substrates 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-d-galactoside and 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-d-glucuronide. The enzyme activity, enzyme induction, and enzyme temperature characteristics of target and nontarget bacteria in assays aimed at detecting coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli were investigated. The potential interference of false-positive bacteria was evaluated. Several of the β-d-galactosidase-positive nontarget bacteria but none of the β-d-glucuronidase-positive nontarget bacteria contained unstable enzyme at 44.5°C. The activity of target bacteria was highly inducible. Nontarget bacteria were induced much less or were not induced by the inducers used. The results revealed large variations in the enzyme levels of different β-d-galactosidase- and β-d-glucuronidase-positive bacteria. The induced and noninduced β-d-glucuronidase activities of Bacillus spp. and Aerococcus viridans were approximately the same as the activities of induced E. coli. Except for some isolates identified as Aeromonas spp., all of the induced and noninduced β-d-galactosidase-positive, noncoliform isolates exhibited at least 2 log units less mean β-d-galactosidase activity than induced E. coli. The noncoliform bacteria must be present in correspondingly higher concentrations than those of target bacteria to interfere in the rapid assay for detection of coliform bacteria. PMID:9501441

  10. Sources of fecal indicator bacteria to groundwater, Malibu Lagoon and the near-shore ocean, Malibu, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Burton, Carmen A.; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie; Holden, Patricia A.; Dubinsky, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS) used to treat residential and commercial sewage near Malibu, California have been implicated as a possible source of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) to Malibu Lagoon and the near-shore ocean. For this to occur, treated wastewater must first move through groundwater before discharging to the Lagoon or ocean. In July 2009 and April 2010, δ18O and δD data showed that some samples from water-table wells contained as much as 70% wastewater; at that time FIB concentrations in those samples were generally less than the detection limit of 1 Most Probable Number (MPN) per 100 milliliters (mL). In contrast, Malibu Lagoon had total coliform, Escherichia coli, and enterococci concentrations as high as 650,000, 130,000, and 5,500 MPN per 100 mL, respectively, and as many as 12% of samples from nearby ocean beaches exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency single sample enterococci standard for marine recreational water of 104 MPN per 100 mL. Human-associated Bacteroidales, an indicator of human-fecal contamination, were not detected in water from wells, Malibu Lagoon, or the near-shore ocean. Similarly, microarray (PhyloChip) data show Bacteroidales and Fimicutes Operational Taxanomic Units (OTUs) present in OWTS were largely absent in groundwater; in contrast, 50% of Bacteroidales and Fimicutes OTUs present in the near-shore ocean were also present in gull feces. Terminal-Restriction Length Fragment Polymorphism (T-RFLP) and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) data showed that microbial communities in groundwater were different and less abundant than communities in OWTS, Malibu Lagoon, or the near-shore ocean. However, organic compounds indicative of wastewater (such as fecal sterols, bisphenol-A and cosmetics) were present in groundwater having a high percentage of wastewater and were present in groundwater discharging to the ocean. FIB in the near-shore ocean varied with tides, ocean swells, and waves. Movement of water from

  11. Multivariate Logistic Regression for Predicting Total Culturable Virus Presence at the Intake of a Potable-Water Treatment Plant: Novel Application of the Atypical Coliform/Total Coliform Ratio▿

    PubMed Central

    Black, L. E.; Brion, G. M.; Freitas, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    Predicting the presence of enteric viruses in surface waters is a complex modeling problem. Multiple water quality parameters that indicate the presence of human fecal material, the load of fecal material, and the amount of time fecal material has been in the environment are needed. This paper presents the results of a multiyear study of raw-water quality at the inlet of a potable-water plant that related 17 physical, chemical, and biological indices to the presence of enteric viruses as indicated by cytopathic changes in cell cultures. It was found that several simple, multivariate logistic regression models that could reliably identify observations of the presence or absence of total culturable virus could be fitted. The best models developed combined a fecal age indicator (the atypical coliform [AC]/total coliform [TC] ratio), the detectable presence of a human-associated sterol (epicoprostanol) to indicate the fecal source, and one of several fecal load indicators (the levels of Giardia species cysts, coliform bacteria, and coprostanol). The best fit to the data was found when the AC/TC ratio, the presence of epicoprostanol, and the density of fecal coliform bacteria were input into a simple, multivariate logistic regression equation, resulting in 84.5% and 78.6% accuracies for the identification of the presence and absence of total culturable virus, respectively. The AC/TC ratio was the most influential input variable in all of the models generated, but producing the best prediction required additional input related to the fecal source and the fecal load. The potential for replacing microbial indicators of fecal load with levels of coprostanol was proposed and evaluated by multivariate logistic regression modeling for the presence and absence of virus. PMID:17468270

  12. Coliform Contamination of Peri-urban Grown Vegetables and Potential Public Health Risks: Evidence from Kumasi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Abass, Kabila; Ganle, John Kuumuori; Adaborna, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetable farming in Ghana is an important livelihood activity for an increasing number of people. However, increasing quality and public health concerns have been raised, partly because freshwater availability for irrigation purposes is a major constraint. This paper investigated on-farm vegetable contamination and potential health risks using samples of lettuce, spring onions and cabbage randomly selected from 18 vegetable farms in peri-urban Kumasi, Ghana. Vegetable samples were tested for total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. bacteria contamination using the Most Probable Number method. Results show high contamination levels of total and fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli bacteria in all 18 vegetable samples. The mean total coliform/100 ml concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 9.15 × 10(9), 4.7 × 10(7) and 8.3 × 10(7) respectively. The mean fecal coliform concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were also 1.5 × 10(8), 4.15 × 10(7) and 2.15 × 10(7) respectively, while the mean Escherichia coli bacteria contamination for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 1.4 × 10(8), 2.2 × 10(7) and 3.2 × 10(7) respectively. The level of total coliform, fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria contamination in all the vegetable samples however declined as the distance between the main water source (Wiwi River) and farms increases. Nonetheless, all contamination levels were well above acceptable standards, and could therefore pose serious public health risks to consumers. Increased education and supervision of farmers, as well as public health and food hygiene education of consumers, are critical to reducing on-farm vegetable contamination and the health risks associated with consumption of such vegetables.

  13. Impact of probiotic administration on the health and fecal microbiota of young calves: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Signorini, M L; Soto, L P; Zbrun, M V; Sequeira, G J; Rosmini, M R; Frizzo, L S

    2012-08-01

    Before weaning, dairy calves are susceptible to many pathogens which can affect their subsequent performance. The use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been identified as a tool to maintain the intestinal microbial balance and to prevent the establishment of opportunistic pathogenic bacterial populations. However, a consensus has not been reached as to whether probiotics may be effective in reducing the prevalence of gastrointestinal diseases in young calves. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the effect of probiotics on diarrhea incidence and the intestinal microbial balance. LAB supplementation has been shown to exert a protective effect and to reduce the incidence of diarrhea (relative risk, RR=0.437, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.251-0.761). In the subanalysis, this protective effect of the probiotics against diarrhea was observed only in trials that used whole milk (RR=0.154, 95% CI 0.079-0.301) and trials that used multistrain inocula (RR=0.415, 95% CI 0.227-0.759). Probiotics did not improve the fecal characteristics (standardized mean difference, SMD=-0.4904, 95% CI -1.011-0.035) and were unable to change the LAB:coliforms ratio (SMD=0.016, 95% CI -0.701-0.733). Probiotics showed a beneficial impact on the LAB:coliforms ratio in the subanalysis that included trials that used whole milk (SMD=0.780, 95% CI 0.141-1.418) and monostrain inocula (SMD=0.990, 95% CI 0.340-1.641). The probability of significant effects (probiotic positive effect) in a new study was >0.70 for diarrhea and fecal consistency. Whole milk feeding improved the action of the probiotic effect on the incidence of diarrhea and LAB:coliforms ratio. The probability to find significant effects in the diarrhea frequency and LAB:coliforms ratio was higher (P>0.85) if the new studies were conducted using whole milk to feed calves. This paper defines the guidelines to standardize the experimental designs of future trials. LAB can be used as growth promoters in calves instead of antibiotics

  14. The association between bedding material and the bacterial counts of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis and coliform bacteria on teat skin and in teat canals in lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Paduch, Jan-Hendrik; Mohr, Elmar; Krömker, Volker

    2013-05-01

    Several mastitis-causing pathogens are able to colonize the bovine teat canal. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between the treatment of sawdust bedding with a commercial alkaline conditioner and the bacterial counts on teat skin and in the teat canal. The study used a crossover design. Ten lactating Holstein cows that were free of udder infections and mastitis were included in the study. The animals were bedded on either untreated sawdust or sawdust that had been treated with a hydrated lime-based conditioner. Once a day, fresh bedding material was added. After 3 weeks, the bedding material was removed from the cubicles, fresh bedding material was provided, and the cows were rotated between the two bedding material groups. Teat skin and teat canals were sampled using the wet and dry swab technique after weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis, Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria were detected in the resulting agar plate cultures. The treatment of the bedding material was associated with the teat skin bacterial counts of Str. uberis, Esch. coli and other coliform bacteria. An association was also found between the bedding material and the teat canal bacterial counts of coliform bacteria other than Esch. coli. For Staph. aureus, no associations with the bedding material were found. In general, the addition of a hydrated lime-based conditioner to sawdust reduces the population sizes of environmental pathogens on teat skin and in teat canals.

  15. Changes in antimicrobial resistance in fecal bacteria associated with pig transit and holding times at slaughter plants.

    PubMed Central

    Molitoris, E; Fagerberg, D J; Quarles, C L; Krichevsky, M I

    1987-01-01

    Fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) associated with various pig transit and holding times were investigated at slaughter plants. Changes in the relative abundance of two biotypes of Streptococcus faecium were associated with transit and holding of pigs, although approximately 20% of the isolates were unidentified. The greatest variety of coliforms was isolated from porcine feces after short transit (2 h) or holding (3 h) times and was qualitatively similar to those from pigs on farms. Isolates from pigs with longer average transit or holding times were almost all Escherichia coli (four biotypes). Streptococcal resistance to most antimicrobial agents was significantly greater (P less than 0.05) in isolates from live pigs at slaughter plants than in those from pigs at farms and was apparent after a short transit time (2 h). Streptococci from pigs held an average of 15 h were less resistant to most antimicrobial agents than those from pigs held 3 or 43 h. When compared with short transit times, moderate transit times (6 h) were associated with significantly decreased (P less than 0.05) coliform resistance and decreased resistance transfer but a greater diversity of AMR patterns. Holding pigs overnight (14 h) was associated with lowered coliform resistance to several antimicrobial agents, compared with the resistance of isolates from pigs held 3 or 39 h. A substantial increase (18 to 48%) in the ability to transfer streptomycin resistance was demonstrated in coliforms from pigs held 39 h, when compared with those from pigs held 3 h.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3606107

  16. Weather and environmental factors associated with F+ coliphages and fecal indicator bacteria in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have demonstrated that fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens may be present in beach sand and suggest an increased risk of enteric illness among beachgoers contacting sand. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR...

