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Sample records for fecob alloy particles

  1. Engineering optical mode ferromagnetic resonance in FeCoB films with ultrathin Ru insertion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shandong; Wang, Cuiling; Chu, Xian-Ming; Miao, Guo-Xing; Xue, Qian; Zou, Wenqin; Liu, Meimei; Xu, Jie; Li, Qiang; Dai, Youyong; Yan, Shishen; Kang, Shishou; Long, Yunze; Lü, Yueguang

    2016-01-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) in soft magnetic films (SMFs) to a large extent determines the maximum working frequency of magnetic devices. The FMR frequency (fr) in an optical mode is usually much higher than that in the corresponding acoustic mode for exchange coupled ferromagnet/nonmagnet/ferromagnet (FM/NM/FM) trilayers. In this study, we prepared a 50 nm FeCoB film with uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA), showing a high acoustic mode fr of 4.17 GHz. When an ultrathin Ru spacer was inserted in the very middle of the UMA-FeCoB film, the zero-field FMR was abruptly switched from an acoustic mode to an optical one with fr dramatically enhanced from 4.17 GHz to 11.32 GHz. Furthermore, the FMR mode can be readily tuned to optical mode only, acoustic mode only, or double mode by simply varying the applied filed, which provides a flexible way to design multi-band microwave devices. PMID:27628089

  2. The kinetics of composite particle formation during mechanical alloying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, B. J. M.; Courtney, T. H.

    1993-01-01

    The kinetics of composite particle formation during attritor milling of insoluble binary elemental powders have been examined. The effects of processing conditions (i.e., mill power, temperature, and charge ratio) on these kinetics were studied. Particle size distributions and fractions of elemental and composite particles were determined as functions of milling time and processing conditions. This allowed the deduction of phenomenological rate constants describing the propensity for fracture and welding during processing. For the mill-operating conditions investigated, the number of particles in the mill generally decreased with milling time, indicating a greater tendency for particle welding than fracture. Moreover, a bimodal size distribution is often obtained as a result of preferential welding. Copper and chromium 'alloy' primarily by encapsulation of Cr particles within Cu. This form of alloying also occurs in Cu-Nb alloys processed at low mill power and/or for short milling times. For other conditions, however, Cu-Nb alloys develop a lamellar morphology characteristic of mechanically alloyed two-phase ductile metals. Increasing mill power or charge (ball-to-powder weight) ratio (CR) increases the rate of composite particle formation.

  3. Cast aluminum alloys containing dispersions of zircon particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerji, A.; Surappa, M. K.; Rohatgi, P. K.

    1983-06-01

    A process for preparing Al-alloy castings containing dispersions of zircon particles is described. Composites were prepared by stirring zircon particles (40 to 200 µm size) in commercially pure Al (99.5 pct)* and Al-11.8 pct Si melts and subsequently casting these melts in permanent molds. It was found to be necessary to alloy the above two melts with 3 pct Mg to disperse substantial amounts of zircon particles (25 to 30 pct). Further, it was possible to disperse up to 60 wt pct zircon by adding up to 5 pct Mg; however, the melts containing above 30 wt pct zircon showed insufficient fluidity for gravity diecasting and had to be pressure diecast. Microstructural studies of cast composites indicated the presence of a reaction zone at the periphery of zircon particles, and electron probe microanalysis showed concentrations of Mg and Si at the particle-matrix interface. Hardness, abrasive wear resistance, elastic modulus, 0.2 pct proof stress, and tensile strength of cast Al-3 pct Mg alloy were found to improve with the dispersions of zircon particles. Scanning electron micrographs of abraded and fractured surfaces did not show any evidence of particle pull-outs or voids at the particle matrix interface, indicating strong continuous bonding.

  4. Characteristics of alumina particles in dispersion-strengthened copper alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xue-hui; Li, Xiao-xian

    2014-11-01

    Two types of alumina dispersion-strengthened copper (ADSC) alloys were fabricated by a novel in-situ reactive synthesis (IRS) and a traditional internal oxidation (IO) process. The features of alumina dispersoids in these ADSC alloys were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It is found that nano-sized γ-Al2O3 particles of approximately 10 nm in diameter are homogeneously distributed in the IRS-ADSC composites. Meanwhile, larger-sized, mixed crystal structure alumina with rod-shaped morphology is embedded in the IO-ADSC alloy. The IRS-ADSC composites can obtain better mechanical and physical properties than the IO-ADSC composites; the tensile strength of the IRS-ADSC alloy can reach 570 MPa at room temperature, its electrical conductivity is 85% IACS, and the Rockwell hardness can reach 86 HRB.

  5. Composite of coated magnetic alloy particle

    DOEpatents

    Moorhead, Arthur J.; Kim, Hyoun-Ee

    2000-01-01

    A composite structure and method for manufacturing same, the composite structure being comprised of metal particles and an inorganic bonding media. The method comprises the steps of coating particles of a metal powder with a thin layer of an inorganic bonding media selected from the group of powders consisting of a ceramic, glass, and glass-ceramic. The particles are assembled in a cavity and heat, with or without the addition of pressure, is thereafter applied to the particles until the layer of inorganic bonding media forms a strong bond with the particles and with the layer of inorganic bonding media on adjacent particles. The resulting composite structure is strong and remains cohesive at high temperatures.

  6. Platinum- and platinum alloy-coated palladium and palladium alloy particles and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Adzic, Radoslav; Zhang, Junliang; Mo, Yibo; Vukmirovic, Miomir Branko

    2010-04-06

    The present invention relates to particle and nanoparticle composites useful as oxygen-reduction electrocatalysts. The particle composites are composed of a palladium or palladium-alloy particle or nanoparticle substrate coated with an atomic submonolayer, monolayer, bilayer, or trilayer of zerovalent platinum atoms. The invention also relates to a catalyst and a fuel cell containing the particle or nanoparticle composites of the invention. The invention additionally includes methods for oxygen reduction and production of electrical energy by using the particle and nanoparticle composites of the invention.

  7. Molecular basis of carcinogenicity of tungsten alloy particles

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Robert M.; Williams, Tim D.; Waring, Rosemary H.; Hodges, Nikolas J.

    2015-03-15

    The tungsten alloy of 91% tungsten, 6% nickel and 3% cobalt (WNC 91–6–3) induces rhabdomyosarcoma when implanted into a rat thigh muscle. To investigate whether this effect is species-specific human HSkMc primary muscle cells were exposed to WNC 91–6–3 particles and responses were compared with those from a rat skeletal muscle cell line (L6-C11). Toxicity was assessed by the adenylate kinase assay and microscopy, DNA damage by the Comet assay. Caspase 3 enzyme activity was measured and oligonucleotide microarrays were used for transcriptional profiling. WNC 91–6–3 particles caused toxicity in cells adjacent to the particles and also increased DNA strand breaks. Inhibition of caspase 3 by WNC 91–6–3 occurred in rat but not in human cells. In both rat and human cells, the transcriptional response to WNC 91–6–3 showed repression of transcripts encoding muscle-specific proteins with induction of glycolysis, hypoxia, stress responses and transcripts associated with DNA damage and cell death. In human cells, genes encoding metallothioneins were also induced, together with genes related to angiogenesis, dysregulation of apoptosis and proliferation consistent with pre-neoplastic changes. An alloy containing iron, WNF 97–2–1, which is non-carcinogenic in vivo in rats, did not show these transcriptional changes in vitro in either species while the corresponding cobalt-containing alloy, WNC 97–2–1 elicited similar responses to WNC 91–6–3. Tungsten alloys containing both nickel and cobalt therefore have the potential to be carcinogenic in man and in vitro assays coupled with transcriptomics can be used to identify alloys, which may lead to tumour formation, by dysregulation of biochemical processes. - Highlights: • Use of transcriptomics to identify likely carcinogenic tungsten alloys in vitro • Cobalt containing alloys cause oxidative stress, DNA-damage and perturb apoptosis. • Presence of cobalt causes changes in gene expression

  8. Erosion of iron-chromium alloys by glass particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salik, J.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    The material loss upon erosion was measured for several iron-chromium alloys. Two types of erodent material were used: spherical glass beads and sharp particles of crushed glass. For erosion with glass beads the erosion resistance (defined as the reciprocal of material loss rate) was linearly dependent on hardness. This is in accordance with the erosion behavior of pure metals, but contrary to the erosion behavior of alloys of constant composition that were subjected to different heat treatments. For erosion with crushed glass, however, no correlation existed between hardness and erosion resistance. Instead, the erosion resistance depended on alloy composition rather than on hardness and increased with the chromium content of the alloy. The difference in erosion behavior for the two types of erodent particles suggested that two different material removal mechanisms were involved. This was confirmed by SEM micrographs of the eroded surfaces, which showed that for erosion with glass beads the mechanism of material removal was deformation-induced flaking of surface layers, or peening, whereas for erosion with crushed glass it was cutting or chopping.

  9. Dissolution of particles in binary alloys: part II. experimental investigation on an Al-Si alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tundal, Ulf H.; Ryum, Nils

    1992-02-01

    A detailed experimental study of the dissolution kinetics of Si particles in an Al-Si alloy has been carried out in order to test the validity of the two models presented in the accompanying article.[1] In these models, the dissolution kinetics are dependent on the particle size distribution of the alloy. An alloy with composition Co = 0.77 at. pct Si was heat-treated in order to obtain rather coarse spherical particles (1 to 10 μn). The size distribution of the particles was found to be close to the log-normal distribution. At high temperatures, when the solvus concentration was well above Co, the experimental values were very close to the values of the model which predicted the highest dissolution rates. At lower temperatures, when the solvus concentration was closer to C o, the experimental values lay in between the values predicted by the two models. The results clearly demonstrate that a size distribution of particles must be included in the model if an accurate prediction of the dissolution kinetics is to be achieved.

  10. Hydrogen absorption induced metal deposition on palladium and palladium-alloy particles

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jia X.; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to methods for producing metal-coated palladium or palladium-alloy particles. The method includes contacting hydrogen-absorbed palladium or palladium-alloy particles with one or more metal salts to produce a sub-monoatomic or monoatomic metal- or metal-alloy coating on the surface of the hydrogen-absorbed palladium or palladium-alloy particles. The invention also relates to methods for producing catalysts and methods for producing electrical energy using the metal-coated palladium or palladium-alloy particles of the present invention.

  11. Secondary particles precipitates in Be-Fe alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, V. P.; Petrov, V. I.; Martynenko, S. S.; Salomasov, V. A.

    2016-12-01

    Mössbauer spectra of monocrystalline Be-Fe alloy (0.85 % Fe) were obtained with the use of resonant detector after isothermal annealing at 600 °C for total duration of 2659 hours, and Mössbauer spectra of coarse-grained Be-Fe alloys (0,09-0,80 % Fe) samples were obtained after annealing at 500-600 °C for different durations. The alloys were prepared from the beryllium of different purity. Spectra of phases were fitted by a convolution equation of the three Lorentz lines. The coherent analysis of the solid solution decomposition process by means of the kinetic law classification and the secondary particles precipitate growth processes based on the diffusion models has been implemented. Nucleation on the numerous dislocation clusters and diffusion growth of the FeBe 11 nano-particles are the dominant processes in the analyzed materials. The phase distribution, the incubation period and the diffusion path were obtained. The dependence between the impurity concentration and Mössbauer parameters of the phases is discussed.

  12. Modeling the Controlled Recrystallization of Particle-Containing Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Khaled; Root, Jameson M.; Long, Zhengdong; Field, David P.

    2017-01-01

    The recrystallized fraction for AA7050 during the solution heat treatment is highly dependent upon the history of deformation during thermomechanical processing. In this work, a state variable model was developed to predict the recrystallization volume fraction as a function of processing parameters. Particle stimulated nucleation (PSN) was observed as a dominant mechanism of recrystallization in AA7050. The mesoscale Monte Carlo Potts model was used to simulate the evolved microstructure during static recrystallization with the given recrystallization fraction determined already by the state variable model for AA7050 alloy. The spatial inhomogeneity of nucleation is obtained from the measurement of the actual second-phase particle distribution in the matrix identified using backscattered electron (BSE) imaging. The state variable model showed good fit with the experimental results, and the simulated microstructures were quantitatively comparable to the experimental results for the PSN recrystallized microstructure of 7050 aluminum alloy. It was also found that the volume fraction of recrystallization did not proceed as dictated by the Avrami equation in this alloy because of the presence of the growth inhibitors.

  13. Modeling the Controlled Recrystallization of Particle-Containing Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Khaled; Root, Jameson M.; Long, Zhengdong; Field, David P.

    2016-12-01

    The recrystallized fraction for AA7050 during the solution heat treatment is highly dependent upon the history of deformation during thermomechanical processing. In this work, a state variable model was developed to predict the recrystallization volume fraction as a function of processing parameters. Particle stimulated nucleation (PSN) was observed as a dominant mechanism of recrystallization in AA7050. The mesoscale Monte Carlo Potts model was used to simulate the evolved microstructure during static recrystallization with the given recrystallization fraction determined already by the state variable model for AA7050 alloy. The spatial inhomogeneity of nucleation is obtained from the measurement of the actual second-phase particle distribution in the matrix identified using backscattered electron (BSE) imaging. The state variable model showed good fit with the experimental results, and the simulated microstructures were quantitatively comparable to the experimental results for the PSN recrystallized microstructure of 7050 aluminum alloy. It was also found that the volume fraction of recrystallization did not proceed as dictated by the Avrami equation in this alloy because of the presence of the growth inhibitors.

  14. Angular distribution of particles sputtered from metals and alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wucher, A.; Reuter, W.

    1988-07-01

    The angular distributions of atoms sputtered from pure Cu and Be as well as Cu/sub 98/Be/sub 2/, Cu/sub 71/Zn/sub 29/, Co/sub 3/Au, and WSi/sub 2.3/ were investigated for bombardment with Ar/sup +/ ions of 250 eV and 2 keV under normal incidence. Between polar emission angles theta = 0/sup 0/ and 60/sup 0/, for the higher bombarding energy all observed angular distributions look very much alike and follow essentially a cos/sup 3/ theta law. For the low bombarding energy, however, significant differences between the angular distributions of the alloy constituents are found. The effect, which is most pronounced for CuBe, seems to scale with the atomic mass in the way that the lower mass particles are sputtered preferentially along the surface normal.

  15. Damage by eutectic particle cracking in aluminum casting alloys A356/357

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. G.; Caceres, C. H.; Griffiths, J. R.

    2003-12-01

    The strain dependence of particle cracking in aluminum alloys A356/357 in the T6 temper has been studied in a range of microstructures produced by varying solidification rate and Mg content, and by chemical (Sr) modification of the eutectic silicon. The damage accumulates linearly with the applied strain for all microstructures, but the rate depends on the secondary dendrite arm spacing and modification state. Large and elongated eutectic silicon particles in the unmodified alloys and large π-phase (Al9FeMg3Si5) particles in alloy A357 show the greatest tendency to cracking. In alloy A356, cracking of eutectic silicon particles dominates the accumulation of damage while cracking of Fe-rich particles is relatively unimportant. However, in alloy A357, especially with Sr modification, cracking of the large π-phase intermetallics accounts for the majority of damage at low and intermediate strains but becomes comparable with silicon particle cracking at large strains. Fracture occurs when the volume fraction of cracked particles (eutectic silicon and Fe-rich intermetallics combined) approximates 45 pct of the total particle volume fraction or when the number fraction of cracked particles is about 20 pct. The results are discussed in terms of Weibull statistics and existing models for dispersion hardening.

  16. In Situ Reaction Kinetics and Microstructure Evolution in Preparing Particle-Containing Copper Alloys by Mechanical Alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Mingxing; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xukai

    2015-04-01

    To improve alloy properties and the distribution level of TiB2 particles in the alloy matrix, mechanical alloying was used to prepare the Cu-TiB2 alloy. But even after long-time ball milling, the in situ reaction between Cu-B and Cu-Ti alloy powders still cannot be observed in the whole process. The kinetics of the in situ reaction during high-temperature heat treatment was first investigated and led to the following results. With the increase of heat-treatment time t or diffusion depth X, both the moving speed Δ x/Δ t of reaction front edge and nucleation rate Z( x) of TiB2 particles decrease at a fast rate and finally stabilize at a very low level. The falling rate of moving speed Δ x/Δ t increases with the decrease of temperature. Although the C Ti' value of the Ti element gives a poor effect on the moving speed Δ x/Δ t, it significantly affects the nucleation rate of TiB2 particles, and its falling rate increases with a decreasing C Ti' value. And for the same diffusion depth X and C Ti', the nucleation rate of TiB2 decreases with increasing the heat-treatment temperature. These results were verified by the microstructure change after the heat treatments at temperatures of 773 K, 973 K, and 1173 K (500 °C, 700 °C, and 900 °C), respectively. Finally, the best combination of ball-milling and heat-treatment conditions was obtained.

  17. Development of porosity in an oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloy containing nanoscale oxide particles

    SciTech Connect

    Schneibel, Joachim H; Liu, Chain T; Hoelzer, David T; Mills, Michael J.; Sarosi, P. M.; Hayashi, Taisuke; Wendt, Ullrich; Heyse, Hartmut

    2007-01-01

    The development of porosity at 1000 C in an oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic alloy containing ultra-fine oxide particles with diameters on the order of a few nm is investigated. A comparison with an alloy fabricated by internal oxidation demonstrates that the porosity formation is associated with mechanical alloying with Y2O3 in argon. The pores grow in spite of a sub-micron grain size suggesting that the grain boundaries are not effective paths for removing entrapped gas from the pores.

  18. The effect of dispersoid particle size on the superplasticity of Al-Mg alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Chanda, T.; Ghosh, A.K.; Lavender, C.

    1995-12-31

    An Al-Mg alloy containing dispersoid forming elements such as Mn, Cr and Zr was thermomechanically processed with variations in processing history to produce nearly the same grain size ({approximately}6 {micro}m), but different distribution of size and density of intermetallic particles. Mechanical response of these materials were studied within the superplastic deformation regime in terms of stress-strain, stress-strain rate characteristics, cavitation and grain growth, and superplastic tensile elongation. In this work particles of approximately 500 nm size have been found to cause grain refinement after 90% rolling reduction contrary to previous findings of 2 {micro}m particles in an Al-0.45% Cu alloy. Particles with 200 to 500 nm size favorably influence superplastic elongation, but particle sizes in the range of 600 to 900 nm appear to have adverse effect in terms of superplastic flow properties, due to excessive cavitation.

  19. Embedded Shape Memory Alloy Particles for the Self-Sensing of Fatigue Crack Growth in an Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leser, William Paul

    Future aerospace vehicles will be built using novel materials for mission conditions that are difficult to replicate in a laboratory. Structural health monitoring and condition-based maintenance will be critical to ensure the reliability of such vehicles. A multi-functional aluminum alloy containing embedded shape memory alloy (SMA) particles to detect fatigue crack growth is proposed. The regions of intensified strain near the tip of a growing fatigue crack cause the SMA particles to undergo a solid-to-solid phase transformation from austenite to martensite, releasing a detectable and identifiable acoustic emission (AE) signal that can be used to locate the crack in the affected component. This study investigates the AE response of two SMA systems, Ni-Ti, and Co-Ni-Al. Tensile (Ni-Ti) and compressive (Co-Ni-Al) tests were conducted to study the strain-induced transformation response in both of the alloy systems. It was found that the critical stress for transformation in both SMA systems was easily identified by a burst of AE activity during both transformation and reverse transformation. AE signals from these experiments were collected for use as training data for a Bayesian classifier to be used to identify transformation signals in a Al7050 matrix with embedded SMA particles. The Al/SMA composite was made by vacuum hot pressing SMA powder between aluminum plates. The effect of hot pressing temperature and subsequent heat treatments (solutionizing and peak aging) on the SMA particles was studied. It was found that, at the temperatures required, Co-Ni-Al developed a second phase that restricted the transformation from austenite to martensite, thus rendering it ineffective as a candidate for the embedded particles. Conversely, Ni-Ti did survive the embedding process and it was found that the solutionizing heat treatment applied after hot pressing was the main driver in determining the final transformation temperatures for the Ni-Ti particles. The effect of hot

  20. Determination of the area density and composition of alloy film using dual alpha particle energy loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaojun; Li, Bo; Gao, Dangzhong; Xu, Jiayun; Tang, Yongjian

    2017-02-01

    A novel method based on dual α-particles energy loss (DAEL) is proposed for measuring the area density and composition of binary alloy films. In order to obtain a dual-energy α-particles source, an ingenious design that utilizes the transmitted α-particles traveling the thin film as a new α-particles source is presented. Using the DAEL technique, the area density and composition of Au/Cu film are determined accurately with an uncertainty of better than 10%. Finally, some measures for improving the combined uncertainty are discussed.

  1. Composite of ceramic-coated magnetic alloy particles

    DOEpatents

    Moorhead, Arthur J.; Kim, Hyoun-Ee

    2000-01-01

    A composite structure and method for manufacturing same, the composite structure being comprised of metal particles and an inorganic bonding media. The method comprises the steps of coating particles of a metal powder with a thin layer of an inorganic bonding media selected from the group of powders consisting of a ceramic, glass, and glass-ceramic. The particles are assembled in a cavity and heat, with or without the addition of pressure, is thereafter applied to the particles until the layer of inorganic bonding media forms a strong bond with the particles and with the layer of inorganic bonding media on adjacent particles. The resulting composite structure is strong and remains cohesive at high temperatures.

  2. Ignition and combustion of aluminum/magnesium alloy particles in O2 at high pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Ted A.; Burton, Rodney L.; Krier, Herman

    1993-01-01

    The ignition and combustion of Al, Mg, and Al/Mg alloy particles in 99 percent O2/1 percent N2 mixtures is investigated at high temperatures and pressures for rocket engine applications. The 20-micron particles contain 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 wt pct Mg alloyed with Al, and are ignited in oxygen using the reflected shock in a single-pulse shock tube near the endwall. Using this technique, the ignition delay and combustion times of the particles are measured at temperatures up to 3250 K as a function of Mg content for oxygen pressures of 8.5, 17, and 34 atm. An ignition model is developed that employs a simple lumped capacitance energy equation and temperature and pressure dependent particle and gas properties. Good agreement is achieved between the measured and predicted trends in the ignition delay times.

  3. Solid-particle erosion behavior of cast alloys used in the mining industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atapek, Ş. Hakan; Fidan, Sinan

    2015-12-01

    The erosive-wear response of five commercial ferrous-based cast alloys used for crushing was examined in this study. The microstructures of the alloys were modified to elucidate the effect of microstructural features on wear. Erosion tests were conducted using aluminum oxide particles (90-125 μm) at 70 m/s and a normal impact angle (90°). The worn surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and 3D non-contact laser profilometry. It is found that (i) a pearlitic structure exhibiting a greater plastic deformation than both bainitic and martensitic structures shows the greatest resistance to erosive wear at normal impact and (ii) the fracture characteristics of carbide and graphite particles plays an important role in determining the erosion wear behavior of the cast alloy matrices.

  4. Influence of Sludge Particles on the Tensile Properties of Die-Cast Secondary Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Stefano; Timelli, Giulio

    2015-04-01

    The effects of sludge intermetallic particles on the mechanical properties of a secondary AlSi9Cu3(Fe) die-casting alloy have been studied. Different alloys have been produced by systematically varying the Fe, Mn, and Cr contents within the composition tolerance limits of the standard EN AC-46000 alloy. The microstructure shows primary α-Al x (Fe,Mn,Cr) y Si z sludge particles, with polyhedral and star-like morphologies, although the presence of primary β-Al5FeSi phase is also observed at the highest Fe:Mn ratio. The volume fraction of primary compounds increases as the Fe, Mn, and Cr contents increase and this can be accurately predicts from the Sludge Factor by a linear relationship. The sludge amount seems to not influence the size and the content of porosity in the die-cast material. Furthermore, the sludge factor is not a reliable parameter to describe the mechanical properties of the die-cast AlSi9Cu3(Fe) alloy, because this value does not consider the mutual interaction between the elements. In the analyzed range of composition, the design of experiment methodology and the analysis of variance have been used in order to develop a semi-empirical model that accurately predicts the mechanical properties of the die-cast AlSi9Cu3(Fe) alloys as function of Fe, Mn, and Cr concentrations.

  5. Effect of nano-oxide particle size on radiation resistance of iron-chromium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Weizong; Li, Lulu; Valdez, James A.; Saber, Mostafa; Zhu, Yuntian; Koch, Carl C.; Scattergood, Ronald O.

    2016-02-01

    Radiation resistance of Fe-14Cr alloys under 200 keV He irradiation at 500 °C was systematically investigated with varying sizes of nano oxide Zr, Hf and Cr particles. It is found that these nano oxide particles acted as effective sites for He bubble formation. By statistically analyzing 700-1500 He bubbles at the depth of about 150-700 nm from a series of HRTEM images for each sample, we established the variation of average He bubble size, He bubble density, and swelling percentage along the depth, and found them to be consistent with the He concentration profile calculated from the SIRM program. Oxide particles with sizes less than 3.5-4 nm are found most effective for enhancing radiation resistance in the studied alloy systems.

  6. Physical and Mechanical Properties of LoVAR: A New Lightweight Particle-Reinforced Fe-36Ni Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, Timothy; Tricker, David; Tarrant, Andrew; Michel, Robert; Clune, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Fe-36Ni is an alloy of choice for low thermal expansion coefficient (CTE) for optical, instrument and electrical applications in particular where dimensional stability is critical. This paper outlines the development of a particle-reinforced Fe-36Ni alloy that offers reduced density and lower CTE compared to the matrix alloy. A summary of processing capability will be given relating the composition and microstructure to mechanical and physical properties.

  7. A comparison of fracture behavior of low alloy steel with different sizes of carbide particles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.Z.; Chen, J.H.

    1996-07-01

    The fracture behaviors of low alloy steels with similar grain sizes but different sizes of carbide particles were investigated using precracked and notched specimens. The results indicate that in precracked specimens (COD), steel with coarser carbide particles has a lower toughness than steel with finer carbide particles over a temperature range from {minus}196 C to {minus}90 C. However, in notched specimens (four-point bending (4PB) and Charpy V), these two steels shows similar toughness at low temperature where specimens are fractured by cleavage without fibrous cracking. In the transition temperature range, the steel with coarser carbide particles conversely shows a little higher toughness due to the longer extension length of the fibrous crack. This phenomenon indicates that in precracked specimens, the second-phase particles play a leading role in cleavage fracture, while in notched specimens, the grain size dominates the fracture behavior.

  8. Morphology Control of FeCo Alloy Particles Synthesized by Polyol Process

    SciTech Connect

    Kodama, D.; Sato, Y.; Tohji, K.; Jeyadevan, B.; Shinoda, K.; Sato, K.

    2007-03-20

    FeCo alloy is a soft magnetic material that possesses the highest saturation magnetization of 2.4 T and crystallizes in bcc structure as in the case of {alpha}-Fe. However, the particles synthesized were highly agglomerated. Thus, in this paper, an attempt was made to control the morphology of the particles using different types and concentrations of surfactants such as oleic acid, oleyl amine, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), etc., during the synthesis of the particles. Though all the surfactant experimented partially prevented the agglomeration, products had larger size distribution except for PVP, which provided nearly monodispersed particles. Furthermore, the FeCo particles synthesized in the presence of PVP were either cubic or nearly spherical depending on the concentration of Fe.

  9. Morphology Control of FeCo Alloy Particles Synthesized by Polyol Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, D.; Shinoda, K.; Sato, K.; Sato, Y.; Tohji, K.; Jeyadevan, B.

    2007-03-01

    FeCo alloy is a soft magnetic material that possesses the highest saturation magnetization of 2.4 T and crystallizes in bcc structure as in the case of α-Fe. However, the particles synthesized were highly agglomerated. Thus, in this paper, an attempt was made to control the morphology of the particles using different types and concentrations of surfactants such as oleic acid, oleyl amine, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), etc., during the synthesis of the particles. Though all the surfactant experimented partially prevented the agglomeration, products had larger size distribution except for PVP, which provided nearly monodispersed particles. Furthermore, the FeCo particles synthesized in the presence of PVP were either cubic or nearly spherical depending on the concentration of Fe.

  10. Direct production of nanostructured copper-nickel (Cu-Ni) alloy particles

    SciTech Connect

    Apaydin, Ramazan Oguzhan; Ebin, Burcak; Gurmen, Sebahattin

    2013-12-16

    Copper-Nickel (CuNi) nanostructured alloy particles were produced by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis and Hydrogen Reduction Method (USP-HR) from high purity copper and nickel nitrate aqueous solutions. The effect of the precursor solution in the range of 0.1 and 0.5 mol/L on the morphology and crystallite size of CuNi nanoparticles were investigated under 2 h running time, 700 °C operating temperature and 0.5 L/min H{sub 2} flow rate. Particle size, morphology, composition and crystallite structure were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Particle characterization studies show that nanostructured alloy particles have cubic crystal structure and they are in submicron size range with spherical morphology. The crystallite sizes of the particles calculated with Scherrer formula are 40 and 34 nm and average particles sizes observed from the SEM images are 300 and 510 nm for each experiment respectively.

  11. Effects of microstructure on the erosion of Al-Si alloys ny solid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Y. W.; Sargent, G. A.; Conrad, H.

    1987-03-01

    The effects of microstructure on the erosion of Al-Si alloys by 40 μm Al2O3 particles were investigated. The impact angle dependence of the erosion rate of Al and the Al-Si alloys exhibited the ductile signature, whereas that for pure Si showed the brittle signature. The eroded surface of pure Al was characterized by craters, lips, overlaps and folds, and platelets; that for pure Si exhibited complex radial and lateral cracking at the impact site. At shallow impact angles these features were elongated in the direction of the tangential component of the velocity in both materials. The measured erosion rates of the Al-Si alloys were found to be in accord with an inverse rule of mixtures based on pure Al and pure Si; better agreement was, however, obtained if pure Al and the eutectic were taken as the two constituents for the hypoeutectic alloys, and pure Si and the eutectic for the hypereutectic alloys. The microstructure size had two effects: (a) scaling with respect to the impact damage zone size and (b) an influence on the physical and mechanical properties which govern material removal. The present results are considered in terms of current models for the erosion of ductile and brittle materials.

  12. Controlled Release from Core-Shell Nanoporous Silica Particles for Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum Alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Xingmao; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Liu, Nanguo; ...

    2011-01-01

    Ceriumore » m (Ce) corrosion inhibitors were encapsulated into hexagonally ordered nanoporous silica particles via single-step aerosol-assisted self-assembly. The core/shell structured particles are effective for corrosion inhibition of aluminum alloy AA2024-T3. Numerical simulation proved that the core-shell nanostructure delays the release process. The effective diffusion coefficient elucidated from release data for monodisperse particles in water was 1.0 × 10 − 14  m 2 s for Ce 3+ compared to 2.5 × 10 − 13  m 2 s for NaCl. The pore size, pore surface chemistry, and the inhibitor solubility are crucial factors for the application. Microporous hydrophobic particles encapsulating a less soluble corrosion inhibitor are desirable for long-term corrosion inhibition.« less

  13. The cracking mechanism of silicon particles in an A357 aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Jien-Wei; Liu, Wen-Pin

    1996-11-01

    The cracking of Si particles in an A357 Al alloy has been investigated over a spectrum of stress and strain by varying aging strength and applying different tensile strains. The variation of the fraction of broken Si particles with stress, strain, and cleavage plane orientation has been obtained. The features of cracking reveal that cracking of Si particles is a very localized event. A dislocation pileup mechanism is the most probable one among all crack-initiation theories for explaining the behavior. Based on this mechanism, further deduction has been made to obtain the relationship between the fraction of broken particles and metallurgical factors. The present data, along with Gurlandrss and that of Low et al., have been found to verify this relationship for the effect of stress, strain, and cleavage plane orientation.

  14. Characterization of manganese-bearing particles in the vicinities of a manganese alloy plant.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pellón, Ana; Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio; Ledoux, Frédéric; Courcot, Lucie; Courcot, Dominique

    2017-05-01

    Numerous studies have associated air manganese (Mn) exposure with negative health effects, primarily neurotoxic disorders. Despite there is not a specific European regulation, institutions such as the World Health Organization (WHO) have proposed an annual average guideline value of 150 ng/m(3). Bioaccessibility and toxicity mechanisms of Mn remain unclear, however it is generally agreed that adverse health effects are strongly linked to particle size and morphology, chemical composition and oxidation state. This study aims to deepen the understanding of the physico-chemical characteristics of PM10 and deposition samples collected in an urban area in the proximities of a ferromanganese alloy plant. Total Mn content was determined by ICP-MS after a microwave-assisted acid digestion. The size, morphology and chemical composition of individual particles were studied by SEM-EDX. XRD was used to identify the major crystalline phases. Most of the particles observed by SEM-EDX contain Mn. 60% of Mn-PM10 particles were spheres of small size and were attributed to condensation processes at the smelting unit. Mn-bearing particles present in deposition were characterized by irregular shapes and bigger sizes, most of them consisting of SiMn slags and Mn ores and alloys, and attributed to diffuse emissions from raw material and product handling and processing. Due to the differences in the characteristics of Mn-bearing particles found in the different matrices, further studies on the potential toxicity and health effects of these particles should be done, especially in relation with the small and spherical particles present in PM10, which are expected to be more problematic.

  15. Effects of Solute and Second-Phase Particles on the Texture of Nd-Containing Mg Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadorn, Jason P.; Hantzsche, Kerstin; Yi, Sangbong; Bohlen, Jan; Letzig, Dietmar; Agnew, Sean R.

    2012-04-01

    Hot-rolled, binary Mg-Nd alloys with compositions ≥0.095 at. pct undergo the texture weakening phenomenon that has been reported in a number of Mg-rare earth (RE) alloys. However, alloys with compositions ≤0.01 at. pct retain a strong basal texture typical of pure Mg and other Mg alloys. Measurements of intragranular misorientation axes obtained using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) show that more dilute alloys contain predominantly basal < a > dislocations, while richer alloys contain primarily prismatic < a > dislocations. It is suggested that this change in dislocation content is related to a change in the dynamic recrystallization (DRX) mechanism. Metastable second-phase Mg x Nd1- x intermetallic particles are present within the alloys, and an annealing study indicates that the alloys undergoing texture weakening have grain sizes well predicted by classical Zener drag theory. Even though the more dilute alloys also contain second-phase particles, they are not sufficient to induce pinning. The promotion of nonbasal slip and the reduction in grain boundary mobility due to Zener drag are suggested as controlling mechanisms that promote the observed texture weakening phenomena.

  16. Microstructure Refinement After the Addition of Titanium Particles in AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Resistance Spot Welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, L.; Liu, L.; Esmaeili, S.; Zhou, Y.

    2012-02-01

    Microstructural evolution of AZ31 magnesium alloy welds without and with the addition of titanium powders during resistance spot welding was studied using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The fusion zone of AZ31 magnesium alloy welds could be divided into columnar dendritic zone (CDZ) and equiaxed dendritic zone (EDZ). The well-developed CDZ in the vicinity of the fusion boundary was clearly restricted and the coarse EDZ in the central region was efficiently refined by adding titanium powders into the molten pool, compared with the as-received alloy welds. A microstructural analysis showed that these titanium particles of approximately 8 µm diameter acted as inoculants and promoted the nucleation of α-Mg grains and the formation of equiaxed dendritic grains during resistance spot welding. Tensile-shear testing was applied to evaluate the effect of titanium addition on the mechanical properties of welds. It was found that both strength and ductility of magnesium alloy welds were increased after the titanium addition. A TEM examination showed the existence of an orientation matching relationship between the added Ti particles and Mg matrix, i.e., [ {0 1bar{1}0} ]_{{Mg}} // [ { 1bar{2} 1bar{3}} ]_{{Ti}} {{and}} ( {000 2} )_{{Mg}} // ( 10bar{1}0)_{{Ti}} in some grains of Ti polycrystal particles. This local crystallographic matching could promote heterogeneous nucleation of the Mg matrix during welding. The diameter of the added Ti inoculant should be larger than 1.8 µm to make it a potent inoculant.

  17. Control of both particle and pore size in nanoporous palladium alloy powders

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Christopher G.; Cappillino, Patrick J.; Stavila, Vitalie; Robinson, David B.

    2014-07-15

    Energy storage materials often involve chemical reactions with bulk solids. Porosity within the solids can enhance reaction rates. The porosity can be either within or between individual particles of the material. Greater control of the size and uniformity of both types of pore should lead to enhancements of charging and discharging rates in energy storage systems. Furthermore, to control both particle and pore size in nanoporous palladium (Pd)-based hydrogen storage materials, first we created uniformly sized copper particles of about 1 μm diameter by the reduction of copper sulfate with ascorbic acid. In turn, these were used as reducing agents for tetrachloropalladate in the presence of a block copolymer surfactant. The copper reductant particles are geometrically self-limiting, so the resulting Pd particles are of similar size. The surfactant induces formation of 10 nm-scale pores within the particles. Some residual copper is alloyed with the Pd, reducing hydrogen storage capacity; use of a more reactive Pd salt can mitigate this. The reaction is conveniently performed in gram-scale batches.

  18. Analysis of shape memory alloy sensory particles for damage detection via substructure and continuum damage modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielefeldt, Brent R.; Benzerga, A. Amine; Hartl, Darren J.

    2016-04-01

    The ability to monitor and predict the structural health of an aircraft is of growing importance to the aerospace industry. Currently, structural inspections and maintenance are based upon experiences with similar aircraft operating in similar conditions. While effective, these methods are time-intensive and unnecessary if the aircraft is not in danger of structural failure. It is imagined that future aircraft will utilize non-destructive evaluation methods, allowing for the near real-time monitoring of structural health. A particularly interesting method involves utilizing the unique transformation response of shape memory alloy (SMA) particles embedded in an aircraft structure. By detecting changes in the mechanical and/or electromagnetic responses of embedded particles, operators could detect the formation or propagation of fatigue cracks in the vicinity of these particles. This work focuses on a finite element model of SMA particles embedded in an aircraft wing using a substructure modeling approach in which degrees of freedom are retained only at specified points of connection to other parts or the application of boundary conditions, greatly reducing computational cost. Previous work evaluated isolated particle response to a static crack to numerically demonstrate and validate this damage detection method. This paper presents the implementation of a damage model to account for crack propagation and examine for the first time the effect of particle configuration and/or relative placement with respect to the ability to detect damage.

  19. Control of both particle and pore size in nanoporous palladium alloy powders

    DOE PAGES

    Jones, Christopher G.; Cappillino, Patrick J.; Stavila, Vitalie; ...

    2014-07-15

    Energy storage materials often involve chemical reactions with bulk solids. Porosity within the solids can enhance reaction rates. The porosity can be either within or between individual particles of the material. Greater control of the size and uniformity of both types of pore should lead to enhancements of charging and discharging rates in energy storage systems. Furthermore, to control both particle and pore size in nanoporous palladium (Pd)-based hydrogen storage materials, first we created uniformly sized copper particles of about 1 μm diameter by the reduction of copper sulfate with ascorbic acid. In turn, these were used as reducing agentsmore » for tetrachloropalladate in the presence of a block copolymer surfactant. The copper reductant particles are geometrically self-limiting, so the resulting Pd particles are of similar size. The surfactant induces formation of 10 nm-scale pores within the particles. Some residual copper is alloyed with the Pd, reducing hydrogen storage capacity; use of a more reactive Pd salt can mitigate this. The reaction is conveniently performed in gram-scale batches.« less

  20. Morphology of an aluminum alloy eroded by a jet of angular particles impinging at normal incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, P. V.; Young, S. G.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    The erosion of an aluminum alloy impinged by crushed glass particles at normal incidence was studied. The erosion patterns were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and surface profilometer measurements. From the analysis of specimens tested at various driving gas pressures and time intervals, four distinct erosion regions were identified. A study of pit morphology and its relationship to cumulative erosion was made. Cutting wear is believed to be the predominant material removal mechanism; some evidence of deformation wear was found during the incubation period.

  1. Spinel Oxides Growing on Fe—Cr Alloy Particles During Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneeweiss, O.; Dubský, J.; Voleník, K.; Had, J.; Leitner, J.; Seberíni, M.

    2001-07-01

    Oxidation reactions during plasma spraying of metallic powders give rise to oxide crusts on powder particle surfaces. The first oxidation stage occurs in flight of molten particles. It is usually followed by the second stage after hitting a substrate. To investigate the oxidation products immediately after the first stage, abrupt stopping of in-flight oxidation is possible by trapping and quenching the flying particles in liquid nitrogen. In oxide crusts on plasma sprayed and liquid nitrogen quenched particles of a Fe-12%Cr alloy, two spinel oxides were indicated by Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Both are solid solutions of the type Fe3O4 - Cr3O4 (i.e., Fe3- x Cr x O4, 0 ≤ x ≤ 3). One of the oxides, tetragonally distorted spinel, is characterized by the mean value of x ≈ 2.3. It is only stable at very high temperatures. The other spinel oxide is cubic with x slightly lower than 2, i.e. almost stoichiometric chromite FeCr2O4. From thermodynamic considerations it follows that in the Fe3O4 - Cr3O4 system there is no miscibility gap at high temperatures. The simultaneous existence of both oxides is probably due to non-equilibrium conditions during liquid nitrogen quenching of trapped particles.

  2. Electromagnetic properties of flake-shaped Fe-Si alloy particles prepared by ball milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lei; Jiang, Jian-Tang; Wang, Zeng-Quan; Gong, Yuan-Xun; Liu, Chao; Zhen, Liang

    2014-11-01

    Flake-shaped Fe-Si alloy particles with high aspect ratios were fabricated by ball milling commercially available Fe-Si powder, aiming to fabricate high-performance microwave absorbing fillers for coatings applied in 1-4 GHz range. To compare with spherical particles, higher permittivity and permeability was observed by using flaky particles as fillers. High aspect ratios contributed to an enhanced dielectric relaxation in the 1-4 GHz band, resulting in an increased permittivity. The thin thickness together with the high resistivity of Fe-Si flakes was believed to be helpful for suppressing the effect of eddy current and thus lead to an increase in the permeability. The electromagnetic wave absorbing (EMA) performances were observed to be enhanced. With a thin thickness of 2 mm, a wide absorption band with a minimum reflection loss of -12 dB was achieved in 1-4 GHz range, when using 75 wt% of flaky Fe-Si particles as fillers. The study indicated that flake-shaped Fe-Si particles were a promising candidate for EMA materials in L and S bands.

  3. Single-point scratching of 6061 Al alloy reinforced by different ceramic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Cheng; Zhang, Liangchi

    1994-11-01

    Aluminium alloys reinforced by ceramic particles have been widely used in aerospace and automotive industries for their high stiffness and wear resistance. However, the machining of such materials is difficult and would usually cause excessive tool wear. The effect of ceramic particles on the cutting mechanisms is also unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the cutting mechanisms and the relationship between specific energy of scratching and depth of cut (size effect). The single-point scratch test was carried out on 6061 Al and its composites reinforced by Al2O3 and SiC ceramic particles using a pyramid indenter. The results indicated that the scratch process was composed of rubbing, ploughing, plastic cutting and reinforcement fracture. A simple model was proposed to interpret the apparent size effect. The effect of reinforcement on the specific energy was correlated to the ratio of volume fraction to particle radius. The paper found that for machining MMCs, a larger depth of cut should be used to maintain a lower machining energy, especially for those with a larger ratio of volume fraction to particle radius.

  4. High temperature high cycle fatigue behavior of new aluminum alloy strengthened by (Co, Ni)3Al4 particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyu-Sik; Sung, Si-Young; Han, Bum-Suck; Jung, Chang-Yeol; Lee, Kee-Ahn

    2014-03-01

    High cycle fatigue (HCF) behavior of a new heat-resistant aluminum alloy at elevated temperature was investigated. This alloy consists of an α-Al matrix, a small amount of precipitated Mg2Si, and distributed (Co, Ni)3Al4 strengthening particles. HCF tests were conducted with a stress ratio of (R)=0 and a frequency of (F)=30 Hz at 130 °C. The fatigue limit (maximum stress) of this alloy was 120 MPa at 107 cycles. This is a value superior to that of conventional heat-resistant aluminum alloys such as the A319 alloy. Furthermore, regardless of the stress conditions, the new heat-resistant Al alloy has an outstanding fatigue life at high temperatures. The results of fractography observation showed that second phases, especially (Co, Ni)3Al4 particles, were effective to the resistance of fatigue crack initiation and propagation. On the other hand, Mg2Si particles were more easily fractured by the fatigue crack. This study also clarifies the micromechanism of fatigue deformation behavior at elevated temperature related to its microstructure.

  5. Characterization of Wear Particles Generated from CoCrMo Alloy under Sliding Wear Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pourzal, R.; Catelas, I.; Theissmann, R.; Kaddick, C.; Fischer, A.

    2011-01-01

    Biological effects of wear products (particles and metal ions) generated by metal-on-metal (MoM) hip replacements made of CoCrMo alloy remain a major cause of concern. Periprosthetic osteolysis, potential hypersensitivity response and pseudotumour formation are possible reactions that can lead to early revisions. To accurately analyse the biological response to wear particles from MoM implants, the exact nature of these particles needs to be characterized. Most previous studies used energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis for characterization. The present study used energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction pattern analysis to allow for a more precise determination of the chemical composition and to gain knowledge of the crystalline structure of the wear particles. Particles were retrieved from two different test rigs: a reciprocating sliding wear tribometer (CoCrMo cylinder vs. bar) and a hip simulator according to ISO 14242-1 (CoCrMo head vs. CoCrMo cup). All tests were conducted in bovine serum. Particles were retrieved from the test medium using a previously published enzymatic digestion protocol. Particles isolated from tribometer samples had a size of 100 – 500 nm. Diffraction pattern analysis clearly revealed the lattice structure of strain induced hcp ε-martensite. Hip simulator samples revealed numerous particles of 15 – 30 nm and 30 – 80 nm size. Most of the larger particles appeared to be only partially oxidized and exhibited cobalt locally. The smallest particles were Cr2O3 with no trace of cobalt. It optically appeared that these Cr2O3 particles were flaking off the surface of larger particles that depicted a very high intensity of oxygen, as well as chromium, and only background noise of cobalt. The particle size difference between the two test rigs is likely related to the conditions of the two tribosystems, in particular the difference in the sample geometry and in the type of sliding

  6. Effect of Hf-Rich Particles on the Creep Life of a High-strength Nial Single Crystal Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, A.; Raj, S. V.; Darolia, R.

    1995-01-01

    Additions of small amounts of Hf and Si to NiAl single crystals significantly improve their high-temperature strength and creep properties. However, if large Hf-rich dendritic particles formed during casting of the alloyed single crystals are not dissolved completely during homogenization heat treatment, a large variation in creep rupture life can occur. This behavior, observed in five samples of a Hf containing NiAl single crystal alloy tested at 1144 K under an initial stress of 241.4 MPa, is described in detail highlighting the role of interdendritic Hf-rich particles in limiting creep rupture life.

  7. Effect of Particle Size on Wear of Particulate Reinforced Aluminum Alloy Composites at Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Suresh; Pandey, Ratandeep; Panwar, Ranvir Singh; Pandey, O. P.

    2013-11-01

    The present paper describes the effect of particle size on operative wear mechanism in particle reinforced aluminum alloy composites at elevated temperatures. Two composites containing zircon sand particles of 20-32 μm and 106-125 μm were fabricated by stir casting process. The dry sliding wear tests of the developed composites were performed at low and high loads with variation in temperatures from 50 to 300 °C. The transition in wear mode from mild-to-severe was observed with variation in temperature and load. The wear at 200 °C presented entirely different wear behavior from the one at 250 °C. The wear rate of fine size reinforced composite at 200 °C at higher load was substantially lower than that of coarse size reinforced composite. Examination of wear tracks and debris revealed that delamination occurs after run in wear mode followed by formation of smaller size wear debris, transfer of materials from the counter surfaces and mixing of these materials on the contact surfaces. The volume loss was observed to increase with increase in load and temperature. Composite containing bigger size particles exhibit higher loss under similar conditions.

  8. Influence of ECAP temperature on the formability of a particle reinforced 2017 aluminum alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, S.; Härtel, M.; Frint, P.; F-X Wagner, M.

    2017-03-01

    Severe plastic deformation methods are commonly used to increase the strength of materials by generating ultrafine-grained microstructures. The application of these methods to Al-Cu alloys is, however, difficult because of their poor formability at room temperature. An additional reduction of formability of such alloys occurs when ceramic particles are added as reinforcement: this often triggers shear localization and crack initiation during ECAP. This is the main reason why equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) of aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) can generally only be performed at elevated temperatures and using ECAP dies with a channel angle larger than 90° (e.g. 120°). In this study we present a brief first report on an alternative approach for the improvement of the formability of an AMC (AA2017, 10 % SiC): ECAP at low temperatures. We show that, using a temperature of -60 °C and a channel angle of 90° (corresponding to an equivalent strain of 1.1), ECAP of the AMC can be successfully performed without material failure. The mechanical properties of the strongly deformed AMC are analyzed by tensile testing. Our results indicate that the increased formability of the AMC at low temperatures can be attributed to the suppression of unstable plastic flow that affects formability at room temperature.

  9. Determination of isoelectric points of metals and metallic alloys by adhesion of latex particles.

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, Grégory; Cerović, Ljiljana; Milonjić, Slobodan; Fédoroff, Michel; Finne, Jörgen; Jaubertie, Anne

    2009-09-15

    A set-up and a method were developed to determine the isoelectric point of metals and metallic alloys samples (stainless steels, inconel, zircaloy, aluminum and dural) by measuring the adhesion rate of negative latex particles. The concentration of polystyrene spheres with surface carboxylate groups (initially 0.5-1 mg L(-1)) in contact with metallic samples was measured as a function of pH and time by turbidimetry. The simulation of measurements by a model predicting the sticking coefficient based on DLVO theory was used for the determination of the isoelectric point from experimental results. It was found that the isoelectric points of aluminum (8.7) and dural (9.1), treated by boiling water, are close to those of hydrated aluminum oxides powders. For stainless steels, inconel and zircaloy, the values of isoelectric points were found to be between 2.4 and 3.0, far below the isoelectric points measured for metallic oxides constituting the alloy surface layer. This difference was explained by two different charging mechanisms: (1) deprotonation of hydroxyl groups on the surface of the metal oxide in suspension or as a thick layer, (2) adsorption of hydroxide ions on a metal surface covered by a thin oxide layer, as observed on hydrophobic surfaces.

  10. Precipitation Sequence of a SiC Particle Reinforced Al-Mg-Si Alloy Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Rujuan; Wang, Yihan; Guo, Baisong; Song, Min

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the precipitation sequence of a 5 vol.% SiC particles reinforced Al-1.12 wt.%Mg-0.77 wt.%Si alloy composite fabricated by traditional powder metallurgy method was investigated by transmission electron microscopy and hardness measurements. The results indicated that the addition of SiC reinforcements not only suppresses the initial aging stage but also influences the subsequent precipitates. The precipitation sequence of the composite aged at 175 °C can be described as: Guinier-Preston (G.P.) zone → β″ → β' → B', which was confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. This work might provide the guidance for the design and fabrication of hardenable automobile body sheet by Al-based composites with enhanced mechanical properties.

  11. Deformation and fracture of a particle-reinforced aluminum alloy composite: Part I. Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, A. B.; Majumdar, B. S.; Miracle, D. B.

    2000-03-01

    Mechanical tests were performed on a powder-metallurgically processed 7093/SiC/15p discontinuously reinforced aluminum (DRA) composite in different heat-treatment conditions, to determine the influence of matrix characteristics on the composite response. The work-hardening exponent and the strain to failure varied inversely to the strength, similar to monolithic Al alloys, and this dependence was independent of the dominant damage mode. The damage consisted of SiC particle cracks, interface and near-interface debonds, and matrix rupture inside intense slip bands. Fracture surfaces revealed particle fracture-dominated damage for most of the heat-treatment conditions, including an overaged (OA) condition that exhibited a combination of precipitates at the interface and a precipitate-free zone (PFZ) in the immediate vicinity. In the highly OA conditions and in a 450°C as-rolled condition, when the composite strength became less than 400 MPa, near-interface matrix rupture became dominant. A combination of a relatively weak matrix and a weak zone around the particle likely contributed to this damage mode over that of particle fracture. Fracture-toughness tests show that it is important to maintain a proper geometry and testing procedure to obtain valid fracture-toughness data. Overaged microstructures did reveal a recovery of fracture toughness as compared to the peak-aged (PA) condition, unlike the lack of toughness recovery reported earlier for a similar 7XXX (Al-Zn-Cu-Mg)—based DRA. The PA material exhibited extensive localization of damage and plasticity. The low toughness of the DRA in this PA condition is explored in detail, using fractography and metallography. The damage and fracture micromechanisms formed the basis for modeling the strength, elongation, toughness, and damage, which are described in Part II of this work.

  12. Phosphatizing of Mg particles to improve the protective performance of Mg-rich primer on A2024 Al alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianguo; Zuo, Yu; Tang, Yuming; Lu, Xiangyu

    2014-02-01

    Mg-rich primer as a new type protective coating provides cathodic protection for Al alloy. In this paper, a kind of phosphatizing surface treatment on Mg particles was studied in order to improve the protective performance of Mg-rich primer. After treated with phosphoric acid, a protective magnesium phosphate layer was formed on the surface of Mg particles, which had no negative influence on the cathodic protection of the Mg-rich primer for Al alloy. The coating resistance of the treated Mg-rich primer was bigger than that of untreated primer, meanwhile the coating capacitance of the treated Mg-rich primer was smaller than that of untreated primer, suggesting that the barrier effect of the primer was improved and the lifetime was extended. The magnesium phosphate layer could reduce the consumption rate of Mg particles. Meanwhile, the phosphate radicals transported to Al alloy substrate to form a product layer composed of magnesium phosphate and aluminum phosphate on the substrate surface, which decreased the corrosion rate of Al alloy and improved the protective performance of the primer.

  13. Time dependence of solid-particle impingement erosion of an aluminum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veerabhadrarao, P.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Erosion studies were conducted on 6061-T6511 aluminum alloy by using jet impingement of glass beads and crushed glass particles to investigate the influence of exposure time on volume loss rate at different pressures. The results indicate a direct relationship between erosion-versus-time curves and pitmorphology (width, depth, and width-depth ratio)-versus-time curves for both glass forms. Extensive erosion data from the literature were analyzed to find the variations of erosion-rate-versus-time curves with respect to the type of device, the size and shape of erodent particles, the abrasive charge, the impact velocity, etc. Analysis of the experimental data, obtained with two forms of glass, resulted in three types of erosion-rate-versus-time curves: (1) curves with incubation, acceleration, and steadystate periods (type 1); (2) curves with incubation, acceleration, decleration, and steady-state periods (type 3); and (3) curves with incubation, acceleration, peak rate, and deceleration periods (type 4). The type 4 curve is a less frequently seen curve and was not reported in the literature. Analysis of extensive literature data generally indicated three types of erosion-rate-versus-time curves. Two types (types 1 and 3) were observed in the present study; the third type involves incubation (and deposition), acceleration, and steady-state periods (type 2). Examination of the extensive literature data indicated that it is absolutely necessary to consider the corresponding stages or periods of erosion in correlating and characterizing erosion resistance of a wide spectrum of ductile materials.

  14. Single-Step Production of Nanostructured Copper-Nickel (CuNi) and Copper-Nickel-Indium (CuNiIn) Alloy Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apaydın, Ramazan Oğuzhan; Ebin, Burçak; Gürmen, Sebahattin

    2016-07-01

    Nanostructured copper-nickel (CuNi) and copper-nickel-indium (CuNiIn) alloy particles were produced from aqueous solutions of copper, nickel nitrates and indium sulfate by hydrogen reduction-assisted ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The effects of reduction temperatures, at 973 K, 1073 K, and 1173 K (700 °C, 800 °C, and 900 °C), on the morphology and crystalline structure of the alloy particles were investigated under the conditions of 0.1 M total precursor concentration and 0.5 L/min H2 volumetric flow rate. X-ray diffraction studies were performed to investigate the crystalline structure. Particle size and morphology were investigated by scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscopy was applied to determine the chemical composition of the particles. Spherical nanocrystalline binary CuNi alloy particles were prepared in the particle size range from 74 to 455 nm, while ternary CuNiIn alloy particles were obtained in the particle size range from 80 to 570 nm at different precursor solution concentrations and reduction temperatures. Theoretical and experimental chemical compositions of all the particles are nearly the same. Results reveal that the precursor solution and reduction temperature strongly influence the particle size of the produced alloy particles.

  15. Influence of second-phase particles on grain growth in AZ31 magnesium alloy during equal channel angular pressing by phase field simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ri; Wang, Mingtao; Zhang, Xiangang; Yaping Zong, Bernie

    2016-06-01

    A phase-field model was established to simulate the refinement effect of different morphological factors of second-phase particles such as Al2O3 on the grain growth of AZ31 magnesium alloy during equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) in realistic spatiotemporal evolution. The simulation results agreed well with limited existing experimental data for the ECAP-processed AZ31 magnesium alloy and were consistent with the law of Zener. Simulations were performed to evaluate the influences of the fraction, size, distribution, and shape of incoherent second-phase particles. The simulation results showed that during high-temperature ECAP processes, the addition of 2 wt.% Al2O3 particles resulted in a strong refinement effect, reducing the grain size by 28.7% compared to that of the alloy without the particles. Nevertheless, when the fraction of particles was greater than 4 wt.%, adding more particles had little effect. In AZ31 Mg alloy, it was found that second-phase particles should have a critical size of 0.5-0.8 μm for the grain refinement effect to occur. If the size is smaller than the critical size, large particles will strongly hinder grain growth; in contrast, if the size is larger than the critical size, large particles will exhibit a weaker hindering effect than small particles. Moreover, the results showed that the refinement effect increased with increasing particle fraction located at grain boundaries with respect to the total particle content. However, the refinement effect was less pronounced when the fraction of particles located at boundaries was greater than 70%. Further simulations indicated that spherical second-phase particles hindered grain growth more than ellipsoid particles and much more than rod-shaped particles when the volume fraction of reinforcing particles was 2%. However, when the volume fraction was greater than 8%, rod-shaped particles best hindered grain growth, and spherical particles exhibited the weakest effect.

  16. An analytical electron microscopy study of constituent particles in commercial 7075-T6 and 2024-T3 alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, M.; Feng, C.R.; Wei, R.P.

    1998-04-01

    To better understand the role of constituent particles in pitting corrosion, analytical electron microscopic studies were performed on the constituent particles in commercial 7075-T6 and 2024-T3 alloys. Five phases, namely, Al{sub 23}CuFe{sub 4} and amorphous SiO{sub 2} in 7075-T6 and Al{sub 2}CuMg, Al{sub 2}Cu, and (Fe,Mn){sub x}Si(Al,Cu){sub y} in 2024-T3, were identified. The crystal structure and chemistry of the Al{sub 23}CuFe{sub 4}, Al{sub 2}CuMg, and Al{sub 2}Cu phases in these alloys are in good agreement with the published data. Small deviations from their stoichiometric compositions were observed and are attributed to the influence of alloy composition on the phase chemistry. For the (Fe,Mn){sub x}Si(Al,Cu){sub y} (approximately, x = 3 and y = 11) phase, a rhombohedral structure, with lattice parameter a = b = c = 1.598 nm and {alpha} = {beta} = {gamma} = 75 deg, was identified and is believed to be a modified form of either Al{sub 8}Fe{sub 2}Si or Al{sub 10}Mn{sub 3}Si. Information from this study provided technical support for studying the electrochemical interactions between the individual particles (or phases) and the matrix. The corrosion results are reported in a companion article.

