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Sample records for fed diets supplemented

  1. Effect of intermittent supplementation with selenate on selenium status of rats fed selenium-deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Satoru; Fukunaga, Kenji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Munehiro

    2005-12-01

    To examine the selenium (Se) status of rats intermittently supplemented with Se, we measured tissue Se contents and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities in rats fed a Se-deficient diet intermittently supplemented with selenate. In experiment 1, four groups of male 4-wk-old Wistar rats were fed a Torula yeast-based Se-deficient diet (Se content, < 0.01 microg/g) for 28 d. During the experimental period, the diet of each group was supplemented with sodium selenate (0.17 microg Se/g) for 0, 1, 2 or 7 d/wk. The tissue Se contents and GPx activities both increased gradually with an increase in frequency of the selenate supplementation, and significant linear regressions were observed between the frequency and these Se indices. In particular, the correlation coefficient in the liver and plasma indices was nearly equal to a value of 1.0. In experiment 2, three groups of rats were fed the Se-deficient basal diet for 28 d. Among these, one group was daily supplemented with sodium selenate to the Se-deficient diet at a level of 0.17 microg Se/g, and another group was intermittently supplemented with the selenate at a level of 1.19 microg Se/g for 1 d/wk. The tissue Se contents and GPx activities both were increased by the selenate supplementation and no significant difference was observed between daily and weekly supplementation in the Se indices except in erythrocyte Se. These results indicate that Se status in the growth period is dependent on total Se intake in this period and that weekly intermittent supplementation with Se can maintain adequate Se status.

  2. Serum and tissue iodine concentrations in rats fed diets supplemented with kombu powder or potassium iodide.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Munehiro; Mukama, Ayumi; Hosomi, Ryota; Fukunaga, Kenji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa

    2014-01-01

    Serum and tissue iodine concentration was measured in rats fed a diet supplemented with powdered kombu (Saccharina sculpera) or potassium iodide to evaluate the absorption of iodine from kombu. Eighteen male 5-wk-old Wistar rats were divided into three groups and fed a basal AIN93G diet (iodine content, 0.2 mg/kg) or the basal diet supplemented with iodine (183 mg/kg) either in the form of kombu powder or potassium iodine (KI) for 4 wk. There were no differences in weight gain or serum biochemistry tests (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity, and total serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentration) after iodine supplementation. In addition, serum levels of the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine, as well as thyroid-stimulating hormone, were not affected. On the other hand, serum and tissue (thyroid, liver and kidney) iodine concentrations were markedly elevated after iodine supplementation. There was no difference in thyroid iodine concentration between KI and kombu supplementation. However, there was a significant difference observed in the iodine concentrations of serum, liver and kidney between the two iodine sources; rats fed KI had iodine concentrations in these tissues 1.8 to 1.9 times higher than those in rats fed kombu powder. These results suggest that the absorption of iodine from kombu is reduced compared to that from potassium iodide.

  3. Effects of monensin supplementation on ruminal metabolism of feedlot cattle fed diets containing dried distillers grains.

    PubMed

    Felix, T L; Pyatt, N A; Loerch, S C

    2012-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of monensin and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on ruminal metabolism in 8 fistulated steers. In Exp. 1, treatments were (DM basis): 1) 0 mg monensin/kg diet DM, 2) 22 mg monensin/kg diet DM, 3) 33 mg monensin/kg diet DM, and 4) 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM. The remainder of the diet was 10% corn silage, 60% DDGS, 10% corn, and 20% mineral supplement that used ground corn as the carrier. There was no effect (P > 0.80) of dietary monensin inclusion on DMI. Increasing dietary monensin did not affect (P > 0.05) ruminal VFA concentrations or lactic acid concentrations. There was no effect (P > 0.15) of increasing dietary monensin concentration on ruminal hydrogen sulfide gas (H(2)S) and liquid sulfide (S(2-)) concentrations, or ruminal pH. In Exp. 2, treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial and contained (DM basis): 1) 0 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 25% DDGS inclusion, 2) 0 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 60% DDGS inclusion, 3) 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 25% DDGS inclusion, and 4) 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 60% DDGS inclusion. The remainder of the diet was 15% corn silage, corn, and 20% mineral supplement that used ground corn as a carrier. With 60% dietary DDGS inclusion, DMI decreased (P < 0.01) when compared with 25% DDGS inclusion. With 25% DDGS in the diet, 0 h postfeeding acetate concentration was decreased compared with when 60% DDGS was fed (P < 0.01). A similar response (P < 0.01) occurred for total VFA concentrations at 0 h postfeeding. However, at 3 and 6 h postfeeding, propionate concentrations increased (P ≤ 0.05) in cattle fed the 60% DDGS diets, regardless of monensin inclusion. This increase in propionate concentrations contributed to the increase (P = 0.03) in total VFA concentrations at 3 h postfeeding when 60% DDGS diets were fed. There was no interaction detected (P > 0.05) for H(2)S or S(2-) concentrations in Exp. 2. Feeding 60% DDGS diets increased mean H(2)S by 71% when compared with

  4. Effects of boron supplements on bones from rats fed calcium and magnesium deficient diets

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, H.; Irwin, A.; Kenney, M.A.; Williams, L. )

    1991-03-15

    Sixty female, weanling rats were fed, for 6 wks, diets providing: casein, 20; CHO, 40; fat, 40. Vitamins and minerals, except Ca and Mg, were fed according to AIN'76 recommendations. Gp A (control) was fed 100% AIN Ca, Mg and P with no boron (B) added. Gps CD and CD+B were fed 30% AIN Ca and 100% AIN Mg and P; Gps MD and MD+B were fed 20% AIN Mg and 100% AIN Ca and P; Gps CMD and CMD+B were fed 20% AIN Mg, 30% AIN Ca and 100% AIN P. The +B groups were supplemented with B at 12 mcg/g diet. Femurs (F) and 2 vertebrae (V) were scraped clean, weighed, sealed in saline-wet gauze, and refrigerated overnight. Bones were equilibrated at {sup {approximately}}25C. F lengths and diameters at the breakpoint were measured before a 3-point flexure test. V were subjected to a compression test. Maximum force (kg) at breakpoint was recorded. Data for right and left F and for 2 V were pooled. Although DIET' (CD, MD, CMD) affected numerous characteristics of F and V, B supplementation of diets affected only % moisture in F, Ca concentration in dry F and in F ash for CD and CMD diets. Interactions between B and diet affected F Mg concentrations in bone and in ash. Group CMD+B had higher Mg/g F than CMD. B increased Mg/g ash for CMD, decreased it for CD and did not affect it for MD.

  5. Effects of phytase supplementation in mature horses fed alfalfa hay and pelleted concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Lavin, T E; Nielsen, B D; Zingsheim, J N; O'Connor-Robison, C I; Link, J E; Hill, G M; Shelton, J

    2013-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to study P digestibility in mature horses because of the growing environmental concerns regarding P runoff and previous equine research focused mostly on young and growing animals or used ponies as a model. Phytase supplementation of swine and poultry diets can result in greater phytate-P digestibility, leading to a decreased need for inorganic P supplementation and a decrease in P excreted to the environment; this, however, has not been demonstrated in the horse. Six mature Arabian geldings were fed 6 diets consisting of pelleted concentrate and alfalfa hay. The concentrates consisted mainly of soybean hulls, ground corn, wheat midds, broken rice, and beet pulp, and phytase was added to the concentrates accordingly before pelleting. There were 3 diet types: control (concentrate and hay), high P (greater P concentrate and hay), and forage only, and each diet type included 1 phytase-supplemented diet and 1 non-phytase-supplemented diet, resulting in 6 total diets. Phytase supplementation for the forage only diet was accomplished by feeding a nominal amount of concentrate formulated solely as a vehicle for the phytase. Horses had unrestricted access to water throughout the experiment. Using a Latin square design, all horses received all diets over a period of 12 wk. In each week, the new diet was fed for 11 d of diet acclimation, which was followed by a 3-d total collection of feces and urine for each horse. There was no effect (P < 0.05) of phytase supplementation on P output in the urine or feces, resulting in no differences in P apparent digestibility. Analysis of the feed and feces for phytate revealed a 93% average disappearance rate of phytate, indicating that horses are highly capable of degrading phytate and that phytase supplementation was not beneficial. Thus, the results indicate that mature horses are able to maintain a near 0 P balance, with adequate P provided in the diet even as phytate, and increased P intakes above

  6. Insights into Broilers' Gut Microbiota Fed with Phosphorus, Calcium, and Phytase Supplemented Diets

    PubMed Central

    Borda-Molina, Daniel; Vital, Marius; Sommerfeld, Vera; Rodehutscord, Markus; Camarinha-Silva, Amélia

    2016-01-01

    Phytase supplementation in broiler diets is a common practice to improve phosphorus (P) availability and to reduce P loss by excretion. An enhanced P availability, and its concomitant supplementation with calcium (Ca), can affect the structure of the microbial community in the digestive tract of broiler chickens. Here, we aim to distinguish the effects of mineral P, Ca, and phytase on the composition of microbial communities present in the content and the mucosa layer of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of broiler chickens. Significant differences were observed between digesta and mucosa samples for the GIT sections studied (p = 0.001). The analyses of 56 individual birds showed a high microbial composition variability within the replicates of the same diet. The average similarity within replicates of digesta and mucosa samples across all diets ranged from 29 to 82% in crop, 19–49% in ileum, and 17–39% in caeca. Broilers fed with a diet only supplemented with Ca had the lowest body weight gain and feed conversion values while diets supplemented with P showed the best performance results. An effect of each diet on crop mucosa samples was observed, however, similar results were not obtained from digesta samples. Microbial communities colonizing the ileum mucosa samples were affected by P supplementation. Caeca-derived samples showed the highest microbial diversity when compared to the other GIT sections and the most prominent phylotypes were related to genus Faecalibacterium and Pseudoflavonifractor, known for their influence on gut health and as butyrate producers. Lower microbial diversity in crop digesta was linked to lower growth performance of birds fed with a diet only supplemented with Ca. Each diet affected microbial communities within individual sections, however, no diet showed a comprehensive effect across all GIT sections, which can primarily be attributed to the great variability among replicates. The substantial community differences between digesta

  7. Uterine artery function in pregnant rats fed a diet supplemented with animal lard.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P D; Khan, I Y; Lakasing, L; Dekou, V; O'Brien-Coker, I; Mallet, A I; Hanson, M A; Poston, L

    2003-05-01

    We hypothesised that maternal uterine artery vascular dysfunction could contribute to cardiovascular dysfunction in offspring of rats fed a diet rich in fat. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 10 days prior to pregnancy and throughout gestation either: (a) a control breeding diet, or (b) the same diet supplemented with 20 % w/w lard, vitamins, essential micronutrients and protein to control values. At 20 days gestation vascular function was assessed in uterine arteries and third-order mesenteric arteries. Vascular reactivity in response to application of potassium, noradrenaline, the thromboxane analogue U46619, acetylcholine and nitric oxide was assessed. Maternal plasma concentrations of factors likely to contribute to endothelial dysfunction were measured. Maximum acetylcholine-induced relaxation was impaired in the mesenteric arteries of the lard-fed dams (max % relaxation: lard-fed, 69.7 +/- 6.48; control, 85.37 +/- 2.69, P = 0.03). Uterine artery vascular function was similar in the two groups (max % acetylcholine-induced relaxation: lard-fed, 73.7 +/- 4.01; control, 77.5 +/- 4.72, P = 0.98). Concentrations of plasma lipids, 8-epi-PGF(2alpha) and leptin were normal, whereas insulin and corticosterone concentrations were raised in the lard-fed group (insulin (ng ml(-1)): lard-fed, 8.04 +/- 0.47; control, 1.35 +/- 0.37, P < 0.0001; corticosterone (ng ml(-1)): lard-fed, 1164.0 +/- 170.9; control, 541.9 +/- 96.3, P = 0.005). Fetal and placental weights were reduced in lard-fed dams (fetus (g): lard-fed, 4.27 +/- 0.38; control, 2.96 +/- 0.40, P = 0.025; placenta (g): lard-fed, 0.72 +/- 0.06; control, 0.57 +/- 0.04, P = 0.05). Cardiovascular dysfunction in offspring is not associated with reduced uterine artery endothelial function but is associated with activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, hyperinsulinaemia and fetoplacental growth retardation.

  8. Kinematic gait analysis and lactation performance in dairy cows fed a diet supplemented with zinc, manganese, copper and cobalt.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Ito, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Kii; Matsushima, Yuki; Watanabe, Izumi; Watanabe, Yutaka; Abiko, Keima; Kamada, Toshihiko; Sato, Kan

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated how supplementation of the diet of dairy cows with trace minerals (zinc, manganese, copper and cobalt) affected kinematic gait parameters and lactation performance. Eight Holstein cows were divided into two groups, with each group receiving a different dietary treatment (control diet, or control diet supplemented with trace minerals) in a two-period crossover design. Kinematic gait parameters were calculated by using image analysis software. Compared to cows fed the control diet, cows that received the trace mineral-supplemented diet exhibited significantly increased walking and stepping rates, and had a shorter stance duration. Feed intake and milk production increased in cows fed the trace mineral-supplemented diet compared with control groups. The plasma manganese concentration was not different in control and experimental cows. In contrast, cobalt was only detected in the plasma of cows fed the supplemented diet. These results provide the first evidence that trace mineral supplementation of the diet of dairy cows affects locomotion, and that the associated gait changes can be detected by using kinematic gait analysis. Moreover, trace mineral supplementation improved milk production and only minimally altered blood and physiological parameters in dairy cows.

  9. A Krill Oil Supplemented Diet Suppresses Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals. PMID:22685607

  10. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    PubMed

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  11. Rearing conditions influence nutrient availability of plant extracts supplemented diets when fed to broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pirgozliev, V; Bravo, D; Rose, S P

    2014-08-01

    The effects of a standardised mixture of essential oils, including 5% carvacrol, 3% cinnamaldehyde and 2% capsicum (XT 6930; Pancosma S.A), on dietary apparent metabolisable energy corrected for nitrogen retention (AMEn), nutrient digestibility and mucin secretions, measured as sialic acid (SA) were investigated in broilers fed on the same diet but reared under different conditions, that is, cages and floor pens littered with wood shavings used in previous broiler study. The use of XT reduced (p < 0.05) nitrogen digestibility (0.585 vs. 0.544) and tended (p = 0.072) to reduce dry matter digestibility (0.733 vs. 0.717) of the diet when fed to birds reared in cages. However, XT supplementation improved (p < 0.05) fat digestibility (0.844 vs. 0.862) and tended (p = 0.093) to increase AMEn (14.01 vs. 14.25 MJ/kg DM) of the same diet when fed to broilers reared in floor pens. Essential oils supplementation tended (p = 0.059) to increase the secretion of SA, when fed to birds reared in cages (11.24 vs. 14.18 μg), but did not influence (p > 0.05) the SA secretion from birds reared in floor pens. The results obtained from the cage study tend to be the opposite of those obtained from the floor pen study. This suggests that the efficiency of dietary plant extracts may be influenced by the rearing/hygienic conditions of poultry. Based on the overall results, it can be concluded that information on rearing conditions should be taken into account for more complete interpretation of the experimental data emanating from experiments involving use of essential oils typified by those considered in this study.

  12. Nutrient utilization and manure P excretion in growing pigs fed corn-barley-soybean based diets supplemented with microbial phytase.

    PubMed

    Emiola, Adewale; Akinremi, Oluwole; Slominski, Bogdan; Nyachoti, C Martin

    2009-02-01

    The effect of high levels of microbial phytase supplementation in diets for growing pigs was studied in a 2-week performance and nutrient digestibility trial involving 28 growing pigs weighing 16.4 +/- 1.06 (mean +/- SD) kg. Seven corn-barley-soybean meal-based diets consisting of a positive control (PC) formulated to meet or exceed NRC nutrient requirements; a negative control (NC) with non-phytate P reduced by 0.1% unit from NRC requirement and fed without or with 500 or 1000 U/kg; a doubled negative control (DNC) with no added inorganic P and fed without or with 2000 or 4000 U/kg. Chromic oxide was added as an indigestible marker and all diets were fed as mash. Pigs fed the PC diet had a higher P digestibility compared with those fed the NC (P < 0.02) and the DNC (P < 0.001) diets. Supplementing the NC diet with pyhtase tended to improve P digestibility (P < 0.10). However, addition of phytase to the DNC diet resulted in linear (P < 0.001) and quadratic (P < 0.03) increases in P digestibility with an overall improvement of 8% and 121% at 4000 phytase U/kg of diet, respectively, compared with the PC and DNC diets. Apparent total tract digestibility of N, OM and DM were higher (P < 0.05) in the PC diet compared with the DNC diet, but not the NC diet (P < 0.10). No effect of phytase addition to NC was observed on Ca, N, DM and OM digestibility. Phytase addition to the DNC diet resulted in a linear increase (P < 0.05) in N, DM and OM digestibility but not Ca. Increasing the levels of phytase supplementation in the NC and the DNC diets linearly decreased fecal P (P < 0.05) content by 45 and 42%, respectively. Adding phytase at 1000 or 4000 U/kg increased P retention (P < 0.05) by 14.3 or 15.6% units, respectively, compared with the PC diet. Urinary P excretion was higher in the group fed the PC diet compared with those fed the NC and DNC diets (P < 0.05). The results of this study show that complete removal of inorganic P from growing pig diets coupled with phytase

  13. Some physicochemical bone parameters of sows fed microbial phytase-supplemented diet.

    PubMed

    Czech, A; Grela, E R

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of microbial phytase addition to sow diets on a mineral content, mineralization level and geometric parameters of femoral and humeral bone. The studies were done on 75 sows assigned to 3 feeding groups. The animals from group I (positive control) were fed a diet of standard calcium and phosphorus dietary contents which complied with the requirements of the Polish Norms for Pig Nutrition (1993). The sows from group II (negative control) received a diet without an inorganic phosphorus content and finally, group III was provided with a diet without an inorganic phosphorus additive, but supplemented with microbial phytase (500 PU kg(-1)) and formic acid. After lactation completion and piglet weaning, 4 sows were selected from each group for slaughter and laboratory evaluation of femoral and humeral bone samples. The bone samples were examined for a content of dry matter, crude ash and minerals (phosphorus, Ca+2, Mg+2, Mn+2, Zn+2, Cu+2). The isolated femurs were analyzed for a mineralization degree and geometric parameters. A combined microbial phytase with formic acid supplementation significantly increased manganese and zinc concentration in femoral bone and a level of phosphorus, calcium, zinc and iron in humeral bone of sows. There was also observed significantly higher trabecular bone mineral density (Td) in the femoral bone as well as the bone volume. The evaluation of geometric parameters and bone cortical indices showed a significant influence of the sow feedstuff supplementation with microbial phytase and formic acid on the parameters studied.