  17. Weather and environmental factors associated with F+ coliphages and fecal indicator bacteria in beach sand at two recreational marine beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have demonstrated that fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens may be present in beach sand and suggest an increased risk of enteric illness among beachgoers contacting sand. During the 2007 National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR...

  18. Development and validation of a FISH-based method for the detection and quantification of E. coli and coliform bacteria in water samples.

    PubMed

    Hügler, Michael; Böckle, Karin; Eberhagen, Ingrid; Thelen, Karin; Beimfohr, Claudia; Hambsch, Beate

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring of microbiological contaminants in water supplies requires fast and sensitive methods for the specific detection of indicator organisms or pathogens. We developed a protocol for the simultaneous detection of E. coli and coliform bacteria based on the Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) technology. This protocol consists of two approaches. The first allows the direct detection of single E. coli and coliform bacterial cells on the filter membranes. The second approach includes incubation of the filter membranes on a nutrient agar plate and subsequent detection of the grown micro-colonies. Both approaches were validated using drinking water samples spiked with pure cultures and naturally contaminated water samples. The effects of heat, chlorine and UV disinfection were also investigated. The micro-colony approach yielded very good results for all samples and conditions tested, and thus can be thoroughly recommended for usage as an alternative method to detect E. coli and coliform bacteria in water samples. However, during this study, some limitations became visible for the single cell approach. The method cannot be applied for water samples which have been disinfected by UV irradiation. In addition, our results indicated that green fluorescent dyes are not suitable to be used with chlorine disinfected samples.

  19. Effect of solar radiation and predacious microorganisms on survival of fecal and other bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    McCambridge, J; McMeekin, T A

    1981-01-01

    The effect of solar radiation and predacious microorganisms on the survival of bacteria of fecal and plant origin was studied. The decline in the numbers of Escherichia coli cells in estuarine water samples was found to be significantly greater in the presence of both naturally occurring microbial predators and solar radiation than when each of these factors was acting independently. The effect of solar radiation on microbial predators was negligible, whereas the susceptibility of bacteria to light-induced decay varied from one organism to another, as follows: Klebsiella pneumoniae greater than E. coli greater than Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus faecium, Enterobacter aerogenes, Erwinia herbicola. PMID:7020590

  20. Storage induced changes in coliform, heterotrophic groups of bacteria and nutrient levels of human urine for its safe use in biological production.

    PubMed

    Jana, B B; Lahiri, Susmita; Sarkar, D; Rana, Sukanta; Bhakta, J N; Paul, Dipak

    2016-08-01

    Human urine is a potential source of various nutrients, minerals and trace elements. Its use as a fertilizer is growing popular among farmers. Here, we examined the pattern of changes in the counts of coliform, heterotrophic bacteria as well as physico-chemical characteristics of human urine during different days of storage under closed conditions at ambient temperature. We observed that after 253 days of storage under closed condition, the coliform counts were reduced significantly and remained within the safe limit to be used as fertilizer. With increase in storage period, the concentration of phosphate showed decline coupled with rise in pH, alkalinity and electrical conductance. Our study revealed that human urine can be used as safe fertilizer after 8 months of storage under closed conditions at ambient temperature ranging 25-35ºC.

  1. Association of fecal indicator bacteria with human viruses and microbial source tracking markers at coastal beaches impacted by nonpoint source pollution.

    PubMed

    McQuaig, Shannon; Griffith, John; Harwood, Valerie J

    2012-09-01

    Water quality was assessed at two marine beaches in California by measuring the concentrations of culturable fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and by library-independent microbial source tracking (MST) methods targeting markers of human-associated microbes (human polyomavirus [HPyV] PCR and quantitative PCR, Methanobrevibacter smithii PCR, and Bacteroides sp. strain HF183 PCR) and a human pathogen (adenovirus by nested PCR). FIB levels periodically exceeded regulatory thresholds at Doheny and Avalon Beaches for enterococci (28.5% and 31.7% of samples, respectively) and fecal coliforms (20% and 5.8%, respectively). Adenoviruses were detected at four of five sites at Doheny Beach and were correlated with detection of HPyVs and human Bacteroides HF183; however, adenoviruses were not detected at Avalon Beach. The most frequently detected human source marker at both beaches was Bacteroides HF183, which was detected in 27% of samples. Correlations between FIBs and human markers were much more frequent at Doheny Beach than at Avalon Beach; e.g., adenovirus was correlated with HPyVs and HF183. Human sewage markers and adenoviruses were routinely detected in samples meeting FIB regulatory standards. The toolbox approach of FIB measurement coupled with analysis of several MST markers targeting human pathogens used here demonstrated that human sewage is at least partly responsible for the degradation of water quality, particularly at Doheny Beach, and resulted in a more definitive assessment of recreational water quality and human health risk than reliance on FIB concentrations alone could have provided.

  2. Impact of Fertilizing with Raw or Anaerobically Digested Sewage Sludge on the Abundance of Antibiotic-Resistant Coliforms, Antibiotic Resistance Genes, and Pathogenic Bacteria in Soil and on Vegetables at Harvest

    PubMed Central

    Rahube, Teddie O.; Marti, Romain; Scott, Andrew; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Sabourin, Lyne; Zhang, Yun; Duenk, Peter; Lapen, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of crops fertilized with human waste represents a potential route of exposure to antibiotic-resistant fecal bacteria. The present study evaluated the abundance of bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes by using both culture-dependent and molecular methods. Various vegetables (lettuce, carrots, radish, and tomatoes) were sown into field plots fertilized inorganically or with class B biosolids or untreated municipal sewage sludge and harvested when of marketable quality. Analysis of viable pathogenic bacteria or antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria by plate counts did not reveal significant treatment effects of fertilization with class B biosolids or untreated sewage sludge on the vegetables. Numerous targeted genes associated with antibiotic resistance and mobile genetic elements were detected by PCR in soil and on vegetables at harvest from plots that received no organic amendment. However, in the season of application, vegetables harvested from plots treated with either material carried gene targets not detected in the absence of amendment. Several gene targets evaluated by using quantitative PCR (qPCR) were considerably more abundant on vegetables harvested from sewage sludge-treated plots than on vegetables from control plots in the season of application, whereas vegetables harvested the following year revealed no treatment effect. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that producing vegetable crops in ground fertilized with human waste without appropriate delay or pretreatment will result in an additional burden of antibiotic resistance genes on harvested crops. Managing human exposure to antibiotic resistance genes carried in human waste must be undertaken through judicious agricultural practice. PMID:25172864

  3. Impact of fertilizing with raw or anaerobically digested sewage sludge on the abundance of antibiotic-resistant coliforms, antibiotic resistance genes, and pathogenic bacteria in soil and on vegetables at harvest.

    PubMed

    Rahube, Teddie O; Marti, Romain; Scott, Andrew; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Sabourin, Lyne; Zhang, Yun; Duenk, Peter; Lapen, David R; Topp, Edward

    2014-11-01

    The consumption of crops fertilized with human waste represents a potential route of exposure to antibiotic-resistant fecal bacteria. The present study evaluated the abundance of bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes by using both culture-dependent and molecular methods. Various vegetables (lettuce, carrots, radish, and tomatoes) were sown into field plots fertilized inorganically or with class B biosolids or untreated municipal sewage sludge and harvested when of marketable quality. Analysis of viable pathogenic bacteria or antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria by plate counts did not reveal significant treatment effects of fertilization with class B biosolids or untreated sewage sludge on the vegetables. Numerous targeted genes associated with antibiotic resistance and mobile genetic elements were detected by PCR in soil and on vegetables at harvest from plots that received no organic amendment. However, in the season of application, vegetables harvested from plots treated with either material carried gene targets not detected in the absence of amendment. Several gene targets evaluated by using quantitative PCR (qPCR) were considerably more abundant on vegetables harvested from sewage sludge-treated plots than on vegetables from control plots in the season of application, whereas vegetables harvested the following year revealed no treatment effect. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that producing vegetable crops in ground fertilized with human waste without appropriate delay or pretreatment will result in an additional burden of antibiotic resistance genes on harvested crops. Managing human exposure to antibiotic resistance genes carried in human waste must be undertaken through judicious agricultural practice. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Evidence for the role of copper in the injury process of coliform bacteria in drinking water. [Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Domek, M.J.; LeChevallier, M.W.; Cameron, S.C.; McFeters, G.A.

    1984-08-01

    Low levels of copper in chlorine-free distribution water caused injury of coliform populations. Monitoring of 44 drinking water samples indicated that 64% of the coliform population was injured. Physical and chemical parameters were measured, including three heavy metals (Cu, Cd, and Pb). Copper concentrations were important, ranging from 0.007 to 0.54 mg/liter. Statistical analyses of these factors were used to develop a model to predict coliform injury. The model predicted almost 90% injury with a copper concentration near the mean observed value (0.158 mg/liter) in distribution waters. Laboratory studies with copper concentrations of 0.025 and 0.050 mg/liter in an inorganic carbon buffer under controlled conditions of temperature and pH caused over 90% injury within 6 and 2 days, respectively. Studies of the metabolism of injured Escherichia coli cells indicated that the respiratory chain is at least one site of damage in injured cells.

  5. Evaluation of Fecal Indicator and Pathogenic Bacteria Originating from Swine Manure Applied to Agricultural Lands Using Culture-Based and Quantitative Real-Time PCR Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal bacteria, including those originating from concentrated animal feeding operations, are a leading contributor to water quality impairments in agricultural areas. Rapid and reliable methods are needed that can accurately characterize fecal pollution in agricultural settings....

  6. Evaluation of fecal indicator and pathogenic bacteria originating from swine manure applied to agricultural lands using culture-based and quantitative real-time PCR methods.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal bacteria, including those originating from concentrated animal feeding operations, are a leading contributor to water quality impairments in agricultural areas. Rapid and reliable methods are needed that can accurately characterize fecal pollution in agricultural settings....

  7. Evaluation of fecal indicator and pathogenic bacteria originating from swine manure applied to agricultural lands using culture-based and quantitative real-time PCR methods.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal bacteria, including those originating from concentrated animal feeding operations, are a leading contributor to water quality impairments in agricultural areas. Rapid and reliable methods are needed that can accurately characterize fecal pollution in agricultural settings....

  8. Evaluation of Fecal Indicator and Pathogenic Bacteria Originating from Swine Manure Applied to Agricultural Lands Using Culture-Based and Quantitative Real-Time PCR Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal bacteria, including those originating from concentrated animal feeding operations, are a leading contributor to water quality impairments in agricultural areas. Rapid and reliable methods are needed that can accurately characterize fecal pollution in agricultural settings....