  17. Effect of micro-particles on cavitation erosion of Ti6Al4V alloy in sulfuric acid solution.

    PubMed

    Li, D G; Long, Y; Liang, P; Chen, D R

    2017-05-01

    The influences of micro-particles on ultrasonic cavitation erosion of Ti6Al4V alloy in 0.1M H2SO4 solution were investigated using mass loss weight, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and white light interferometer. Mass loss results revealed that the cavitation erosion damage obviously decreased with increasing particle size and mass concentration. Open circuit potential recorded during cavitation erosion shifted to positive direction with the decreased mass loss. Meanwhile, the mass loss sharply decreased with applying a positive potential during the entire ultrasonic cavitation erosion, and the relationship between the open circuit potential and the cavitation erosion resistance was discussed.

  18. Effect of interactions between bubbles and graphite particles in copper alloy melts on microstructure formed during centrifugal casting. Part 1: Theoretical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.K.; Rohatgi, P.K.

    1999-06-01

    Frequently, particles get associated with gas bubbles in a melt and their interaction influences the final distribution of particles and porosity in the casting. An analytical model for the separation of a particle from a bubble in melts containing dispersed particles and bubbles is proposed. During centrifugal casting of alloys containing dispersed particles, both the particles and gas bubbles present in the melt move with the centrifugal forces. Using the force balance between surface tension and net centrifugal forces (centrifugal force minus buoyancy force), the critical rotational speed of the mold for the separation of the particles and the bubbles during centrifugal casting is calculated. The critical rotational speed of the mold to separate the particle from the bubble is lower for a small particle attached to a larger bubble, as compared to the case when a large particle is attached to a smaller bubble. For a given bubble size, the critical rotational speed of the mold to separate the bubble from the particle decreases with increasing particle size. For the specific case of spherical 5-{micro}m radius graphite particles dispersed in copper alloy melt, it was found that even at a low semiapical angle of about 9 deg, the critical rotational speed needs to be around 5000 rpm for a bubble size of 500-{micro}m radius and 0.09-m-diameter mold. The rotational speed decreases to 1000 rpm when the graphite particle radius increases to 100 {micro}m for the same bubble size in copper alloy melt.

  19. The Effect of SiC Particle Addition During FSW on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, M.; Abdollahzadeh, A.; Bagheri, B.; Omidvar, H.

    2015-12-01

    Welding and joining of magnesium alloys exert a profound effect on magnesium application expansion, especially in ground and air transportations where large-size, complex components are required. Due to specific physical properties of magnesium, its welding requires great control. In general, the solid-state nature of friction stir welding (FSW) process has been found to produce a low concentration of defects. In the current research, specimens from AZ31 magnesium alloy were welded together using the friction stir process with previously inserted SiC powder particles in the nugget zone. In other words, during the FSW process, the pre-placed SiC particles were stirred throughout the nugget zone of the weld. The results indicated that proper values of rotation and translation speeds led to good appearance of weld zone and suitable distribution of SiC particles producing increased weld strength. The comparison of the microstructures and mechanical properties of FS-welded AZ31 with those of FS-welded one using pre-placed SiC particles showed that the addition of SiC particles decreased the grain size and increased the strength and the formability index.

  20. Analysis of Particle-Stimulated Nucleation (PSN)-Dominated Recrystallization for Hot-Rolled 7050 Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, Khaled F.; Long, Zhengdong; Field, David P.

    2017-04-01

    In 7xxx series aluminum alloys, the constituent large and small second-phase particles present during deformation process. The fraction and spatial distribution of these second-phase particles significantly influence the recrystallized structure, kinetics, and texture in the subsequent treatment. In the present work, the Monte Carlo Potts model was used to model particle-stimulated nucleation (PSN)-dominated recrystallization and grain growth in high-strength aluminum alloy 7050. The driving force for recrystallization is deformation-induced stored energy, which is also strongly affected by the coarse particle distribution. The actual microstructure and particle distribution of hot-rolled plate were used as an initial point for modeling of recrystallization during the subsequent solution heat treatment. Measurements from bright-field TEM images were performed to enhance qualitative interpretations of the developed microstructure. The influence of texture inhomogeneity has been demonstrated from a theoretical point of view using pole figures. Additionally, in situ annealing measurements in SEM were performed to track the orientational and microstructural changes and to provide experimental support for the recrystallization mechanism of PSN in AA7050.

  1. Influences of Hydrogen Micropores and Intermetallic Particles on Fracture Behaviors of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Aluminum Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Hang; Yoshimura, Takuro; Toda, Hiroyuki; Bhuiyan, Md. Shahnewaz; Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Sakaguchi, Nobuhito; Watanabe, Yoshio

    2016-12-01

    The combined effects of hydrogen micropores and intermetallic particles on the voids initiation and growth behavior of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu aluminum alloys during deformation and fracture are investigated with the help of the high-resolution X-ray tomography. It is interesting to note that the high-hydrogen concentration induced by an EDM cutting process results in the initiation of quasi-cleavage fracture near surface. With the increase of strain, the quasi-cleavage fracture is gradually replaced by dimple fracture. Voids initiation related to the dimple fracture is caused by both intermetallic particles fracture and interfacial debonding between particles and matrix. The nucleation of hydrogen micropores on intermetallic particles accelerates the voids initiation. The existence of triaxial stress ahead of the tip of a quasi-cleavage crack enhances growth rate for both hydrogen micropores and voids.

  2. Alloying Behavior and Properties of Al-Based Composites Reinforced with Al85Fe15 Metallic Glass Particles Fabricated by Mechanical Alloying and Hot Pressing Consolidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lanxiang; Yang, LiKun; Leng, Jinfeng; Wang, Tongyang; Wang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, Al85Fe15 metallic glass particles with high onset crystallization temperature (1209 K) were synthesized by a mechanical alloying method. High-quality 6061Al-based composites reinforced with Al85Fe15 metallic glass particles were fabricated by a vacuum hot-pressing sintering technique. The glass particles with flake-like shape are distributed uniformly in the Al matrix. The bulk composites possess high relative density, excellent hardness and strength. The microhardness values of the Al-based bulk composites with the additions of 20 vol.% and 30 vol.% Al85Fe15 particles are 204 MPa and 248 MPa, respectively, which are much higher than that of 6061Al (61 MPa). The compressive yield strength of the 30 vol.% glass-reinforced composite is 478 MPa, which is enhanced by 273% compared with 6061Al. The amorphous characteristic and homogeneous dispersion of glass particles account for the excellent mechanical properties of the Al-based composites. In addition, the corrosion behavior of Al-based composites in a seawater solution has been investigated by electrochemical polarization measurements. Compared to 6061Al, the 30 vol.% glass-reinforced composite shows the lower corrosion/passive current density and larger passive region, indicating the greatly enhanced corrosion resistance.

  3. Effects of thermal and mechanical processing on microstructures and desired properties of particle-strengthened copper-chromium-niobium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Kenneth Reed

    Ternary Cu-Cr-Nb alloys, particularly Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb (in at.%), have demonstrated good thermal stability as well as high strength and high conductivity at low and high temperatures. This behavior---due to the insoluble and strong Cr2Nb intermetallic phase that forms from the 2:1 Cr/Nb ratio---has put Cu-Cr-Nb alloys at the forefront as the next-generation particle-strengthened Cu alloys for aerospace applications. The initial powder material, produced by Ar-gas atomization, has a bimodal size distribution of Cr2Nb precipitates. Primary Cr2Nb precipitates, formed congruently from the melt, are typically ˜1 mum in size, and secondary Cr2Nb particles, precipitated from atomized solid solution, are typically 30--200 nm in size. This study provides the first detailed examination of the stability and strengthening effects of these particles in Cu-Cr-Nb alloys. Extruded Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb exposed to temperatures of up to 1323 K for up to 100 hr sustained a drop in strength of only 25--30%. This investigation also revealed that the primary particles, usually situated at grain boundaries and triple points, provide a direct grain boundary pinning effect, and moreover, an indirect, grain boundary strengthening effect, but virtually no Orowan strengthening effect. The secondary Cr2Nb particles, typically found within grains (and to a lesser extent, at grain boundaries), do provide Orowan strengthening. For extruded material, it was established that grain-boundary strengthening (Hall-Petch effect) accounts for about two-thirds of the overall strength of material, with Orowan effects essentially contributing the remainder. The proven thermal stability, strengthening effects and, more importantly, strength retention, was the driving force to further improve upon these attributes via microstructural refinement of Cu-Cr-Nb alloys. Mechanical milling (MM) of Cu-4 Cr-2 Nb and Cu-8 Cr-2 Nb produced an increase in hot pressed Vickers hardness of 122% and 96%, respectively. However, MM also

  4. Effect of tungsten metal particle sizes on the solubility of molten alloy melt: Experimental observation of Gibbs-Thomson effect in nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. H.; Das, J.; Sordelet, D. J.; Eckert, J.; Hurd, A. J.

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the effect of tungsten particle sizes on the thermal stability and reactivity of uniformly dispersed W particles in molten Hf-based alloy melt at elevated temperature (1673 K). The solubility of particles less than 100 nm in radius is significantly enhanced. In case of fine W particles with 20 nm diameter, their solubility increases remarkably around 700% compared to that of coarse micrometer-scale particles. The mechanisms and kinetics of this dynamic growth of particle are discussed as well as techniques developed to obtain frozen microstructure of particle-reinforced composites by rapid solidification.

  5. A transmission electron microscopy study of constituent-particle-induced corrosion in 7075-T6 and 2024-T3 aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, R.P.; Liao, C.M.; Gao, M.

    1998-04-01

    To better understand particle-induced pitting corrosion in aluminum alloys, thin foil specimens of 7075-T6 and 2024-T3 aluminum alloys, with identified constituent particles, were immersed in aerated 0.5M NaCl solution and then examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results clearly showed matrix dissolution around the iron- and manganese-containing particles (such as Al{sub 23}CuFe{sub 4}), as well as the Al{sub 2}Cu particles. While Al{sub 2}CuMg particles tended to dissolve relative to the matrix, limited local dissolution of the matrix was also observed around these particles. These results are consistent with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations of pitting corrosion and are discussed in terms of the electrochemical characteristics of the particles and the matrix.

  6. Alloy Catalyst in a Reactive Environment: The Example of Ag-Cu Particles for Ethylene Epoxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Piccinin, Simone; Zafeiratos, Spiros; Stampfl, Catherine; Hansen, Thomas W.; Haevecker, Michael; Teschner, Detre; Girgsdies, Frank; Knop-Gericke, Axel; Schloegl, Robert; Scheffler, Matthias; Bukhtiyarov, Valerii I.

    2010-01-22

    Combining first-principles calculations and in situ photoelectron spectroscopy, we show how the composition and structure of the surface of an alloy catalyst is affected by the temperature and pressure of the reagents. The Ag-Cu alloy, recently proposed as an improved catalyst for ethylene epoxidation, forms a thin Cu-O surface oxide, while a Ag-Cu surface alloy is found not to be stable. Several possible surface structures are identified, among which the catalyst surface is likely to dynamically evolve under reaction conditions.

  7. An investigation of the microstructure and mechanical properties of electrochemically coated Ag(4)Sn dental alloy particles condensed in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquez, Jose Antonio

    As part of the ongoing scientific effort to develop a new amalgam-like material without mercury, a team of metallurgists and electrochemists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, Maryland, announced in 1993 the development of a new Ag-Sn dental alloy system without mercury that sought to replace conventional dental amalgams. They used spherical Ag3Sn and Ag4Sn intermetallic dental alloy particles, commonly used in conventional dental alloys, and coated them with electrodeposited silver with newly-developed electrolytic and immersion techniques. The particles had relatively pure silver coatings that were closely adherent to the intermetalfic cores. These silver-coated particles, due to silver's plasticity at room temperature, were condensed into PlexiglasRTM molds with the aid of an acidic surface activating solution (HBF4) and a mechanical condensing device, producing a metal-matrix composite with Ag3,4Sn filler particles surrounded by a cold-welded silver matrix. Since silver strain hardens rather easily, the layers had to be condensed in less than 0.5 mm increments to obtain a dense structure. Mechanical testing at NIST produced compressive strength values equal to or greater than those of conventional dental amalgams. Because of its potential for eliminating mercury as a constituent in dental amalgam, this material created a stir in dental circles when first developed and conceivably could prove to be a major breakthrough in the field of dental restoratives. To date, the chief impediments to its approval for human clinical applications by the Food and Drug Administration are the potentially-toxic surface activating solution used for oxide reduction, and the high condensation pressures needed for cold welding because of the tendency for silver to strain harden. In this related study, the author, who has practiced general dentistry for 25 years, evaluates some of the mechanical and microstructural properties of these

  8. Microstructure and Mechanical Performance of Cu-Sn-Ti-Based Active Braze Alloy Containing In Situ Formed Nano-Sized TiC Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinenbach, Christian; Transchel, Robert; Gorgievski, Klea; Kuster, Friedrich; Elsener, Hans Rudolf; Wegener, Konrad

    2015-05-01

    A Cu-Sn-Ti-based active brazing filler alloy was in situ reinforced with nanosized TiC particles by adding different amounts of a cellulose nitride-based binder. The TiC particles emanate from a reaction of the Ti within the filler alloy with the carbon from the binder that does not decompose completely during heating. The correlation between the microstructure and mechanical performance was studied. In addition, the effect of different binder amounts on the shear strength and cutting performance of brazed diamond grains was studied in shear tests and single grain cutting tests. The results clearly show that the mechanical performance of the brazed diamond grains can be improved by the formation of TiC particles. This is attributed to particle strengthening of the filler alloy matrix as well as to the decreasing grain size and more homogeneous distribution of the (Cu,Sn)3Ti5 phase with increasing amount of binder.

  9. Density and glass forming ability in amorphous atomic alloys: The role of the particle softness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, Ian; Hudson, Toby; Harrowell, Peter

    2016-04-01

    A key property of glass forming alloys, the anomalously small volume difference with respect to the crystal, is shown to arise as a direct consequence of the soft repulsive potentials between metals. This feature of the inter-atomic potential is demonstrated to be responsible for a significant component of the glass forming ability of alloys due to the decrease in the enthalpy of fusion and the associated depression of the freezing point.

  10. Atomistic modeling of the reordering process of γ‧ disordered particles in Ni-Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Enrique; Soisson, Frédéric; Caro, Alfredo; Uberuaga, Blas P.

    2016-09-01

    Ni-based alloys are used in nuclear applications, including as a window material at isotope production facilities, withstanding high fluxes of different energetic particles like protons. Irradiation disorders the γ‧ precipitates that in large extent confer the mechanical properties characterizing these materials. Upon disordering, the γ‧ phase transforms into oversaturated γ, degrading the materials properties. Experimentally it is observed that disordering might take place at fairly low irradiation doses. Once the particles are disordered, a competition between dissolution, due to strong concentration gradients in an oversaturated solid solution, and reordering appears. Here, we examine this competition in a model Ni-Al alloy under thermal conditions for different precipitates sizes and temperatures. We observe Al interdiffusion from the supersaturated particle to the matrix. Also, stochasticity appears as an important factor in to where precipitates locate. Stress relaxation seems to modify the precipitation process, with a stronger interface effect compared to rigid lattice simulations.

  11. Comparison of Three Real-Time Measurement Methods for Airborne Ultrafine Particles in the Silicon Alloy Industry.

    PubMed

    Kero, Ida Teresia; Jørgensen, Rikke Bramming

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the applicability and the correlation between three commercially available instruments capable of detection, quantification, and characterization of ultrafine airborne particulate matter in the industrial setting of a tapping area in a silicon alloy production plant. The number concentration of ultrafine particles was evaluated using an Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI(TM)), a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS(TM)), and a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC). The results are discussed in terms of particle size distribution and temporal variations linked to process operations. The instruments show excellent temporal covariation and the correlation between the FMPS and ELPI is good. The advantage of the FMPS is the excellent time- and size resolution of the results. The main advantage of the ELPI is the possibility to collect size-fractionated samples of the dust for subsequent analysis by, for example, electron microscopy. The CPC does not provide information about the particle size distribution and its correlation to the other two instruments is somewhat poor. Nonetheless, the CPC gives basic, real-time information about the ultrafine particle concentration and can therefore be used for source identification.

  12. Comparison of Three Real-Time Measurement Methods for Airborne Ultrafine Particles in the Silicon Alloy Industry

    PubMed Central

    Kero, Ida Teresia; Jørgensen, Rikke Bramming

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the applicability and the correlation between three commercially available instruments capable of detection, quantification, and characterization of ultrafine airborne particulate matter in the industrial setting of a tapping area in a silicon alloy production plant. The number concentration of ultrafine particles was evaluated using an Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPITM), a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPSTM), and a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC). The results are discussed in terms of particle size distribution and temporal variations linked to process operations. The instruments show excellent temporal covariation and the correlation between the FMPS and ELPI is good. The advantage of the FMPS is the excellent time- and size resolution of the results. The main advantage of the ELPI is the possibility to collect size-fractionated samples of the dust for subsequent analysis by, for example, electron microscopy. The CPC does not provide information about the particle size distribution and its correlation to the other two instruments is somewhat poor. Nonetheless, the CPC gives basic, real-time information about the ultrafine particle concentration and can therefore be used for source identification. PMID:27598180

  13. The debonding and fracture of Si particles during the fatigue of a cast Al-Si alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Gall, K.; Yang, N.; Horstemeyer, M.; McDowell, D.L.; Fan, J.

    1999-12-01

    Constant-amplitude high-cycle fatigue tests ({sigma}{sub max} = 133 MPa, {sigma}{sub max}/{sigma}{sub y} = 0.55, and R = 0.1) were conducted on a cylindrical samples machined from a cast A356-T6 aluminum plate: The fracture surface of the sample with the smallest fatigue-crack nucleating defect was examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). For low crack-tip driving forces (fatigue-crack growth rates of da/dN {lt} 1 x 10{sup {minus}7} m/cycle), the authors discovered that a small semicircular surface fatigue crack propagated primarily through the Al-1% Si dendrite cells. The silicon particles in the eutectic remained intact and served as barriers at low fatigue-crack propagation rates. when the semicircular fatigue crack inevitably crossed the three-dimensional Al-Si eutectic network, it propagated primarily along the interface between the silicon particles and the Al-1% Si matrix. Furthermore, nearly all of the silicon particles were progressively debonded by the fatigue cracks propagating at low rates, with the exception of elongated particles with a major axis perpendicular to the crack plane, which were fractured. As the fatigue cracks grew with a high crack-tip driving force (fatigue-crack growth rates of da/dN {gt} 1 x 10{sup {minus}6} m/cycle), silicon particles ahead of the crack tip were fractured, and the crack subsequently propagated through the weakest distribution of prefractured particles in the Al-Si eutectic. Only small rounded silicon particles were observed to debond while the fatigue crack grew at high rates. Using fracture-surface markings and fracture mechanics, a macroscopic measure of the maximum critical driving force between particle debonding vs fracture during fatigue-crack growth was calculated to be approximately K{sub max}{sup tr} {approx} 6.0 MPa {radical}m for the present cast A356 alloy.

  14. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Cr-SiC Particles-Reinforced Fe-Based Alloy Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fu-cheng; Du, Xiao-dong; Zhan, Ma-ji; Lang, Jing-wei; Zhou, Dan; Liu, Guang-fu; Shen, Jian

    2015-12-01

    In this study, SiC particles were first coated with Cr to form a layer that can protect the SiC particles from dissolution in the molten pool. Then, the Cr-SiC powder was injected into the tail of molten pool during plasma-transferred arc welding process (PTAW), where the temperature was relatively low, to prepare Cr-SiC particles reinforced Fe-based alloy coating. The microstructure and phase composition of the powder and surface coatings were analyzed, and the element distribution and hardness at the interfacial region were also evaluated. The protective layer consists of Cr3Si, Cr7C3, and Cr23C6, which play an important role in the microstructure and mechanical properties. The protective layer is dissolved in the molten pool forming a flocculent region and a transition region between the SiC particles and the matrix. The tribological performance of the coating was also assessed using a ring-block sliding wear tester with GGr15 grinding ring under 490 and 980 N load. Cr-SiC particles-reinforced coating has a lower wear rate than the unreinforced coating.

  15. Effects of TiB2 particles and Ag on the activation energy of Ω phase in Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melotti, F.; Hirst, T.; Dustan, A.; Griffiths, W. D.

    2016-03-01

    This work analyses the effects of TiB2 reinforcement particles and silver additions on the activation energy of the GP zones and the Ω phase in an aluminium matrix composite (AMC). Several additions of TiB2 and Ag were made to a 2xxx series alloy. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to identify the temperature peaks and the Kissinger approach used to calculate activation energies. Results showed that the activation energy for the Ω phase was greatly reduced by the addition of both elements; however, the TiB2 particles were more effective. In addition, experimental results show that the lowest value of the activation energy, 68 kJmol-1, was not affected by the silver content. This value is lower than any value found in literature and suggests that the formation of the Ω phase is related to the pipe diffusion of Cu in Al.

  16. Synthesis of anodizing composite films containing superfine Al 2O 3 and PTFE particles on Al alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Suiyuan; Kang, Chen; Wang, Jing; Liu, Changsheng; Sun, Kai

    2010-09-01

    Anodized composite films containing superfine Al 2O 3 and PTFE particles were prepared on 2024 Al alloy using an anodizing method. The microstructures and properties of the films were studied by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Friction wear tests were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties of the composites. Results indicate that the composite films with reinforced Al 2O 3 and PTFE two-particles have reduced friction coefficients and relatively high microhardness. The friction coefficient can be as small as 0.15, which is much smaller than that of an oxide film prepared under the same conditions but without adding any particles (0.25), while the microhardness can reach as high as 404 HV. When rubbed at room temperature for 20 min during dry sliding friction tests, the wear loss of the film was about 16 mg, which is about the half of that of the samples without added particles. The synthesized composite films that have good anti-wear and self-lubricating properties are desirable for oil-free industrial machinery applications.

  17. Effect of addition of soft magnetic alloy particles on the flux trapping in Gd123 bulk superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Tsuzuki, K.; Zhang, Y.; Kimura, Y.; Izumi, M.

    2010-06-01

    Pinning stability and the introduction of magnetic flux pinning is an essential problem in applications of high-Tc superconductors. Study on the role of addition of a variety of metal oxides into GdBa2Cu3O7-δ (Gd123) bulk superconductors was carried out. We found that the addition of 0.05 wt. % of soft magnetic alloy particles Fe-Cu-Nb-Si-Cr-B (Fe-B) into the Gd123 contributes to the enhancement of the critical current density (Jc) under a wide range of applied magnetic fields up to 3 T. The Fe-B particles refined less than 10 μm by ball milling indicate no remarkable contribution on the Jc under the magnetic field. The reduction of the Ba content resulted in the appearance of a peak of Jc which has been observed in the Gd/Ba solid solution with rich Ba content. These results let us discriminate the effect of the magnetic particles from other conventional flux pinning mechanism. The peak of Jc under magnetic field was not only observed in the part along the c-axis under the seed of the sample but also in the growth sector around the periphery of the Gd123 bulk with Fe-B addition. It indicates that the magnetic particles inclusions play an important role on the homogeneous enhancement of Jc and the high flux pinning performance.

  18. Ignition of steel alloys by impact of low-velocity iron/inert particles in gaseous oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benz, Frank J.; Mcilroy, Kenneth; Williams, Ralph E.

    1988-01-01

    The ignition of carbon steel and 316 and 304 stainless steels caused by the impact of low-velocity particles (a standard mixture consisting of 2 g of iron and 3 g of inert materials) in gaseous oxygen was investigated using NASA/White Sands Test Facility for the ignition test, and a subsonic particle impact chamber to accelerate the particles that were injected into flowing oxygen upstream of the target specimen. It was found that the oxygen velocities required to ignite the three alloys were the same as that required to ignite the particle mixture. Ignition occurred at oxygen velocities greater than 45 m/sec at 20 to 24 MPa and was found to be independent of pressure between 2 and 30 MPa. Comparison of the present results and the past results from Wegener (1964) with the Compressed Gas Association (CGA) oxygen velocity limits for safe operations indicates that the CGA limits may be excessively conservative at high pressures and too liberal at low pressures.

  19. Effect of Y2O3 and TiC Reinforcement Particles on Intermetallic Formation and Hardness of Al6061 Composites via Mechanical Alloying and Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Liang; Lin, Chen-Han

    2015-08-01

    Al6061-based composites reinforced with 2 wt pctY2O3 and 2 wt pctTiC particles produced by mechanical alloying were investigated. The reinforced particles play important roles in the microstructural development and in determining the properties of the alloys. High-energy ball milling can facilitate a solid-state reaction between reinforced particles and the Al matrix, and the reaction kinetics of atomic diffusion can be accelerated enormously by subsequent sintering processing. As a result, complex intermetallic compounds and oxide particles can be formed in the alloy. In this study, the effect of reinforcement on phase formation and mechanical properties of Al6061-based composites has been examined. The results suggest that nano-Y2O3 particles can act as nucleation sites to facilitate formation of Al-Si-Y-O-based oxide particles. The addition of TiC particles can effectively refine the grain structure and encourage formation of iron-rich intermetallic compounds. Nanoindentation was used to understand the local variations in mechanical properties of the Al6061-based composites.

  20. Effect of interactions between bubbles and graphite particles in copper alloy melts on microstructure formed during centrifugal casting. Part 2: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.K.; Rohatgi, P.K.

    1999-06-01

    During centrifugal casting of copper alloys containing graphite particles, both particles and bubbles move under the influence of centrifugal forces and influence the final microstructure, including porosity and the distribution of graphite. The movement of graphite particles and bubbles in the melts of copper alloys, originally containing 7 and 13 vol pct graphite particles and centrifugally cast at 800 and 1900 rpm in horizontal rotating molds, has been examined. Microstructural observations of sections of these centrifugal castings show that the graphite particles are segregated near the inner periphery and the amount of porosity in the graphite-rich zone is higher than the porosity in the graphite-free and transition zones. The intimate association of porosity with graphite particles in the graphite-rich zone was explained on the basis of attachment of graphite particles to bubbles in the melt and the viscosity of the melt, which increases with increasing concentration of graphite particles near the inner periphery of the castings. It was found that the amount of the porosity in the graphite-rich zone increases with volume fraction of graphite particles used in this study; the size of the porosity in the graphite-rich zone also increases with increasing rotational speed of the mold. This suggests that the graphite particles and bubbles were attached to each other in the melt and they did not get separated during centrifugal casting conditions of the present study. The present experiments qualitatively confirm theoretical computations.

  1. Effect of heterogeneous precipitation on age-hardening of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particle dispersion Al-4mass% Cu composite produced by mechanical alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, S.; Hatayama, T.; Matsugi, K.; Yanagisawa, O.

    2000-04-14

    The acceleration of aging kinetics has been frequently observed in aluminum matrix composites produced by ingot or powder metallurgy. Recently, in the mechanically alloyed (MA) Al-4mass%Cu/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites, the authors have found that the age-hardening response significantly decreases, and that considerable stable {theta} phases are formed at a very short aging time. The purposes of this study are to investigate the local precipitation behaviors, and attempt to clarify the dominant microstructural factors of the decrease in the age-harden ability and the acceleration of the age-hardening kinetics in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particle dispersion Al-4mass%Cu composites produced by mechanical alloying. In order to build a basis for comparison, the age-hardening behaviors of the unreinforced matrix alloy (IM alloy), which is produced by ingot metallurgy technique, are also investigated.

  2. Effects of Thermal and Mechanical Processing on Microstructures and Desired Properties of Particle-Strengthened Cu-Cr-Nb Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Kenneth Reed

    2000-01-01

    Ternary Cu-Cr-Nb alloys, particularly Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb (in at.%), have demonstrated good thermal stability as well as high strength and conductivity at elevated temperatures. The initial powder material has a bimodal size distribution of Cr2Nb precipitates. Primary Cr2Nb precipitates are approx. 1 micron, and secondary Cr2Nb particles are 30-200 nm. The particle coarsening was analyzed and found to follow LSW-type behavior, This study provides a detailed examination of the stability and strengthening effects of Cr2Nb particles. This investigation also revealed that the primary particles provide direct grain boundary pinning and indirect grain boundary strengthening but virtually no Orowan strengthening. The secondary particles found within grains do provide Orowan strengthening. For extruded material, grain bound-ary strengthening (Hall-Petch effect) accounts for two-thirds of the strength with Orowan effects contributing the remainder. The proven advantages of Cu-Cr-Nb were the motivation to improve these attributes via microstructural refinement. Mechanical milling (MM) of Cu- 4 Cr-2 Nb and Cu-8 Cr-2 Nb produced an increase in hot pressed Vickers hardness of 122% and 96%, respectively. The increase in hardness was more due to Cu grain-size refinement than to Cr,,Nb refinement. This study also demonstrated enhanced stability of MM Cu-4 Cr-2 Nb. Hot pressed 4 h milled Cu-4 Cr-2 Nb experienced only a 22% drop in hardness when annealed at 1273 K for 50 h versus a 30% drop for extruded Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb. The goal of improving the strength and stability of Cu-4 Cr-2 Nb to better than such properties for as- extruded Cu-8 Cr-4 Nb has been met. In addition, a figure-of-merit (FOM) coupling hardness and thermal conductivity was maximized for the case of 4 h milled Cu-4 Cr-2 Nb material. Overall, Cu-Cr-Nb alloys not only possess high strength, conductivity and thermal stability but also can be further developed to improve strength and stability.

  3. Bioaccessibility studies of ferro-chromium alloy particles for a simulated inhalation scenario: a comparative study with the pure metals and stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Midander, Klara; de Frutos, Alfredo; Hedberg, Yolanda; Darrie, Grant; Wallinder, Inger Odnevall

    2010-07-01

    The European product safety legislation, REACH, requires that companies that manufacture, import, or use chemicals demonstrate safe use and high level of protection of their products placed on the market from a human health and environmental perspective. This process involves detailed assessment of potential hazards for various toxicity endpoints induced by the use of chemicals with a minimum use of animal testing. Such an assessment requires thorough understanding of relevant exposure scenarios including material characteristics and intrinsic properties and how, for instance, physical and chemical properties change from the manufacturing phase, throughout use, to final disposal. Temporary or permanent adverse health effects induced by particles depend either on their shape or physical characteristics, and/or on chemical interactions with the particle surface upon human exposure. Potential adverse effects caused by the exposure of metal particles through the gastrointestinal system, the pulmonary system, or the skin, and their subsequent potential for particle dissolution and metal release in contact with biological media, show significant gaps of knowledge. In vitro bioaccessibility testing at conditions of relevance for different exposure scenarios, combined with the generation of a detailed understanding of intrinsic material properties and surface characteristics, are in this context a useful approach to address aspects of relevance for accurate risk and hazard assessment of chemicals, including metals and alloys and to avoid the use of in vivo testing. Alloys are essential engineering materials in all kinds of applications in society, but their potential adverse effects on human health and the environment are very seldom assessed. Alloys are treated in REACH as mixtures of their constituent elements, an approach highly inappropriate because intrinsic properties of alloys generally are totally different compared with their pure metal components. A large

  4. The Correlation of Structural, Chemical, and Electronic Properties of Small Metal Particles and Their Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The low pressure interaction of CO with small Ru particles supported on ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) cleaved mica was studied using flash thermal desorption, Auger electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and transmission electron diffraction. Average particle sizes for these experiments varied between 1.2 and 16 nm. A careful search for CO decomposition on the Ru particles revealed no evidence of dissociaiton over a temperature range and pressure range of 300 to 550 C and 10 to the minus 11th power to 10 to the minus 6th millibar, respectively. Cas and heat treatments caused significant morphological changes and dispersion in the Ru particles, which affected CO desorptiom These effects were dependent on the particle size.

  5. Particles, sweat, and tears: a comparative study on bioaccessibility of ferrochromium alloy and stainless steel particles, the pure metals and their metal oxides, in simulated skin and eye contact.

    PubMed

    Hedberg, Yolanda; Midander, Klara; Wallinder, Inger Odnevall

    2010-07-01

    Ferrochromium alloys are manufactured in large quantities and placed on the global market for use as master alloys (secondary raw materials), primarily for stainless steel production. Any potential human exposure to ferrochromium alloy particles is related to occupational activities during production and use, with 2 main exposure routes, dermal contact and inhalation and subsequent digestion. Alloy and reference particles exposed in vitro in synthetic biological fluids relevant for these main exposure routes have been investigated in a large research effort combining bioaccessibility; chemical speciation; and material, surface, and particle characteristics. In this paper, data for the dermal exposure route, including skin and eye contact, will be presented and discussed. Bioaccessibility data have been generated for particles of a ferrochromium alloy, stainless steel grade AISI 316L, pure Fe, pure Cr, iron(II,III)oxide, and chromium(III)oxide, upon immersion in artificial sweat (pH 6.5) and artificial tear (pH 8.0) fluids for various time periods. Measured released amounts of Fe, Cr, and Ni are presented in terms of average Fe and Cr release rates and amounts released per amount of particles loaded. The results are discussed in relation to bulk and surface composition of the particles. Additional information, essential to assess the bioavailability of Cr released, was generated by determining its chemical speciation and by providing information on its complexation and oxidation states in both media investigated. The effect of differences in experimental temperature, 30 degrees C and 37 degrees C, on the extent of metal release in artificial sweat is demonstrated. Iron was the preferentially released element in all test media and for all time periods and iron-containing particles investigated. The extent of metal release was highly pH dependent and was also dependent on the medium composition. Released amounts of Cr and Fe were very low (close to the limit of

  6. Room-temperature amorphous alloy field-effect transistor exhibiting particle and wave electronic transport

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuhara, M.; Kawarada, H.

    2015-02-28

    The realization of room-temperature macroscopic field effect transistors (FETs) will lead to new epoch-making possibilities for electronic applications. The I{sub d}-V{sub g} characteristics of the millimeter-sized aluminum-oxide amorphous alloy (Ni{sub 0.36}Nb{sub 0.24}Zr{sub 0.40}){sub 90}H{sub 10} FETs were measured at a gate-drain bias voltage of 0–60 μV in nonmagnetic conditions and under a magnetic fields at room temperature. Application of dc voltages to the gate electrode resulted in the transistor exhibiting one-electron Coulomb oscillation with a period of 0.28 mV, Fabry-Perot interference with a period of 2.35 μV under nonmagnetic conditions, and a Fano effect with a period of 0.26 mV for Vg and 0.2 T under a magnetic field. The realization of a low-energy controllable device made from millimeter-sized Ni-Nb-Zr-H amorphous alloy throws new light on cluster electronics.

  7. High-resolution chemical analysis by STEM-EELS of nanosized oxide particles in a mechanically-alloyed FeCrAl intermetallic

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, D.G. Muñoz-Morris, M.A.

    2015-05-15

    The chemical composition of nanosized oxides has been analysed in a mechanically-alloyed (MA) iron–chromium–aluminium intermetallic containing yttria additions using an aberration-corrected, high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The oxide particles are seen to contain yttrium and oxygen only, but very little of the matrix metallic elements, while the matrix in the immediate vicinity shows a very low iron content. Possible reasons for the change of matrix composition outside the particle-matrix interface are discussed. - Highlights: • High-resolution chemical analysis of oxide particles was performed using STEM-EELS. • Oxide particles contain Y and O but essentially no elements from the Fe–Cr–Al matrix. • The matrix immediately outside the particles appears to be depleted in Fe. • Diffusion of Y during particle growth possibly transports vacancies to the interface.

  8. Crack Initiation and Growth Behavior of Cold-Sprayed Ni Particles on IN718 Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaliere, P.; Silvello, A.

    2017-03-01

    Cold spray processing parameters, governing particle velocity and impact energy, are analyzed in the present paper for pure Ni sprayed on IN718 substrates. Finite element modeling (FEM) was used to calculate the particle impact velocity and temperature as a function of gas temperature and pressure and particle density and dimensions. Experimental evidence underlines the possibility of performing repairing through cold spray thanks to the good level of adhesion achievable by employing optimal combinations of materials and spray processing parameters. In the present paper, the potential repairing of cracked superalloys sheets, by employing cold spray technology, is presented. 30° surface V-notched IN718 panels have been repaired by using pure Ni cold-sprayed powders. The bending behavior of the repaired sheets was analyzed by FEM and mechanical testing in order to compare the properties with those belonging to the unrepaired panels. Simulations and mechanical results showed a reduction in the stress intensity factor, a modification of the crack initiation site and a crack retardation in the repaired structures if compared with the unrepaired ones. The K factor was quantified; the resistance of repaired panels was increased of more than eight times in the case of repairing with Ni cold spray particles. Geometrical and mechanical properties of the coating-substrate interfaces, such as adhesion strength and residual stresses influencing the coatings behavior, were largely analyzed.

  9. The Microstructure-Processing-Property Relationships in an Al Matrix Composite System Reinforced by Al-Cu-Fe Alloy Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Fei

    2004-01-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC), especially Al matrix composites, received a lot of attention during many years of research because of their promise for the development of automotive and aerospace materials with improved properties and performance, such as lighter weight and better structural properties, improved thermal conductivity and wear resistance. In order to make the MMC materials more viable in various applications, current research efforts on the MMCs should continue to focus on two important aspects, including improving the properties of MMCs and finding more economical techniques to produce MMCs. Solid state vacuum sintering was studied in tap densified Al powder and in hot quasi-isostatically forged samples composed of commercial inert gas atomized or high purity Al powder, generated by a gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS) technique. The GARS process results in spherical Al powder with a far thinner surface oxide. The overall results indicated the enhanced ability of GARS-processed Al and Al alloy powders for solid state sintering, which may lead to simplification of current Al powder consolidation processing methods. Elemental Al-based composites reinforced with spherical Al-Cu-Fe alloy powders were produced by quasi-isostatic forging and vacuum hot pressing (VHP) consolidation methods. Microstructures and tensile properties of AYAl-Cu-Fe composites were characterized. It was proved that spherical Al-Cu-Fe alloy powders can serve as an effective reinforcement particulate for elemental Al-based composites, because of their high hardness and a preferred type of matrix/reinforcement interfacial bonding, with reduced strain concentration around the particles. Ultimate tensile strength and yield strength of the composites were increased over the corresponding Al matrix values, far beyond typical observations. This remarkable strengthening was achieved without precipitation hardening and without severe strain hardening during consolidation because of

  10. Pulmonary toxicity after exposure to military-relevant heavy metal tungsten alloy particles.

    PubMed

    Roedel, Erik Q; Cafasso, Danielle E; Lee, Karen W M; Pierce, Lisa M

    2012-02-15

    Significant controversy over the environmental and public health impact of depleted uranium use in the Gulf War and the war in the Balkans has prompted the investigation and use of other materials including heavy metal tungsten alloys (HMTAs) as nontoxic alternatives. Interest in the health effects of HMTAs has peaked since the recent discovery that rats intramuscularly implanted with pellets containing 91.1% tungsten/6% nickel/2.9% cobalt rapidly developed aggressive metastatic tumors at the implantation site. Very little is known, however, regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with the effects of inhalation exposure to HMTAs despite the recognized risk of this route of exposure to military personnel. In the current study military-relevant metal powder mixtures consisting of 92% tungsten/5% nickel/3% cobalt (WNiCo) and 92% tungsten/5% nickel/3% iron (WNiFe), pure metals, or vehicle (saline) were instilled intratracheally in rats. Pulmonary toxicity was assessed by cytologic analysis, lactate dehydrogenase activity, albumin content, and inflammatory cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 24h after instillation. The expression of 84 stress and toxicity-related genes was profiled in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage cells using real-time quantitative PCR arrays, and in vitro assays were performed to measure the oxidative burst response and phagocytosis by lung macrophages. Results from this study determined that exposure to WNiCo and WNiFe induces pulmonary inflammation and altered expression of genes associated with oxidative and metabolic stress and toxicity. Inhalation exposure to both HMTAs likely causes lung injury by inducing macrophage activation, neutrophilia, and the generation of toxic oxygen radicals.

  11. Pulmonary toxicity after exposure to military-relevant heavy metal tungsten alloy particles

    SciTech Connect

    Roedel, Erik Q.; Cafasso, Danielle E.; Lee, Karen W.M.; Pierce, Lisa M.

    2012-02-15

    Significant controversy over the environmental and public health impact of depleted uranium use in the Gulf War and the war in the Balkans has prompted the investigation and use of other materials including heavy metal tungsten alloys (HMTAs) as nontoxic alternatives. Interest in the health effects of HMTAs has peaked since the recent discovery that rats intramuscularly implanted with pellets containing 91.1% tungsten/6% nickel/2.9% cobalt rapidly developed aggressive metastatic tumors at the implantation site. Very little is known, however, regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with the effects of inhalation exposure to HMTAs despite the recognized risk of this route of exposure to military personnel. In the current study military-relevant metal powder mixtures consisting of 92% tungsten/5% nickel/3% cobalt (WNiCo) and 92% tungsten/5% nickel/3% iron (WNiFe), pure metals, or vehicle (saline) were instilled intratracheally in rats. Pulmonary toxicity was assessed by cytologic analysis, lactate dehydrogenase activity, albumin content, and inflammatory cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid 24 h after instillation. The expression of 84 stress and toxicity-related genes was profiled in lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage cells using real-time quantitative PCR arrays, and in vitro assays were performed to measure the oxidative burst response and phagocytosis by lung macrophages. Results from this study determined that exposure to WNiCo and WNiFe induces pulmonary inflammation and altered expression of genes associated with oxidative and metabolic stress and toxicity. Inhalation exposure to both HMTAs likely causes lung injury by inducing macrophage activation, neutrophilia, and the generation of toxic oxygen radicals. -- Highlights: ► Intratracheal instillation of W–Ni–Co and W–Ni–Fe induces lung inflammation in rats. ► W–Ni–Co and W–Ni–Fe alter expression of oxidative stress and toxicity genes. ► W

  12. Nanoscale Au-In alloy-oxide core-shell particles as electrocatalysts for efficient hydroquinone detection

    DOE PAGES

    Sutter, E.; Tong, X.; Medina-Plaza, C.; ...

    2015-10-09

    The presence of hydroquinone (HQ), a phenol ubiquitous in nature and widely used in industry, needs to be monitored because of its toxicity to the environment. Here we demonstrate efficient detection of HQ using simple, fast, and noninvasive electrochemical measurements on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes modified with nanoparticles comprising bimetallic Au–In cores and mixed Au–In oxide shells. Whereas bare ITO electrodes show very low activity for the detection of HQ, their modification with Au–In core–shell nanoparticles induces a pronounced shift of the oxidation peak to lower potentials, i.e., facilitated oxidation. The response of the different electrodes was correlated withmore » the initial composition of the bimetallic nanoparticle cores, which in turn determined the amount of Au and In stabilized on the surface of the amorphous Au–In oxide shells available for the electrochemical reaction. While adding core–shell nanostructures with different compositions of the alloy core facilitates the electrocatalytic (reduction-) oxidation of HQ, the activity is highest for particles with AuIn cores (i.e., a Au:In ratio of 1). This optimal system is found to follow a single pathway, the two-electron oxidation of the quinone–hydroquinone couple, which gives rise to high oxidation peaks and is most effective in facilitating the electrode-to-analyte charge transfer and thus detection. The limits of detection (LOD) decreased when increasing the amount of Au exposed on the surface of the amorphous Au–In oxide shells. As a result the LODs were in the range of 10–5 – 10–6 M and were lower than those obtained using bulk Au.« less

  13. Nanoscale Au-In alloy-oxide core-shell particles as electrocatalysts for efficient hydroquinone detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, E.; Tong, X.; Medina-Plaza, C.; Rodriguez-Mendez, M. L.; Sutter, P.

    2015-10-09

    The presence of hydroquinone (HQ), a phenol ubiquitous in nature and widely used in industry, needs to be monitored because of its toxicity to the environment. Here we demonstrate efficient detection of HQ using simple, fast, and noninvasive electrochemical measurements on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes modified with nanoparticles comprising bimetallic Au–In cores and mixed Au–In oxide shells. Whereas bare ITO electrodes show very low activity for the detection of HQ, their modification with Au–In core–shell nanoparticles induces a pronounced shift of the oxidation peak to lower potentials, i.e., facilitated oxidation. The response of the different electrodes was correlated with the initial composition of the bimetallic nanoparticle cores, which in turn determined the amount of Au and In stabilized on the surface of the amorphous Au–In oxide shells available for the electrochemical reaction. While adding core–shell nanostructures with different compositions of the alloy core facilitates the electrocatalytic (reduction-) oxidation of HQ, the activity is highest for particles with AuIn cores (i.e., a Au:In ratio of 1). This optimal system is found to follow a single pathway, the two-electron oxidation of the quinone–hydroquinone couple, which gives rise to high oxidation peaks and is most effective in facilitating the electrode-to-analyte charge transfer and thus detection. The limits of detection (LOD) decreased when increasing the amount of Au exposed on the surface of the amorphous Au–In oxide shells. As a result the LODs were in the range of 10–5 – 10–6 M and were lower than those obtained using bulk Au.

  14. Enhanced corrosion resistance and cytocompatibility of biodegradable Mg alloys by introduction of Mg(OH)2 particles into poly (L-lactic acid) coating

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yong-juan; Pei, Jia; Zhang, Jian; Niu, Jia-lin; Zhang, Hua; Guo, Sheng-rong; Li, Zhong-hua; Yuan, Guang-yin

    2017-01-01

    A strategy of suppressing the fast degradation behaviour of Mg-based biomaterials by the introduction of one of Mg degradation products Mg(OH)2 was proposed according to the following degradation mechanism, Mg + 2H2O ⇋ Mg(OH)2 + H2↑. Specifically, Mg(OH)2 submicron particles were mixed into poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) to synthesize a composite coating onto hydrofluoric acid-pretreated Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr alloy. The in vitro degradation investigations showed that the addition of Mg(OH)2 particles not only slowed down the corrosion of Mg matrix, but also retarded the formation of gas pockets underneath the polymer coating. Correspondingly, cytocompatibility results exhibited significant improvement of proliferation of endothelial cells, and further insights was gained into the mechanisms how the introduction of Mg(OH)2 particles into PLLA coating affected the magnesium alloy degradation and cytocompatibility. The present study provided a promising surface modification strategy to tailor the degradation behaviour of Mg-based biomaterials. PMID:28150751

  15. Surface enrichment of Pt in stable Pt-Ir nano-alloy particles on MgAl 2 O 4 spinel in oxidizing atmosphere

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Wei-Zhen; Nie, Lei; Cheng, Yingwen; ...

    2017-04-01

    With the capability of MgAl2O4 spinel {111} nano-facets in stabilizing small Rh, Ir and Pt particles, bimetallic Ir-Pt catalysts on the same support were investigated in this paper, aiming at further lowering the catalyst cost by substituting expensive Pt with cheaper Ir in the bulk. Small Pt-Ir nano-alloy particles (< 2 nm) were successfully stabilized on the spinel {111} nano-facets as expected. Interestingly, methanol oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) rate on the surface Pt atoms increases with oxidizing aging but decreases upon reducing treatment, where Ir is almost inactive under the same reaction conditions. Up to three times enhancement in Pt exposuremore » was achieved when the sample was oxidized at 800 °C in air for 1 week and subsequently reduced by H2 for 2 h, demonstrating successful surface enrichment of Pt on Pt-Ir nano-alloy particles. Finally, a dynamic stabilization mechanism involving wetting/nucleation seems to be responsible for the evolution of surface compositions upon cyclic oxidizing and reducing thermal treatments.« less

  16. Surface enrichment of Pt in stable Pt-Ir nano-alloy particles on MgAl2O4 spinel in oxidizing atmosphere

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Wei -Zhen; Nie, Lei; Cheng, Yingwen; ...

    2017-01-13

    With the capability of MgAl2O4 spinel {111} nano-facets in stabilizing small Rh, Ir and Pt particles, bimetallic Ir-Pt catalysts on the same support were investigated in this paper, aiming at further lowering the catalyst cost by substituting expensive Pt with cheaper Ir in the bulk. Small Pt-Ir nano-alloy particles (< 2 nm) were successfully stabilized on the spinel {111} nano-facets as expected. Interestingly, methanol oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) rate on the surface Pt atoms increases with oxidizing aging but decreases upon reducing treatment, where Ir is almost inactive under the same reaction conditions. Up to three times enhancement in Pt exposuremore » was achieved when the sample was oxidized at 800 °C in air for 1 week and subsequently reduced by H2 for 2 h, demonstrating successful surface enrichment of Pt on Pt-Ir nano-alloy particles. Finally, a dynamic stabilization mechanism involving wetting/nucleation seems to be responsible for the evolution of surface compositions upon cyclic oxidizing and reducing thermal treatments.« less

  17. Enhanced corrosion resistance and cytocompatibility of biodegradable Mg alloys by introduction of Mg(OH)2 particles into poly (L-lactic acid) coating.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yong-Juan; Pei, Jia; Zhang, Jian; Niu, Jia-Lin; Zhang, Hua; Guo, Sheng-Rong; Li, Zhong-Hua; Yuan, Guang-Yin

    2017-02-02

    A strategy of suppressing the fast degradation behaviour of Mg-based biomaterials by the introduction of one of Mg degradation products Mg(OH)2 was proposed according to the following degradation mechanism, Mg + 2H2O ⇋ Mg(OH)2 + H2↑. Specifically, Mg(OH)2 submicron particles were mixed into poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) to synthesize a composite coating onto hydrofluoric acid-pretreated Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr alloy. The in vitro degradation investigations showed that the addition of Mg(OH)2 particles not only slowed down the corrosion of Mg matrix, but also retarded the formation of gas pockets underneath the polymer coating. Correspondingly, cytocompatibility results exhibited significant improvement of proliferation of endothelial cells, and further insights was gained into the mechanisms how the introduction of Mg(OH)2 particles into PLLA coating affected the magnesium alloy degradation and cytocompatibility. The present study provided a promising surface modification strategy to tailor the degradation behaviour of Mg-based biomaterials.

  18. Centrifugal casting of ZA8 zinc alloy and composite A356/silicon carbide: Study and modeling of phases' and particles' segregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balout, Bahaa

    Centrifugation is a casting technology that allows the production of cylindrical and graduated parts with different mechanical properties through the section. The need for materials with good quality and specific mechanical properties has been driven this technology in order to produce different types of materials such as zinc alloys and graduated metal matrix composites reinforced by hard and wear resistant particles. The goal of this research project is to study and model the eutectic macrosegregation, the solidification speed, and the speeds of solidification fronts during centrifugal casting of ZA8 zinc-aluminum alloy in order to improve the part quality and increase its strength and field reliability. Moreover, the segregation of the particles during centrifugal casting of an aluminum matrix composite reinforced by silicon carbide particles (A356/SiC) is also studied to improve and control the graduation of the parts. The cooling rate, the speed, acceleration/deceleration, displacement, and segregation of the particles across the section will be modeled by discretization of Stokes' law in time in order to take into consideration the change in the centrifugal radius and melt viscosity during cooling process. This study will allow the control of the graduation degree of particles across the section in order to improve the properties and wear resistance of the composite. This composite can be used in systems where friction is critical and load is high (reinforcements of parts for the cylinders of pneumatic systems). The results show that the maximum macrosegregation zone of the eutectic across the casting section corresponds to the last point of solidification. The eutectic macrosegregation produced during centrifugal casting of thin walled part is a normal segregation which varies depending on the solidification speed and the ratio between the speeds of solidification fronts. On the other hand, it was found that the position and volume fraction of the particles

  19. Further Precipitation Reactions Associated with Beta’ (Al3Zr) Particles in Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    Gregson 8’ precipitation in Al-Li-Mg-Cu-Zr alloys. H.M. Flower J. Mater. Sci. Lett., 3, 829 (1984) 5 P.L. Makin On the ageing of an aluminium-lithium...Technol., 2, 349 (1986) 8 H.M. Flower The effect of composition and heat treatment upon the et al microstructure/property relationships in Al-Li-Cu-Mg...1119 REFERENCES concluded) No. Author Title, etc 10 P.J. Gregon Microstructural control of toughness in aluminium- H.M. Flower lithium alloys. Acta

  20. Development of FeCoB/Graphene Oxide based microwave absorbing materials for X-Band region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sukanta; Chandra Nayak, Ganesh; Sahu, S. K.; Oraon, Ramesh

    2015-06-01

    This work explored the microwave absorption capability of Graphene Oxide and Graphene Oxide coated with FeCoB for stealth technology. Epoxy based microwave absorbing materials were prepared with 30% loading of Graphene Oxide, FeCoB alloy and Graphene Oxide coated with FeCoB. Graphene Oxide and FeCoB were synthesized by Hummer's and Co-precipitation methods, respectively. The filler particles were characterized by FESEM, XRD and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer techniques. Permittivity, permeability and reflection loss values of the composite absorbers were measured with vector network analyzer which showed a reflection loss value of -7.86 dB, at 10.72 GHz, for single layered Graphene Oxide/Epoxy based microwave absorbers which can be correlated to the absorption of about 83.97% of the incident microwave energy. Reflection loss value of FeCoB/Epoxy based microwave absorber showed -13.30 dB at 11.67 GHz, which corresponded to maximum absorption of 93.8%. However, reflection loss values of Graphene Oxide coated with FeCoB/Epoxy based single-layer absorber increased to -22.24 dB at 12.4 GHz which corresponds to an absorption of 99% of the incident microwave energy.

  1. Microstructural evolution and magnetic properties of ultrafine solute-atom particles formed in a Cu75-Ni20-Fe5 alloy on isothermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun-Seop; Takeda, Mahoto; Bae, Dong-Sik

    2016-12-01

    Microstructural features strongly affect magnetism in nano-granular magnetic materials. In the present work we have investigated the relationship between the magnetic properties and the self-organized microstructure formed in a Cu75-Ni20-Fe5 alloy comprising ferromagnetic elements and copper atoms. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations showed that on isothermal annealing at 873 K, nano-scale solute (Fe,Ni)-rich clusters initially formed with a random distribution in the Cu-rich matrix. Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurements revealed that these ultrafine solute clusters exhibited super-spinglass and superparamagnetic states. On further isothermal annealing the precipitates evolved to cubic or rectangular ferromagnetic particles and aligned along the <100> directions of the copper-rich matrix. Electron energy-band calculations based on the first-principle Korringa-Kohn-Rostocker (KKR) method were also implemented to investigate both the electronic structure and the magnetic properties of the alloy. Inputting compositions obtained experimentally by scanning transmission electron microscopy-electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) analysis, the KKR calculation confirmed that ferromagnetic precipitates (of moment 1.07μB per atom) formed after annealing for 2 × 104 min. Magneto-thermogravimetric (MTG) analysis determined with high sensitivity the Curie temperatures and magnetic susceptibility above room temperature of samples containing nano-scale ferromagnetic particles.

  2. The introduction of fine SiC particles into a molten Al alloy matrix: Application to MMCs preparation via a foundry route

    SciTech Connect

    Kevorkijan, V.M.; Sustarsic, B.

    1995-12-31

    To be castable in both the economical and practical sense, an aluminum MMC must satisfy three basic criteria: (1) the ingot must be remeltable without impairment of its properties, (2) the melt must be amenable to standard aluminum foundry practices, and (3) the casting must be substantially defect-free, having mechanical properties that are both consistent and superior. In order to solve these problems, chemically treated fine SiC particles were first dispersed into a Si melt (at approx. 1,600 C in vacuum of approx. 10{sup {minus}5} Pa). The wettability of SiC by Si{sub (I)} was enhanced by chemical reaction between a carbon layer previously deposited on the surface of the SiC particles and the matrix. When a sufficient number of SiC particles was incorporated into the Si matrix (usually more than 40 wt%), an Al alloy (Al-4 wt% Mg) was carefully added at a controlled rate under vigorous stirring conditions and in a protective atmosphere in order to fit the final matrix composition of Al with 7--12 wt% Si and 1 wt% Mg, without SiC particulate rejection. In this way, a processing route for the production of Al-SiC composites with 10--20 wt% of SiC particles in the size range less than 10 {micro}m was developed.

  3. Effects of Al2O3 Nano-Particles on Corrosion Performance of Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Coatings Formed on 6061 Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakili-Azghandi, Mojtaba; Fattah-alhosseini, Arash; Keshavarz, Mohsen K.

    2016-12-01

    Corrosion resistance improvement of plasma electrolyte oxidation coatings on 6061 aluminum alloy in silicate electrolyte containing Al2O3 nano-particles was studied, with particular emphasis on the microstructure, coating growth, and corrosion behavior in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. The microstructure of coatings, their thickness, and phase composition were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. All characterization data showed that the maximum coating thickness and lowest amount of porosity were obtained in a low concentration of KOH, a high concentration of Na2SiO3, and moderate concentration of Al2O3 nano-particles in the electrolyte. This combination describes the optimum plasma electrolytic oxidation electrolyte, which has the best conductivity and oxidizing state, as well as the highest incorporation of electrolyte components in the coating growth process. On the other hand, incorporation and co-deposition of Al2O3 nano-particles were more pronounced than SiO3 2- ions in some level of molar concentration, which is due to the higher impact of electron discharge force on the adsorption of Al2O3 nano-particles. The electrochemical results showed that the best protective behavior was obtained in the sample having a coat with the lowest porosity and highest thickness.

  4. Studies of waste-canister compatibility. [Waste forms: Al-Si and Pb-Sn matrix alloys, FUETAP, glass, Synroc D, and waste particles coated with carbon or carbon plus SiC

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, H.E.

    1983-01-01

    Compatibility studies were conducted between 7 waste forms and 15 potential canister structural materials. The waste forms were Al-Si and Pb-Sn matrix alloys, FUETAP, glass, Synroc D, and waste particles coated with carbon or carbon plus silicon carbide. The canister materials included carbon steel (bare and with chromium or nickel coatings), copper, Monel, Cu-35% Ni, titanium (grades 2 and 12), several Inconels, aluminum alloy 5052, and two stainless steels. Tests of either 6888 or 8821 h were conducted at 100 and 300/sup 0/C, which bracket the low and high limits expected during storage. Glass and FUETAP evolved sulfur, which reacted preferentially with copper, nickel, and alloys of these metals. The Pb-Sn matrix alloy stuck to all samples and the carbon-coated particles to most samples at 300/sup 0/C, but the extent of chemical reaction was not determined. Testing for 0.5 h at 800/sup 0/C was included because it is representative of a transportation accident and is required of casks containing nuclear materials. During these tests (1) glass and FUETAP evolved sulfur, (2) FUETAP evolved large amounts of gas, (3) Synroc stuck to titanium alloys, (4) glass was molten, and (5) both matrix alloys were molten with considerable chemical interactions with many of the canister samples. If this test condition were imposed on waste canisters, it would be design limiting in many waste storage concepts.

  5. Particle Hardening in Creep-Resistant Mg-Alloy MRI 230D Probed by Nanoindenting Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backes, Björn; Durst, Karsten; Amberger, Dorothea; Göken, Mathias

    2009-02-01

    Two different Mg alloys, AZ91 and MRI 230D, have been investigated with the objective to understand the differences in high-temperature deformation behavior. AZ91 is known for its rather poor creep resistance; in contrast to this, MRI 230D is known to have a rather high resistance against plastic deformation at elevated temperatures. The microstructure and mechanical properties of as-cast and crept specimens of two Mg alloys (AZ91 and MRI 230D) were characterized by nanoindenting atomic force microscopy (NI-AFM). In the cell interior, a significant higher hardness was found for MRI 230D in comparison to AZ91. Precipitates with an average size of about 50 nm found in the cell interior of MRI 230D after creep deformation are discussed as the major hardening component.