  14. Phlorizin Supplementation Attenuates Obesity, Inflammation, and Hyperglycemia in Diet-Induced Obese Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Shin, Su-Kyung; Cho, Su-Jung; Jung, Un Ju; Ryu, Ri; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2016-02-16

    Obesity, along with its related complications, is a serious health problem worldwide. Many studies reported the anti-diabetic effect of phlorizin, while little is known about its anti-obesity effect. We investigated the beneficial effects of phlorizin on obesity and its complications, including diabetes and inflammation in obese animal. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups and fed their respective experimental diets for 16 weeks: a normal diet (ND, 5% fat, w/w), high-fat diet (HFD, 20% fat, w/w), or HFD supplemented with phlorizin (PH, 0.02%, w/w). The findings revealed that the PH group had significantly decreased visceral and total white adipose tissue (WAT) weights, and adipocyte size compared to the HFD. Plasma and hepatic lipids profiles also improved in the PH group. The decreased levels of hepatic lipids in PH were associated with decreased activities of enzymes involved in hepatic lipogenesis, cholesterol synthesis and esterification. The PH also suppressed plasma pro-inflammatory adipokines levels such as leptin, adipsin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-γ, and interleukin-6, and prevented HFD-induced collagen accumulation in the liver and WAT. Furthermore, the PH supplementation also decreased plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance levels. In conclusion, phlorizin is beneficial for preventing diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as insulin resistance.

  15. Starch digestibility, energy utilization, and growth performance of broilers fed corn-soybean basal diets supplemented with enzymes.

    PubMed

    Stefanello, C; Vieira, S L; Santiago, G O; Kindlein, L; Sorbara, J O B; Cowieson, A J

    2015-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary α-amylase and β-xylanase supplementation of corn-soy diets, formulated with or without supplemental phytase, on growth performance, energy utilization, and starch digestibility in broiler chickens. A total of 336 slow-feathering, Cobb × Cobb 500 male broilers were randomly distributed to 6 treatments having 8 replicates of 7 birds each. Birds were fed a common starter diet to d 14 post-hatch (3,050 kcal/kg AMEn, 21.7% CP, 1.05% Ca, and 0.53% nPP). The experimental diets were provided afterwards until d 25. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of 2 control diets (basal = corn-soy diet without added phytase or PHY = corn-soy diet formulated with 1,000 phytase units/kg) and 3 carbohydrase supplementations (0, 80 kilo-Novo α-amylase units/kg, or 80 kilo-Novo α-amylase units/kg + 100 fungal β-xylanase units/kg) was used from d 14 to 25. Excreta were collected from 21 to 24 d and all birds were euthanized at 25 d for jejunum and ileum content collection. Samples of feed, excreta, and jejunal and ileal digesta were analyzed for determination of total tract retention and ileal apparent digestibility. No interactions between diet and carbohydrase were observed. Broilers fed diets formulated with phytase or supplemented with amylase + xylanase had higher BW gain (BWG) and lower FCR (P < 0.05) when compared with birds fed diets without carbohydrases. Relative to the basal diet, AMEn was increased (P < 0.01) by 70 kcal/kg and 99 kcal/kg when birds were fed the diet supplemented with amylase and amylase + xylanase, respectively. Starch digestibility in the jejunum and ileum was increased (P < 0.05) by 3.5% and 2.4%, respectively, when birds were fed the diet supplemented with amylase + xylanase. Results from this experiment show that corn-soy diets having phytase and supplemented with amylase and xylanase led to increased growth performance, AMEn, and starch digestibility in broilers. Furthermore, the efficacy of

  16. Oxyresveratrol Supplementation to C57bl/6 Mice Fed with a High-Fat Diet Ameliorates Obesity-Associated Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hui Yuan; Tse, Iris Mei Ying; Li, Edmund Tsze Shing; Wang, Mingfu

    2017-01-01

    Oxyresveratrol has been proven effective in inhibiting adipogenesis in a 3T3-L1 cell model. We investigated the preventive effect of oxyresveratrol supplementation on obesity development in high-fat diet-fed mice. Male C57bl/6 mice were randomly subjected to control (5% fat by weight, LF), high-fat (30% fat by weight, HF), and high-fat supplemented with 0.25% and 0.5% oxyresveratrol (OXY1 and OXY2, respectively) diet groups for eight weeks. Oxyresveratrol supplementation effectively alleviated obesity-associated symptoms such as insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-fed mice. Compared to the high-fat diet group, oxyresveratrol supplementation suppressed expression of glucose-6-phosphatase, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins 1, fatty acid synthase and CCAAT/Enhancer-binding proteins α, and elevated AMP-activated protein kinase (α2-catalytic subunit) level in liver, upregulated insulin-dependent glucose transporter type 4 level in adipose tissue, and increased expression of insulin receptor substrate 1, insulin-dependent glucose transporter type 4, AMP-activated protein kinase α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α, and sirtuin 1 in muscle to regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis in these tissues. This study demonstrated that oxyresveratrol supplementation effectively ameliorated obesity-associated symptoms in high-fat diet-fed mice, presumably attributed to mediating critical regulators involved in lipid and glucose homeostasis in liver, visceral fat, and muscle. PMID:28212343

  17. Oxyresveratrol Supplementation to C57bl/6 Mice Fed with a High-Fat Diet Ameliorates Obesity-Associated Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hui Yuan; Tse, Iris Mei Ying; Li, Edmund Tsze Shing; Wang, Mingfu

    2017-02-16

    Oxyresveratrol has been proven effective in inhibiting adipogenesis in a 3T3-L1 cell model. We investigated the preventive effect of oxyresveratrol supplementation on obesity development in high-fat diet-fed mice. Male C57bl/6 mice were randomly subjected to control (5% fat by weight, LF), high-fat (30% fat by weight, HF), and high-fat supplemented with 0.25% and 0.5% oxyresveratrol (OXY1 and OXY2, respectively) diet groups for eight weeks. Oxyresveratrol supplementation effectively alleviated obesity-associated symptoms such as insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-fed mice. Compared to the high-fat diet group, oxyresveratrol supplementation suppressed expression of glucose-6-phosphatase, sterol regulatory element-binding proteins 1, fatty acid synthase and CCAAT/Enhancer-binding proteins α, and elevated AMP-activated protein kinase (α2-catalytic subunit) level in liver, upregulated insulin-dependent glucose transporter type 4 level in adipose tissue, and increased expression of insulin receptor substrate 1, insulin-dependent glucose transporter type 4, AMP-activated protein kinase α, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α, and sirtuin 1 in muscle to regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis in these tissues. This study demonstrated that oxyresveratrol supplementation effectively ameliorated obesity-associated symptoms in high-fat diet-fed mice, presumably attributed to mediating critical regulators involved in lipid and glucose homeostasis in liver, visceral fat, and muscle.

  18. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in middle-aged mice fed a high-fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consuming a high-fat diet may result in behavioral deficits similar to those observed in aging animals; our lab has demonstrated that blueberry supplementation can allay age-related behavioral deficits. To determine if supplementation of a high-fat diet with blueberries offers protection against put...

  19. Effects of supplemental organic cobalt on nutrient digestion and nitrogen balance in lambs fed forage-based diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplemental organic cobalt on nutrient digestion and nitrogen balance in lambs fed forage-based diets. Sixteen wether lambs (avg initial BW = 28.6 ± 1.3 kg) were used in a 2 × 2 Latin square and randomly allotted to one of two treatments b...

  20. Hepatic Gene Expression Related to Lower Plasma Cholesterol in Hamsters Fed High Fat Diets Supplemented with Blueberry Pomace and Extract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We analyzed plasma lipid profiles, and genes related to cholesterol and bile acid metabolism, and inflammation in livers as well as adipose tissue from Syrian Golden hamsters fed high-fat diets supplemented with blueberry (BB) pomace byproducts including 8% dried whole blueberry peels (BBPWHL), 2% d...

  1. Enzyme supplementation to improve the nutritional value of fibrous feed ingredients in swine diets fed in dry or liquid form.

    PubMed

    Moran, K; de Lange, C F M; Ferket, P; Fellner, V; Wilcock, P; van Heugten, E

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of xylanase supplementation (with or without), feeding method (dry or liquid), and feedstuff (corn distiller's dried grains with solubles [DDGS] or wheat middlings) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of GE and nutrients, intestinal morphology, ileal and cecal pH, and VFA concentrations. Sixty-four growing pigs (25.87 ± 0.38kg initial BW) were blocked by BW and sex and randomly assigned to 8 dietary treatments. Within each feedstuff, diets were fed either liquid or dry, without or with xylanase (24,000 birch xylan units/kg feed), for 16 d. Diets contained 3.32 and 3.19 Mcal/kg ME for DDGS- and wheat middlings-based diets, respectively. Pigs were fed restricted at 3 times maintenance ME requirements. Liquid diets were prepared by steeping DDGS or wheat middlings with water (1:3, wt/vol) with or without xylanase for 24 h followed by mixing with a basal ingredient mixture and water to achieve a final ratio of 1:2.5 (wt/vol). During steeping of wheat middlings, some fiber degradation occurred. When xylanase was added in dry wheat middlings diets, AID of GE ( < 0.10) and NDF ( < 0.05) increased compared with dry wheat middlings diets without xylanase (64.50 vs. 54.67% and 52.88 vs. 31.69%, respectively), but supplementation of xylanase did not impact AID of GE and NDF when liquid wheat middlings diets were fed. Xylanase in liquid DDGS diets increased ( < 0.05) the AID of NDF compared with liquid DDGS diets without xylanase, but xylanase did not affect AID of NDF in dry DDGS diets. Xylanase in wheat middlings diets improved ( < 0.05) ATTD of GE and N compared with wheat middlings diets without xylanase (80.37 vs. 78.07% and 80.23 vs. 77.94%, respectively). However, there was no effect of xylanase in DDGS diets. Pigs fed DDGS diets had greater concentrations of butyrate in the cecum ( = 0.001) than pigs fed wheat middlings diets (27.6 vs. 20.4 mmol/L). Pigs fed DDGS diets with xylanase had

  2. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in middle-aged mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Carey, Amanda N; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2014-05-07

    Consuming a high-fat diet may result in behavioral deficits similar to those observed in aging animals. It has been demonstrated that blueberry supplementation can allay age-related behavioral deficits. To determine if supplementation of a high-fat diet with blueberries offers protection against putative high-fat diet-related declines, 9-month-old C57Bl/6 mice were maintained on low-fat (10% fat calories) or high-fat (60% fat calories) diets with and without 4% freeze-dried blueberry powder. Novel object recognition memory was impaired by the high-fat diet; after 4 months on the high-fat diet, mice spent 50% of their time on the novel object in the testing trial, performing no greater than chance performance. Blueberry supplementation prevented recognition memory deficits after 4 months on the diets, as mice on this diet spent 67% of their time on the novel object. After 5 months on the diets, mice consuming the high-fat diet passed through the platform location less often than mice on low-fat diets during probe trials on days 2 and 3 of Morris water maze testing, whereas mice consuming the high-fat blueberry diet passed through the platform location as often as mice on the low-fat diets. This study is a first step in determining if incorporating more nutrient-dense foods into a high-fat diet can allay cognitive dysfunction.

  3. Hemato-Immunological Responses and Disease Resistance in Siberian Sturgeon Acipenser baerii Fed on a Supplemented Diet of Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Pourgholam, Moheb Ali; Khara, Hossein; Safari, Reza; Sadati, Mohammad Ali Yazdani; Aramli, Mohammad Sadegh

    2017-03-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of dietary Lactobacillus plantarum on hemato-immunological parameters and resistance against Streptococcus iniae infection in juvenile Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii. Fish (14.6 ± 2.3 g) were fed three experimental diets prepared by supplementing a basal diet with L. plantarum at different concentrations [1 × 10(7), 1 × 10(8) and 1 × 10(9) colony-forming units (cfu) g(-1)] and a control (non-supplemented basal) diet for 8 weeks. Innate immune responses (immunoglobulin (Ig), alternative complement activity (ACH50) and lysozyme activity) were significantly higher in fish fed the 1 × 10(8) and 1 × 10(9) cfu g(-1) L. plantarum diet compared to the other groups (P < 0.05). Furthermore, fish fed on various levels of L. plantarum significantly showed higher red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), white blood cell (WBC) and monocyte compared to those of the control group (P < 0.05). At the end of the feeding experiment, some fish were challenged with S. iniae to quantify the level of disease resistance. The mortality after S. iniae challenge was decreased in fish fed a probiotic. These results indicated that dietary supplementation of L. plantarum improved immune response and disease resistance of Siberian sturgeon juvenile.

  4. Effects of copper sulfate supplement on growth, tissue concentration, and ruminal solubilities of molybdenum and copper in sheep fed low and high molybdenum diets

    SciTech Connect

    Ivan, M.; Veira, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Each of four groups of six wethers were fed one of a low molybdenum, high molybdenum, high molybdenum plus copper sulfate, or high molybdenum plus copper sulfate corn silage-based diet for ad libitum intake for 221 days. Average daily gains and ratios of feed/gain were depressed for the high molybdenum diet as compared with the low molybdenum diet suggesting molybdenum toxicity in sheep fed the high molybdenum diet. This was alleviated partly by the copper sulfate supplement. The supplement also decreased solubility of both copper and molybdenum in the rumen but had no effect on copper concentration in blood plasma. Concentration of molybdenum was higher in both liver and kidney in sheep fed high-molybdenum diets as compared with low-molybdenum diets. Copper concentration was higher in kidneys of sheep fed high-molybdenum diets, but no difference was significant in liver copper between sheep fed diets high or low in molybdenum.

  5. Carcass and meat quality traits of chickens fed diets concurrently supplemented with vitamins C and E under constant heat stress.

    PubMed

    Zeferino, C P; Komiyama, C M; Pelícia, V C; Fascina, V B; Aoyagi, M M; Coutinho, L L; Sartori, J R; Moura, A S A M T

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a diet supplemented simultaneously with vitamins C and E would alleviate the negative effects of heat stress, applied between 28 and 42 days of age, on performance, carcass and meat quality traits of broiler chickens. A total of 384 male broiler chickens were assigned to a completely randomized design, with a 2×3 factorial arrangement (diet with or without vitamin supplementation and two ambient temperatures plus a pair-feeding group) and 16 replicates. Chickens were kept in thermoneutral conditions up to 28 days of age. They were then housed in groups of four per cage, in three environmentally controlled chambers: two thermoneutral (22.5 and 22.6°C) and one for heat stress (32°C). Half the chickens were fed a diet supplemented with vitamins C (257 to 288 mg/kg) and E (93 to 109 mg/kg). In the thermoneutral chambers, half of the chickens were pair-fed to heat stressed chickens, receiving each day the average feed intake recorded in the heat stress chamber in the previous day. Meat physical quality analyses were performed on the pectoralis major muscle. No ambient temperature×diet supplementation interaction effects were detected on performance, carcass, or meat quality traits. The supplemented diet resulted in lower growth performance, attributed either to a carry-over effect of the lower initial BW, or to a possible catabolic effect of vitamins C and E when supplemented simultaneously at high levels. Heat stress reduced slaughter and carcass weights, average daily gain and feed intake, and increased feed conversion. Growth performance of pair-fed chickens was similar to that of heat stressed chickens. Exposure to heat stress increased carcass and abdominal fat percentages, but reduced breast, liver and heart percentages. Pair-fed chickens showed the lowest fat percentage and their breast percentage was similar to controls. Heat stress increased meat pH and negatively affected meat color and cooking loss. In pair-fed

  6. Long-term vitamin E supplementation reduces atherosclerosis and mortality in Ldlr-/- mice, but not when fed Western style diet

    PubMed Central

    Meydani, Mohsen; Kwan, Paul; Band, Michael; Knight, Ashley; Guo, Weimin; Goutis, Jason; Ordovas, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Epidemiological and experimental evidence have indicated potential health benefits of vitamin E supplementation on coronary heart disease (CHD), but several clinical trials have reported no benefit from vitamin E supplementation on CHD. We hypothesized that supplemental intake of vitamin E from an early age may prevent or retard the development and progression of atherosclerosis and CHD mortality. Methods To test this hypothesis, 300 Ldlr-/- mice were divided into groups receiving Western style high fat/cholesterol (HFHC), moderate fat/cholesterol (MFMC), or low fat/cholesterol (LFLC) diets all containing 50 IU of vitamin E. These dietary groups were further subdivided into four sub-groups (N=25) receiving their respective diets with no vitamin E supplementation or additionally supplemented with vitamin E (500 IU/kg diet) starting at the early age of 5 wks, or 6 mo, or 12 mo. All mice remained on their assigned diets until age 18 mo. Body weight, health status and survival rate of mice were monitored and recorded. After 18 mo of dietary treatments, mice were sacrificed. Results Body weight was the highest in HFHC groups and the lowest in LFLC groups. Plasma concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides was high in all dietary groups, and plasma vitamin E was high in vitamin E supplemented groups. Fifty percent of mice fed Western style HFHC diet and 53% of mice fed MFMC diet survived during the 18 mo, whereas 75% of mice fed LFLC diet survived during the 18 mo dietary treatments. At the age of 18 mo, all the Ldlr-/- mice, regardless of dietary treatments, had several advanced atherosclerotic lesions in both aortic root and aortic tree. Within the LFLC groups, those that received vitamin E supplements from age 5 wks up to 18 mo had a significantly higher survival rate of 88% (p=0.04) and lower mortality (12%) compared to mice that did not receive vitamin E supplements (64%). This lower mortality rate and higher survival rate coincided with significantly

  7. Effects of dietary cholesterol supplementation on growth and cholesterol metabolism of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets with cottonseed meal or rapeseed meal.