  9. An assessment of fecal indicator and other bacteria from an urbanized coastal lagoon in the City of Los Angeles, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Dorsey, John H; Carmona-Galindo, Víctor D; Leary, Christopher; Huh, Julie; Valdez, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    A study was performed in Del Rey Lagoon, City of Los Angeles, to determine if the lagoon was as a source or sink for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB: total coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci) and to screen for the presence of other potentially pathogenic bacteria. The lagoon receives tidal flows from the adjacent Ballona Estuary whose water usually is contaminated with FIB originating from the highly urbanized Ballona Creek Watershed. During 16 sampling events from February 2008 through March 2009, replicate water samples (n = 3) were collected 1 h prior to the high tide and 1 h prior to the following low tide. FIB concentrations were measured by the defined substrate method (IDEXX, Westbrook, Me) followed by culturing of bacterial isolates sampled from positive IDEXX Quanti-Tray wells and were identified using the Vitek 2 Compact (bioMérieux, Durham, NC). Mean concentrations of FIB often differed by an order of magnitude from flood to ebb flow conditions. The lagoon tended to act as a sink for total coliforms based on the ratio of mean flood to ebb densities (R (F/E)) >1.0 during 56 % of the sampling events and during ebb flows, as a source for E. coli and enterococci (R (F/E) <1.69 % of events). Approximately 54 species were identified from 277 isolates cultured from the IDEXX Quanti-Trays. Of these, 54 % were species known to include pathogenic strains that can be naturally occurring, introduced in runoff, or originated from other sources. Diversity and cluster analyses indicated a dynamic assemblage that changes in species composition with day-to-day fluctuations as well as tidal action. The concept of monitoring the lagoon and estuary as a sentinel habitat for pathogenic assemblages is discussed.

  10. Comparison of m-Endo LES, MacConkey, and Teepol media for membrane filtration counting of total coliform bacteria in water.

    PubMed Central

    Grabow, W O; du Preez, M

    1979-01-01

    Total coliform counts obtained by means of standard membrane filtration techniques, using MacConkey agar, m-Endo LES agar, Teepol agar, and pads saturated with Teepol broth as growth media, were compared. Various combinations of these media were used in tests on 490 samples of river water and city wastewater after different stages of conventional purification and reclamation processes including lime treatment, and filtration, active carbon treatment, ozonation, and chlorination. Endo agar yielded the highest average counts for all these samples. Teepol agar generally had higher counts then Teepol broth, whereas MacConkey agar had the lowest average counts. Identification of 871 positive isolates showed that Aeromonas hydrophila was the species most commonly detected. Species of Escherichia, Citrobacter, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter represented 55% of isolates which conformed to the definition of total coliforms on Endo agar, 54% on Teepol agar, and 45% on MacConkey agar. Selection for species on the media differed considerably. Evaluation of these data and literature on alternative tests, including most probable number methods, indicated that the technique of choice for routine analysis of total coliform bacteria in drinking water is membrane filtration using m-Endo LES agar as growth medium without enrichment procedures or a cytochrome oxidase restriction. PMID:394678

  11. Antigenic Homology of the Inducible Ferric Citrate Receptor (FecA) of Coliform Bacteria Isolated from Herds with Naturally Occurring Bovine Intramammary Infections

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jun; Hogan, Joseph S.; Smith, K. Larry

    1999-01-01

    Expression of ferric citrate receptor FecA by Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from bovine mastitis was investigated. Transformant E. coli UT5600/pSV66, which produces large quantities of FecA in the presence of citrate, was constructed. The FecA of E. coli UT5600/pSV66 was purified by preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and used to prepare polyclonal antiserum in rabbits. All coliform isolates of E. coli (n = 18) and K. pneumoniae (n = 17) from naturally occurring bovine intramammary infections in five herds induced iron-regulated outer membrane proteins when grown in Trypticase soy broth containing 200 μM α-α′-dipyridyl and 1 mM citrate. Polyclonal antiserum against FecA was used in conjunction with an immunoblot technique to determine the degree of antigenic homology of FecA among isolates. In the presence of citrate, each isolate expressed FecA that reacted with the anti-FecA polyclonal antiserum. The molecular mass of FecA (∼80.5 kDa) was also highly conserved among isolates. Therefore, the ferric citrate iron transport may be induced in coliform bacteria and utilized to acquire iron in milk for survival and growth. The FecA is an attractive vaccine component for controlling coliform mastitis during the lactation period. PMID:10548594

  12. Long-Term Survival of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Estuarine Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, A. S.; Layton, A.; Culligan, P. J.; Kenna, T. C.; Mailloux, B. J.

    2010-12-01

    Fecal contamination of marine and freshwater environments can negatively impact water quality, leading to contaminated drinking water as well as the closure of recreational beaches and waterways. Fecal contamination is routinely assessed using fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and even though the potential for their long-term survival or proliferation in sediments exist, information linking deposition of FIB with sediment age is scarce. We evaluate sediments as a reservoir for culturable FIB, by examining dated sediments from the lower Hudson River estuary for Escherichia coli (E. coli), enterococcus, and Bacteroides. Sediment cores were collected from in the vicinity of the George Washington (GWB) and Tappan Zee (TZB) Bridges NY. Sediment deposition ages were constrained using gamma emitting radionuclides and pollution chronology. Culturable E. coli and enterococcus were quantified using a culture-based most probable number method (ColilertTM, Idexx Laboratories). Molecular based methods were used to quantify E. coli and Bacteroides. In the GWB core, viable enterococcus or E. coli were consistently detected in sediment younger than the 1960s with maximum concentrations of 39 and 171 cells/g, respectively. In the TZB core, only enterococcus was sporadically detected in sediment younger than 1950 with a maximum concentration of 79 cells/g. Molecular Bacteroides and E. coli were detected in all core samples with a geometric mean of 4.2x104 and 1.2x105 copies/g, respectively. Results indicate that fecal bacteria can survive within estuarine sediments for decades, suggesting that sediments could be a significant and persistent source of bacterial pollution.

  13. Comparative Survival of Indicator Bacteria and Enteric Pathogens in Well Water

    PubMed Central

    McFeters, Gordon A.; Bissonnette, Gary K.; Jezeski, James J.; Thomson, Carole A.; Stuart, David G.

    1974-01-01

    The comparative survival of various fecal indicator bacteria and enteric pathogens was studied in a stable well water supply by using membrane chambers. There was more variation in the 29 coliform cultures and they died more rapidly, as a group, than the 20 enterococcus cultures that were examined. The comparative survival of the organisms tested follows: Aeromonas sp. > the shigellae (Shigella flexneri, S. sonnei, and S. dysenteriae) > fecal streptococci > coliforms = some salmonellae (Salmonella enteritidis ser. paratyphi A and D, S. enteritidis ser. typhimurium) > Streptococcus equinus > Vibrio cholerae > Salmonella typhi > Streptococcus bovis > Salmonella enteritidis ser. paratyphi B. S. bovis had a more rapid die-off than did S. equinus, but both had significantly shorter half-lives than the other streptococci. The natural populations of indicator bacteria from human and elk fecal material declined similarly to the pure cultures tested, whereas the die-off of fecal streptococci exceeded the coliforms from bovine fecal material. Images PMID:4598219

  14. Climate relationships to fecal bacterial densities in Maryland shellfish harvest waters.

    PubMed

    Leight, A K; Hood, R; Wood, R; Brohawn, K

    2016-02-01

    Coastal states of the United States (US) routinely monitor shellfish harvest waters for types of bacteria that indicate the potential presence of fecal pollution. The densities of these indicator bacteria in natural waters may be related to climate in several ways, including through runoff from precipitation and survival related to water temperatures. The relationship between interannual precipitation and air temperature patterns and the densities of fecal indicator bacteria in shellfish harvest waters in Maryland's portion of the Chesapeake Bay was quantified using 34 years of data (1979-2013). Annual and seasonal precipitation totals had a strong positive relationship with average fecal coliform levels (R(2) = 0.69) and the proportion of samples with bacterial densities above the FDA regulatory criteria (R(2) = 0.77). Fecal coliform levels were also significantly and negatively related to average annual air temperature (R(2) = -0.43) and the average air temperature of the warmest month (R(2) = -0.57), while average seasonal air temperature was only significantly related to fecal coliform levels in the summer. River and regional fecal coliform levels displayed a wide range of relationships with precipitation and air temperature patterns, with stronger relationships in rural areas and mainstem Bay stations. Fecal coliform levels tended to be higher in years when the bulk of precipitation occurred throughout the summer and/or fall (August to September). Fecal coliform levels often peaked in late fall and winter, with precipitation peaking in summer and early fall. Continental-scale sea level pressure (SLP) analysis revealed an association between atmospheric patterns that influence both extratropical and tropical storm tracks and very high fecal coliform years, while regional precipitation was found to be significantly correlated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and the Pacific North American Pattern. These findings indicate that management of

  15. Distribution of Genetic Marker Concentrations for Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Sewage and Animal Feces

    PubMed Central

    Kelty, Catherine A.; Varma, Manju; Sivaganesan, Mano; Haugland, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Very little is known about the density and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) genetic markers measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in fecal pollution sources. Before qPCR-based FIB technologies can be applied to waste management and public health risk applications, it is vital to characterize the concentrations of these genetic markers in pollution sources (i.e., untreated wastewater and animal feces). We report the distribution of rRNA genetic markers for several general FIB groups, including Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, enterococci, and Bacteroidales, as determined by qPCR on reference collections consisting of 54 primary influent sewage samples collected from treatment facilities across the United States and fecal samples representing 20 different animal species. Based on raw sewage sample collection data, individual FIB genetic markers exhibited a remarkable similarity in concentration estimates from locations across the United States ranging from Hawaii to Florida. However, there was no significant correlation between genetic markers for most FIB combinations (P > 0.05). In addition, large differences (up to 5 log10 copies) in the abundance of FIB genetic markers were observed between animal species, emphasizing the importance of indicator microorganism selection and animal source contribution for future FIB applications. PMID:22504809

  16. Eugenol stimulates lactate accumulation yet inhibits volatile fatty acid production and eliminates coliform bacteria in cattle and swine waste.

    PubMed

    Varel, V H; Miller, D L

    2004-01-01

    To determine how eugenol affects fermentation parameters and faecal coliforms in cattle and swine waste slurries stored anaerobically. Waste slurries (faeces:urine:water, 50:35:15) were blended with and without additives and aliquoted to triplicate 1-l flasks. Faecal coliforms were eliminated in cattle and swine waste slurries within 1 or 2 days with additions of eugenol at 10.05 mm (0.15%) and 16.75 mm (0.25%). At these concentrations volatile fatty acids (VFA) were reduced ca 70 and 50% in cattle and swine waste, respectively, over 6-8 weeks. Additionally, in cattle waste, eugenol stimulated the accumulation of lactate (>180 mm) when compared with thymol treatment (20 mm lactate). In swine waste, lactate accumulation did not occur without additives; eugenol and thymol stimulated lactate accumulation to concentrations of 22 and 32 mm, respectively. Eugenol added to cattle waste may be more beneficial than thymol because not only does it effectively control faecal coliforms and odour (VFA production), it also stimulates lactate accumulation. This in turn, causes the pH to drop more rapidly, further inhibiting microbial activity and nutrient emissions. Plant essential oils have the potential to solve some of the environmental problems associated with consolidated animal feeding operations. Thymol and eugenol reduce fermentative activity, thus, have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and odour, and curtail transmission of pathogens in cattle and swine wastes.