  6. Particle Size of Gamma Prime as a Result of Vacuum Heat Treatment of INCONEL 738 Super Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, I.; Granda, E.; Mendez, R.; Lopez, G.; Acevedo, J.; Gonzalez, D.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, the influence of the cooling rate and cooling media after a standard solution heat treatment on the size and distribution of the gamma prime phase (γ') in the nickel-based super alloy INCONEL 738 in over-aged conditions is described. The volume fraction of the gamma prime depends on the chemical composition of the alloy, the solution treatment temperature and the cooling rate; in over-aged alloys (i.e., with more than 25,000 h of service) the volume fraction of γ' is about 78.8%. However, it has been demonstrated that in order to maintain excellent creep strength a volume fraction of at least 60% or lower is required. In this work the volume fraction was optimized between 40 and 55% by means of a standard solution heat treatment at 1120 °C using different cooling gases. A γ' volume fraction of 54.8% was obtained by using argon as the cooling medium at a cooling rate of 87 °C/min, producing a precipitate of partial distribution of primary and secondary γ'. Better results were obtained in a nitrogen atmosphere at a cooling rate of 287 °C/min, leading to a volume fraction of 40% and obtaining a total re-precipitation of primary and secondary γ'.

  7. Evolution of insoluble eutectic Si particles in anodic oxidation films during adipic-sulfuric acid anodizing processes of ZL114A aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Lei; Liu, Jian-hua; Li, Song-mei; Yu, Mei; Wang, Lei; Cui, Yong-xin

    2015-03-01

    The effects of insoluble eutectic Si particles on the growth of anodic oxide films on ZL114A aluminum alloy substrates were investigated by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The anodic oxidation was performed at 25°C and a constant voltage of 15 V in a solution containing 50 g/L sulfuric acid and 10 g/L adipic acid. The thickness of the formed anodic oxidation film was approximately 7.13 μm. The interpore distance and the diameters of the major pores in the porous layer of the film were within the approximate ranges of 10-20 nm and 5-10 nm, respectively. Insoluble eutectic Si particles strongly influenced the morphology of the anodic oxidation films. The anodic oxidation films exhibited minimal defects and a uniform thickness on the ZL114A substrates; in contrast, when the front of the oxide oxidation films encountered eutectic Si particles, defects such as pits and non-uniform thickness were observed, and pits were observed in the films.

  8. Fabrication and electromagnetic properties of bio-based helical soft-core particles by way of Ni-Fe alloy electroplating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Mingming; Zhang, Deyuan; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Wenqiang; Yuan, Liming

    2011-12-01

    Ni-Fe alloy electroplating was used as a bio-limited forming process to fabricate bio-based helical soft-core ferromagnetic particles, and a low frequency vibration device was applied to the cathode to avoid microorganism (Spirulina platens) cells adhesion to the copper net during the course of plating. The morphologies and ingredients of the coated Spirulina cells were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer. The complex permittivity and permeability of the samples containing the coated Spirulina cells before and after heat treatment were measured and investigated by a vector network analyzer. The results show that the Spirulina cells after plating keep their initial helical shape, and applying low frequency vibration to the copper net cathode in the plating process can effectively prevent agglomeration and intertwinement of the Spirulina cells. The microwave absorbing and electromagnetic properties of the samples containing the coated Spirulina cells particles with heat treatment are superior to those samples containing the coated Spirulina cells particles without heat treatment.

  9. Tuning of platinum nano-particles by Au usage in their binary alloy for direct ethanol fuel cell: Controlled synthesis, electrode kinetics and mechanistic interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Abhijit; Mondal, Achintya; Datta, Jayati

    2015-06-01

    Understanding of the electrode-kinetics and mechanism of ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) is of considerable interest for optimizing electro-catalysis in direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC). This work attempts to design Pt based electro-catalyst on carbon support, tuned with gold nano-particles (NPs), for their use in DEFC operating in alkaline medium. The platinum-gold alloyed NPs are synthesized at desired compositions and size (2-10 nm) by controlled borohydride reduction method and successfully characterized by XRD, TEM, EDS and XPS techniques. The kinetic parameters along with the activation energies for the EOR are evaluated over the temperature range 20-80 °C and the oxidation reaction products estimated through ion chromatographic analysis. Compared to single Pt/C catalyst, the over potential of EOR is reduced by ca. 500 mV, at the onset during the reaction, for PtAu/C alloy with only 23% Pt content demonstrating the ability of Au and/or its surface oxides providing oxygen species at much lower potentials compared to Pt. Furthermore, a considerable increase in the peak power density (>191%) is observed in an in-house fabricated direct ethanol anion exchange membrane fuel cell, DE(AEM)FC using the best performing Au covered Pt electrode (23% Pt) compared to the monometallic Pt catalyst.

  10. TEM and HRTEM study of oxide particles in an Al-alloyed high-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel with Hf addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Peng; Kimura, Akihiko; Kasada, Ryuta; Okuda, Takanari; Inoue, Masaki; Ukai, Shigeharu; Ohnuki, Somei; Fujisawa, Toshiharu; Abe, Fujio; Jiang, Shan; Yang, Zhigang

    2017-03-01

    The nanoparticles in an Al-alloyed high-Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel with Hf addition, i.e., SOC-16 (Fe-15Cr-2W-0.1Ti-4Al-0.62Hf-0.35Y2O3), have been examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Relative to an Al-alloyed high-Cr ODS ferritic steel without Hf addition, i.e., SOC-9 (Fe-15.5Cr-2W-0.1Ti-4Al-0.35Y2O3), the dispersion morphology and coherency of the oxide nanoparticles in SOC-16 were significantly improved. Almost all the small nanoparticles (diameter <10 nm) in SOC-16 were found to be consistent with cubic Y2Hf2O7 oxides with the anion-deficient fluorite structure and coherent with the bcc steel matrix. The larger particles (diameter >10 nm) were also mainly identified as cubic Y2Hf2O7 oxides with the anion-deficient fluorite structure. The results presented here are compared with those of SOC-9 with a brief discussion of the underlying mechanisms of the unusual thermal and irradiation stabilities of the oxides as well as the superior strength, excellent irradiation tolerance and extraordinary corrosion resistance of SOC-16.

  11. The effect of polyol on multiple ligand capped silver alloyed nanobimetallic particles in tri-n-octylphosphine oxide and oleic acid matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeyemi Adekoya, Joseph; Olugbenga Dare, Enock; Olurotimi Ogunniran, Kehinde; Oluwasegun Siyanbola, Tolutope; Oyewale Ajani, Olayinka; Osereme Ehi-Eromosele, Cyril; Revaprasadu, Neerish

    2016-12-01

    The syntheses of Ag/M (M is Co, Ni, Pd, Pt and Ru) alloyed nanobimetallic particles in tri-n-octylphosphine oxide and oleic acid matrices were successfully carried out by the successive reduction of ligand capped metal ions with polyols, which resulted in rapid precipitation of some fractal high index faceted hybrid Ag/M bimetal nanoparticles. The optical measurements revealed the existence of modified surface plasmon band and peak broadening resulting from reaction-limited growth processes of the metal sols, making it possible to monitor the changes spectrometrically. The bimetallic nanoparticles were further characterized by powder x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron microscopy techniques which confirmed the formation of novel core-shell and alloyed clusters. The Ag/M nanoparticles thus synthesized within TOPO/OA matrices indicated significant reduction potential as a result of their energy band gap 2.65-2.77 eV which points to the fact that they could serve as reducing agents for electrocatalytic reaction.

  12. Influence of shooting angle of polishing particle on surface roughness of a cobalt-chromium alloy using a centrifugal shooting type polishing machine.

    PubMed

    Ono, Takahiro; Ishikawa, Kaori; Yamaba, Osamu; Nokubi, Takashi

    2004-12-01

    The centrifugal shooting type polishing machine is a recently developed apparatus that seeks to improve the efficiency and environment of polishing removable prostheses. In an attempt to optimize the effectiveness of this apparatus, this study examined the influence of the shooting angle of polishing particle on the surface roughness of cobalt-chromium alloy casting specimens. Polishing was performed for three minutes under five shooting angle conditions: 90 degrees, 60 degrees, 45 degrees, 30 degrees, and 15 degrees. Surface roughness (Ra, Sm) was measured after each polishing stage. There were significant differences (p < 0.01) in Ra between shooting angle of 90 degrees (0.95 microm) and shooting angles of 45 degrees (0.62 microm) or less, and in Sm between 90 degrees (207 microm), 60 degrees (350 microm), and shooting angles of 45 degrees (868 microm) or less. These findings indicated that excellent surface texture was produced when shooting angle was 45 degrees or less.

  13. A new smoothed particle hydrodynamics non-Newtonian model for friction stir welding: Process modeling and simulation of microstructure evolution in a magnesium alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wenxiao; Li, Dongsheng; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Ahzi, Said; Khraisheh, Marwan; Khaleel, Moe

    2013-09-01

    We present a new smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) model for friction stir welding (FSW). FSW has broad commercial application in the marine, aerospace, rail, and automotive industries. However, development of the FSW process for each new application has remained largely empirical. Few established numerical modeling techniques have been developed that can explain and predict important features of the process physics involved in FSW. This is particularly true in the areas of material flow and mixing mechanisms. In this paper, we present a novel modeling approach to simulate FSW that may have significant advantages over current finite element or finite difference based methods. Unlike traditional grid-based methods, Lagrangian particle methods such as SPH can simulate the dynamics of interfaces, large material deformations, and the material’s strain and temperature history without employing complex tracking schemes. Three-dimensional simulations of FSW on AZ31 Mg alloy are performed. The temperature history and distribution, grain size, microhardness as well as the texture evolution are presented. Numerical results are found to be in good agreement with experimental observations.

  14. The use of mechanical alloying for the preparation of palladized magnesium bimetallic particles for the remediation of PCBs.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Janelle L; Devor, Robert W; Aitken, Brian; Hampton, Michael D; Quinn, Jacqueline W; Clausen, Christian A; Geiger, Cherie L

    2011-09-15

    The kinetic rate of dechlorination of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB-151) by mechanically alloyed Mg/Pd was studied for optimization of the bimetallic system. Bimetal production was first carried out in a small-scale environment using a SPEX 8000M high-energy ball mill with 4-μm-magnesium and palladium impregnated on graphite, with optimized parameters including milling time and Pd-loading. A 5.57-g sample of bimetal containing 0.1257% Pd and ball milled for 3 min resulted in a degradation rate of 0.00176 min(-1)g(-1) catalyst as the most reactive bimetal. The process was then scaled-up, using a Red Devil 5400 Twin-Arm Paint Shaker, fitted with custom plates to hold milling canisters. Optimization parameters tested included milling time, number of ball bearings used, Pd-loading, and total bimetal mass milled. An 85-g sample of bimetal containing 0.1059% Pd and ball-milled for 23 min with 16 ball bearings yielded the most reactive bimetal with a degradation rate of 0.00122 min(-1)g(-1) catalyst. Further testing showed adsorption did not hinder extraction efficiency and that dechlorination products were only seen when using the bimetallic system, as opposed to any of its single components. The bimetallic system was also tested for its ability to degrade a second PCB congener, PCB-45, and a PCB mixture (Arochlor 1254); both contaminants were seen to degrade successfully.

  15. Characterization and Formation of Rod-Shaped (Al,Si)3Ti Particles in an Al-7Si-0.35Mg-0.12Ti (Wt Pct) Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiang; Zhu, Yuman; Easton, Mark A.; Rinderer, Barbara; Couper, Mal; Nie, Jian-Feng

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the rod-shaped particles in an Al-7Si-0.35Mg-0.12Ti (wt pct) casting alloy have been characterized using transmission electron microscopy. It is found that these particles invariably contain Ti, Al, and Si and that they have the structure of the equilibrium phase (Al,Si)3Ti. A near-rational orientation relationship is observed between the (Al,Si)3Ti particles and the α-Al matrix phase. For this orientation relationship, the long axes of the (Al,Si)3Ti rods are invariably parallel to the moiré planes defined by the intersection of closest-packed planes of the (Al,Si)3Ti and α-Al phases. In contrast to the (Al,Si)3Ti or Al3Ti particles form directly from the melt act as heterogeneous nucleation sites for aluminum grains and thus grain-refined Al-Si foundry alloys, the (Al,Si)3Ti particles are found to form during solution treatment at temperatures above 673 K (400 °C). Their formation occurs in the center of aluminum grains and/or dendrites which is Ti enriched due to partitioning during solidification. The low diffusivity of Ti in α-Al allows the particles to form in the Ti-enriched areas near the center of grains as the Ti concentration is not able to be homogenized during typical solution treatment times.

  16. An Investigation on Axial Deformation Behavior of Thin-Wall Unfilled and Filled Tube with Aluminum Alloy (Al-Si7Mg) Foam Reinforced with SiC Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaraswamidhas, L. A.; Rajak, Dipen Kumar; Das, S.

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this research is to produce superior quality aluminum alloy foam with low relative density and higher resistance against compression deformation. This investigation has studied crash energy capacities of unfilled and filled aluminum alloy foams in mild steel tubes. The foam has been prepared by the melt route process with an addition of 5wt.% silicon carbide particles. The fabricated aluminum alloy foams were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Material Pro analyzer. It was observed that the foam-filled tubes could absorb more energy as compared to the unfilled tubes before reaching the complete densification point. Also, the aluminum alloy foams had better energy absorption capacity during the crash or impact loading. This article demonstrates the excellent ability of aluminum alloy foam application in the field where there is a need to absorb crash energy. It is to be noted that the amount of energy absorption will be greater for low-density foam filled in thin-wall rectangular section tubes. We have seen an increasing trend in the application of aluminum foams inside the thin-wall mild steel tubes for maximum energy absorption.

  17. Characteristics and in vitro response of thin hydroxyapatite–titania films produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation of Ti alloys in electrolytes with particle additions

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, W. K.; Sukhorukova, I. V.; Shtansky, D. V.; Levashov, E. A.; Zhitnyak, I. Y.; Gloushankova, N. A.; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, P. V.; Petrzhik, M. I.; Matthews, A.

    2016-01-01

    The enhancement of the biological properties of Ti by surface doping with hydroxyapatite (HA) is of great significance, especially for orthodontic applications. This study addressed the effects of HA particle size in the electrolyte suspension on the characteristics and biological properties of thin titania-based coatings produced on Ti–6Al–4V alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). Detailed morphological investigation of the coatings formed by a single-stage PEO process with two-step control of the electrical parameters was performed using the Minkowski functionals approach. The surface chemistry was studied by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, whereas mechanical properties were evaluated using scratch tests. The biological assessment included in vitro evaluation of the coating bioactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF) as well as studies of spreading, proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. The results demonstrated that both HA micro- and nanoparticles were successfully incorporated in the coatings but had different effects on their surface morphology and elemental distributions. The micro-particles formed an irregular surface morphology featuring interpenetrated networks of fine pores and coating material, whereas the nanoparticles penetrated deeper into the coating matrix which retained major morphological features of the porous TiO2 coating. All coatings suffered cohesive failure in scratch tests, but no adhesive failure was observed; moreover doping with HA increased the coating scratch resistance. In vitro tests in SBF revealed enhanced bioactivity of both HA-doped PEO coatings; furthermore, the cell proliferation/morphometric tests showed their good biocompatibility. Fluorescence microscopy revealed a well-organised actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions in MC3T3-E1 cells cultivated on these substrates. The cell alkaline phosphatase activity in the presence of

  18. Characteristics and in vitro response of thin hydroxyapatite-titania films produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation of Ti alloys in electrolytes with particle additions.

    PubMed

    Yeung, W K; Sukhorukova, I V; Shtansky, D V; Levashov, E A; Zhitnyak, I Y; Gloushankova, N A; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, P V; Petrzhik, M I; Matthews, A; Yerokhin, A

    2016-02-12

    The enhancement of the biological properties of Ti by surface doping with hydroxyapatite (HA) is of great significance, especially for orthodontic applications. This study addressed the effects of HA particle size in the electrolyte suspension on the characteristics and biological properties of thin titania-based coatings produced on Ti-6Al-4V alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). Detailed morphological investigation of the coatings formed by a single-stage PEO process with two-step control of the electrical parameters was performed using the Minkowski functionals approach. The surface chemistry was studied by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, whereas mechanical properties were evaluated using scratch tests. The biological assessment included in vitro evaluation of the coating bioactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF) as well as studies of spreading, proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. The results demonstrated that both HA micro- and nanoparticles were successfully incorporated in the coatings but had different effects on their surface morphology and elemental distributions. The micro-particles formed an irregular surface morphology featuring interpenetrated networks of fine pores and coating material, whereas the nanoparticles penetrated deeper into the coating matrix which retained major morphological features of the porous TiO2 coating. All coatings suffered cohesive failure in scratch tests, but no adhesive failure was observed; moreover doping with HA increased the coating scratch resistance. In vitro tests in SBF revealed enhanced bioactivity of both HA-doped PEO coatings; furthermore, the cell proliferation/morphometric tests showed their good biocompatibility. Fluorescence microscopy revealed a well-organised actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions in MC3T3-E1 cells cultivated on these substrates. The cell alkaline phosphatase activity in the presence of ascorbic

  19. Alloys in energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, B.R.T.

    1984-02-01

    The development of new and advanced energy systems often requires the tailoring of new alloys or alloy combinations to meet the novel and often stringent requirements of those systems. Longer life at higher temperatures and stresses in aggressive environments is the most common goal. Alloy theory helps in achieving this goal by suggesting uses of multiphase systems and intermediate phases, where solid solutions were traditionally used. However, the use of materials under non-equilibrium conditions is now quite common - as with rapidly solidified metals - and the application of alloy theory must be modified accordingly. Under certain conditions, as in a reactor core, the rate of approach to equilibrium will be modified; sometimes a quasi-equilibrium is established. Thus an alloy may exhibit enhanced general diffusion at the same time as precipitate particles are being dispersed and solute atoms are being carried to vacancy sinks. We are approaching an understanding of these processes and can begin to model these complex systems.

  20. Study of Magnetic Alloys: Critical Phenomena.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MAGNETIC ALLOYS, TRANSPORT PROPERTIES), ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE, SEEBECK EFFECT , MAGNETIC PROPERTIES, ALUMINUM ALLOYS, COBALT ALLOYS, GADOLINIUM ALLOYS, GOLD ALLOYS, IRON ALLOYS, NICKEL ALLOYS, PALLADIUM ALLOYS, PLATINUM ALLOYS, RHODIUM ALLOYS

  1. Early-stage nucleation of manganese sulfide particle and its processing evolution in Fe—3wt.%Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Meng, Li; Wang, Hongcai; Yan, Guochun; Mao, Weimin

    2016-03-01

    Manganese sulfide is often referred to as one of important inhibitors in grain-oriented electrical steels, which is of great importance to yield strong Goss texture. However, the early stage of nucleation for such inhibitors and their evolution during the processing has not been well understood. In present work we selected a Fe—3.12wt.%Si—0.11wt.%Mn—0.021wt.%S model system and used FE-SEM and atom probe tomography (APT) to investigate the precipitation behavior of MnS inhibitors at near atomic scale. It was found that the Si—S enriched clusters with sizes of 5—15 nm were formed close to the MnS particles. The density of inhibitors decreased after large pseudo-plane-strain compression because of the effect of dislocation motion, and then slightly increased again when sample was aged at 200°C for 48 h. The dislocations and grain boundaries can act as fast diffusion paths and assist the reemergence of Si—S enriched clusters.

  2. Two phase titanium aluminide alloy

    DOEpatents

    Deevi, Seetharama C.; Liu, C. T.

    2001-01-01

    A two-phase titanic aluminide alloy having a lamellar microstructure with little intercolony structures. The alloy can include fine particles such as boride particles at colony boundaries and/or grain boundary equiaxed structures. The alloy can include alloying additions such as .ltoreq.10 at % W, Nb and/or Mo. The alloy can be free of Cr, V, Mn, Cu and/or Ni and can include, in atomic %, 45 to 55% Ti, 40 to 50% Al, 1 to 5% Nb, 0.3 to 2% W, up to 1% Mo and 0.1 to 0.3% B. In weight %, the alloy can include 57 to 60% Ti, 30 to 32% Al, 4 to 9% Nb, up to 2% Mo, 2 to 8% W and 0.02 to 0.08% B.

  3. Characterization of TiN, TiC and Ti(C,N) in titanium-alloyed ferritic chromium steels focusing on the significance of different particle morphologies

    SciTech Connect

    Michelic, S.K.; Loder, D.; Reip, T.; Ardehali Barani, A.; Bernhard, C.

    2015-02-15

    Titanium-alloyed ferritic chromium steels are a competitive option to classical austenitic stainless steels owing to their similar corrosion resistance. The addition of titanium significantly influences their final steel cleanliness. The present contribution focuses on the detailed metallographic characterization of titanium nitrides, titanium carbides and titanium carbonitrides with regard to their size, morphology and composition. The methods used are manual and automated Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy as well as optical microscopy. Additional thermodynamic calculations are performed to explain the precipitation procedure of the analyzed titanium nitrides. The analyses showed that homogeneous nucleation is decisive at an early process stage after the addition of titanium. Heterogeneous nucleation gets crucial with ongoing process time and essentially influences the final inclusion size of titanium nitrides. A detailed investigation of the nuclei for heterogeneous nucleation with automated Scanning Electron Microscopy proved to be difficult due to their small size. Manual Scanning Electron Microscopy and optical microscopy have to be applied. Furthermore, it was found that during solidification an additional layer around an existing titanium nitride can be formed which changes the final inclusion morphology significantly. These layers are also characterized in detail. Based on these different inclusion morphologies, in combination with thermodynamic results, tendencies regarding the formation and modification time of titanium containing inclusions in ferritic chromium steels are derived. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The formation and modification of TiN in the steel 1.4520 was examined. • Heterogeneous nucleation essentially influences the final steel cleanliness. • In most cases heterogeneous nuclei in TiN inclusions are magnesium based. • Particle morphology provides important information

  4. High strength uranium-tungsten alloy process

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, Paul S.; Sheinberg, Haskell; Hogan, Billy M.; Lewis, Homer D.; Dickinson, James M.

    1990-01-01

    Alloys of uranium and tungsten and a method for making the alloys. The amount of tungsten present in the alloys is from about 4 wt % to about 35 wt %. Tungsten particles are dispersed throughout the uranium and a small amount of tungsten is dissolved in the uranium.

  5. High strength uranium-tungsten alloys

    DOEpatents

    Dunn, Paul S.; Sheinberg, Haskell; Hogan, Billy M.; Lewis, Homer D.; Dickinson, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Alloys of uranium and tungsten and a method for making the alloys. The amount of tungsten present in the alloys is from about 4 wt % to about 35 wt %. Tungsten particles are dispersed throughout the uranium and a small amount of tungsten is dissolved in the uranium.

  6. Electrocatalysts having platium monolayers on palladium, palladium alloy, and gold alloy core-shell nanoparticles, and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Adzic, Radoslav; Mo, Yibo; Vukmirovic, Miomir; Zhang, Junliang

    2010-12-21

    The invention relates to platinum-coated particles useful as fuel cell electrocatalysts. The particles are composed of a noble metal or metal alloy core at least partially encapsulated by an atomically thin surface layer of platinum atoms. The invention particularly relates to such particles having a palladium, palladium alloy, gold alloy, or rhenium alloy core encapsulated by an atomic monolayer of platinum. In other embodiments, the invention relates to fuel cells containing these electrocatalysts and methods for generating electrical energy therefrom.

  7. Dispersoid reinforced alloy powder and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E.; Terpstra, Robert L.

    2010-04-20

    A method of making dispersion-strengthened alloy particles involves melting an alloy having a corrosion and/or oxidation resistance-imparting alloying element, a dispersoid-forming element, and a matrix metal wherein the dispersoid-forming element exhibits a greater tendency to react with a reactive species acquired from an atomizing gas than does the alloying element. The melted alloy is atomized with the atomizing gas including the reactive species to form atomized particles so that the reactive species is (a) dissolved in solid solution to a depth below the surface of atomized particles and/or (b) reacted with the dispersoid-forming element to form dispersoids in the atomized particles to a depth below the surface of said atomized particles. The atomized alloy particles are solidified as solidified alloy particles or as a solidified deposit of alloy particles. Bodies made from the dispersion strengthened alloy particles, deposit thereof, exhibit enhanced fatigue and creep resistance and reduced wear as well as enhanced corrosion and/or oxidation resistance at high temperatures by virtue of the presence of the corrosion and/or oxidation resistance imparting alloying element in solid solution in the particle alloy matrix.

  8. Dispersoid reinforced alloy powder and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E [Ames, IA; Terpstra, Robert L [Ames, IA

    2012-06-12

    A method of making dispersion-strengthened alloy particles involves melting an alloy having a corrosion and/or oxidation resistance-imparting alloying element, a dispersoid-forming element, and a matrix metal wherein the dispersoid-forming element exhibits a greater tendency to react with a reactive species acquired from an atomizing gas than does the alloying element. The melted alloy is atomized with the atomizing gas including the reactive species to form atomized particles so that the reactive species is (a) dissolved in solid solution to a depth below the surface of atomized particles and/or (b) reacted with the dispersoid-forming element to form dispersoids in the atomized particles to a depth below the surface of said atomized particles. The atomized alloy particles are solidified as solidified alloy particles or as a solidified deposit of alloy particles. Bodies made from the dispersion strengthened alloy particles, deposit thereof, exhibit enhanced fatigue and creep resistance and reduced wear as well as enhanced corrosion and/or oxidation resistance at high temperatures by virtue of the presence of the corrosion and/or oxidation resistance imparting alloying element in solid solution in the particle alloy matrix.

  9. Particle clearance and histopathology in lungs of C3H/HeJ mice administered beryllium/copper alloy by intratracheal instillation.

    PubMed

    Benson, J M; Holmes, A M; Barr, E B; Nikula, K J; March, T H

    2000-08-01

    Beryllium/copper (BeCu) alloys are commonly used in the electronics, automotive, consumer, defense, and aerospace industries. Some individuals exposed occupationally to BeCu alloys have developed chronic beryllium disease. However, little is known of the toxicity and fate of BeCu alloys in the respiratory tract. To begin to address this question, we investigated the pulmonary toxicity and clearance of BeCu alloy (2% Be; 98% Cu) in mice. Groups of 40 female C3H/HeJ mice were administered 12.5, 25, and 100 microg BeCu alloy or 2 and 8 microg Be metal by intratracheal instillation. Mice were sacrificed at 1 h and 1, 7, 14, and 28 days postinstillation. Left lungs were evaluated for histopathological change. Right lungs were analyzed for Be and Cu content. Twenty-five percent of the high-dose BeCu mice and 7.5% of the mid-dose BeCu mice died within 24 h of dosing. Acute pulmonary lesions included acute alveolitis and interstitial inflammation. Type II epithelial cell hyperplasia and centriacinar fibrosis were present by 7 days after dosing. Lesions persisted through 28 days after instillation. No lesions attributable to alloy exposure were present in liver or kidney. Be metal instillation caused no deaths and minimal pulmonary changes over the time studied, indicating that the pulmonary lesions were due to Cu rather than Be. Cu cleared the lung with a half-time of 0. 5-2 days. Be cleared with a half-time of several weeks or longer. Results of this study suggest that exposure to BeCu alloy is more acutely toxic to lung than Be metal. The results of tissue analyses also indicate that, while the Cu component of the alloy clears the lung rapidly, Be is retained and may accumulate upon repeated exposure.

  10. Alloy materials

    DOEpatents

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo; Thompson, Elliott D.; Fritzemeier, Leslie G.; Cameron, Robert D.; Siegal, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  11. Magnesium silicide intermetallic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gh.; Gill, H. S.; Varin, R. A.

    1993-11-01

    Methods of induction melting an ultra-low-density magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) intermetallic and its alloys and the resulting microstructure and microhardness were studied. The highest quality ingots of Mg2Si alloys were obtained by triple melting in a graphite crucible coated with boron nitride to eliminate reactivity, under overpressure of high-purity argon (1.3 X 105 Pa), at a temperature close to but not exceeding 1105 °C ± 5 °C to avoid excessive evaporation of Mg. After establishing the proper induction-melting conditions, the Mg-Si binary alloys and several Mg2Si alloys macroalloyed with 1 at. pct of Al, Ni, Co, Cu, Ag, Zn, Mn, Cr, and Fe were induction melted and, after solidification, investigated by optical microscopy and quantitative X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Both the Mg-rich and Si-rich eutectic in the binary alloys exhibited a small but systematic increase in the Si content as the overall composition of the binary alloy moved closer toward the Mg2Si line compound. The Vickers microhardness (VHN) of the as-solidified Mg-rich and Si-rich eutectics in the Mg-Si binary alloys decreased with increasing Mg (decreasing Si) content in the eutectic. This behavior persisted even after annealing for 75 hours at 0.89 pct of the respective eutectic temperature. The Mg-rich eutectic in the Mg2Si + Al, Ni, Co, Cu, Ag, and Zn alloys contained sections exhibiting a different optical contrast and chemical composition than the rest of the eutectic. Some particles dispersed in the Mg2Si matrix were found in the Mg2Si + Cr, Mn, and Fe alloys. The EDS results are presented and discussed and compared with the VHN data.

  12. Three-Dimensional Microstructure Visualization of Porosity and Fe-Rich Inclusions in SiC Particle-Reinforced Al Alloy Matrix Composites by X-Ray Synchrotron Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Flávio de Andrade; Williams, Jason J.; Müller, Bernd R.; Hentschel, Manfred P.; Portella, Pedro D.; Chawla, Nikhilesh

    2011-11-15

    Microstructural aspects of composites such as reinforcement particle size, shape, and distribution play important roles in deformation behavior. In addition, Fe-rich inclusions and porosity also influence the behavior of these composites, particularly under fatigue loading. Three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of porosity and Fe-rich inclusions in three dimensions is critical to a thorough understanding of fatigue resistance of metal matrix composites (MMCs), because cracks often initiate at these defects. In this article, we have used X-ray synchrotron tomography to visualize and quantify the morphology and size distribution of pores and Fe-rich inclusions in a SiC particle-reinforced 2080 Al alloy composite. The 3-D data sets were also used to predict and understand the influence of defects on the deformation behavior by 3-D finite element modeling.

  13. Comment on "Hydrothermal preparation of analogous matrix minerals of CM carbonaceous chondrites from metal alloy particles" by Y. Peng and Y. Jing [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 408 (2014) 252-262

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignatelli, Isabella; Vacher, Lionel G.; Marrocchi, Yves

    2015-10-01

    Peng and Jing (2014) recently reported the results of hydrothermal experiments designed to produce synthetic tochilinite/cronstedtite assemblages analogous to those found in the matrix of CM chondrites (Tomeoka and Buseck, 1982, 1983a, 1983b, 1985; Mackinnon and Zolensky, 1984; Zolensky and Mackinnon, 1986; Rubin et al., 2007; Bourot-Denise et al., 2010; Hewins et al., 2014; Marrocchi et al., 2014). The assemblage was obtained from an alloyed metal particle mixture of Fe, Mg, Al, Si, Cr and Ni under basic, reducing and S2--rich conditions. The hydrothermal syntheses were conducted in Teflon-lined stainless-steel autoclaves at temperature of 106-160 °C for short-duration runs and at 153 °C for long-duration runs. The phases in the assemblage were characterized by XRD and TEM, but only the analytical results of long-duration runs were reported in the article and in the Appendix as supplementary material. The phases identified were: cronstedtite and tochilinite (both present in all run products), tochilinite-cronstedtite intergrowths, polyhedral serpentine, a chrysotile-like phase, nanotube-like structures, and lizardite-like and brucite-like phases. Based on their experimental results, the authors put forward a hypothesis to explain the formation of matrix minerals in CM chondrites proposing that the precursors may be nanometer- to micrometer-sized particles of metal alloys that were altered at low temperatures by interaction with S-rich water under reducing and dynamic pressurized conditions.

  14. Alloys based on NiAl for high temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedula, K. M.; Pathare, V.; Aslanidis, I.; Titran, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The NiAl alloys for potential high temperature applications were studied. Alloys were prepared by powder metallurgy techniques. Flow stress values at slow strain rates and high temperatures were measured. Some ternary alloying additions (Hf, Ta and Nb) were identified. The mechanism of strengthening in alloys containing these additions appears to be a form of particle dislocation interaction. The effects of grain size and stoichiometry in binary alloys are also presented.

  15. Modeling dissolution in aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durbin, Tracie Lee

    2005-07-01

    Aluminum and its alloys are used in many aspects of modern life, from soda cans and household foil to the automobiles and aircraft in which we travel. Aluminum alloy systems are characterized by good workability that enables these alloys to be economically rolled, extruded, or forged into useful shapes. Mechanical properties such as strength are altered significantly with cold working, annealing, precipitation-hardening, and/or heat-treatments. Heat-treatable aluminum alloys contain one or more soluble constituents such as copper, lithium, magnesium, silicon and zinc that individually, or with other elements, can form phases that strengthen the alloy. Microstructure development is highly dependent on all of the processing steps the alloy experiences. Ultimately, the macroscopic properties of the alloy depend strongly on the microstructure. Therefore, a quantitative understanding of the microstructural changes that occur during thermal and mechanical processing is fundamental to predicting alloy properties. In particular, the microstructure becomes more homogeneous and secondary phases are dissolved during thermal treatments. Robust physical models for the kinetics of particle dissolution are necessary to predict the most efficient thermal treatment. A general dissolution model for multi-component alloys has been developed using the front-tracking method to study the dissolution of precipitates in an aluminum alloy matrix. This technique is applicable to any alloy system, provided thermodynamic and diffusion data are available. Treatment of the precipitate interface is explored using two techniques: the immersed-boundary method and a new technique, termed here the "sharp-interface" method. The sharp-interface technique is based on a variation of the ghost fluid method and eliminates the need for corrective source terms in the characteristic equations. In addition, the sharp-interface method is shown to predict the dissolution behavior of precipitates in aluminum

  16. Alloy dissolution in argon stirred steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, Darryl Scott

    Alloying is required for the production of all steel products from small castings to large beams. Addition of large quantities of bulk alloys can result in alloy segregation and inconsistent alloy recovery. The objective of this research was to better understand alloy dissolution in liquid steel especially as it relates to Missouri S&Ts' patented continuous steelmaking process. A 45-kilogram capacity ladle with a single porous plug was used to evaluate the effect of four experimental factors on alloy dissolution: alloy species, alloy size or form, argon flow rate, and furnace tap temperature. Four alloys were tested experimentally including Class I low carbon ferromanganese, nickel and tin (as a surrogate for low melting alloys) and Class II ferroniobium. The alloys ranged in size and form from granular to 30 mm diameter lumps. Experimental results were evaluated using a theoretically based numerical model for the steel shell period, alloy mixing (Class I) and alloy dissolution (Class II). A CFD model of the experimental ladle was used to understand steel motion in the ladle and to provide steel velocity magnitudes for the numerical steel shell model. Experiments and modeling confirmed that smaller sized alloys have shorter steel shell periods and homogenize faster than larger particles. Increasing the argon flow rate shortened mixing times and reduced the delay between alloy addition and the first appearance of alloy in the melt. In addition, for every five degree increase in steel bath temperature the steel shell period was shortened by approximately four percent. Class II ferroniobium alloy dissolution was an order of magnitude slower than Class I alloy mixing.

  17. Casting alloys.

    PubMed

    Wataha, John C; Messer, Regina L

    2004-04-01

    Although the role of dental casting alloys has changed in recent years with the development of improved all-ceramic materials and resin-based composites, alloys will likely continue to be critical assets in the treatment of missing and severely damaged teeth. Alloy shave physical, chemical, and biologic properties that exceed other classes of materials. The selection of the appropriate dental casting alloy is paramount to the long-term success of dental prostheses,and the selection process has become complex with the development of many new alloys. However, this selection process is manageable if the practitioner focuses on the appropriate physical and biologic properties, such as tensile strength, modulus of elasticity,corrosion, and biocompatibility, and avoids dwelling on the less important properties of alloy color and short-term cost. The appropriate selection of an alloy helps to ensure a longer-lasting restoration and better oral health for the patient.

  18. Aluminum Alloys--Industrial Deformable, Sintered and Light Aluminum Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-30

    thin film on the particles of the highly dispersed aluminum powder when it is ground in spherical mills in a nitrogen atmosphere in which the...principal elements, certain small admixtures are introduced into the alloys, which have a considerable effect on the decay kinetics of the oversaturated...strengthened by the insoluble dispersed alumina particles. Fine grinding of the original powder provides the dispersion of the oxide films and particles

  19. Alloy design with oxide dispersoids and precipitates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, J. K.

    1977-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of particle-strengthened alloys is reviewed. On the basis of this knowledge, it is concluded that second-phase particles, coherent or incoherent, can enhance the flow strength, creep resistance, and stress-rupture life of alloys. Unfortunately, particles are usually not beneficial alloy-design elements if enhanced uniaxial ductility, plane-strain ductility, stress-rupture ductility, and toughness are called for. Such properties as fatigue-crack propagation resistance appear to require, for example, both high strength and high ductility, a situation which can come to pass only when the perennial conflict between strength and ductility is resolved in particle-strengthened systems in particular and in any other material system in general. Wherever possible, the role of coherent and incoherent particles in alloy design is distinguished.

  20. Effect of Nanosize SiO2 Particles Added into Electrolyte on the Composition and Morphology of Oxide Layers Formed in Alloy AK6M2 Under Microarc Oxidizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishtal, M. M.; Ivashin, P. V.; Yasnikov, I. S.; Polunin, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    Oxide layers formed on AK6M2 aluminum-silicon alloy by microarc oxidizing (MO) are studied. The chemical and phase compositions and the morphology of the layers deposited from a base-composition electrolyte with different contents of added SiO2 powder are determined. It is shown that high-temperature phases form in the oxide layer at a specific concentration of SiO2 nanoparticles. This indicates elevation of the effective temperature in the zone of synthesis of the oxide layers in the process of MO. The addition of nanosize particles of SiO2 into the electrolyte influences positively the operating characteristics of the formed oxide layer.

  1. Dispersoid reinforced alloy powder and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E; Rieken, Joel

    2013-12-10

    A method of making dispersion-strengthened alloy particles involves melting an alloy having a corrosion and/or oxidation resistance-imparting alloying element, a dispersoid-forming element, and a matrix metal wherein the dispersoid-forming element exhibits a greater tendency to react with an introduced reactive species than does the alloying element and wherein one or more atomizing parameters is/are modified to controllably reduce the amount of the reactive species, such as oxygen, introduced into the atomized particles so as to reduce anneal times and improve reaction (conversion) to the desired strengthening dispersoids in the matrix. The atomized alloy particles are solidified as solidified alloy particles or as a solidified deposit of alloy particles. Bodies are made from the dispersion strengthened alloy particles, deposit thereof, exhibit enhanced fatigue and creep resistance and reduced wear as well as enhanced corrosion and/or oxidation resistance at high temperatures by virtue of the presence of the corrosion and/or oxidation resistance imparting alloying element in solid solution in the particle alloy matrix.

  2. VANADIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1959-05-12

    This patent deals with vanadium based ternary alloys useful as fuel element jackets. According to the invention the ternary vanadium alloys, prepared in an arc furnace, contain from 2.5 to 15% by weight titanium and from 0.5 to 10% by weight niobium. Characteristics of these alloys are good thermal conductivity, low neutron capture cross section, good corrosion resistance, good welding and fabricating properties, low expansion coefficient, and high strength.

  3. BRAZING ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, R.G.; Gilliland, R.G.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1963-02-26

    A brazing alloy which, in the molten state, is characterized by excellent wettability and flowability, said alloy being capable of forming a corrosion resistant brazed joint wherein at least one component of said joint is graphite and the other component is a corrosion resistant refractory metal, said alloy consisting essentially of 20 to 50 per cent by weight of gold, 20 to 50 per cent by weight of nickel, and 15 to 45 per cent by weight of molybdenum. (AEC)

  4. Strengthening and Improving Yield Asymmetry of Magnesium Alloys by Second Phase Particle Refinement Under the Guidance of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dongsheng; Lavender, Curt

    2015-05-08

    Improving yield strength and asymmetry is critical to expand applications of magnesium alloys in industry for higher fuel efficiency and lower CO2 production. Grain refinement is an efficient method for strengthening low symmetry magnesium alloys, achievable by precipitate refinement. This study provides guidance on how precipitate engineering will improve mechanical properties through grain refinement. Precipitate refinement for improving yield strengths and asymmetry is simulated quantitatively by coupling a stochastic second phase grain refinement model and a modified polycrystalline crystal viscoplasticity φ-model. Using the stochastic second phase grain refinement model, grain size is quantitatively determined from the precipitate size and volume fraction. Yield strengths, yield asymmetry, and deformation behavior are calculated from the modified φ-model. If the precipitate shape and size remain constant, grain size decreases with increasing precipitate volume fraction. If the precipitate volume fraction is kept constant, grain size decreases with decreasing precipitate size during precipitate refinement. Yield strengths increase and asymmetry approves to one with decreasing grain size, contributed by increasing precipitate volume fraction or decreasing precipitate size.

  5. Influence of Powder Particle Size on the Compaction Behavior and Mechanical Properties of a High-Alloy Austenitic CrMnNi TRIP Steel During Spark Plasma Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, S.; Martin, S.; Krüger, L.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, varying powder particle size fractions (<25, 25 to 45, 45 to 63 µm) of a TRIP steel powder were compacted by spark plasma sintering (SPS). Densification initiated at a slightly lower temperature with decreasing particle size due to increasing green density. With decreasing powder particle size fraction, the as-sintered materials exhibited smaller grain sizes. Compression tests revealed a slight decrease of the compressive yield strength with increasing particle size and, accordingly, larger grain size. A few large deformation bands formed in bigger grains, while many thin deformation bands were formed in smaller grains. α'-Martensite nuclei formed successively inside the deformation bands, reducing the mean free path of (partial) dislocation slip. Due to the size of the deformation bands, α'-martensite formation started at lower strains with increasing particle size. When α'-martensite formation was initiated, work hardening was influenced more by α'-martensite formation than by the grain size of the steel matrix. Hence, work hardening increased with increasing particle size.

  6. PILOT EVALUATION OF VANADIUM ALLOYS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ARCS, SHEETS, ROLLING(METALLURGY), HIGH TEMPERATURE, SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, COMPRESSIVE PROPERTIES, DUCTILITY, CREEP, OXIDATION, COATINGS , SILICIDES , HARDNESS, WELDING, EXTRUSION, TANTALUM ALLOYS, MOLYBDENUM ALLOYS....VANADIUM ALLOYS, * NIOBIUM ALLOYS, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, MECHANICAL PROPERTIES, TITANIUM ALLOYS, ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS, CARBON ALLOYS, MELTING, ELECTRIC

  7. Thermal barrier coating for alloy systems

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D.; White, Rickey L.; Dinwiddie, Ralph B.

    2000-01-01

    An alloy substrate is protected by a thermal barrier coating formed from a layer of metallic bond coat and a top coat formed from generally hollow ceramic particles dispersed in a matrix bonded to the bond coat.

  8. Nonswelling alloy

    DOEpatents

    Harkness, S.D.

    1975-12-23

    An aluminum alloy containing one weight percent copper has been found to be resistant to void formation and thus is useful in all nuclear applications which currently use aluminum or other aluminum alloys in reactor positions which are subjected to high neutron doses.

  9. URANIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Seybolt, A.U.

    1958-04-15

    Uranium alloys containing from 0.1 to 10% by weight, but preferably at least 5%, of either zirconium, niobium, or molybdenum exhibit highly desirable nuclear and structural properties which may be improved by heating the alloy to about 900 d C for an extended period of time and then rapidly quenching it.

  10. ZIRCONIUM ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, H.A.; Ames, D.P.

    1959-02-01

    A binary zirconiuin--antimony alloy is presented which is corrosion resistant and hard containing from 0.07% to 1.6% by weight of Sb. The alloys have good corrosion resistance and are useful in building equipment for the chemical industry.

  11. Dispersoid reinforced alloy powder and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E; Terpstra, Robert L

    2014-10-21

    A method of making dispersion-strengthened alloy particles involves melting an alloy having a corrosion and/or oxidation resistance-imparting alloying element, a dispersoid-forming element, and a matrix metal wherein the dispersoid-forming element exhibits a greater tendency to react with a reactive species acquired from an atomizing gas than does the alloying element. The melted alloy is atomized with the atomizing gas including the reactive species to form atomized particles so that the reactive species is (a) dissolved in solid solution to a depth below the surface of atomized particles and/or (b) reacted with the dispersoid-forming element to form dispersoids in the atomized particles to a depth below the surface of said atomized particles. Bodies made from the dispersion strengthened solidified particles exhibit enhanced fatigue and creep resistance and reduced wear as well as enhanced corrosion and/or oxidation resistance at high temperatures.

  12. Wear Particle Atlas. Revised

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-28

    Nonferrous Metals 27 1.6.2 Copper Alloys 28 1.6.3 Lead /Tin Alloys 32 1,"( Ferrous Oxides 33 1.7.1 Red Oxides of Iron 33 1.7.2 Black...exit end of the ferrogram. Ferrous (magnetic) particles are deposited in strings which follow the field lines of the magnet assembly positioned ueiow...particularly useful in research where it is desired to photograph assemblies of particles requiring a large depth of focus. However, the SEM shows only

  13. Microstructure and Fracture Behavior of Tungsten Heavy Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sunwoo, A

    2003-06-01

    The 93% W-5.6% Ni-1.4% Fe and 93.1% W-4.7% Ni-2.2% Co alloys (WHA) provided by Army Research Laboratory (ARL), Aberdeen are characterized to determine the effects of matrix alloying and swaging on the microstructure and fracture behavior. The W particles are oblong with respect to the swaging direction. The microstructure of the W-Ni-Fe alloy reveals good cohesive bonding between W particles, but there is W-matrix interface separation and matrix alloy cracking. The microstructure of the W-Ni-Co alloy reveals regions of good cohesive bonding between W particles, but also regions where some wetting has not occurred by the liquid. No evidence was observed of matrix alloy cracking. The fracture characteristic of WHA is dominantly cleavage of W particles.

  14. Processing and Properties of Mechanical Alloyed Al93Fe3Cr2Ti2 Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    Nanomaterials, Aluminum Alloys ABSTRACT Nanostructured A193Fe3Ti2Cr2 alloys were prepared via mechanical alloying (MA) starting from elemental powders...2Cr2 . The aluminum powder had a purity of 99.5 wt% with a mean particle size of 70 ^rn, while the corresponding values for iron, chromium and...increases. 2) All aluminum reflections exhibit broadening even after only 2-hours of milling, indicating the grain size reduction and possibly the

  15. PLUTONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Chynoweth, W.

    1959-06-16

    The preparation of low-melting-point plutonium alloys is described. In a MgO crucible Pu is placed on top of the lighter alloying metal (Fe, Co, or Ni) and the temperature raised to 1000 or 1200 deg C. Upon cooling, the alloy slug is broke out of the crucible. With 14 at. % Ni the m.p. is 465 deg C; with 9.5 at. % Fe the m.p. is 410 deg C; and with 12.0 at. % Co the m.p. is 405 deg C. (T.R.H.) l6262 l6263 ((((((((Abstract unscannable))))))))

  16. Aluminum alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, Linda B. (Inventor); Starke, Edgar A., Jr. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to aluminum alloys, particularly to aluminum-copper-lithium alloys containing at least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium as an essential component, which are suitable for applications in aircraft and aerospace vehicles. At least about 0.1 percent by weight of indium is added as an essential component to an alloy which precipitates a T1 phase (Al2CuLi). This addition enhances the nucleation of the precipitate T1 phase, producing a microstructure which provides excellent strength as indicated by Rockwell hardness values and confirmed by standard tensile tests.

  17. Prediction of the consequences of a high-velocity collision between meteoric particles and elements of a titanium alloy protective structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishchenko, A. N.; Afanas'eva, S. A.; Burkin, V. V.; Dudarev, E. F.; Rogaev, K. S.; Tabachenko, A. N.; Khabibullin, M. V.

    2016-11-01

    Calculation-experimental studies of a high-velocity collision between VT1-0 titanium plates and ultrafine- and coarse-grained structures with a steel spherical impactor are illustrated. Fine-grained VT1-0 titanium plate samples have been obtained using the abc pressing method. Ballistic measurements have been performed using a 30-mm smooth-bore ballistic installation at velocities of about 2500 m/s. A high-velocity collision has been calculated in the scope of an elastoplastic model of interacting materials with regard to destruction and a different phase state at velocities reaching 15 km/s. It has been indicated that the mechanical properties of the VT1-0 alloy are improved when proceeding from a coarse-grained structure to an ultrafine- grained structure; however, in this case, the result of shock loading is hardly affected in the considered velocity range. Titanium plates can be used as screens to protect the main structure of the aircraft from a high-velocity collision.

  18. Mechanically Alloyed High Entropy Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, G.; Adrian, M. M.; Csaki, I.; Popescu, C. A.; Mitrică, D.; Vasile, S.; Carcea, I.

    2016-08-01

    In the last years high entropy alloys have been investigated due to their high hardness, high temperature stability and unusual properties that make these alloys to have significant interest. In comparison with traditional alloys that are based on two or three major elements, this new generation alloys consists at least of 5 principal elements, with the concentration between 5 and 35 at.%. The present paper reports synthesis of high entropy alloys (HEA) and high entropy composites (HEC) synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA). The equiatomic AlCrFeNiMn matrix was used for creating the HEA matrix, starting from elemental powders and as reinforcing material for composites was used pure graphite. The mechanical alloying process was carried out at different duration, in a high energy planetary ball mill, under argon atmosphere. The elemental powders alloying began after '5 hours of milling and was complete after 40 hours. The mechanical alloyed matrix and composite was pressed and heat treated under argon protection. The elemental powers were investigated for physical - technological properties, and by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Phase pressing operation was realized with a hydraulic press and the applied pressure was progressive. The sintering process was carried out at 850°C for 2 h. The X-ray diffraction revealed that the MA process resulted in solid solutions formation and also revealed body- centred cubic (BCC) and face-centred cubic (FCC) structures with average grain size around 40 nm. In addition, nanoscale particles were highlighted by scanning electron microscopy, as well as the homogeneity of the chemical composition of the matrix and composite that was confirmed by EDX microanalysis. It was noted that HEA matrix and HEA composites were processed with a high degree of compaction and with a quite large capacity of mixed powder densification (around 70%).

  19. BRAZING ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Donnelly, R.G.; Gilliland, R.G.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1962-02-20

    A brazing alloy is described which, in the molten state, is characterized by excellent wettability and flowability and is capable of forming a corrosion-resistant brazed joint. At least one component of said joint is graphite and the other component is a corrosion-resistant refractory metal. The brazing alloy consists essentially of 40 to 90 wt % of gold, 5 to 35 wt% of nickel, and 1 to 45 wt% of tantalum. (AEC)

  20. COATED ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Harman, C.G.; O'Bannon, L.S.

    1958-07-15

    A coating is described for iron group metals and alloys, that is particularly suitable for use with nickel containing alloys. The coating is glassy in nature and consists of a mixture containing an alkali metal oxide, strontium oxide, and silicon oxide. When the glass coated nickel base metal is"fired'' at less than the melting point of the coating, it appears the nlckel diffuses into the vitreous coating, thus providing a closely adherent and protective cladding.

  1. Quasicrystal-reinforced Mg alloys

    PubMed Central

    Kyun Kim, Young; Tae Kim, Won; Hyang Kim, Do

    2014-01-01

    The formation of the icosahedral phase (I-phase) as a secondary solidification phase in Mg–Zn–Y and Mg–Zn–Al base systems provides useful advantages in designing high performance wrought magnesium alloys. The strengthening in two-phase composites (I-phase + α-Mg) can be explained by dispersion hardening due to the presence of I-phase particles and by the strong bonding property at the I-phase/matrix interface. The presence of an additional secondary solidification phase can further enhance formability and mechanical properties. In Mg–Zn–Y alloys, the co-presence of I and Ca2Mg6Zn3 phases by addition of Ca can significantly enhance formability, while in Mg–Zn–Al alloys, the co-presence of the I-phase and Mg2Sn phase leads to the enhancement of mechanical properties. Dynamic and static recrystallization are significantly accelerated by addition of Ca in Mg–Zn–Y alloy, resulting in much smaller grain size and more random texture. The high strength of Mg–Zn–Al–Sn alloys is attributed to the presence of finely distributed Mg2Sn and I-phase particles embedded in the α-Mg matrix. PMID:27877660

  2. Mechanical alloying of biocompatible Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-De Jesús, F; Bolarín-Miró, A M; Torres-Villaseñor, G; Cortés-Escobedo, C A; Betancourt-Cantera, J A

    2010-07-01

    We report on an alternative route for the synthesis of crystalline Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy, which could be used for surgical implants. Co, Cr and Mo elemental powders, mixed in an adequate weight relation according to ISO Standard 58342-4 (ISO, 1996), were used for the mechanical alloying (MA) of nano-structured Co-alloy. The process was carried out at room temperature in a shaker mixer mill using hardened steel balls and vials as milling media, with a 1:8 ball:powder weight ratio. Crystalline structure characterization of milled powders was carried out by X-ray diffraction in order to analyze the phase transformations as a function of milling time. The aim of this work was to evaluate the alloying mechanism involved in the mechanical alloying of Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy. The evolution of the phase transformations with milling time is reported for each mixture. Results showed that the resultant alloy is a Co-alpha solid solution, successfully obtained by mechanical alloying after a total of 10 h of milling time: first Cr and Mo are mechanically prealloyed for 7 h, and then Co is mixed in for 3 h. In addition, different methods of premixing were studied. The particle size of the powders is reduced with increasing milling time, reaching about 5 mum at 10 h; a longer time promotes the formation of aggregates. The morphology and crystal structure of milled powders as a function of milling time were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and XR diffraction.

  3. Alloys formation upon hypervelocity impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandeville, J. C.; Perrin, J. M.; Vidal, L.; Vidal, A.

    Satellite materials exposed to the space environment are indeed valuable detectors for cosmic and man-made solid particles Many investigations have been made to deduce the geometric size shape and dynamic incidence angle parameters of these projectiles from the morphology of the impact features Furthermore the chemical analysis of remnants when they are found inside craters can provide valuable information about the nature and the origin of these particles However interpretation difficulties have made necessary laboratory hypervelocity impact tests A number of impacts with well defined angles of incidence and velocities using calibrated projectiles have been performed on various targets Alloys obviously formed from projectile and targets components are found We have studied the links between the morphologies the physical and chemical properties of these alloys and those of the incident particles and the targets When projectiles and targets are made of pure materials such as in laboratory tests we have found a clear connection between the composition of the alloys and the kinetic energy of the projectiles Explanations using phase diagrams are given An extrapolation to complex materials such as those used in solar arrays is presented Further modelling of the alloys formation upon hypervelocity impacts is proposed

  4. Low energy milling method, low crystallinity alloy, and negative electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Le, Dihn B; Obrovac, Mark N; Kube, Robert Y; Landucci, James R

    2012-10-16

    A method of making nanostructured alloy particles includes milling a millbase in a pebble mill containing milling media. The millbase comprises: (i) silicon, and (ii) at least one of carbon or a transition metal, and wherein the nanostructured alloy particles are substantially free of crystalline domains greater than 50 nanometers in size. A method of making a negative electrode composition for a lithium ion battery including the nanostructured alloy particles is also disclosed.

  5. Processing of Iridium and Iridium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ohriner, Evan Keith

    2008-01-01

    Iridium and its alloys have been considered to be difficult to fabricate due to their high melting temperatures, limited ductility, sensitivity to impurity content, and chemical properties. The variety of processing methods used for iridium and its alloys are reviewed, including purification, melting, forming, joining, and powder metallurgy techniques. Also included are coating and forming by the methods of electroplating, chemical and physical vapor deposition, and melt particle deposition.

  6. Quantitative analytical electron microscopy of multiphase alloys.

    PubMed

    Prybylowski, J; Ballinger, R; Elliott, C

    1989-02-01

    In this paper, we present a technique for analysis of composition gradients, using an analytical electron microscope, within the primary phase of a two-phase alloy for the case where the second-phase particle size is similar to the size of the irradiated volume. If the composition difference between the two phases is large, the detected compositional fluctuations associated with varying phase fractions may mask any underlying composition gradient of the primary phase. The analysis technique was used to determine grain boundary chromium concentration gradients in a nickel-base superalloy, alloy X-750. The technique may also be of use in other alloy systems.

  7. Trace Carbon in Biomedical Beta-Titanium Alloys: Recent Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.; Ebel, T.; Yan, M.; Qian, M.

    2015-08-01

    Owing to their relatively low Young's modulus, high strength, good resistance to corrosion, and excellent biocompatibility, β-titanium (Ti) alloys have shown great potential for biomedical applications. In β-Ti alloys, carbon can exist in the form of titanium carbide (TiC x ) as well as interstitial atoms. The Ti-C binary phase diagram predicts a carbon solubility value of 0.08 wt.% in β-Ti, which has been used as the carbon limit for a variety of β-Ti alloys. However, noticeable grain boundary TiC x particles have been observed in β-Ti alloys containing impurity levels of carbon well below the predicted 0.08 wt.%. This review focuses its attention on trace carbon (≤0.08 wt.%) in biomedical β-Ti alloys containing niobium (Nb) and molybdenum (Mo), and it discusses the nature and precipitation mechanism of the TiC x particles in these alloys.

  8. Influence of finishing on the electrochemical properties of dental alloys.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, T; Hattori, M; Hasegawa, K; Yoshinari, M; Kawada, E; Oda, Y

    2000-05-01

    Dental alloy surface finishing procedures of may influence their electrochemical behavior, which is used to evaluate their corrosion resistance. We examined the polarization resistance and potentiodynamic polarization profile of the precious-metal alloys, Type 4 gold alloy and silver-palladium alloy, and the base-metal alloys, nickel-chromium alloy, cobalt-chromium alloy, and CP-titanium. Three types of finishing procedure were examined: mirror-finishing using 0.05 micron alumina particles, polishing using #600 abrasive paper and sandblasting. Dissolution of the alloy elements in 0.9% NaCl solution was also measured and compared with the electrochemical evaluation. The corrosion resistance of the dental alloys was found to relate to finishing as follows: The polarization resistance and potentiodynamic polarization behavior revealed that the corrosion resistance improved in the order of sandblasting, #600-abrasive-paper polishing, and mirror-finishing. While the corrosion potential, critical current density and passive current density varied depending on the type of finishing, the transpassive potential remained unchanged. The influence of finishing on the corrosion resistance of precious-metal alloys was less significant than on that of base-metal alloys. A mirror-finishing specimen was recommended for use in evaluation of the corrosion resistance of various dental alloys.

  9. Dual-phase Cr-Ta alloys for structural applications

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.; Brady, Michael P.; Zhu, Jiahong; Tortorelli, Peter F.

    2001-01-01

    Dual phase alloys of chromium containing 2 to 11 atomic percent tantalum with minor amounts of Mo, Cr, Ti, Y, La, Cr, Si and Ge are disclosed. These alloys contain two phases including Laves phase and Cr-rich solid solution in either eutectic structures or dispersed Laves phase particles in the Cr-rich solid solution matrix. The alloys have superior mechanical properties at high temperature and good oxidation resistance when heated to above 1000.degree. C. in air.

  10. Modification of surface properties of copper-refractory metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, John D.; Gibson, Edwin D.

    1993-10-12

    The surface properties of copper-refractory metal (CU-RF) alloy bodies are modified by heat treatments which cause the refractory metal to form a coating on the exterior surfaces of the alloy body. The alloys have a copper matrix with particles or dendrites of the refractory metal dispersed therein, which may be niobium, vanadium, tantalum, chromium, molybdenum, or tungsten. The surface properties of the bodies are changed from those of copper to that of the refractory metal.