    PubMed

    Deng, Junming; Zhang, Xi; Long, Xiaowen; Tao, Linli; Wang, Zhen; Niu, Guoyi; Kang, Bin

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of cholesterol on growth and cholesterol metabolism of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets with cottonseed meal (CSM) or rapeseed meal (RSM). Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 550 g kg(-1) CSM or 450 g kg(-1) RSM with or without 9 g kg(-1) supplemental cholesterol. Growth rate and feed utilization efficiency of fish fed diets with 450 g kg(-1) RSM were inferior to fish fed diets with 550 g kg(-1) CSM regardless of cholesterol level. Dietary cholesterol supplementation increased the growth rate of fish fed diets with RSM, and growth rate and feed utilization efficiency of fish fed diets with CSM. Similarly, dietary cholesterol supplementation increased the plasma total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triiodothyronine levels, but decreased the plasma triglycerides and cortisol levels of fish fed diets with RSM or CSM. In addition, supplemental cholesterol increased the free cholesterol and TC levels in intestinal contents, but decreased the hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase activity of fish fed diets with RSM or CSM. These results indicate that 9 g kg(-1) cholesterol supplementation seems to improve the growth of rainbow trout fed diets with CSM or RSM, and the growth-promoting action may be related to the alleviation of the negative effects caused by antinutritional factors and/or make up for the deficiency of endogenous cholesterol in rainbow trout.

  8. Zinc bioavailability in rats fed a plant-based diet: a study of fermentation and zinc supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Lazarte, Claudia E.; Vargas, Mirian; Granfeldt, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Background Zinc deficiency is a significant problem, in developing countries and in vegetarians, which can be caused by plant-based diets. Thus, dietary strategies, such as fermentation, to improve zinc bioavailability of diets should be investigated. Objective To improve zinc bioavailability in a plant-based diet by the inclusion of fermented food. Design Cassava tubers were fermented and made to replace the unfermented cassava in a basal plant-based diet, and compared with plant-based diets with and without zinc supplement. The zinc bioavailability of the diets was evaluated in Wistar rats that were fed these diets for 28 days. The evaluation was for zinc apparent absorption (ZnAA), serum zinc levels, and zinc deposits in liver and femur; in addition, the feed efficiency ratio (FER) of the diets and femur weight (FW) of the rats were evaluated. Results During the cassava fermentation, lactic acid increased and pH decreased (from 6.8 to 3.9), which is favorable for native phytase activity, resulting in a 90.2% reduction of phytate content in cassava. The diet containing fermented cassava showed significantly higher levels of ZnAA, FER, and FW (p<0.001). Moreover, the zinc levels in serum and femur were significantly higher (p<0.001) compared with the results of the diet with unfermented cassava. The results clearly show a higher zinc bioavailability in the diet containing fermented cassava and are comparable with the results obtained with the plant-based diet with zinc supplement. Conclusions In conclusion, the fermentation of cassava reduces the phytate content. The diet containing the fermented cassava represents a better nutritional alternative than the diet with unfermented cassava and is comparable with the zinc-supplemented diets. PMID:26626410

  9. Methyl donor supplementation alters cognitive performance and motivation in female offspring from high-fat diet-fed dams.

    PubMed

    McKee, Sarah E; Grissom, Nicola M; Herdt, Christopher T; Reyes, Teresa M

    2017-02-16

    During gestation, fetal nutrition is entirely dependent on maternal diet. Maternal consumption of excess fat during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of neurologic disorders in offspring, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, and schizophrenia. In a mouse model, high-fat diet (HFD)-fed offspring have cognitive and executive function deficits as well as whole-genome DNA and promoter-specific hypomethylation in multiple brain regions. Dietary methyl donor supplementation during pregnancy or adulthood has been used to alter DNA methylation and behavior. Given that extensive brain development occurs during early postnatal life-particularly within the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a brain region critical for executive function-we examined whether early life methyl donor supplementation (e.g., during adolescence) could ameliorate executive function deficits observed in offspring that were exposed to maternal HFD. By using operant testing, progressive ratio, and the PFC-dependent 5-choice serial reaction timed task (5-CSRTT), we determined that F1 female offspring (B6D2F1/J) from HFD-fed dams have decreased motivation (decreased progressive ratio breakpoint) and require a longer stimulus length to complete the 5-CSRTT task successfully, whereas early life methyl donor supplementation increased motivation and shortened the minimum stimulus length required for a correct response in the 5-CSRTT. Of interest, we found that expression of 2 chemokines, CCL2 and CXCL10, correlated with the median stimulus length in the 5-CSRTT. Furthermore, we found that acute adult supplementation of methyl donors increased motivation in HFD-fed offspring and those who previously received supplementation with methyl donors. These data point to early life as a sensitive time during which dietary methyl donor supplementation can alter PFC-dependent cognitive behaviors.-McKee, S. E., Grissom, N. M., Herdt, C. T., Reyes, T. M. Methyl donor supplementation alters

  10. Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini-Vashan, S. J.; Golian, A.; Yaghobfar, A.

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the total and IgG titers

  11. Effect of supplemental tallow on performance of dairy cows fed diets with different corn silage:alfalfa silage ratios.

    PubMed

    Onetti, S G; Shaver, R D; McGuire, M A; Palmquist, D L; Grummer, R R

    2002-03-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the response to supplemental tallow of lactating cows fed basal diets with different alfalfa silage:corn silage ratios. We postulated that supplemental tallow will have decreasing negative effects on rumen fermentation, dry matter intake (DMI), and milk fat percentage as the dietary ratio of alfalfa silage:corn silage is increased. Eighteen Holstein cows averaging 134 +/- 14 d in milk were used in a replicated 6 x 6 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 3 factorial with 0 or 2% tallow (DM basis) and three forage treatments: 1) 50% of diet DM as corn silage, 2) 37.5% corn silage and 12.5% alfalfa silage, and 3) 25% corn silage and 25% alfalfa silage. Cows were allowed ad libitum consumption of a total mixed ration. Diets were formulated to contain 18% crude protein and 32% neutral detergent fiber. No fat x forage treatment interactions were observed. Fat supplemented cows had lower DMI and produced more milk with less milk fat content relative to non-supplemented cows. Concentration of trans-octadecenoic acids was higher in milk fat of tallow-supplemented cows. Tallow supplementation had no effect on ruminal pH and acetate:propionate ratio, but tended to decrease total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration in the rumen. Increasing the proportion of alfalfa silage increased DMI, milk fat percentage, and milk fat yield regardless of the fat content of the diet. Total VFA concentration and acetate:propionate ratio in the rumen were increased in response to higher levels of alfalfa in the diets. These results suggest that replacing corn silage with alfalfa silage did not alleviate the negative response of dairy cows to tallow supplementation at 2% of diet DM.

  12. A study of fluctuations in Escherichia coli sensitivity patterns from pigs fed a halquinol supplemented diet.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, R F; Forster, T C; Jones, G T; Pickles, R W

    1981-03-01

    Escherichia coli isolated from pigs fed on a medicated diet containing 120 p.p.m. halquinol did not develop any resistance to this addition over a 6-week period. Sensitivity patterns of the E. coli isolates to eight antimicrobial substances, although fluctuating slightly during the test period (but no more than a control group), did not significantly alter. However, the patterns did change significantly when for 17 days after the completion of the halquinol trial the pigs were fed a normal commercial ration medicated with a commonly used feed additive containing chlortetracycline hydrochloride, procaine penicillin and sulphadimidine.

  13. Performance and nutrient digestibility in growing pigs fed wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles-containing diets supplemented with phytase and multi-carbohydrase.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, Tofuko A; Ige, Dupe V; Akinremi, Oluwole O; Nyachoti, Charles M

    2016-04-01

    Effect of supplementing wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS)-containing diet with enzymes on nutrient utilization by growing pigs was evaluated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, 60 pigs weighing ~30 kg were fed five diets that included a corn-based diet (Control), Control with 10% wheat DDGS (DDGS-PC), DDGS-PC without inorganic P source (DDGS-NC), and DDGS-NC plus phytase alone or with multi-carbohydrase for 4 weeks to determine average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and gain-to-feed ratio (G:F). In Experiment 2, 30 barrows weighing 22 kg were fed five diets fed in Experiment 1 to determine nutrient digestibility and retention. Pigs fed DDGS-PC and Control diets had similar ADG and G:F. The ADG and G:F for DDGS-PC diet were higher (P < 0.05) than those for DDGS-NC diet. Phytase improved (P < 0.05) ADG, G:F, total tract P digestibility and P retention by 6.6, 8.7, 86.0 and 85.5%, respectively. Addition of multi-carbohydrase to phytase-supplemented diet did not affected growth performance, but reduced (P < 0.05) P retention. In conclusion, inclusion of 10% wheat DDGS in growing pig diet may not affect growth performance of growing pigs. Phytase supplementation to wheat DDGS-containing diet can eliminate the need for inorganic P supplement in pig diets.

  14. Effect of browse plant foliage supplementation on the performance of buckling goats fed threshed sorghum top basal diet.

    PubMed

    Isah, Olubukola Ajike; Okunade, Sunday Adewale; Aderinboye, Ronke Yemisi; Olafadehan, Olurotimi Ayobami

    2015-08-01

    The effect of browse plants (Piliostigma thonningii, Daniellia oliveri, Afzelia africana, Pterocarpus erinaceus and Annona senegalensis) supplementation on nutrient intake, digestibility, nutritive value and N utilization and growth performance of buckling goats fed threshed sorghum top (TST) was investigated using 24 Red Sokoto goats (9.0 ± 0.25 kg) body weight (BW) which were randomly assigned to one of the six diets in a completely random design. Intakes of dry matter (DM) and nutrients, feed conversion ratio, digestibility of nutrients except for neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF), digestible organic matter (DOM), digestible crude protein (DCP), energy concentration, N utilization and average daily gain were superior (P < 0.05) in TST-supplemented diets compared to sole TST diet. Among the supplemental fodders, intakes of forage, DM, condensed tannins and most of the nutrients; digestibility of DM, crude protein (CP) and non-fibre carbohydrate, DOM and DCP; and N absorbed, balance and retention were greater (P < 0.05) in A. africana relative to the other fodders. Results indicate that the entire browse fodders are good supplements to low quality TST, though A. africana appears to have a better nutritive value.

  15. Green tea supplementation benefits body composition and improves bone properties in obese female rats fed with high-fat diet and caloric restricted diet.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Han, Jia; Wang, Shu; Chung, Eunhee; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Cao, Jay J

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) supplementation on body composition, bone properties, and serum markers in obese rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a caloric restricted diet (CRD). Forty-eight female rats were fed an HFD ad libitum for 4 months, and then either continued on the HFD or the CRD with or without 0.5% GTP in water. Body composition, bone efficacy, and serum markers were measured. We hypothesized that GTP supplementation would improve body composition, mitigate bone loss, and restore bone microstructure in obese animals fed either HFD or CRD. CRD lowered percent fat mass; bone mass and trabecular number of tibia, femur and lumbar vertebrae; femoral strength; trabecular and cortical thickness of tibia; insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. CRD also increased percent fat-free mass; trabecular separation of tibia and femur; eroded surface of tibia; bone formation rate and erosion rate at tibia shaft; and adiponectin. GTP supplementation increased femoral mass and strength (P = .026), trabecular thickness (P = .012) and number (P = .019), and cortical thickness of tibia (P < .001), and decreased trabecular separation (P = .021), formation rate (P < .001), and eroded surface (P < .001) at proximal tibia, and insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. There were significant interactions (diet type × GTP) on osteoblast surface/bone surface, mineral apposition rate at periosteal and endocortical bones, periosteal bone formation rate, and trabecular thickness at femur and lumbar vertebrate (P < .05). This study demonstrates that GTP supplementation for 4 months benefited body composition and improved bone microstructure and strength in obese rats fed with HFD or HFD followed by CRD diet.

  16. Growth, immune, antioxidant, and bone responses of heat stress-exposed broilers fed diets supplemented with tomato pomace.

    PubMed

    Hosseini-Vashan, S J; Golian, A; Yaghobfar, A

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of supplementation of dried tomato pomace (DTP) on growth performance, relative weights of viscera, serum biological parameters, antioxidant status, immune response, and bone composition of broilers exposed to a high ambient temperature. A total of 352 one-day-old male broiler chickens were randomly divided into four groups consisting of four replicates with 22 birds each. One group was reared under the thermoneutral zone and fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet. The other three groups were subjected to a cyclic heat stress from 29 to 42 days of age (34 ± 1 °C, 55 % RH, 5 h/day). These birds were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 3 % DTP (420 mg lycopene/kg diet) or 5 % (708 mg lycopene/kg diet) of DTP. Blood samples were collected on days 28 and 42, and the birds were slaughtered at the same times. Supplementation of 5 % of DTP increased body weight and production index and decreased feed conversion ratio during 1-28 days of age. On day 28, the broilers supplemented with 5 % DTP had lower serum triglycerides and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration than those on the other dietary treatments. The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were higher and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) was lower in the broilers fed 5 % TP than those of the broilers fed other diets at 28 days of age. The effects of heat stress (HS) were impaired body weight, enhanced serum activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lipase, and MDA concentration while reducing the activities of GPx and SOD. Dried tomato pomace supplementation did not influence growth performance under HS but ameliorated the negative effects of HS on the serum enzyme activities, GPx activity, and lipid peroxidation. Heat stress did not change the relative weights of the lymphoid organs but reduced the

  17. Nutrient digestibility and performance responses of growing pigs fed phytase- and xylanase-supplemented wheat-based diets.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Sands, J S; Guenter, W; Nyachoti, C M

    2008-04-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementing phytase and xylanase on nutrient digestibility and performance of growing pigs fed wheat-based diets. In Exp. 1, 10 diets were fed to 60 pigs from 20 to 60 kg of BW to determine the effect of combining phytase and xylanase on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and growth performance. The 10 diets included a positive control diet (PC; 0.23% available P; 0.60% Ca) and a negative control diet (NC; 0.16% available P; 0.50% Ca) supplemented with phytase at 0, 250, and 500 fytase units (FTU)/kg and xylanase at 0, 2,000, and 4,000 xylanase units (XU)/kg in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement. In Exp. 2, 6 ileally cannulated barrows (initial BW = 35.1 kg) were fed 4 wheat-based diets in a 4 x 4 Latin square design, with 2 added columns to determine the effect of combining phytase and xylanase on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients. The 4 diets were NC (same as that used in Exp. 1) or NC supplemented with phytase at 500 FTU/kg, xylanase at 4,000 XU/kg, or phytase at 500 FTU/kg plus xylanase at 4,000 XU/kg. In Exp. 3, 36 barrows (initial BW = 55.5 kg) were fed 4 diets based on prepelleted (at 80 degrees C) and crumpled wheat for 2 wk to determine the effect of phytase supplementation on ATTD of nutrients. The 4 diets fed were a PC (0.22% available P; 0.54% Ca) and a NC (0.13% available P; 0.43% Ca) alone or with phytase at 500 or 1,000 FTU/kg. All diets in the 3 experiments contained Cr(2)O(3) as an indigestible marker. No synergistic interactions were detected between phytase and xylanase on any of the response criteria measured in Exp. 1 or 2. There were no dietary effects on growth performance in Exp. 1. In Exp. 1, phytase at 250 FTU/kg increased the ATTD of P and Ca by 51 and 11% at 20 kg of BW or by 54 and 10% at 60 kg of BW, respectively, but increasing the level of phytase to 500 FTU/kg only increased (P < 0.05) ATTD of P at 20 kg of BW. In Exp. 2, phytase at 500 FTU

  18. Modifications of plasma proteome in long-lived rats fed on a coenzyme Q10-supplemented diet.

    PubMed

    Santos-González, Mónica; Gómez Díaz, Consuelo; Navas, Plácido; Villalba, José Manuel

    2007-08-01

    Dietary coenzyme Q(10) prolongs life span of rats fed on a PUFAn-6-enriched diet. Our aim was to analyze changes in the levels of plasma proteins of rats fed on a PUFAn-6 plus coenzyme Q(10)-based diet. This approach could give novel insights into the mechanisms of life span extension by dietary coenzyme Q(10) in the rat. Serum albumin, which decreases with aging in the rat, was significantly increased by coenzyme Q(10) supplementation both at 6 and 24 months. After depletion of the most abundant proteins by affinity chromatography, levels of less abundant plasma proteins were also studied by using 2D-electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass fingerprinting analysis. Our results have shown that lifelong dietary supplementation with coenzyme Q(10) induced significant decreases of plasma hemopexin, apolipoprotein H and inter-alpha-inhibitor H4P heavy chain (at both 6 and 24 months), preprohaptoglobin, fibrinogen gamma-chain precursor, and fetuin-like protein (at 6 months), and alpha-1-antitrypsin precursor and type II peroxiredoxin (at 24 months). On the other hand, coenzyme Q(10) supplementation resulted in significant increases of serine protease inhibitor 3, vitamin D-binding protein (at 6 months), and Apo A-I (at 24 months). Our results support a beneficial role of dietary coenzyme Q(10) decreasing oxidative stress and cardiovascular risk, and modulating inflammation during aging.