  17. An Assessment of Fecal Coliform Bacteria in the Sinclair/Dyes Inlet Watershed, Puget Sound, WA, USA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Olympia, WA ), John Keiss ( Kitsap County Health District, Bremerton, WA ), and Thomas Ostrom (Suquamish Tribe, Suquamish, WA ) An assessment of...Department of Ecology, the Suquamish Tribe, Kitsap County , the City of Bremerton, the City of Port Orchard, and other local stakeholders. The goal...Dyes Inlet Watershed, Puget Sound, WA , USA 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e

  18. Method for detecting coliform organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishioka, K.; Nibley, D. A.; Jeffers, E. L.; Brooks, R. L. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for determining the concentration of coliform bacteria in a sample. The sample containing the coliform bacteria is cultured in a liquid growth medium. The cultured bacteria produce hydrogen and the hydrogen is vented to a second cell containing a buffer solution in which the hydrogen dissolves. By measuring the potential change in the buffer solution caused by the hydrogen, as a function of time, the initial concentration of bacteria in the sample is determined. Alternatively, the potential change in the buffer solution can be compared with the potential change in the liquid growth medium to verify that the potential change in the liquid growth medium is produced primarily by the hydrogen gas produced by the coliform bacteria.

  19. Source tracking fecal bacteria in water: a critical review of current methods.

    PubMed

    Meays, Cynthia L; Broersma, Klaas; Nordin, Rick; Mazumder, Asit

    2004-10-01

    Many molecular and biochemical methods and techniques are being developed to track sources of bacteria in water and food. Currently, there is no standard method proposed for source tracking. This manuscript is a critical evaluation of the various methods used in watersheds, and highlights some of the advantages and disadvantages of each method. Making a decision on a single or combination of methods to use under a particular situation will depend on a number of factors including: question(s) to be answered, scale of identification (broad scale versus specific species identification), available expertise, cost of analysis, turnaround time, and access to facilities. This manuscript reviews several source tracking methodologies which are in current use for source tracking fecal bacteria in the environment including: ribotyping, pulse-field gel electrophoresis, denaturing-gradient gel electrophoresis, repetitive DNA sequences (Rep-PCR), host-specific 16S rDNA genetic markers, and antibiotic resistance analysis.

  20. Coliform contamination of a coastal embayment: Sources and transport pathways

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weiskel, P.K.; Howes, B.L.; Heufelder, G.R.

    1996-01-01

    Fecal bacterial contamination of nearshore waters has direct economic impacts to coastal communities through the loss of shellfisheries and restrictions of recreational uses. We conducted seasonal measurements of fecal coliform (FC) sources and transport pathways contributing to FC contamination of Buttermilk Bay, a shallow embayment adjacent to Buzzards Bay, MA. Typical of most coastal embayments, there were no direct sewage discharges (i.e., outfalls), and fecal bacteria from human, domestic animal, and wildlife pools entered open waters primarily through direct deposition or after transport through surface waters or groundwaters. Direct fecal coliform inputs to bay waters occurred primarily in winter (December-March) from waterfowl, ~33 x 1012 FC yr-1 or ~67% of the total annual loading. Effects of waterfowl inputs on bay FC densities were mitigated by their seasonality, wide distribution across the bay surface, and the apparent limited dispersal from fecal pellets. On-site disposal of sewage by septic systems was the single largest FC source in the watershed-embayment system, 460 x 1012 FC yr-1, but due to attenuation during subsurface transport only a minute fraction, < 0.006 x 1012 FC yr-1, reached bay waters (<0.01% of annual input to bay). Instead, surface water flows, via storm drains and natural streams under both wet- and dry-weather conditions, contributed the major terrestrial input, 12 x 1012 FC yr-1 (24% of annual input), all from animal sources. Since most of the surface water FC inputs were associated with periodic, short-duration rain events with discharge concentrated in nearshore zones, wet-weather flows were found to have a disproportionately high impact on nearshore FC levels. Elution of FC from shoreline deposits of decaying vegetation (wrack) comprised an additional coliform source. Both laboratory and field experiments suggest significant elution of bacteria from wrack, ~3 x 1012 FC yr-1 on a bay-wide basis (6% of annual input), primarily

  1. Continuous, low-dose oral exposure to sodium chlorate reduces fecal Enterobacteriaceae coliforms in sheep feces without inducing subclinical chlorate toxicosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objectives were to determine a minimal daily dose of sodium chlorate, to be included in the drinking water for 5 days, that is safe yet maintains efficacy in reducing fecal shedding of Escherichia coli in mature ewes. In a complete randomized experimental design, 25 Targhee ewes (age = 18- to 20...

  2. Nutrient and Fecal Indicator Bacteria Inputs from Submarine Groundwater Discharge on the North Shore of Kauai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knee, K.; Boehm, A.; Paytan, A.

    2006-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is a potentially important source of freshwater, nutrients, and pollution to the coastal ocean, yet it has not been well quantified for most locations. This poster investigates the impacts of SGD in Hanalei Bay, Ha'ena, and Princeville, three locations on the north shore of Kaua'i, Hawai'i, during two sampling trips conducted in March 2005 and August 2006. The short-lived isotopes of radium, 223Ra and 224Ra, were used to calculate the flux of groundwater into the coastal ocean in these areas. Nutrient concentrations and levels of total coliform bacteria, E. coli, and Enterococcus were measured in groundwater, the nearshore ocean, rivers, and streams. Fluxes of nutrients and bacteria associated with groundwater discharge were estimated. The results indicate that nutrient subsidies to the nearshore ocean from SGD may be comparable to those from rivers and streams, and that FIB subsidies may also be significant in some areas. More sampling is necessary to assess seasonal variability, which may be significant.

  3. Caffeine as an indicator of human fecal contamination in the Sinos River: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Linden, R; Antunes, M V; Heinzelmann, L S; Fleck, J D; Staggemeier, R; Fabres, R B; Vecchia, A D; Nascimento, C A; Spilki, F R

    2015-05-01

    The preservation of hydric resources is directly related to fecal contamination monitoring, in order to allow the development of strategies for the management of polluting sources. In the present study, twenty-five water samples from six water public supply collection sites were used for the evaluation of the presence of caffeine, total and fecal coliforms. Caffeine was detected in all samples, with concentrations ranging from 0.15 ng mL-1 to 16.72 ng mL-1. Total coliforms were detected in all samples, with concentrations in the range of 52 NMP/100 mL to higher than 24196 NMP/100 mL, whether the concentration range for fecal coliforms was in the range of below 1 NMP/100 mL to 7800 NMP/100 mL. No significant correlation was found between total coliforms and caffeine concentrations (rs = 0.35, p = 0.09). However, a moderate correlation between fecal coliforms and caffeine concentrations was found (rs = 0.412, p <0.05), probably indicating a human source for these bacteria. Caffeine determination in water may be a useful strategy to evaluate water contamination by human fecal waste.

  4. Movement of traditional fecal indicator bacteria and source-tracking targets through septic drainfields.

    PubMed

    Billian, Hannah; Krometis, Leigh-Anne; Thompson, Theresa; Hagedorn, Charles

    2018-01-01

    The past three decades' data on outbreaks in the United States indicate that homes dependent on untreated groundwater (e.g. wells) for household drinking water that are also reliant on onsite treatment of household wastewater (e.g. septic systems) may be at greater risk for waterborne disease. While groundwater quality monitoring to protect public health has traditionally focused on the detection of fecal indicator bacteria, the application of emerging source tracking strategies may offer a more efficient means to identify pollution sources and effective means of remediation. This study compares the movement of common fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli and enterococci) with a chemical (optical brighteners, OB) and a molecular (Bacteroides HF183) source tracking (ST) target in small scale septic drainfield models in order to evaluate their potential utility in groundwater monitoring. Nine PVC column drainfield models received synchronized doses of primary-treated wastewater twice daily, with influent and effluent monitored bi-weekly over a 7-month period for all targets. Results indicate that E. coli and enterococci concentrations were strongly associated (Spearman's rank, p<0.05), and correlations between enterococci and optical brighteners were moderately strong. Bacteroides HF183 was significantly, but not strongly, associated with optical brighteners and both indicator bacteria (Point-biserial correlation, p<0.05), most likely due to its sporadic detection. Application of human ST marker monitoring in groundwaters at risk of contamination by human sewage is recommended, although consistent interpretation of results will rely on more detailed evaluation of HF183 incidence in source contamination waters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of E. coli and total coliform organisms isolated from Wisconsin Waters and Reassessment of their public health significance

    SciTech Connect

    Standridge, J.; Barman, M.; Sonzogni, W.C.

    1996-11-01

    In 1989 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency promulgated Revised National Primary Drinking Water Regulations pursuant to the federal Safe Drinking Water Act. For Wisconsin, the law drastically increased the number of water systems required to test for microbiological contaminants. The law also introduced the requirement that laboratories not only look for the {open_quotes}total coliform{close_quotes} group of bacteria, but also the subgroup of fecal coliforms or E. coli are found and thus dictates public notification or {open_quotes}boil water orders.{close_quotes} The number of microbiological contamination events detected and the frequency of {open_quotes}boil{close_quotes} orders has increased drastically because of the Act. Concurrent with this increased visibility of microbiological contamination events has come a growing suspicion that we, as public health officials, may be unnecessarily alarming the public when, in fact, there is no real public health threat. This suspicion if fueled by recent reports documenting a number of situations in wells and distribution systems where coliform organisms were growing and multiplying in biofilms yielding positive tests, but where no fecal contamination had actually occurred. The fact that the profile of coliform species found in drinking water is very different from the coliform profile of feces, also leads one to question the significance of total coliform presence in potable water.