  11. Synthesis Processing of High-Lithium Al-Li Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-27

    Li-base alloys suitable for structural applications, with densities 15 to 20 percent lower than 7075 Al. The alloy compositions being investigated...States and Europe. Alloys that offer a 7 to 9 percent decrease in density compared to 7075 Al, with service properties similar to conventional high...large particles substantially influence the deformation behavior due to their non-shearable nature and are therefore desirable for the improvement of

  12. High strength and density tungsten-uranium alloys

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, Haskell

    1993-01-01

    Alloys of tungsten and uranium and a method for making the alloys. The amount of tungsten present in the alloys is from about 55 vol % to about 85 vol %. A porous preform is made by sintering consolidated tungsten powder. The preform is impregnated with molten uranium such that (1) uranium fills the pores of the preform to form uranium in a tungsten matrix or (2) uranium dissolves portions of the preform to form a continuous uranium phase containing tungsten particles.

  13. Alloy softening in binary molybdenum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of alloy additions of Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt on the hardness of Mo. Special emphasis was placed on alloy softening in these binary Mo alloys. Results showed that alloy softening was produced by those elements having an excess of s+d electrons compared to Mo, while those elements having an equal number or fewer s+d electrons than Mo failed to produce alloy softening. Alloy softening and hardening can be correlated with the difference in number of s+d electrons of the solute element and Mo.

  14. Microstructural effects on the tensile and fracture behavior of aluminum casting alloys A356/357

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. G.

    2003-12-01

    The tensile properties and fracture behavior of cast aluminum alloys A356 and A357 strongly depend on secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS), Mg content, and, in particular, the size and shape of eutectic silicon particles and Fe-rich intermetallics. In the unmodified alloys, increasing the cooling rate during solidification refines both the dendrites and eutectic particles and increases ductility. Strontium modification reduces the size and aspect ratio of the eutectic silicon particles, leading to a fairly constant particle size and aspect ratio over the range of SDAS studied. In comparison with the unmodified alloys, the Sr-modified alloys show higher ductility, particularly the A356 alloy, but slightly lower yield strength. In the microstructures with large SDAS (>50 µm), the ductility of the Sr-modified alloys does not continuously decrease with SDAS as it does in the unmodified alloy. Increasing Mg content increases both the matrix strength and eutectic particle size. This decreases ductility in both the Sr-modified and unmodified alloys. The A356/357 alloys with large and elongated particles show higher strain hardening and, thus, have a higher damage accumulation rate by particle cracking. Compared to A356, the increased volume fraction and size of the Fe-rich intermetallics ( π phase) in the A357 alloy are responsible for the lower ductility, especially in the Sr-modified alloy. In alloys with large SDAS (>50 µm), final fracture occurs along the cell boundaries, and the fracture mode is transgranular. In the small SDAS (<30 µm) alloys, final fracture tends to concentrate along grain boundaries. The transition from transgranular to intergranular fracture mode is accompanied by an increase in the ductility of the alloys.

  15. Electromagnetic Characterization Of Metallic Sensory Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Russell A.; Simpson, John; Wallace, Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Leser, Paul; Lahue, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy (FSMA) particles undergo changes in both electromagnetic properties and crystallographic structure when strained. When embedded in a structural material, these attributes can provide sensory output of the strain state of the structure. In this work, a detailed characterization of the electromagnetic properties of a FSMA under development for sensory applications is performed. In addition, a new eddy current probe is used to interrogate the electromagnetic properties of individual FSMA particles embedded in the sensory alloy during controlled fatigue tests on the multifunctional material.

  16. Giant magnetoresistance of Co-Ni-Cu alloys produced by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. Q.; Zhang, Z. D.; Xiao, Q. F.; Geng, D. Y.; Zhao, X. G.; Zhang, W. S.; You, C. Y.

    2003-05-01

    The structure, magnetic properties and magnetoresistance (MR) effect of Co20NixCu80-x alloys produced by mechanical alloying and subsequent annealing have been investigated. After milling for 5 h, a supersaturated solid solution forms for all the alloys. Co20NixCu80-x alloys annealed at 973 K for 30 min segregated into two-phases of fcc-Co and fcc-Cu. The maximum value for MR ratio, at room temperature is 4.7% at a field of 1.2 T, and at 5 K is 15% at a field of 2 T for Co20Cu80 annealed at 718 K for 30 min. The MR ratio of Co-Ni-Cu alloys decreases monotonically with increasing Ni content. The MR and its dependence on particle size are discussed.

  17. Metal alloy identifier

    DOEpatents

    Riley, William D.; Brown, Jr., Robert D.

    1987-01-01

    To identify the composition of a metal alloy, sparks generated from the alloy are optically observed and spectrographically analyzed. The spectrographic data, in the form of a full-spectrum plot of intensity versus wavelength, provide the "signature" of the metal alloy. This signature can be compared with similar plots for alloys of known composition to establish the unknown composition by a positive match with a known alloy. An alternative method is to form intensity ratios for pairs of predetermined wavelengths within the observed spectrum and to then compare the values of such ratios with similar values for known alloy compositions, thereby to positively identify the unknown alloy composition.

  18. NiAl alloys for structural uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koss, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    conventional sense requires ductile powder particles which, through a cold welding and fracture process, can be dispersion strengthened by submicron-sized oxide particles. Using both the Ni-35Al-Fe alloys to contain approx. 1 v/o Y2O3. Preliminary results indicate that mechanically alloyed and extruded NiAl-Fe + Y2O3 alloys when heat treated to a grain-coarsened condition, exhibit improved creep resistance at 1000 C when compared to NiAl; oxidation resistance comparable to NiAl; and fracture toughness values a factor of three better than NiAl. As a result of the research initiated on this NASA program, a subsequent project with support from Inco Alloys International is underway.

  19. Metal dusting of nickel-containing alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, B.A.; Smith, G.D.

    1998-12-31

    Metal dusting is a catastrophic form of carburization which leads to pitting and grooves as the affected metal disintegrates into a mixture of powdery carbon, metallic particles, and possibly oxides and carbides. This high temperature carburization mode is not yet well understood and while relatively infrequent, can be economically disastrous when it does occur in large and complex chemical and petrochemical process streams. References in the literature show that all classes of heat resistant alloys are prone to metal dusting, given the necessary and specific environmental conditions. These same references describe the environments that plague nickel-containing alloys and are used as the basis for postulation on the probable corrosion mechanisms responsible for metal dusting. Using alloy 800 and other nickel-containing alloys and metal dusting atmospheres, an effort is made to examine the steps in the metal dusting process and the temperature ranges over which metal dusting occurs.

  20. Isothermal Diagrams of Precipitation of Silicide and Aluminide Phases in Refractory Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, A. A.; Popova, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    Processes of precipitation of silicides and aluminides in commercial titanium alloys under different modes of heat treatment are studied. The effect of alloying on the types of precipitating particles is considered. The temperature ranges of formation of intermetallics are determined and the possible mechanisms of transformation of particles of different types are discussed. A schematic isothermal diagram of decomposition of metastable phases in refractory titanium alloys is suggested.

  1. An investigation of plastic fracture in aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, J. R., Jr.; Vanstone, R. H.; Merchant, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    The brittle fracture of many high strength alloys such as steel, titanium, and aluminum was shown to occur by a process called plastic fracture. According to this process microscopic voids form at impurity particles, then grow and coalesce to cause the final rupture. To further understand the role of impurities, four aluminum alloys were investigated: 2024-T851, 2124-T851, 7075-T7351 and 7079-T651. Fractography, quantitative metallography, and microprobe studies assessed the roles of various impurity particles relative to these alloys.

  2. Aluminium alloys in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanjun; Rem, Peter

    2009-05-01

    With the increasing growth of incineration of household waste, more and more aluminium is retained in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash. Therefore recycling of aluminium from bottom ash becomes increasingly important. Previous research suggests that aluminium from different sources is found in different size fractions resulting in different recycling rates. The purpose of this study was to develop analytical and sampling techniques to measure the particle size distribution of individual alloys in bottom ash. In particular, cast aluminium alloys were investigated. Based on the particle size distribution it was computed how well these alloys were recovered in a typical state-of-the-art treatment plant. Assessment of the cast alloy distribution was carried out by wet physical separation processes, as well as chemical methods, X-ray fluorescence analysis and electron microprobe analysis. The results from laboratory analyses showed that cast alloys tend to concentrate in the coarser fractions and therefore are better recovered in bottom ash treatment plants.

  3. Atomic scale modelling of hexagonal structured metallic fission product alloys.

    PubMed

    Middleburgh, S C; King, D M; Lumpkin, G R

    2015-04-01

    Noble metal particles in the Mo-Pd-Rh-Ru-Tc system have been simulated on the atomic scale using density functional theory techniques for the first time. The composition and behaviour of the epsilon phases are consistent with high-entropy alloys (or multi-principal component alloys)-making the epsilon phase the only hexagonally close packed high-entropy alloy currently described. Configurational entropy effects were considered to predict the stability of the alloys with increasing temperatures. The variation of Mo content was modelled to understand the change in alloy structure and behaviour with fuel burnup (Mo molar content decreases in these alloys as burnup increases). The predicted structures compare extremely well with experimentally ascertained values. Vacancy formation energies and the behaviour of extrinsic defects (including iodine and xenon) in the epsilon phase were also investigated to further understand the impact that the metallic precipitates have on fuel performance.

  4. Atomic scale modelling of hexagonal structured metallic fission product alloys

    PubMed Central

    Middleburgh, S. C.; King, D. M.; Lumpkin, G. R.

    2015-01-01

    Noble metal particles in the Mo-Pd-Rh-Ru-Tc system have been simulated on the atomic scale using density functional theory techniques for the first time. The composition and behaviour of the epsilon phases are consistent with high-entropy alloys (or multi-principal component alloys)—making the epsilon phase the only hexagonally close packed high-entropy alloy currently described. Configurational entropy effects were considered to predict the stability of the alloys with increasing temperatures. The variation of Mo content was modelled to understand the change in alloy structure and behaviour with fuel burnup (Mo molar content decreases in these alloys as burnup increases). The predicted structures compare extremely well with experimentally ascertained values. Vacancy formation energies and the behaviour of extrinsic defects (including iodine and xenon) in the epsilon phase were also investigated to further understand the impact that the metallic precipitates have on fuel performance. PMID:26064629

  5. Binary Colloidal Alloy Test-5: Aspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaikin, Paul M.; Hollingsworth, Andrew D.

    2008-01-01

    The Binary Colloidal Alloy Test - 5: Aspheres (BCAT-5-Aspheres) experiment photographs initially randomized colloidal samples (tiny nanoscale spheres suspended in liquid) in microgravity to determine their resulting structure over time. BCAT-5-Aspheres will study the properties of concentrated systems of small particles when they are identical, but not spherical in microgravity..

  6. Development of lead-free copper alloy graphite castings. Annual report, January--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, P.K.

    1996-10-01

    The distribution of graphite particles in graphite containing copper alloy was further improved very significantly using several procedures and technological modifications. The developed techniques attacked the graphite distribution problem in two ways. Realizing that clustering of very fine (5um) graphite particles is one of the two major problems, a pretreatment process has been developed using aluminum powders to deagglomerate graphite particles. Along with this, a two-stage stirring technique was used to first incorporate and then to distribute uniformly the deagglomerated particles in the melt. During this year, based on these developments, several components were cast to evaluate the castability of Cu alloy-graphite melts. In addition, machinability tests were done to clearly established that addition of graphite particles improve the machinability of copper MMC alloys over and above that of monolithic copper alloys. The results show that the machining chip sizes and cutting forces of Cu alloys containing graphite particles are smaller than these of the corresponding monolithic Cu alloys. This clearly establishes that the presence of graphite particles in copper alloy improves the machinability in a fashion similar to lead additions to copper alloys. Centrifugal casting of shapes of different sizes appear to be a very attractive method for casting graphite containing copper alloys, since all the graphite particles (regardless of their distribution in the melt) are forced to segregate to the inner periphery of the castings where they impart a very desirable solid lubrication property for bushing and bearing use. A very large number of cylindrical elements of lead bearing copper alloys are now used for similar bearing bushing applications and the manufacturers of these type of bearings are under safety and health hazard pressure to remove lead. This year several parameters for centrifugal casting of copper graphite alloys have been established.

  7. Development of Metallic Sensory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Horne, Michael R.; Messick, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    Existing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are inherently limited by the physical response of the structural material being inspected and are therefore not generally effective at the identification of small discontinuities, making the detection of incipient damage extremely difficult. One innovative solution to this problem is to enhance or complement the NDE signature of structural materials to dramatically improve the ability of existing NDE tools to detect damage. To address this need, a multifunctional metallic material has been developed that can be used in structural applications. The material is processed to contain second phase sensory particles that significantly improve the NDE response, enhancing the ability of conventional NDE techniques to detect incipient damage both during and after flight. Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys (FSMAs) are an ideal material for these sensory particles as they undergo a uniform and repeatable change in both magnetic properties and crystallographic structure (martensitic transformation) when subjected to strain and/or temperature changes which can be detected using conventional NDE techniques. In this study, the use of a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) as the sensory particles was investigated.

  8. Surface energy of metal alloy nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takrori, Fahed M.; Ayyad, Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    The measurement of surface energy of alloy nanoparticles experimentally is still a challenge therefore theoretical work is necessary to estimate its value. In continuation of our previous work on the calculation of the surface energy of pure metallic nanoparticles we have extended our work to calculate the surface energy of different alloy systems, namely, Co-Ni, Au-Cu, Cu-Al, Cu-Mg and Mo-Cs binary alloys. It is shown that the surface energy of metallic binary alloy decreases with decreasing particle size approaching relatively small values at small sizes. When both metals in the alloy obey the Hume-Rothery rules, the difference in the surface energy is small at the macroscopic as well as in the nano-scale. However when the alloy deviated from these rules the difference in surface energy is large in the macroscopic and in the nano scales. Interestingly when solid solution formation is not possible at the macroscopic scale according to the Hume-Rothery rules, it is shown it may form at the nano-scale. To our knowledge these findings here are presented for the first time and is challenging from fundamental as well as technological point of views.

  9. Aluminum alloys for ALS cryogenic tanks: Comparative measurements of cryogenic mechanical properties of Al-Li alloys and alloy 2219, February 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.P.; Purtscher, P.T.; Simon, N.J.; McColskey, J.D.; Walsh, R.P.

    1993-02-01

    Tensile and fracture toughness were obtained at cryogenic temperatures to compare the Al-Li alloys 8090, 2090, and WL049, and alloy 2219 in various tempers and specimen orientations. The strongest alloy at very low temperatures is WL049-T851, which is about 10 percent stronger than 2090-T81. Both alloys are considerably stronger than 2219-T87. Alloy 2090-T81 is tougher (about 50 percent) than WL049-T851 at low temperatures; the higher toughness is attributed to the presence of fewer constituent particles and the tendency to delaminate at low temperatures. The delamination divides the moving crack, thus separating it into smaller regions where plane stress (rather than plane strain) conditions are conducive to increased toughness.

  10. Oxidation of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690: Experimentally Accelerated Study in Hydrogenated Supercritical Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Tyler; Cao, Guoping; Was, Gary S.

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether the oxidation of Alloys 600 and 690 in supercritical water occurs by the same mechanism in subcritical water. Coupons of Alloys 690 and 600 were exposed to hydrogenated subcritical and supercritical water from 633 K to 673 K (360 °C to 400 °C) and the oxidation behavior was observed. By all measures of oxide character and behavior, the oxidation process is the same above and below the supercritical line. Similar oxide morphologies, structures, and chemistries were observed for each alloy across the critical point, indicating that the oxidation mechanism is the same in both subcritical and supercritical water. Oxidation results in a multi-layer oxide structure composed of particles of NiO and NiFe2O4 formed by precipitation on the outer surface and a chromium-rich inner oxide layer formed by diffusion of oxygen to the metal-oxide interface. The inner oxide on Alloy 600 is less chromium rich than that observed on Alloy 690 and is accompanied by preferential oxidation of grain boundaries. The inner oxide on Alloy 690 initially forms by internal oxidation before a protective layer of chromium-rich MO is formed with Cr2O3 at the metal-oxide interface. Grain boundaries in Alloy 690 act as fast diffusion paths for chromium that forms a protective Cr2O3 layer at the surface, preventing grain boundary oxidation from occurring.

  11. Formation and characterization of Al-Ti-Nb alloys by electron-beam surface alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valkov, S.; Petrov, P.; Lazarova, R.; Bezdushnyi, R.; Dechev, D.

    2016-12-01

    The combination of attractive mechanical properties, light weight and resistance to corrosion makes Ti-Al based alloys applicable in many industrial branches, like aircraft and automotive industries etc. It is known that the incorporation of Nb improves the high temperature performance and mechanical properties. In the present study on Al substrate Ti and Nb layers were deposited by DC (Direct Current) magnetron sputtering, followed by electron-beam alloying with scanning electron beam. It was chosen two speeds of the specimen motion during the alloying process: V1 = 0.5 cm/s and V2 = 1 cm/s. The alloying process was realized in circular sweep mode in order to maintain the melt pool further. The obtained results demonstrate a formation of (Ti,Nb)Al3 fractions randomly distributed in biphasic structure of intermetallic (Ti,Nb)Al3 particles, dispersed in α-Al solid solution. The evaluated (Ti,Nb)Al3 lattice parameters are independent of the speed of the specimen motion and therefore the alloying speed does not affect the lattice parameters and thus, does not form additional residual stresses, strains etc. It was found that lower velocity of the specimen motion during the alloying process develops more homogeneous structures. The metallographic analyses demonstrate a formation of surface alloys with very high hardness. Our results demonstrate maximal values of 775 HV [kg/cm2] and average hardness of 673 HV [kg/cm2].

  12. Oxidation of Alloy 600 and Alloy 690: Experimentally Accelerated Study in Hydrogenated Supercritical Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Tyler; Cao, Guoping; Was, Gary S.

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether the oxidation of Alloys 600 and 690 in supercritical water occurs by the same mechanism in subcritical water. Coupons of Alloys 690 and 600 were exposed to hydrogenated subcritical and supercritical water from 633 K to 673 K (360 °C to 400 °C) and the oxidation behavior was observed. By all measures of oxide character and behavior, the oxidation process is the same above and below the supercritical line. Similar oxide morphologies, structures, and chemistries were observed for each alloy across the critical point, indicating that the oxidation mechanism is the same in both subcritical and supercritical water. Oxidation results in a multi-layer oxide structure composed of particles of NiO and NiFe2O4 formed by precipitation on the outer surface and a chromium-rich inner oxide layer formed by diffusion of oxygen to the metal-oxide interface. The inner oxide on Alloy 600 is less chromium rich than that observed on Alloy 690 and is accompanied by preferential oxidation of grain boundaries. The inner oxide on Alloy 690 initially forms by internal oxidation before a protective layer of chromium-rich MO is formed with Cr2O3 at the metal-oxide interface. Grain boundaries in Alloy 690 act as fast diffusion paths for chromium that forms a protective Cr2O3 layer at the surface, preventing grain boundary oxidation from occurring.

  13. Nickel/metal hydride batteries using rate-earth hydrogen storage alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Zhang, Y. S.

    1994-07-01

    Fine particles of a hydrogen storage alloy (LaNi3.8Co0.5Mn0.4Al0.3) were microencapsulated with a thin film of nickel of about 0.6 micron thickness. The microencapsulated alloy powders were used as an anode material in a sealed nickel/metal hydride battery. The battery characteristics were compared with those of a battery with a bare (uncoated) alloy anode. The battery using the bare alloy was less stable compared to the coated alloy due to the role of the coated nickel as an oxygen barrier for protecting the alloy surface from oxidation. In addition, charge- discharge characteristics were improved greatly by the nickel coating, especially at high rates and at low temperatures due to the role of nickel as a microcurrent collector. So the microencapsulation of the alloy powders improves the performances of the alloy electrode.

  14. Superconducting property of Zr-Co and Zr-Co-Al alloys fabricated by rapid solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okai, D.; Nagai, R.; Motoyama, G.; Fukami, T.; Yamasaki, T.; Yokoyama, Y.; Kimura, H. M.; Inoue, A.

    2010-11-01

    The superconducting property of Zr(1-x)Cox (x = 10-50 at.%) alloys and a Zr55Co30Al15 bulk metallic glass fabricated using techniques of rapid solidification was investigated. The Zr55Co30Al15 alloy crystallized by heat treatment in a vacuum atmosphere exhibited superconductivity of Tc,on = 2.4 K. This was attributable to the superconducting property of a crystalline Zr-Co alloy precipitated in the Zr55Co30Al15 alloy. The Tc,on of the crystalline Zr(1-x)Cox alloy was sensitive to the Co content. The increase of Co content for the Zr(1-x)Cox alloy led to the decrease of Tc,on. The Zr(1-x)Cox alloy exhibited superconductivity of a maximum Tc,on = 3.9 K for the Zr80Co20 alloy with superconducting nanocrystal particles embedded in the amorphous matrix.

  15. SUPERCONDUCTING VANADIUM BASE ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Cleary, H.J.

    1958-10-21

    A new vanadium-base alloy which possesses remarkable superconducting properties is presented. The alloy consists of approximately one atomic percent of palladium, the balance being vanadium. The alloy is stated to be useful in a cryotron in digital computer circuits.

  16. Weldability of intermetallic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    David, S.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Ordered intermetallic alloys are a unique class of material that have potential for structural applications at elevated temperatures. The paper describes the welding and weldability of these alloys. The alloys studied were nickel aluminide (Ni[sub 3]Al), titanium aluminide (Ti[sub 3]Al), and iron aluminide.

  17. DELTA PHASE PLUTONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Cramer, E.M.; Ellinger, F.H.; Land. C.C.

    1960-03-22

    Delta-phase plutonium alloys were developed suitable for use as reactor fuels. The alloys consist of from 1 to 4 at.% zinc and the balance plutonium. The alloys have good neutronic, corrosion, and fabrication characteristics snd possess good dimensional characteristics throughout an operating temperature range from 300 to 490 deg C.

  18. PLUTONIUM-THORIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schonfeld, F.W.

    1959-09-15

    New plutonium-base binary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuel are described. The alloys consist of 50 to 98 at.% thorium with the remainder plutonium. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are easy fabrication, phase stability, and the accompanying advantuge of providing a means for converting Th/sup 232/ into U/sup 233/.

  19. Separation in Binary Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, D. O.; Facemire, B. R.; Kaukler, W. F.; Witherow, W. K.; Fanning, U.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of monotectic alloys and alloy analogs reviewed. Report surveys research on liquid/liquid and solid/liquid separation in binary monotectic alloys. Emphasizes separation processes in low gravity, such as in outer space or in free fall in drop towers. Advances in methods of controlling separation in experiments highlighted.

  20. Spin and charge dynamics of chromium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Fishman, R.S.; Viswanath, V.S.; Liu, S.H.

    1996-07-01

    Both the spin- and charge-density waves of Cr alloys are produced by the Coulomb attraction between electrons and holes on nearly nested Fermi surfaces. Driven by quasi-particle transitions, transverse spin- wave and longitudinal phason modes are associated with rotational and translational symmetries of pure Cr and its dilute alloys. At low frequencies, both spin and charge phasons have a nearly linear dispersion with a mode velocity which approaches the spin-wave velocity as T approaches T{sub N} or as the mismatch between the Fermi surfaces increases.

  1. Hexaferrite magnetic materials prepared by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, J.; Maurice, D.; Miao, W. F.; McCormick, P. G.; Street, R.

    1995-02-01

    The structure and properties of hexaferrites in the form of MFe 12O 19 with M = Ba, Sr and Pb prepared by mechanical alloying and heat treatment have been studied. Coercivities of 6-7 kOe were measured for Ba- and Sr-hexaferrite powders. The high values of coercivities have been associated with small particle sizes (˜ 0.1 μm) resulting from the mechanical alloying and subsequent heat treatment. High-coercivity anisotropic samples have been synthesized using hot-pressing, with remanences of 70-75% of the saturation magnetisation being obtained.

  2. Lithium insertion/extraction mechanism in alloy anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei-Jun

    The electrochemical performance of alloy anodes has been reviewed in a previous paper [1]. In this work, the fundamental understanding of lithium-insertion/extraction mechanism in alloy anodes is discussed. The article summarizes the different types of lithium-reaction processes observed in Si, Sn, Sb, Al, Mg and their alloys, with particular emphasis on the characteristics unique to alloy anodes, including the sloping voltage profiles, lithiation amorphization, cycling hysteresis and reaction-potential depression. These unique characteristics are discussed with respect to the effect of interface and surface energies on the phase transformation and thermodynamic stability of fine alloy particles.

  3. Rhenium alloying of tungsten heavy alloys

    SciTech Connect

    German, R.M.; Bose, A.; Jerman, G.

    1989-01-01

    Alloying experiments were performed using rhenium additions to a classic 90 mass % tungsten heavy alloy. The mixed-powder system was liquid phase sintered to full density at 1500 C in 60 min The rhenium-modified alloys exhibited a smaller grain size, higher hardness, higher strength, and lower ductility than the unalloyed system. For an alloy with a composition of 84W-6Re-8Ni-2Fe, the sintered density was 17, 4 Mg/m{sup 3} with a yield strength of 815 MPa, tensile strength of 1180 MPa, and elongation to failure of 13%. This property combination results from the aggregate effects of grain size reduction and solid solution hardening due to rhenium. In the unalloyed system these properties require post-sintering swaging and aging; thus, alloying with rhenium is most attractive for applications where net shaping is desired, such as by powder injection molding.

  4. Processing and Characterization of Mechanically Alloyed NiAl-Based Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-20

    50.1 49.9 - - - 0.007 * 5 00 0E 4 CD C o E * 0 0 L 00000i,_ 0 • 4- -. 0 * CCL 6.2 6- Three types of alloys were produced, NiAI with a brittle, Heusler ...16): -e - h where 7’ is the Orowan stress, h is particle height (usually, particle radius), and X is half the mean interparticle spacing. By

  5. ) Composites Containing Nanoparticles and Larger Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanaraja, S.; Nath, S. K.; Ray, S.

    2014-07-01

    The composites reinforced with nanoparticles result in improved strength and ductility while those containing coarser particles of micron size have limited ductility. The present study investigates the outcome of mechanical properties in a composite reinforced simultaneously with coarse and fine particles. High energy milling of manganese dioxide particles with excess of aluminum powder ensures that nanoparticles generated, either of MnO2 or alumina, are mostly separate and surrounded by aluminum particles. The milled powder when added to aluminum alloy melt, the excess aluminum particles will melt leaving behind separate oxide nanoparticles without significant agglomeration. Different amounts of milled powder mix have been stirred into molten aluminum alloy where nanoparticles of MnO2 react with melt to form alumina. The resulting slurry is cast into composites, which also contains coarser (nearly micron size) alumina particles formed by internal oxidation of the melt during processing. The microstructure of the composites shows good distribution of both the size categories of particles without significant clustering. The oxide particles are primarily γ-alumina in a matrix of aluminum-magnesium-manganese alloy containing some iron picked up from the stirrer. These composites fail during tensile test by ductile fracture due to debonding of coarser particles. The presence of nanoparticles along with coarser particles in a composite improves both strength and ductility considerably, presumably due to delay in debonding of coarser particles to higher stress because of reduced mismatch in extension caused by increased strain hardening in presence of nanoparticles in the matrix. The composites containing only coarser oxide particles show limited strength and ductility attributed to early debonding of particles at a relatively lower stress due to larger mismatch in extension between matrix and larger particles. Higher addition of powder mix beyond a limit, however

  6. Study on solidification of immisible alloys (M-10)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamio, Akihiko

    1993-01-01

    Alloying of immiscible alloys under microgravity is of interest in metallurgical processes. Several experiments investigating the alloying of immiscible alloys, such as Al-In, Al-Bi, Zn-Bi, and Zn-Pb, were done in space. Homogeneous distribution of small L2 particles in the matrix, such as an emulsion structure, was expected in the space-solidifed alloys. However, the alloys demonstrated an extremely segregated structure. To date insufficient information was obtained to explain these unexpected results. Our experiment was proposed to clarify the solidification manner of immiscible alloys and to obtain fundamental information concerning structural control of the alloys. In space, density differences between the two liquids separated in immiscible regions can be neglected, so that no sedimentation of L(sub 2) phase will take place. When the growth of the alloys is interrupted and this status is frozen by an adequate rapid cooling procedure, it will provide much information concerning decomposing homogeneous liquid and the interaction between the monotectic growth front morphology and the distribution of L(sub 2) phase. It is anticipated that the results will be useful for elucidating the monotectic solidification manner and it will be instructive to explain the segregated structures obtained in the past space experiments.

  7. Processing and alloying of tungsten heavy alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, A.; Dowding, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    Tungsten heavy alloys are two-phase metal matrix composites with a unique combination of density, strength, and ductility. They are processed by liquid-phase sintering of mixed elemental powders. The final microstructure consists of a contiguous network of nearly pure tungsten grains embedded in a matrix of a ductile W-Ni-Fe alloy. Due to the unique property combination of the material, they are used extensively as kinetic energy penetrators, radiation shields. counterbalances, and a number of other applications in the defense industry. The properties of these alloys are extremely sensitive to the processing conditions. Porosity levels as low as 1% can drastically degrade the properties of these alloys. During processing, care must be taken to reduce or prevent incomplete densification, hydrogen embrittlement, impurity segregation to the grain boundaries, solidification shrinkage induced porosity, and in situ formation of pores due to the sintering atmosphere. This paper will discuss some of the key processing issues for obtaining tungsten heavy alloys with good properties. High strength tungsten heavy alloys are usually fabricated by swaging and aging the conventional as-sintered material. The influence of this on the shear localization tendency of a W-Ni-Co alloy will also be demonstrated. Recent developments have shown that the addition of certain refractory metals partially replacing tungsten can significantly improve the strength of the conventional heavy alloys. This development becomes significant due to the recent interest in near net shaping techniques such as powder injection moldings. The role of suitable alloying additions to the classic W-Ni-Fe based heavy alloys and their processing techniques will also be discussed in this paper.

  8. Pack cementation coatings for alloys

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yi-Rong; Zheng, Minhui; Rapp, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    The halide-activated pack cementation process was modified to produce a Ge-doped silicide diffusion coating on a Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb alloy in a single processing step. The morphology and composition of the coating depended both on the composition of the pack and on the composition and microstructure of the substrate. Higher Ge content in the pack suppressed the formation of CrSi{sub 2} and reduced the growth kinetics of the coating. Ge was not homogeneously distributed in the coatings. In cyclic and isothermal oxidation in air at 700 and 1050{degrees}C, the Ge-doped silicide coating protected the Cr-Nb alloys from significant oxidation by the formation of a Ge-doped silica film. The codeposition and diffusion of aluminum and chromium into low alloy steel have been achieved using elemental Al and Cr powders and a two-step pack cementation process. Sequential process treatments at 925{degrees}C and 1150{degrees}C yield dense and uniform ferrite coatings, whose compositions are close to either Fe{sub 3}Al or else FeAl plus a lower Cr content, when processed under different conditions. The higher content of Al in the coatings was predicted by thermodynamic calculations of equilibrium in the gas phase. The effect of the particle size of the metal powders on the surface composition of the coating has been studied for various combinations of Al and Cr powders.

  9. Extrusion of aluminium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, T.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years the importance of extruded alloys has increased due to the decline in copper extrusion, increased use in structural applications, environmental impact and reduced energy consumption. There have also been huge technical advances. This text provides comprehensive coverage of the metallurgical, mathematical and practical features of the process. The contents include: continuum principles; metallurgical features affecting the extrusion of Al-alloys; extrusion processing; homogenization and extrusion conditions for specific alloys; processing of 6XXX alloys; plant utilization; Appendix A: specification of AA alloys and DIN equivalents; Appendix B: chemical compositions; and Appendix C: typical properties.

  10. High strength alloys

    DOEpatents

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  11. High strength alloys

    DOEpatents

    Maziasz, Phillip James; Shingledecker, John Paul; Santella, Michael Leonard; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Vinegar, Harold J.; John, Randy Carl; Kim, Dong Sub

    2012-06-05

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tublar that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  12. Creep Resistant Zinc Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Frank E. Goodwin

    2002-12-31

    This report covers the development of Hot Chamber Die Castable Zinc Alloys with High Creep Strengths. This project commenced in 2000, with the primary objective of developing a hot chamber zinc die-casting alloy, capable of satisfactory service at 140 C. The core objectives of the development program were to: (1) fill in missing alloy data areas and develop a more complete empirical model of the influence of alloy composition on creep strength and other selected properties, and (2) based on the results from this model, examine promising alloy composition areas, for further development and for meeting the property combination targets, with the view to designing an optimized alloy composition. The target properties identified by ILZRO for an improved creep resistant zinc die-casting alloy were identified as follows: (1) temperature capability of 1470 C; (2) creep stress of 31 MPa (4500 psi); (3) exposure time of 1000 hours; and (4) maximum creep elongation under these conditions of 1%. The project was broadly divided into three tasks: (1) Task 1--General and Modeling, covering Experimental design of a first batch of alloys, alloy preparation and characterization. (2) Task 2--Refinement and Optimization, covering Experimental design of a second batch of alloys. (3) Task 3--Creep Testing and Technology transfer, covering the finalization of testing and the transfer of technology to the Zinc industry should have at least one improved alloy result from this work.

  13. An Experimental Investigation of Effects of Fluxes (Na3AlF6 and K2TiF6), Element Alloys (Mg), and Composite Powders ((Al + TiC)CP and (Al + B4C)CP) on Distribution of Particles and Phases in Al-B4C and Al-TiC Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazaheri, Younes; Emadi, Rahmatollah; Meratian, Mahmood; Zarchi, Mehdi Karimi

    2017-04-01

    The wettability, incorporation, and gravity segregation of TiC and B4C particles into molten aluminum are important problems in the production of Al-TiC and Al-B4C composites by the casting techniques. In order to solve these problems, different methods consisting of adding the Na3AlF6 and K2TiF6 fluxes and Mg (as the alloying element) into the molten aluminum and injection of the (Al + TiC)CP and (Al + B4C)CP composite powders instead of B4C and TiC particles are evaluated. In this work, the conditions of sample preparation, such as particle addition temperature, stirring speed, and stirring time, are determined after many studies and tests. Microstructural characterizations of samples are investigated by scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffractometry. The results show better distribution and incorporation of TiCp and B4Cp in aluminum matrix when the fluxes are used, as well as EDS analysis of the interface between the matrix and reinforcement-strengthened formation of the different phases such as Al4C3 in the Al-TiC composites and Al3BC, TiB2 in the Al-B4C composites.

  14. An Experimental Investigation of Effects of Fluxes (Na3AlF6 and K2TiF6), Element Alloys (Mg), and Composite Powders ((Al + TiC)CP and (Al + B4C)CP) on Distribution of Particles and Phases in Al-B4C and Al-TiC Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazaheri, Younes; Emadi, Rahmatollah; Meratian, Mahmood; Zarchi, Mehdi Karimi

    2017-01-01

    The wettability, incorporation, and gravity segregation of TiC and B4C particles into molten aluminum are important problems in the production of Al-TiC and Al-B4C composites by the casting techniques. In order to solve these problems, different methods consisting of adding the Na3AlF6 and K2TiF6 fluxes and Mg (as the alloying element) into the molten aluminum and injection of the (Al + TiC)CP and (Al + B4C)CP composite powders instead of B4C and TiC particles are evaluated. In this work, the conditions of sample preparation, such as particle addition temperature, stirring speed, and stirring time, are determined after many studies and tests. Microstructural characterizations of samples are investigated by scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffractometry. The results show better distribution and incorporation of TiCp and B4Cp in aluminum matrix when the fluxes are used, as well as EDS analysis of the interface between the matrix and reinforcement-strengthened formation of the different phases such as Al4C3 in the Al-TiC composites and Al3BC, TiB2 in the Al-B4C composites.

  15. Gamma titanium aluminide alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, M.; Inui, H.; Kishida, K.; Matsumuro, M.; Shirai, Y.

    1995-08-01

    Extensive progress and improvements have been made in the science and technology of gamma titanium aluminide alloys within the last decade. In particular, the understanding of their microstructural characteristics and property/microstructure relationships has been substantially deepened. Based on these achievements, various engineering two-phase gamma alloys have been developed and their mechanical and chemical properties have been assessed. Aircraft and automotive industries arc pursuing their introduction for various structural components. At the same time, recent basic studies on the mechanical properties of two-phase gamma alloys, in particular with a controlled lamellar structure have provided a considerable amount of fundamental information on the deformation and fracture mechanisms of the two-phase gamma alloys. The results of such basic studies are incorporated in the recent alloy and microstructure design of two-phase gamma alloys. In this paper, such recent advances in the research and development of the two-phase gamma alloys and industrial involvement are summarized.

  16. Weldability of High Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Maroef, I

    2003-01-22

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of silicon and iron on the weldability of HAYNES HR-160{reg_sign} alloy. HR-I60 alloy is a solid solution strengthened Ni-Co-Cr-Si alloy. The alloy is designed to resist corrosion in sulfidizing and other aggressive high temperature environments. Silicon is added ({approx}2.75%) to promote the formation of a protective oxide scale in environments with low oxygen activity. HR-160 alloy has found applications in waste incinerators, calciners, pulp and paper recovery boilers, coal gasification systems, and fluidized bed combustion systems. HR-160 alloy has been successfully used in a wide range of welded applications. However, the alloy can be susceptible to solidification cracking under conditions of severe restraint. A previous study by DuPont, et al. [1] showed that silicon promoted solidification cracking in the commercial alloy. In earlier work conducted at Haynes, and also from published work by DuPont et al., it was recognized that silicon segregates to the terminal liquid, creating low melting point liquid films on solidification grain boundaries. Solidification cracking has been encountered when using the alloy as a weld overlay on steel, and when joining HR-160 plate in a thickness greater than19 millimeters (0.75 inches) with matching filler metal. The effect of silicon on the weldability of HR-160 alloy has been well documented, but the effect of iron is not well understood. Prior experience at Haynes has indicated that iron may be detrimental to the solidification cracking resistance of the alloy. Iron does not segregate to the terminal solidification product in nickel-base alloys, as does silicon [2], but iron may have an indirect or interactive influence on weldability. A set of alloys covering a range of silicon and iron contents was prepared and characterized to better understand the welding metallurgy of HR-160 alloy.

  17. Tungsten-nickel-cobalt alloy and method of producing same

    DOEpatents

    Dickinson, James M.; Riley, Robert E.

    1977-03-15

    An improved tungsten alloy having a tungsten content of approximately 95 weight percent, a nickel content of about 3 weight percent, and the balance being cobalt of about 2 weight percent is described. A method for producing said tungsten-nickel-cobalt alloy is further described and comprises (a) coating the tungsten particles with a nickel-cobalt alloy, (b) pressing the coated particles into a compact shape, (c) heating said compact in hydrogen to a temperature in the range of 1400.degree. C and holding at this elevated temperature for a period of about 2 hours, (d) increasing this elevated temperature to about 1500.degree. C and holding for 1 hour at this temperature, (e) cooling to about 1200.degree. C and replacing the hydrogen atmosphere with an inert argon atmosphere while maintaining this elevated temperature for a period of about 1/2 hour, and (f) cooling the resulting alloy to room temperature in this argon atmosphere.

  18. Oxidation, carburization and/or sulfidation resistant iron aluminide alloy

    DOEpatents

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier S.; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton

    2003-08-19

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or Zro.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B. .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  19. Ethylene binding to Au/Cu alloy nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammage, Michael D.; Stauffer, Shannon; Henkelman, Graeme; Becker, Michael F.; Keto, John W.; Kovar, Desiderio

    2016-11-01

    Weak chemisorption of ethylene has been shown to be an important characteristic in the use of metals for the separation of ethylene from ethane. Previously, density functional theory (DFT) has been used to predict the binding energies of various metals and alloys, with Ag having the lowest chemisorption energy amongst the metals and alloys studied. Here Au/Cu alloys are investigated by a combination of DFT calculations and experimental measurements. It is inferred from experiments that the binding energy between a Au/Cu alloy and ethylene is lower than to either of the pure metals, and DFT calculations confirm that this is the case when Au segregates to the particle surface. Implications of this work suggest that it may be possible to further tune the binding energy with ethylene by compositional and morphological control of films produced from Au-surface segregated alloys.

  20. The role of metal nanoparticles and nanonetworks in alloy degradation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Z; Natesan, K; Cai, Z; Darling, S B

    2008-08-01

    Oxide scale, which is essential to protect structural alloys from high-temperature degradation such as oxidation, carburization and metal dusting, is usually considered to consist simply of oxide phases. Here, we report on a nanobeam X-ray and magnetic force microscopy investigation that reveals that the oxide scale actually consists of a mixture of oxide materials and metal nanoparticles. The metal nanoparticles self-assemble into nanonetworks, forming continuous channels for carbon transport through the oxide scales. To avoid the formation of these metallic particles in the oxide scale, alloys must develop a scale without spinel phase. We have designed a novel alloy that has been tested in a high-carbon-activity environment. Our results show that the incubation time for carbon transport through the oxide scale of the new alloy is more than an order of magnitude longer compared with commercial alloys with similar chromium content.

  1. Potential of an Al-Ti-MgAl2O4 Master Alloy and Ultrasonic Cavitation in the Grain Refinement of a Cast Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreekumar, V. M.; Babu, N. H.; Eskin, D. G.

    2017-02-01

    A new grain refining master alloy containing MgAl2O4 and Ti was synthesized by in situ reaction of TiO2 particles in an Al-Mg melt. MgAl2O4 particles formed were distributed in the melt by ultrasonic cavitation processing. The obtained master alloy showed considerable (50 pct) grain refining ability in a commercial A357-type Al-Si alloy. Ultrasonication contributed further to 25 pct in the grain refinement. In comparison with a commercial Al-5 pct Ti-1 pct B master alloy, the efficiency of the new master alloy is less at a lower addition rate. Nevertheless, both master alloys performed similarly at higher additions. The strength and ductility of the inoculated and ultrasonicated alloy showed at least a 10 pct and a 50 pct increase, respectively, as compared with non-grain-refined alloy and a similar mechanical performance in comparison with the alloy inoculated with Al-5 pct Ti-1 pct B master alloy.

  2. Lorentz force particle analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Thess, André; Moreau, René; Tan, Yanqing; Dai, Shangjun; Tao, Zhen; Yang, Wenzhi; Wang, Bo

    2016-07-01

    A new contactless technique is presented for the detection of micron-sized insulating particles in the flow of an electrically conducting fluid. A transverse magnetic field brakes this flow and tends to become entrained in the flow direction by a Lorentz force, whose reaction force on the magnetic-field-generating system can be measured. The presence of insulating particles suspended in the fluid produce changes in this Lorentz force, generating pulses in it; these pulses enable the particles to be counted and sized. A two-dimensional numerical model that employs a moving mesh method demonstrates the measurement principle when such a particle is present. Two prototypes and a three-dimensional numerical model are used to demonstrate the feasibility of a Lorentz force particle analyzer (LFPA). The findings of this study conclude that such an LFPA, which offers contactless and on-line quantitative measurements, can be applied to an extensive range of applications. These applications include measurements of the cleanliness of high-temperature and aggressive molten metal, such as aluminum and steel alloys, and the clean manufacturing of semiconductors.

  3. Alloy 10: A 1300F Disk Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John

    2000-01-01

    Gas turbine engines for future subsonic transports will probably have higher pressure ratios which will require nickel-base superalloy disks with 13000 to 1400 F temperature capability. Several advanced disk alloys are being developed to fill this need. One of these, Allied Signal's Alloy 10, is a promising candidate for gas turbine engines to be used on smaller, regional aircraft. For this application, compressor/turbine disks must withstand temperatures of 1300 F for several hundred hours over the life of the engine. In this paper, three key properties of Alloy 10--tensile, 0.2% creep, and fatigue crack growth--will be assessed at 1300 F.

  4. NASA-UVA light aerospace alloy and structures technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangloff, Richard P.; Haviland, John K.; Herakovich, Carl T.; Pilkey, Walter D.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Thornton, Earl A.; Stoner, Glenn E.; Swanson, Robert E.; Wawner, Franklin E., Jr.; Wert, John A.

    1989-01-01

    The report on progress achieved in accomplishing of the NASA-UVA Light Aerospace Alloy and Structures Technology Program is presented. The objective is to conduct interdisciplinary graduate student research on the performance of next generation, light weight aerospace alloys and associated thermal gradient structures in close collaboration with researchers. The efforts will produce basic understanding of material behavior, new monolithic and composite alloys, processing methods, solid and fluid mechanics analyses, measurement advances, and a pool of educated graduate students. The presented accomplishments include: research on corrosion fatigue of Al-Li-Cu alloy 2090; research on the strengthening effect of small In additions to Al-Li-Cu alloys; research on localized corrosion of Al-Li alloys; research on stress corrosion cracking of Al-Li-Cu alloys; research on fiber-matrix reaction studies (Ti-1100 and Ti-15-3 matrices containing SCS-6, SCS-9, and SCS-10 fibers); and research on methods for quantifying non-random particle distribution in materials that has led to generation of a set of computer programs that can detect and characterize clusters in particles.

  5. Mo-Si-B Alloy Development

    SciTech Connect

    Schneibel, J.H.; Kruzie, J.J.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2003-04-24

    Mo-Si-B silicides consisting of the phases {alpha}-Mo (Mo solid solution), Mo{sub 3}Si, and Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2} have melting points on the order of 2000 C and have potential as ultra-high temperature structural materials. Mo-Si-B alloys can be processed such that the {alpha}-Mo is present in the form of isolated particles in a silicide matrix, or as a continuous matrix ''cementing'' individual silicide particles together. The latter microstructure is similar to that of WC-Co hard metals. This paper focuses on the relationship between the topology as well as scale of the microstructure of Mo-Mo{sub 3}Si-Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2} alloys, and their creep strength and fracture toughness. For example, the creep strength of Mo-Si-B alloys is improved by reducing the {alpha}-Mo volume fraction and by making the {alpha}-Mo phase discontinuous. The fracture toughness is improved by increasing the {alpha}-Mo volume fraction and by making the {alpha}-Mo phase continuous. Room temperature stress intensity factors as high as 21 MPa m{sup 1/2} were obtained. The room temperature fracture toughness of Mo-Si-B alloys can also be improved by microalloying with Zr. The room temperature ductility of Mo itself can be improved by adding MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel particles suggesting yet another way to improve the ductile phase toughening of Mo-Si-B alloys.

  6. Alloy and method of producing the same

    DOEpatents

    Hufnagel, Todd C.; Ott, Ryan T.; Fan, Cang; Kecskes, Laszlo

    2005-07-19

    In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention, an alloy or other composite material is provided formed of a bulk metallic glass matrix with a microstructure of crystalline metal particles. The alloy preferably has a composition of (X.sub.a Ni.sub.b Cu.sub.c).sub.100-d-c Y.sub.d Al.sub.c, wherein the sum of a, b and c equals 100, wherein 40.ltoreq.a.ltoreq.80, 0.ltoreq.b.ltoreq.35, 0.ltoreq.c.ltoreq.40, 4.ltoreq.d.ltoreq.30, and 0.ltoreq.e.ltoreq.20, and wherein preferably X is composed of an early transition metal and preferably Y is composed of a refractory body-centered cubic early transition metal. A preferred embodiment of the invention also provides a method of producing an alloy composed of two or more phases at ambient temperature. The method includes the steps of providing a metastable crystalline phase composed of at least two elements, heating the metastable crystalline phase together with at least one additional element to form a liquid, casting the liquid, and cooling the liquid to form the alloy. In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention, the composition and cooling rate of the liquid can be controlled to determine the volume fraction of the crystalline phase and determine the size of the crystalline particles, respectively.

  7. Survey of Radiation Effects in Titanium Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Mansur, Louis K

    2008-08-01

    Information on radiation effects in titanium alloys has been reviewed. Only sparse experimental data from fission reactor and charged particle irradiations is available, none of which is directly applicable to the SNS. Within this limited data it is found that although mechanical properties are substantially degraded, several Ti alloys may retain acceptable properties to low or moderate doses. Therefore, it is recommended that titanium alloys be examined further for application to the SNS target. Since information directly relevant to the SNS mercury target environment and irradiation conditions is not available, it is recommended that ORNL generate the necessary experimental data using a graded approach. The first testing would be for cavitation erosion resistance using two different test devices. If the material performs acceptably the next tests should be for long term mercury compatibility testing of the most promising alloys. Irradiation tests to anticipated SNS displacement doses followed by mechanical property measurements would be the last stage in determining whether the alloys should be considered for service in the SNS target module.

  8. Composite material reinforced with atomized quasicrystalline particles and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Biner, S.B.; Sordelet, D.J.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

    1998-12-22

    A composite material comprises an aluminum or aluminum alloy matrix having generally spherical, atomized quasicrystalline aluminum-transition metal alloy reinforcement particles disposed in the matrix to improve mechanical properties. A composite article can be made by consolidating generally spherical, atomized quasicrystalline aluminum-transition metal alloy particles and aluminum or aluminum alloy particles to form a body that is cold and/or hot reduced to form composite products, such as composite plate or sheet, with interfacial bonding between the quasicrystalline particles and the aluminum or aluminum alloy matrix without damage (e.g. cracking or shape change) of the reinforcement particles. The cold and/or hot worked composite exhibits substantially improved yield strength, tensile strength, Young`s modulus (stiffness). 3 figs.

  9. Composite material reinforced with atomized quasicrystalline particles and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Biner, Suleyman B.; Sordelet, Daniel J.; Lograsso, Barbara K.; Anderson, Iver E.

    1998-12-22

    A composite material comprises an aluminum or aluminum alloy matrix having generally spherical, atomized quasicrystalline aluminum-transition metal alloy reinforcement particles disposed in the matrix to improve mechanical properties. A composite article can be made by consolidating generally spherical, atomized quaiscrystalline aluminum-transition metal alloy particles and aluminum or aluminum alloy particles to form a body that is cold and/or hot reduced to form composite products, such as composite plate or sheet, with interfacial bonding between the quasicrystalline particles and the aluminum or aluminum alloy matrix without damage (e.g. cracking or shape change) of the reinforcement particles. The cold and/or hot worked compositehibits substantially improved yield strength, tensile strength, Young's modulus (stiffness).

  10. Development of ODS-Fe{sub 3}Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, I.G.; Pint, B.A.; Tortorelli, P.F.; McKamey, C.G.

    1997-12-01

    The overall goal of this program is to develop an oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) version of Fe{sub 3}Al that has sufficient creep strength and resistance to oxidation at temperatures in the range 1000 to 1200 C to be suitable for application as heat exchanger tubing in advanced power generation cycles. The main areas being addressed are: (a) alloy processing to achieve the desired alloy grain size and shape, and (b) optimization of the oxidation behavior to provide increased service life compared to semi-commercial ODS-FeCrAl alloys intended for the same applications. The recent studies have focused on mechanically-alloyed powder from a commercial alloy vendor. These starting alloy powders were very clean in terms of oxygen content compared to ORNL-produced powders, but contained similar levels of carbon picked up during the milling process. The specific environment used in milling the powder appears to exert a considerable influence on the post-consolidation recrystallization behavior of the alloy. A milling environment which produced powder particles having a high surface carbon content resulted in a consolidated alloy which readily recrystallized, whereas powder with a low surface carbon level after milling resulted in no recrystallization even at 1380 C. A feature of these alloys was the appearance of voids or porosity after the recrystallization anneal, as had been found with ORNL-produced alloys. Adjustment of the recrystallization parameters did not reveal any range of conditions where recrystallization could be accomplished without the formation of voids. Initial creep tests of specimens of the recrystallized alloys indicated a significant increase in creep strength compared to cast or wrought Fe{sub 3}Al, but the specimens failed prematurely by a mechanism that involved brittle fracture of one of the two grains in the test cross section, followed by ductile fracture of the remaining grain. The reasons for this behavior are not yet understood. The

  11. Fusion boundary microstructure evolution in aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrivas, Anastasios Dimitrios

    2000-10-01

    A melting technique was developed to simulate the fusion boundary of aluminum alloys using the GleebleRTM thermal simulator. Using a steel sleeve to contain the aluminum, samples were heated to incremental temperatures above the solidus temperature of a number of alloys. In alloy 2195, a 4wt%Cu-1wt%Li alloy, an equiaxed non-dendritic zone (EQZ) could be formed by heating in the temperature range from approximately 630 to 640°C. At temperatures above 640°C, solidification occurred by the normal epitaxial nucleation and growth mechanism. Fusion boundary behavior was also studied in alloys 5454-H34, 6061-T6, and 2219-T8. Additionally, experimental alloy compositions were produced by making bead on plate welds using an alloy 5454-H32 base metal and 5025 or 5087 filler metals. These filler metals contain zirconium and scandium additions, respectively, and were expected to influence nucleation and growth behavior. Both as-welded and welded/heat treated (540°C and 300°C) substrates were tested by melting simulation, resulting in dendritic and EQZ structures depending on composition and substrate condition. Orientation imaging microscopy (OIM(TM)) was employed to study the crystallographic character of the microstructures produced and to verify the mechanism responsible for EQZ formation. OIM(TM) proved that grains within the EQZ have random orientation. In all other cases, where the simulated microstructures were dendritic in nature, it was shown that epitaxy was the dominant mode of nucleation. The lack of any preferred crystallographic orientation relationship in the EQZ supports a theory proposed by Lippold et al that the EQZ is the result of heterogeneous nucleation within the weld unmixed zone. EDS analysis of the 2195 on STEM revealed particles with ternary composition consisted of Zr, Cu and Al and a tetragonal type crystallographic lattice. Microdiffraction line scans on EQZ grains in the alloy 2195 showed very good agreement between the measured Cu

  12. Toxicology of wear particles of cobalt-chromium alloy metal-on-metal hip implants Part II: Importance of physicochemical properties and dose in animal and in vitro studies as a basis for risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Madl, Amy K; Kovochich, Michael; Liong, Monty; Finley, Brent L; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Oberdörster, Günter

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the Part II analysis was to evaluate animal and in vitro toxicology studies of CoCr particles with respect to their physicochemistry and dose relevance to metal-on-metal (MoM) implant patients as derived from Part I. In the various toxicology studies, physicochemical characteristics were infrequently considered and administered doses were orders of magnitude higher than what occurs in patients. Co was consistently shown to rapidly release from CoCr particles for distribution and elimination from the body. CoCr micron sized particles appear more biopersistent in vivo resulting in inflammatory responses that are not seen with similar mass concentrations of nanoparticles. We conclude, that in an attempt to obtain data for a complete risk assessment, future studies need to focus on physicochemical characteristics of nano and micron sized particles and on doses and dose metrics relevant to those generated in patients or in properly conducted hip simulator studies.

  13. Surface alloying of Mg alloys after surface nanocrystallization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Xing; Shi, Yi-Nong; Sun, Haiqing; Kelly, Patrick M

    2008-05-01

    Surface nanocrystallization using a surface mechanical attrition treatment effectively activates the surface of magnesium alloys due to the increase in grain boundary diffusion channels. As a result, the temperature of subsequent surface alloying treatment of pure Mg and AZ91 alloy can be reduced from 430 degrees C to 380 degrees C. Thus, it is possible to combine the surface alloying process with the solution treatment for this type of alloy. After surface alloying, the hardness of the alloyed layer is 3 to 4 times higher than that of the substrate and this may significantly improve the wear resistance of magnesium alloys.

  14. Catalyst Alloys Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xincai

    2014-10-01

    Catalysts are one of the key materials used for diamond formation at high pressures. Several such catalyst products have been developed and applied in China and around the world. The catalyst alloy most widely used in China is Ni70Mn25Co5 developed at Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. In this article, detailed techniques for manufacturing such a typical catalyst alloy will be reviewed. The characteristics of the alloy will be described. Detailed processing of the alloy will be presented, including remelting and casting, hot rolling, annealing, surface treatment, cold rolling, blanking, finishing, packaging, and waste treatment. An example use of the catalyst alloy will also be given. Industrial experience shows that for the catalyst alloy products, a vacuum induction remelt furnace can be used for remelting, a metal mold can be used for casting, hot and cold rolling can be used for forming, and acid pickling can be used for metal surface cleaning.

  15. Structural Investigations of Nanocrystalline Cu-Cr-Mo Alloy Prepared by High-Energy Ball Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Avanish; Pradhan, Sunil Kumar; Jayasankar, Kalidoss; Debata, Mayadhar; Sharma, Rajendra Kumar; Mandal, Animesh

    2017-02-01

    Cu-Cr-Mo alloy could be a suitable candidate material for collector electrodes in high-power microwave tube devices. An attempt has been made to synthesize ternary Cu-Cr-Mo alloys by mechanical alloying of elemental Cu, Cr, and Mo powders, to extend the solid solubility of Cr and Mo in Cu, using a commercial planetary ball mill. For the first ternary alloy, a mixture of 80 wt.% Cu, 10 wt.% Cr, and 10 wt.% Mo was mechanically milled for 50 h. For the second ternary alloy, a mixture of 50 wt.% Cr and 50 wt.% Mo was mechanically milled for 50 h to obtain nanocrystalline Cr(Mo) alloy, which was later added to Cu powder and milled for 40 h to obtain Cu-20 wt.%Cr(Mo) alloy. Both nanocrystalline Cu-Cr-Mo ternary alloys exhibited crystallite size below 20 nm. It was concluded that, with addition of nanocrystalline Cr(Mo) to Cu, it was possible to extend the solid solubility of Cr and Mo in Cu, which otherwise was not possible by mechanical alloying of elemental powders. The resulting microstructure of the Cu-20 wt.%Cr(Mo) alloy comprised a homogeneous distribution of fine and hard (Cr, Mo) particles in a copper matrix. Furthermore, Cu-20 wt.%Cr(Mo) alloy showed better densification compared with Cu-10 wt.%Cr-10 wt.%Mo alloy.

  16. POWDER METALLURGY TiAl ALLOYS: MICROSTRUCTURES AND PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiung, L

    2006-12-11

    The microstructures and properties of powder metallurgy TiAl alloys fabricated by hot extrusion of gas-atomized powder at different elevated temperatures were investigated. Microstructure of the alloy fabricated at 1150 C consisted of a mixture of fine ({gamma} + {alpha}{sub 2}) equiaxed grains and coarse ordered B2 grains. Particles of ordered hexagonal {omega} phase were also observed in some B2 grains. The alloy containing B2 grains displayed a low-temperature superplastic behavior: a tensile elongation of 310% was measured when the alloy was tested at 800 C under a strain rate of 2 x 10{sup -5} s{sup -1}. Microstructure of the alloy fabricated at 1250 C consisted of a mixture of fine ({gamma} + {alpha}{sub 2}) equiaxed grains, coarse {alpha}{sub 2} grains, and lamellar ({gamma} + {alpha}{sub 2}) colonies. An observation of stacking faults associated with fine {gamma} lamellae in {alpha}{sub 2} grains reveals that the stacking fault of {alpha}{sub 2} phase plays an important role in the formation of lamellar ({gamma} + {alpha}{sub 2}) colonies. Unlike the alloy fabricated at 1150{sup o}, the alloy fabricated at 1250{sup o} displayed no low-temperature superplasticity, but a tensile elongation of 260% at 1000 C was measured. Microstructure of the alloy fabricated at 1400 C consisted of fully lamellar ({gamma} + {alpha}{sub 2}) colonies with the colony size ranging between 50 {micro}m and 100 {micro}m, in which the width of {gamma} lamella is in a range between 100 nm and 350 nm, and the width of {alpha}{sub 2} lamella is in a range between 10 nm and 50 nm. Creep behavior of the ultrafine lamellar alloy and the effects of alloying addition on the creep resistance of the fully lamellar alloy are also investigated.