  19. Effect of dietary supplementation with clay-based binders on biochemical and histopathological changes in organs of turkey fed with aflatoxin-contaminated diets.

    PubMed

    Lala, A O; Ajayi, O L; Oso, A O; Ajao, M O; Oni, O O; Okwelum, N; Idowu, O M O

    2016-12-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with molecular or nano-clay binders on biochemical and histopathological examination of organs of turkeys fed diets contaminated with aflatoxin B1. Two hundred and sixteen unsexed 1-day-old British United Turkeys were randomly allotted to nine diets in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of diets supplemented with no toxin binder, molecular toxin binder (MTB) and nano-clay toxin binder, each contaminated with 0, 60 and 110 ppb aflatoxin B1 respectively. There were three replicates per treatment with eight turkeys per replicate. Biochemical analyses, organ weights and histopathological changes of some organs were examined at the end of the study which lasted for 84 days. Turkeys fed diets supplemented with molecular and nano-binders showed higher (p < 0.001) total serum protein, reduced (p < 0.001) serum uric acid and GGT concentration values when compared with those fed aflatoxin-contaminated diets supplemented with no binder. Turkeys fed aflatoxin-contaminated diets supplemented with no binder had increased (p < 0.001) AST and ALT concentration when compared with other treatments. The heaviest (p < 0.001) liver and intestinal weight was noticed with turkeys fed diets supplemented with no binder and contaminated with 110 ppb aflatoxin B1 . Pathologically, there was no visible morphological alteration noticed in all turkeys fed uncontaminated diets and nano-clay-supplemented group. Hepatic paleness, hepatomegaly and yellowish discolouration of the liver were observed with turkeys fed diets containing no binder but contaminated with 60 and 110 ppb aflatoxin B1. Intestinal histopathological changes such as goblet cell hyperplasia, villous atrophy and diffuse lymphocytic enteritis were more prominent in turkeys fed diets containing no toxin binder and MTB. In conclusion, there were improved biochemical parameters and reduced deleterious effects of aflatoxin B1 in turkeys fed diet

  20. Supplementing antioxidants to pigs fed diets high in oxidants: II. Effects on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile.

    PubMed

    Lu, T; Harper, A F; Dibner, J J; Scheffler, J M; Corl, B A; Estienne, M J; Zhao, J; Dalloul, R A

    2014-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine effects of dietary supplementation with a blend of antioxidants (ethoxyquin and propyl gallate) on carcass characteristics, meat quality, and fatty acid profile in finishing pigs fed a diet high in oxidants. A total of 100 crossbred barrows (10.9±1.4 kg BW, 36±2 d of age) were randomly allotted to 5 diet treatments (5 replicate pens per treatment, 4 pigs per pen). Treatments included: 1) HO: high oxidant diet containing 5% oxidized soy oil and 10% PUFA source which contributed 5.56% crude fat and 2.05% docosahexanoic acid (DHA) to the diet; 2) VE: the HO diet with 11 IU/kg of added vitamin E; 3) AOX: the HO diet with antioxidant blend (135 mg/kg); 4) VE+AOX: the HO diet with both vitamin E and antioxidant blend; and 5) SC: a standard corn-soy control diet with nonoxidized oil and no PUFA source. The trial lasted for 118 d; on d 83, the HO diet pigs were switched to the SC diet due to very poor health. From that point, the VE pigs displayed the poorest performance. On d 118, 2 pigs from each pen were harvested for sampling. Compared to pigs fed SC diet, the HO and VE pigs (P<0.05) showed lighter carcass weight, less back fat, less lean body mass, and smaller loin eye area. In addition, the VE pigs had decreased dressing percentage than the AOX and VE+AOX pigs (65.7 vs. 75.3 and 74.2%). Compared to the SC pigs, greater moisture percentage (74.7 vs. 77.4%) and less extractable lipid content (2.43 vs. 0.95%) were found in VE fed pigs (P<0.05). Drip loss of loin muscle in VE pigs was less than SC pigs (0.46 vs. 3.98%, P=0.02), which was associated with a trend for a greater 24-h muscle pH (5.74 vs. 5.54, P=0.07). The antioxidant blend addition in the high oxidant diet attenuated all of these effects to levels similar to SC (P>0.05), except a* value (redness) and belly firmness. Visible yellow coloration of backfat and lipofuscin in HO and VE pigs was observed at harvest at d 118. The high oxidant diet resulted in greater

  1. Bacterial growth in ground beef patties made with meat from animals fed diets without or with supplemental vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Cabedo, L; Sofos, J N; Smith, G C

    1998-01-01

    A study was designed to determine populations of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, sorbitol-negative bacteria, and Listeria monocytogenes during display at 4 and 12 degrees C of ground beef patties made with meat from animals fed diets supplemented daily (for 100 days) with 0, 1,000, or 2,000 IU of vitamin E. The patties (113.5 g) were either left uninoculated or were inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 or L. monocytogenes and were tray-overwrapped and stored (at 4 or 12 degrees C for 8 to 10 or 4 to 6 days, respectively) while being continuously exposed to fluorescent light in a display setting. Patties were visually evaluated for overall appearance (based on color and/or discoloration) twice a day and analyzed for microbiological counts at 2-day intervals during display at 4 degrees C and at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 days during display at 12 degrees C. Use of beef from animals fed supplemental vitamin E ("high-vitamin E beef") resulted in ground beef patties which, when stored at 4 degrees C, maintained visually acceptable color longer than did patties made from control beef (from animals not fed supplemental vitamin E), but effects on microbial growth were less pronounced. In general, use of high-vitamin E beef versus control beef in patty manufacture had no major effect on populations of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, sorbitol-negative bacteria, or L. monocytogenes in ground beef patties displayed at 4 or 12 degrees C. Listeria monocytogenes multiplied at 12 degrees C, but growth was similar among ground beef patties made from high-vitamin E beef versus control beef. Overall, changes in bacterial populations were similar in ground beef patties derived from meat from animals with or without added vitamin E in their diets, but control ground beef became visually unacceptable sooner.

  2. Phytase supplementation increases bone mineral density, lean body mass and voluntary physical activity in rats fed a low-zinc diet.

    PubMed

    Scrimgeour, Angus G; Marchitelli, Louis J; Whicker, Jered S; Song, Yang; Ho, Emily; Young, Andrew J

    2010-07-01

    Phytic acid forms insoluble complexes with nutritionally essential minerals, including zinc (Zn). Animal studies show that addition of microbial phytase (P) to low-Zn diets improves Zn status and bone strength. The present study determined the effects of phytase supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD), body composition and voluntary running activity of male rats fed a high phytic acid, low-Zn diet. In a factorial design, rats were assigned to ZnLO (5 mg/kg diet), ZnLO+P (ZnLO diet with 1500 U phytase/kg) or ZnAD (30 mg/kg diet) groups and were divided into voluntary exercise (EX) or sedentary (SED) groups, for 9 weeks. SED rats were significantly heavier from the second week, and no catch-up growth occurred in EX rats. Feed intakes were not different between groups throughout the study. ZnLO animals had decreased food efficiency ratios compared to both phytase-supplemented (ZnLO+P) and Zn-adequate (ZnAD) animals (P<.01 compared to ZnLO). The ZnLO+P and ZnAD rats ran 56-75 km more total distance than ZnLO rats (P<.05), with the ZnLO+P rats running more kilometers per week than the ZnLO rats by Week 6. In vivo DEXA analyses indicate that rats fed phytase-supplemented diets had higher lean body mass (LBM) than those fed ZnLO diets; and that rats fed the Zn-adequate diets had the highest LBM. Body fat (%) was significantly lower in EX rats and was both Zn- and phytase insensitive. Rats fed phytase-supplemented diets had higher bone mineral content (BMC), bone area (BA) and BMD than rats fed ZnLO diets; and in rats fed ZnAD diets these indices were the highest. The dietary effects on BMC, BA and BMD were independent of activity level. We conclude that consuming supplemental dietary phytase or dietary Zn additively enhances Zn status to increase BMD, LBM and voluntary physical activity in rats fed a low-Zn diet. While the findings confirm that bone health is vulnerable to disruption by moderate Zn deficiency in rats, this new data suggests that if dietary Zn is

  3. Growth performance and endogenous losses of broilers fed wheat-based diets with and without essential oils and xylanase supplementation.

    PubMed

    Pirgozliev, V; Bravo, D; Mirza, M W; Rose, S P

    2015-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effect of a supplementary mixture of essential oils, with and without exogenous xylanase, on performance, carcass composition, dietary nitrogen (N)-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn), dry matter retention (DMR), N retention (NR), fat digestibility (FD) coefficients, and endogenous mucin losses (measured as sialic acid, SA) when fed to broiler chickens. Three hundred male Ross 308 broilers in total were reared in floor pens from 0 to 21 d of age. Birds were fed 1 of 3 wheat-based diets: basal diet (215 g/kg CP, 12.12 MJ/kg AME) with either no additive (control diet; C) or 100 g/tonne of a standardized combination of 5% carvacrol, 3% cinnamaldehyde, and 2% capsicum oleoresin (diet XT); or a combination of XT and commercial xylanase enzyme at a rate of 100 g of XT and 2,000 units (U) of xylanase/kg (diet XYL), respectively. Each diet was randomly allocated to 10 pens with 10 birds. Feeding XT and XYL diets improved birds' growth performance (P<0.05). Birds fed XT and XYL diets had an improved caloric conversion ratio (P<0.05) and consumed 1.3 MJ less AMEn per kilogram of growth compared to birds fed the control diet only. Feeding XT improved only the dietary FD coefficient (P<0.05) compared to control-fed birds, but the dietary FD coefficient did not differ for XYL diet (P>0.05). Birds fed XYL diet excreted 35% less endogenous mucin compared to control-fed birds (P<0.05). Birds fed XT alone gained more carcass protein than the control-fed birds (P<0.05) but did not differ from the birds fed XYL diet (P>0.05). There was no indication of a negative interaction between dietary essential oils and xylanase.

  4. Resveratrol supplementation confers neuroprotection in cortical brain tissue of nonhuman primates fed a high-fat/sucrose diet

    PubMed Central

    Bernier, Michel; Wahl, Devin; Ali, Ahmed; Allard, Joanne; Faulkner, Shakeela; Wnorowski, Artur; Sanghvi, Mitesh; Moaddel, Ruin; Alfaras, Irene; Mattison, Julie A.; Tarantini, Stefano; Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Ungvari, Zoltan; Csiszar, Anna; Pearson, Kevin J.; de Cabo, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown positive effects of long-term resveratrol (RSV) supplementation in preventing pancreatic beta cell dysfunction, arterial stiffening and metabolic decline induced by high-fat/high-sugar (HFS) diet in nonhuman primates. Here, the analysis was extended to examine whether RSV may reduce dietary stress toxicity in the cerebral cortex of the same cohort of treated animals. Middle-aged male rhesus monkeys were fed for 2 years with HFS alone or combined with RSV, after which whole-genome microarray analysis of cerebral cortex tissue was carried out along with ELISA, immunofluorescence, and biochemical analyses to examine markers of vascular health and inflammation in the cerebral cortices. A number of genes and pathways that were differentially modulated in these dietary interventions indicated an exacerbation of neuroinflammation (e.g., oxidative stress markers, apoptosis, NF-κB activation) in HFS-fed animals and protection by RSV treatment. The decreased expression of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, dysregulation in endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and reduced capillary density induced by HFS stress were rescued by RSV supplementation. Our results suggest that long-term RSV treatment confers neuroprotection against cerebral vascular dysfunction during nutrient stress. PMID:27070252

  5. Resistant starch reduces colonic and urinary p-cresol in rats fed a tyrosine-supplemented diet, whereas konjac mannan does not.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bixiao; Morioka, Sahya; Nakagawa, Tomoyuki; Hayakawa, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    The effect of resistant starch (RS) and konjac mannan (KM) to maintain and improve the large intestinal environment was compared. Wistar SPF rats were fed the following diets for 4 weeks: negative control diet (C diet), tyrosine-supplemented positive control diet (T diet), and luminacoid supplemented diets containing either high-molecular konjac mannan A (KMAT diet), low-molecular konjac mannan B (KMBT diet), high-amylose cornstarch (HAST diet), or heat-moisture-treated starch (HMTST diet). The luminacoid-fed group had an increased content of short-chain fatty acids in the cecum. HAS caused a significant decrease in p-cresol content in the cecum, whereas KM did not. Urinary p-cresol was reduced in the HAST group compared with the T group, but not the KM fed groups. Deterioration in the large intestinal environment was only improved completely in the HAST and HMTST groups, suggesting that RS is considerably more effective than KM in maintaining the large intestinal environment.

  6. Retention and utilization of amino acids in piglets fed ad libitum or restrictively diets supplemented with organic acids.

    PubMed

    Walz, O P; Pallauf, J

    1997-01-01

    In a metabolic trial 4 groups of 8 piglets of 5 kg weight each were kept individually for 45 days (final weight 23 kg) and fed a practical diet. At the beginning of the experiment the body amino acid contents of an additional group of 8 piglets were determined by carcass analysis, and at the end of the experiment the body amino acid contents of the 4 test group piglets (A = control fed ad libitum, B and C = supplement of 1.5% fumaric acid fed ad libitum or restrictively, D = supplement of 1.5% citric acid fed ad libitum) were also analysed. The amino acid retention during the experimental period was determined by difference. The supplements of fumaric or citric acid did not influence the amount of the amino acid retention. The quotient of amino acid retention to amino acid consumed or the "productive amino acid value" was calculated and the maintenance requirements of essential amino acids for piglets were used to estimate the productive amino acid value for both retention and maintenance. The mean amino acid retention amounted to about 56 g/d, i.e. 3.49 g/kg W0.75.d of essential amino acids. The essential amino acid requirements for maintenance was 2.0 g, i.e. 0.29 g/kg W0.75.d, showing a variation of 4% (Leu) to 20% (Met+Cys) when related to the amount of the corresponding amino acid retention. With regard to the amino acid pattern for retention of the nutritionally most important amino acids, the following ratios were found: Lys, 100 (6.27 g/16 g N): Met+Cys, 48 (3.03 g): Thr, 56 (3.49 g): Trp, 13 (0.80 g). The productive amino acid values ranged from 40% (Trp), 55% (Thr), 66% (Met) to 80% (Lys). Under the conditions investigated, neither the supplements of organic acids nor the feed restriction influenced the amino acid utilization.

  7. Comparison of ruminal lipid metabolism in dairy cows and goats fed diets supplemented with starch, plant oil, or fish oil.

    PubMed

    Toral, P G; Bernard, L; Belenguer, A; Rouel, J; Hervás, G; Chilliard, Y; Frutos, P

    2016-01-01

    Direct comparison of cow and goat performance and milk fatty acid responses to diets known to induce milk fat depression (MFD) in the bovine reveals relevant species-by-diet interactions in ruminal lipid metabolism. Thus, this study was conducted to infer potential mechanisms responsible for differences in the rumen microbial biohydrogenation (BH) due to diet and ruminant species. To meet this objective, 12 cows and 15 goats were fed a basal diet (control), a similar diet supplemented with 2.2% fish oil (FO), or a diet containing 5.3% sunflower oil and additional starch (+38%; SOS) according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 25-d experimental periods. On the last day of each period, fatty acid composition (by gas chromatography) and bacterial community (by terminal-RFLP), as well as fermentation characteristics, were measured in rumen fluid samples. Results showed significant differences in the response of cows and goats to dietary treatments, although variations in some fermentation parameters (e.g., decreases in the acetate-to-propionate ratio due to FO or SOS) were similar in both species. Main alterations in ruminal BH pathways potentially responsible for MFD on the SOS diet (i.e., the shift from trans-11 to trans-10 18:1 and related increases in trans-10,cis-12 18:2) tended to be more pronounced in cows, which is consistent with an associated MFD only in this species. However, changes linked to FO-induced MFD (e.g., decreases in 18:0 and increases in total trans-18:1) were stronger in caprine rumen fluid, which may explain their unexpected susceptibility (although less marked than in bovine) to the negative effect of FO on milk fat content. Altogether, these results suggest that distinct ruminal mechanisms lead to each type of diet-induced MFD and confirm a pronounced interaction with species. With regard to microbiota, differences between cows and goats in the composition of the rumen bacterial community might be behind the disparity in the microorganisms

  8. Effect of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on carcass characteristics of lambs fed concentrate diets at different ambient temperature levels.