  6. The effect of storage time on Vibrio spp. and fecal indicator bacteria in an Isco autosampler.

    PubMed

    Ghazaleh, Maite N; Froelich, Brett A; Noble, Rachel T

    2014-09-01

    Monitoring concentrations of bacterial pathogens and indicators of fecal contamination in coastal and estuarine ecosystems is critical to reduce adverse effects to public health. During storm events, particularly hurricanes, floods, Nor'easters, and tropical cyclones, sampling of coastal and estuarine waters is not generally possible due to safety concerns. It is particularly important to monitor waters during these periods as it is at precisely these times that pathogenic bacteria such as Vibrio spp. and fecal indicator bacteria concentrations fluctuate, potentially posing significant risks to public health. Automated samplers, such as the Isco sampler, are commonly used to conduct remote sample collection. Remote sampling is employed during severe storm periods, thereby reducing risk to researchers. Water samples are then stored until conditions are safe enough to retrieve them, typically in less than 21h, to collect the samples. Concerns exist regarding potential "bottle effects", whereby containment of sample might result in altered results. While these effects are well documented in samples being held for 24h or more, there is little data on bottle effects occurring during the first 24h of containment, and less still on the specific effects related to this type of sampling regime. Estuarine water samples were collected in the fall of 2013, placed into an Isco autosampler and subsampled over time to determine the effects of storage within this type of autosampling device. Vibrio spp. and fecal indicator bacteria were quantified using replicated culture-based methods, including Enterolert™ and membrane filtration. The experiments demonstrated no significant impact of storage time when comparing concentrations of total Vibrio spp., Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, or Enterococcus spp. after storage compared to original concentrations. However, the findings also suggested that increased variability and growth can occur during the middle of the day

  7. Changes in abundance of heterotrophic and coliform bacteria resident in stored water bodies in relation to incoming bacterial loads following rain events.

    PubMed

    Martin, Anthony Richard; Coombes, Peter John; Harrison, Tracey Lee; Hugh Dunstan, R

    2010-01-01

    Microbial properties of harvested rainwater were assessed at two study sites at Newcastle on the east coast of Australia. The investigation monitored daily counts of heterotrophic bacteria (HPC), total coliforms and E. coli during a mid-winter month (July). Immediately after a major rainfall event, increases in bacterial loads were observed at both sites, followed by gradual reductions in numbers to prior baseline levels within 7 days. Baseline HPC levels ranged from 500-1000 cfu/mL for the sites evaluated, and the loads following rain peaked at 3590-6690 cfu/mL. Baseline levels of total coliforms ranged from 0-100 cfu/100 mL and peaked at 480-1200 cfu/100 mL following rain. At Site 1, there was no evidence of E. coli loading associated with the rain events assessed, and Site 2 had no detectable E.coli colonies at baseline, with a peak load of 17 cfu/100 mL following rain which again diminished to baseline levels. It was concluded that rainfall events contributed to the bacterial load in rainwater storage systems, but processes within the rainwater storage ensured these incoming loads were not sustained.

  8. Persistence and distribution of pollution indicator bacteria on land used for disposal of piggery effluent.

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, D S; Farran, I; Craven, J A

    1981-01-01

    Numbers of pollution indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci) were assessed on land to which effluent from intensively housed pigs had been applied. Topsoil (to a 30-mm depth) was found to provide a more favorable environment for fecal coliform persistence than was pasture or subsoil. Times required for a 90% reduction in number (T90) in topsoil (calculated by linear regression of log counts obtained in a 6-week period after effluent application) ranged from 7 to 20 days (mean T90, 11 days). T90 values for fecal coliforms fell within this range irrespective of the season of application and for a number of soil types and climatic conditions. The range in die-off times was encountered irrespective of the fecal coliform count in the applied effluent or the application regimen (125 to 1,000 kg of elemental nitrogen in the form of effluent per ha; return periods, 3 to 12 months). Autumn and winter conditions were conducive to the persistence of a survivor tail of these bacteria at 10(1) to 10(3) cells per g of topsoil. Fecal streptococci survived similarly on soil and pasture (T90, ca. 14 days) and appeared slightly more suited to survival in the environment than did fecal coliforms. Contamination of subsoils after effluent applications occurred at a rate well in excess of the infiltration capacity of the soil, presumably by percolation of the effluent through soil cracks. Contamination levels of subsoils in the experimental area generally remained low. PMID:7294782

  9. Destruction by Anaerobic Mesophilic and Thermophilic Digestion of Viruses and Indicator Bacteria Indigenous to Domestic Sludges

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Gerald; Berman, Donald

    1980-01-01

    In raw sludges and in mesophilically and thermophilically digested anaerobic sludges, large variations in numbers of viruses occurred over narrow ranges of numbers of fecal coliforms, total coliforms, and fecal streptococci, demonstrating that the bacteria were poor quantitative reflectors of the numbers of the viruses detected. Mesophilic and thermophilic digestion of anaerobic sludges destroyed all three indicator bacteria more rapidly than such digestion destroyed the viruses. The relative rates for the destruction of viruses, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci in the digested sludges were consistent over the 17-month study. Fecal coliforms were 7 to 8 times more sensitive than the viruses to mesophilic digestion and 9 to 10 times more sensitive to thermophilic digestion. Total coliforms were even more sensitive. The rates at which fecal streptococci were destroyed by mesophilic and thermophilic digestion of anaerobic sludges approached those at which the viruses were destroyed by those processes; this suggested that the rates at which fecal streptococci in sludges are destroyed by those processes may serve as useful indicators for the rates at which viruses in sludges are destroyed by those processes. PMID:16345510

  10. Chlorine injury and the comparative performance of Colisure (TM), ColiLert (TM) and ColiQuik (TM) for the enumeration of coliform bacteria and E.coli in drinking water.

    PubMed

    McFeters, G A; Pyle, B H; Gillis, S J; Acomb, C J; Ferrazza, D

    1993-01-01

    Several factors have stimulated interest in recently developed substrate specific media for the detection of coliform bacteria in water. This study compared the performance of Colisure (TM) (Millipore), ColiLert (TM) (Environetics) and ColiQuick (TM) (Hach) with accepted membrane filtration and MPN methodologies for the enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli in chlorinated water. The performance of all three media was compared, in MPN configuration, with LTB/MPN (confirmed) using a variety of drinking and source water samples, both with and without chlorination. The Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test yielded statistical correlations between results obtained with each of the three new enzyme detection media and accepted reference methods for the detection of low numbers of total coliforms. Another series of tests compared the performance of Colisure with accepted methods (LTB/MPN confirmed with BGLB and EC-MUG) in the detection of total coliforms and E. coli in sewage-spiked samples simulating contaminated drinking water, using an USEPA/AWWA test protocol. The results demonstrated that Colisure detected these indicator bacteria with greater sensitivity than the accepted methods and that this difference increased between 24 and 28 hours of incubation. The results of this study collectively support the validity of the new enzyme detection method for the detection of low levels of coliform bacteria and E. coli in source water and contaminated drinking water.

  11. Influence of manure age and sunlight on the community structure of cattle fecal bacteria as revealed by Illumina sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, K.; Shaw, T. I.; Oladeinde, A.; Molina, M.

    2013-12-01

    Fecal pollution of environmental waters is a major concern for the general public because exposure to fecal-associated pathogens can have severe impacts on human health. Stream and river impairment due to fecal pollution is largely the result of agricultural activities in the United States. In the last few years, numerous metagenomic studies utilized next generation sequencing to develop microbial community profiles by massively sequencing the 16sRNA hypervariable region. This technology supports the application of water quality assessment such as pathogen detection and fecal source tracking. The bacteria communities of samples in these studies were determined when they were freshly collected; therefore, little is known about how feces age or how environmental stress influences the microbial ecology of fecal materials. In this study we monitored bacteria community changes in cattle feces for 57 days after excretion (day 0, 2, 4 8, 15, 22, 29, 43, 57) by sequencing the 16s variable region 4, using Illumnia MiSeq. Twelve cattle feces were studied; half of the samples were directly exposed to sunlight (unshaded) and half were shaded. Results indicate that the relative abundance (RA) profile in both shaded and unshaded samples rapidly changed from day 0 to 15, but stabilized from day 22 to 57. Firmcutes were the most abundant phylum (~40%) at day 0, but were reduced to <10% by day 57. The RA of Proteobacteria was only 1% at day 0, but increased to ~50% by day 57in both shaded and unshaded samples. By the end of the study, shaded and unshaded samples had a similar RA of Firmcutes and Proteobacteria but the RA of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria was, respectively, about 7% lower and 10% higher for unshaded samples. UV intensity, moisture, and temperature were significantly different between shaded and unshaded plots, indicating that these environmental stresses could influence the structure of fecal bacteria community in the natural environment. According to the

  12. Stochastic Analysis of Non Point Source Loading of Fecal Bacteria in a Shallow Heterogeneous Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, S. J.; Li, X.; Atwill, R.; Packman, A. I.; Harter, T.

    2011-12-01

    Manure and wastewater irrigation (MWI) presents a microbiological risk to shallow groundwater quality. Particularly vulnerable are domestic wells in rural areas where treatment systems may be limited or unreliable. However, despite multiple and persistent sources of fecal contamination, cross sectional monitoring of fecal bacteria in groundwater indicates a high degree of variability in both prevalence and measured concentrations. Apparently random variation occurs both between wells and samples at individual wells. In contrast, deliberate longitudinal studies of MWIs, particularly in the laboratory, tend to exhibit relatively smooth breakthrough curves consistent with colloid filtration theory. To better characterize potential sources of variability in observed field data, a 3D stochastic groundwater modeling approach representative of irrigation applications to vulnerable alluvial aquifers was developed. Heterogeniety is assessed by incorporating multiple loading functions and hydrostratigraphic representations of a heterogeneous alluvial aquifer. Simulations indicate that irrigation water breakthroughs to wells are generally limited to shallow depths, suggesting limited risk to domestic wells screened several tens of meters below the water table. Whilst the presence of aquifer heterogeneity significantly extends the transport distance and tailing of breakthrough curves, owing to macro-dispersion and in-well mixing, simulated breakthrough curves are relatively smooth and consistent with observed longitudinal studies. This suggests that the highly erratic and variable nature of microorganism detection may be due to highly transient processes, including but not limited to spatio-temporal variations in source variability and limitations in infrequent monitoring programs to properly determine variability.

  13. Particle-size distribution as indicator for fecal bacteria contamination of drinking water from karst springs.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Michiel; Goldscheider, Nico; Zopfi, Jakob

    2007-12-15

    Continuous monitoring of particle-size distribution (PSD), total organic carbon (TOC), turbidity, discharge and physicochemical parameters, together with analyses of fecal indicator bacteria, particularly Escherichia coli, made it possible to better understand the processes governing pathogen transport in karst groundwater and to establish PSD as indicator for possible microbial contamination of drinking water from karst springs. In the study area near Yverdon-les-Bains, Switzerland, tracer tests proved connection between a sinking stream draining agricultural land and several springs, 4.8-6.3 km away. Tracing and monitoring results demonstrate that (i) suspended particles (turbidity) in the spring water either originate from remobilization of sediments inside the aquifer (autochthonous) or from the sinking stream and land surface (allochthonous); (ii) allochthonous turbidity coincides with increased E. coli and TOC levels; (iii) PSD makes it possible to distinguish the two types of turbidity; (iv) a relative increase of finer particles (0.9-10 microm) indicates allochthonous turbidity and thus possible fecal contamination. The method permits to optimize water treatment and identify periods when the spring water must be rejected. Findings from other test sites confirm the feasibility of this approach.