  17. Corrosion of metastable iron alloys in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Gerhard K.; Ferber, H.

    1983-05-01

    There exist some examples showing that metastable surface alloys can modify the corrision properties of a substrate in the same way as stable alloys do. In the present paper the corrosion behaviour of metastable surface alloys obtained by implanting gold, lead and mercury in iron was studied in aqueous solution of pH = 5.6. Potentiodynamic current density-potential curves were recorded of the implanted samples without further treatment and after isothermal annealing to temperatures up to 800°C. The results were compared with structural information on the alloys obtained by Turos et al. with α-backscattering and channeling experiments. Gold implantation turned out to enhance the active corrosion rate of iron, while lead and mercury had an impeding effect. The annealing experiments showed that the surface alloying facilitated the passivation of iron as long as the substitutional solid solution was "(meta)stable". After the breakdown at higher annealing temperatures leading to surface migration and clustering of the implanted elements a significant increase of the critical current density for passivation took place. This indicates passivation difficulties caused by the heterogeneous distribution of the "alloying" particles. In general the results suggest that substitutional metastable iron alloys cause in a systematic way corrosion inhibition or enhancement. However, their corrosion properties may change completely for non-substitutional distribution of the alloying elements as originating from annealing at higher temperatures.

  18. Fully alloyed metal nanorods with highly tunable properties.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Wiebke; van der Hoeven, Jessi E S; Deng, Tian-Song; de Jongh, Petra E; van Blaaderen, Alfons

    2017-02-23

    Alloyed metal nanorods offer a unique combination of enhanced plasmonic and photothermal properties with a wide variety in optical and catalytic properties as a function of the alloy composition. Here, we show that fully alloyed anisotropic nanoparticles can be obtained with complete retention of the particle shape via thermal treatment at surprisingly low temperatures. By coating Au-Ag, Au-Pd and Au-Pt core-shell nanorods with a protective mesoporous silica shell the transformation of the rods to a more stable spherical shape was successfully prevented during alloying. For the Au-Ag core-shell NRs the chemical stability was drastically increased after alloying, and from Mie-Gans and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations it followed that alloyed AuAg rods also exhibit much better plasmonic properties than their spherical counterparts. Finally, the generality of our method is demonstrated by alloying Au-Pd and Au-Pt core-shell NRs, whereby the AuPd and AuPt alloyed NRs showed a surprisingly high increase in thermal stability of several hundred degrees compared with monometallic silica coated Au NRs.

  19. Oxidation behaviors of the aluminide coated TZM alloy via pack cementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Kim, J. M.; Lee, S.; Park, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    TZM is a traditional alloy for high temperature applications, in which (Ti, Zr)C particles are dispersed in a Mo matrix. However, due to easy formation of an oxide layer on the TZM alloy under ambient atmosphere, an oxidation protective coating is needed for any high temperature structural applications of TZM. In this study, aluminium pack cementation coatings have been carried out on TZM alloys, resulting in the formation of Al8Mo3 layer on the surface of TZM alloys. In order to examine the oxidation stability, the TZM alloy was exposed in an aerobic atmosphere. For the aluminide coated TZM alloys, an alumina layer was produced at the outer surface layer. The alminide coated TZM alloys showed excellent oxidation resistance. The coating layer kinetics and the corresponding oxidation stability are also discussed in terms of microstructural observations.

  20. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, David S.; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Powell, Roger W.

    1986-01-01

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  1. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, D.S.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Powell, R.W.

    1985-02-07

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  2. Amorphous metal alloy

    DOEpatents

    Wang, R.; Merz, M.D.

    1980-04-09

    Amorphous metal alloys of the iron-chromium and nickel-chromium type have excellent corrosion resistance and high temperature stability and are suitable for use as a protective coating on less corrosion resistant substrates. The alloys are stabilized in the amorphous state by one or more elements of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten. The alloy is preferably prepared by sputter deposition.

  3. PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

    1960-08-30

    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  4. Alloy development for the enhanced stability of Omega precipitates in aluminum-copper-magnesium-(silver) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gable, Brian M.

    This research involved a combined analytical and experimental approach to the design of an age-hardenable Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloy for moderate temperature application. The applied methodology involved the complimentary techniques of thermal analysis, calculated phase diagrams, analytical microscopy and quantitative microstructural characterization. The objective of this research was to exploit several avenues for enhancing the coarsening resistance and thermal stability of the O phase through careful control of the alloy chemistry and processing. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) coupled with conventional and analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were implemented to refine the calculation of the Al-rich corner of the quaternary Al-Cu-Mg-Ag phase diagram for subsequent alloy development. Quantitative energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) demonstrated that Ag preferentially partitioned to S-phase for all conditions investigated, which ultimately led to a concomitant loss of O precipitates. The elimination of S-phase precipitation and limiting the alloy Si content proved to enhance the nucleation and thermal stability of the O phase. Several O-dominated microstructures were manipulated through various thermo-mechanical processing techniques in order to evaluate the O nucleation density, particle size and thermal stability as a function of alloy composition and processing conditions. The long-term stability of O plates was found to coincide with high levels of Ag and moderate Mg additions, with the latter limiting the competition with S-phase precipitation. Several alloys were found to be dominated by O precipitation, which remained stable through long-term isothermal and double-aging heat treatments. This enhanced thermal stability of O plates is a significant improvement over the previous generation of Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys in which O plates dissolved sacrificially at long aging times for moderate aging temperatures. The competitive microstructural

  5. Functionally Graded Al Alloy Matrix In-Situ Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Subramaniya Sarma, V.; Murty, B. S.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, functionally graded (FG) aluminum alloy matrix in-situ composites (FG-AMCs) with TiB2 and TiC reinforcements were synthesized using the horizontal centrifugal casting process. A commercial Al-Si alloy (A356) and an Al-Cu alloy were used as matrices in the present study. The material parameters (such as matrix and reinforcement type) and process parameters (such as mold temperature, mold speed, and melt stirring) were found to influence the gradient in the FG-AMCs. Detailed microstructural analysis of the composites in different processing conditions revealed that the gradients in the reinforcement modify the microstructure and hardness of the Al alloy. The segregated in-situ formed TiB2 and TiC particles change the morphology of Si particles during the solidification of Al-Si alloy. A maximum of 20 vol pct of reinforcement at the surface was achieved by this process in the Al-4Cu-TiB2 system. The stirring of the melt before pouring causes the reinforcement particles to segregate at the periphery of the casting, while in the absence of such stirring, the particles are segregated at the interior of the casting.

  6. NICKEL-BASE ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Inouye, H.; Manly, W.D.; Roche, T.K.

    1960-01-19

    A nickel-base alloy was developed which is particularly useful for the containment of molten fluoride salts in reactors. The alloy is resistant to both salt corrosion and oxidation and may be used at temperatures as high as 1800 deg F. Basically, the alloy consists of 15 to 22 wt.% molybdenum, a small amount of carbon, and 6 to 8 wt.% chromium, the balance being nickel. Up to 4 wt.% of tungsten, tantalum, vanadium, or niobium may be added to strengthen the alloy.

  7. Supersaturated Aluminum Alloy Powders.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-15

    shown in Fig. 18 . It .an be clearly seen that most of the iron is concentrated in the precipitates (Fig. 18 ), X-ray mapping immage for the chromium...At 232°C our alloys are comparable to 2� and 2618 in their tensile properties, and except for alloy #1 which at t i temperature has elongation of...demonstrate better yield strength and UTS than the 2219, 2618 and are comparable to the ALCOA alloy. They show however higher ductility than the ALCOA alloy

  8. Effects of Be and Fe content on plane strain fracture toughness in A357 alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Y.H.; Lee, S.L.; Lin, Y.L.

    1995-11-01

    The effect of Be and Fe content on the plane strain fracture toughness K{sub IC} of aluminum-based A357 alloys is investigated. The fracture behavior of A357 alloys has been evaluated as a function of both the magnitude and morphology of iron-bearing compounds and silicon particles. Addition of Be is beneficial for tensile properties and fracture toughness in the case of alloys containing intermediate (0.07 pct) and higher (0.15 pct) Fe levels. On the other hand, Be added to alloys containing the lower Fe (0.01 pct) level appears detrimental to tensile strength, but the quality index, notch-yield ratio (NYR), and plane strain fracture toughness were improved. Fractographic analysis reveals that crack extension of A357 alloys occurs mainly in an intergranular fracture mode. The fracture processes are initiated by void nucleation at iron-bearing compounds or irregularly shaped eutectic silicon particles as a result of their cracking and decohesion from the matrix. Then, void growth and coalescence result in growth of the main crack by shear-linkage-induced breakdown of submicron-strengthening particles. The effect of Be on increasing K{sub IC} is more apparent in the higher Fe alloys than in the lower Fe alloys. Superior toughness obtained by microstructural control has also been achieved in the intermediate and higher Fe levels of Be-containing alloys, with values equal to those obtained in alloys of lower Fe content.

  9. Effects of be and fe content on plane strain fracture toughness in A357 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yen-Hung; Lee, Sheng-Long; Lin, Yu-Lom

    1995-11-01

    The effect of Be and Fe content on the plane strain fracture toughness K IC of aluminum-based A357 alloys is investigated. The fracture behavior of A357 alloys has been evaluated as a function of both the magnitude and morphology of iron-bearing compounds and silicon particles. Addition of Be is beneficial for tensile properties and fracture toughness in the case of alloys containing intermediate (0.07 pct) and higher (0.15 pct) Fe levels. On the other hand, Be added to alloys containing the lower Fe (0.01 pct) level appears detrimental to tensile strength, but the quality index, notch-yield ratio (NYR), and plane strain fracture toughness were improved. Fractographic analysis reveals that crack extension of A357 alloys occurs mainly in an intergranular fracture mode. The fracture processes are initiated by void nucleation at iron-bearing compounds or irregularly shaped eutectic silicon particles as a result of their cracking and decohesion from the matrix. Then, void growth and coalescence result in growth of the main crack by shear-linkage-induced breakdown of submicronstrengthening particles. The effect of Be on increasing K IC is more apparent in the higher Fe alloys than in the lower Fe alloys. Superior toughness obtained by microstructural control has also been achieved in the intermediate and higher Fe levels of Be-containing alloys, with values equal to those obtained in alloys of lower Fe content.

  10. Particle separation

    DOEpatents

    Moosmuller, Hans [Reno, NV; Chakrabarty, Rajan K [Reno, NV; Arnott, W Patrick [Reno, NV

    2011-04-26

    Embodiments of a method for selecting particles, such as based on their morphology, is disclosed. In a particular example, the particles are charged and acquire different amounts of charge, or have different charge distributions, based on their morphology. The particles are then sorted based on their flow properties. In a specific example, the particles are sorted using a differential mobility analyzer, which sorts particles, at least in part, based on their electrical mobility. Given a population of particles with similar electrical mobilities, the disclosed process can be used to sort particles based on the net charge carried by the particle, and thus, given the relationship between charge and morphology, separate the particles based on their morphology.

  11. Particle separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moosmuller, Hans (Inventor); Chakrabarty, Rajan K. (Inventor); Arnott, W. Patrick (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Embodiments of a method for selecting particles, such as based on their morphology, is disclosed. In a particular example, the particles are charged and acquire different amounts of charge, or have different charge distributions, based on their morphology. The particles are then sorted based on their flow properties. In a specific example, the particles are sorted using a differential mobility analyzer, which sorts particles, at least in part, based on their electrical mobility. Given a population of particles with similar electrical mobilities, the disclosed process can be used to sort particles based on the net charge carried by the particle, and thus, given the relationship between charge and morphology, separate the particles based on their morphology.

  12. Finite Element Analysis of Stress Evolution in Al-Si Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Sudha; Kumar, S.

    2015-01-01

    A 2D multi-particle model is carried out to understand the effect of microstructural variations and loading conditions on the stress evolution in Al-Si alloy under compression. A total of six parameters are varied to create 26 idealized microstructures: particle size, shape, orientation, matrix temper, strain rate, and temperature. The effect of these parameters is investigated to understand the fracture of Si particles and the yielding of Al matrix. The Si particles are modeled as a linear elastic solid and the Al matrix is modeled as an elasto-plastic solid. The results of the study demonstrate that the increase in particle size decreases the yield strength of the alloy. The particles with high aspect ratio and oriented at 0° and 90° to the loading axis show higher stress values. This implies that the particle shape and orientation are dominant factors in controlling particle fracture. The heat treatment of the alloy is found to increase the stress levels of both particles and matrix. Stress calculations also show that higher particle fracture and matrix yielding is expected at higher strain rate deformation. Particle fracture decreases with increase in temperature and the Al matrix plays an important role in controlling the properties of the alloy at higher temperatures. Further, this strain rate and temperature dependence is more pronounced in the heat-treated microstructure. These predictions are consistent with the experimentally observed Si particle fracture in real microstructure.

  13. Effect of cryogenic thermocycling treatment on the structure and properties of magnesium alloy AZ91

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Jiang; Ding, Chen; Qiong, Jiang

    2012-03-01

    The effect of cryogenic thermocycling treatment on the microstructure, mechanical and cryogenic properties of alloy Mg - 9% Al - 0.9% Zn (AZ91) is studied. Thermocycling in the cryogenic range causes a change in the content and distribution of particles of segregations, which is responsible for improvement of the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of the alloy.

  14. Influence of Tin Additions on the Phase-Transformation Characteristics of Mechanical Alloyed Cu-Al-Ni Shape-Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saud, Safaa N.; Hamzah, E.; Abubakar, T.; Bakhsheshi-Rad, H. R.; Mohammed, M. N.

    2016-10-01

    The influence of the addition of Sn to Cu-Al-Ni alloy as a fourth element with different percentages of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 wt pct on the microstructure, phase-transformation temperatures, mechanical properties, and corrosion behaviors was investigated. The modified and unmodified alloys were fabricated by mechanical alloying followed by microwave sintering. The sintered and homogenized alloys of Cu-Al-Ni- xSn shape-memory alloys had a refined particle structure with an average particle size of 40 to 50 µm associated with an improvement in the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. With the addition of Sn, the porosity density tends to decrease, which can also lead to improvements in the properties of the modified alloys. The minimum porosity percentage was observed in the Cu-Al-Ni-1.0 wt pct Sn alloy, which resulted in enhancing the ductility, strain recovery, and corrosion resistance. Further increasing the Sn addition to 1.5 wt pct, the strength of the alloy increased because the highest volume fraction of precipitates was formed. Regarding the corrosion behavior, addition of Sn up to 1 wt pct increased the corrosion resistance of the base SMA from 2.97 to 19.20 kΩ cm2 because of formation of a protective film that contains hydrated tin oxyhydroxide, aluminum dihydroxychloride, and copper chloride on the alloy. However, further addition of Sn reduced the corrosion resistance.

  15. Low-temperature metallic alloying of copper and silver nanoparticles with gold nanoparticles through digestive ripening.

    PubMed

    Smetana, Alexander B; Klabunde, Kenneth J; Sorensen, Christopher M; Ponce, Audaldo A; Mwale, Benny

    2006-02-09

    We describe a remarkable and simple alloying procedure in which noble metal intermetallic nanoparticles are produced in gram quantities via digestive ripening. This process involves mixing of separately prepared colloids of pure Au and pure Ag or Cu particles and then heating in the presence of an alkanethiol under reflux. The result after 1 h is alloy nanoparticles. Particles synthesized according to this procedure were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, EDX analysis, and high-resolution electron microscopy, the results of which confirm the formation of alloy particles. The particles of 5.6+/-0.5 nm diameter for Au/Ag and 4.8+/-1.0 nm diameter for Cu/Au undergo facile self-assembly to form 3-D superlattice ordering. It appears that during this digestive ripening process, the organic ligands display an extraordinary chemistry in which atom transfer between atomically pure copper, silver, and gold metal nanoparticles yields monodisperse alloy nanoparticles.

  16. Copper-tantalum alloy

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Verhoeven, John D.; Gibson, Edwin D.

    1986-07-15

    A tantalum-copper alloy can be made by preparing a consumable electrode consisting of an elongated copper billet containing at least two spaced apart tantalum rods extending longitudinally the length of the billet. The electrode is placed in a dc arc furnace and melted under conditions which co-melt the copper and tantalum to form the alloy.

  17. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, W.V.

    1983-04-19

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as sources of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  18. Neutron Absorbing Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Mizia, Ronald E.; Shaber, Eric L.; DuPont, John N.; Robino, Charles V.; Williams, David B.

    2004-05-04

    The present invention is drawn to new classes of advanced neutron absorbing structural materials for use in spent nuclear fuel applications requiring structural strength, weldability, and long term corrosion resistance. Particularly, an austenitic stainless steel alloy containing gadolinium and less than 5% of a ferrite content is disclosed. Additionally, a nickel-based alloy containing gadolinium and greater than 50% nickel is also disclosed.

  19. Aluminum battery alloys

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, David S.; Scott, Darwin H.

    1985-01-01

    Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cs are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

  20. Aluminum battery alloys

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, D.S.; Scott, D.H.

    1984-09-28

    Aluminum alloys suitable for use as anode structures in electrochemical cells are disclosed. These alloys include iron levels higher than previously felt possible, due to the presence of controlled amounts of manganese, with possible additions of magnesium and controlled amounts of gallium.

  1. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-01-01

    An alloy is presented for use as a reactor fuel. The binary alloy consists essentially of from about 5 to 90 atomic per cent cerium and the balance being plutonium. A complete phase diagram for the cerium--plutonium system is given.

  2. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Conner, William V.

    1983-01-01

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as sources of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  3. Ductile transplutonium metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Conner, W.V.

    1981-10-09

    Alloys of Ce with transplutonium metals such as Am, Cm, Bk and Cf have properties making them highly suitable as souces of the transplutonium element, e.g., for use in radiation detector technology or as radiation sources. The alloys are ductile, homogeneous, easy to prepare and have a fairly high density.

  4. Cesium iodide alloys

    DOEpatents

    Kim, H.E.; Moorhead, A.J.

    1992-12-15

    A transparent, strong CsI alloy is described having additions of monovalent iodides. Although the preferred iodide is AgI, RbI and CuI additions also contribute to an improved polycrystalline CsI alloy with outstanding multispectral infrared transmittance properties. 6 figs.

  5. Particle generator

    DOEpatents

    Hess, Wayne P.; Joly, Alan G.; Gerrity, Daniel P.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Sushko, Peter V.; Shlyuger, Alexander L.

    2005-06-28

    Energy tunable solid state sources of neutral particles are described. In a disclosed embodiment, a halogen particle source includes a solid halide sample, a photon source positioned to deliver photons to a surface of the halide, and a collimating means positioned to accept a spatially defined plume of hyperthermal halogen particles emitted from the sample surface.

  6. Ultrahigh temperature intermetallic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M.P.; Zhu, J.H.; Liu, C.T.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Wright, J.L.; Carmichael, C.A.; Walker, L.R.

    1997-12-01

    A new family of Cr-Cr{sub 2}X based alloys with fabricability, mechanical properties, and oxidation resistance superior to previously developed Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr based alloys has been identified. The new alloys can be arc-melted/cast without cracking, and exhibit excellent room temperature and high-temperature tensile strengths. Preliminary evaluation of oxidation behavior at 1100 C in air indicates that the new Cr-Cr{sub 2}X based alloys form an adherent chromia-based scale. Under similar conditions, Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr based alloys suffer from extensive scale spallation.

  7. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys via rapid solidification technology, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Ranjan; Jha, Sunil C.

    1987-01-01

    Marko's rapid solidification technology was applied to processing high strength aluminum alloys. Four classes of alloys, namely, Al-Li based (class 1), 2124 type (class 2), high temperature Al-Fe-Mo (class 3), and PM X7091 type (class 4) alloy, were produced as melt-spun ribbons. The ribbons were pulverized, cold compacted, hot-degassed, and consolidated through single or double stage extrusion. The mechanical properties of all four classes of alloys were measured at room and elevated temperatures and their microstructures were investigated optically and through electron microscopy. The microstructure of class 1 Al-Li-Mg alloy was predominantly unrecrystallized due to Zr addition. Yield strengths to the order of 50 Ksi were obtained, but tensile elongation in most cases remained below 2 percent. The class 2 alloys were modified composition of 2124 aluminum alloy, through addition of 0.6 weight percent Zr and 1 weight percent Ni. Nickel addition gave rise to a fine dispersion of intermetallic particles resisting coarsening during elevated temperature exposure. The class 2 alloy showed good combination of tensile strength and ductility and retained high strength after 1000 hour exposure at 177 C. The class 3 Al-Fe-Mo alloy showed high strength and good ductility both at room and high temperatures. The yield and tensile strength of class 4 alloy exceeded those of the commercial 7075 aluminum alloy.

  8. Evaluation of bonding behavior of silver-tin-zinc-indium alloy to adhesive luting cements.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, H; Kawaguchi, T; Takahashi, K; Takahashi, Y

    2010-12-01

    The bond strengths of a silver-tin-zinc-indium alloy used with adhesive luting cements were investigated. The metal surfaces were primed with two metal conditioners designed for noble metal alloys or base metal alloys, or prepared using a Rocatec tribochemical coating unit. Two adhesive luting cements (Super-Bond C&B and Panavia F 2.0) were applied. It can be concluded that airborne-particle abrasion with alumina was effective, but the effects on the bond durability of both the metal conditioners and the tribochemical silica coating method were not clear Such bonding behavior seems to be particular to this kind of silver-rich dental casting alloy.

  9. Creep and stress rupture of oxide dispersion strengthened mechanically alloyed Inconel alloy MA 754

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howson, T. E.; Tien, J. K.; Stulga, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The creep and stress rupture behavior of the mechanically alloyed oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloy MA 754 was studied at 760, 982 and 1093 C. Tensile specimens with a fine, highly elongated grain structure, oriented parallel and perpendicular to the longitudinal grain direction were tested at various stresses in air under constant load. It was found that the apparent stress dependence was large, with power law exponents ranging from 19 to 33 over the temperature range studied. The creep activation energy, after correction for the temperature dependence of the elastic modulus, was close to but slightly larger than the activation energy for self diffusion. Rupture was intergranular and the rupture ductility as measured by percentage elongation was generally low, with values ranging from 0.5 to 16 pct. The creep properties are rationalized by describing the creep rates in terms of an effective stress which is the applied stress minus a resisting stress consistent with the alloy microstructure. Values of the resisting stress obtained through a curve fitting procedure are found to be close to the values of the particle by-pass stress for this oxide dispersion strengthened alloy, as calculated from the measured oxide particle distribution.

  10. An oxide dispersion strengthened alloy for gas turbine blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasgow, T. K.

    1979-01-01

    The strength of the newly developed alloy MA-6000E is derived from a nickel alloy base, an elongated grain structure, naturally occurring precipitates of gamma prime, and an artificial distribution of extremely fine, stable oxide particles. Its composition is Ni-15Cr-2Mo-2Ta-4W-4.5Al-2.5Ti-0.15Zr 0.05C-0.01B-1.1Y2O3. It exhibits the strength of a conventional nickel-base alloy at 1400 F but is quite superior at 2000 F. Its shear strength is relatively low, necessitating consideration of special joining procedures. Its high cycle, low cycle, and thermal fatigue properties are excellent. The relationship between alloy microstructure and properties is discussed.

  11. Properties of splat-quenched 7075 aluminum type alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durand, J. P. H. A.; Pelloux, R. M.; Grant, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    The 7075 alloy belonging to the Al-Zn-Mg-Cu system, prepared by powder metallurgy techniques, was used in a study of alloys prepared from splat-quenched foils consolidated into bar material by hot extrusion. Ni and Fe were included in one alloy specimen, producing a fine dispersion of FeAl3 type particles which added to the strength of the aged alloy but did not coarsen upon heat treatment. Fine oxide films showing up on air-splatted foils induce finely dispersed oxide stringers (if the foils are not hot-worked subsequently) which in turn promote axial cracking (but longitudinal tensile strength is not seriously impaired). Splatting in a protective atmosphere, or thermomechanical processing, is recommended to compensate for this.

  12. Effect of displacement damage on the stability of oxide nanoparticles in model ODS alloys: TEM studies

    SciTech Connect

    Santra, Sumita; Balaji, S.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Serruys, Yves; Robertson, C.; Ana, Alamo; Sundar, C. S.

    2012-06-05

    Model ODS alloy containing Fe-0.3% yttria was prepared by ball milling and hipping at high temperature and the effect of irradiation on stability of yttria nanoclusters in model ODS alloy is studied by dual beam ion irradiation using 5 MeV Fe{sup +} and 1.5 MeV He{sup +} ions. TEM studies on irradiated sample show that these particles are stable at 25 dpa and 40 appm He concentration. However, at 80 dpa and 360 appm He concentration Yttria particles were found to be unstable as evidenced from increase in average particle size and particle size distribution.

  13. Irradiation effects in oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) Ni-base alloys for Gen. IV nuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oono, Naoko; Ukai, Shigeharu; Kondo, Sosuke; Hashitomi, Okinobu; Kimura, Akihiko

    2015-10-01

    Oxide particle dispersion strengthened (ODS) Ni-base alloys are irradiated by using simulation technique (Fe/He dual-ion irradiation) to investigate the reliability to Gen. IV high-temperature reactors. The fine oxide particles with less than 10 nm in average size and approximately 8.0 × 1022 m-3 in number density remained after 101 dpa irradiation. The tiny helium bubbles were inside grains, not at grain-boundaries; it is advantageous effect of oxide particles which trap the helium atoms at the particle-matrix interface. Ni-base ODS alloys demonstrated their great ability to overcome He embrittlement.

  14. THORIUM-SILICON-BERYLLIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Foote, F.G.

    1959-02-10

    Th, Si, anol Bt alloys where Be and Si are each present in anmounts between 0.1 and 3.5% by weight and the total weight per cent of the minor alloying elements is between 1.5 and 4.5% are discussed. These ternary alloys show increased hardness and greater resistant to aqueous corrosion than is found in pure Th, Th-Si alloys, or Th-Be alloys.

  15. Effect of Alloying Element Partition in Pearlite on the Growth of Austenite in High-Carbon Low Alloy Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z. N.; Xia, Y.; Enomoto, M.; Zhang, C.; Yang, Z. G.

    2016-03-01

    The growth of austenite from pearlite in high-carbon low alloy steel occurs with and without alloy element redistribution depending on the amount of superheating above the eutectoid temperature. The transition temperature of austenite growth (denoted PNTT) is calculated as a function of pearlite transformation temperature and subsequent holding time, which affect the degree of partitioning in pearlite, using experimental partition coefficients k θ/ α of Mn, Cr, Co, Si, and Ni reported in the literature. PNTT is the highest in Cr-containing alloys which have the largest k θ/ α in pearlite. Post-transformation aging, usually accompanied by cementite spheroidization, leads to a marked increase of PNTT in Mn and Cr alloys. PNTT of Ni alloy does not depend on pearlite transformation temperature because practically the formation of partitioned pearlite is severely limited in this alloy for kinetic reasons. Above PNTT, austenite growth occurs fast initially, but slows down in the order of ten seconds when the ferrite disappears, and the remaining small carbide particles dissolve very slowly under the control of alloy element diffusion.

  16. Transmission electron microscopy characterization of microstructural features of Al-Li-Cu alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avalos-Borja, M.; Pizzo, P. P.; Larson, L. A.

    1983-01-01

    A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination of aluminum-lithium-copper alloys was conducted. The principal purpose is to characterize the nature, size, and distribution of stringer particles which result from the powder metallurgy (P/M) processing of these alloys. Microstructural features associated with the stringer particles are reported that help explain the stress corrosion susceptibility of the powder metallurgy-processed Al-Li-Cu alloys. In addition, matrix precipitation events are documented for a variety of heat treatments and process variations. Hot rolling is observed to significant alter the nature of matrix precipitation, and the observations are correlated with concomitant mechanical property variations.

  17. Transmission electron microscopy characterization of microstructural features in aluminum-lithium-copper alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avalos-Borja, M.; Larson, L. A.; Pizzo, P. P.

    1984-01-01

    A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination of aluminum-lithium-copper alloys was conducted. The principal purpose is to characterize the nature, size, and distribution of stringer particles which result from the powder metallurgy (P/M) processing of these alloys. Microstructural features associated with the stringer particles are reported that help explain the stress corrosion susceptibility of the powder metallurgy-processed Al-Li-Cu alloys. In addition, matrix precipitaton events are documented for a variety of heat treatments and process variations. Hot rolling is observed to significantly alter the nature of matrix precipitation, and the observations are correlated with concomitant mechanical property variations.

  18. Synthesis of biodegradable Mg-Zn alloy using mechanical alloying: Effect of ball to powder weight ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhailawati, Hussain; Salleh, Emee Marina; Ramakrishnan, Sivakumar

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of ball to powder weight ratio (BPR) on biodegradable binary magnesium-zinc (Mg-Zn) alloy synthesized using mechanical alloying. A powder mixture of Mg-5wt%Zn was milled in a planetary mill under argon atmosphere using a stainless steel container and balls. Milling process was carried out at 200 rpm for 5 hours using various BPR (i.e. 5:1, 10:1, 15:1, 20:1). Then, as milled powder was compacted under 400 MPa and sintered in a tube furnace at 300 °C in argon flow for an hour. The sintered density and microhardness of the alloy increased as BPR increased up to 15:1. However a further increasing showed a reduction in both density and microhardness which due to enlargement of crystallite and particle which resulted from the excessive internal energy during mechanical alloying.

  19. The shock Hugoniot of the intermetallic alloy Ti-46.5Al-2Nb-2Cr

    SciTech Connect

    Millett, Jeremy; Gray, George T. Rusty III; Bourne, Neil

    2000-09-15

    Plate impact experiments were conducted on a {gamma}-titanium aluminide (TiAl) based ordered intermetallic alloy. Stress measurements were recorded using manganin stress gauges supported on the back of TiAl targets using polymethylmethacrylate windows. The Hugoniot in stress-particle velocity space for this TiAl alloy was deduced using impedance matching techniques. The results in this study are compared to the known Hugoniot data of the common alpha-beta engineering Ti-based alloy Ti-6Al-4V. The results of the current study on the intermetallic alloy TiAl support that TiAl possesses a significantly higher stress for a given particle velocity than the two-phase Ti-6Al-4V alloy. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  20. TUNGSTEN BASE ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schell, D.H.; Sheinberg, H.

    1959-12-15

    A high-density quaternary tungsten-base alloy having high mechanical strength and good machinability composed of about 2 wt.% Ni, 3 wt.% Cu, 5 wt.% Pb, and 90wt.% W is described. This alloy can be formed by the powder metallurgy technique of hot pressing in a graphite die without causing a reaction between charge and the die and without formation of a carbide case on the final compact, thereby enabling re-use of the graphite die. The alloy is formable at hot- pressing temperatures of from about 1200 to about 1350 deg C. In addition, there is little component shrinkage, thereby eliminating the necessity of subsequent extensive surface machining.

  1. Particle astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadoulet, Bernard; Cronin, James; Aprile, Elena; Barish, Barry C.; Beier, Eugene W.; Brandenberger, Robert; Cabrera, Blas; Caldwell, David; Cassiday, George; Cline, David B.

    1991-01-01

    The following scientific areas are reviewed: (1) cosmology and particle physics (particle physics and the early universe, dark matter, and other relics); (2) stellar physics and particles (solar neutrinos, supernovae, and unconventional particle physics); (3) high energy gamma ray and neutrino astronomy; (4) cosmic rays (space and ground observations). Highest scientific priorities for the next decade include implementation of the current program, new initiatives, and longer-term programs. Essential technological developments, such as cryogenic detectors of particles, new solar neutrino techniques, and new extensive air shower detectors, are discussed. Also a certain number of institutional issues (the funding of particle astrophysics, recommended funding mechanisms, recommended facilities, international collaborations, and education and technology) which will become critical in the coming decade are presented.

  2. Particle astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadoulet, Bernard; Cronin, James; Aprile, Elena; Barish, Barry C.; Beier, Eugene W.; Brandenberger, Robert; Cabrera, Blas; Caldwell, David; Cassiday, George; Cline, David B.

    The following scientific areas are reviewed: (1) cosmology and particle physics (particle physics and the early universe, dark matter, and other relics); (2) stellar physics and particles (solar neutrinos, supernovae, and unconventional particle physics); (3) high energy gamma ray and neutrino astronomy; (4) cosmic rays (space and ground observations). Highest scientific priorities for the next decade include implementation of the current program, new initiatives, and longer-term programs. Essential technological developments, such as cryogenic detectors of particles, new solar neutrino techniques, and new extensive air shower detectors, are discussed. Also a certain number of institutional issues (the funding of particle astrophysics, recommended funding mechanisms, recommended facilities, international collaborations, and education and technology) which will become critical in the coming decade are presented.

  3. Particle separator

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, Charles D.

    1990-01-01

    Method and apparatus (10) are provided for separating and classifying particles (48,50,56) by dispersing the particles within a fluid (52) that is upwardly flowing within a cone-shaped pipe (12) that has its large end (20) above its small end (18). Particles of similar size and shape (48,50) migrate to individual levels (A,B) within the flowing fluid. As the fluid is deflected by a plate (42) at the top end of the pipe (12), the smallest particles are collected on a shelf-like flange (40). Ever larger particles are collected as the flow rate of the fluid is increased. To prevent particle sticking on the walls (14) of the pipe (12), additional fluid is caused to flow into the pipe (12) through holes (68) that are specifically provided for that purpose. Sticking is further prevented by high frequency vibrators (70) that are positioned on the apparatus (10).

  4. Particle therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics.

  5. Aluminum Alloys for ALS Cryogenic Tanks: Oxygen Compatibility. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    Absorbed energy, calculated from specimen deformation characteristics, vs. absorbed energy, calculated from rebound heights. 79. 11.7.2. Tensile...combustion tests. Therefore, within the ability of the current tests to discern relative compatibility and flamability with LOX and COX, the Al-Li alloys and...each second phase particle measured and assuming a circular shape to calculate a diameter; (4) separating second phase particles into 10 bins based on

  6. Electrical Resistivity of Ten Selected Binary Alloy Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    alloys --* Aluminum Alloys --*Copper alloys --*Gold alloys --*Nickel Alloys --*Silver alloys --*Iron alloys --*Palladium alloys ... aluminum -magnesium, and copper-zinc) are given for 27 compositions: 0 (pure element).* For aluminum -copper, aluninu.-eagnes tur, end copper-zinc alloy ...available data and infor- mation. The ten binary alloy systems selected are the systems of aluminum - copper, aluminum -magnesium, copper-gold,

  7. Microstructural and Hardness Evaluations of a Centrifuged Sn-22Pb Casting Alloy Compared with a Lead-Free SnAg Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satizabal, Luz Myrian; Costa, Diego; Hainick, Guilherme Ottamr; Moura, Diego Rodrigo; Bortolozo, Ausdinir Danilo; Osório, Wislei Riuper

    2017-01-01

    A great preoccupation with replacing the traditional Sn-Pb alloy with a Pb-free alloy ("green alloy") is recognized. There are industrial sectors that demand metallurgical improvements to attain certain unsoundness and adequate properties as a function of imposed operational parameters. In this experimental investigation, two distinctive centrifuged casting alloys (i.e., Sn-2 wt pct Ag and Sn-22 wt pct Pb) are compared. It is found that centrifuged castings have similar microstructure constituents, although distinctive cooling rates and solute contents are considered. It is also found that Ag3Sn intermetallic particles are responsible for attaining similar tensile strength, since more dislocations between Ag3Sn particles and the Sn-rich phase are provided. In order to replace the Sn-Pb alloys with a successor alloy containing sustainability and environmental aspects associated with castability and to guarantee the desired properties, it seems that a green alloy (Pb free) with intermetallic particles finely and homogeneously distributed provides an interesting benefit to various industrial applications.

  8. Microstructural and Hardness Evaluations of a Centrifuged Sn-22Pb Casting Alloy Compared with a Lead-Free SnAg Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satizabal, Luz Myrian; Costa, Diego; Hainick, Guilherme Ottamr; Moura, Diego Rodrigo; Bortolozo, Ausdinir Danilo; Osório, Wislei Riuper

    2017-04-01

    A great preoccupation with replacing the traditional Sn-Pb alloy with a Pb-free alloy ("green alloy") is recognized. There are industrial sectors that demand metallurgical improvements to attain certain unsoundness and adequate properties as a function of imposed operational parameters. In this experimental investigation, two distinctive centrifuged casting alloys ( i.e., Sn-2 wt pct Ag and Sn-22 wt pct Pb) are compared. It is found that centrifuged castings have similar microstructure constituents, although distinctive cooling rates and solute contents are considered. It is also found that Ag3Sn intermetallic particles are responsible for attaining similar tensile strength, since more dislocations between Ag3Sn particles and the Sn-rich phase are provided. In order to replace the Sn-Pb alloys with a successor alloy containing sustainability and environmental aspects associated with castability and to guarantee the desired properties, it seems that a green alloy (Pb free) with intermetallic particles finely and homogeneously distributed provides an interesting benefit to various industrial applications.

  9. Constituent Particle Clustering and Pitting Corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlow, D. Gary

    2012-08-01

    Corrosion is a primary degradation mechanism that affects the durability and integrity of structures made of aluminum alloys, and it is a concern for commercial transport and military aircraft. In aluminum alloys, corrosion results from local galvanic coupling between constituent particles and the metal matrix. Due to variability in particle sizes, spatial location, and chemical composition, to name a few critical variables, corrosion is a complex stochastic process. Severe pitting is caused by particle clusters that are located near the material surface, which, in turn, serve as nucleation sites for subsequent corrosion fatigue crack growth. These evolution processes are highly dependent on the spatial statistics of particles. The localized corrosion growth rate is primarily dependent on the galvanic process perpetuated by particle-to-particle interactions and electrochemical potentials. Frequently, severe pits are millimeters in length, and these pits have a dominant impact on the structural prognosis. To accommodate large sizes, a model for three-dimensional (3-D) constituent particle microstructure is proposed. To describe the constituent particle microstructure in three dimensions, the model employs a fusion of classic stereological techniques, spatial point pattern analyses, and qualitative observations. The methodology can be carried out using standard optical microscopy and image analysis techniques.

  10. Synthesis, characterization, and microwave absorption properties of Fe-40 wt%Ni alloy prepared by mechanical alloying and annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Feng, Yongbao; Qiu, Tai

    2011-12-01

    Fe-40 wt%Ni alloys with granular shape and flake shape were prepared by a mechanical alloying (MA) and annealing method. The phase composition and morphology of the FeNi alloys, electromagnetic parameters, and microwave absorbing properties of the silicone rubber composite absorbers filled with the as-prepared FeNi alloy particles were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and vector network analyzer. The XRD results indicate that the crystalline structures of the Fe-40 wt%Ni alloys prepared by both one-step and two-step MA processes are face-centered cubic (fcc) Ni (Fe) solid solutions, and the structures can be retained after annealing at 600 °C for 2 h. SEM images show that the FeNi alloy powders for one-step process have a granular shape; however the particles turned into flake form when they were sequentially milled with absolute ethyl alcohol. With the increase in thickness of composite absorber, the reflection loss (RL) decreases, and the peak for minimum reflection loss shifts towards the lower frequency range. Compared to the absorbers filled with the granular FeNi alloy, the absorbers filled with flaky FeNi alloys possess higher complex permittivities and permeabilities and have a lower RL and peak frequency under the same thickness. Microwave absorbing materials with a low reflection loss peak in the range of 1-4 GHz are obtained, and their microwave absorbing properties can be adjustable by changing their thicknesses.

  11. Different failure modes for V-containing and V-free AB2 metal hydride alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, K.; Wong, D. F.; Yasuoka, S.; Ishida, J.; Nei, J.; Koch, J.

    2014-04-01

    Failure modes of a V-containing and a V-free AB2 Laves phase-based metal hydride alloy were studied by the combination of X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma, Soxhlet extraction, and magnetic susceptibility measurement. Cells with the V-containing alloy exhibited less capacity degradation up until venting occurred in the cells, after which the capacity rapidly degraded. Cells with the V-free alloy remained linear in capacity degradation throughout the cycle life test. The failure mechanism for the V-containing alloy is related to the formation of an oxide layer that penetrates deeper into the alloy particles due to high V leaching and impedes gas recombination, while the failure mechanism for the V-free alloy is related to the continuous pulverization of the main AB2 phase.

  12. Magnetic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Manchium (Inventor); Colvin, Michael S. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic polymer particles are formed by swelling porous, polymer particles and impregnating the particles with an aqueous solution of precursor magnetic metal salt such as an equimolar mixture of ferrous chloride and ferric chloride. On addition of a basic reagent such as dilute sodium hydroxide, the metal salts are converted to crystals of magnetite which are uniformly contained througout the pores of the polymer particle. The magnetite content can be increased and neutral buoyancy achieved by repetition of the impregnaton and neutralization steps to adjust the magnetite content to a desired level.

  13. Silver-palladium braze alloy recovered from masking materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cierniak, R.; Colman, G.; De Carlo, F.

    1966-01-01

    Method for recovering powdered silver-palladium braze alloy from an acrylic spray binder and rubber masking adhesive used in spray brazing is devised. The process involves agitation and dissolution of masking materials and recovery of suspended precious metal particles on a filter.

  14. Microstructure Evolution of Gas Atomized Iron Based ODS Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Rieken, J.R.; Anderson, I.E.; Kramer, M.J.; Anderegg, J.W.; Shechtman, D.

    2009-12-01

    In a simplified process to produce precursor powders for oxide dispersion-strength- ened (ODS) alloys, gas-atomization reaction synthesis (GARS) was used to induce a surface oxide layer on molten droplets of three differing erritic stainless steel alloys during break-up and rapid solidification. The chemistry of the surface oxide was identified using auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The precursor iron-base powders were consolidated at 850 C and 1,300 C using hot isostatic pressing (HIPing). Consolidation at the lower temperature resulted in a fully dense microstructure, while preventing substantial prior particle-boundary-oxide dissociation. Microstructural analysis of the alloys consolidated at the higher temperature confirmed a significant reduction in prior-particle-boundary-oxide volume fraction, in comparison with the lower-temperature-consolidated sample. This provided evidence that a high-temperature internal oxygen-exchange reaction occurred between the metastable prior particle-boundary-oxide phase (chromium oxide) and the yttrium contained within each prior particle. This internal oxygen-exchange reaction is shown to result in the formation of yttrium-enriched oxide dispersoids throughout the alloy microstructure. The evolving microstructure was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-energy X-ray diffraction (HE-XRD).

  15. Microstructure Evolution of Gas Atomized Iron Based ODS Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Rieken, J.R.; Anderson, I.E.; Kramer, M.J.

    2011-08-09

    In a simplified process to produce precursor powders for oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys, gas-atomization reaction synthesis (GARS) was used to induce a surface oxide layer on molten droplets of three differing erritic stainless steel alloys during break-up and rapid solidification. The chemistry of the surface oxide was identified using auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The precursor iron-base powders were consolidated at 850 C and 1,300 C using hot isostatic pressing (HIPing). Consolidation at the lower temperature resulted in a fully dense microstructure, while preventing substantial prior particle-boundary-oxide dissociation. Microstructural analysis of the alloys consolidated at the higher temperature confirmed a significant reduction in prior-particle-boundary-oxide volume fraction, in comparison with the lower-temperature-consolidated sample. This provided evidence that a high-temperature internal oxygen-exchange reaction occurred between the metastable prior particle-boundary-oxide phase (chromium oxide) and the yttrium contained within each prior particle. This internal oxygen-exchange reaction is shown to result in the formation of yttrium-enriched oxide dispersoids throughout the alloy microstructure. The evolving microstructure was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-energy X-ray diffraction (HE-XRD).

  16. CoCr wear particles generated from CoCr alloy metal-on-metal hip replacements, and cobalt ions stimulate apoptosis and expression of general toxicology-related genes in monocyte-like U937 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Posada, Olga M.; Gilmour, Denise; Tate, Rothwelle J.; Grant, M. Helen

    2014-11-15

    Cobalt-chromium (CoCr) particles in the nanometre size range and their concomitant release of Co and Cr ions into the patients' circulation are produced by wear at the articulating surfaces of metal-on-metal (MoM) implants. This process is associated with inflammation, bone loss and implant loosening and led to the withdrawal from the market of the DePuy ASR™ MoM hip replacements in 2010. Ions released from CoCr particles derived from a resurfacing implant in vitro and their subsequent cellular up-take were measured by ICP-MS. Moreover, the ability of such metal debris and Co ions to induce both apoptosis was evaluated with both FACS and immunoblotting. qRT-PCR was used to assess the effects on the expression of lymphotoxin alpha (LTA), BCL2-associated athanogene (BAG1), nitric oxide synthase 2 inducible (NOS2), FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS), growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible alpha (GADD45A). ICP-MS showed that the wear debris released significant (p < 0.05) amounts of Co and Cr ions into the culture medium, and significant (p < 0.05) cellular uptake of both ions. There was also an increase (p < 0.05) in apoptosis after a 48 h exposure to wear debris. Analysis of qRT-PCR results found significant up-regulation (p < 0.05) particularly of NOS2 and BAG1 in Co pre-treated cells which were subsequently exposed to Co ions + debris. Metal debris was more effective as an inducer of apoptosis and gene expression when cells had been pre-treated with Co ions. This suggests that if a patient receives sequential bilateral CoCr implants, the second implant may be more likely to produce adverse effects than the first one. - Highlights: • Effects of CoCr nanoparticles and Co ions on U937 cells were investigated. • Ions released from wear debris play an important role in cellular response, • Toxicity of Co ions could be related to NO metabolic processes and apoptosis. • CoCr particles were a more effective inducer of apoptosis after cell

  17. Gas-deposit-alloy corrosion interactions in simulated combustion environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luer, Kevin Raymond

    High temperature corrosion in aggressive coal combustion environments involves simultaneous corrosion reactions between combustion gases, ash deposits, and alloys. This research investigated the behavior of a ferritic steel (SA387-Gr11) and three weld claddings (309L SS, Alloy 72, and Alloy 622) in five combustion environments beneath solid deposits at 500°C for up to 1000 hours. The synthetic gases consisted of N2-CO-CO-H2-H2O-H 2S-SO2 mixtures that simulated a range of fuel-rich or fuel-lean combustion environments with a constant sulfur content. The synthetic deposits contained FeS2, FeS, Fe3O4 and/or carbon. Reaction kinetics was studied in individual gas-metal, gas deposit, and deposit-alloy systems. A test method was developed to investigate simultaneous gas-deposit-metal corrosion reactions. The results showed reaction kinetics varied widely, depending on the gas-alloy system and followed linear, parabolic, and logarithmic rate laws. Under reducing conditions, the alloys exhibited a range of corrosion mechanisms including carburization-sulfidation, sulfidation, and sulfidation-oxidation. Most alloys were not resistant to the highly reducing gases but offered moderate resistance to mixed oxidation-sulfidation by demonstrating parabolic or logarithmic behavior. Under oxidizing conditions, all of the alloys were resistant. Under oxidizing-sulfating conditions, alloys with high Fe or Cr contents sulfated whereas an alloy containing Mo and W was resistant. In the gas-deposit-metal tests, FeS2-bearing deposits were extremely corrosive to low alloy steel under both reducing and oxidizing conditions but they had little influence on the weld claddings. Accelerated corrosion was attributed to rapid decomposition or oxidation of FeS2 particles that generated sulfur-rich gases above the alloy surface. In contrast, FeS-type deposits had no influence under reducing conditions but they were aggressive to low alloy steel under oxidizing conditions. The extent of damage

  18. Electroplating on titanium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    Activation process forms adherent electrodeposits of copper, nickel, and chromium on titanium alloy. Good adhesion of electroplated deposits is obtained by using acetic-hydrofluoric acid anodic activation process.

  19. Alloy Selection System

    SciTech Connect

    2001-02-01

    Software will Predict Corrosion Rates to Improve Productivity in the Chemical Industry. Many aspects of equipment design and operation are influenced by the choice of the alloys used to fabricate process equipment.

  20. Semiconductor Alloy Theory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-14

    ftoc*o~ow7 and Idenify’ by block nam. bor) Electron mobility , Lattice Relaxation, Bond Length, Bond Energy, Mixing Enthalpies, Band Structure, Core...including: (1) generalization of Brooks’ formula for alloy-scattering limited electron mobility to including multiple bands and indirect gaps, (2...calculation of SiGe alloys band structure, electron mobility and core-exciton binding energy and • :linewidth, (3) comprehensive calculation of bond

  1. PLUTONIUM-URANIUM ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.; Schonfeld, F.W.

    1959-09-01

    Pu-U-Fe and Pu-U-Co alloys suitable for use as fuel elements tn fast breeder reactors are described. The advantages of these alloys are ease of fabrication without microcracks, good corrosion restatance, and good resistance to radiation damage. These advantages are secured by limitation of the zeta phase of plutonium in favor of a tetragonal crystal structure of the U/sub 6/Mn type.

  2. Effect of Thermomechanical Processing on the Microstructure and Properties of a Cu-Fe-P Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Qiyi; Shen, Leinuo; Cao, Feng; Jia, Yanlin; Liao, Kaiju; Wang, Mingpu

    2015-04-01

    A Cu-0.7Fe-0.15P (wt.%) alloy was designed, and its comprehensive properties, especially electrical conductivity and temper-softening resistance of the designed alloy, were higher than those of traditional Cu-Fe-P alloys. The microstructure of this alloy was investigated with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The particle of secondary phase was confirmed to be Fe2P with x-ray spectroscopy and digital diffractogram. By virtue of precipitation hardening and work hardening, the tensile strength and electrical conductivity of Cu-0.7Fe-0.15P alloy were 498 MPa and 62% IACS, respectively. The electrical conductivity of this alloy can be up to 92% IACS due to the complete precipitation of Fe2P. After repeating the cold rolling and aging process for three times, the tensile strength, elongation, and conductivity of this alloy were 467 MPa, 22%, and 78% IACS, respectively. Due to the low driving force of recrystallization and the pinning effect of fine dispersed Fe2P, the alloy with low deformation rate showed excellent softening resistance. The designed alloy can be used as a high-strength, high-electrical-conductivity lead-frame alloy.

  3. Ultrahigh temperature intermetallic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M.P.; Zhu, J.H.; Liu, C.T.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Wright, J.L.; Carmichael, C.A.

    1998-11-01

    A new family of Cr-Cr{sub 2}Ta intermetallic alloys based on Cr-(6--10)Ta (at.%) is under development for structural use in oxidizing environments in the 1,000-1,300 C (1,832--2,372 F) temperature range. Development objectives relate to high temperature strength and oxidation resistance and room temperature fracture toughness. The 1,200 C (2,192 F) strength goals have been met: yield and fracture strengths of 275 MPa (40 ksi) and 345 MPa (50 ksi), respectively, were achieved. Progress in attaining reasonable fracture toughness of Cr-Cr{sub 2}Ta alloys has been made; current alloys exhibit room-temperature values of about 10--12 MPa{radical}m (1.1 MPa{radical}m = 1 ksi{radical}in.). Oxidation rates of these alloys at 950 C (1,742 F) in air are in the range of those reported for chromia-forming alloys. At 1,100 C (2,012 F) in air, chromia volatility was significant but, nevertheless, no scale spallation and positive weight gains of 1--5 mg/cm{sup 2} have been observed during 120-h, 6-cycle oxidation screening tests. These mechanical and oxidative properties represent substantial improvement over Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb and Cr-Cr{sub 2}Zr alloys previously developed.

  4. Particle preconcentrator

    DOEpatents

    Linker, Kevin L.; Conrad, Frank J.; Custer, Chad A.; Rhykerd, Jr., Charles L.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for preconcentrating particles and vapors. The preconcentrator apparatus permits detection of highly diluted amounts of particles in a main gas stream, such as a stream of ambient air. A main gas stream having airborne particles entrained therein is passed through a pervious screen. The particles accumulate upon the screen, as the screen acts as a sort of selective particle filter. The flow of the main gas stream is then interrupted by diaphragm shutter valves, whereupon a cross-flow of carrier gas stream is blown parallel past the faces of the screen to dislodge the accumulated particles and carry them to a particle or vapor detector, such as an ion mobility spectrometer. The screen may be heated, such as by passing an electrical current there through, to promote desorption of particles therefrom during the flow of the carrier gas. Various types of screens are disclosed. The apparatus and method of the invention may find particular utility in the fields of narcotics, explosives detection and chemical agents.

  5. Particle preconcentrator

    SciTech Connect

    Linker, K.L.; Conrad, F.J.; Custer, C.A.; Rhykerd, C.L. Jr.

    1998-12-29

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for preconcentrating particles and vapors. The preconcentrator apparatus permits detection of highly diluted amounts of particles in a main gas stream, such as a stream of ambient air. A main gas stream having airborne particles entrained therein is passed through a pervious screen. The particles accumulate upon the screen, as the screen acts as a sort of selective particle filter. The flow of the main gas stream is then interrupted by diaphragm shutter valves, whereupon a cross-flow of carrier gas stream is blown parallel past the faces of the screen to dislodge the accumulated particles and carry them to a particle or vapor detector, such as an ion mobility spectrometer. The screen may be heated, such as by passing an electrical current there through, to promote desorption of particles therefrom during the flow of the carrier gas. Various types of screens are disclosed. The apparatus and method of the invention may find particular utility in the fields of narcotics, explosives detection and chemical agents. 3 figs.

  6. Particle preconcentrator

    SciTech Connect

    Linker, Kevin L.; Conrad, Frank J.; Custer, Chad A.; Rhykerd, Jr., Charles L.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method for preconcentrating particles and vapors. The preconcentrator apparatus permits detection of highly diluted amounts of particles in a main gas stream, such as a stream of ambient air. A main gas stream having airborne particles entrained therein is passed through a pervious screen. The particles accumulate upon the screen, as the screen acts as a sort of selective particle filter. The flow of the main gas stream is then interrupted by diaphragm shutter valves, whereupon a cross-flow of carrier gas stream is blown parallel past the faces of the screen to dislodge the accumulated particles and carry them to a particle or vapor detector, such as an ion mobility spectrometer. The screen may be heated, such as by passing an electrical current there through, to promote desorption of particles therefrom during the flow of the carrier gas. Various types of screens are disclosed. The apparatus and method of the invention may find particular utility in the fields of narcotics, explosives detection and chemical agents.

  7. Particle preconcentrator

    SciTech Connect

    Linker, Kevin L.; Conrad, Frank J.; Custer, Chad A.; Rhykerd, Jr., Charles L.

    2005-09-20

    An apparatus and method for preconcentrating particles and vapors. The preconcentrator apparatus permits detection of highly diluted amounts of particles in a main gas stream, such as a stream of ambient air. A main gas stream having airborne particles entrained therein is passed through a pervious screen. The particles accumulate upon the screen, as the screen acts as a sort of selective particle filter. The flow of the main gas stream is then interrupted by diaphragm shutter valves, whereupon a cross-flow of carrier gas stream is blown parallel past the faces of the screen to dislodge the accumulated particles and carry them to a particle or vapor detector, such as an ion mobility spectrometer. The screen may be heated, such as by passing an electrical current there through, to promote desorption of particles therefrom during the flow of the carrier gas. Various types of screens are disclosed. The apparatus and method of the invention may find particular utility in the fields of narcotics, explosives detection and chemical agents.

  8. Particle preconcentrator

    SciTech Connect

    Linker, K.L.; Conrad, F.J.; Custer, C.A.; Rhykerd, C.L. Jr

    2000-07-11

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for preconcentrating particles and vapors. The preconcentrator apparatus permits detection of highly diluted amounts of particles in a main gas stream, such as a stream of ambient air. A main gas stream having airborne particles entrained therein is passed through a previous screen. The particles accumulate upon the screen, as the screen acts as a sort of selective particle filter. The flow of the main gas stream is then interrupted by diaphragm shutter valves, whereupon a cross-flow of carrier gas stream is blown parallel past the faces of the screen to dislodge the accumulated particles and carry them to a particle or vapor detector, such as an ion mobility spectrometer. The screen may be heated, such as by passing an electrical current there through, to promote desorption of particles therefrom during the flow of the carrier gas. Various types of screens are disclosed. The apparatus and method of the invention may find particular utility in the fields of narcotics, explosives detection and chemical agents.

  9. Annealing group III-V compound doped silicon-germanium alloy for improved thermo-electric conversion efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandersande, Jan W. (Inventor); Wood, Charles (Inventor); Draper, Susan L. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The thermoelectric conversion efficiency of a GaP doped SiGe alloy is improved about 30 percent by annealing the alloy at a temperature above the melting point of the alloy, preferably stepwise from 1200 C to 1275 C in air to form large grains having a size over 50 microns and to form a GeGaP rich phase and a silicon rich phase containing SiP and SiO2 particles.

  10. Reversible Cycling of Silicon and Silicon Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrovac, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Lithium ion batteries typically use a graphite negative electrode. Silicon can store more lithium than any other element and has long been considered as an attractive replacement for graphite. The theoretical lithium storage capacity of silicon is nearly ten times higher than graphite volumetrically and three times higher gravimetrically. The equilibrium Si-Li binary system is well known. Completely new phase behaviors are observed at room temperature. This includes the formation of a new phase, Li15Si4, which is the highest lithium containing phase at room temperature [1]. The formation of Li15Si4 is accompanied by a 280 percent volume expansion of silicon. During de-alloying this phase contracts, forming amorphous silicon. The volume expansion of alloys can cause intra-particle fracture and inter-particle disconnection; leading to loss of cycle life. To overcome issues with volume expansion requires a detailed knowledge of Li-Si phase behavior, careful design of the composition and nanostructure of the alloy and the microstructure of the negative electrode [2]. In this presentation the phase behavior of the Li-Si system will be described. Using this knowledge alone, strategies can be developed so that silicon can be reversibly cycled in a battery hundreds of times. Further increases in energy density and efficiency can be gained by alloying silicon with other elements, while controlling microstructure [2]. Coupled with negative electrode design strategies, practical negative electrodes for lithium ion cells can be developed based on bulk materials, with significant energy density improvement over conventional electrodes. [4pt] [1] M.N. Obrovac and L.J. Krause, J. Electrochem. Soc., 154 (2007) A103. [0pt] [2] M.N. Obrovac, Leif Christensen, Dinh Ba Le, and J.R. Dahn, J. Electrochem. Soc., 154 (2007) A849

  11. Recent advances in research on magnesium alloys and magnesium-calcium phosphate composites as biodegradable implant materials.

    PubMed

    Kuśnierczyk, Katarzyna; Basista, Michał

    2016-07-01

    Magnesium alloys are modern biocompatible materials suitable for orthopaedic implants due to their biodegradability in biological environment. Many studies indicate that there is a high demand to design magnesium alloys with controllable in vivo corrosion rates and required mechanical properties. A solution to this challenge can be sought in the development of metal matrix composites based on magnesium alloys with addition of relevant alloying elements and bioceramic particles. In this study, the corrosion mechanisms along with corrosion protection methods in magnesium alloys are discussed. The recently developed magnesium alloys for biomedical applications are reviewed. Special attention is given to the newest research results in metal matrix composites composed of magnesium alloy matrix and calcium phosphates, especially hydroxyapatite or tricalcium phosphate, as the second phase with emphasis on the biodegradation behavior, microstructure and mechanical properties in view of potential application of these materials in bone implants.