    PubMed

    Jallow, Demba B; Hsia, Liang Chou

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of ambient temperatures on carcass characteristics of lambs fed concentrate diets with or without NaHCO3 supplementation. A slaughter study was carried on 12 male Black Belly Barbados lambs randomly drawn from a growth trial (35 weeks). The lambs were divided into four equal groups and allotted in a 2×2 factorial design. The lambs were allotted at random to two dietary treatments of a basal diet (35:65 roughage:concentrate) or basal diet supplemented with 4% NaHCO3 at different ambient temperatures (20°C and 30°C) in an environment controlled chamber for 10 days. Lambs were slaughtered for carcass evaluation at about 262 days of age (245 days of growth trial, 7 days adaptation and 10 days of experimental period). Ambient temperature had significant (p<0.05, p<0.05, p<0.01, and p<0.001) effects on meat color from the ribeye area (REA), fat, leg and longissimus dorsi muscles with higher values recorded for lambs in the lower temperature group than those from the higher ambient temperature group. Significant differences (p<0.05) in shear force value (kg/cm(2)) recorded on the leg muscles showed higher values (5.32 vs 4.16) in lambs under the lower ambient temperature group compared to the other group. Dietary treatments had significant (p<0.01, p<0.01, and p<0.05) effects on meat color from the REA, fat, and REA fat depth (cm(2)) with higher values recorded for lambs in the NaHCO3 supplementation group than the non supplemented group. Similarly, dietary treatments had significant differences (p<0.05) in shear force value (kg/cm(2)) of the leg muscles with the NaHCO3 groups recording higher (5.30 vs 4.60) values than those from the other group. Neither ambient temperature nor dietary treatments had any significant (p>0.05) effects on pH, and water holding capacity on both muscles. These results indicated that NaHCO3 supplementation at low ambient temperatures had caused an increase in carcass

  9. Supplementation with the Extract of Schisandrae Fructus Pulp, Seed, or Their Combination Influences the Metabolism of Lipids and Glucose in Mice Fed with Normal and Hypercholesterolemic Diet

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Yan; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Nan; Zhu, Pei-Li; Jia, Zhan-Hong; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Schisandrae Fructus (SF), which possesses five tastes: sweet (fruit skin), sour (pulp), bitter/pungent (seed core), and saltiness (all parts), can produce a wide spectrum of biological activities in the body. Here, we investigated the effects of the ethanolic extract of SF pulp, seed, or their combination (namely, EtSF-P, EtSF-S, or EtSF-P/S, resp.; collectively called EtSF) on the metabolism of lipids and glucose in normal diet- (ND-) and hypercholesterolemic diet- (HCLD-) fed mice. Supplementation with EtSF significantly reduced hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels by 18–47% in both ND- and HCLD-fed mice. EtSF supplementation reduced serum triglyceride levels (approximately 29%), whereas EtSF-P and EtSF-S/P elevated serum cholesterol (up to 26 and 44%, resp.) in HCLD-fed mice. Treatment with EtSF decreased hepatic glucose levels (by 9–44%) in both ND- and HCLD-fed mice. Supplementation with EtSF-S or EtSF-S/P (at 1 and 3%) increased biliary or fecal TC contents in HCLD-fed mice. However, supplementation with EtSF-S/P at 9% reduced biliary TC levels in HCLD-fed mice. EtSF-P or EtSF-S/P supplementation reduced serum alanine aminotransferase activity in HCLD-fed mice. The findings suggested that supplementation with EtSF lowered lipid and glucose accumulation in the liver and increased fecal cholesterol contents in mice. Dietary supplementation with EtSF-P or EtSF-S/P attenuated liver damage in HCLD-fed mice. PMID:24876871

  10. Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Adem Yavuz; Bilen, Soner; Alak, Gonca; Hisar, Olcay; Yanık, Talat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated effects of dietary supplementation of sage (Salvia officinalis), mint (Mentha spicata) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils on growth performance, lipid peroxidation level (melondialdehyde, MDA) and liver antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD; glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione-S-transferase, GST and glutathione peroxidase, GPx) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles. For this purpose, triplicate groups of rainbow trout were fed daily ad libitum with diets containing sage, mint and thyme oils at 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg kg(-1) for 60 days. While weight gain percentage of fish fed the diets containing sage and thyme oils was significantly higher than the control group, that of fish fed mint oil was the lowest. Similarly, specific growth rate was found to be the highest in all groups of the sage and thyme oil feeding and the lowest in the mint groups. Moreover, feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in the mint oil administered groups. Survival rate was also significantly reduced in the fish fed the diet containing mint oil. It was observed that SOD, G6PD and GPx activities were significantly increased in liver tissues of all the treated fish groups compared to that of control diet-fed group. However, CAT, GST and GR activities were significantly decreased in experimental diet-fed fish groups at the end of the experiment. On the other hand, a significant reduction was found in MDA levels in the fish fed the diets with sage and thyme oils compared to control and mint diets on the 30th and 60th days of experiment. Overall, dietary inclusion of sage and thyme oils is effective in enhancing rainbow trout growth, reduction in MDA and least changing antioxidant enzyme activities at a low level of 500 mg kg(-1) diet, and they can be used as important feed supplements for rainbow trout production.

  11. Effect of tropical browse leaves supplementation on rumen enzymes of sheep and goats fed Dichanthium annulatum grass-based diets.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sultan; Kundu, S S

    2010-08-01

    In a switch-over experiment, eight male animals, four each of sheep and goats of local breeds with mean body weight of 26. 8 +/- 2.0 and 30.0 +/- 2.1 kg, were fed Dichanthium annulatum (DA) grass and four browse species viz. Helictris isora, Securengia virosa, Leucaena leucocephala (LL) and Hardwickia binnata (HB) in four feeding trials to assess their supplementary effect on activity of rumen enzymes. The sheep and goats were offered DA grass with individual browse in 75:25 and 50:50 proportions, respectively, for more than 3 months during each feeding trial, and rumen liquor samples were collected twice at 0 and 4 h post feeding after 60 and 90 days of feeding. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) enzymes were determined in the bacteria and protozoa fractions of rumen liquor, while cellulase enzyme activity was measured in mixed rumen liquor. LL and HB had the highest and lowest contents of CP, while fibre contents were lower in early than later browse leaves. Supplementation of browse leaves significantly (P < 0.05) affect the specific activity of GDH enzyme in bacteria fraction of rumen liquor of animal species, while GDH activity was similar in protozoa fraction of rumen liquor of sheep and goats on all DA grass-browse-supplemented diets except DA-HB (42.8 units/mg protein), where activity was significantly (P < 0.05) low. Specific activities of GOT and GPT enzymes in both bacteria and protozoa fractions of rumen liquor differ significantly (P < 0.05) due to supplementation of browse leaves to DA grass. Browse leaves significantly (P < 0.05) affect the cellulase enzyme activity in animal rumen liquor, being highest on DA-LL (193.4) and lowest on DA-HB diet (144.8 microg sugar/mg protein). Goat exhibited higher activities of GOT and GPT than sheep in both bacteria and protozoa fraction of rumen liquor, while cellulase activity was similar between the animal species on the grass

  12. Change in growth performance of crossbred (Ankole × Jersey) dairy heifers fed on forage grass diets supplemented with commercial concentrates.

    PubMed

    Mutimura, Mupenzi; Ebong, Cyprian; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudana; Nsahlai, Ignatius Verla

    2016-04-01

    Rearing heifers for dairy cow replacement is a challenge in smallholder dairy farms in the tropics due to feed shortage. The objective of this study was to evaluate Brachiaria hybrid cultivar Mulato II as a forage resource for improving growth performance of dairy heifers under cut-and-carry feeding system in Rwanda. Sixteen crossbred (Ankole × Jersey) heifers (mean weight 203 ± 35 kg) were randomly allocated to two dietary treatments viz: Mulato II with 2 kg/day of commercial concentrates (MCC) and Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) with the same supplement (NCC), for a period of 12 weeks. Mineral lick and water were provided ad libitum. Daily feed intake and fortnightly live weight were measured. Average daily gains and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated. Results showed that absolute daily dry matter intake (g DMI/day) and relative intake (g/kg of metabolic body weight--BW(0.75)) were higher in heifers fed on MCC than in heifers fed on NCC (P < 0.001). FCR was lower (P < 0.001) in MCC than NCC diets. Final body weight (FBW) and body weight gain (BWG) did not differ between the two groups of heifers (P > 0.05). Average daily weight gain (ADWG) also not differed significantly (P > 0.05). Based on numerical body weight changes and nutritive values, Mulato II showed potential to be integrated into local cut-and-carry feeding systems for better heifer rearing to facilitate dairy cow replacement.

  13. Comparison of the fatty acid profiles in cheeses from ewes fed diets supplemented with different plant oils.

    PubMed

    Bodas, Raúl; Manso, Teresa; Mantecón, Angel R; Juárez, Manuela; De la Fuente, Miguel Angel; Gómez-Cortés, Pilar

    2010-10-13

    The purpose of this work was to obtain a cheese from ewes milk with a healthier fatty acid (FA) profile. To achieve our aim, 48 ewes (12 per treatment) were fed diets supplemented with 3% of plant oils: palm (used as control), olive (OO), soybean (SO), and linseed (LO). Milk samples from each treatment were collected to manufacture cheeses. The cheesemaking process did not modify the dairy fat FA profile, but OO, SO, and LO did reduce the C12:0 + C14:0 + C16:0 content in dairy fat, thus decreasing the atherogenic index value in the cheeses. Percentages of cis-9 trans-11 C18:2 in cheeses ranged from the 0.43 control value to 0.92, 1.64, and 2.71 with OO, LO, and SO respectively, following the same pattern as trans-11 C18:1. In contrast, trans-10 C18:1 levels were always below 1%. The lowest n-6/n-3 ratio obtained with LO (1.43) suggests that such lipid supplementation would be the most effective nutritional strategy for improving cheese FA profiles.

  14. Diet composition and blood values of captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) fed either supplemented meat or commercial food preparations.

    PubMed

    Bechert, Ursula; Mortenson, Jack; Dierenfeld, Ellen S; Cheeke, Peter; Keller, Mark; Holick, Michael; Chen, Tai C; Rogers, Quinton

    2002-03-01

    Nutrition most certainly affects health and may play a role in the etiology of growth and reproductive problems in captive cheetah (Acinonyxjubatus) populations. The objective of our research was to examine nutritional differences between two dietary regimens and quantify their physiologic effects on cheetahs held in captivity. Twelve cheetahs were randomly assigned to either a commercial diet (COM) or a supplemented meat diet (SMD) group. These cats were physically examined and had blood samples taken three times over the course of a year. Representative samples of COM and four separate components of the SMD treatment were analyzed over the same time frame for proximate nutrient composition, digestibility, and concentrations of taurine, fat-soluble vitamins, and selected minerals. Concentrations of fat, vitamins A and E, Se, Fe, Cu, Na, and Mn were significantly higher in COM compared with those in SMD samples, with the exception of fat content in turkey. Mg content was lower in COM than in SMD; other nutrients did not differ. Mean concentrations of vitamins A and E in COM were markedly higher than in SMD samples (408,140 vs. 29,696 IU/kg dry matter [DM] and 431 vs. 48 IU/kg DM, respectively) and varied dramatically between sampling periods. Percent crude protein and protein-to-fat ratios were high for SMD compared with either whole prey-based or commercial food preparations. Blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels were above normal reference means for domestic cats. Plasma concentrations of vitamins A, D, and E were significantly higher in COM-fed than in SMD-fed cheetahs. Both plasma retinol and tocopherol levels were almost three times higher in COM-fed cats (1.26 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.53 +/- 0.03 microg/ml and 17.5 +/- 0.7 vs. 6.4 +/- 0.02 microg/ml, respectively) and exceeded the normal ranges expected for domestic felids. Significant differences between male and female cheetahs were found for plasma concentrations of vitamin E, Se, and Fe after allowing for

  15. Effects of crude glycerin supplementation on performance and meat quality of Holstein bulls fed high-concentrate diets.

    PubMed

    Mach, N; Bach, A; Devant, M

    2009-02-01

    Forty-eight bulls (335 +/- 8.6 kg of initial BW) were randomly assigned to 4 glycerin levels (0, 4, 8, and 12% of concentrate DM) with the objective of evaluating the effects of glycerin supplementation on performance, ruminal fermentation, metabolism, and carcass and meat quality in Holstein bulls fed high-concentrate diets. Concentrates were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric (assuming a glycerin ME content of 3.47 Mcal/kg of DM). Concentrate and straw were fed for ad libitum intake. Bull BW and feed consumption were recorded monthly. Additionally, rumen and blood samples were collected every month. Bulls were slaughtered after 91 d of study (460 +/- 11 kg of final BW). Hot carcass weight, carcass backfat, and conformation were recorded. The area, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and intramuscular fat content of LM were determined. Glycerin level did not affect daily concentrate intake (6.89 +/- 0.34 kg/d of DM), straw intake (1.38 +/- 0.069 kg/d of DM), total DMI (8.27 +/- 0.32 kg/d of DM), ADG (1.36 +/- 0.087 kg/d), or G:F (0.17 +/- 0.009). Similarly, rumen molar proportions of propionic, acetic, and butyric acids, and rumen liquid osmolality were unaffected by treatment. However, a decreased rumen pH (P < 0.05), and greater rumen total VFA concentration (P = 0.09), serum insulin concentration (P < 0.05), and insulin to glucose ratio (P < 0.05) were observed in bulls fed 8% glycerin in concentrate compared with those receiving 0, 4, or 12%. No changes were observed in carcass and meat quality. The ME content of glycerin (86% glycerol) can be assumed to be 3.47 Mcal/kg of DM in Holstein bulls fed high-concentrate diets. In addition, feeding concentrate containing up to 12.1% of glycerin does not lead to detrimental effects on performance, ruminal fermentation, metabolism, and carcass and meat quality variables.

  16. The influence of vitamin B12 supplementation on the level of white blood cells and lymphocytes phenotype in rats fed a low-protein diet

    PubMed Central

    Lewicka, Aneta; Kalicki, Bolesław; Kłos, Anna; Bertrandt, Jerzy; Zdanowski, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Protein malnutrition has a negative effect on body composition and some blood parameters, especially in the young growing organism. One of nutritional factors which could protect against negative consequences of protein deficiency may be B group vitamins. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of vitamin B12 supplementation on the immune system in rats fed a standard and a low-protein diet. Rats were fed a control (20% of energy from protein) or a protein-deficient diet (4.5% of energy from protein). Half of animals in each group were additionally supplemented with vitamin B12 (300% of the daily intake). The white blood cells analysis and lymphocytes immunophenotyping (number and percentage) were performed. Low-protein diets caused disturbances in WBC and lymphocyte subpopulations in both short- (30-day) as well as long-term periods (90-day). Vitamin B12 supplementation significantly reduced the negative impact of protein malnutrition after 30 days, however had no effect on long-term malnutrition. Furthermore, vitamin B12 addition in rats fed a control diet did not affect the studied parameters. This observation opens the promise of use of vitamin B12 supplementation to improve immune system parameters in protein malnourished organisms. PMID:26155157

  17. Choline supplementation protects against liver damage by normalizing cholesterol metabolism in Pemt/Ldlr knockout mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Al Rajabi, Ala; Castro, Gabriela S F; da Silva, Robin P; Nelson, Randy C; Thiesen, Aducio; Vannucchi, Helio; Vine, Donna F; Proctor, Spencer D; Field, Catherine J; Curtis, Jonathan M; Jacobs, René L

    2014-03-01

    Dietary choline is required for proper structure and dynamics of cell membranes, lipoprotein synthesis, and methyl-group metabolism. In mammals, choline is synthesized via phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (Pemt), which converts phosphatidylethanolamine to phosphatidylcholine. Pemt(-/-) mice have impaired VLDL secretion and developed fatty liver when fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Because of the reduction in plasma lipids, Pemt(-/-)/low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (Ldlr(-/-)) mice are protected from atherosclerosis. The goal of this study was to investigate the importance of dietary choline in the metabolic phenotype of Pemt(-/-)/Ldlr(-/-) male mice. At 10-12 wk of age, Pemt(+/+)/Ldlr(-/-) (HF(+/+)) and half of the Pemt(-/-)/Ldlr(-/-) (HF(-/-)) mice were fed an HF diet with normal (1.3 g/kg) choline. The remaining Pemt(-/-)/Ldlr(-/-) mice were fed an HF diet supplemented (5 g/kg) with choline (HFCS(-/-) mice). The HF diet contained 60% of calories from fat and 1% cholesterol, and the mice were fed for 16 d. HF(-/-) mice lost weight and developed hepatomegaly, steatohepatitis, and liver damage. Hepatic concentrations of free cholesterol, cholesterol-esters, and triglyceride (TG) were elevated by 30%, 1.1-fold and 3.1-fold, respectively, in HF(-/-) compared with HF(+/+) mice. Choline supplementation normalized hepatic cholesterol, but not TG, and dramatically improved liver function. The expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport and esterification increased by 50% to 5.6-fold in HF(-/-) mice when compared with HF(+/+) mice. Markers of macrophages, oxidative stress, and fibrosis were elevated in the HF(-/-) mice. Choline supplementation normalized the expression of these genes. In conclusion, HF(-/-) mice develop liver failure associated with altered cholesterol metabolism when fed an HF/normal choline diet. Choline supplementation normalized cholesterol metabolism, which was sufficient to prevent nonalcoholic steatohepatitis development

  18. Growth response, blood characteristics and copper accumulation in organs of broilers fed on diets supplemented with organic and inorganic dietary copper sources.