  14. Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant fecal bacteria in a river impacted by both an antibiotic production plant and urban treated discharges.

    PubMed

    Sidrach-Cardona, Ricardo; Hijosa-Valsero, María; Marti, Elisabet; Balcázar, José Luis; Becares, Eloy

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the abundance and spatial dynamics of antibiotic-resistant fecal bacteria (Escherichia coli, total coliforms and Enterococcus spp.) were determined in water and sediment samples from a river impacted by both antibiotic production plant (APP) and urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharges. Agar dilution and disk diffusion methods were also used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Two antimicrobial agents, cephalexin (25 μg/ml) and amoxicillin (50 μg/ml), were evaluated using the agar dilution method for E. coli, total coliforms (TC) and Enterococcus spp., whereas the degree of sensitivity or resistance of E. coli isolates to penicillin (10 U), ampicillin (10 μg), doxycycline (30 μg), tetracycline (30 μg), erythromycin (15 μg), azithromycin (15 μg) and streptomycin (10 μg) was performed using the disk diffusion method. Real-time PCR assays were used to determine the prevalence of three antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs). The agar dilution method showed that most E. coli isolates and TC were resistant to amoxicillin, especially after receiving the APP discharges. Antibiotic resistances to amoxicillin and cephalexin were higher after the APP discharge point than after the WWTP effluent. The disk diffusion method revealed that 100% of bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin and erythromycin. Multidrug-resistant bacteria were detected and showed a higher proportion at the WWTP discharge point than those in the APP. Highly multidrug-resistant bacteria (resistance to more than 4 antibiotics) were also detected, reaching mean values of 41.6% in water samples and 50.1% in sediments. The relative abundance of the blaTEM, blaCTX-M and blaSHV genes was higher in samples from the treatment plants than in those collected upstream from the discharges, especially for water samples collected at the APP discharge point. These results clearly demonstrate that both the APP and the WWTP contribute to the emergence and spread of antibiotic

  15. Bayesian meta-analysis to synthesize decay rate constant estimates for common fecal indicator bacteria.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Lauren E; Field, Katharine G

    2016-11-01

    For decades, fecal indicator bacteria have been used as proxies to quantitatively estimate fecal loading into water bodies. Widely used cultured indicators (e.g. Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp.) and more recently developed genetic markers are well studied, but their decay in the environment is still poorly understood. We used Hierarchical Bayesian Linear Modeling to conduct a series of meta-analyses using published decay rate constant estimates, to synthesize findings into pooled estimates and identify gaps in the data preventing reliable estimates. In addition to the meta-analysis assuming all estimates come from the same population, meta-regressions including covariates believed to contribute to decay were fit and used to provided synthesized estimates for specific combinations of significant variables. Additionally, statements regarding the significance of variables across studies were made using the 95% confidence interval for meta-regression coefficients. These models were used to construct a mean decay rate constant estimate as well as credible intervals for the mean and the distribution of all likely data points. While synthesized estimates for each targeted indicator bacteria were developed, the amount of data available varied widely for each target, as did the predictive power of the models as determined by testing with additional data not included in the modeling. Temperature was found to be significant for all selected indicators, while light was found to be significant only for culturable indicators. Results from the models must be interpreted with caution, as they are based only on the data available, which may not be representative of decay in other scenarios. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Post-Katrina fecal contamination in Violet Marsh near New Orleans.

    PubMed

    Furey, John S; Fredrickson, Herbert; Foote, Chris; Richmond, Margaret

    2007-06-01

    Fecal material entrained in New Orleans flood waters was pumped into the local environment. Violet Marsh received water pumped from St. Bernard Parish and the Lower Ninth Ward. Sediment core samples were collected from canals conducting water from these areas to pump stations and from locations within Violet Marsh. Viable indicator bacteria and fecal sterols were used to assess the levels of fecal material in sediment deposited after the levee failures and deeper sediments deposited before. Most of the cores had fecal coliform levels that exceed the biosolids criterion. All of the cores had fecal sterols that exceeded the suggested environmental quality criterion. Our data show both a long history of fecal contamination in Violet Marsh and an increase in fecal loading corresponding to the failure of the levee system. The work was performed as part of the Interagency Performance Evaluation Task Force investigation into the consequences of the failures of the New Orleans levee system.

  17. Inter-laboratory Comparison of Real-time PCR Methods for Quantification of General Fecal Indicator Bacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for the rapid identification of fecal bacteria in environmental waters is being considered for use as a national water quality metric in the United States. The transition from research tool to a standardized prot...

  18. Assessing Environmental Impacts of Treated Wastewater through Monitoring of Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Salinity in Irrigated Soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To assess the potential for bacterial persistence and/or growth in reclaimed water irrigation systems and in irrigated soils, and to quantify the effects of wastewater application on soil salinity, levels of fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli, Enterococcus) and environmental covariates were measured ...

  19. Estimation of decay rates for fecal indicator bacteria and bacterial pathogens in agricultural field-applied manure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field-applied manure is an important source of pathogenic exposure in surface water bodies for humans and ecological receptors. We analyzed the persistence and decay of fecal indicator bacteria and bacterial pathogens from three sources (cattle, poultry, swine) for agricultural f...

  20. Analysis of Enterococci and Bacteriodales Fecal Indicator Bacteria in a Lake Michigan Tributary by Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Salt Creek watershed in northwest Indiana drains into Lake Michigan near several heavily used recreational beaches. This study aimed to investigate the levels of fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci and Bacteroidales, in Salt Creek using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) an...

  1. Analysis of Enterococci and Bacteriodales Fecal Indicator Bacteria in a Lake Michigan Tributary by Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Salt Creek watershed in northwest Indiana drains into Lake Michigan near several heavily used recreational beaches. This study aimed to investigate the levels of fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci and Bacteroidales, in Salt Creek using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) an...

  2. COMPARISON OF REAL-TIME PCR FECAL BACTERIA MEASUREMENTS IN RECREATIONAL WATERS USING DIFFERENT INSTRUMENTS AND REAGENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA guidance on the safety of surface waters for recreational use is currently based on concentrations of culturable fecal indicator bacteria. Attention is now shifting to more rapid molecular monitoring methods. A multi-year epidemiological study is in progress to determine...

  3. Inter-laboratory Comparison of Real-time PCR Methods for Quantification of General Fecal Indicator Bacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for the rapid identification of fecal bacteria in environmental waters is being considered for use as a national water quality metric in the United States. The transition from research tool to a standardized prot...

  4. Estimation of decay rates for fecal indicator bacteria and bacterial pathogens in agricultural field-applied manure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field-applied manure is an important source of pathogenic exposure in surface water bodies for humans and ecological receptors. We analyzed the persistence and decay of fecal indicator bacteria and bacterial pathogens from three sources (cattle, poultry, swine) for agricultural f...

  5. COMPARISON OF REAL-TIME PCR FECAL BACTERIA MEASUREMENTS IN RECREATIONAL WATERS USING DIFFERENT INSTRUMENTS AND REAGENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA guidance on the safety of surface waters for recreational use is currently based on concentrations of culturable fecal indicator bacteria. Attention is now shifting to more rapid molecular monitoring methods. A multi-year epidemiological study is in progress to determine...

  6. Differential Decay of Cattle-associated Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Microbial Source Tracking Markers in Fresh and Marine Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) have a long history of use in the assessment of the microbial quality of recreational waters. However, quantification of FIB provides no information about the pollution source(s) and relatively little is known about their fate in the amb...

  7. Partial least squares for efficient models of fecal indicator bacteria on Great Lakes beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Wesley R.; Fienen, Michael N.; Corsi, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    At public beaches, it is now common to mitigate the impact of water-borne pathogens by posting a swimmer's advisory when the concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) exceeds an action threshold. Since culturing the bacteria delays public notification when dangerous conditions exist, regression models are sometimes used to predict the FIB concentration based on readily-available environmental measurements. It is hard to know which environmental parameters are relevant to predicting FIB concentration, and the parameters are usually correlated, which can hurt the predictive power of a regression model. Here the method of partial least squares (PLS) is introduced to automate the regression modeling process. Model selection is reduced to the process of setting a tuning parameter to control the decision threshold that separates predicted exceedances of the standard from predicted non-exceedances. The method is validated by application to four Great Lakes beaches during the summer of 2010. Performance of the PLS models compares favorably to that of the existing state-of-the-art regression models at these four sites.

  8. HOLDING TIME STUDY FOR FECALS/SALMONELLA & CONNECTING LANGUAGE FOR 503 REGULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current federal regulations required monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Methods used for analysis of fecal coliforms and Salmonella have been developed and are currently in use for quantification of these organisms. Recently c...

  9. HOLDING TIME STUDY FOR FECALS/SALMONELLA & CONNECTING LANGUAGE FOR 503 REGULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current federal regulations required monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Methods used for analysis of fecal coliforms and Salmonella have been developed and are currently in use for quantification of these organisms. Recently c...

  10. Growth performance, digestibility and faecal coliform bacteria in weaned piglets fed a cereal-based diet including either chicory (Cichorium intybus L) or ribwort (Plantago lanceolata L) forage.

    PubMed

    Ivarsson, E; Frankow-Lindberg, B E; Andersson, H K; Lindberg, J E

    2011-02-01

    Twenty-five weaned 35-day-old piglets were used in a 35-day growth experiment to evaluate the effect of inclusion of chicory and ribwort forage in a cereal-based diet on growth performance, feed intake, digestibility and shedding of faecal coliform bacteria. A total of seven experimental diets were formulated, a cereal-based basal diet (B), and six diets with inclusion of 40, 80 and 160 g/kg chicory (C40, C80 and C160) or ribwort (R40, R80 and R160). Piglets had ad libitum access to feed and water throughout the experiment. Three and five weeks post-weaning faeces samples for determination of digestibility were collected once a day for five subsequent days. Additional faeces samples for determination of coliform counts were collected at days 1, 16 and 35 post-weaning. Piglets fed diet R160 had the lowest average daily feed intake (DFI) and daily weight gain (DWG), and differed (P < 0.05) from piglets fed diets B, R40 and R80. There were no differences in DFI and DWG between the chicory diets and diet B. Inclusion of chicory or ribwort had a minor negative impact on the coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein, whereas inclusion of both chicory and ribwort resulted in higher CTTAD of non-starch polysaccharides and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). The CTTAD of arabinose were higher for diets C160 and R160 than for diet B (P < 0.05), and the CTTAD of uronic acid was higher for diets C40, C80, C160, R80 and R160 than for diet B (P < 0.05). Age affected the CTTAD for all parameters (P < 0.05) except for NDF, with higher values at 5 than at 3 weeks post-weaning. The coliform counts decreased with increasing age (P < 0.05), but was not affected by treatment. The results indicate that inclusion of up to 160 g/kg of chicory do not negatively affect performance, whereas high inclusion of ribwort have a negative impact on feed consumption and consequently on growth rate. Both herbs have a higher digestibility of

  11. Survival of Manure-borne Escherichia coli and Fecal Coliforms in Soil: Temperature Dependence as Affected by Site-Specific Factors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding pathogenic and indicator bacteria survival in soils is essential for assessing the potential of microbial contamination of water and produce. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of soil properties, animal source, experimental conditions, and the a...