  12. Engineering Platinum Alloy Electrocatalysts in Nanoscale for PEMFC Application

    SciTech Connect

    He, Ting

    2016-03-01

    Fuel cells are expected to be a key next-generation energy source used for vehicles and homes, offering high energy conversion efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions. However, due to large overpotentials on anode and cathode, the efficiency is still much lower than theoretically predicted. During the past decades, considerable efforts have been made to investigate synergy effect of platinum alloyed with base metals. But, engineering the alloy particles in nanoscale has been a challenge. Most important challenges in developing nanostructured materials are the abilities to control size, monodispersity, microcomposition, and even morphology or self-assembly capability, so called Nanomaterials-by-Design, which requires interdisciplinary collaborations among computational modeling, chemical synthesis, nanoscale characterization as well as manufacturing processing. Electrocatalysts, particularly fuel cell catalysts, are dramatically different from heterogeneous catalysts because the surface area in micropores cannot be electrochemically controlled on the same time scale as more transport accessible surfaces. Therefore, electrocatalytic architectures need minimal microporous surface area while maximizing surfaces accessible through mesopores or macropores, and to "pin" the most active, highest performance physicochemical state of the materials even when exposed to thermodynamic forces, which would otherwise drive restructuring, crystallization, or densification of the nanoscale materials. In this presentation, results of engineering nanoscale platinum alloy particles down to 2 ~ 4 nm will be discussed. Based on nature of alloyed base metals, various synthesis technologies have been studied and developed to achieve capabilities of controlling particle size and particle microcomposition, namely, core-shell synthesis, microemulsion technique, thermal decomposition process, surface organometallic chemical method, etc. The results show that by careful engineering the

  13. Solid State Joining of Dissimilar Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Todd W.

    Solid state joining of titanium via friction stir welding and diffusion bonding have emerged as enablers of efficient monolithic structural designs by the eliminations fasteners for the aerospace industry. As design complexity and service demands increase, the need for joints of dissimilar alloys has emerged. Complex thermomechanical conditions in friction stir weld joints and high temperature deformation behavior differences between alloys used in dissimilar joints gives rise to a highly variable flow pattern within a stir zone. Experiments performed welding Ti-6Al-4V to beta21S show that mechanical intermixing of the two alloys is the primary mechanism for the generation of the localized chemistry and microstructure, the magnitude of which can be directly related to pin rotation and travel speed weld parameters. Mechanical mixing of the two alloys is heavily influenced by strain rate softening phenomena, and can be used to manipulate weld nugget structure by switching which alloy is subjected to the advancing side of the pin. Turbulent mixing of a weld nugget and a significant reduction in defects and weld forces are observed when the beta21S is put on the advancing side of the weld where higher strain rates are present. Chemical diffusion driven by the heat of weld parameters is characterized using energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and is shown to be a secondary process responsible for generating short-range chemical gradients that lead to a gradient of alpha particle structures. Diffusion calculations are inconsistent with an assumption of steady-state diffusion and show that material interfaces in the weld nugget evolve through the break-down of turbulent interface features generated by material flows. A high degree of recrystallization is seen throughout the welds, with unique, hybrid chemistry grains that are generated at material interfaces in the weld nugget that help to unify the crystal structure of dissimilar alloys. The degree of

  14. Ferritic Alloys with Extreme Creep Resistance via Coherent Hierarchical Precipitates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Gian; Sun, Zhiqian; Li, Lin; Xu, Xiandong; Rawlings, Michael; Liebscher, Christian H.; Clausen, Bjørn; Poplawsky, Jonathan; Leonard, Donovan N.; Huang, Shenyan; Teng, Zhenke; Liu, Chain T.; Asta, Mark D.; Gao, Yanfei; Dunand, David C.; Ghosh, Gautam; Chen, Mingwei; Fine, Morris E.; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-11-01

    There have been numerous efforts to develop creep-resistant materials strengthened by incoherent particles at high temperatures and stresses in response to future energy needs for steam turbines in thermal-power plants. However, the microstructural instability of the incoherent-particle-strengthened ferritic steels limits their application to temperatures below 900 K. Here, we report a novel ferritic alloy with the excellent creep resistance enhanced by coherent hierarchical precipitates, using the integrated experimental (transmission-electron microscopy/scanning-transmission-electron microscopy, in-situ neutron diffraction, and atom-probe tomography) and theoretical (crystal-plasticity finite-element modeling) approaches. This alloy is strengthened by nano-scaled L21-Ni2TiAl (Heusler phase)-based precipitates, which themselves contain coherent nano-scaled B2 zones. These coherent hierarchical precipitates are uniformly distributed within the Fe matrix. Our hierarchical structure material exhibits the superior creep resistance at 973 K in terms of the minimal creep rate, which is four orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional ferritic steels. These results provide a new alloy-design strategy using the novel concept of hierarchical precipitates and the fundamental science for developing creep-resistant ferritic alloys. The present research will broaden the applications of ferritic alloys to higher temperatures.

  15. Ferritic Alloys with Extreme Creep Resistance via Coherent Hierarchical Precipitates

    PubMed Central

    Song, Gian; Sun, Zhiqian; Li, Lin; Xu, Xiandong; Rawlings, Michael; Liebscher, Christian H.; Clausen, Bjørn; Poplawsky, Jonathan; Leonard, Donovan N.; Huang, Shenyan; Teng, Zhenke; Liu, Chain T.; Asta, Mark D.; Gao, Yanfei; Dunand, David C.; Ghosh, Gautam; Chen, Mingwei; Fine, Morris E.; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-01-01

    There have been numerous efforts to develop creep-resistant materials strengthened by incoherent particles at high temperatures and stresses in response to future energy needs for steam turbines in thermal-power plants. However, the microstructural instability of the incoherent-particle-strengthened ferritic steels limits their application to temperatures below 900 K. Here, we report a novel ferritic alloy with the excellent creep resistance enhanced by coherent hierarchical precipitates, using the integrated experimental (transmission-electron microscopy/scanning-transmission-electron microscopy, in-situ neutron diffraction, and atom-probe tomography) and theoretical (crystal-plasticity finite-element modeling) approaches. This alloy is strengthened by nano-scaled L21-Ni2TiAl (Heusler phase)-based precipitates, which themselves contain coherent nano-scaled B2 zones. These coherent hierarchical precipitates are uniformly distributed within the Fe matrix. Our hierarchical structure material exhibits the superior creep resistance at 973 K in terms of the minimal creep rate, which is four orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional ferritic steels. These results provide a new alloy-design strategy using the novel concept of hierarchical precipitates and the fundamental science for developing creep-resistant ferritic alloys. The present research will broaden the applications of ferritic alloys to higher temperatures. PMID:26548303

  16. Ferritic Alloys with Extreme Creep Resistance via Coherent Hierarchical Precipitates

    DOE PAGES

    Song, Gian; Sun, Zhiqian; Li, Lin; ...

    2015-11-09

    There have been numerous efforts to develop creep-resistant materials strengthened by incoherent particles at high temperatures and stresses in response to future energy needs for steam turbines in thermal-power plants. However, the microstructural instability of the incoherent-particle-strengthened ferritic steels limits their application to temperatures below 900 K. Here, we report a novel ferritic alloy with the excellent creep resistance enhanced by coherent hierarchical precipitates, using the integrated experimental (transmission-electron microscopy/scanning-transmission-electron microscopy, in-situ neutron diffraction, and atom-probe tomography) and theoretical (crystal-plasticity finite-element modeling) approaches. This alloy is strengthened by nano-scaled L21-Ni2TiAl (Heusler phase)-based precipitates, which themselves contain coherent nano-scaled B2 zones.more » These coherent hierarchical precipitates are uniformly distributed within the Fe matrix. Our hierarchical structure material exhibits the superior creep resistance at 973 K in terms of the minimal creep rate, which is four orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional ferritic steels. These results provide a new alloy-design strategy using the novel concept of hierarchical precipitates and the fundamental science for developing creep-resistant ferritic alloys. Finally, the present research will broaden the applications of ferritic alloys to higher temperatures.« less

  17. Ferritic Alloys with Extreme Creep Resistance via Coherent Hierarchical Precipitates

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Gian; Sun, Zhiqian; Li, Lin; Xu, Xiandong; Rawlings, Michael; Liebscher, Christian H.; Clausen, Bjørn; Poplawsky, Jonathan; Leonard, Donovan N.; Huang, Shenyan; Teng, Zhenke; Liu, Chain T.; Asta, Mark D.; Gao, Yanfei; Dunand, David C.; Ghosh, Gautam; Chen, Mingwei; Fine, Morris E.; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-11-09

    There have been numerous efforts to develop creep-resistant materials strengthened by incoherent particles at high temperatures and stresses in response to future energy needs for steam turbines in thermal-power plants. However, the microstructural instability of the incoherent-particle-strengthened ferritic steels limits their application to temperatures below 900 K. Here, we report a novel ferritic alloy with the excellent creep resistance enhanced by coherent hierarchical precipitates, using the integrated experimental (transmission-electron microscopy/scanning-transmission-electron microscopy, in-situ neutron diffraction, and atom-probe tomography) and theoretical (crystal-plasticity finite-element modeling) approaches. This alloy is strengthened by nano-scaled L21-Ni2TiAl (Heusler phase)-based precipitates, which themselves contain coherent nano-scaled B2 zones. These coherent hierarchical precipitates are uniformly distributed within the Fe matrix. Our hierarchical structure material exhibits the superior creep resistance at 973 K in terms of the minimal creep rate, which is four orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional ferritic steels. These results provide a new alloy-design strategy using the novel concept of hierarchical precipitates and the fundamental science for developing creep-resistant ferritic alloys. Finally, the present research will broaden the applications of ferritic alloys to higher temperatures.

  18. Observation of Oxide Formation for Molten Fe-Cr-C Alloy at a High Carbon Region by Oxygen Top Blowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihara, Ryosuke; Gao, Xu; Kaneko, Shigeru; Kim, Sunjoong; Ueda, Shigeru; Shibata, Hiroyuki; Seok, Min Oh; Kitamura, Shin-ya

    2016-04-01

    The oxide formation behavior during decarburization by top blowing for molten Fe-Cr-C alloy was directly observed. For 11 mass pct Cr alloy at 1673 K to 1723 K (1400 °C to 1450 °C), as well as for 14 mass pct Cr alloy at 1623 K to 1673 K (1350 °C to 1400 °C), oxide particles always formed within several minutes after decarburization started. Also, unstable oxide film followed by stable oxide film formed after C content was decreased to certain levels. For 11 mass pct Cr alloy at 1773 K (1500 °C) and 14 mass pct Cr alloy at 1723 K (1450 °C), only the oxide particle and stable oxide film were observed. For 18 mass pct Cr-5 mass pct C alloy at 1723 K (1450 °C), stable oxide film formed twice. By comparing the critical C and Cr contents of alloy when oxides started to form with the equilibrium relation, the formation of the oxide particle and unstable oxide film was found to be under a nonequilibrium condition, whereas the stable oxide film that formed was near an equilibrium condition. For 11 and 14 mass pct Cr alloy, the decarburization rate stayed constant and was not affected by the formation of the oxide particle or unstable oxide film, but it started to decrease after the formation of the stable oxide film.

  19. Photobiomolecular metallic particles and films

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2003-05-06

    The method of the invention is based on the unique electron-carrying function of a photocatalytic unit such as the photosynthesis system I (PSI) reaction center of the protein-chlorophyll complex isolated from chloroplasts. The method employs a photo-biomolecular metal deposition technique for precisely controlled nucleation and growth of metallic clusters/particles, e.g., platinum, palladium, and their alloys, etc., as well as for thin-film formation above the surface of a solid substrate. The photochemically mediated technique offers numerous advantages over traditional deposition methods including quantitative atom deposition control, high energy efficiency, and mild operating condition requirements.

  20. Supercoducting property of Zr-Cu-Al-Ni-Nb alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okai, D.; Motoyama, G.; Kimura, H.; Inoue, A.

    The superconducting property of Zr55Cu(30-X)Al10Ni5NbX alloys prepared by arc melting and liquid quenching methods was investigated by magnetic susceptibility measurements. The crystalline alloys with X = 0∼25 at.% prepared by arc melting method exhibited superconductivity with maximum Tc,on of 10.1 K. The alloys (X = 10∼23 at.%) with crystalline particles embedded in an amorphous structure, which were fabricated by melt spinning method, showed superconductivity with Tc,on of less than 4.0 K. The superconducting property of the Zr-Cu-Al-Ni-Nb alloys was attributed to superconducting phases of Zr2Cu, Zr2Ni, Zr65Al10Nb25 and Zr-Nb contained in the Zr-Cu-Al-Ni-Nb alloys. The melt-spun Zr55Cu(30-X)Al10Ni5NbX (X = 10∼20 at.%) alloys exhibited glass transition at 718∼743 K and were found to be superconducting metallic glasses.

  1. Processing, Microstructure, and Properties of Multiphase Mo Silicide Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Heatherly, L.; Liu, C.T.; Schneibel, J.H.

    1998-11-30

    Multiphase Mo silicide alloys containing T2 (Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}), Mo{sub 3}Si and Mo phases where prepared by both melting and casting (M and C) and powder metallurgical (PM) processes. Glassy phases are observed in PM materials but not in M and C materials. Microstructural studies indicate that the primary phase is Mo-rich solid solution in alloys containing {le}(9.4Si+13.8B, at. %) and T2 in alloys with {ge}(9.8Si+14.6B). An eutectic composition is estimated to be close to Mo-9.6Si-14.2B. The mechanical properties of multiphase silicide alloys were determined by hardness, tensile and bending tests at room temperature. The multiphase alloy MSB-18 (Mo-9.4Si-13.8B) possesses a flexure strength distinctly higher than that of MoSi{sub 2} and other Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3} silicide alloys containing no Mo particles. Also, MSB-18 is tougher than MoSi{sub 2} by a factor of 4.

  2. Computer modelling of age hardening for cast aluminium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Linda; Ferguson, W. George

    2009-08-01

    Age hardening, or precipitation hardening, is one of the most widely adopted techniques for strengthening of aluminium alloys. Although various age hardening models have been developed for aluminium alloys, from the large volume of literature reviewed, it appears that the bulk of the research has been concentrated on wrought aluminium alloys, only a few of the established precipitation models have been applied to the casting aluminium alloys. In the present work, there are two modelling methods that have been developed and applied to the casting aluminium alloys A356 and A357. One is based on the Shercliff-Ashby methodology to produce a process model, by which we mean a mathematical relationship between process variables (alloy composition, ageing temperature and time) and material properties (yield strength or hardness) through microstructure evolution (precipitate radius, volume fraction). The other method is based on the Kampmann and Wagner Numerical (KWN) model which deals with concomitant nucleation, growth and coarsening and is thus capable of predicting the full evolution of the particle size distribution and then a strength model is used to evaluate the resulting change in hardness or yield strength at room temperature by taking into account contributions from lattice resistance, solid solution hardening and precipitation hardening.

  3. Palladium alloys for biomedical devices.

    PubMed

    Wataha, John C; Shor, Kavita

    2010-07-01

    In the biomedical field, palladium has primarily been used as a component of alloys for dental prostheses. However, recent research has shown the utility of palladium alloys for devices such as vascular stents that do not distort magnetic resonance images. Dental palladium alloys may contain minor or major percentages of palladium. As a minor constituent, palladium hardens, strengthens and increases the melting range of alloys. Alloys that contain palladium as the major component also contain copper, gallium and sometimes tin to produce strong alloys with high stiffness and relatively low corrosion rates. All current evidence suggests that palladium alloys are safe, despite fears about harmful effects of low-level corrosion products during biomedical use. Recent evidence suggests that palladium poses fewer biological risks than other elements, such as nickel or silver. Hypersensitivity to palladium alone is rare, but accompanies nickel hypersensitivity 90-100% of the time. The unstable price of palladium continues to influence the use of palladium alloys in biomedicine.

  4. Hot Microfissuring in Nickel Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. G.; Nunes, A.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments in intergranular cracking of nickel alloy near solidus temperature discussed in contractor report. Purpose of investigation development of schedule for welding, casting, forging, or other processing of alloy without causing microfissuring.

  5. Electrodeposition of PdCu alloy and its application in methanol electro-oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Ming-Wei; Whang, Thou-Jen

    2013-04-01

    This study demonstrates a simple electrodeposition method to fabricate the palladium-copper alloy on an ITO coated glass (PdCu/ITO) and its application in methanol electro-oxidation. Our approaches involve the co-reduction of Pd and Cu using triethanolamine (TEA) as a complexing agent in the electroplating bath and a Pd redox replacement of Cu on the surface of the as-prepared PdCu alloy. The phase structures, alloy compositions and morphologies of catalysts are determined by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometer and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. X-ray diffraction shows that the particle size of PdCu deposits shrink when the alloy is deposited in a TEA-contained solution. The electrocatalytic properties of PdCu alloys and Pd redox replacement modified PdCu alloys for methanol oxidation have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry. The PdCu alloy with atomic ratio of 20.5% Cu exhibits higher catalytic activity toward methanol oxidation compared with a pure Pd catalyst. PdCu alloys with smaller particle sizes associated with TEA agent and the surface confined Pd replacement are found to have enhanced catalytic performance in the electro-oxidation of methanol.

  6. Influence of Ti content on synthesis and characteristics of W-Ti ODS alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Liang; Zeng, Yong

    2016-02-01

    Tungsten-titanium alloys are considered as promising materials for the future fusion devices, in particular for the divertor and other first wall components. The microstructure and the mechanical properties of the material are dependent on the amount of Ti present in the alloy. In this study, W-Ti-Y2O3 alloys with varied Ti contents between 1 wt.% and 10 wt.% fabricated by mechanical alloying were investigated. The effect of Ti on the phase formation and mechanical properties of W-Ti-Y2O3 alloys has been examined. The results suggest that the alloys containing low Ti content exhibit homogeneous microstructure with a uniform distribution of fine titanium oxide particles and tungsten carbides, leading to a significant increase in hardness and elastic modulus of alloys. In addition, high-energy ball milling can facilitate a solid-state reaction between Y2O3 particles and the tungsten-titanium matrix and the subsequent sintering processing promotes the formation of stable nano Ti2Y2O7 oxide particles, which greatly increase the mechanical properties at elevated temperature and enhance irradiation resistance.

  7. Magnetic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Manchium (Inventor); Colvin, Michael S. (Inventor); Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Richards, Gil F. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Metal oxide containing polymers and particularly styrene, acrylic or protein polymers containing fine, magnetic iron oxide particles are formed by combining a NO.sub.2 -substituted polymer with an acid such as hydrochloric acid in the presence of metal, particularly iron particles. The iron is oxidized to fine, black Fe.sub.3 O.sub.4 particles which deposit selectively on the polymer particles. Nitrated polymers are formed by reacting functionally substituted, nitrated organic compounds such as trinitrobenzene sulfonate or dinitrofluoro benzene with a functionally coreactive polymer such as an amine modified acrylic polymer or a protein. Other transition metals such as cobalt can also be incorporated into polymers using this method.

  8. Preparation and Properties of ZrO2/Mo Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Chaopeng; Gao, Yimin; Wei, Shizhong; Zhang, Guoshang; Zhu, Xiangwei; Guo, Songliang

    2017-02-01

    The nano-sized ZrO2 reinforced Mo alloys were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis and subsequent sintering. During preparation, the nano-sized ZrO2 particles were added into the Mo powder via hydrothermal synthesis. This work investigated the differences in mechanical properties and microstructures of the Mo-ZrO2 alloys prepared by hydrothermal synthesis and the other traditional method. As the amount of ZrO2 particles increased, the grain size of the Mo powders reduced obviously. The grains were refined obviously after sintering. The ZrO2 particles added by hydrothermal synthesis can effectively restrain the growth of grains and improve mechanical properties such as strength and hardness.

  9. Selective dissolution in binary alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, Carol Rene

    Corrosion is an important issue in the design of engineering alloys. De-alloying is an aspect of alloy corrosion related to the selective dissolution of one or more of the components in an alloy. The work reported herein focuses on the topic of de-alloying specific to single-phase binary noble metal alloy systems. The alloy systems investigated were gold-silver and gold-copper. The onset of a bulk selective dissolution process is typically marked by a critical potential whereby the more reactive component in the alloy begins dissolving from the bulk, leading to the formation of a bi-continuous solid-void morphology. The critical potential was investigated for the entire composition range of gold-silver alloys. The results presented herein include the formulation of an expression for critical potential as a function of both alloy and electrolyte composition. Results of the first investigation of underpotential deposition (UPD) on alloys are also presented herein. These results were implemented as an analytical tool to provide quantitative measurements of the surface evolution of gold during de-alloying. The region below the critical potential was investigated in terms of the compositional evolution of the alloy surface. Below the critical potential, there is a competition between the dissolution of the more reactive alloying constituent (either silver or copper) and surface diffusion of gold that serves to cover dissolution sites and prevent bulk dissolution. By holding the potential at a prescribed value below the critical potential, a time-dependent gold enrichment occurs on the alloy surface leading to passivation. A theoretical model was developed to predict the surface enrichment of gold based on the assumption of layer-by-layer dissolution of the more reactive alloy constituent. The UPD measurements were used to measure the time-dependent surface gold concentration and the results agreed with the predictions of the theoretical model.

  10. Fabrication and Characterization of novel W80Ni10Nb10 alloy produced by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, R.; Patra, A.; Karak, S. K.; Pattanaik, A.; Mishra, S. C.

    2016-02-01

    Nanostructured tungsten (W) based alloy with nominal composition of W80Ni10Nb10 (in wt. %) was synthesized by mechanical alloying of elemental powders of tungsten (W), nickel (Ni), niobium (Nb) in a high energy planetary ball-mill for 20 h using chrome steel as grinding media and toluene as process control agent followed by compaction at 500 MPa pressure for 5 mins and sintering at 1500°C for 2 h in Ar atmosphere. The phase evolution and the microstructure of the milled powder and consolidated product were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystallite size of W in W80Ni10Nb10 powder was reduced from 100 μm at 0 h to 45.6 nm at 10 h and 34.1 nm at 20 h of milling whereas lattice strain increases to 35% at 20 h of milling. The dislocation density shows sharp increase up to 5 h of milling and the rate of increase drops beyond 5 to 20 h of milling. The lattice parameter of tungsten in W80Ni10Nb10 expanded upto 0.04% at 10 h of milling and contracted upto 0.02% at 20 h of milling. The SEM micrograph revealed the presence of spherical and elongated particles in W80Ni10Nb10 powders at 20 h of milling. The particle size decreases from 100 μm to 2 μm with an increase in the milling time from 0 to 20 hours. The crystallite size of W in milled W80Ni10Nb10 alloy as evident from bright field TEM image was in well agreement with the measured crystallite size from XRD. Structure of W in 20 h milled W80Ni10Nb10 alloy was identified by indexing of selected area diffraction (SAD) pattern. Formation of NbNi intermetallic was evident from XRD pattern and SEM micrograph of sintered alloy. Maximum sinterability of 90.8% was achieved in 20 h milled sintered alloy. Hardness and wear study was also conducted to investigate the mechanical behaviour of the sintered product. Hardness of W80Ni10Nb10 alloy reduces with increasing load whereas wear rate increases with increasing load. The evaluated

  11. Tissue Response to Base-Metal Dental Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    RESPONSE(BIOLOGY), *CASTING ALLOYS, *BASE METAL, * DENTAL PROSTHESES, TISSUES(BIOLOGY), COMPATIBILITY, NICKEL ALLOYS, BERYLLIUM, DENTISTRY, CANCER, HISTOLOGY, DENTAL IMPLANTOLOGY , COBALT ALLOYS, CHROMIUM ALLOYS.

  12. Finding the Alloy Genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Gus L. W.; Nelson, Lance J.; Zhou, Fei; Ozolins, Vidvuds

    2012-10-01

    First-principles codes can nowadays provide hundreds of high-fidelity enthalpies on thousands of alloy systems with a modest investment of a few tens of millions of CPU hours. But a mere database of enthalpies provides only the starting point for uncovering the ``alloy genome.'' What one needs to fundamentally change alloy discovery and design are complete searches over candidate structures (not just hundreds of known experimental phases) and models that can be used to simulate both kinetics and thermodynamics. Despite more than a decade of effort by many groups, developing robust models for these simulations is still a human-time-intensive endeavor. Compressive sensing solves this problem in dramatic fashion by automatically extracting the ``sparse model'' of an alloy in only minutes. This new paradigm to model building has enabled a new framework that will uncover, automatically and in a general way across the periodic table, the important components of such models and reveal the underlying ``genome'' of alloy physics.

  13. Auroral particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David S.

    1987-06-01

    The problems concerning the aurora posed prior to the war are now either solved in principle or were restated in a more fundamental form. The pre-war hypothesis concerning the nature of the auroral particles and their energies was fully confirmed, with the exception that helium and oxygen ions were identified as participating in the auroral particle precipitation in addition to the protons. The nature of the near-Earth energization processes affecting auroral particles was clarified. Charged particle trajectories in various electric field geometries were modeled. The physical problems have now moved from determining the nature and geometry of the electric fields, which accelerate charged particles near the Earth, to accounting for the existence of these electric fields as a natural consequence of the solar wind's interaction with Earth. Ultimately the reward in continuing the work in auroral and magnetospheric particle dynamics will be a deeper understanding of the subtleties of classical electricity and magnetism as applied to situations not blessed with well-defined and invariant geometries.

  14. Auroral particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, David S.

    1987-01-01

    The problems concerning the aurora posed prior to the war are now either solved in principle or were restated in a more fundamental form. The pre-war hypothesis concerning the nature of the auroral particles and their energies was fully confirmed, with the exception that helium and oxygen ions were identified as participating in the auroral particle precipitation in addition to the protons. The nature of the near-Earth energization processes affecting auroral particles was clarified. Charged particle trajectories in various electric field geometries were modeled. The physical problems have now moved from determining the nature and geometry of the electric fields, which accelerate charged particles near the Earth, to accounting for the existence of these electric fields as a natural consequence of the solar wind's interaction with Earth. Ultimately the reward in continuing the work in auroral and magnetospheric particle dynamics will be a deeper understanding of the subtleties of classical electricity and magnetism as applied to situations not blessed with well-defined and invariant geometries.

  15. Magnesium-based hydrogen storage materials modified by mechanical alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, N.; He, P.; Luo, J.L.

    1999-10-26

    The effects of mechanical alloying on microstructure and electrochemical performance of a Mg-Ni-Y-Al hydrogen storage alloy in 6 M KOH solution were studied. The ball-milled powders were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SED) and energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS). TEM and EDS results clearly reveal that the smaller nickel clusters or particles were well dispersed on the surface of larger magnesium alloy particles by mechanical grinding for 72 h. With an increase in milling time to 240 h, the nickel clusters or particles disappeared and a new monophase alloy with amorphous structure was formed. The electrochemical capacity of the modified material significantly increased with increasing milling time within 72 h and then dropped to nearly nil when the milling time reached 240 h. The capacity decay, however, was always improved with increasing grinding time. Further analysis and discussion were made based on d.c. polarization and a.c. impedance spectroscopy measurement results.

  16. De-alloyed platinum nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Strasser, Peter; Koh, Shirlaine; Mani, Prasanna; Ratndeep, Srivastava

    2011-08-09

    A method of producing de-alloyed nanoparticles. In an embodiment, the method comprises admixing metal precursors, freeze-drying, annealing, and de-alloying the nanoparticles in situ. Further, in an embodiment de-alloyed nanoparticle formed by the method, wherein the nanoparticle further comprises a core-shell arrangement. The nanoparticle is suitable for electrocatalytic processes and devices.

  17. Aluminum alloys with improved strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deiasi, R.; Adler, P.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanical strength and stress corrosion of new BAR and 7050 alloys that include Zn instead of Cr have been studied and compared with those of 7075 aluminum alloy. Added mechanical strength of new alloys is attributed to finer grain size of 5 to 8 micrometers, however, susceptibility to stress corrosion attack is increased.

  18. PLUTONIUM-URANIUM-TITANIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-07-28

    A plutonium-uranium alloy suitable for use as the fuel element in a fast breeder reactor is described. The alloy contains from 15 to 60 at.% titanium with the remainder uranium and plutonium in a specific ratio, thereby limiting the undesirable zeta phase and rendering the alloy relatively resistant to corrosion and giving it the essential characteristic of good mechanical workability.

  19. Semiconductor alloys - Structural property engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sher, A.; Van Schilfgaarde, M.; Berding, M.; Chen, A.-B.

    1987-01-01

    Semiconductor alloys have been used for years to tune band gaps and average bond lengths to specific applications. Other selection criteria for alloy composition, and a growth technique designed to modify their structural properties, are presently considered. The alloys Zn(1-y)Cd(y)Te and CdSe(y)Te(1-y) are treated as examples.

  20. Surface Segregation in Multicomponent Systems: Modeling of Surface Alloys and Alloy Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John; Noebe, Ronald D.; Good, Brian; Honecy, Frank S.; Abel, Phillip

    1999-01-01

    The study of surface segregation, although of great technological importance, has been largely restricted to experimental work due to limitations associated with theoretical methods. However, recent improvements in both first-particle and semi-empirical methods are opening, the doors to an array of new possibilities for surface scientists. We apply one of these techniques, the Bozzolo, Ferrante and Smith (BFS) method for alloys, which is particularly suitable for complex systems, to several aspects of the computational modeling of surfaces and segregation, including alloy surface segregation, structure and composition of alloy surfaces, and the formation of surface alloys. We conclude with the study of complex NiAl-based binary, ternary and quaternary thin films (with Ti, Cr and Cu additions to NiAl). Differences and similarities between bulk and surface compositions are discussed, illustrated by the results of Monte Carlo simulations. For some binary and ternary cases, the theoretical predictions are compared to experimental results, highlighting the accuracy and value of this developing theoretical tool.

  1. oxide and FeNi alloy: product dependence on the reduction ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jungang; Qin, Yuyang; Li, Minglun; Zhao, Shuyuan; Li, Jianjun

    2014-12-01

    Based on the sol-gel combustion method, stoichiometric Fe3+, Mn2+, Ni2+ ions and citric acid were chosen as the initial reactants for the preparation of magnetic particles. Due to the different reduction ability of metal ions, completely different magnetic products (MnFe2O4 oxide and FeNi alloy) were obtained by heating the flakes at 600 °C under nitrogen atmosphere. MnFe2O4 particles exhibit superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature, and martensitic phase transformation is observed magnetically at 125 K for FeNi alloy particles.

  2. Sample preparation of metal alloys by electric discharge machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, G. B., II; Gordon, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    Electric discharge machining was investigated as a noncontaminating method of comminuting alloys for subsequent chemical analysis. Particulate dispersions in water were produced from bulk alloys at a rate of about 5 mg/min by using a commercially available machining instrument. The utility of this approach was demonstrated by results obtained when acidified dispersions were substituted for true acid solutions in an established spectrochemical method. The analysis results were not significantly different for the two sample forms. Particle size measurements and preliminary results from other spectrochemical methods which require direct aspiration of liquid into flame or plasma sources are reported.

  3. Magnesium and magnesium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Avedesian, M.; Baker, H.

    1998-12-31

    This new handbook is the most comprehensive publication of engineering information on commercial magnesium alloys under one cover in the last sixty years. Prepared with the cooperation of the International Magnesium Association, it presents the industrial practices currently used throughout the world, as well as the properties of the products critical to their proper application. Contents include: general characteristics; physical metallurgy; melting, refining, alloying, recycling, and powder production; casting; heat treatment; forging, rolling, and extrusion; semisolid processing; forming; joining; cleaning and finishing; selection, application, and properties of grades and alloys; design considerations; mechanical behavior and wear resistance; fatigue and fracture-mechanics; high-temperature strength and creep; corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking; specification.

  4. Hydrogen in titanium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wille, G W; Davis, J W

    1981-04-01

    The titanium alloys that offer properties worthy of consideration for fusion reactors are Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-Si (Ti-6242S) and Ti-5Al-6Sn-2Zr-1Mo-Si (Ti-5621S). The Ti-6242S and Ti-5621S are being considered because of their high creep resistance at elevated temperatures of 500/sup 0/C. Also, irradiation tests on these alloys have shown irradiation creep properties comparable to 20% cold worked 316 stainless steel. These alloys would be susceptible to slow strain rate embrittlement if sufficient hydrogen concentrations are obtained. Concentrations greater than 250 to 500 wppm hydrogen and temperatures lower than 100 to 150/sup 0/C are approximate threshold conditions for detrimental effects on tensile properties. Indications are that at the elevated temperature - low hydrogen pressure conditions of the reactors, there would be negligible hydrogen embrittlement.

  5. Kinetics and Properties of Micro Arc Oxidation Coatings Deposited on Commercial Al Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, L. Rama; Purnima, A. Sudha; Wasekar, Nitin P.; Sundararajan, G.

    2007-02-01

    The micro arc oxidation (MAO) technique is being increasingly recognized as a novel and ecofriendly means of depositing dense ceramic oxide coatings on Al and its alloys. In the present study, the deposition kinetics, surface roughness, morphology, phase distribution and the microhardness of the MAO coatings deposited on ten different commercially available Al substrates having widely differing chemical composition has been investigated. Further, the tribological properties of the coatings obtained on different Al alloys in comparison with the bare substrates have also been evaluated using dry sand abrasion, solid-particle erosion and pin-on-disc dry sliding wear tests. The results clearly demonstrate that the alloying elements added to the Al substrate substantially influence the MAO coating deposition kinetics and coating properties. In the case of Al-Si alloys, the coating deposition kinetics is non-linear and the Al6Si2O13 (mullite) is observed to form. With increasing Si content, the corresponding mullite phase also increases. Increasing mullite content in the coating adversely affects the tribological performance. Excepting Al-Si alloys, all other alloys investigated including commercial purity Al exhibit linear coating deposition kinetics. Of all the alloys investigated, Al-Li alloy exhibits the highest coating deposition rate and the 6061 T6 Al alloy exhibits the best coating properties.

  6. Hydrogen generation by the hydrolysis reaction of ball-milled aluminium-lithium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xingyu; Zhao, Zhongwei; Liu, Xuheng; Hao, Mingming; Chen, Ailiang; Tang, Zhongyang

    2014-05-01

    The addition of Li can prevent an inert alumina film from forming on the surface of Al alloy particles, allowing the rapid hydrogen generation of Al alloys to be achieved. However, because the Li content is less than 10%, the hydrogen generation rate and hydrogen yield of Al-Li alloys are significantly decreased. In this work, NaCl is introduced to prepare Al-Li alloys with low Li contents by ball milling. The research results show that by increasing the amount of NaCl added, the ball milling time and Li content can effectively improve the hydrogen generation of the alloys. Under optimal preparation conditions, the ultimate hydrogen yield of Al-Li alloys can reach 100%. The initial water temperature has almost no effect on the generation of hydrogen, even at 0 °C. Ca2+ and Mg2+ can combine with OH- to form the insoluble compounds Ca(OH)2 and Mg(OH)2, which can prevent hydrogen generation. NO3- reacts with Al to form ammonia and reduce the hydrogen yield of the alloys. Therefore, Al-Li alloys should be prevented from reacting with water containing Ca2+, Mg2+ and NO3-. Al-Li alloys must be stored in isolation from air to maintain good hydrogen-generation performances.

  7. Surface modification of high temperature iron alloys

    DOEpatents

    Park, J.H.

    1995-06-06

    A method and article of manufacture of a coated iron based alloy are disclosed. The method includes providing an iron based alloy substrate, depositing a silicon containing layer on the alloy surface while maintaining the alloy at a temperature of about 700--1200 C to diffuse silicon into the alloy surface and exposing the alloy surface to an ammonia atmosphere to form a silicon/oxygen/nitrogen containing protective layer on the iron based alloy. 13 figs.

  8. Surface modification of high temperature iron alloys

    DOEpatents

    Park, Jong-Hee

    1995-01-01

    A method and article of manufacture of a coated iron based alloy. The method includes providing an iron based alloy substrate, depositing a silicon containing layer on the alloy surface while maintaining the alloy at a temperature of about 700.degree. C.-1200.degree. C. to diffuse silicon into the alloy surface and exposing the alloy surface to an ammonia atmosphere to form a silicon/oxygen/nitrogen containing protective layer on the iron based alloy.

  9. Particle Engulfment and Pushing By Solidifying Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, Doru M.; Mukherjee, Sundeep; Juretzko, Frank Robert; Catalina, A.drian V.; Sen, Subhayu; Curreri, P. A.

    2001-01-01

    The phenomenon of interaction of particles with solid-liquid interfaces (SLI) has been studied since the mid 1960's. While the original interest stemmed from geology applications (frost heaving in soil), researchers soon realized that fundamental understanding of particles behavior at solidifying interfaces might yield practical benefits in other fields, including metallurgy. In materials engineering the main issue is the location of particles with respect to grain boundaries at the end of solidification. Considerable experimental and theoretical research was lately focused on applications to metal matrix composites produced by casting or spray forming techniques, and on inclusion management in steel. Another application of particle SLI interaction is in the growing of Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-delta) (123) superconductor crystals from an undercooled liquid. The oxide melt contains Y2Ba1Cu1O5 (211) precipitates, which act as flux pinning sites. The experimental evidence on transparent organic materials, as well as the recent in situ observations on steel demonstrates that there exist a critical velocity of the planar SLI below which particles are pushed ahead of the interface, and above which particles are engulfment. The engulfment of a SiC particle in succinonitrile is exemplified. However, in most commercial alloys dendritic interfaces must be considered. Indeed, most data available on metallic alloys are on dendritic structures. The term engulfment is used to describe incorporation of a particle by a planar or cellular interface as a result of local interface perturbation, as opposed to entrapment that implies particle incorporation at cells or dendrites boundaries. During entrapment the particles are pushed in the intercellular or interdendritic regions and then captured when local solidification occurs. The physics of these two phenomena is fundamentally different.

  10. Plastic deformation behavior of aluminum casting alloys A356/357

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. G.

    2004-09-01

    The plastic deformation behavior of aluminum casting alloys A356 and A357 has been investigated at various solidification rates with or without Sr modification using monotonic tensile and multi-loop tensile and compression testing. The results indicate that at low plastic strains, the eutectic particle aspect ratio and matrix strength dominate the work hardening, while at large plastic strains, the hardening rate depends on secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS). For the alloys studied, the average internal stresses increase very rapidly at small plastic strains and gradually saturate at large plastic strains. Elongated eutectic particles, small SDAS, or high matrix strength result in a high saturation value. The difference in the internal stresses, due to different microstructural features, determines the rate of eutectic particle cracking and, in turn, the tensile instability of the alloys. The higher the internal stresses, the higher the damage rate of particle cracking and then the lower the Young’s modulus. The fracture strain of alloys A356/357 corresponds to the critical amount of damage by particle cracking locally or globally, irrespective of the fineness of the microstructure. In the coarse structure (large SDAS), this critical amount of damage is easily reached, due to the clusters of large and elongated particles, leading to alloy fracture before global necking. However, in the alloy with the small SDAS, the critical amount of damage is postponed until global necking takes place due to the small and round particles. Current models for dispersion hardening can be used to calculate the stresses induced in the particles. The calculations agree well with the results inferred from the experimental results.

  11. Aluminum alloys for ALS cryogenic tanks: Comparative measurements of cryogenic mechanical properties of Al-Li alloys and Alloy 2219. Final report, Aug 89-Mar 90

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.P.; Purtscher, P.T.; Simon, N.J.; McColskey, J.D.; Walsh, R.P.

    1991-10-01

    Tensile and plane-strain fracture toughness properties were obtained at cryogenic temperatures to compare the Al-Li alloys 8090, 2090, and WL049 and alloy 2219 in various tempers and specimen orientations. The strongest alloy at very low temperatures is WL049-T851, which is about 10% stronger than 2090-T81. Both alloys are considerably stronger than 2219-T87. Alloy 2090-T81 is tougher in the in-plane orientations (about 50%) than WL049-T851 at low temperatures; the higher in-plane toughness is attributed to the presence of less constituent particles and the tendency to crack out-of-plane or delaminate at low temperatures. This delamination tends to divide the moving crack, thus separating it into smaller regions where plan stress (rather than plane strain) conditions are conducive to increased toughness. Thus, a dichotomy: reduced toughness in the through-thickness or out-of-plane orientations leads to increased toughness in the in-plane orientations. In service, a leak in the tank is considered failure, and a leak will be caused by a crack in the panels of the tankage growing through the panel thickness. To measure the resistance to crack growth under these conditions, surface-flawed panel tests are recommended.

  12. Development of Austenitic ODS Strengthened Alloys for Very High Temperature Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbins, James; Heuser, Brent; Robertson, Ian; Sehitoglu, Huseyin; Sofronis, Petros; Gewirth, Andrew

    2015-04-22

    This “Blue Sky” project was directed at exploring the opportunities that would be gained by developing Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) alloys based on the Fe-Cr-Ni austenitic alloy system. A great deal of research effort has been directed toward ferritic and ferritic/martensitic ODS alloys which has resulted in reasonable advances in alloy properties. Similar gains should be possible with austenitic alloy which would also take advantage of other superior properties of that alloy system. The research effort was aimed at the developing an in-depth understanding of the microstructural-level strengthening effects of ODS particles in austentic alloys. This was accomplished on a variety of alloy compositions with the main focus on 304SS and 316SS compositions. A further goal was to develop an understanding other the role of ODS particles on crack propagation and creep performance. Since these later two properties require bulk alloy material which was not available, this work was carried out on promising austentic alloy systems which could later be enhanced with ODS strengthening. The research relied on a large variety of micro-analytical techniques, many of which were available through various scientific user facilities. Access to these facilities throughout the course of this work was instrumental in gathering complimentary data from various analysis techniques to form a well-rounded picture of the processes which control austenitic ODS alloy performance. Micromechanical testing of the austenitic ODS alloys confirmed their highly superior mechanical properties at elevated temperature from the enhanced strengthening effects. The study analyzed the microstructural mechanisms that provide this enhanced high temperature performance. The findings confirm that the smallest size ODS particles provide the most potent strengthening component. Larger particles and other thermally- driven precipitate structures were less effective contributors and, in some cases, limited

  13. Aluminum Alloy and Article Cast Therefrom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Chen, Po-Shou (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A cast article from an aluminum alloy, which has improved mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, has the following composition in weight percent: Silicon 14 - 25.0, Copper 5.5 - 8.0, Iron 0.05 - 1.2, Magnesium 0.5 - 1.5, Nickel 0.05 - 0.9, Manganese 0.05 - 1.0, Titanium 0.05 - 1.2, Zirconium 0.05 - 1.2, Vanadium 0.05 - 1.2, Zinc 0.05 - 0.9, Phosphorus 0.001 - 0.1, and the balance is Aluminum, wherein the silicon-to-magnesium ratio is 10 - 25, and the copper-to-magnesium ratio is 4 - 15. The aluminum alloy contains a simultaneous dispersion of three types of Al3X compound particles (X=Ti, V, Zr) having a LI2, crystal structure, and their lattice parameters are coherent to the aluminum matrix lattice. A process for producing this cast article is also disclosed, as well as a metal matrix composite, which includes the aluminum alloy serving as a matrix and containing up to about 60% by volume of a secondary filler material.

  14. Rare-earth metals in nickel aluminide-based alloys: III. Structure and properties of multicomponent Ni3Al-based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazyleva, O. A.; Povarova, K. B.; Kazanskaya, N. K.; Drozdov, A. A.

    2009-04-01

    The possibility of increasing the life of heterophase cast light Ni3Al-based superalloys at temperatures higher than 0.8 T m of Ni3Al is studied when their directional structure is additionally stabilized by nanoprecipitates, which form upon additional alloying of these alloys by refractory and active metals, and using special methods for preparing and melting of an alloy charge. The effect of the method of introducing the main components and refractory reaction-active and surface-active alloying elements into Ni3Al-based cast superalloys, which are thermally stable natural composite materials of the eutectic type, on the structure-phase state and the life of these alloys is studied. When these alloys are melted, it is necessary to perform a set of measures to form particles of refractory oxide cores covered with the β-NiAl phase and, then, γ'prim-Ni3Al phase precipitates during solidification. The latter phase forms the outer shell of grain nuclei, which provides high thermal stability and hot strength of an intermetallic compound-based alloy. As a result, a modified structure that is stabilized by the nanoprecipitates of nickel and aluminum lanthanides and the nanoprecipitates of phases containing refractory metals is formed. This structure enhances the life of the alloy at 1000 °C by a factor of 1.8-2.5.

  15. Particle Sizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Microspheres are tiny plastic beads that represent the first commercial products manufactured in orbit. An example of how they are used is a new aerodynamic particle sizer designated APS 33B produced by TSI Incorporated. TSI purchased the microspheres from the National Bureau of Standards which certified their exact size and the company uses them in calibration of the APS 33B* instrument, latest in a line of TSI systems for generating counting and weighing minute particles of submicron size. Instruments are used for evaluating air pollution control devices, quantifying environments, meteorological research, testing filters, inhalation, toxicology and other areas where generation or analysis of small airborne particles is required. * The APS 33B is no longer being manufactured. An improved version, APS 3320, is now being manufactured. 2/28/97

  16. Carbon particles

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Arlon J.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

  17. Particle Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki K. M.

    2014-05-01

    Geophysics research has long been dominated by classical mechanics, largely disregarding the potential of particle physics to augment existing techniques. The purpose of this article is to review recent progress in probing Earth's interior with muons and neutrinos. Existing results for various volcanological targets are reviewed. Geoneutrinos are also highlighted as examples in which the neutrino probes elucidate the composition of Earth's deep interior. Particle geophysics has the potential to serve as a useful paradigm to transform our understanding of Earth as dramatically as the X-ray transformed our understanding of medicine and the body.

  18. Generation of copper, nickel, and CuNi alloy nanoparticles by spark discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntean, Alex; Wagner, Moritz; Meyer, Jörg; Seipenbusch, Martin

    2016-08-01

    The generation of copper, nickel, and copper-nickel alloy nanoparticles by spark discharge was studied, using different bespoke alloy feedstocks. Roughly spherical particles with a primary particle Feret diameter of 2-10 nm were produced and collected in agglomerate form. The copper-to-nickel ratios determined by Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and therefore averaged over a large number of particles, matched the nominal copper content quite well. Further investigations showed that the electrode compositions influenced the evaporation rate and the primary particle size. The evaporation rate decreased with increasing copper content, which was found to be in good accordance with the Llewellyn-Jones model. However, the particle diameter was increasing with an increasing copper content, caused by a decrease in melting temperature due to the lower melting point of copper. Furthermore, the alloy compositions on the nanoscale were investigated via EDX. The nanoparticles exhibited almost the same composition as the used alloy feedstock, with a deviation of less than 7 percentage points. Therefore, no segregation could be detected, indicating the presence of a true alloy even on the nanoscale.

  19. Mechanisms affecting swelling in alloys with precipitates

    SciTech Connect

    Mansur, L.K.; Haynes, M.R.; Lee, E.H.

    1980-01-01

    In alloys under irradiation many mechanisms exist that couple phase instability to cavity swelling. These are compounded with the more familiar mechanisms associated with point defect behavior and the evolution of microstructure. The mechanisms may be classified according to three modes of operation. Some affect cavity swelling directly by cavity-precipitate particle association, others operate indirectly by precipitate-induced changes in sinks other than cavities and finally there are mechanisms that are mediated by precipitate-induced changes in the host matrix. The physics of one mechanism of each type is developed in detail and the results compared where possible to experimental measurements. In particular, we develop the theory necessary to treat the effects on swelling of precipitation-induced changes in overall sink density; precipitation-induced changes in point defect trapping by solute depletion and creation of precipitate particle-matrix interfacial trap sites.

  20. Composition effects on mechanical properties of HfC-strengthened molybdenum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzke, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    The mechanical properties of swaged rod thermomechanically processed from arc-melted Mo-2Re-Hf-C alloys containing as much as 0.9 mol pct HfC have been evaluated. The low temperature ductilities of these alloys were not influenced by the amount of HfC present but by the amount of Hf in excess of stoichiometry. Maximum ductility occurred at 0.2 to 0.3 at. pct excess Hf. At 0.3 to 0.5 mol pct HfC, alloy strength varied directly with the Mo content of extracted carbide particles, both decreasing as the amount of excess Hf increased. Additions of 2 at. pct Re had little effect on strength or ductility. Tensile and creep strengths of Mo-2Re-0.7Hf-0.5C alloy equaled or exceeded those of other high strength Mo alloys.

  1. The unexpected role of metal nanoparticles and nanonetworks in alloy degradation.

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Z.; Natesan, K.; Cai, Z.; Darling, S. B.

    2008-08-01

    Oxide scale, which is essential to protect structural alloys from high-temperature degradation such as oxidation, carburization and metal dusting, is usually considered to consist simply of oxide phases. Here, we report on a nanobeam X-ray and magnetic force microscopy investigation that reveals that the oxide scale actually consists of a mixture of oxide materials and metal nanoparticles. The metal nanoparticles self-assemble into nanonetworks, forming continuous channels for carbon transport through the oxide scales. To avoid the formation of these metallic particles in the oxide scale, alloys must develop a scale without spinel phase. We have designed a novel alloy that has been tested in a high-carbon-activity environment. Our results show that the incubation time for carbon transport through the oxide scale of the new alloy is more than an order of magnitude longer compared with commercial alloys with similar chromium content.

  2. Method of forming magnetostrictive rods from rare earth-iron alloys

    DOEpatents

    McMasters, O. Dale

    1986-09-02

    Rods of magnetrostructive alloys of iron with rare earth elements are formed by flowing a body of rare earth-iron alloy in a crucible enclosed in a chamber maintained under an inert gas atmosphere, forcing such molten rare-earth-iron alloy into a hollow mold tube of refractory material positioned with its lower end portion within the molten body by means of a pressure differential between the chamber and mold tube and maintaining a portion of the molten alloy in the crucible extending to a level above the lower end of the mold tube so that solid particles of higher melting impurities present in the alloy collect at the surface of the molten body and remain within the crucible as the rod is formed in the mold tube.

  3. Method of forming magnetostrictive rods from rare earth-iron alloys

    DOEpatents

    McMasters, O.D.

    1986-09-02

    Rods of magnetostrictive alloys of iron with rare earth elements are formed by flowing a body of rare earth-iron alloy in a crucible enclosed in a chamber maintained under an inert gas atmosphere, forcing such molten rare-earth-iron alloy into a hollow mold tube of refractory material positioned with its lower end portion within the molten body by means of a pressure differential between the chamber and mold tube and maintaining a portion of the molten alloy in the crucible extending to a level above the lower end of the mold tube so that solid particles of higher melting impurities present in the alloy collect at the surface of the molten body and remain within the crucible as the rod is formed in the mold tube. 5 figs.

  4. Processing of New Materials by Additive Manufacturing: Iron-Based Alloys Containing Silver for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niendorf, Thomas; Brenne, Florian; Hoyer, Peter; Schwarze, Dieter; Schaper, Mirko; Grothe, Richard; Wiesener, Markus; Grundmeier, Guido; Maier, Hans Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    In the biomedical sector, production of bioresorbable implants remains challenging due to improper dissolution rates or deficient strength of many candidate alloys. Promising materials for overcoming the prevalent drawbacks are iron-based alloys containing silver. However, due to immiscibility of iron and silver these alloys cannot be manufactured based on conventional processing routes. In this study, iron-manganese-silver alloys were for the first time synthesized by means of additive manufacturing. Based on combined mechanical, microscopic, and electrochemical studies, it is shown that silver particles well distributed in the matrix can be obtained, leading to cathodic sites in the composite material. Eventually, this results in an increased dissolution rate of the alloy. Stress-strain curves showed that the incorporation of silver barely affects the mechanical properties.

  5. Compositional effects on mechanical properties of hafnium-carbide-strengthened molybdenum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzke, W. R.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanical properties of swaged rod thermomechanically processed from arc melted Mo-2Re-Hf-C alloys containing as much as 0.9-mol% HfC were evaluated. The low-temperature ductilities of these alloys were not influenced by the amount of HfC present but by the amount of Hf in excess of stoichiometry. Maximum ductility occurred at 0.2- to 0.3-at.% excess Hf. At 0.3- to 0.5-mol% HfC, alloy strength varied directly with the Mo content of extracted carbide particles, both decreasing as the amount of excess Hf increased. Additions of 2-at.% Re had little effect on strength or ductility. Tensile and creep strengths of Mo-2Re-0.7Hf-0.5C alloy equaled or exceeded those of other high strength Mo alloys.

  6. Recrystallization characteristics of oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hotzler, R. K.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1980-01-01

    Electron microscopy was employed to study the process of recrystallization in two oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) mechanically alloyed nickel-base alloys, MA 754 and MA 6000E. MA 754 contained both fine, uniformly dispersed particles and coarser oxides aligned along the working direction. Hot rolled MA 754 had a grain size of 0.5 microns and high dislocation densities. After partial primary recrystallization, the fine grains transformed to large elongated grains via secondary (or abnormal) grain growth. Extruded and rolled MA 6000E contained equiaxed grains of 0.2 micron diameter. Primary recrystallization occurring during working eliminated virtually all dislocations. Conversion from fine to coarse grains was triggered by gamma prime dissolution; this was also a process of secondary or abnormal grain growth. Comparisons were made to conventional and oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-base alloys.

  7. Mechanical Properties of Iron Alumininides Intermetallic Alloy with Molybdenum Addition

    SciTech Connect

    Zuhailawati, H.; Fauzi, M. N. A.

    2010-03-11

    In this work, FeAl-based alloys with and without molybdenum addition were fabricated by sintering of mechanically alloyed powders in order to investigate the effect of molybdenum on iron aluminide mechanical properties. Bulk samples were prepared by mechanical alloying for 4 hours, pressing at 360 MPa and sintering at 1000 deg. C for 2 hours. The specimens were tested in compression at room temperature using Instron machine. The phase identification and microstructure of the consolidated material was examined by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope correspondingly. Results show that 2.5 wt%Mo addition significantly increased the ultimate stress and ultimate strain in compressive mode due to solid solution hardening. However, the addition of Mo more than 2.5 wt% was accompanied by a reduction in both properties caused by the presence of Mo-rich precipitate particles.

  8. Method for low temperature preparation of a noble metal alloy

    DOEpatents

    Even, Jr., William R.

    2002-01-01

    A method for producing fine, essentially contamination free, noble metal alloys is disclosed. The alloys comprise particles in a size range of 5 to 500 nm. The method comprises 1. A method for preparing a noble metal alloy at low temperature, the method comprising the steps of forming solution of organometallic compounds by dissolving the compounds into a quantity of a compatible solvent medium capable of solvating the organometallic, mixing a portion of each solution to provide a desired molarity ratio of ions in the mixed solution, adding a support material, rapidly quenching droplets of the mixed solution to initiate a solute-solvent phase separation as the solvent freezes, removing said liquid cryogen, collecting and freezing drying the frozen droplets to produce a dry powder, and finally reducing the powder to a metal by flowing dry hydrogen over the powder while warming the powder to a temperature of about 150.degree. C.

  9. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lin, X.; Johnson, W.L.

    1998-04-07

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10{sup 3}K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf){sub a}(Al,Zn){sub b}(Ti,Nb){sub c}(Cu{sub x}Fe{sub y}(Ni,Co){sub z}){sub d} wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d{hor_ellipsis}y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  10. Quinary metallic glass alloys

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Xianghong; Johnson, William L.

    1998-01-01

    At least quinary alloys form metallic glass upon cooling below the glass transition temperature at a rate less than 10.sup.3 K/s. Such alloys comprise zirconium and/or hafnium in the range of 45 to 65 atomic percent, titanium and/or niobium in the range of 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, and aluminum and/or zinc in the range of 5 to 15 atomic percent. The balance of the alloy compositions comprise copper, iron, and cobalt and/or nickel. The composition is constrained such that the atomic percentage of iron is less than 10 percent. Further, the ratio of copper to nickel and/or cobalt is in the range of from 1:2 to 2:1. The alloy composition formula is: (Zr,Hf).sub.a (Al,Zn).sub.b (Ti,Nb).sub.c (Cu.sub.x Fe.sub.y (Ni,Co).sub.z).sub.d wherein the constraints upon the formula are: a ranges from 45 to 65 atomic percent, b ranges from 5 to 15 atomic percent, c ranges from 4 to 7.5 atomic percent, d comprises the balance, d.multidot.y is less than 10 atomic percent, and x/z ranges from 0.5 to 2.

  11. Microporosity in casting alloys.

    PubMed

    Lewis, A J

    1975-06-01

    Three series of tensile test pieces were produced using a nickel base partial denture casting alloy. For the first series induction heating was employed, for the second a resistance crucible, and for the third an oxy-acetylene torch. Samples from each series were sectioned longitudinally, mounted, polished and examined microscopically for evidence of microporosity.

  12. Superplasticity in aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Nieh, T. G.

    1997-12-01

    We have characterized in the Al-Mg system the microstructure and mechanical properties of a cold-rolled Al-6Mg-0.3Sc alloy. The alloy exhibited superplasticity at relatively high strain rates (about 10-2 s-1). At a strain rate of 10-2 s-1 there exists a wide temperature range (475-520`C) within which the tensile elongation is over 1000%. There also exists a wide strain rate range (10-3 - 10-1 s-1) within which the tensile elongation is over 500%. The presence of Sc in the alloy results in a uniform distribution of fine coherent Al3SC precipitates which effectively pin grain and subgrain boundaries during static and continuous recrystallization. As a result, the alloy retains its fine grain size (about 7 micron), even after extensive superplastic deformation (>1000%). During deformation, dislocations Mg with a high Schmidt factor slip across subgrains but are trapped by subgrain boundaries, as a result of the strong pining of Al3Sc. This process leads to the conversion of low-angled subgrain boundaries to high-angled grain boundaries and the subsequent grain boundary sliding, which produces superelasticity. A model is proposed to describe grain boundary sliding accommodated by dislocation glide across grains with a uniform distribution of coherent precipitates. The model predictions is consistent with experimental observations.

  13. Shape Memory Alloy Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention discloses and teaches a unique, remote optically controlled micro actuator particularly suitable for aerospace vehicle applications wherein hot gas, or in the alternative optical energy, is employed as the medium by which shape memory alloy elements are activated. In gas turbine powered aircraft the source of the hot gas may be the turbine engine compressor or turbine sections.

  14. Shape Memory Alloy Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention discloses and teaches a unique, remote optically controlled micro actuator particularly suitable for aerospace vehicle applications wherein hot gas, or in the alternative optical energy, is employed as the medium by which shape memory alloy elements are activated. In gas turbine powered aircraft the source of the hot gas may be the turbine engine compressor or turbine sections.

  15. Characterization and corrosion behaviour of CoNi alloys obtained by mechanical alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Olvera, S.; Sánchez-Marcos, J.; Palomares, F.J.; Salas, E.; Arce, E.M.; Herrasti, P.

    2014-07-01

    CoNi alloys including Co{sub 30}Ni{sub 70}, Co{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} and Co{sub 70}Ni{sub 30} were prepared via mechanical alloying using Co and Ni powders. The crystallinity and short-range order were studied using X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The results show that the milling process increases the number of vacancies, especially around the Co atoms, while the milling time decreases the crystalline size and enhances the crystallinity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterise the chemical composition of the samples surface. The magnetic properties were analysed using zero-field cooling, field cooling and a magnetic hysteresis loops. The magnetic saturation moment is approximately 1.05 μ{sub B}/atom; this value decreases with the mechanical alloying time, and it is proportional to the cobalt concentration. The polarization and impedance curves in different media (NaCl, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH) showed similar corrosion resistance values. The corrosion resistance increased in the order NaCl, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH. A good passivation layer was formed in NaOH due to the cobalt and nickel oxides on the particle surfaces. - Highlights: • Ni{sub x}Co{sub 100-x} alloys were synthesized by mechanical alloying • Milling time decrease size and enhances crystallinity. • Oxygen is not present in a significant percentage in bulk but is detected on the surface. • Magnetic saturation moment is 1.05 mB/atom and decrease with mechanical allowing time • Corrosion resistance is higher in NaOH than in NaCl or HCl solutions.