    PubMed

    Jegede, A V; Oduguwa, O O; Bamgbose, A M; Fanimo, A O; Nollet, L

    2011-02-01

    1. A 56-d experiment was conducted to study the comparative influence of organic and inorganic dietary copper (Cu) sources on growth, blood characteristics and copper accumulation in organs of broilers. 2. A total of 480 Arbor-Acre unsexed broilers were fed on diets containing copper sulphate (CuSO(4)) or copper proteinate (Cu Pro) at concentrations of 50, 100 or 150 mg/kg of Cu supplementation. The birds were given a broiler starter diet from 1-28 d and a broiler finisher diet from 29-56 d which contained 30·8 mg/kg and 41·1 mg/kg basal copper concentration respectively. Growth performance, blood characteristics and Cu accumulation in organs of the broilers were measured. 3. At 28 d, Cu Pro-fed birds had improved feed conversion ratio compared with CuSO(4). At 56 d, birds fed on Cu Pro diets had significantly greater body weight than CuSO(4)-fed birds. Birds fed on CuSO(4) supplemented diets had significantly better feed conversion efficiency. Feed consumptions for the two Cu sources were not significantly different. At no stage did the concentration of added Cu affect the productive traits measured. 4. Cu Pro supplementation increased haemoglobin concentration but reduced plasma triglyceride and plasma cholesterol. Plasma cholesterol decreased as Cu concentration increased. 5. There was a greater accumulation of Cu in the blood, heart, lung, liver and bone of broilers fed on Cu Pro than in those receiving CuSO(4). The liver Cu concentration increased as dietary Cu concentration increased. 6. Cu Pro was more effective in promoting growth and reducing blood cholesterol, and was more bio-available in the organs of broilers.

  19. Histomorphological studies of broiler chicken fed diets supplemented with either raw or enzyme treated dandelion leaves and fenugreek seeds

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Saim; Banday, Mohammed Tufail; Shakeel, Irfan; Adil, Sheikh; Mir, Masood Saleem; Beigh, Yasir Afzal; Amin, Umar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Herbal plants and their derived products are extensively used particularly in many Asian, African, and other countries of the world as they are considered as ideal feed additives because of their non-residual effect and ability to influence the ecosystem of gastrointestinal microbiota in a positive way. Further, the enzymatic treatment of these herbs helps in their efficient utilization by the host. Dandelion leaves and fenugreek seeds have been reported to have positive effect in terms of improving the performance of broiler chicken, but not much literature is available regarding their effect on gut histomorphology; therefore, the present study was conducted to explore the effect of these herbs either alone or in combination with or without enzyme treatment on histomorphology of liver and small intestine of broiler chicken. Materials and Methods: To achieve the envisaged objective, 273-day-old commercial broiler chicks were procured from a reputed source and reared together until 7 days of age. On the 7th day, the chicks were individually weighed, distributed randomly into 7 groups of 3 replicates with 13 chicks each. Birds in the control group were fed diets without additives (T1). The other six treatment groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.5% dandelion leaves (T2), 1% fenugreek seeds (T3), combination of 0.5% dandelion leaves and 1% fenugreek seeds (T4), enzyme treated dandelion leaves 0.5% (T5), enzyme treated fenugreek seeds 1% (T6), and combination of enzyme treated dandelion leaves (0.5%) and (1%) fenugreek seeds (T7). The histomorphological study of liver and small intestines was conducted among different treatment groups. Results: The results revealed the hepato-protective nature of both dandelion leaves and fenugreek seeds either alone or in combination with or without enzyme treatment when compared with the control group. Moreover, the histomorphological findings of jejunum revealed the beneficial effect of dandelion leaves, fenugreek

  20. Effect of dry tomato peel supplementation on glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and hepatic markers in mice fed high-saturated-fat/high-cholesterol diets.

    PubMed

    Zidani, Sofiane; Benakmoum, Amar; Ammouche, Ali; Benali, Yasmine; Bouhadef, Anissa; Abbeddou, Souheila

    2017-02-01

    Many studies have investigated the effect of crude tomato peel in vivo, but no studies have determined the dose-effect of dry tomato peel (DTP) on glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and atherogenic dyslipidemia induced by a high-saturated-fat (HSF) diet in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different doses of DTP on the levels of oxidative stress in mice fed an HSF and cholesterol-rich diet for 12 weeks. The main outcomes are glucose and insulin tolerance, plasma lipids, and hepatic steatosis and inflammation. BALB/c male mice (n=40) (8 weeks old, weighing 22.2±1.0 g) were divided into four treatment groups (10 mice/group): (a) high-fat control diet (HF Ctrl), which contains sunflower oil as a sole source of fat; (b) HSF/high-cholesterol (HC) diet; (c) HSF/HC diet supplemented with 9% DTP and (d) HSF/HC diet supplemented with 17% DTP. The HSF/HC diet significantly increased body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, fasting plasma glucose, fasting plasma insulin and lipid peroxidation and caused the development of liver steatosis and inflammation. Supplementation with DTP increased plasma lycopene concentration and reduced the development of indicators of metabolic syndrome, with no consistent effect of the DTP dose. Hepatic steatosis and inflammation were not reversed with DTP supplementation. Among mice fed the HSF/HC diet, DTP supplementation appears to have a beneficial effect on insulin resistance, which confirms the antiatherogenic effect of DTP.

  1. Evaluation of the high density lipoprotein cholesterol protective effect against atherogenesis in rabbits fed cholesterol supplemented diets.

    PubMed

    Neuman, M P; Neuman, J; Mosso, H E; Ibarra, R; Rodríguez, S; Scavini, L M; Achille, A; Pecorini, V

    1990-01-01

    Plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was evaluated in 15 rabbits fed cholesterol supplemented diets to assess its protective effect on the atherogenic process. From a baseline level of 29 +/- 11 mg/dl (mean +/- SD) the maximum attained for HDL-C was twofold in only three rabbits, whereas total cholesterol (TC) increased 20 fold. Plasma TC/HDL-C ratio rose 80 fold from the baseline (2.4 +/- 0.9) and it was the best parameter that correlated with aortic cholesterol accumulation and pathological scores. Aortic TC content increased 10 fold and free cholesterol/cholesterol esters ratio decreased 20 fold. Pathological studies showed that aortic lesion scores rose from 0 to 4. It can be concluded that the high correlations obtained when TC/HDL-C ratio was plotted against both aortic cholesterol deposition and lesion scores, support the theory of the reverse cholesterol transport and the effectiveness of this index to predict the degree of the atherogenic process. On the other hand, the poor response of HDL-C in this model encourages future research using drugs to increase this parameter in order to normalize TC/HDL-C ratio and avoid lesions.

  2. Effect of supplementation of lecithin and carnitine on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in pigs fed high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Saseendran, Arathy; Ally, K.; Gangadevi, P.; Banakar, P. S.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of dietary supplementation of lecithin and carnitine on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in pigs fed high-fat diet. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 weaned female large white Yorkshire piglets of 2 months of age were selected and randomly divided into three groups allotted to three dietary treatments, T1 - Control ration as per the National Research Council nutrient requirement, T2 - Control ration plus 5% fat, and T3 - T2 plus 0.5% lecithin plus 150 mg/kg carnitine. The total dry matter (DM) intake, fortnightly body weight of each individual animal was recorded. Digestibility trial was conducted toward the end of the experiment to determine the digestibility coefficient of various nutrients. Results: There was a significant improvement (p<0.01) observed for pigs under supplementary groups T2 and T3 than that of control group (T1) with regards to growth parameters studied such as total DM intake, average final body weight and total weight gain whereas among supplementary groups, pigs reared on T3 group had better intake (p<0.01) when compared to T2 group. Statistical analysis of data revealed that no differences were observed (p>0.05) among the three treatments on average daily gain, feed conversion efficiency, and nutrient digestibility during the overall period. Conclusion: It was concluded that the dietary inclusion of animal fat at 5% level or animal fat along with lecithin (0.5%) and carnitine (150 mg/kg) improved the growth performance in pigs than non-supplemented group and from the economic point of view, dietary incorporation of animal fat at 5% would be beneficial for improving growth in pigs without dietary modifiers. PMID:28344396

  3. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, soy protein, and their hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huijuan; Bartley, Glenn E; Mitchell, Cheryl R; Zhang, Hui; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2011-10-26

    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates of white rice protein (WRP), brown rice protein (BRP), and soy protein (SP) hydrolyzed by the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L, were compared to the original protein source. Male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing either 20% casein (control) or 20% extracted proteins or their hydrolysates as the protein source for 3 weeks. The brown rice protein hydrolysate (BRPH) diet group reduced weight gain 76% compared with the control. Animals fed the BRPH supplemented diet also had lower final body weight, liver weight, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and liver cholesterol, and higher fecal fat and bile acid excretion than the control. Expression levels of hepatic genes for lipid oxidation, PPARα, ACOX1, and CPT1, were highest for hamsters fed the BRPH supplemented diet. Expression of CYP7A1, the gene regulating bile acid synthesis, was higher in all test groups. Expression of CYP51, a gene coding for an enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis, was highest in the BRPH diet group. The results suggest that BRPH includes unique peptides that reduce weight gain and hepatic cholesterol synthesis.

  4. Dietary supplementation of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium protects against oxidative stress and liver damage in laying hens fed an oxidized sunflower oil-added diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Zhang, H J; Xu, L; Long, C; Samuel, K G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Wu, S G; Qi, G H

    2016-07-01

    The protective effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium (PQQ.Na2) supplementation against oxidized sunflower oil-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in laying hens were examined. Three hundred and sixty 53-week-old Hy-Line Gray laying hens were randomly allocated into one of the five dietary treatments. The treatments included: (1) a diet containing 2% fresh sunflower oil; (2) a diet containing 2% thermally oxidized sunflower oil; (3) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 100 mg/kg of added vitamin E; (4) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.08 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2; and (5) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.12 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2. Birds fed the oxidized sunflower oil diet showed a lower feed intake compared to birds fed the fresh oil diet or oxidized oil diet supplemented with vitamin E (P=0.009). Exposure to oxidized sunflower oil increased plasma malondialdehyde (P<0.001), hepatic reactive oxygen species (P<0.05) and carbonyl group levels (P<0.001), but decreased plasma glutathione levels (P=0.006) in laying hens. These unfavorable changes induced by the oxidized sunflower oil diet were modulated by dietary vitamin E or PQQ.Na2 supplementation to levels comparable to the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation with PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E increased the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in plasma and the liver, when compared with the oxidized sunflower oil group (P<0.05). PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E diminished the oxidized sunflower oil diet induced elevation of liver weight (P=0.026), liver to BW ratio (P=0.001) and plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase (P=0.001) and aspartate aminotransferase (P<0.001) and maintained these indices at the similar levels to the fresh oil diet. Furthermore, oxidized sunflower oil increased hepatic DNA tail length (P<0.05) and tail moment (P<0.05) compared with the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation of PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E decreased the oxidized oil diet induced DNA tail length

  5. Effects of fisetin supplementation on hepatic lipogenesis and glucose metabolism in Sprague-Dawley rats fed on a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yoonsu; Chung, Ji Hyung; Do, Hyun Ju; Jeon, Hyun Ju; Jin, Taewon; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2013-08-15

    The modulatory effects of daily fisetin supplementation for 8 weeks on genes involved in hepatic lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis and hyperglycemia in rats fed a high fat (HF) diet were evaluated. Elevated levels of triglyceride (TG), along with hepatic TG content and glucose concentrations in a high fat diet group were found to be reduced by fisetin supplementation. The high fat diet significantly increased hepatic mRNA expressions of PPARγ, SREBP1C and SCD-1 genes in comparison to the control diet, which was subsequently reversed by supplementation with fisetin. In addition, fisetin supplementation significantly reduced hepatic mRNA abundance of FAS, ATPCL and G6Pase compared to the control group. Finally, epididymal mRNA abundance of GLUT4 was significantly increased by fisetin supplementation, compared to levels in the control and HF groups. Enhancement of GLUT4 expression by fisetin was further confirmed in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Fisetin supplementation decreases cardiovascular risks by ameliorating hepatic steatosis and lowering circulating glucose concentrations.

  6. Productive performance, eggshell quality, and eggshell ultrastructure of laying hens fed diets supplemented with organic trace minerals.

    PubMed

    Stefanello, C; Santos, T C; Murakami, A E; Martins, E N; Carneiro, T C

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out with the purpose of evaluating the effect of supplementing hens' diets with trace minerals from inorganic or organic sources on the productive performance, eggshell quality, and eggshell ultrastructure of laying hens. Three hundred sixty Hy-Line W36 laying hens between 47 to 62 wk of age were used and distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with 9 treatments, 5 replicates, and 8 birds for each experimental unit. The treatments consisted of a control diet without supplementation of the trace minerals Mn, Zn, and Cu; 4 supplementation levels of these trace minerals from an inorganic source; and the same levels of supplementation from an organic source (proteinates). The supplementation levels in milligrams per kilogram for Mn, Zn, and Cu, were, respectively, 35-30-05, 65-60-10, 95-90-15, and 125-120-20. There was no effect of supplementation of trace minerals on the rate of posture, feed intake, feed conversion, specific weight, and Haugh unit of eggs. However, there was a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) of the levels of trace mineral supplementation on average egg weight and egg mass; the results did not differ regarding the source used. The increase in the levels of supplementation of Mn, Zn, and Cu provided a linear increase (P < 0.05) in the breaking strength and the percentage of eggshell. There was a linear decrease (P < 0.05) in the egg loss and the number of mammillary buttons in the shell. The best results were obtained using diets supplemented with trace minerals from an organic source because these diets provided lower egg loss, higher thickness, and increased strength of the shell. Structurally, organic Mn, Zn, and Cu provided higher thickness of the palisade layer and lower mammillary density. The trace mineral supplementation improved the structural characteristics and the quality of the eggshells.

  7. Emissions of greenhouse gases, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide from pigs fed standard diets and diets supplemented with dried distillers grains with solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine growers are increasingly supplementing animal diets with dried distillers grains soluble (DDGS) to offset cost of a typical corn-soybean meal diet. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of DDGS diets on both on manure composition and emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), ammoni...

  8. Immune Responses in Broiler Chicks Fed Propolis Extraction Residue-supplemented Diets

    PubMed Central

    Eyng, C.; Murakami, A. E.; Santos, T. C.; Silveira, T. G. V.; Pedroso, R. B.; Lourenço, D. A. L.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of inclusion of propolis extraction residue in the feed of broilers from 1 to 21 d of age on phagocytic activity of macrophages, cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response to phytohemagglutinin, antibody production against Newcastle disease, lymphoid organ weight and hematological profile and to determine the optimal level of inclusion. 120 chicks, reared in metabolism cages until 21 days of age, were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% of propolis residue) and six replications. The relative weight of thymus and monocyte percentage were affected by propolis residue, with a quadratic response (p<0.05) and lowest values estimated at 2.38% and 2.49%, respectively. Changes in relative weight of cloacal bursa and spleen, percentage of lymphocyte, heterophil, basophil, eosinophil, and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, antibody production against Newcastle disease, phagocytic activity of macrophages and the average number of phagocytosed erythrocytes were not observed. The nitric oxide production with regard to positive control (macrophages+erythrocytes) decreased linearly (p<0.05) with increased doses of propolis residue. The remaining variables of nitric oxide production (negative control – macrophages, and difference between the controls) were not affected by propolis residue. The cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity response to phytohemagglutinin as determined by the increase in interdigital skin thickness exhibited a quadratic response (p<0.05), which predicted a lower reaction response at a dose of 2.60% of propolis residue and highest reaction response after 43.05 hours of phytohemagglutinin injection. The inclusion of 1% to 4% of propolis extraction residue in broiler diets from 1 to 21 days of age was not able to improve the immune parameters, despite the modest changes in the relative weight in thymus, blood monocyte percentage, nitric oxide concentration, and

  9. Krill Oil Supplementation Improves Dyslipidemia and Lowers Body Weight in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet Through Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Goowon; Lee, Jihyun; Lee, Sangsu; Kwak, Dongyun; Choe, Wonchae; Kang, Insug; Kim, Sung Soo; Ha, Joohun

    2016-12-01

    Krill oil is a novel, commercially available marine oil rich in long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Compared with fish oil, the effects of krill oil supplementation on human health and its underlying action mechanisms are currently poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the effect of krill oil supplementation on metabolic parameters of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Krill oil supplementation in mice fed a HFD for 10 weeks resulted in an ∼15% lower body weight gain and a dramatic suppression of hepatic steatosis. These effects were associated with significantly lower serum triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. We further uncovered a novel underlying mechanism, showing that AMP-activated protein kinase, a master regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism, mediates the beneficial effects of krill oil.