  12. Survival of Manure-borne Escherichia coli and Fecal Coliforms in Soil: Temperature Dependence as Affected by Site-Specific Factors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding pathogenic and indicator bacteria survival in soils is essential for assessing the potential of microbial contamination of water and produce. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of soil properties, animal source, experimental conditions, and the a...

  13. Detection of human-derived fecal contamination in Puerto Rico using carbamazepine, HF183 Bacteroides, and fecal indicator bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wade, Christina; Otero, Ernesto; Poon-Kwong, Brennan; Rozier, Ralph; Bachoon, Dave

    2015-12-30

    The level of fecal pollution in 17 sites in Puerto Rico was determined by Escherichia coli (E.coli) enumeration using an enzyme substrate medium and Quanti-Tray®/2000. Human fecal pollution was identified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of carbamazepine (CBZ) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) detection of the human Bacteroides marker, HF183. Carbamazepine was detected in 16 out of 17 sites, including Condado Lagoon, a popular recreational area. Elevated E.coli levels (>410 CFU 100 mL(-1)) were detected in 13 sites. Average CBZ concentrations ranged from 0.005 μg L(-1) to 0.482 μg L(-1) and 7 sites were positive for HF183. Higher CBZ concentrations were associated with the detection of HF183 (Mann-Whitney test; U=42.0; df=7; 1-tailed P value=0.013). This was the second study to determine surface water concentrations of CBZ in the Caribbean and the first in Puerto Rico. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Viral and bacterial contamination in a sedimentary aquifer in Uruguay: evaluation of coliforms as regional indicators of viral contamination.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamazo, Pablo; Colina, Rodney; Victoria, Matias; Alvareda, Elena; Burutatran, Luciana; Ramos, Julian; Olivera, María; Soler, Joan

    2015-04-01

    In many areas of Uruguay groundwater is the only source of water for human consumption and for industrial-agricultural economic activities. Traditionally considered as a safe source, groundwater is commonly used without any treatment. The Uruguayan law requires bacteriological (fecal) analysis for most water uses, but virological analyses are not mentioned in the legislation. In the Salto district, where groundwater is used for human consumption and for agricultural activities, bacterial contamination has been detected in several wells but no viruses analysis have been performed. The Republic University (UDELAR), with the support of the National Agency for Research and Innovation (ANII), is studying the incidence of virus and fecal bacteria in groundwater on an intensive agriculture area of the Salto district. An initial screening campaign of 44 wells was performed in which, besides total and fecal coliforms, rotavirus and adenovirus were detected. A subgroup of the screening wells (15) where selected for bimonthly sampling during a year. In accordance with literature results, single well data analysis shows that coliform and viral contamination can be considered as independent variables. However, when spatial data is integrated, coliform and viral contamination show linear correlation. In this work we present the survey results, we analyse the temporal incidence of variables like precipitation, temperature and chemical composition in well contamination and we discuss the value of coliforms as global indicator of viral contamination for the Salto aquifer.

  15. Fecal culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... fecal culture is a lab test to find organisms in the stool (feces) that can cause gastrointestinal ... Results There are no abnormal bacteria or other organisms in the sample. Talk to your provider about ...

  16. The Effect of the Surrounding Land Use on the Amount of Fecal Contamination in Ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, A. L.

    2002-05-01

    : Water is a gift of nature. It is provided by the environment in which people live and grow everyday. In order to truly treasure this gift, one must appreciate it and take all the necessary precautions to care for it and keep it clean. Coliform bacteria present in the feces of mammals are amongst the many things that should be cleaned from the water. The focus of this study was to compare the amount of fecal coliform colonies present in a rural and an urban pond. It was hypothesized that there would be a greater number of fecal coliform colonies present in the rural pond. Samples were taken form each site and then plated using a special method to test for the presence of coliforms. The number of coliform colonies on each plate were counted. When the results from the bacteria plated from the urban and rural ponds were compared, it was found that there was a significantly higher number of fecal coliform colonies present in the rural pond. One factor impacting the difference between the number of fecal coliform colonies in the urban and rural ponds is land use. The urban pond has a more human activity. As a result of the surrounding land use, there were fewer wildlife sources of fecal coliform contamination in the urban area. In addition, the city of Richmond cleans and maintains the pond on a regular basis. Because the rural park is not used as often, there is a greater opportunity for more mammals and other wildlife such as birds to enter the pond creating a significantly higher level of fecal contamination. More urban and rural ponds need to be studied to support the conclusions drawn from this study. Because the ponds studied were in public parks, the findings of this study suggest a need for parks and recreation of rural areas to assist in finding a solution for the problem. The people in rural areas should become more aware that there is contamination in ponds. Further research can be conducted to account for the different types of coliforms present. This

  17. Interlaboratory comparison of real-time pcr protocols for quantification of general fecal indicator bacteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanks, O.C.; Sivaganesan, M.; Peed, L.; Kelty, C.A.; Blackwood, A.D.; Greene, M.R.; Noble, R.T.; Bushon, R.N.; Stelzer, E.A.; Kinzelman, J.; Anan'Eva, T.; Sinigalliano, C.; Wanless, D.; Griffith, J.; Cao, Y.; Weisberg, S.; Harwood, V.J.; Staley, C.; Oshima, K.H.; Varma, M.; Haugland, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    The application of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for the rapid identification of fecal bacteria in environmental waters is being considered for use as a national water quality metric in the United States. The transition from research tool to a standardized protocol requires information on the reproducibility and sources of variation associated with qPCR methodology across laboratories. This study examines interlaboratory variability in the measurement of enterococci and Bacteroidales concentrations from standardized, spiked, and environmental sources of DNA using the Entero1a and GenBac3 qPCR methods, respectively. Comparisons are based on data generated from eight different research facilities. Special attention was placed on the influence of the DNA isolation step and effect of simplex and multiplex amplification approaches on interlaboratory variability. Results suggest that a crude lysate is sufficient for DNA isolation unless environmental samples contain substances that can inhibit qPCR amplification. No appreciable difference was observed between simplex and multiplex amplification approaches. Overall, interlaboratory variability levels remained low (<10% coefficient of variation) regardless of qPCR protocol. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  18. Stratification and loading of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in a tidally muted urban salt marsh.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Karina K; Dorsey, John H; Saez, Jose A

    2015-03-01

    Stratification and loading of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were assessed in the main tidal channel of the Ballona Wetlands, an urban salt marsh receiving muted tidal flows, to (1) determine FIB concentration versus loading within the water column at differing tidal flows, (2) identify associations of FIB with other water quality parameters, and (3) compare wetland FIB concentrations to the adjacent estuary. Sampling was conducted four times during spring-tide events; samples were analyzed for FIB and turbidity (NTU) four times over a tidal cycle at pre-allocated depths, depending on the water level. Additional water quality parameters measured included temperature, salinity, oxygen, and pH. Loadings were calculated by integrating the stratified FIB concentrations with water column cross-sectional volumes corresponding to each depth. Enterococci and Escherichia coli were stratified both by concentration and loading, although these variables portrayed different patterns over a tidal cycle. Greatest concentrations occurred in surface to mid-strata levels, during flood tides when contaminated water flowed in from the estuary, and during ebb flows when sediments were suspended. Loading was greatest during flood flows and diminished during low tide periods. FIB concentrations within the estuary often were significantly greater than those within the wetland tide channel, supporting previous studies that the wetlands act as a sink for FIB. For public health water quality monitoring, these results indicate that more accurate estimates of FIB concentrations would be obtained by sampling a number of points within a water column rather than relying only on single surface samples.

  19. Interlaboratory comparison of real-time PCR protocols for quantification of general fecal indicator bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shanks, Orin C; Sivaganesan, Mano; Peed, Lindsay; Kelty, Catherine A; Blackwood, A Denene; Greene, Monica R; Noble, Rachel T; Bushon, Rebecca N; Stelzer, Erin A; Kinzelman, Julie; Anan'eva, Tamara; Sinigalliano, Christopher; Wanless, David; Griffith, John; Cao, Yiping; Weisberg, Steve; Harwood, Valarie J; Staley, Christopher; Oshima, Kevin H; Varma, Manju; Haugland, Richard A

    2012-01-17

    The application of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) technologies for the rapid identification of fecal bacteria in environmental waters is being considered for use as a national water quality metric in the United States. The transition from research tool to a standardized protocol requires information on the reproducibility and sources of variation associated with qPCR methodology across laboratories. This study examines interlaboratory variability in the measurement of enterococci and Bacteroidales concentrations from standardized, spiked, and environmental sources of DNA using the Entero1a and GenBac3 qPCR methods, respectively. Comparisons are based on data generated from eight different research facilities. Special attention was placed on the influence of the DNA isolation step and effect of simplex and multiplex amplification approaches on interlaboratory variability. Results suggest that a crude lysate is sufficient for DNA isolation unless environmental samples contain substances that can inhibit qPCR amplification. No appreciable difference was observed between simplex and multiplex amplification approaches. Overall, interlaboratory variability levels remained low (<10% coefficient of variation) regardless of qPCR protocol.

  20. Predictive Power of Clean Bed Filtration Theory for Fecal Indicator Bacteria Removal in Stormwater Biofilters.

    PubMed

    Parker, Emily A; Rippy, Megan A; Mehring, Andrew S; Winfrey, Brandon K; Ambrose, Richard F; Levin, Lisa A; Grant, Stanley B

    2017-05-16

    Green infrastructure (also referred to as low impact development, or LID) has the potential to transform urban stormwater runoff from an environmental threat to a valuable water resource. In this paper we focus on the removal of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB, a pollutant responsible for runoff-associated inland and coastal beach closures) in stormwater biofilters (a common type of green infrastructure). Drawing on a combination of previously published and new laboratory studies of FIB removal in biofilters, we find that 66% of the variance in FIB removal rates can be explained by clean bed filtration theory (CBFT, 31%), antecedent dry period (14%), study effect (8%), biofilter age (7%), and the presence or absence of shrubs (6%). Our analysis suggests that, with the exception of shrubs, plants affect FIB removal indirectly by changing the infiltration rate, not directly by changing the FIB removal mechanisms or altering filtration rates in ways not already accounted for by CBFT. The analysis presented here represents a significant step forward in our understanding of how physicochemical theories (such as CBFT) can be melded with hydrology, engineering design, and ecology to improve the water quality benefits of green infrastructure.