  16. Microstructure and wear properties of Al-20Si alloy prepared by spray deposition with following continuous extrusion forming technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yingli; Yin, Jiancheng; Zhong, Yi

    2016-10-01

    Spray deposition with following continuous extrusion forming technique (SD-CE) is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce high alloy net-shape products. Al-20Si alloy rods have been fabricated by SD-CE at different extrusion ratio. Microstructure, hardness and wear resistance of the alloy have been investigated in details. The results show that Al-20Si alloy can be refined effectively by SD-CE, and the size and shape of Si particles become fine and spherical with the increasing extrusion ratio. When the extrusion ratio reaches 20:1, fully dense material with uniform distribution of Si particles can be obtained. The Al-20Si alloys fabricated by SD-CE exhibit excellent wear resistance, which can be further improved by large extrusion ratio, due to increasing hardness and density. A mechanically mixed layer containing a considerable amount of oxygen and iron was formed on the worn surface.

  17. Effects of Ce additions on the age hardening response of Mg–Zn alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Langelier, Brian Esmaeili, Shahrzad

    2015-03-15

    The effects of Ce additions on the precipitation hardening behaviour of Mg–Zn are examined for a series of alloys, with Ce additions at both alloying and microalloying levels. The alloys are artificially aged, and studied using hardness measurement and X-ray diffraction, as well as optical and transmission electron microscopy. It is found that the age-hardening effect is driven by the formation of fine precipitates, the number density of which is related to the Zn content of the alloy. Conversely, the Ce content is found to slightly reduce hardening. When the alloy content of Ce is high, large secondary phase particles containing both Ce and Zn are present, and remain stable during solutionizing. These particles effectively reduce the amount of Zn available as solute for precipitation, and thereby reduce hardening. Combining hardness results with thermodynamic analysis of alloy solute levels also suggests that Ce can have a negative effect on hardening when present as solutes at the onset of ageing. This effect is confirmed by designing a pre-ageing heat treatment to preferentially remove Ce solutes, which is found to restore the hardening capability of an Mg–Zn–Ce alloy to the level of the Ce-free alloy. - Highlights: • The effects of Ce additions on precipitation in Mg–Zn alloys are examined. • Additions of Ce to Mg–Zn slightly reduce the age-hardening response. • Ce-rich secondary phase particles deplete the matrix of Zn solute. • Hardening is also decreased when Ce is present in solution. • Pre-ageing to preferentially precipitate out Ce restores hardening capabilities.

  18. Particle blender

    DOEpatents

    Willey, Melvin G.

    1981-01-01

    An infinite blender that achieves a homogeneous mixture of fuel microspheres is provided. Blending is accomplished by directing respective groups of desired particles onto the apex of a stationary coaxial cone. The particles progress downward over the cone surface and deposit in a space at the base of the cone that is described by a flexible band provided with a wide portion traversing and in continuous contact with the circumference of the cone base and extending upwardly therefrom. The band, being attached to the cone at a narrow inner end thereof, causes the cone to rotate on its arbor when the band is subsequently pulled onto a take-up spool. As a point at the end of the wide portion of the band passes the point where it is tangent to the cone, the blended particles are released into a delivery tube leading directly into a mold, and a plate mounted on the lower portion of the cone and positioned between the end of the wide portion of the band and the cone assures release of the particles only at the tangent point.

  19. Airborne Particles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojala, Carl F.; Ojala, Eric J.

    1987-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students collect airborne particles using a common vacuum cleaner. Suggests ways for the students to convert their data into information related to air pollution and human health. Urges consideration of weather patterns when analyzing the results of the investigation. (TW)

  20. PARTICLE ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Teng, L.C.

    1960-01-19

    ABS>A combination of two accelerators, a cyclotron and a ring-shaped accelerator which has a portion disposed tangentially to the cyclotron, is described. Means are provided to transfer particles from the cyclotron to the ring accelerator including a magnetic deflector within the cyclotron, a magnetic shield between the ring accelerator and the cyclotron, and a magnetic inflector within the ring accelerator.

  1. Bioaccessibility, bioavailability and toxicity of commercially relevant iron- and chromium-based particles: in vitro studies with an inhalation perspective

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Production of ferrochromium alloys (FeCr), master alloys for stainless steel manufacture, involves casting and crushing processes where particles inevitably become airborne and potentially inhaled. The aim of this study was to assess potential health hazards induced by inhalation of different well-characterized iron- and chromium-based particles, i.e. ferrochromium (FeCr), ferrosiliconchromium (FeSiCr), stainless steel (316L), iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), and chromium(III)oxide (Cr2O3), in different size fractions using in vitro methods. This was done by assessing the extent and speciation of released metals in synthetic biological medium and by analyzing particle reactivity and toxicity towards cultured human lung cells (A549). Results The amount of released metals normalized to the particle surface area increased with decreasing particle size for all alloy particles, whereas the opposite situation was valid for particles of the pure metals. These effects were evident in artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF) of pH 4.5 containing complexing agents, but not in neutral or weakly alkaline biological media. Chromium, iron and nickel were released to very low extent from all alloy particles, and from particles of Cr due to the presence of a Cr(III)-rich protective surface oxide. Released elements were neither proportional to the bulk nor to the surface composition after the investigated 168 hours of exposure. Due to a surface oxide with less protective properties, significantly more iron was released from pure iron particles compared with the alloys. Cr was predominantly released as Cr(III) from all particles investigated and was strongly complexed by organic species of ALF. Cr2O3 particles showed hemolytic activity, but none of the alloy particles did. Fine-sized particles of stainless steel caused however DNA damage, measured with the comet assay after 4 h exposure. None of the particles revealed any significant cytotoxicity in terms of cell death after 24 h

  2. Sintered rare earth-iron Laves phase magnetostrictive alloy product and preparation thereof

    DOEpatents

    Malekzadeh, Manoochehr; Pickus, Milton R.

    1979-01-01

    A sintered rare earth-iron Laves phase magnetostrictive alloy product characterized by a grain oriented morphology. The grain oriented morphology is obtained by magnetically aligning powder particles of the magnetostrictive alloy prior to sintering. Specifically disclosed are grain oriented sintered compacts of Tb.sub.x Dy.sub.1-x Fe.sub.2 and their method of preparation. The present sintered products have enhanced magnetostrictive properties.

  3. Mechanism and Kinetics of Mechanical Alloying in an Immiscible Fe-Mg System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yelsukov, E. P.; Dorofeev, G. A.; Ulyanov, A. L.

    2005-07-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Auger spectroscopy, secondary ion mass-spectrometry and chemical analysis were used to study mechanical alloying of Fe and Mg powder mixture with the atomic ratio of 93:7. It has been shown that the process of mechanical alloying involves the formation of nanostructure in α-Fe particles, penetration and segregation of Mg atoms along the α-Fe grain boundaries, formation of the α-Fe(Mg) supersaturated solid solution.

  4. Effect of Annealing on the Electrical Resistivity and Strengthening of Low-Alloy Alloys of the Al - Zr - Si System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alabin, A. N.; Belov, N. A.; Korotkova, N. O.; Samoshinal, M. E.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of annealing at up to 550°C on the electrical resistivity ρ and HB hardness of low-alloy alloys of the Al - Zr - Si system containing up to 0.3% Zr and 0.3% Si is studied. The Thermo-Calc software is used to analyze the phase composition of the system. The computed and experimental data are used to determine the lower and upper limits for heating of cast preforms from Al - Zr alloys (shaped castings and ingots). It is shown that heating below 400°C and above 450°C is not expedient, because it increases the duration of the annealing in the former case and lowers the hardening effect due to coarsening of the Zr-containing particles in the latter case.

  5. Natural ageing responses of duplex structured Mg-Li based alloys.

    PubMed

    Li, C Q; Xu, D K; Wang, B J; Sheng, L Y; Qiao, Y X; Han, E H

    2017-01-05

    Natural ageing responses of duplex structured Mg-6%Li and Mg-6%Li-6%Zn-1.2%Y alloys have been investigated. Microstructural analyses revealed that the precipitation and coarsening process of α-Mg particles could occur in β-Li phases of both two alloys during ageing process. Since a certain amount of Mg atoms in β-Li phases were consumed for the precipitation of abundant tiny MgLiZn particles, the size of α-Mg precipitates in Mg-6%Li-6%Zn-1.2%Y alloy was relatively smaller than that in Mg-6%Li alloy. Micro hardness measurements demonstrated that with the ageing time increasing, the α-Mg phases in Mg-6%Li alloy could have a constant hardness value of 41 HV, but the contained β-Li phases exhibited a slight age-softening response. Compared with the Mg-6%Li alloy, the age-softening response of β-Li phases in Mg-6%Li-6%Zn-1.2%Y alloy was much more profound. Meanwhile, a normal age-hardening response of α-Mg phases was maintained. Tensile results indicated that obvious ageing-softening phenomenon in terms of macro tensile strength occurred in both two alloys. Failure analysis demonstrated that for the Mg-6%Li alloy, cracks were preferentially initiated at α-Mg/β-Li interfaces. For the Mg-6%Li-6%Zn-1.2%Y alloy, cracks occurred at both α-Mg/β-Li interfaces and slip bands in α-Mg and β-Li phases.

  6. Natural ageing responses of duplex structured Mg-Li based alloys

    PubMed Central

    Li, C. Q.; Xu, D. K.; Wang, B. J.; Sheng, L. Y.; Qiao, Y. X.; Han, E. H.

    2017-01-01

    Natural ageing responses of duplex structured Mg-6%Li and Mg-6%Li-6%Zn-1.2%Y alloys have been investigated. Microstructural analyses revealed that the precipitation and coarsening process of α-Mg particles could occur in β-Li phases of both two alloys during ageing process. Since a certain amount of Mg atoms in β-Li phases were consumed for the precipitation of abundant tiny MgLiZn particles, the size of α-Mg precipitates in Mg-6%Li-6%Zn-1.2%Y alloy was relatively smaller than that in Mg-6%Li alloy. Micro hardness measurements demonstrated that with the ageing time increasing, the α-Mg phases in Mg-6%Li alloy could have a constant hardness value of 41 HV, but the contained β-Li phases exhibited a slight age-softening response. Compared with the Mg-6%Li alloy, the age-softening response of β-Li phases in Mg-6%Li-6%Zn-1.2%Y alloy was much more profound. Meanwhile, a normal age-hardening response of α-Mg phases was maintained. Tensile results indicated that obvious ageing-softening phenomenon in terms of macro tensile strength occurred in both two alloys. Failure analysis demonstrated that for the Mg-6%Li alloy, cracks were preferentially initiated at α-Mg/β-Li interfaces. For the Mg-6%Li-6%Zn-1.2%Y alloy, cracks occurred at both α-Mg/β-Li interfaces and slip bands in α-Mg and β-Li phases. PMID:28053318

  7. Natural ageing responses of duplex structured Mg-Li based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C. Q.; Xu, D. K.; Wang, B. J.; Sheng, L. Y.; Qiao, Y. X.; Han, E. H.

    2017-01-01

    Natural ageing responses of duplex structured Mg-6%Li and Mg-6%Li-6%Zn-1.2%Y alloys have been investigated. Microstructural analyses revealed that the precipitation and coarsening process of α-Mg particles could occur in β-Li phases of both two alloys during ageing process. Since a certain amount of Mg atoms in β-Li phases were consumed for the precipitation of abundant tiny MgLiZn particles, the size of α-Mg precipitates in Mg-6%Li-6%Zn-1.2%Y alloy was relatively smaller than that in Mg-6%Li alloy. Micro hardness measurements demonstrated that with the ageing time increasing, the α-Mg phases in Mg-6%Li alloy could have a constant hardness value of 41 HV, but the contained β-Li phases exhibited a slight age-softening response. Compared with the Mg-6%Li alloy, the age-softening response of β-Li phases in Mg-6%Li-6%Zn-1.2%Y alloy was much more profound. Meanwhile, a normal age-hardening response of α-Mg phases was maintained. Tensile results indicated that obvious ageing-softening phenomenon in terms of macro tensile strength occurred in both two alloys. Failure analysis demonstrated that for the Mg-6%Li alloy, cracks were preferentially initiated at α-Mg/β-Li interfaces. For the Mg-6%Li-6%Zn-1.2%Y alloy, cracks occurred at both α-Mg/β-Li interfaces and slip bands in α-Mg and β-Li phases.

  8. Microstructural characterization of low and high carbon CoCrMo alloy nanoparticles produced by mechanical milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoes, T. A.; Goode, A. E.; Porter, A. E.; Ryan, M. P.; Milne, S. J.; Brown, A. P.; Brydson, R. M. D.

    2014-06-01

    CoCrMo alloys are utilised as the main material in hip prostheses. The link between this type of hip prosthesis and chronic pain remains unclear. Studies suggest that wear debris generated in-vivo may be related to post-operative complications such as inflammation. These alloys can contain different amounts of carbon, which improves the mechanical properties of the alloy. However, the formation of carbides could become sites that initiate corrosion, releasing ions and/or particles into the human body. This study analysed the mechanical milling of alloys containing both high and low carbon levels in relevant biological media, as an alternative route to generate wear debris. The results show that low carbon alloys produce significantly more nanoparticles than high carbon alloys. During the milling process, strain induces an fcc to hcp phase transformation. Evidence for cobalt and molybdenum dissolution in the presence of serum was confirmed by ICP-MS and TEM EDX techniques.

  9. Mechanical alloying of brittle materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R. M.; McDermott, B.; Koch, C. C.

    1988-12-01

    Mechanical alloying by high energy ball milling has been observed in systems with nominally brittle components. The phases formed by mechanical alloying of brittle components include solid solutions (Si + Ge → SiGe solid solution), intermetallic compounds (Mn + Bi → MnBi), and amorphous alloys (NiZr2 + Ni11Zr9 → amorphous Ni50Zr50). A key feature of possible mechanisms for mechanical alloying of brittle components is the temperature of the powders during milling. Experiments and a computer model of the kinetics of mechanical alloying were carried out in order to esti-mate the temperature effect. Temperature rises in typical powder alloys during milling in a SPEX mill were estimated to be ≤350 K using the kinetic parameters determined from the computer model. The tempering response of fresh martensite in an Fe-1.2 wt pct C alloy during milling was consistent with the maximum results of the computer model, yielding temperatures in the pow-ders of ≤575 K i.e., ΔT ≤ 300 K). Thermal activation was required for mechanical alloying of Si and Ge powder. No alloying occurred when the milling vial was cooled by liquid nitrogen. The pos-sible mechanisms responsible for material transfer during mechanical alloying of brittle components are considered.

  10. Grindability of dental magnetic alloys.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Eisei; Kikuchi, Masafumi; Okuno, Osamu; Kimura, Kohei

    2005-06-01

    In this study, the grindability of cast magnetic alloys (Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloy and magnetic stainless steel) was evaluated and compared with that of conventional dental casting alloys (Ag-Pd-Au alloy, Type 4 gold alloy, and cobalt-chromium alloy). Grindability was evaluated in terms of grinding rate (i.e., volume of metal removed per minute) and grinding ratio (i.e., volume ratio of metal removed compared to wheel material lost). Solution treated Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloy had a significantly higher grinding rate than the aged one at a grinding speed of 750-1500 m x min(-1). At 500 m x min(-1), there were no significant differences in grinding rate between solution treated and aged Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloys. At a lower speed of 500 m x min(-1) or 750 m x min(-1), it was found that the grinding rates of aged Fe-Pt-Nb magnetic alloy and stainless steel were higher than those of conventional casting alloys.

  11. Advanced ordered intermetallic alloy deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.; Maziasz, P.J.; Easton, D.S.

    1997-04-01

    The need for high-strength, high-temperature, and light-weight materials for structural applications has generated a great deal of interest in ordered intermetallic alloys, particularly in {gamma}-based titanium aluminides {gamma}-based TiAl alloys offer an attractive mix of low density ({approximately}4g/cm{sup 3}), good creep resistance, and high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance. For rotating or high-speed components. TiAl also has a high damping coefficient which minimizes vibrations and noise. These alloys generally contain two phases. {alpha}{sub 2} (DO{sub 19} structure) and {gamma} (L 1{sub 0}), at temperatures below 1120{degrees}C, the euticoid temperature. The mechanical properties of TiAl-based alloys are sensitive to both alloy compositions and microstructure. Depending on heat-treatment and thermomechanical processing, microstructures with near equiaxed {gamma}, a duplex structure (a mix of the {gamma} and {alpha}{sub 2} phases) can be developed in TiAl alloys containing 45 to 50 at. % Al. The major concern for structural use of TiAl alloys is their low ductility and poor fracture resistance at ambient temperatures. The purpose of this project is to improve the fracture toughness of TiAl-based alloys by controlling alloy composition, microstructure and thermomechanical treatment. This work is expected to lead to the development of TiAl alloys with significantly improved fracture toughness and tensile ductility for structural use.

  12. Active brazing alloy paste as a totally metal thick film conductor material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Mingguang; Chung, D. D. L.

    1994-06-01

    A silver-based active (titanium-containing) brazing alloy, namely 63Ag-34.25Cu-1.75Ti-1.OSn, was found to serve as a totally metal (no glass) thick film conductor which exhibited lower electrical resistivity, much greater film/substrate adhesion, much lower porosity, similar solderability, and lower scratch resistance compared to the conventional silver-glass thick film. The brazing alloy film was formed by screen printing a paste containing the alloy particles and then firing at 880°C in vacuum.

  13. A Novel Zr-1Nb Alloy and a New Look at Hydriding

    SciTech Connect

    Robert D. Mariani; James I. Cole; Assel Aitkaliyeva

    2013-09-01

    A novel Zr-1Nb has begun development based on a working model that takes into account the hydrogen permeabilities for zirconium and niobium metals. The beta-Nb secondary phase particles (SPPs) in Zr-1Nb are believed to promote more rapid hydrogen dynamics in the alloy in comparison to other zirconium alloys. Furthermore, some hydrogen release is expected at the lower temperatures corresponding to outages when the partial pressure of H2 in the coolant is less. These characteristics lessen the negative synergism between corrosion and hydriding that is otherwise observed in cladding alloys without niobium. In accord with the working model, development of nanoscale precursors was initiated to enhance the performance of existing Zr-1Nb alloys. Their characteristics and properties can be compared to oxide-dispersion strengthened alloys, and material additions have been proposed to zirconium-based LWR cladding to guard further against hydriding and to fix the size of the SPPs for microstructure stability enhancements. A preparative route is being investigated that does not require mechanical alloying, and 10 nanometer molybdenum particles have been prepared which are part of the nanoscale precursors. If successful, the approach has implications for long term dry storage of used fuel and for new routes to nanoferritic and ODS alloys.

  14. The substitution of nickel for cobalt in hot isostatically pressed powder metallurgy UDIMET 700 alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.

    1985-01-01

    Nickel was substituted in various proportions for cobalt in a series of five hot-isostatically-pressed powder metallurgy alloys based on the UDIMET 700 composition. These alloys were given 5-step heat treatments appropriate for use in turbine engine disks. The resultant microstructures displayed three distinct sizes of gamma-prime particles in a gamma matrix. The higher cobalt-content alloys contained larger amounts of the finest gamma-prime particles, and had the lowest gamma-gamma-prime lattice mismatch. While all alloys had approximately the same tensile properties at 25 and 650 gamma C, the rupture lives at 650 and 760 C peaked in the alloys with cobalt contents between 12.7 and 4.3 pct. Minimum creep rates increased as cobalt contents were lowered, suggesting their correlation with the gamma-prime particle size distribution and the gamma-gamma-prime mismatch. It was also found that, on overaging at temperatures higher than suitable for turbine disk use, the high cobalt-content alloys were prone to sigma phase formation.

  15. Performance of V-4Cr-4Ti Alloy Exposed to the JFT-2M Tokamak Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.R.; Trester, P.W.; Sengoku, S.; Ishiyama, S.; Fukaya, K.; Eto, M.; Oda, T.; Hirohata, Y.; Hino, T.; Tsai, H.

    1999-10-01

    A long-term test has been conducted in the JFT-2M tokamak fusion device to determine the effects of environmental exposure on the mechanical and chemical behavior of a V-4Cr-4Ti alloy. Test specimens of the alloy were exposed in the outward lower divertor chamber of JFT-2M in a region away from direct contact with the plasma and were preheated to 300 C just prior to and during selected plasma discharges. During their nine-month residence time in JFT-2M, the specimens experienced approximately 200 lower single-null divertor shots at 300 C, during which high energy particle fluxes to the preheated test specimens were significant, and approximately 2,010 upper single-null divertor shots and non-diverter shots at room temperature, for which high energy particle fluxes to and expected particle retention in the test specimens were very low. Data from post-exposure tests have indicated that the performance of the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy would not be significantly affected by environmental exposure to gaseous species at partial pressures typical for tokamak operation. Deuterium retention in the exposed alloy was also low (<2 ppm). Absorption of interstitial by the alloy was limited to the very near surface, and neither the strength nor the Charpy impact properties of the alloy appeared to be significantly changed from the exposure to the JFT-2M tokamak environment.

  16. The substitution of nickel for cobalt in hot isostatically pressed powder metallurgy UDIMET 700 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harf, Fredric H.

    1985-06-01

    Nickel was substituted in various proportions for cobalt in a series of five hot-isostatically-pressed powder metallurgy alloys based on the UDIMET 700 composition. These alloys were given 5-step heat treatments appropriate for use in turbine engine disks. The resultant microstructures displayed three distinct sizes of γ' particles in a γ matrix. The higher cobalt-content alloys contained larger amounts of the finest γ' particles, and had the lowest γ-γ' lattice mismatch. While all alloys had approximately the same tensile properties at 25 and 650°C, the rupture lives at 650 and 760°C peaked in the alloys with cobalt contents between 12.7 and 4.3 pct. Minimum creep rates increased as cobalt contents were lowered, suggesting their correlation with the γ' particle size distribution and the γ-γ' mismatch. It was also found that, on overaging at temperatures higher than suitable for turbine disk use, the high cobalt-content alloys were prone to sigma phase formation.

  17. Improved Mo-Re VPS Alloys for High-Temperature Uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickman, Robert; Martin, James; McKechnie, Timothy; O'Dell, John Scott

    2011-01-01

    Dispersion-strengthened molybdenum- rhenium alloys for vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) fabrication of high-temperature-resistant components are undergoing development. In comparison with otherwise equivalent non-dispersion-strengthened Mo-Re alloys, these alloys have improved high-temperature properties. Examples of VPS-fabricated high-temperature-resistant components for which these alloys are expected to be suitable include parts of aircraft and spacecraft engines, furnaces, and nuclear power plants; wear coatings; sputtering targets; x-ray targets; heat pipes in which liquid metals are used as working fluids; and heat exchangers in general. These alloys could also be useful as coating materials in some biomedical applications. The alloys consist of 60 weight percent Mo with 40 weight percent Re made from (1) blends of elemental Mo and Re powders or (2) Re-coated Mo particles that have been subjected to a proprietary powder-alloying-and-spheroidization process. For most of the dispersion- strengthening experiments performed thus far in this development effort, 0.4 volume percent of transition-metal ceramic dispersoids were mixed into the feedstock powders. For one experiment, the proportion of dispersoid was 1 volume percent. In each case, the dispersoid consisted of either ZrN particles having sizes <45 m, ZrO2 particles having sizes of about 1 m, HfO2 particles having sizes <45 m, or HfN particles having sizes <1 m. These materials were chosen for evaluation on the basis of previously published thermodynamic stability data. For comparison, Mo-Re feedstock powders without dispersoids were also prepared.

  18. Development of lead-free copper alloy-graphite casting. Annual report, January--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, P.K.

    1996-02-01

    Water model experiments were conducted to develop a two-stage stirring method for obtaining higher yields and a more uniform distribution of particles in copper alloys. This was followed by several melts for synthesis of copper-graphite alloys in which T1 was used as a wetting agent to improve the wettability of graphite in the copper melt. In the first stage, a vortex method was employed to facilitate the suction of graphite particles into the copper melt. In the second stage, the specially designed stirrer was used to avoid the formation of vortex in melt. The two stage stirring was found to considerably improve the recovery of graphite, over those obtained with the prior practice of single stage stirring. In addition, graphite recoveries increased with increasing Ti content. Flotation, fluidity, and directional solidification experiments were also conducted on copper-graphite alloys synthesized in this study. Tests showed that the spiral fluidity length of the yellow brass alloy increased with temperature and decreased with graphite. The fluidity of copper-graphite alloys investigated to date remained adequate to make a variety of castings. The observations of microstructure of directional solidification and flotation showed that in certain castings the graphite particles were agglomerated and they float to the upper part of the castings where they reduced the size of grains. However, in the agglomerated form, the graphite particles improved the machinability of copper alloys in a manner similar to lead. The result of the first years work provide an improved method of synthesis of lead free copper graphite alloys with improved machinability and adequate fluidity. Future work will continue to further improve the distribution of graphite particles in casting while retaining adequate fluidity and improved machinability. Techniques like centrifugal casting will be developed to concentrate graphite in regions where it is required for machinability in bearings.

  19. The opposing nanoscale and macroscale effects of selected nanoparticle addition to AZ91/ZK60A hybrid magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramsothy, Muralidharan; Gupta, Manoj

    2013-09-01

    B4C and AlN nanoparticles were separately added to solidification processed AZ91/ZK60A hybrid magnesium alloy to improve tensile and compressive properties. In tension, both nanoparticles strengthened the hybrid alloy. However, only B4C nanoparticle addition significantly improved the ductility of the hybrid alloy, while AlN nanoparticle addition slightly decreased the ductility of the hybrid alloy. Comparing both nanocomposites as well as monolithic alloy, there was no significant difference in the grain size or crystallographic texture. However, it was possible that the AlN nanoparticle was more chemically reactive with the alloy matrix compared to the B4C nanoparticle. Also, it was observed that unlike AlN nanoparticle addition, B4C nanoparticle addition enabled the formation of numerous nanoscale stacking faults in the hybrid alloy matrix. Further, it was apparent that the B4C nanoparticle promoted the nanoscale precipitation of Al12Mg17 intermetallic particles (with particle coarsening thereafter), whereas the AlN nanoparticle did not alter the intermetallic precipitation characteristics in the alloy matrix. Consequently, nano/micro-particle induced high strain zone (HSZ) formation during tensile deformation was more pronounced in the AZ91/ZK60A/B4C nanocomposite compared to the AZ91/ZK60A/AlN nanocomposite, rendering the B4C nanoparticle significantly greater capability (compared to the AlN nanoparticle) in enhancing the tensile ductility of the hybrid alloy. The promotion of nanoscale precipitation of Al12Mg17 intermetallic particles (with particle coarsening thereafter) by the B4C nanoparticle also enabled the AZ91/ZK60A/B4C nanocomposite to have significantly higher compressive strength (per strain level during deformation) compared to the AZ91/ZK60A/AlN nanocomposite.

  20. Quantification of small, convex particles by TEM.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Sigmund J; Holme, Børge; Marioara, Calin D

    2008-07-01

    It is shown how size distributions of arbitrarily oriented, convex, non-overlapping particles extracted from conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images may be determined by a variation of the Schwartz-Saltykov method. In TEM, particles cut at the surfaces have diminished projections, which alter the observed size distribution. We represent this distribution as a vector and multiply it with the inverse of a matrix comprising thickness-dependent Scheil or Schwartz-Saltykov terms. The result is a corrected size distribution of the projections of uncut particles. It is shown how the real (3D) distribution may be estimated when particle shape is considered. Computer code to generate the matrix is given. A log-normal distribution of spheres and a real distribution of pill-box-shaped dispersoids in an Al-Mg-Si alloy are given as examples. The errors are discussed in detail.

  1. Tungsten carbide laser alloying of a low alloyed steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cojocaru, Mihai; Taca, Mihaela

    1996-10-01

    Laser alloying is a way to change the composition of metal surfaces in order to improve their corrosion-resistance, high-temperature strength and hardness. The results of a structural and phase analysis of a tungsten carbide based surface layer prepared by laser alloying of a low carbon steel substrate are presented. Structure, phase composition and microhardness of surface alloyed layers have been investigated. The surface of the samples exhibited a thin layer with a different chemical and phase composition. An increase in alloyed surface hardness and wear-resistance was observed.

  2. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    DOEpatents

    Santella, M.L.; Sikka, V.K.

    1998-03-10

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and cast in copper chill molds. 3 figs.

  3. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    DOEpatents

    Santella, Michael L.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    1998-01-01

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding east nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and east in copper chill molds.

  4. Wear particles of single-crystal silicon carbide in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments, conducted in vacuum with silicon carbide /000/ surface in contact with iron based binary alloys are described. Multiangular and spherical wear particles of silicon carbide are observed as a result of multipass sliding. The multiangular particles are produced by primary and secondary cracking of cleavage planes /000/, /10(-1)0/, and /11(-2)0/ under the Hertzian stress field or local inelastic deformation zone. The spherical particles may be produced by two mechanisms: (1) a penny shaped fracture along the circular stress trajectories under the local inelastic deformation zone, and (2) attrition of wear particles.

  5. The effect of copper, chromium, and zirconium on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, John A.; Shenoy, R. N.

    1991-01-01

    The present study evaluates the effect of the systematic variation of copper, chromium, and zirconium contents on the microstructure and mechanical properties of a 7000-type aluminum alloy. Fracture toughness and tensile properties are evaluated for each alloy in both the peak aging, T8, and the overaging, T73, conditions. Results show that dimpled rupture essentially characterize the fracture process in these alloys. In the T8 condition, a significant loss of toughness is observed for alloys containing 2.5 pct Cu due to the increase in the quantity of Al-Cu-Mg-rich S-phase particles. An examination of T8 alloys at constant Cu levels shows that Zr-bearing alloys exhibit higher strength and toughness than the Cr-bearing alloys. In the T73 condition, Cr-bearing alloys are inherently tougher than Zr-bearing alloys. A void nucleation and growth mechanism accounts for the loss of toughness in these alloys with increasing copper content.

  6. DESIGN DATA STUDY FOR COATED COLUMBIUM ALLOYS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ANTIOXIDANTS, * COATINGS , * NIOBIUM ALLOYS, *REFRACTORY COATINGS , *SILICON COATINGS , ALLOYS, ALUMINUM, DEFORMATION, ELASTIC PROPERTIES, HIGH...TEMPERATURE, OXIDATION, PLASTIC PROPERTIES, REENTRY VEHICLES, REFRACTORY MATERIALS, SHEETS, SILICIDES , VACUUM APPARATUS, VAPOR PLATING, ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

  7. Materials data handbook, Inconel alloy 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sessler, J.; Weiss, V.

    1967-01-01

    Materials data handbook on Inconel alloy 718 includes data on the properties of the alloy at cryogenic, ambient, and elevated temperatures and other pertinent engineering information required for the design and fabrication of components and equipment utilizing this alloy.

  8. Nanostructured Fe-Cr Alloys for Advanced Nuclear Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Scattergood, Ronald O.

    2016-04-26

    We have completed research on the grain-size stabilization of model nanostructured Fe14Cr base alloys at high temperatures by the addition of non-equilibrium solutes. Fe14Cr base alloys are representative for nuclear reactor applications. The neutron flux in a nuclear reactor will generate He atoms that coalesce to form He bubbles. These can lead to premature failure of the reactor components, limiting their lifetime and increasing the cost and capacity for power generation. In order to mitigate such failures, Fe14Cr base alloys have been processed to contain very small nano-size oxide particles (less than 10 nm in size) that trap He atoms and reduce bubble formation. Theoretical and experimental results indicate that the grain boundaries can also be very effective traps for He atoms and bubble formation. An optimum grain size will be less than 100 nm, ie., nanocrystalline alloys must be used. Powder metallurgy methods based on high-energy ball milling can produce Fe-Cr base nanocrystalline alloys that are suitable for nuclear energy applications. The problem with nanocrystalline alloys is that excess grain-boundary energy will cause grains to grow at higher temperatures and their propensity for He trapping will be lost. The nano-size oxide particles in current generation nuclear alloys provide some grain size stabilization by reducing grain-boundary mobility (Zener pinning – a kinetic effect). However the current mitigation strategy minimizing bubble formation is based primarily on He trapping by nano-size oxide particles. An alternate approach to nanoscale grain size stabilization has been proposed. This is based on the addition of small amounts of atoms that are large compared to the base alloy. At higher temperatures these will diffuse to the grain boundaries and will produce an equilibrium state for the grain size at higher temperatures (thermodynamic stabilization – an equilibrium effect). This would be preferred compared to a kinetic effect, which is not

  9. Particle classifier

    SciTech Connect

    Etkin, B.

    1987-04-14

    This patent describes a classifier for particulate material comprising a housing having an inlet to receive a classifying air flow flowing in a given direction, collection means downstream of the inlet to receive material classified by the air flow, and material introduction means intermediate the inlet and the collection means to introduce particles entrained in a secondary air stream into the housing in a direction other than the given direction. The material introduction means includes a material outlet aperture in a wall of the housing extending generally perpendicular to the given direction, conveying means to convey material and the secondary air stream to the material outlet and diverting means to divert the secondary air stream to a direction generally parallel to the classifying air flow flowing in the given direction. The diverting means includes a surface extending downstream from the outlet and adjacent thereto and being dimensioned to divert the secondary airstream by a Coanda effect generally parallel to the given direction and thereby segregate the secondary air/stream from the particles and permit continued movement of the particles along predictable trajectories.

  10. Particle acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlahos, L.; Machado, M. E.; Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.; Alissandrakis, C.; Bai, T.; Batchelor, D.; Benz, A. O.; Chupp, E.; Ellison, D.

    1986-01-01

    Data is compiled from Solar Maximum Mission and Hinothori satellites, particle detectors in several satellites, ground based instruments, and balloon flights in order to answer fundamental questions relating to: (1) the requirements for the coronal magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the energization source; (2) the height (above the photosphere) of the energization source; (3) the time of energization; (4) transistion between coronal heating and flares; (5) evidence for purely thermal, purely nonthermal and hybrid type flares; (6) the time characteristics of the energization source; (7) whether every flare accelerates protons; (8) the location of the interaction site of the ions and relativistic electrons; (9) the energy spectra for ions and relativistic electrons; (10) the relationship between particles at the Sun and interplanetary space; (11) evidence for more than one acceleration mechanism; (12) whether there is single mechanism that will accelerate particles to all energies and also heat the plasma; and (13) how fast the existing mechanisms accelerate electrons up to several MeV and ions to 1 GeV.

  11. In vitro biocompatibility of Ti-Mg alloys fabricated by direct current magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Hieda, Junko; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Nakai, Masaaki; Cho, Ken

    2015-09-01

    Ti-xMg (x=17, 33, and 55 mass%) alloy films, which cannot be prepared by conventional melting processes owing to the absence of a solid-solution phase in the phase diagram, were prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering in order to investigate their biocompatibility. Ti and Mg films were also prepared by the same process for comparison. The crystal structures were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and the surfaces were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The Ti, Ti-xMg alloy, and Mg films were immersed in a 0.9% NaCl solution at 310 K for 7d to evaluate the dissolution amounts of Ti and Mg. In addition, to evaluate the formation ability of calcium phosphate in vitro, the Ti, Ti-xMg alloy, and Mg films were immersed in Hanks' solution at 310 K for 30 d. Ti and Mg form solid-solution alloys because the peaks attributed to pure Ti and Mg do not appear in the XRD patterns of any of the Ti-xMg alloy films. The surfaces of the Ti-17 Mg alloy and Ti-33 Mg alloy films contain Ti oxides and MgO, whereas MgO is the main component of the surface oxide of the Ti-55 Mg alloy and Mg films. The dissolution amounts of Ti from all films are below or near the detection limit of inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. On the other hand, the Ti-17 Mg alloy, Ti-33 Mg alloy, Ti-55 Mg alloy, and Mg films exhibit Mg dissolution amounts of approximately 2.5, 1.4, 21, and 41 μg/cm(2), respectively. The diffraction peaks attributed to calcium phosphate are present in the XRD patterns of the Ti-33 Mg alloy, Ti-55 Mg alloy, and Mg films after the immersion in Hanks' solution. Spherical calcium phosphate particles precipitate on the surface of the Ti-33 Mg film. However, many cracks are observed in the Ti-55 Mg film, and delamination of the film occurs after the immersion in Hanks' solution. The Mg film is dissolved in Hanks' solution and calcium phosphate particles precipitate on the glass substrate. Consequently, it is revealed that the Ti-33 Mg

  12. TERNARY ALLOY-CONTAINING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Waber, J.T.

    1960-02-23

    Ternary alloys of uranium and plutonium containing as the third element either molybdenum or zirconium are reported. Such alloys are particularly useful as reactor fuels in fast breeder reactors. The alloy contains from 2 to 25 at.% of molybdenum or zirconium, the balance being a combination of uranium and plutonium in the ratio of from 1 to 9 atoms of uranlum for each atom of plutonium. These alloys are prepared by melting the constituent elements, treating them at an elevated temperature for homogenization, and cooling them to room temperature, the rate of cooling varying with the oomposition and the desired phase structure. The preferred embodiment contains 12 to 25 at.% of molybdenum and is treated by quenching to obtain a body centered cubic crystal structure. The most important advantage of these alloys over prior binary alloys of both plutonium and uranium is the lack of cracking during casting and their ready machinability.

  13. A Study of Structural Changes in Pressed Semiproducts from Aluminum Alloy V95ochT2 in the Range of Dark Spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigapov, A. I.; Il'inkova, T. A.; Kuryntsev, S. V.; Petrova, E. P.

    2017-01-01

    Seven heats of alloy V95ochT2 are studied after a heat treatment imitating the conditions of the appearance of dark spots in the production process and anodic oxidizing (anodizing). The mechanical properties, the hardness, the structure, and the electrical conductivity of the alloy are determined. The causes and conditions of the appearance of dark spots are analyzed. The transparence of the film is shown to worsen upon formation of particles of second phase in the alloy.

  14. Evaluation of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) molybdenum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Bianco, R.; Buckman, R.W. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    A series of fourteen (14) novel high-strength molybdenum alloy compositions containing a dispersion of very fine (< 1 {mu}m diameter) oxide particles were consolidated using two proprietary powder metallurgy techniques. The developmental compositions were evaluated to determine the microstructural stability and mechanical properties from cryogenic (-148{degrees}F) to elevated temperatures (4000{degrees}F) for material in the as-swaged (>98% cold work) condition and for as-swaged material in the heat treated condition. Extremely fine oxide particle sizes (<1000 {Angstrom}) were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) for a number of the experimental compositions in the as-swaged condition. A one hour recrystallization temperature as high as 3990{degrees}F was measured and a ductile-to-brittle transition temperature as low as {approximately}58{degrees}F for material in the recrystallized condition was determined. The preliminary results support the alloy design concept feasibility.

  15. Optical absorption properties of dispersed gold and silver alloy nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wilcoxon, Jess

    2009-03-05

    The oldest topic in nanoscience is the size-dependent optical properties of gold and silver colloids or nanoparticles, first investigated scientifically by Michael Faraday in 1857. In the modern era, advances in both synthesis and characterization have resulted in new insights into the size-dependent absorbance of Au and Ag nanoparticles with sizes below the classical limit for Mie theory. In this paper we discuss the synthesis and properties of core/shell and nanoalloy particles of Au and Ag, compare them to particles of pure gold and silver, and discuss how alloying affects nanoparticle chemical stability. We show that composition, size, and nanostructure (e.g., core/shell vs quasi-random nanoalloy) can all be employed to adjust the optical absorbance properties. The type of nanostructure--core/shell vs alloy--is reflected in their optical absorbance features.

  16. Growth model of binary alloy nanopowders for thermal plasma synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shigeta, Masaya; Watanabe, Takayuki

    2010-08-15

    A new model is developed for numerical analysis of the entire growth process of binary alloy nanopowders in thermal plasma synthesis. The model can express any nanopowder profile in the particle size-composition distribution (PSCD). Moreover, its numerical solution algorithm is arithmetic and straightforward so that the model is easy to use. By virtue of these features, the model effectively simulates the collective and simultaneous combined process of binary homogeneous nucleation, binary heterogeneous cocondensation, and coagulation among nanoparticles. The effect of the freezing point depression due to nanoscale particle diameters is also considered in the model. In this study, the metal-silicon systems are particularly chosen as representative binary systems involving cocondensation processes. In consequence, the numerical calculation with the present model reveals the growth mechanisms of the Mo-Si and Ti-Si nanopowders by exhibiting their PSCD evolutions. The difference of the materials' saturation pressures strongly affects the growth behaviors and mature states of the binary alloy nanopowder.

  17. Effect of the Fine-Grained Structure on the Fatigue Properties of the Heat-Resistant Nickel-Iron Alloy Inconel 718

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhtarov, Sh. Kh.; Shakhov, R. V.

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that ultrafine-grained nickel alloys with average grain sizes d = 0.1-1 μm possess improved hot workability and can be used for superplastic forming or rolling. However, microstructure refinement can worsen some performance characteristics of the alloy, for example, heat-resistant or fatigue properties. In the present work, fatigue characteristics of the fine-grained alloy Inconel 718 are investigated. Ultrafine-grained alloys with average grain sizes d = 0.1-1 μm were manufactured by multiple forging with stage-by-stage deformation temperature decrease. During standard heat treatment of the alloy performed to obtain the desired properties, the γ-grain size was controlled by precipitations of δ-phase particles along the boundaries. Results of low-cycle fatigue tests of the fine-grained alloy at room and elevated temperatures are compared with the properties of the coarse-grained alloy.

  18. Comparative study using MS and XRD of Fe80Al20 alloy produced by mechanical alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadef, F.; Otmani, A.; Grenèche, J. M.

    2013-08-01

    An X-ray diffraction and 57Fe Mössbauer effect study of mechanically alloyed Fe80Al20 is presented. X-ray measurements indicate that the disordered bcc α-Fe(Al) solid solution was formed after 2 h of milling, while the analysis of Mössbauer spectra suggested that total dissolution of aluminium is achieved after 10 h of milling. These differences can be attributed to: (i) rapid nanocrystallization of aluminium and/or (ii) small particles with small amounts of aluminium cannot be detected by the X-ray diffraction technique.

  19. Titanium-tantalum alloy development

    SciTech Connect

    Cotton, J.D.; Bingert, J.F.; Dunn, P.S.; Butt, D.P.; Margevicius, R.W.

    1996-04-01

    Research has been underway at Los Alamos National Laboratory for several years to develop an alloy capable of containing toxic materials in the event of a fire involving a nuclear weapon. Due to their high melting point, good oxidation resistance, and low solubility in molten plutonium, alloys based on the Ti-Ta binary system have been developed for this purpose. The course of the alloy development to-date, along with processing and property data, are presented in this overview.

  20. Characterization Techniques for Amorphous Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 2 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/9getType="URL"/> 'Systems from B-Be-Fe to Co-W-Zr' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter '2 Characterization Techniques for Amorphous Alloys' with the content:

  1. Amorphous metal alloy and composite

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Rong; Merz, Martin D.

    1985-01-01

    Amorphous metal alloys of the iron-chromium and nickel-chromium type have excellent corrosion resistance and high temperature stability and are suitable for use as a protective coating on less corrosion resistant substrates. The alloys are stabilized in the amorphous state by one or more elements of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten. The alloy is preferably prepared by sputter deposition.

  2. Machine Casting of Ferrous Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    possible today. Extensive work was conducted on casting of semi-solid alloys when highly fluid (’ Rheocasting ’) and when thixotropically gelled...Thixocasting’). In initial phases of the program, copper base alloys and cast iron alloys were prepared with special non-dendritic Rheocast structure by batch...processing. Compatibility studies were carried out to select materials suitable for preparing cast iron with the Rheocast structure. Design

  3. Surface Segregation in Ternary Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, Brian; Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Abel, Phillip B.

    2000-01-01

    Surface segregation profiles of binary (Cu-Ni, Au-Ni, Cu-Au) and ternary (Cu-Au-Ni) alloys are determined via Monte Carlo-Metropolis computer simulations using the BFS method for alloys for the calculation of the energetics. The behavior of Cu or Au in Ni is contrasted with their behavior when both are present. The interaction between Cu and Au and its effect on the segregation profiles for Cu-Au-Ni alloys is discussed.

  4. Alloy Interface Interdiffusion Modeled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Garces, Jorge E.; Abel, Phillip B.

    2003-01-01

    With renewed interest in developing nuclear-powered deep space probes, attention will return to improving the metallurgical processing of potential nuclear fuels so that they remain dimensionally stable over the years required for a successful mission. Previous work on fuel alloys at the NASA Glenn Research Center was primarily empirical, with virtually no continuing research. Even when empirical studies are exacting, they often fail to provide enough insight to guide future research efforts. In addition, from a fundamental theoretical standpoint, the actinide metals (which include materials used for nuclear fuels) pose a severe challenge to modern electronic-structure theory. Recent advances in quantum approximate atomistic modeling, coupled with first-principles derivation of needed input parameters, can help researchers develop new alloys for nuclear propulsion.

  5. Shape memory alloy actuator

    DOEpatents

    Varma, Venugopal K.

    2001-01-01

    An actuator for cycling between first and second positions includes a first shaped memory alloy (SMA) leg, a second SMA leg. At least one heating/cooling device is thermally connected to at least one of the legs, each heating/cooling device capable of simultaneously heating one leg while cooling the other leg. The heating/cooling devices can include thermoelectric and/or thermoionic elements.

  6. Duct and cladding alloy

    DOEpatents

    Korenko, Michael K.

    1983-01-01

    An austenitic alloy having good thermal stability and resistance to sodium corrosion at 700.degree. C. consists essentially of 35-45% nickel 7.5-14% chromium 0.8-3.2% molybdenum 0.3-1.0% silicon 0.2-1.0% manganese 0-0.1% zirconium 2.0-3.5% titanium 1.0-2.0% aluminum 0.02-0.1% carbon 0-0.01% boron and the balance iron.

  7. Nanocrystal dispersed amorphous alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perepezko, John H. (Inventor); Allen, Donald R. (Inventor); Foley, James C. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Compositions and methods for obtaining nanocrystal dispersed amorphous alloys are described. A composition includes an amorphous matrix forming element (e.g., Al or Fe); at least one transition metal element; and at least one crystallizing agent that is insoluble in the resulting amorphous matrix. During devitrification, the crystallizing agent causes the formation of a high density nanocrystal dispersion. The compositions and methods provide advantages in that materials with superior properties are provided.

  8. Method of polishing nickel-base alloys and stainless steels

    DOEpatents

    Steeves, Arthur F.; Buono, Donald P.

    1981-01-01

    A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels. The chemical attack polish comprises Fe(NO.sub.3).sub.3, concentrated CH.sub.3 COOH, concentrated H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and H.sub.2 O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.

  9. Attack polish for nickel-base alloys and stainless steels

    DOEpatents

    Steeves, Arthur F.; Buono, Donald P.

    1983-01-01

    A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels. The chemical attack polish comprises Fe(NO.sub.3).sub.3, concentrated CH.sub.3 COOH, concentrated H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and H.sub.2 O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.

  10. Attack polish for nickel-base alloys and stainless steels

    DOEpatents

    Not Available

    1980-05-28

    A chemical attack polish and polishing procedure for use on metal surfaces such as nickel base alloys and stainless steels is described. The chemical attack polich comprises FeNO/sub 3/, concentrated CH/sub 3/COOH, concentrated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and H/sub 2/O. The polishing procedure includes saturating a polishing cloth with the chemical attack polish and submicron abrasive particles and buffing the metal surface.

  11. Binary Colloidal Alloy Test-3 and 4: Critical Point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitz, David A.; Lu, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    Binary Colloidal Alloy Test - 3 and 4: Critical Point (BCAT-3-4-CP) will determine phase separation rates and add needed points to the phase diagram of a model critical fluid system. Crewmembers photograph samples of polymer and colloidal particles (tiny nanoscale spheres suspended in liquid) that model liquid/gas phase changes. Results will help scientists develop fundamental physics concepts previously cloaked by the effects of gravity.

  12. Binary Colloidal Alloy Test Conducted on Mir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffmann, Monica I.; Ansari, Rafat R.

    1999-01-01

    Colloids are tiny (submicron) particles suspended in fluid. Paint, ink, and milk are examples of colloids found in everyday life. The Binary Colloidal Alloy Test (BCAT) is part of an extensive series of experiments planned to investigate the fundamental properties of colloids so that scientists can make colloids more useful for technological applications. Some of the colloids studied in BCAT are made of two different sized particles (binary colloidal alloys) that are very tiny, uniform plastic spheres. Under the proper conditions, these colloids can arrange themselves in a pattern to form crystals. These crystals may form the basis of new classes of light switches, displays, and optical devices. Windows made of liquid crystals are already in the marketplace. These windows change their appearance from transparent to opaque when a weak electric current is applied. In the future, if the colloidal crystals can be made to control the passage of light through them, such products could be made much more cheaply. These experiments require the microgravity environment of space because good quality crystals are difficult to produce on Earth because of sedimentation and convection in the fluid. The BCAT experiment hardware included two separate modules for two different experiments. The "Slow Growth" hardware consisted of a 35-mm camera with a 250- exposure photo film cartridge. The camera was aimed toward the sample module, which contained 10 separate colloid samples. A rack of small lights provided backlighting for the photographs. The BCAT hardware was launched on the shuttle and was operated aboard the Russian space station Mir by American astronauts John Blaha and David Wolf (launched September 1996 and returned January 1997; reflown September 1997 and returned January 1998). To begin the experiment, one of these astronauts would mix the samples to disperse the colloidal particles and break up any crystals that might have already formed. Once the samples were mixed and

  13. Lattice measurement and alloy compositions in metal and bimetallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tsen, S-C Y; Crozier, P A; Liu, J

    2003-12-01

    A new reliable method for determining the lattice spacings of metallic and bimetallic nanoparticles in phase contrast high resolution electron microscopy (HREM) images was developed. In this study, we discuss problems in applying HREM techniques to single metal (Pt and Au) and bimetallic (AuPd) nanoparticles of unknown shapes and random orientations. Errors arising from particle tilt and edge effects are discussed and analysis criteria are presented to reduce these errors in measuring the lattice parameters of nanoparticles. The accuracy of an individual particle lattice measurement is limited by an effective standard deviation which depends on the size of the individual nanoparticle. For example, the standard deviation for 20-30 A Pt or Au nanoparticles is about 1.5%. To increase the accuracy in determining the lattice spacings of nanoparticles, statistical methods have to be used to obtain the average lattice spacing of an ensemble of nanoparticles. We measured approximately 100 nanoparticles with sizes in the range of 20-30 A and found that the mean lattice spacing can be determined to within 0.2%. By applying Vegard's law to the AuPd bimetallic systems we successfully detected the presence of alloying. For 30 A nanoparticles, the estimated ultimate error in determining the composition of the AuPd alloy is about 3% provided that at least 100 particles are measured. Finally, the challenges in determining the presence of more than one alloy phases in bimetallic nanoparticle systems were also discussed.

  14. Development of lead-free copper alloy graphite castings. Annual report for the period January through December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, P.K.

    1997-03-01

    Centrifugal casting of Copper alloys containing graphite particles established the feasibility of making hollow cylindrical castings. In theses castings, the graphite particles are segregated to the inner periphery making them well suited for bearing applications because of the lubricity of the graphite particles. The recovery of graphite is found to be around 90%. Chemical analysis shows that the average concentration of graphite particles near the inner periphery is 13 vol.% (3.5 wt.%) and 16.3 vol.% (4.54 wt.%) for castings made from melts originally containing 7 vol.% (2 wt.%) and 13 vol.% (3.5 wt. %) graphite particles, respectively. Hardness tests show that as the volume fraction of graphite particles increases, the hardness values in the graphite rich zone is found to be widely scattered. The results indicate that it is feasible to centrifugally cast copper alloys containing dispersed graphite particles to produce cylindrical components with graphite rich inner periphery for bearing and plumbing applications.

  15. Aluminum Alloys Reinforced by Nano-Particles Dispersion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Jose Martin Herrera Ramirez Collaborator M. Sc. Ivanovich Estrada Guel Collaborator Eng. Wilber Antiinez Flores Collaborator Students: 1. Raul...Lucero, I. Estrada-Guel, D.C. Mendoza-Ruiz, M. Jose " Yacaman, Mechanical and Microstructural Characterization of Aluminum Reinforced with Carbon...9. Santos Beltran, V. Gallegos Orozco, F. Alvarado Hernandez, S. Haro Rodriguez, A. Lopez Ibarra and R. Martinez Sanchez. Synthesis and

  16. Investigation of Structure, Properties and Deformation Mechanisms of Elevated Temperature Al Alloys with High Specific Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Al2Mg3Zn3), S(Al2CuMg) and Al3(Sc, Zr) phases in L7 alloy. Dispersed precipitates of intermetallic phases strengthen the solid solution at heat...scandium intermetallics from the melt and dispersion strengthening as a result of formation of secondary particles of Al3(Sc, Zr) during artificial ageing...Al3(Sc1-xZrx) (Fig.1.2) is a reason for additional strengthening of studied alloys along with strengthening by dispersion particles of η′ phase

  17. Half-heusler alloys with enhanced figure of merit and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Ren, Zhifeng; Yan, Xiao; Joshi, Giri; Chen, Shuo; Chen, Gang; Poudel, Bed; Caylor, James Christopher

    2015-06-02

    Thermoelectric materials and methods of making thermoelectric materials having a nanometer mean grain size less than 1 micron. The method includes combining and arc melting constituent elements of the thermoelectric material to form a liquid alloy of the thermoelectric material and casting the liquid alloy of the thermoelectric material to form a solid casting of the thermoelectric material. The method also includes ball milling the solid casting of the thermoelectric material into nanometer mean size particles and sintering the nanometer size particles to form the thermoelectric material having nanometer scale mean grain size.

  18. Radiation Effects in Refractory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinkle, Steven J.; Wiffen, F. W.

    2004-02-01

    In order to achieve the required low reactor mass per unit electrical power for space reactors, refractory alloys are essential due to their high operating temperature capability that in turn enables high thermal conversion efficiencies. One of the key issues associated with refractory alloys is their performance in a neutron irradiation environment. The available radiation effects data are reviewed for alloys based on Mo, W, Re, Nb and Ta. The largest database is associated with Mo alloys, whereas Re, W and Ta alloys have the least available information. Particular attention is focused on Nb-1Zr, which is a proposed cladding and structural material for the reactor in the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) project. All of the refractory alloys exhibit qualitatively similar temperature-dependent behavior. At low temperatures up to ~0.3TM, where TM is the melting temperature, the dominant effect of radiation is to produce pronounced radiation hardening and concomitant loss of ductility. The radiation hardening also causes a dramatic decrease in the fracture toughness of the refractory alloys. These low temperature radiation effects occur at relatively low damage levels of ~0.1 displacement per atom, dpa (~2×1024 n/m2, E>0.1 MeV). As a consequence, operation at low temperatures in the presence of neutron irradiation must be avoided for all refractory alloys. At intermediate temperatures (0.3 to 0.6 TM), void swelling and irradiation creep are the dominant effects of irradiation. The amount of volumetric swelling associated with void formation in refractory alloys is generally within engineering design limits (<5%) even for high neutron exposures (>>10 dpa). Very little experimental data exist on irradiation creep of refractory alloys, but data for other body centered cubic alloys suggest that the irradiation creep will produce negligible deformation for near-term space reactor applications.

  19. Breaking through the strength-ductility trade-off dilemma in an Al-Si-based casting alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, B.; Zhang, X.; Chen, Y. Z.; Chen, C. X.; Wang, H. T.; Liu, F.

    2016-08-01

    Al-Si-based casting alloys have a great potential in various industrial applications. Common strengthening strategies on these alloys are accompanied inevitably by sacrifice of ductility, known as strength-ductility trade-off dilemma. Here, we report a simple route by combining rapid solidification (RS) with a post-solidification heat treatment (PHT), i.e. a RS + PHT route, to break through this dilemma using a commercial Al-Si-based casting alloy (A356 alloy) as an example. It is shown that yield strength and elongation to failure of the RS + PHT processed alloy are elevated simultaneously by increasing the cooling rate upon RS, which are not influenced by subsequent T6 heat treatment. Breaking through the dilemma is attributed to the hierarchical microstructure formed by the RS + PHT route, i.e. highly dispersed nanoscale Si particles in Al dendrites and nanoscale Al particles decorated in eutectic Si. Simplicity of the RS + PHT route makes it being suitable for industrial scaling production. The strategy of engineering microstructures offers a general pathway in tailoring mechanical properties of other Al-Si-based alloys. Moreover, the remarkably enhanced ductility of A356 alloy not only permits strengthening further the material by work hardening but also enables possibly conventional solid-state forming of the material, thus extending the applications of such an alloy.

  20. Breaking through the strength-ductility trade-off dilemma in an Al-Si-based casting alloy.

    PubMed

    Dang, B; Zhang, X; Chen, Y Z; Chen, C X; Wang, H T; Liu, F

    2016-08-09

    Al-Si-based casting alloys have a great potential in various industrial applications. Common strengthening strategies on these alloys are accompanied inevitably by sacrifice of ductility, known as strength-ductility trade-off dilemma. Here, we report a simple route by combining rapid solidification (RS) with a post-solidification heat treatment (PHT), i.e. a RS + PHT route, to break through this dilemma using a commercial Al-Si-based casting alloy (A356 alloy) as an example. It is shown that yield strength and elongation to failure of the RS + PHT processed alloy are elevated simultaneously by increasing the cooling rate upon RS, which are not influenced by subsequent T6 heat treatment. Breaking through the dilemma is attributed to the hierarchical microstructure formed by the RS + PHT route, i.e. highly dispersed nanoscale Si particles in Al dendrites and nanoscale Al particles decorated in eutectic Si. Simplicity of the RS + PHT route makes it being suitable for industrial scaling production. The strategy of engineering microstructures offers a general pathway in tailoring mechanical properties of other Al-Si-based alloys. Moreover, the remarkably enhanced ductility of A356 alloy not only permits strengthening further the material by work hardening but also enables possibly conventional solid-state forming of the material, thus extending the applications of such an alloy.

  1. Breaking through the strength-ductility trade-off dilemma in an Al-Si-based casting alloy

    PubMed Central

    Dang, B.; Zhang, X.; Chen, Y. Z.; Chen, C. X.; Wang, H. T.; Liu, F.

    2016-01-01

    Al-Si-based casting alloys have a great potential in various industrial applications. Common strengthening strategies on these alloys are accompanied inevitably by sacrifice of ductility, known as strength-ductility trade-off dilemma. Here, we report a simple route by combining rapid solidification (RS) with a post-solidification heat treatment (PHT), i.e. a RS + PHT route, to break through this dilemma using a commercial Al-Si-based casting alloy (A356 alloy) as an example. It is shown that yield strength and elongation to failure of the RS + PHT processed alloy are elevated simultaneously by increasing the cooling rate upon RS, which are not influenced by subsequent T6 heat treatment. Breaking through the dilemma is attributed to the hierarchical microstructure formed by the RS + PHT route, i.e. highly dispersed nanoscale Si particles in Al dendrites and nanoscale Al particles decorated in eutectic Si. Simplicity of the RS + PHT route makes it being suitable for industrial scaling production. The strategy of engineering microstructures offers a general pathway in tailoring mechanical properties of other Al-Si-based alloys. Moreover, the remarkably enhanced ductility of A356 alloy not only permits strengthening further the material by work hardening but also enables possibly conventional solid-state forming of the material, thus extending the applications of such an alloy. PMID:27502444

  2. Creep behavior of a {beta}{prime}(NiAl) precipitation strengthened ferritic Fe-Cr-Ni-Al alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, S.M.; Tjong, S.C.; Lai, J.K.L.