  10. Antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects of lotus leaf hot water extract with taurine supplementation in rats fed a high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) leaf has been used to treat obesity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects of lotus leaf hot water extract with taurine supplementation in high fat diet-induced obese rats. Methods Four week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups with 8 rats in each group for a period of 6 weeks (normal diet, N group; high fat diet, HF group; high fat diet + lotus leaf hot water extract, HFL group; high fat diet + lotus leaf hot water extract + taurine, HFLT group). Lotus leaf hot water extract was orally administrated to HFL and HFLT groups and the same amount of distilled water was orally administered (400 mg/kg/day) to N and HF groups. Taurine was supplemented by dissolving in feed water (3% w/v). Results The body weight gain and relative weights of epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissues were significantly lower in N, HFL and HFLT groups compared to HF group. HFL and HFLT groups showed lower concentrations of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum. HFLT group showed higher the ratio of high density lipoprotein cholesterol/total cholesterol compared to HFL group. HFLT group showed better blood lipid profiles compared to HFL group. Conclusions Lotus leaf hot water extract with taurine supplementation showed antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects in high fat diet-induced obese rats, which was more effective than lotus leaf hot water extract alone. PMID:20804619

  11. Chronic leucine supplementation improves lipid metabolism in C57BL/6J mice fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Jun; Han, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Jia-Ying; Tong, Xing; Yin, Xue-Bin; Yuan, Lin-Xi; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Leucine supplementation has been reported to improve lipid metabolism. However, lipid metabolism in adipose tissues and liver has not been extensively studied for leucine supplementation in mice fed with a high-fat/cholesterol diet (HFCD). Design C57BL/6J mice were fed a chow diet, HFCD, HFCD supplemented with 1.5% leucine (HFCD+1.5% Leu group) or 3% leucine (HFCD+3% Leu group) for 24 weeks. The body weight, peritoneal adipose weight, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride in serum and liver, and serum adipokines were analyzed. In addition, expression levels of proteins associated with hepatic lipogenesis, adipocyte lipolysis, and white adipose tissue (WAT) browning were determined. Results Mice in the HFCD group developed obesity and deteriorated lipid metabolism. Compared with HFCD, leucine supplementation lowered weight gain and TC levels in circulation and the liver without changing energy intake. The decrease in body fat was supported by histological examination in the WAT and liver. Furthermore, serum levels of proinflammatory adipokines, such as leptin, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, were significantly decreased by supplemented leucine. At the protein level, leucine potently decreased the hepatic lipogenic enzymes (fatty acid synthase and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase) and corresponding upstream proteins. In epididymal WAT, the reduced expression levels of two major lipases by HFCD, namely phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase, were reversed when leucine was supplemented. Uncoupling protein 1, β3 adrenergic receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor g coactivator-1α, and fibroblast growth factor 21 were involved in the thermogenic program and WAT browning. Leucine additionally upregulated their protein expression in both WAT and interscapular brown adipose tissue. Conclusion This study demonstrated that chronic leucine supplementation reduced the body weight and improved the lipid profile of

  12. Green tea extract supplementation induces the lipolytic pathway, attenuates obesity, and reduces low-grade inflammation in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Cláudio A; Lira, Fábio S; Rosa Neto, José C; Pimentel, Gustavo D; Souza, Gabriel I H; da Silva, Camila Morais Gonçalves; de Souza, Cláudio T; Ribeiro, Eliane B; Sawaya, Alexandra Christine Helena Frankland; Oller do Nascimento, Cláudia M; Rodrigues, Bruno; de Oliveira Carvalho, Patrícia; Oyama, Lila M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green tea Camellia sinensis extract on proinflammatory molecules and lipolytic protein levels in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Animals were randomized into four groups: CW (chow diet and water); CG (chow diet and water + green tea extract); HW (high-fat diet and water); HG (high-fat diet and water + green tea extract). The mice were fed ad libitum with chow or high-fat diet and concomitantly supplemented (oral gavage) with 400 mg/kg body weight/day of green tea extract (CG and HG, resp.). The treatments were performed for eight weeks. UPLC showed that in 10 mg/mL green tea extract, there were 15 μg/mg epigallocatechin, 95 μg/mg epigallocatechin gallate, 20.8 μg/mg epicatechin gallate, and 4.9 μg/mg gallocatechin gallate. Green tea administered concomitantly with a high-fat diet increased HSL, ABHD5, and perilipin in mesenteric adipose tissue, and this was associated with reduced body weight and adipose tissue gain. Further, we observed that green tea supplementation reduced inflammatory cytokine TNFα levels, as well as TLR4, MYD88, and TRAF6 proinflammatory signalling. Our results show that green tea increases the lipolytic pathway and reduces adipose tissue, and this may explain the attenuation of low-grade inflammation in obese mice.

  13. Supplementing antioxidants to pigs fed diets high in oxidants: I. Effects on growth performance, liver function, and oxidative status.

    PubMed

    Lu, T; Harper, A F; Zhao, J; Estienne, M J; Dalloul, R A

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of a dietary antioxidant blend (ethoxyquin and propyl gallate) and vitamin E on growth performance, liver function, and oxidative status in pigs fed diets high in oxidants. Crossbred barrows (n=100, 10.91±0.65 kg BW, 36±2 d of age, Landrace×Duroc) were allotted to 5 treatments on the basis of BW (5 replicate pens per treatment, 4 pigs per pen). Treatments included 1) HO, high-oxidant diet containing 5% oxidized soybean oil and 10% PUFA source (providing 2.05% docosahexaenoic acid in the diet), 2) VE, the HO diet with 11 IU/kg of added vitamin E, 3) AOX, the HO diet with antioxidant blend (135 mg/kg), 4) VE+AOX, the HO diet with both vitamin E and antioxidant blend, and 5) SC, a standard corn-soy control diet. The trial lasted for 118 d; on d 83, the HO diet pigs were switched to the SC diet because the animals were displaying very poor health. Compared with SC pigs, HO pigs had decreased ADG (0.92 vs. 0.51 kg for d 26 to 55, 1.29 vs. 0.34 kg for d 56 to 82; P<0.05) and ADFI (1.84 vs. 0.96 kg for d 26 to 55, 3.41 vs. 1.14 kg for d 56 to 82; P<0.05). However, switching the HO pigs to the SC diet resulted in HO pigs having a greater ADG than VE-fed pigs from d 83 to 118 (0.90 vs. 0.60 kg; P<0.05). The antioxidant blend restored pig performance to a level similar that of pigs fed the SC diet (P>0.05) with greater G:F for the entire period (0.44 vs. 0.38; P<0.05). A greater liver to BW ratio was found in HO compared with other treatments on d 55 and in VE on d 118. Total bilirubin concentration in plasma of HO pigs on d 55 was greater than that in VE+AOX pigs (P<0.05), whereas on d 118, bilirubin concentration in VE was higher than those in VE+AOX and SC (P<0.05). A similar trend was observed in aspartate transaminase. Plasma concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and carbonyl were elevated (P<0.05) in the HO pigs compared with the SC pigs on d 55 but not on d 118. Liver TBARS and

  14. Impact of L-phenylalanine supplementation on the performance of three-week-old broilers fed diets containing ochratoxin A. 2. Effects on hematology and clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Bailey, C A; Gibson, R M; Kubena, L F; Huff, W E; Harvey, R B

    1990-03-01

    Phenylalanine was evaluated for its ability to protect broiler chickens from the toxic effects of ochratoxin A (OA). A completely randomized 2-by-3 factorial design was utilized consisting of 0, .8, and 2.4% supplemental L-phenylalanine (Phe) and of 0 and 4 mg of OA per kg of diet. The basal diet contained 14% protein. Broilers were raised in battery brooders to 3 wk of age, when blood was collected and various hematological parameters were determined. The health status of the broilers was evaluated by assaying serum for various enzyme activities and metabolites using an automated, clinical chemistry analyzer. Adding OA to the broiler diets resulted in an increased concentration of serum hemoglobin as well as increased activity for cholinesterase and gamma glutamyl transferase but in decreased activity for aspartate amino transferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline-phosphatase activity as well as decreased concentrations of total triglyceride and of inorganic phosphorus. Supplemental Phe decreased the concentrations of hemoglobin and serum glucose. The regression slopes for Phe at 4 mg of OA per kg of diet were significant for uric acid, creatinine, total protein, albumin, and cholesterol suggesting that supplemental Phe improved the health status of the broilers fed diets containing OA with respect to these parameters.

  15. Decreased production of interleukin-6 and prostaglandin E2 associated with inhibition of delta-5 desaturation of omega6 fatty acids in mice fed safflower oil diets supplemented with sesamol.

    PubMed

    Chavali, S R; Forse, R A

    1999-12-01

    The differences in the immune responses in mice fed sesame oil diets and those fed sesamin may be attributed to the presence of other lignans in the non-fat portion of the oil. The fatty acid composition (mean +/- SD mol. %) of liver membrane phospholipids and the levels of endotoxin-induced prostaglandin (PG) E2, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were determined in mice fed diets supplemented with 5% safflower oil (SO) in the absence or presence of 1% sesamol. The levels of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (20:3omega6) were markedly higher (P<0.025) in the livers from mice fed sesamol supplemented SO diets (1.6 +/- 0.1) compared to the controls (1.4 +/- 0.1). These data suggest that sesamol or its metabolite could inhibit the in vivo delta-5 desaturation of omega6 fatty acids. Further, in animals fed sesamol supplemented SO diets, the levels of PGE2 (228 +/- 41 pg/ml) were markedly lower (P<0.01) compared to those fed SO diet alone (1355 +/- 188 pg/ml). Concomitantly, the concentrations of IL-6 were also lower (P<0.01) in mice fed sesamol diet (63 +/- 11 ng/ml) compared to the controls (143 +/- 22 ng/ml). A marked reduction in the levels of PGE2 in animals fed sesamol diets suggests that sesamol or its metabolite could inhibit the activity of cyclooxygenase enzyme.

  16. Expression of cationic amino acid transporters, carcass traits, and performance of growing pigs fed low-protein amino acid-supplemented versus high protein diets.

    PubMed

    Morales, A; Grageola, F; García, H; Araiza, A; Zijlstra, R T; Cervantes, M

    2013-10-18

    Free amino acids (AA) appear to be absorbed faster than protein-bound AA (PB-AA). We conducted an experiment to assess the effect of feeding pigs with a partially free (F-AA) or totally PB-AA diet on expression of selected genes and performance of pigs. The expression of cationic AA transporters b(0,+) and CAT-1 in intestinal mucosa, liver, and longissimus (LM) and semitendinosus (SM) muscles, as well as that of myosin in LM and SM, was analyzed. Twelve pigs (31.7 ± 2.7 kg) were used. The F-AA diet was based on wheat, supplemented with 0.59% L-Lys, 0.33% L-Thr, and 0.10% DL-Met. The PB-AA diet was formulated with wheat-soybean meal. Average daily feed intake was 1.53 kg per pig. The expression of b(0,+) and CAT-1 was analyzed in jejunal and ileal mucosa, liver, LM, and SM; myosin expression was also analyzed in both muscles. Pigs fed the PB-AA diet tended to have higher weight gain and feed efficiency (P < 0.10), and had thinner back fat (P = 0.02). The expression of b(0,+) was higher (P < 0.01) in jejunum but lower (P < 0.01) in the liver of pigs fed the F-AA diet; CAT-1 tended to be lower in liver but higher in LM of PB-AA pigs. Myosin expression was not affected. Intestinal AA absorption was faster in pigs fed the F-AA diet, but AA uptake by the liver seemed to be faster in pigs fed the PB-AA. Performance and expression of AA transporters and myosin suggest that the dietary content of free or protein-bound AA does not affect their availability for protein synthesis in pigs.

  17. Carnitine supplementation in high-fat diet-fed rats does not ameliorate lipid-induced skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wessels, Bart; van den Broek, Nicole M A; Ciapaite, Jolita; Houten, Sander M; Wanders, Ronald J A; Nicolay, Klaas; Prompers, Jeanine J

    2015-10-01

    Muscle lipid overload and the associated accumulation of lipid intermediates play an important role in the development of insulin resistance. Carnitine insufficiency is a common feature of insulin-resistant states and might lead to incomplete fatty acid oxidation and impaired export of lipid intermediates out of the mitochondria. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that carnitine supplementation reduces high-fat diet-induced lipotoxicity, improves muscle mitochondrial function, and ameliorates insulin resistance. Wistar rats were fed either normal chow or a high-fat diet for 15 wk. One group of high-fat diet-fed rats was supplemented with 300 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) L-carnitine during the last 8 wk. Muscle mitochondrial function was measured in vivo by (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and ex vivo by high-resolution respirometry. Muscle lipid status was determined by (1)H MRS (intramyocellular lipids) and tandem mass spectrometry (acylcarnitines). High-fat diet feeding induced insulin resistance and was associated with decreases in muscle and blood free carnitine, elevated levels of muscle lipids and acylcarnitines, and an increased number of muscle mitochondria that showed an improved capacity to oxidize fat-derived substrates when tested ex vivo. This was, however, not accompanied by an increase in muscle oxidative capacity in vivo, indicating that in vivo mitochondrial function was compromised. Despite partial normalization of muscle and blood free carnitine content, carnitine supplementation did not induce improvements in muscle lipid status, in vivo mitochondrial function, or insulin sensitivity. Carnitine insufficiency, therefore, does not play a major role in high-fat diet-induced muscle mitochondrial dysfunction in vivo.

  18. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and tissue histology of growing pigs fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets.

    PubMed

    Lammers, P J; Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; Bregendahl, K; Lonergan, S M; Prusa, K J; Ahn, D U; Stoffregen, W C; Dozier, W A; Honeyman, M S

    2008-11-01

    The effects of dietary crude glycerin on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality indices, and tissue histology in growing pigs were determined in a 138-d feeding trial. Crude glycerin utilized in the trial contained 84.51% glycerin, 11.95% water, 2.91% sodium chloride, and 0.32% methanol. Eight days postweaning, 96 pigs (48 barrows and 48 gilts, average BW of 7.9 +/- 0.4 kg) were allotted to 24 pens (4 pigs/pen), with sex and BW balanced at the start of the experiment. Dietary treatments were 0, 5, and 10% crude glycerin inclusion in corn-soybean meal-based diets and were randomly assigned to pens. Diets were offered ad libitum in meal form and formulated to be equal in ME, sodium, chloride, and Lys, with other AA balanced on an ideal AA basis. Pigs and feeders were weighed every other week to determine ADG, ADFI, and G:F. At the end of the trial, all pigs were scanned using real-time ultrasound and subsequently slaughtered at a commercial abattoir. Blood samples were collected pretransport and at the time of slaughter for plasma metabolite analysis. In addition, kidney, liver, and eye tissues were collected for subsequent examination for lesions characteristic of methanol toxicity. After an overnight chilling of the carcass, loins were removed for meat quality, sensory evaluation, and fatty acid profile analysis. Pig growth, feed intake, and G:F were not affected by dietary treatment. Dietary treatment did not affect 10th-rib backfat, LM area, percent fat free lean, meat quality, or sensory evaluation. Loin ultimate pH was increased (P = 0.06) in pigs fed the 5 and 10% crude glycerin compared with pigs fed no crude glycerin (5.65 and 5.65 versus 5.57, respectively). Fatty acid profile of the LM was slightly changed by diet with the LM from pigs fed 10% crude glycerin having less linoleic acid (P < 0.01) and more eicosapentaenoic acid (P = 0.02) than pigs fed the 0 or 5% crude glycerin diets. Dietary treatment did not affect blood metabolites or

  19. Acute inflammation and hematological response in Nile tilapia fed supplemented diet with natural extracts of propolis and Aloe barbadensis.

    PubMed

    Dotta, G; Ledic-Neto, J; Gonçalves, E L T; Brum, A; Maraschin, M; Martins, M L

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the acute inflammatory response induced by carrageenin in the swim bladder of Nile tilapia supplemented with the mixture of natural extracts of propolis and Aloe barbadensis (1:1) at a concentration of 0.5%, 1% and 2% in diet during 15 days. Thirty-six fish were distributed into four treatments with three replicates: fish supplemented with 0.5% of admix of extracts of propolis and Aloe (1:1) injected with 500 µg carrageenin; fish supplemented with 1% of admix of extracts of propolis and Aloe (1:1) injected with 500 µg carrageenin; fish supplemented with 2% of admix of extracts of propolis and Aloe (1:1), injected with 500 µg carrageenin and unsupplemented fish injected with 500 µg carrageenin. Six hours after injection, samples of blood and exudate from the swim bladder of fish were collected. It was observed an increase in the leukocyte count in the swim bladder exudate of fish supplemented with extracts of propolis and Aloe injected with carrageenin. The most frequent cells were macrophages followed by granular leukocytes, thrombocytes and lymphocytes. Supplementation with propolis and Aloe to 0.5% caused a significant increase in the number of cells on the inflammatory focus mainly macrophages, cells responsible for the phagocytic activity in tissues, agent of innate fish immune response.