  1. Groundwater discharge: potential association with fecal indicator bacteria in the surf zone.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Alexandria B; Shellenbarger, Gregory G; Paytan, Adina

    2004-07-01

    Short-lived radium isotopes (223Ra and 224Ra) are used to investigate the potential association between groundwater discharge and microbial pollution at Huntington Beach, CA. We establish the tidally driven exchange of groundwater from the surficial beach aquifer across the beach face. Groundwater is found to be a source of nutrients (silica, inorganic nitrogen, and orthophosphate) to the surf zone, and these nutrients could possibly provide an environment for enhanced growth or increased persistence of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). Ammonium and ortho-phosphate explain up to 12-20% of the variance in FIB levels in the surf zone. Elevated levels of FIB were only found in 1 of the 26 groundwater samples. However, FIB in the surf zone covary with radium at fortnightly, diurnal, and semi-diurnal tidal periods. In addition, radium accounts for up to 38% of the variance in log-FIB levels in the surf zone. A column experiment illustrates that Enterococcus suspended in Huntington Beach saline groundwater is not significantly filtered by sand collected from the field. This work establishes a mechanism for the subterranean delivery of FIB pollution to the surf zone from the surficial aquifer and presents evidence that supports an association between groundwater discharge and FIB.

  2. Detection of Helicobacter pylori and fecal indicator bacteria in five North American rivers.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voytek, M.A.; Ashen, J.B.; Fogarty, L.R.; Kirshtein, J.D.; Landa, E.R.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the use of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) as a predictor of the presence of Helicobacter spp. A combination of standard culture and molecular techniques were used to detect and quantify FIB, Helicobacter spp. and H. pylori from five North American rivers of different size and with different land use characteristics. Primers designed to amplify genes specific to Helicobacter spp. and H. pylori were evaluated for their efficacy in detection and quantification in environmental samples. Helicobacter spp. were detected in 18/33 (55%) of river samples. H. pylori was detected in 11/33 (33%) of river samples. FIB were found in 32/33 (96%) of river samples. When FIB abundance exceeded USEPA water quality standards for single samples, Helicobacter or H. pylori were detected in 7/15 (47%) cases. No numerical correlation was found between the presence of FIB and either Helicobacter spp. or H. pylori. This suggests that the presence of FIB will be of limited use for detection of Helicobacter spp. or H. pylori by public health agencies.

  3. Treating Stormwater with Green Infrastructure: Plants, Residence Time Distributions, and the Removal of Fecal Indicator Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, E.; Grant, S. B.; Rippy, M.; Winfrey, B.; Mehring, A.

    2015-12-01

    In many cities, green infrastructure is increasingly used to capture and treat stormwater runoff, due to the many opportunities these systems afford for protecting receiving water quality and ecology while mitigating water scarcity. Here, we focus on how plants affect the removal of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in newly-constructed stormwater biofilters, a type of green infrastructure consisting of unconsolidated granular media containing one or more plant species. Input-response experiments were carried out using both non-reactive (salt) and reactive (sewage) tracers on six laboratory-scale (~1m long by 24 cm diameter) biofilters, half of which were planted with the sedge Carex appressa (treatment replicates) and half of which were unplanted (control replicates). C. appressa modifies the residence time distribution (RTD) in a biofilter by creating preferential flow paths along which water and mass can move quickly, but does not appear to alter the intrinsic rate at which FIB are removed. Thus, the "green" component of green infrastructure can alter pollutant removal by changing the RTD, with or without a concomitant change in pollutant reactivity.

  4. Modeling fecal bacteria transport and retention in agricultural and urban soils under saturated and unsaturated flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Balkhair, Khaled S

    2017-03-01

    Pathogenic bacteria, that enter surface water bodies and groundwater systems through unmanaged wastewater land application, pose a great risk to human health. In this study, six soil column experiments were conducted to simulate the vulnerability of agricultural and urban field soils for fecal bacteria transport and retention under saturated and unsaturated flow conditions. HYDRUS-1D kinetic attachment and kinetic attachment-detachment models were used to simulate the breakthrough curves of the experimental data by fitting model parameters. Results indicated significant differences in the retention and drainage of bacteria between saturated and unsaturated flow condition in the two studied soils. Flow under unsaturated condition retained more bacteria than the saturated flow case. The high bacteria retention in the urban soil compared to agricultural soil is ascribed not only to the dynamic attachment and sorption mechanisms but also to the greater surface area of fine particles and low flow rate. All models simulated experimental data satisfactorily under saturated flow conditions; however, under variably saturated flow, the peak concentrations were overestimated by the attachment-detachment model and underestimated by the attachment model with blocking. The good match between observed data and simulated concentrations by the attachment model which was supported by the Akaike information criterion (AIC) for model selection indicates that the first-order attachment coefficient was sufficient to represent the quantitative and temporal distribution of bacteria in the soil column. On the other hand, the total mass balance of the drained and retained bacteria in all transport experiments was in the range of values commonly found in the literature. Regardless of flow conditions and soil texture, most of the bacteria were retained in the top 12 cm of the soil column. The approaches and the models used in this study have proven to be a good tool for simulating fecal

  5. Effects of receiving-water quality and wastewater treatment on injury, survival, and regrowth of fecal-indicator bacteria and implications for assessment of recreational water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, D.S.; Hart, T.L.; Virosteck, C.M.

    1996-01-01

    Bacterial injury, survival, and regrowth were investigated by use of replicate flow-through incubation chambers placed in the Cuyahoga River or Lake Erie in the greater Cleveland metropolitan area during seven 4-day field studies. The chambers contained wastewater or combined-sewer-overflow (CSO) effluents treated three ways-unchlorinated, chlorinated, and dechlorinated. At timestep intervals, the chamber contents were analyzed for concentrations of injured and healthy fecal coliforms by use of standard selective and enhanced-recovery membrane-filtration methods. Mean percent injuries and survivals were calculated from the fecal-coliform concentration data for each field study. The results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that treatment affected mean percent injury and survival, whereas site did not. In the warm-weather Lake Erie field study, but not in the warm-weather Cuyahoga River studies, the results of ANOVA indicated that dechlorination enhanced the repair of injuries and regrowth of chlorine-injured fecal coliforms on culture media over chlorination alone. The results of ANOVA on the percent injury from CSO effluent field studies indicated that dechlorination reduced the ability of organisms to recover and regrow on culture media over chlorination alone. However, because of atypical patterns of concentration increases and decreases in some CSO effluent samples, more work needs to be done before the effect of dechlorination and chlorination on reducing fecal-coliform concentrations in CSO effluents can be confirmed. The results of ANOVA on percent survivals found statistically significant differences among the three treatment methods for all but one study. Dechlorination was found to be less effective than chlorination alone in reducing the survival of fecal coliforms in wastewater effluent, but not in CSO effluent. If the concentration of fecal coliforms determined by use of the enhanced-recovery method can be predicted accurately from the

  6. Molecular detection of Campylobacter spp. and fecal indicator bacteria during the northern migration of Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Central Platte River

    EPA Science Inventory

    The annual Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) migration through Nebraska is thought to be a major source of fecal pollution to the Platte River, but of unknown human health risk. To better understand potential risks, the presence of Campylobacter species and fecal bacteria were exa...

  7. Molecular detection of Campylobacter spp. and fecal indicator bacteria during the northern migration of Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Central Platte River

    EPA Science Inventory

    The annual Sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) migration through Nebraska is thought to be a major source of fecal pollution to the Platte River, but of unknown human health risk. To better understand potential risks, the presence of Campylobacter species and fecal bacteria were exa...

  8. Salmonella and fecal indicator bacteria in tile waters draining poultry litter application fields in central Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hruby, C.; Soupir, M.

    2012-12-01

    E. coli and enterococci are commonly used as pathogen indicators in surface waters. Along with these indicators, pathogenic Salmonella are prevalent in poultry litter, and have the potential to be transported from land-application areas to tile waters and ultimately to impact waters that are used for drinking-water and recreation. The fate and transport of these bacteria to drainage tiles from application fields, and the correlation of fecal indicator bacteria to pathogens in this setting, is poorly understood. In this field study, samples were obtained from poultry litter, soil, and drainage tile waters below chisel-plowed and no-till cornfields in central Iowa where poultry litter was applied each year in late spring prior to planting. Litter was applied at three different rates; commercial fertilizer with no litter, a low application rate based on the nitrogen requirements of the corn (PL1), and double the low rate (PL2). This site is characterized by low sloping (0-9%) Clarion and Nicollet soils, which are derived from glacial till. Samples were collected from April to September for three years (2010-12) when tiles were flowing. Record high precipitation fell during the sampling period in 2010, while 2011 and 2012 were exceptionally dry years at this location. Grab samples were taken directly from flowing tiles after every rainfall event (>2 cm in less than 24 hours) and samples were collected hourly throughout selected events using an automatic sampling device. Concentrations of E. coli, enterococci and Salmonella spp. were quantified by membrane filtration and growth on selective agars. Peak bacteria concentrations following rainfall events were often one order of magnitude higher in tile waters discharging from no-till plots, despite the smaller size and lower tile flow rates at these plots compared to the chisel-plowed plots. Bacteria concentrations regularly varied by two orders of magnitude in response to rainfall events. Bacteria transport via macropores

  9. Validation of the H2S method to detect bacteria of fecal origin by cultured and molecular methods.

    PubMed

    McMahan, Lanakila; Devine, Anthony A; Grunden, Amy M; Sobsey, Mark D

    2011-12-01

    Using biochemical and molecular methods, this research determined whether or not the H(2)S test did correctly identify sewage-contaminated waters by being the first to use culturing and molecular methods to identify the types and numbers of fecal indicator organisms, pathogens, and other microbes present in sewage samples with positive H(2)S test results. For the culture-based method, samples were analyzed for the presence of fecal bacteria by spread plating the sewage sample onto differential and selective media for Aeromonas spp., Escherichia coli, sulfite-reducing clostridia, H(2)S-producing bacteria, and Salmonella/Shigella spp. The isolates were then: (1) tested to determine whether they were H(2)S-producing organisms and (2) identified to the genus and species level using biochemical methods. The molecular method used to characterize the microbial populations of select samples was terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms. These experiments on sewage provided evidence that positive H(2)S tests consistently contained fecal bacteria and pathogens. There were strong relationships of agreement between the organisms identified by both methods tested. This study is an important advance in microbial water quality detection since it is focused on the evaluation of a novel, low-cost, water microbiology test that has the potential to provide millions of people worldwide access to water quality detection technology. Of prime consideration in evaluating water quality tests is the determination of the test's accuracy and specificity, and this article is a fundamental step in providing that information.

  10. Survival of Salmonella spp. and fecal indicator bacteria in Vietnamese biogas digesters receiving pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Huong, Luu Quynh; Forslund, Anita; Madsen, Henry; Dalsgaard