    1998-05-22

    Creep in precipitation-strengthened alloys usually exhibits a pronounced transition in the stress vs creep rate relationship due to dislocations bypassing of particles by climb at low stresses. In the present study, a single-slope behavior is observed in creep of {beta}{prime}(NiAl) strengthened ferritic Fe-19Cr-4Ni-2Al alloy in the temperature range 873--923 K. The alloy exhibits anomalously high values of apparent stress exponent and activation energy (980 kJ/mol). Transmission electron microscopy examination of the deformation microstructure reveals the occurrence of attractive dislocation/particle interaction, a feature which is usually observed in dispersion-strengthened alloys. Such an attractive dislocation particle interaction makes the local climb of dislocations over particles a realistic configuration at low stresses. The creep data are analyzed by the back-stress approach and by the recent dislocation-climb theories based on attractive interaction between dislocations and particles. By considering a back stress, all data can be rationalized by a power-law with a stress exponent of 4 and a creep activation energy close to the self-diffusion energy of the matrix lattice. Local climb together with the attractive but not strong interactions between the dislocations and particles is suggested to be the operative deformation mechanism at low stresses and to account for the single-slope behavior in the stress/creep rate relationship of this alloy.

  3. Mechanical properties and phase composition of potential biodegradable Mg-Zn-Mn-base alloys with addition of rare earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Stulikova, Ivana; Smola, Bohumil

    2010-10-15

    Mechanical properties and creep resistance of the MgY4Zn1Mn1 alloy in the as cast as well as in the T5 condition were compared to those of the MgCe4Zn1Mn1 alloy in the same conditions. Yield tensile stress and ultimate tensile strength of the MgY4Zn1Mn1 alloy are slightly better in the temperature range 20 deg. C-400 deg. C than these of the MgCe4Zn1Mn1 alloy. Better thermal stability of ultimate tensile strength was observed in the T5 treated MgCe4Zn1Mn1 alloy than in this material in the as cast condition. An outstanding creep resistance at 225 deg. C-350 deg. C found in the MgY4Zn1Mn1 alloy is due to the existence of the 18R long period stacking structure persisting in this alloy even a long heat treatment of 500 deg. C/32 h. No similar stacking effects happen when Ce substitutes Y in approximately the same concentration. The creep resistance deteriorates considerably in the MgCe4Zn1Mn1 alloy. Rectangular particles of the equilibrium Mg{sub 12}Ce phase dominate in the microstructure of as cast as well as of high temperature heat-treated MgCe4Zn1Mn1 alloy. A population of small oval particles containing Mg and Zn develops additionally during annealing of this alloy. These particles pin effectively dislocations and can be responsible for the better thermal stability of the T5 treated material.

  4. Microstructure and properties of strip cast AZ91 Mg alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung S.; Park, Young S.; Kim, Nack J.

    2002-11-01

    A study has been conducted on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the strip cast AZ91 Mg alloy. The microstructure of the as-cast strip is characterized by a fine equiaxed dendritic structure. There is a variation of secondary dendrite arm spacing throughout the thickness of the strip, showing the smallest value at the wheel surface and the largest value at the center. The distribution of Mg17Al12 particles is also not uniform in the as-cast strip. The microstructure of the solution treated strip consists of fine Mg grains and Al-Mn particles in the matrix with no Mg17Al12 particles. T6 treatment of the strip results in the precipitation of Mg17Al12 particles, the volume fraction of which decreases from the wheel side to the center of the strip. The strip cast AZ91 Mg alloy has the best combination of tensile properties in the T4 condition. It is believed that the good tensile properties of the T4 treated strip are due to the presence of Al-Mn particles, which induce homogeneous deformation.

  5. Effect of extrusion processing on the microstructure, mechanical properties, biocorrosion properties and antibacterial properties of Ti-Cu sintered alloys.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Erlin; Li, Shengyi; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Lan; Han, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Ti-Cu sintered alloys, Ti-Cu(S) alloy, have exhibited good anticorrosion resistance and strong antibacterial properties, but low ductility in previous study. In this paper, Ti-Cu(S) alloys were subjected to extrusion processing in order to improve the comprehensive property. The phase constitute, microstructure, mechanical property, biocorrosion property and antibacterial activity of the extruded alloys, Ti-Cu(E), were investigated in comparison with Ti-Cu(S) by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy (OM), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) with energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS), mechanical testing, electrochemical testing and plate-count method in order to reveal the effect of the extrusion process. XRD, OM and SEM results showed that the extrusion process did not change the phase constitute but refined the grain size and Ti2Cu particle significantly. Ti-Cu(E) alloys exhibited higher hardness and compressive yield strength than Ti-Cu(S) alloys due to the fine grain and Ti2Cu particles. With the consideration of the total compressive strain, it was suggested that the extrusion process could improve the ductility of Ti-Cu alloy(S) alloys. Electrochemical results have indicated that the extrusion process improved the corrosion resistance of Ti-Cu(S) alloys. Plate-count method displayed that both Ti-Cu(S) and Ti-Cu(E) exhibited strong antibacterial activity (>99%) against S. aureus. All these results demonstrated that hot forming processing, such as the extrusion in this study, refined the microstructure and densified the alloy, in turn improved the ductility and strength as well as anticorrosion properties without reduction in antibacterial properties.

  6. Metallurgical features of the manufacture of hard-alloy powders by electroerosive dispersion of a T15K6 alloy in butanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageev, E. V.; Latypov, R. A.; Ugrimov, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    The properties of the powders fabricated by the electroerosive dispersion of the wastes of a T15K6 hard alloy in working fluid (butanol-1) are studied. The powder particles thus fabricated are found to have a predominantly spherical shape and contain W, Ti, Co, C, and O.

  7. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-COPPER ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-05-12

    A low melting point plutonium alloy useful as fuel is a homogeneous liquid metal fueled nuclear reactor is described. Vessels of tungsten or tantalum are useful to contain the alloy which consists essentially of from 10 to 30 atomic per cent copper and the balance plutonium and cerium. with the plutontum not in excess of 50 atomic per cent.

  8. Shape memory alloy thaw sensors

    DOEpatents

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen; Martinez, David R.

    1998-01-01

    A sensor permanently indicates that it has been exposed to temperatures exceeding a critical temperature for a predetermined time period. An element of the sensor made from shape memory alloy changes shape when exposed, even temporarily, to temperatures above the Austenitic temperature of the shape memory alloy. The shape change of the SMA element causes the sensor to change between two readily distinguishable states.

  9. Aluminum and its light alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merica, Paul D

    1920-01-01

    Report is a summary of research work which has been done here and abroad on the constitution and mechanical properties of the various alloy systems with aluminum. The mechanical properties and compositions of commercial light alloys for casting, forging, or rolling, obtainable in this country are described.

  10. The effect of alloy composition on the mechanism of stress-corrosion cracking of titanium alloys in aqueous environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, R. A.; Boyd, J. D.; Williams, D. N.; Jaffee, R. I.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed study was made of the relation between the size distribution of Ti3Al particles in a Ti-8Al alloy and the tensile properties measured in air and in saltwater. The size distribution of Ti3Al was varied by isothermal aging for various times at temperatures in the range 770 to 970 K (930 to 1290 F). The aging kinetics were found to be relatively slow. Quantitative measurements of the particle coarsening rate at 920 K (1200 F) showed good agreement with the predicted behavior for coarsening controlled by matrix diffusion, and suggested that the specific free energy of the Ti3Al alpha interface in negligible small. In all cases, the Ti3Al particles were sheared by the glide dislocations. It was concluded that there is a definite correlation between the presence of deformable Ti3Al particles and an alloy's susceptibility to aqueous stress corrosion cracking. Furthermore, the appearance of the surface slip lines and the dislocation substructure in deformed specimens suggest that the specific effect of the Ti3Al particles is to cause a nonhomogeneous planar slip character and an enhanced chemical potential of the slip bands.

  11. Mechanical properties of Mo-Si-B alloys fabricated by using core-shell powder with dispersion of yttria nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Jong Min; Bang, Su-Ryong; Choi, Won June; Kim, Min Sang; Noh, Goo Won; Kim, Young Do

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, refractory materials with excellent high-temperature properties have been in the spotlight as a next generation's high-temperature materials. Among these, Mo-Si-B alloys composed of two intermetallic compound phases (Mo5SiB2 and Mo3Si) and a ductile α-Mo phase have shown an outstanding thermal properties. However, due to the brittleness of the intermetallic compound phases, Mo-Si-B alloys were restricted to apply for the structural materials. So, to enhance the mechanical properties of Mo-Si-B alloys, many efforts to add rare-earth oxide particles in the Mo-Si-B alloy were performed to induce the improvement of strength and fracture toughness. In this study, to investigate the effect of adding nano-sized Y2O3 particles in Mo-Si-B alloy, a core-shell powder consisting of intermetallic compound phases as the core and nano-sized α-Mo and Y2O3 particles surrounding the core was fabricated. Then pressureless sintering was carried out at 1400 °C for 3 h, and the mechanical properties of sintered bodies with different amounts of Y2O3 particles were evaluated by Vickers hardness and 3-point bending test. Vickers hardness was improved by dispersed Y2O3 particles in the Mo-Si-B alloy. Especially, Mo-3Si-1B-1.5Y2O3 alloy had the highest value, 589 Hv. The fracture toughness was measured using Mo-3Si-1B-1.5Y2O3 alloy and the value indicated as 13.5 MPa·√m.

  12. Synthesis of Nanostructured GAMMA-TiAl Based Powders and Bulk Alloys Using High Energy Mechanical Milling and Hip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hongbao; Zhang, Deliang; Chen, Yuyong; Liu, Zhiguang

    The microstructural evolution and powder particle morphology change in the process used to synthesize bulk nanostructured γ-TiAl intermetallic based binary Ti-47Al (in at%) alloy (TA-1) and complex Ti-45Al-2Cr-2Nb-1B-0.5Ta (in at%) alloy (TA-2) have been studied. This process combines high energy mechanical milling of elemental powder mixtures, thermal treatment and HIP. The bulk alloys consist of predominantly TiAl phase and a small fraction of Ti3Al phase, with the average grain sizes of the TiAl and Ti3Al phases being approximately 45nm and 40nm respectively in the bulk TA-1 alloy and being 37nm and 35nm respectively in the bulk TA-2 alloy. The study also shows that addition of a small fraction of hard powder particles such as Nb, Cr, B and Ta powder particles to the starting powder mixture has a significant effect in maintaining a small average particle size during high energy mechanical milling without using PCA and thus significantly enhances the mechanical alloying effect of the milling process.

  13. Equivalent crystal theory of alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John

    1991-01-01

    Equivalent Crystal Theory (ECT) is a new, semi-empirical approach to calculating the energetics of a solid with defects. The theory has successfully reproduced surface energies in metals and semiconductors. The theory of binary alloys to date, both with first-principles and semi-empirical models, has not been very successful in predicting the energetics of alloys. This procedure is used to predict the heats of formation, cohesive energy, and lattice parameter of binary alloys of Cu, Ni, Al, Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt as functions of composition. The procedure accurately reproduces the heats of formation versus composition curves for a variety of binary alloys. The results are then compared with other approaches such as the embedded atom and lattice parameters of alloys from pure metal properties more accurately than Vegard's law is presented.

  14. Heat storage in alloy transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenall, C. E.; Gueceri, S. I.; Farkas, D.; Labdon, M. B.; Nagaswami, N.; Pregger, B.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using metal alloys as thermal energy storage media was determined. The following major elements were studied: (1) identification of congruently transforming alloys and thermochemical property measurements; (2) development of a precise and convenient method for measuring volume change during phase transformation and thermal expansion coefficients; (3) development of a numerical modeling routine for calculating heat flow in cylindrical heat exchangers containing phase change materials; and (4) identification of materials that could be used to contain the metal alloys. Several eutectic alloys and ternary intermetallic phases were determined. A method employing X-ray absorption techniques was developed to determine the coefficients of thermal expansion of both the solid and liquid phases and the volume change during phase transformation from data obtained during one continuous experimental test. The method and apparatus are discussed and the experimental results are presented. The development of the numerical modeling method is presented and results are discussed for both salt and metal alloy phase change media.

  15. Mo-Si alloy development

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.; Heatherly, L.; Wright, J.L.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this task is to develop new-generation corrosion-resistant Mo-Si intermetallic alloys as hot components in advanced fossil energy conversion and combustion systems. The initial effort is devoted to Mo{sub 5}-Si{sub 3}-base (MSB) alloys containing boron additions. Three MSB alloys based on Mo-10.5Si-1.1B (wt %), weighing 1500 g were prepared by hot pressing of elemental and alloy powders at temperatures to 1600{degrees}C in vacuum. Microporosities and glassy-phase (probably silicate phases) formations are identified as the major concerns for preparation of MSB alloys by powder metallurgy. Suggestions are made to alleviate the problems of material processing.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF PROTECTIVE COATINGS FOR TANTALUM-BASE ALLOYS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PHASE STUDIES, PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, REFRACTORY MATERIALS, SILICIDES , SILICON COATINGS , SILICON COMPOUNDS, TANTALUM, TENSILE PROPERTIES, TITANIUM COMPOUNDS, TUNGSTEN ALLOYS, VANADIUM ALLOYS, VAPOR PLATING, ZINC COATINGS ....TANTALUM ALLOYS, ALLOYS, ALUMINUM COATINGS , ALUMINUM COMPOUNDS, BORON COMPOUNDS, CERAMIC COATINGS , CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS, COATINGS , FLAME SPRAYING...HAFNIUM ALLOYS, HAFNIUM COMPOUNDS, HARDNESS, HEAT RESISTANT ALLOYS, INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS, METAMATHEMATICS, NIOBIUM ALLOYS, OSCILLOGRAPHS, OXIDES

  17. The role of equiaxed particles on the yield stress of composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, R. M., Jr.; Christodoulou, L.

    1991-01-01

    Possible explanations are investigated for the yield strength enhancement of discontinuously reinforced Al alloy matrix MMCs, for the case of low temperature yield behavior where deformation occurs by dislocation slide. The Al alloys contain 0.1-10 micron diameter equiaxed particle discontinuous reinforcements of TiB2, Al2O3, and TiC. Attention is given to a single dislocation-particle interaction model, and both dislocation pile-up and forest-hardening multiple-dislocation particle interaction models.

  18. Semi-solid Processing of Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkwood, David H.; Suéry, Michel; Kapranos, Plato; Atkinson, Helen V.; Young, Kenneth P.

    The original semisolid forming process, developed at MIT in 1972, involved stirring an alloy during solidification to produce a slurry of spheroidal primary particles in a liquid matrix, which was then injected directly into a die to produce a solid component. This was termed "rheocasting." Subsequently, it was found more convenient to solidify the slurry completely during the continuous casting of an electromag netically stirred strand, which was then cut into slugs for partial remelting back into semisolid billets on demand. These could be loaded into a diecasting machine in this state for injection into the die. This alternative process route is called "thixoforming," and until recently, it was the preferred industrial process. For this reason, the microstructure developed during the reheating and melting for thixo forming will be considered first. Experimentally, it has been found that the most effective fraction solid f s for thixoforming, lies between 0.5 and 0.6. Below this range, the semisolid slug becomes too soft to support its own weight and sags during remelting; above this range, it is too stiff to flow readily and fill the die. However, the slurry technologies used in rheocasting typically operate at lower fraction solids and rely on the ability to pour the semisolid alloy much like a liquid (see Chap. 4). It has been observed in practice that the fraction solid is in fact a critical factor for effective thixoforming, and therefore, both good temperature control and lack of sensitivity of f s to small temperature variations of the alloy are essential to efficient manufacturing.

  19. Effect of alumina air-abrasion on mechanical bonding between an acrylic resin and casting alloys.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Takaya; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Tanoue, Naomi; Naito, Koji; Yamashita, Miyuki; Matsumura, Hideo

    2009-06-01

    This study examined the effect of alumina air-abrasion with different pressure on bonding between an acrylic resin and casting alloys. Disk specimens (8 and 10 mm in diameter) were cast from a silver-palladium-copper-gold (Ag-Pd-Cu-Au, Castwell M.C.12) alloy and a titanium-aluminum-niobium alloy (Ti-6Al-7Nb, T-Alloy Tough). The disks were air-abraded with alumina particles (50-70 microm) under different air-pressures (0 unabraded, 0.1, and 0.6 MPa). The disk pairs were bonded together with a tri-n-butylborane (TBB)-initiated acrylic resin, and shear bond strengths were determined both before and after thermocycling. Bond strength varied from a maximum of 37.1 MPa to a minimum of 3.6 MPa for the Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy, whereas bond strength to Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy ranged from 34.7 MPa to 0.1 MPa. Specimens abraded with 0.6 MPa pressure recorded the greatest post-thermocycling bond strength (21.7 MPa and 17.9 MPa), and unabraded specimens showed the lowest strength (3.6 MPa and 0.1 MPa) for both alloys. Post-thermocycling bond strength to the Ag-Pd-Cu-Au alloy was higher than that to the Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy under identical air-abrading conditions. It can be concluded that alumina air-abrasion with an air-pressure of 0.6 MPa is effective in enhancing retentive characteristics of the TBB-initiated resin joined to the alloys.

  20. Advanced TEM characterization of oxide nanoparticles in ODS Fe–12Cr–5Al alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Unocic, Kinga A; Hoelzer, David T; Pint, Bruce A

    2016-01-01

    For oxide nanoparticles present in three oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) Fe–12Cr–5Al alloys containing additions of (1) Y2O3 (125Y), (2) Y2O3 + ZrO2 (125YZ), and (3) Y2O3 + HfO2 (125YH), were investigated using transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, in all three alloys nano-sized (<3.5 nm) oxide particles distributed uniformly throughout the microstructure were characterized using advanced electron microscopy techniques. In the 125Y alloy, mainly Al2O3 and yttrium–aluminum garnet (YAG) phases (Y3Al5O12) were present, while in the 125YZ alloy, additional Zr(C,N) precipitates were identified. The 125YH alloy had the most complex precipitation sequence whereby in addition to the YAG and Al2O3 phases,more » Hf(C,N), Y2Hf2O7, and HfO2 precipitates were also found. The presence of HfO2 was mainly due to the incomplete incorporation of HfO2 powder during mechanical alloying of the 125YH alloy. The alloy having the highest total number density of the oxides, the smallest grain size, and the highest Vickers hardness was the 125YZ alloy indicating, that Y2O3 + ZrO2 additions had the strongest effect on grain size and tensile properties. Finally, high-temperature mechanical testing will be addressed in the near future, while irradiation studies are underway to investigate the irradiation resistance of these new ODS FeCrAl alloys.« less

  1. Nanohydroxyapatite coating on a titanium-niobium alloy by a hydrothermal process.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jianyu; Li, Yuncang; Hodgson, Peter D; Wen, Cui'e

    2010-04-01

    A novel one-step hydrothermal coating process was used to produce nanohydroxyapatite (nano-HA) coating on a titanium-niobium (TiNb) alloy substrate in a newly designed solution containing calcium and phosphate ions. The morphology of the coating was studied using scanning electron microscopy. The phase identification of the coating was carried out using X-ray diffraction, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The reaction between the surface of TiNb alloy and the solution during the hydrothermal process was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Results show that the coating formed on the surface of TiNb alloy was composed of nano-HA particles. During the hydrothermal process, TiO(2) and Nb(2)O(5) formed on the TiNb alloy surface and hydrated to Ti(OH)(4) and Nb(OH)(5), respectively. Calcium phosphate nucleated and grew into a layer of nano-HA particles on the surface of TiNb alloy under the hydrothermal conditions. The crystallinity of the nano-HA coating was improved with the increase in hydrothermal treatment temperature and time duration. Nano-HA coating with good crystallinity was produced on the TiNb alloy via the hydrothermal process at a temperature of 200 degrees C for 12 h.

  2. Low cycle fatigue behavior of Ti-Mn alloys: Fatigue life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Y.; Margolin, H.

    1982-07-01

    The effect of morphology, particle size, β grain size and volume fraction of β, from 0.025 to 1.0, on the low cycle fatigue life of α -β Ti-Mn alloys, have been studied under total strain control. In general, Widmanstätten plus grain boundary (W+GB) α structures show shorter fatigue lives than equiaxed (E) α structures, and this has been ascribed to the formation of much larger surface cracks and ease of transfer of slip from α to β. For Eα structures, fatigue life increases with decreasing α particle size and when the alloy is single phase β fatigue life increases with decreasing grain size. At high total strains the nearly all α alloy had the longest fatigue life and at lower strains the β alloy, with the higher yield strength, had the longest fatigue life. Fatigue life was correlated with strain hardening. The nearly all α alloy which had the highest strain hardening, over the plastic strains encountered, had the highest fatigue life, while the β alloy, with the lowest strain hardening, had the lowest fatigue life. For a portion of the fatigue life curves, it was found that as the average Baushinger strain (ABS) increased, the Coffin-Manson exponent c decreased. The results are discussed.

  3. Single target sputter deposition of alloy nanoparticles with adjustable composition via a gas aggregation cluster source.

    PubMed

    Vahl, Alexander; Strobel, Julian; Reichstein, Wiebke; Polonskyi, Oleksandr; Strunskus, Thomas; Kienle, Lorenz; Faupel, Franz

    2017-04-28

    Alloy nanoparticles with variable compositions add a new dimension to nanoscience and have many applications. Here we suggest a novel approach for the fabrication of variable composition alloy nanoparticles that is based on a Haberland type gas aggregation cluster source with a custom-made multicomponent target for magnetron sputtering. The approach, which was demonstrated here for gold-rich AgAu nanoparticles, combines a narrow nanoparticle size distribution with in operando variation of composition via the gas pressure as well as highly efficient usage of target material. The latter is particularly attractive for precious metals. Varying argon pressure during deposition, we achieved in operando changes of AgAu alloy nanoparticle composition of more than 13 at%. The alloy nanoparticles were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The characteristic plasmon resonances of multilayer nanoparticle composites were analyzed by UV-vis spectroscopy. Tuning of the number of particles per unit area (particle densities) within individual layers showed an additional degree of freedom to tailor the optical properties of multilayer nanocomposites. By extension of this technique to more complex systems, the presented results are expected to encourage and simplify further research based on plasmonic multi-element nanoparticles. The present method is by no means restricted to plasmonics or nanoparticle based applications, but is also highly relevant for conventional magnetron sputtering of alloys and can be extended to in operando control of alloy concentration by magnetic field.

  4. Wedlable nickel aluminide alloy

    DOEpatents

    Santella, Michael L.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2002-11-19

    A Ni.sub.3 Al alloy with improved weldability is described. It contains about 6-12 wt % Al, about 6-12 wt % Cr, about 0-3 wt % Mo, about 1.5-6 wt % Zr, about 0-0.02 wt % B and at least one of about 0-0.15 wt % C, about 0-0.20 wt % Si, about 0-0.01 wt % S and about 0-0.30 wt % Fe with the balance being Ni.

  5. Lightweight Disk Alloy Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    2001 (1982). 45. K C. Russell and J. W Eddington , JI Mat. Sci., 6, 20 (1972). 46. M. J. Lequeux, Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. de Paris-Sud (1979). 47. P S ...AD-A237 064 UGHTWEIGHT DISK ALLOY DEVELOPMENT S . M. Russel, C. C. Law and M. J. Blackburn Uted Te lowkles Corpoaton Prat & Whtney Govnment Enes...Space Propulo P. 0. Box 109600 West Palm Beach, FL 33410-9600 P. C. Clapp and D. M. Pease Istitute of Materials Science 9 ELECT Fg AW 11il S E Final

  6. Thermomechanical treatment of alloys

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John F.; Brager, Howard R.; Paxton, Michael M.

    1983-01-01

    An article of an alloy of AISI 316 stainless steel is reduced in size to predetermined dimensions by cold working in repeated steps. Before the last reduction step the article is annealed by heating within a temperature range, specifically between 1010.degree. C. and 1038.degree. C. for a time interval between 90 and 60 seconds depending on the actual temperature. By this treatment the swelling under neutron bombardment by epithermal neutrons is reduced while substantial recrystallization does not occur in actual use for a time interval of at least of the order of 5000 hours.

  7. Stable palladium alloys for diffusion of hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patapoff, M.

    1973-01-01

    Literature search on hydrogen absorption effect on palladium alloys revealed existence of alloy compositions in which alpha--beta transition does not take place. Survey conclusions: 40 percent gold alloy of palladium should be used in place of palladium; alloy must be free of interstitial impurities; and metallic surfaces of tube must be clean.

  8. Interaction Of Hydrogen With Metal Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.; Montano, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes experiments on interaction of hydrogen with number of metal alloys. Discusses relationship between metallurgical and crystallographic aspects of structures of alloys and observed distributions of hydrogen on charging. Also discusses effect of formation of hydrides on resistances of alloys to hydrogen. Describes attempt to correlate structures and compositions of alloys with their abilities to resist embrittlement by hydrogen.

  9. THEORY OF DIFFUSION IN ORDERING ALLOYS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    interstitial atoms through the interstices Diffusion of interstitial atoms in alloys with a body - centered cubic lattice Diffusion of...sites of the alloy The case of an alloy with body - centered cubic lattic structure The case of an alloy with a face-centered cubic lattic

  10. Improved Electroformed Structural Copper and Copper Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.; Hudson, W.; Babcock, B.; Edwards, R.

    1998-01-01

    Electroforming offers a superior means for fabricating internally cooled heat exchangers and structures subjected to thermal environments. Copper is deposited from many such applications because of the good thermal conductivity. It suffers from mediocre yield strength as a structural material and loses mechanical strength at intermediate temperatures. Mechanical properties similar to those of electroformed nickel are desired. Phase 1 examined innovative means to improve deposited copper structural performance. Yield strengths as high as 483 MPa (70 ksi) were obtained with useful ductility while retaining a high level of purity essential to good thermal conductivity. Phase 2 represents a program to explore new additive combinations in copper electrolytes to produce a more fine, equiaxed grain which can be thermally stabilized by other techniques such as alloying in modest degrees and dispersion strengthening. Evaluation of new technology - such as the codeposition of fullerness (diamond-like) particles were made to enhance thermal conductivity in low alloys. A test fire quality tube-bundle engine was fabricated using these copper property improvement concepts to show the superiority of the new coppers and fabrications methods over competitive technologies such as brazing and plasma deposition.

  11. Tribological coating of titanium alloys by laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Wang

    Titanium-based alloys have been used for aerospace materials for many years. Recently, these alloys are now being increasingly considered for automotive, industrial and consumer applications. Their excellent creep resistance, corrosion resistance and relative higher specific strength ratio are attractive for many applications. However, the main obstacle for the wide adoption of Ti alloys in various industries is their poor tribological properties. In slide wear, Ti deforms and adhesive wear readily occurs. Their poor tribological properties are mainly due to low hardness and absolute values of tensile and shear strength. Different surface modification techniques have been studied in order to improve the tribological characteristics of Ti alloys, i.e. PVD, nitrding, carburizing, boriding, plating etc. Coatings produced by these techniques have their own limitations such as thermal distortion and grain growth. A different approach is to introduce hard particles in the Ti alloy matrix to form a MMC coating, which has tailor-made hardness and wear resistance properties. Laser cladding or laser alloying techniques facilitate the fabrication of surface MMC on Ti alloys without thermal distortion to the substrate. In this project, the fabrication of hard and wear resistant layers of metal matrix composite on titanium alloys substrate by laser surface alloying was investigated. Powder mixtures of Mo and WC were used to form the MMC layer. By optimizing the processing parameters and pre-placed powder mixture compositions, surface MMC of different properties have been successfully fabricated on CP-Ti and Ti6A14V respectively. The structure and characteristics of the MMC surface were investigated by metallography, SEM, XRD, and E-DAX. It was found that the hardness of the laser alloyed Mo/WC MMC surface was 300% higher than that of the CP-Ti substrate Excellent metallurgical bonding with the MMC layer of the substrate has been achieved. The relative kinetic frictional tests

  12. Coating of 6028 Aluminum Alloy Using Aluminum Piston Alloy and Al-Si Alloy-Based Nanocomposites Produced by the Addition of Al-Ti5-B1 to the Matrix Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Labban, Hashem F.; Abdelaziz, M.; Mahmoud, Essam R. I.

    2014-10-01

    The Al-12 pctSi alloy and aluminum-based composites reinforced with TiB2 and Al3Ti intermetallics exhibit good wear resistance, strength-to-weight ratio, and strength-to-cost ratio when compared to equivalent other commercial Al alloys, which make them good candidates as coating materials. In this study, structural AA 6028 alloy is used as the base material. Four different coating materials were used. The first one is Al-Si alloy that has Si content near eutectic composition. The second, third, and fourth ones are Al-6 pctSi-based reinforced with TiB2 and Al3Ti nano-particles produced by addition of Al-Ti5-B1 master alloy with different weight percentages (1, 2, and 3 pct). The coating treatment was carried out with the aid of GTAW process. The microstructures of the base and coated materials were investigated using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope equipped with EDX analyzer. Microhardness of the base material and the coated layer were evaluated using a microhardness tester. GTAW process results in almost sound coated layer on 6028 aluminum alloy with the used four coating materials. The coating materials of Al-12 pct Si alloy resulted in very fine dendritic Al-Si eutectic structure. The interface between the coated layer and the base metal was very clean. The coated layer was almost free from porosities or other defects. The coating materials of Al-6 pct Si-based mixed with Al-Ti5-B1 master alloy with different percentages (1, 2, and 3 pct), results in coated layer consisted of matrix of fine dendrite eutectic morphology structure inside α-Al grains. Many fine in situ TiAl3 and TiB2 intermetallics were precipitated almost at the grain boundary of α-Al grains. The amounts of these precipitates are increased by increasing the addition of Al-Ti5-B1 master alloy. The surface hardness of the 6028 aluminum alloy base metal was improved with the entire four used surface coating materials. The improvement reached to about 85 pct by the first type of

  13. Microfabricated particle focusing device

    DOEpatents

    Ravula, Surendra K.; Arrington, Christian L.; Sigman, Jennifer K.; Branch, Darren W.; Brener, Igal; Clem, Paul G.; James, Conrad D.; Hill, Martyn; Boltryk, Rosemary June

    2013-04-23

    A microfabricated particle focusing device comprises an acoustic portion to preconcentrate particles over large spatial dimensions into particle streams and a dielectrophoretic portion for finer particle focusing into single-file columns. The device can be used for high throughput assays for which it is necessary to isolate and investigate small bundles of particles and single particles.

  14. Rapid Solidification of Sn-Cu-Al Alloys for High-Reliability, Lead-Free Solder: Part II. Intermetallic Coarsening Behavior of Rapidly Solidified Solders After Multiple Reflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeve, Kathlene N.; Choquette, Stephanie M.; Anderson, Iver E.; Handwerker, Carol A.

    2016-12-01

    Controlling the size, dispersion, and stability of intermetallic compounds in lead-free solder alloys is vital to creating reliable solder joints regardless of how many times the solder joints are melted and resolidified (reflowed) during circuit board assembly. In this article, the coarsening behavior of Cu x Al y and Cu6Sn5 in two Sn-Cu-Al alloys, a Sn-2.59Cu-0.43Al at. pct alloy produced via drip atomization and a Sn-5.39Cu-1.69Al at. pct alloy produced via melt spinning at a 5-m/s wheel speed, was characterized after multiple (1-5) reflow cycles via differential scanning calorimetry between the temperatures of 293 K and 523 K (20 °C and 250 °C). Little-to-no coarsening of the Cu x Al y particles was observed for either composition; however, clustering of Cu x Al y particles was observed. For Cu6Sn5 particle growth, a bimodal size distribution was observed for the drip atomized alloy, with large, faceted growth of Cu6Sn5 observed, while in the melt spun alloy, Cu6Sn5 particles displayed no significant increase in the average particle size, with irregularly shaped, nonfaceted Cu6Sn5 particles observed after reflow, which is consistent with shapes observed in the as-solidified alloys. The link between original alloy composition, reflow undercooling, and subsequent intermetallic coarsening behavior was discussed by using calculated solidification paths. The reflowed microstructures suggested that the heteroepitaxial relationship previously observed between the Cu x Al y and the Cu6Sn5 was maintained for both alloys.

  15. Oxidation resistant alloys, method for producing oxidation resistant alloys

    DOEpatents

    Dunning, John S.; Alman, David E.

    2002-11-05

    A method for producing oxidation-resistant austenitic alloys for use at temperatures below 800.degree. C. comprising of: providing an alloy comprising, by weight %: 14-18% chromium, 15-18% nickel, 1-3% manganese, 1-2% molybdenum, 2-4% silicon, 0% aluminum and the balance being iron; heating the alloy to 800.degree. C. for between 175-250 hours prior to use in order to form a continuous silicon oxide film and another oxide film. The method provides a means of producing stainless steels with superior oxidation resistance at temperatures above 700.degree. C. at a low cost

  16. Oxidation resistant alloys, method for producing oxidation resistant alloys

    DOEpatents

    Dunning, John S.; Alman, David E.

    2002-11-05

    A method for producing oxidation-resistant austenitic alloys for use at temperatures below 800 C. comprising of: providing an alloy comprising, by weight %: 14-18% chromium, 15-18% nickel, 1-3% manganese, 1-2% molybdenum, 2-4% silicon, 0% aluminum and the balance being iron; heating the alloy to 800 C. for between 175-250 hours prior to use in order to form a continuous silicon oxide film and another oxide film. The method provides a means of producing stainless steels with superior oxidation resistance at temperatures above 700 C. at a low cost

  17. In vitro investigation of NiTiW shape memory alloy as potential biomaterial with enhanced radiopacity.

    PubMed

    Li, Huafang; Cong, Ying; Zheng, Yufeng; Cui, Lishan

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, a novel kind of NiTiW shape memory alloy with chemical composition of Ni43.5Ti45.5W11 (at.%) has been successfully developed with excellent X-ray radiopacity by the introduction of pure W precipitates into the NiTi matrix phase. Its microstructure, X-ray radiopacity, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid, hemocompatibility and in vitro cytocompatibility were systematically investigated. The typical microstructural feature of NiTiW alloy at room temperature was tiny pure W particles randomly distributing in the NiTi matrix phase. The presence of W precipitates was found to result in enhanced radiopacity and microhardness of NiTiW alloy in comparison to that of NiTi binary alloy. NiTiW alloy exhibits excellent shape memory effect, and a maximum shape recovery ratio of about 30% was obtained with a total prestrain of 8% for the NiTiW alloy sample. In the electrochemical test, NiTiW alloy presented an excellent corrosion resistance in simulated body fluid, comparable to that of NiTi alloy. Hemocompatibility tests indicated that the NiTiW alloy has quite low hemolysis (lower than 0.5%) and the adherent platelet showed round shape without pseudopod. Besides, in vitro cell viability tests demonstrated that the cell viability is all above 90%, and the cells spread well on the NiTiW alloy, having polygon or spindle healthy morphology. The hemocompatibility tests, in vitro cell viability tests and morphology observation indicated that the NiTiW shape memory alloys have excellent biocompatibility. The excellent X-ray radiopacity makes the NiTiW alloys show obvious advantages in orthopedic, stomatological, neurological and cardiovascular domains where radiopacity is quite important factor in order to guarantee successful implantation.

  18. Electrochemical corrosion behavior and elasticity properties of Ti-6Al-xFe alloys for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jinwen; Zhao, Yongqing; Niu, Hongzhi; Zhang, Yusheng; Du, Yuzhou; Zhang, Wei; Huo, Wangtu

    2016-05-01

    The present study is to investigate the microstructural characteristics, electrochemical corrosion behavior and elasticity properties of Ti-6Al-xFe alloys with Fe addition for biomedical application, and Ti-6Al-4V alloy with two-phase (α+β) microstructure is also studied as a comparison. Microstructural characterization reveals that the phase and crystal structure are sensitive to the Fe content. Ti-6Al alloy displays feather-like hexagonal α phase, and Ti-6Al-1Fe exhibits coarse lath structure of hexagonal α phase and a small amount of β phase. Ti-6Al-2Fe and Ti-6Al-4Fe alloys are dominated by elongated, equiaxed α phase and retained β phase, but the size of α phase particle in Ti-6Al-4Fe alloy is much smaller than that in Ti-6Al-2Fe alloy. The corrosion resistance of these alloys is determined in SBF solution at 37 °C. It is found that the alloys spontaneously form a passive oxide film on their surface after immersion for 500 s, and then they are stable for polarizations up to 0 VSCE. In comparison with Ti-6Al and Ti-6Al-4V alloys, Ti-6Al-xFe alloys exhibit better corrosion resistance with lower anodic current densities, larger polarization resistances and higher open-circuit potentials. The passive layers show stable characteristics, and the wide frequency ranges displaying capacitive characteristics occur for high iron contents. Elasticity experiments are performed to evaluate the elasticity property at room temperature. Ti-6Al-4Fe alloy has the lowest Young's modulus (112 GPa) and exhibits the highest strength/modulus ratios as large as 8.6, which is similar to that of c.p. Ti (8.5). These characteristics of Ti-6Al-xFe alloys form the basis of a great potential to be used as biomedical implantation materials.

  19. Stress-corrosion behavior of aluminum-lithium alloys in aqueous environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizzo, P. P.; Galvin, R. P.; Nelson, H. G.

    1983-01-01

    The stress corrosion susceptibility of two powder metallurgy (P/M) alloys, Al-Li-Cu and Al-Li-Cu-Mg two mechanically attrited (M/A) alloys, Al-Li-Cu and Al-Li-Mg; and two wrought, ingot alloys, X-2020 and AA7475, are compared. Time-dependent fracture in an aqueous sodium chloride environment under alternate immersion condition was found to vary significantly between alloys. The stress corrosion behavior of the two powder metallurgy processed alloys was studied in detail under conditions of crack initiation, static crack growth, and fatigue crack growth. A variety of stress corrosion tests were performed including smooth surface, time-to-failure tests; potentiostatic tests on smooth surfaces exposed to constant applied strain rates; and fracture mechanics-type tests under static and cyclic loads. Both alloys show surface pitting and subsequent intergranular corrosion. Pitting is more severe in the magnesium-bearing alloy and is associated with stringer particles strung along the extrusion direction as a result of P/M processing.

  20. Chromium-free nickel alloys for hot sulfuric and sulfur environments

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph W. Newkirk; JenHsien Hsu; Richard K. Brow; Thomas Lillo

    2011-04-01

    There are few adequate materials available for severe corrosion conditions, like those of the S–I thermochemical cycle. High Si, Ni-alloys have excellent corrosion resistance, especially in mineral acids, but have typically been limited by poor mechanical properties or difficult fabrication issues. The ductility of nickel silicide, Ni3Si, can be improved through a combination of micro- and macro-alloying. Nb and other minor alloying elements yield a cast alloy with excellent corrosion resistance to sulfuric acid and good mechanical properties. In this paper, efforts to optimize the alloys performance are presented along with progress toward the development of a wrought version of the material. It was found that an appropriate heat treatment provides the largest improvement in the cast Ni–Si alloy microstructure. Trials have resulted in more than a 50% reduction by the cold rolling process. This process not only increases homogenization but also results in a more uniform distribution of G-phase particles, which is beneficial for the improvements in ductility and corrosion resistance. These alloys have great potential for use in future hydrogen production as well as fossil energy combustion.

  1. Evolution of Globular Microstructure and Rheological Properties of Stellite™ 21 Alloy after Heating to Semisolid State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sołek, Krzysztof Piotr; Rogal, Łukasz; Kapranos, Platon

    2017-01-01

    Metal alloys can be successfully thixoformed in the partially liquid state if they display non-dendritic near-globular microstructures. The article presents the development of feedstock with such non-dendritic microstructure produced through the solid-state route of strain-induced melt-activated (SIMA) method, for a Stellite ™ 21 alloy. Stellite ™ alloys are a range of cobalt-chromium alloys designed for wear and corrosion resistance, currently shaped by casting, powder metallurgy or forging processes, but semisolid-state processing offers the possibility of a near-net-shaping method for these alloys. In this work, sprayformed followed by extrusion samples were heated to the temperature range at which the liquid and solid phases coexist in the material and spheroidal shape solid particles in a liquid matrix were obtained as required for semisolid processing. Microstructural investigations were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in combination with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), with a further objective of analyzing the rheological properties of Stellite ™ 21 alloy in the semisolid state, providing results to be used for identification of a processing window of temperature and viscosity ranges for thixoforming this alloy.

  2. Characterization of fold defects in AZ91D and AE42 magnesium alloy permanent mold castings

    SciTech Connect

    Bichler, L.; Ravindran, C.

    2010-03-15

    Casting premium-quality magnesium alloy components for aerospace and automotive applications poses unique challenges. Magnesium alloys are known to freeze rapidly prior to filling a casting cavity, resulting in misruns and cold shuts. In addition, melt oxidation, solute segregation and turbulent metal flow during casting contribute to the formation of fold defects. In this research, formation of fold defects in AZ91D and AE42 magnesium alloys cast via the permanent mold casting process was investigated. Computer simulations of the casting process predicted the development of a turbulent metal flow in a critical casting region with abrupt geometrical transitions. SEM and light optical microscopy examinations revealed the presence of folds in this region for both alloys. However, each alloy exhibited a unique mechanism responsible for fold formation. In the AZ91D alloy, melt oxidation and velocity gradients in the critical casting region prevented fusion of merging metal front streams. In the AE42 alloy, limited solubility of rare-earth intermetallic compounds in the {alpha}-Mg phase resulted in segregation of Al{sub 2}RE particles at the leading edge of a metal front and created microstructural inhomogeneity across the fold.

  3. Fabrication of a nanocomposite from in situ iron nanoparticle reinforced copper alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zidong; Wang, Xuewen; Wang, Qiangsong; Shih, I.; Xu, J. J.

    2009-02-01

    In situ iron nanoparticle reinforced Cu-3Sn-8Zn-6Pb alloy has been fabricated by centrifugal casting in a vacuum chamber with a medium frequency electrical furnace. The microstructure of this alloy was analyzed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), and the results show that the grains of Cu-3Sn-8Zn-6Pb alloy without iron have a typical dendrite structure with dimensions from 500 to 1500 µm, and the grains of the alloy with the addition of 1% iron are small and equiaxed, with dimensions from 20 to 60 µm. Then, the relatively uniform dispersed particles in the copper matrix were identified with the HRTEM to be pure iron with dimensions in the order of 2-20 nm. The mechanical properties of the alloys were measured and the results show a significant increase in the tensile strength of the alloy with iron nanoparticles and a slight increase of the elongation compared to that without iron. The mechanism of formation of the iron nanoparticles was analyzed by thermodynamic and dynamic theories, and the results indicate that the in situ iron nanoparticles of Cu-3Sn-8Zn-6Pb alloy can reasonably form during solidification in the centrifugal casting technique.

  4. Fabrication of a nanocomposite from in situ iron nanoparticle reinforced copper alloy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zidong; Wang, Xuewen; Wang, Qiangsong; Shih, I; Xu, J J

    2009-02-18

    In situ iron nanoparticle reinforced Cu-3Sn-8Zn-6Pb alloy has been fabricated by centrifugal casting in a vacuum chamber with a medium frequency electrical furnace. The microstructure of this alloy was analyzed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), and the results show that the grains of Cu-3Sn-8Zn-6Pb alloy without iron have a typical dendrite structure with dimensions from 500 to 1500 microm, and the grains of the alloy with the addition of 1% iron are small and equiaxed, with dimensions from 20 to 60 microm. Then, the relatively uniform dispersed particles in the copper matrix were identified with the HRTEM to be pure iron with dimensions in the order of 2-20 nm. The mechanical properties of the alloys were measured and the results show a significant increase in the tensile strength of the alloy with iron nanoparticles and a slight increase of the elongation compared to that without iron. The mechanism of formation of the iron nanoparticles was analyzed by thermodynamic and dynamic theories, and the results indicate that the in situ iron nanoparticles of Cu-3Sn-8Zn-6Pb alloy can reasonably form during solidification in the centrifugal casting technique.

  5. Development of tough, strong, iron-base alloy for cryogenic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    The development of an iron-base alloy that combines the normally divergent properties of high toughness and high strength at cryogenic temperatures is discussed. Specifically, alloy properties were sought which at -196 C would exhibit a fracture toughness of 220 MPa-m(1/2) with a corresponding yield strength of 1.4 GPa (200 ksi). Early work showed that high toughness could be achieved in Fe-12Ni alloys containing reactive metal additions such as Al, Nb, Ti, and V. Further research emphasized strengthening of these tough alloys by thermomechanical processing and the addition of Cu. Results showed that high strength and high toughness could be achieved in a single alloy at temperatures as low as -196 C. An alloy with composition Fe-12Ni-9.5Al-2Cu exhibited a yield strength of 1.65 GPa with a corresponding fracture toughness of 220 MPa-m(1/2) at -196 C. Strengthening due to Cu additions to the Fe-12Ni base alloys results primarily from precipitation of Cu-rich epsilon particles approximately 20 nm in diameter. Strengthening mechanisms are discussed in terms of an elastic modulus hardening model and are supported by transimission electron microscopy examinations of selected test specimens.

  6. Evolution of Globular Microstructure and Rheological Properties of Stellite™ 21 Alloy after Heating to Semisolid State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sołek, Krzysztof Piotr; Rogal, Łukasz; Kapranos, Platon

    2016-11-01

    Metal alloys can be successfully thixoformed in the partially liquid state if they display non-dendritic near-globular microstructures. The article presents the development of feedstock with such non-dendritic microstructure produced through the solid-state route of strain-induced melt-activated (SIMA) method, for a Stellite™ 21 alloy. Stellite™ alloys are a range of cobalt-chromium alloys designed for wear and corrosion resistance, currently shaped by casting, powder metallurgy or forging processes, but semisolid-state processing offers the possibility of a near-net-shaping method for these alloys. In this work, sprayformed followed by extrusion samples were heated to the temperature range at which the liquid and solid phases coexist in the material and spheroidal shape solid particles in a liquid matrix were obtained as required for semisolid processing. Microstructural investigations were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in combination with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), with a further objective of analyzing the rheological properties of Stellite™ 21 alloy in the semisolid state, providing results to be used for identification of a processing window of temperature and viscosity ranges for thixoforming this alloy.

  7. Effect of Fe on Microstructure and Properties of 8xxx Aluminum Conductor Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Lei; Liu, Kun; Breton, Francis; -Grant Chen, X.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of Fe contents (0.3-0.7 wt.%) on the microstructure, electrical conductivity, mechanical and creep properties of 8xxx aluminum conductor alloys was investigated. Results revealed that the as-cast microstructure of 8xxx alloys was consisted of equiaxed α-Al grains and secondary Fe-rich intermetallics distributed in the interdendritic region. The extruded microstructure showed partially recrystallized structure for 0.3% Fe alloy but only dynamically recovered structures for 0.5 and 0.7% Fe alloys. With increasing Fe contents, the ultimate tensile strength and yield strength were remarkably improved, while the electrical conductivity was slightly decreased. Moreover, the creep resistance was greatly improved, which is attributed to the larger volume fraction of fine intermetallic particles and smaller subgrain size in the higher Fe-containing alloys. The creep threshold stress was found to increase from 24.6 to 33.9 MPa with increasing Fe contents from 0.3 to 0.7%, respectively. The true stress exponent values were close to 3 for all three experimental alloys, indicating that the creep mechanism of 8xxx alloys was controlled by dislocation glide.

  8. Precipitation Simulation of AZ91 Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Cao, W.; Chen, S.-L.; Zhu, J.; Zhang, F.; Luo, A. A.; Schmid-Fetzer, R.

    2014-03-01

    Precipitation simulation of AZ91 (Mg-9Al-1Zn; all compositions are in wt.% unless otherwise stated.) magnesium alloy is carried out in this work using the PanPrecipitation module of Pandat™ software. In addition to the software, the thermodynamic database, mobility database, and precipitation database for AZ91 were developed to perform the simulation. The simulated results, such as the number density and particle size of the γ-Mg17Al12 precipitate, showed good agreement with the experimental data. Moreover, the simulated results were then used as input for the prediction of yield strength and micro-hardness of AZ91 aged at different temperatures, which also agreed well with experimental results. To demonstrate the applicability of the databases developed for AZ91, simulations were also carried out for two compositions with lower and higher Zn content. The simulated hardness showed reasonable agreement with the published experimental data.

  9. Transformation of bulk alloys to oxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Danni; Benson, Jim; Magasinski, Alexandre; Berdichevsky, Gene; Yushin, Gleb

    2017-01-01

    One dimensional (1D) nanostructures offer prospects for enhancing the electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of a broad range of functional materials and composites, but their synthesis methods are typically elaborate and expensive. We demonstrate a direct transformation of bulk materials into nanowires under ambient conditions without the use of catalysts or any external stimuli. The nanowires form via minimization of strain energy at the boundary of a chemical reaction front. We show the transformation of multimicrometer-sized particles of aluminum or magnesium alloys into alkoxide nanowires of tunable dimensions, which are converted into oxide nanowires upon heating in air. Fabricated separators based on aluminum oxide nanowires enhanced the safety and rate capabilities of lithium-ion batteries. The reported approach allows ultralow-cost scalable synthesis of 1D materials and membranes.

  10. Joint properties of cast Fe-Pt magnetic alloy laser welded to gold alloys.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ikuya; Nguyen, Khoi; Benson, P Andrew; Tanaka, Yasuhiro

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the joint properties of a cast Fe-Pt magnetic alloy (Fe-36 at % Pt) laser welded to three gold alloys. The gold alloys used were ADA Type II and Type IV gold alloys, and an Ag-based (Ag-Au) gold alloy. Cast plates (0.5 x 3.0 x 10 mm) were prepared for each alloy. After the cast Fe-Pt plates were heat treated, they were butted against each of the three alloys and then laser welded with Nd:YAG laser at 200 V. Homogeneously welded specimens were also prepared for each alloy. Tensile testing was conducted at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Failure load (N) and elongation (%) were recorded. After tensile testing, the fractured surfaces were examined with the use of SEM. The failure-load values of the group of alloys welded homogeneously were ranked in the order of: Ag-Au alloy > Type IV alloy > Type II alloy > Fe-Pt alloy. The Type IV alloy welded to Fe-Pt alloy had the highest failure-load value among the three alloys tested. The elongation results tended to follow a similar pattern. The results of this study indicated that Type IV gold alloy is a suitable alloy for metal frameworks to which cast Fe-Pt magnetic alloy is laser welded.

  11. Development of Enriched Borated Aluminum Alloy for Basket Material of Cask for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Katsura Kajihara; Yasuhiro Aruga; Jun Shimojo; Hiroaki Taniuchi; Tsutomu Takeda; Masatosi Sasaki

    2002-07-01

    New enriched borated aluminum alloys manufactured by melting process are developed, which resulted in supplying structural basket materials for spent nuclear fuel packagings. In this process, the borated aluminum alloys were melted in a vacuum induction furnace at elevated temperature than that of ordinary aluminum melting processes. Boron dissolves into the matrix at the temperature of 1273 K or more, and fine aluminum diboride is precipitated and uniformly dispersed upon cooling rapidity. It is confirmed that boron is homogeneously dispersed with the fine particles of approximate 5 in average size in the product. Tensile strength and creep property at elevated temperature in 1 mass-%B 6061-T651 plate and 1 mass-%B 3004 extruded rectangular pipe as structural materials are examined. It is confirmed that the both of borated aluminum alloys have stable strength and creep properties that are similar to those of ordinary aluminum alloys. (authors)

  12. Metallographic preparation of Zn-21Al-2Cu alloy for analysis by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Hernández, M G; Martínez-Flores, E E; Torres-Villaseñor, G; Escalera, M Dolores

    2014-08-01

    Samples of Zn-21Al-2Cu alloy (Zinalco) that will be heavily deformed were prepared using five different manual mechanical metallographic methods. Samples were analyzed before tensile testing using the orientation imaging microscopy-electron backscatter diffraction (OIM-EBSD) technique. The effect of type and particle size during the final polishing stages for this material were studied in order to identify a method that produces a flat, damage free surface with a roughness of about 50 nm and clean from oxide layers, thereby producing diffraction patterns with high image quality (IQ) and adequate confidence indexes (CI). Our results show that final polishing with alumina and silica, as was previously suggested by other research groups for alloys that are difficult to prepare or alloys with low melting point, are not suitable for manual metallographic preparation of this alloy. Indexes of IQ and CI can be used to evaluate methods of metallographic preparation of samples studied using the OIM-EBSD technique.

  13. Low-gravity experiments on Liquid Phase Miscibility Gap (LPMG) alloys: Materials Experiments Assembly (MEA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelles, S. H.; Markworth, A. J.; Mobley, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    Space shuttle experiments which study the massive separation which occurred during sounding rocket Al-In alloy tests are described. The gradient cool experiment studies surface tension driven droplet migration and particle pushing in an LPMG alloy. Isothermal experiments on the Te-Tl alloys test the hypothesis that LPMG systems with low surface energies produce relatively fine, and uniform emulsions and dispersions. It also examines the effect of droplet concentration on phase separation kinetics. Isothermal plunger experiments on Al-In alloys determine whether surface tension driven convection currents originating at a free surface contribute to massive separation. They ascertain whether In-rich droplets migrate under the action of a temperature gradient when they are not influenced by the crucible walls.

  14. Upgrading scrap automotive aluminum alloys with the impulse atomization and quench technique

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, K.; Sterzik, G.; Henein, H.

    1995-12-31

    As aluminum alloy usage in automobiles grows, there are increasing demands on recycling processes and facilities to deal with mixed alloy automotive aluminum scrap. These processes and facilities strive to produce near virgin aluminum stock, which can be relatively costly and difficult. One alternative is to use physical processing methods to upgrade the scrap properties instead of chemically refining the scrap. The Impulse Atomization Process (IAP, patent pending) is a new process for making metallic and ceramic powders. It can produce fine homogeneous microstructures in scrap aluminum alloys due to high undercooling and rapid solidification. The particles have a very narrow size distribution and are in a convenient form for consolidation. This paper compares and contrasts the microstructural features of Impulse Atomized and quenched Impulse Atomized powders, for both AL6061 and a scrap aluminum alloy composition.

  15. Phase and structural transformations in the alloy on the basis of the orthorhombic titanium aluminide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, A. A.; Illarionov, A. G.; Grib, S. V.; Demakov, S. L.; Karabanalov, M. S.; Elkina, O. A.

    2008-10-01

    Phase and structural transformations in the Ti-24.3 Al-24.8 Nb-1.0 Zr-1.4 V-0.6 Mo-0.3 Si (at %) alloy that take place during heating in the temperature range of 700 1050°C have been investigated. The temperature ranges of existence of the O + β, O + β + α2, β + α2, and β phase fields have been established. A scheme of the relationships between the volume fractions of the O, β, and α2 phases depending on the temperature of heating of the alloy have been investigated. The formation of an ordered incommensurate ω ( V ω) phase has been revealed in the alloy during quenching from 900°C. The existence of a correlation between the hardness properties and changes in the phase composition and morphology of particles precipitating in the alloy has been shown.

  16. Microstructure-property relationships in Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg Weldalite (tm) alloys, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langan, T. J.; Pickens, J. R.

    1991-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of the ultrahigh strength Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg alloy, Weldalite (tm) 049, were studied. Specifically, the microstructural features along with tensile strength, weldability, Young's modulus and fracture toughness were studied for Weldalite (tm) 049 type alloys with Li contents ranging from 1.3 to 1.9 wt. pct. The tensile properties of Weldalite 049 and Weldalite 049 reinforced with TiB2 particles fabricated using the XD (tm) process were also evaluated at cryogenic, room, and elevated temperatures. In addition, an experimental alloy, similar in composition to Weldalite 049 but without the Ag+Mg, was fabricated. The microstructure of this alloy was compared with that of Weldalite 049 in the T6 condition to assess the effect of Ag+Mg on nucleation of strengthening phases in the absence of cold work.

  17. High performance alloy electroforming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.; Winkelman, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    Electroformed copper and nickel are used in structural applications for advanced propellant combustion chambers. An improved process has been developed by Bell Aerospace Textron, Inc. wherein electroformed nickel-manganese alloy has demonstrated superior mechanical and thermal stability when compared to previously reported deposits from known nickel plating processes. Solution chemistry and parametric operating procedures are now established and material property data is established for deposition of thick, large complex shapes such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The critical operating variables are those governing the ratio of codeposited nickel and manganese. The deposition uniformity which in turn affects the manganese concentration distribution is affected by solution resistance and geometric effects as well as solution agitation. The manganese concentration in the deposit must be between 2000 and 3000 ppm for optimum physical properties to be realized. The study also includes data regarding deposition procedures for achieving excellent bond strength at an interface with copper, nickel-manganese or INCONEL 718. Applications for this electroformed material include fabrication of complex or re-entry shapes which would be difficult or impossible to form from high strength alloys such as INCONEL 718.

  18. DISPERSION STRENGTHENED NICKEL-BASE ALLOYS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The swaged cone of extruded Nichrome-thoria alloys prepared by the thermal decomposition of thorium nitrate onto alloy powder indicated descreased... swaging of these dispersion-strengthened Nichrome alloys was dependent on the presence of a mild steel jacket on the alloy rod as a result of the canned...extrusion practice. Efforts to cold swage the alloy materials without this jacket were unsuccessful. (Author)

  19. Elevated temperature crack growth in advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porr, William C., Jr.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1990-01-01

    Rapidly solidified Al-Fe-V-Si powder metallurgy alloy FVS0812 is among the most promising of the elevated temperature aluminum alloys developed in recent years. The ultra fine grain size and high volume fraction of thermally stable dispersoids enable the alloy to maintain tensile properties at elevated temperatures. In contrast, this alloy displays complex and potentially deleterious damage tolerant and time dependent fracture behavior that varies with temperature. J-Integral fracture mechanics were used to determine fracture toughness (K sub IC) and crack growth resistance (tearing modulus, T) of extruded FVS0812 as a function of temperature. The alloy exhibits high fracture properties at room temperature when tested in the LT orientation, due to extensive delamination of prior ribbon particle boundaries perpendicular to the crack front. Delamination results in a loss of through thickness constraint along the crack front, raising the critical stress intensity necessary for precrack initiation. The fracture toughness and tensile ductility of this alloy decrease with increasing temperature, with minima observed at 200 C. This behavior results from minima in the intrinsic toughness of the material, due to dynamic strain aging, and in the extent of prior particle boundary delaminations. At 200 C FVS0812 fails at K levels that are insufficient to cause through thickness delamination. As temperature increases beyond the minimum, strain aging is reduced and delamination returns. For the TL orientation, K (sub IC) decreased and T increased slightly with increasing temperature from 25 to 316 C. Fracture in the TL orientation is governed by prior particle boundary toughness; increased strain localization at these boundaries may result in lower toughness with increasing temperature. Preliminary results demonstrate a complex effect of loading rate on K (sub IC) and T at 175 C, and indicate that the combined effects of time dependent deformation, environment, and strain aging

  20. Heat storage in alloy transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenall, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of using metal alloys as thermal energy storage media was investigated. The elements selected as candidate media were limited to aluminum, copper, magnesium, silicon, zinc, calcium, and phosphorus on the basis of low cost and latent heat of transformation. Several new eutectic alloys and ternary intermetallic phases were determined. A new method employing X-ray absorption techniques was developed to determine the coefficients of thermal expansion of both the solid and liquid phases and the volume change during phase transformation. The method and apparatus are discussed and the experimental results are presented for aluminum and two aluminum-eutectic alloys. Candidate materials were evaluated to determine suitable materials for containment of the metal alloys. Graphite was used to contain the alloys during the volume change measurements. Silicon carbide was identified as a promising containment material and surface-coated iron alloys were also evaluated. System considerations that are pertinent if alloy eutectics are used as thermal energy storage media are discussed. Potential applications to solar receivers and industrial furnaces are illustrated schematically.