  20. Physiological response, blood chemistry profile and mucus secretion of red sea bream (Pagrus major) fed diets supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus under low salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Dawood, Mahmoud A O; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; El-Sabagh, Mabrouk; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Wang, Wei-Long; Yukun, Zhang; Olivier, Adissin

    2017-02-01

    Environmental stressors caused by inadequate aquaculture management strategies suppress the immune response of fish and make them more susceptible to diseases. Therefore, efforts have been made to relieve stress in fish by using various functional feed additives in the diet, including probiotics. The present work evaluates the effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR) on physiological stress response, blood chemistry and mucus secretion of red sea bream (Pagrus major) under low salinity stress. Fish were fed four diets supplemented with LR at [0 (LR0), 1 × 10(2) (LR1), 1 × 10(4) (LR2) and 1 × 10(6) (LR3) cells g(-1)] for 56 days. Before stress, blood cortisol, urea nitrogen (BUN) and total bilirubin (T-BIL) showed no significant difference (P > 0.05), whereas plasma glucose and triglyceride (TG) of fish-fed LR2 and LR3 diets were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those of the other groups. Plasma total cholesterol (T-CHO) of fish-fed LR3 diet was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that of the other groups. Furthermore, total plasma protein, mucus myeloperoxidase activity and the amount of mucus secretion were significantly enhanced in LR-supplemented groups when compared with the control group (P < 0.05). After the application of the low salinity stress test, plasma cortisol, glucose, T-CHO and TG contents in all groups showed an increased trend significantly (P < 0.01) compared to the fish before the stress challenge. However, plasma total protein and the amount of secreted mucus showed a decreased trend in all groups. On the other hand, BUN, T-BIL and mucus myeloperoxidase activity showed no significant difference after exposure to the low salinity stress (P > 0.05). In addition, the fish that received LR-supplemented diets showed significantly higher tolerance against low salinity stress than the fish-fed LR-free diet (P < 0.05). The physiological status and the detected immune responses, including total plasma protein and mucus

  1. Effect of l-glutamic acid supplementation on performance and nitrogen balance of broilers fed low protein diets.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, R M; Costa, F G P; Givisiez, P E N; Freitas, E R; Goulart, C C; Santos, R A; Souza, J G; Brandão, P A; Lima, M R; Melo, M L; Rodrigues, V P; Nogueira, E T; Vieira, D V G

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of protein reduction and supplementation of l-glutamic acid in male broiler diets. A total of 648 chicks of the Cobb 500 strain were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments and six replications with eighteen birds per experimental unit. The study comprised pre-starter (1-7 days), starter (8-21 days), growth (22-35 days) and final (36-45 days) phases. The first treatment consisted of a control diet formulated according to the requirements of essential amino acids for each rearing phase. The second and third treatments had crude protein (CP) reduced by 1.8 and 3.6 percentage points (pp) in relation to the control diet respectively. In the fourth treatment, l-glutamic acid was added to provide the same glutamate level as the control diet, and in the last two treatments, the broilers were supplemented with 1 and 2 pp of glutamate above that of the control diet respectively. The reduction in CP decreased the performance of broilers and the supplementation of l-glutamic acid did not influence performance when supplied in the diets with excess of glutamate. The lowest excreted nitrogen values were observed in the control diet, and treatments 2 and 3, respectively, in comparison with treatments with the use of l-glutamic acid (5 and 6). Retention efficiency of nitrogen was better in the control diet and in the treatment with a reduction of 1.8 pp of CP. It was verified that the serum uric acid level decreased with the CP reduction. A reduction in CP levels of up to 21.3%, 18.8%, 18.32% and 17.57% is recommended in phases from 1 to 7, 8 to 21, 22 to 35 and at 36 to 42 days, respectively, with a level of glutamate at 5.32%, 4.73%, 4.57%, 4.38%, also in these phases.

  2. Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaf supplementation improves antioxidant status in C57BL/6J mice fed high fat high cholesterol diet

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeung Hee; Son, Chan Wook; Kim, Mi Yeon; Kim, Min Hee; Kim, Hye Ran; Kwak, Eun Shil; Kim, Sena

    2009-01-01

    The effect of diet supplemented with red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaf on antioxidant status of plasma and tissue was investigated in C57BL/6J mice. The mice were randomly divided into two groups after one-week acclimation, and fed a high fat (20%) and high cholesterol (1%) diet without (control group) or with 8% freeze-dried red beet leaf (RBL group) for 4 weeks. In RBL mice, lipid peroxidation determined as 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS value) was significantly reduced in the plasma and selected organs (liver, heart, and kidney). Levels of antioxidants (glutathione and β-carotene) and the activities of antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase) in plasma and liver were considerably increased, suggesting that antioxidant defenses were improved by RBL diet. Comet parameters such as tail DNA (%), tail extent moment, olive tail moment and tail length were significantly reduced by 25.1%, 49.4%, 35.4%, and 23.7%, respectively, in plasma lymphocyte DNA of RBL mice compared with control mice, and indicated the increased resistance of lymphocyte DNA to oxidative damage. In addition, the RBL diet controlled body weight together with a significant reduction of fat pad (retroperitoneal, epididymal, inguinal fat, and total fat). Therefore, the present study suggested that the supplementation of 8% red beet leaf in high fat high cholesterol diet could prevent lipid peroxidation and improve antioxidant defense system in the plasma and tissue of C57BL/6J mice. PMID:20016711

  3. Dietary supplementation of grape skin extract improves glycemia and inflammation in diet-induced obese mice fed a Western high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Shelly; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Sun, Xiuxiu; Kadouh, Hoda; Zhou, Kequan

    2011-04-13

    Dietary antioxidants may provide a cost-effective strategy to promote health in obesity by targeting oxidative stress and inflammation. We recently found that the antioxidant-rich grape skin extract (GSE) also exerts a novel anti-hyperglycemic activity. This study investigated whether 3-month GSE supplementation can improve oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperglycemia associated with a Western diet-induced obesity. Young diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were randomly divided to three treatment groups (n = 12): a standard diet (S group), a Western high fat diet (W group), and the Western diet plus GSE (2.4 g GSE/kg diet, WGSE group). By week 12, DIO mice in the WGSE group gained significantly more weight (24.6 g) than the W (20.2 g) and S groups (11.2 g); the high fat diet groups gained 80% more weight than the standard diet group. Eight of 12 mice in the W group, compared to only 1 of 12 mice in the WGSE group, had fasting blood glucose levels above 140 mg/dL. Mice in the WGSE group also had 21% lower fasting blood glucose and 17.1% lower C-reactive protein levels than mice in the W group (P < 0.05). However, the GSE supplementation did not affect oxidative stress in diet-induced obesity as determined by plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and liver lipid peroxidation. Collectively, the results indicated a beneficial role of GSE supplementation for improving glycemic control and inflammation in diet-induced obesity.

  4. Effects of Supplemental Acerola Juice on the Mineral Concentrations in Liver and Kidney Tissue Samples of Mice Fed with Cafeteria Diet.

    PubMed

    Leffa, Daniela Dimer; dos Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims; Daumann, Francine; Longaretti, Luiza Martins; Amaral, Livio; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; da Silva, Juliana; Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the impact of a supplemental acerola juice (unripe, ripe, and industrial) and its main pharmaceutically active components on the concentrations of minerals in the liver and kidney of mice fed with cafeteria diet. Swiss male mice were fed with a cafeteria (CAF) diet for 13 weeks. The CAF consisted of a variety of supermarket products with high energy content. Subsequently, animals received one of the following food supplements for 1 month: water, unripe acerola juice, ripe acerola juice, industrial acerola juice, vitamin C, or rutin. Mineral concentrations of the tissues were determined by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Our study suggests that the simultaneous intake of acerola juices, vitamin C, or rutin in association with a hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet provides change in the mineral composition of organisms in the conditions of this study, which plays an important role in the antioxidant defenses of the body. This may help to reduce the metabolism of the fat tissue or even to reduce the oxidative stress.

  5. Effects of dietary xylanase supplementation on performance and functional digestive parameters in broilers fed wheat-based diets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Chao; Kim, In-Ho

    2016-08-26

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate dietary xylanase supplementation in broilers wheat-based diets on performance and functional digestive parameters including ileal digesta viscosity, apparent ileal digestibility, intestinal morphology and microflora, digestive enzyme activities, and excreta odor content. A total of 600 1-day-old Ross 308 male broilers with an initial average BW of 45 ± 0.6 g were randomly allotted into 4 treatments with 10 replicate pens per treatment and 15 broilers in each pen for 35 d. The 4 dietary treatments were wheat-based diets and supplemented with 0, 1,875, 3,750, and 5,625 XU/kg xylanase. Xylanase supplementation improved (linear, P < 0.05) the body weight gain and decreased (linear, P < 0.05) the feed conversion ratio during d 1 to 18 and for the duration of the experiment. Dietary supplementation of xylanase led to a decrease (linear, P < 0.01) in ileal digesta viscosity. The apparent ileal digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), gross energy, and most amino acids (with the exception of Ile, Phe, Asp, Glu, and Pro) were increased (linear, P < 0.05) by xylanase supplementation. Increasing the dietary xylanase levels improved (linear, P < 0.05) the villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. In addition, inclusion of xylanase increased (linear, P < 0.05) the Lactobacillus numbers in the ileum and cecum, while decreased the ileal E. coli counts (linear, P < 0.01) and cecal E. coli populations (linear, P < 0.01; quadratic, P < 0.05). There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in trypsin, amylase, and protease activities of small intestine among dietary treatments. Furthermore, xylanase supplementation reduced excreta NH3 (linear, P < 0.05; quadratic, P < 0.05) and total mercaptan (R.SH) (linear, P < 0.01) concentration. Taken together, dietary xylanase supplementation in broilers wheat-based diets had beneficial effects on growth

  6. Effect of broiler breeders fed with corn or sorghum diet and canthaxanthin supplementation on production and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, C E V; Rosa, A P; Londero, A; Giacomini, C B S; Orso, C; Fernandes, M O; Paixão, S J; Bonamigo, D V

    2017-03-04

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of corn or sorghum diet and canthaxanthin (CX) supplementation on performance in broiler breeders. A total of 440 females with similar body weight (BW) (3.71 ± 0.14 kg) and 60 roosters were placed in an open-sided house with 20 pens, randomly distributed in a factorial arrangement (2 × 2). There were 4 diets of 2 ingredients; corn (CO) or sorghum (SO) and 2 levels of CX; 6 mg/kg (CX) and 0 mg/kg (NCX) totaling 5 replicate pens of 22 females and 3 males each, from 42 to 65 wk, divided in 2 periods (from wk 42 to 53 and wk 54 to 65). Birds' BW was measured every 28 d and mortality rate was calculated at the end of trial. Egg production (%), egg specific gravity (g/cm3), egg weight (g), yolk weight (%), albumen weight (%), eggshell weight (%) and yolk colorimetric score were measured weekly. Incubation parameters were recorded in 12 incubations to evaluate hatching eggs, hatching (%), hatchability (%), fertility (%), weight of the chicks born and their quality. The BW, mortality, percentage of yolk and albumen weight, fertility and some incubation parameters were not affected (P > 0.05) by diets used. An increase in the egg production, hatching eggs, chicks born and first quality chick by hen at the second period were observed in CX breeder's diets (P = 0.0066; P = 0.0060; P = 0.0368; P = 0.0326). Egg specific gravity and eggshell weight were improved at the first period by SO+CX diet (P = 0.0138; P = 0.0209) and the same effect to egg weight, but at the second period (P = 0.0251). The CX was well absorbed from the diet and effectively transferred to the egg yolk, thereby increasing egg yolk pigmentation in the both periods (P < 0.0001). The CX supplementation in broiler breeder diets improved the productive and reproductive performance (laying% and hatchable eggs) at the second period, also to the both periods improved the egg yolk pigmentation.

  7. Effect of Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) Extract Supplementation in STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed with a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Salvador, Ângelo C.; Król, Ewelina; Lemos, Virgínia C.; Santos, Sónia A. O.; Bento, Fernanda P. M. S.; Costa, Carina P.; Almeida, Adelaide; Szczepankiewicz, Dawid; Kulczyński, Bartosz; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Silvestre, Armando J. D.; Rocha, Sílvia M.

    2016-01-01

    Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) lipophilic and polar extract dietary supplementation effects were evaluated according to diabetes management indices, using an in vivo model. A research pipeline was constructed, that ranged from extract preparation, partial chemical characterization and toxicity evaluation, to examining the elderberry extract dietary supplementation effects on biofluid and tissues. Extracts toxicity was screened using an Aliivibrio fischeri bioluminescence model. A concentration of up to 60 mg/L was selected, and rat doses for oral supplementation were computed applying the interspecies correlation between A. fischeri and rats. Wistar type 2 diabetic rats, induced by streptozotocin (STZ), were fed a high-fat diet and supplemented for 4 weeks at doses of 190 and 350 mg/kg body weight/day of lipophilic and polar extract, respectively. As far as we know, lipophilic elderberry extract supplementation was assessed for the first time, while polar extract was administrated at higher doses and for a shorter period compared to previous studies, aiming to evaluate subacute supplementation effects. The polar extract modulated glucose metabolism by correcting hyperglycemia, while the lipophilic extract lowered insulin secretion. Both extracts lowered insulin resistance, without remarkable alterations to hematological indices, sera lipids and sera and tissular trace element homeostasis. In conclusion, elderberries are a potential source of bioactive compounds for formulations to be used as co-adjuvants in diabetes management. PMID:28025494

  8. Adiposity and serum parameters in hamsters fed energy restricted diets supplemented or not with trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid.

    PubMed

    Lasa, A; Simón, E; Churruca, I; Fernández-Quintela, A; Rodríguez, V M; Portillo, M P

    2007-12-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) modulates body composition, reducing body fat accumulation in various mammalian species. However, very few studies have been carried out to assess the effect of CLA on previously stored body fat. The aim of the present work was to analyse the effectiveness of trans-10,cis-12 CLA in improving alterations produced by high-fat feeding in body fat and serum parameters when it was included in an energy-restricted diet. For this purpose male Syrian Golden hamsters were fed on high-fat diet for 7 weeks in order to increase their body fat content, and a further 25% energy-restricted diet supplemented or not with 0.5% trans-10,cis-12 CLA for 3 weeks. Adipose tissues, liver and gastrocnemious muscles were dissected and weighed. Adipocyte diameter and number were assessed in epididymal adipose tissue. Total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, non-esterified fatty acids and glucose were measured in serum. Three weeks of energy restriction resulted in a reduction in body weight and white adipose tissue size in all anatomical locations, without changes in liver and gastrocnemious muscle weights. Epididymal adipocyte size was reduced, but total adipocyte number remained unchanged. Serum cholesterol, triacylglycerols and glucose were significantly reduced. No differences were observed between the restricted groups (control and CLA supplemented). In conclusion, under our experimental conditions, the addition of trans-10,cis-12 CLA to the diet does not increase the benefits produced by energy restriction.

  9. Growth performance and feed utilization of keureling fish Tor tambra (Cyprinidae) fed formulated diet supplemented with enhanced probiotic.

    PubMed Central

    Muchlisin, Zainal Abidin; Murda, Tanzil; Yulvizar, Cut; Dewiyanti, Irma; Fadli, Nur; Afrido, Fardin; Siti-Azizah, Mohd Nor; Muhammadar, Abdullah A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum dosage of probiotic in the diet of keureling fish ( Tor tambra) fry. Methods Lactobacillus casei from Yakult® was used as a starter, and enhanced with Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Kaempferia galanga and molasses. The mixture was fermented for 7 days prior to use as probiotic in a formulated diet containing 30% crude protein. Four levels of probiotic dosage; 0 ml kg -1 (control), 5 ml kg -1, 10 ml kg -1 and 15 ml kg -1 were tested in this study. The fish was fed twice a day at 08.00 AM and 06.00 PM at the ration of 5% body weight for 80 days. Results The results showed that growth performance and feed efficiency increased with increasing probiotic dosage in the diet from control (no probiotic) to 10 ml kg -1 of probiotic dosage and then decreased when the dosage was increased up to 15 ml kg -1. Conclusions The best values for all measured parameters were recorded at the dosage of 10 ml kg -1. Therefore, it was concluded that the optimum dosage of enhanced probiotic for T. tambra fry was 10 ml kg -1 of feed. PMID:28357045

  10. Growth performance and feed utilization of keureling fish Tor tambra (Cyprinidae) fed formulated diet supplemented with enhanced probiotic.

    PubMed

    Muchlisin, Zainal Abidin; Murda, Tanzil; Yulvizar, Cut; Dewiyanti, Irma; Fadli, Nur; Afrido, Fardin; Siti-Azizah, Mohd Nor; Muhammadar, Abdullah A

    2017-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to determine the optimum dosage of probiotic in the diet of keureling fish ( Tor tambra) fry. MethodsLactobacillus casei from Yakult® was used as a starter, and enhanced with Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Kaempferia galanga and molasses. The mixture was fermented for 7 days prior to use as probiotic in a formulated diet containing 30% crude protein. Four levels of probiotic dosage; 0 ml kg (-1) (control), 5 ml kg (-1), 10 ml kg (-1) and 15 ml kg (-1) were tested in this study. The fish was fed twice a day at 08.00 AM and 06.00 PM at the ration of 5% body weight for 80 days. Results The results showed that growth performance and feed efficiency increased with increasing probiotic dosage in the diet from control (no probiotic) to 10 ml kg (-1) of probiotic dosage and then decreased when the dosage was increased up to 15 ml kg (-1). Conclusions The best values for all measured parameters were recorded at the dosage of 10 ml kg (-1). Therefore, it was concluded that the optimum dosage of enhanced probiotic for T. tambra fry was 10 ml kg (-1) of feed.

  11. Effects of canola seed supplementation on intake, digestion, duodenal protein supply, and microbial efficiency in steers fed forage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Leupp, J L; Lardy, G P; Soto-Navarro, S A; Bauer, M L; Caton, J S

    2006-02-01

    Fourteen Holstein steers (446 +/- 4.4 kg of initial BW) with ruminal, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate effects of whole or ground canola seed (23.3% CP and 39.6% ether extract; DM basis) on intake, digestion, duodenal protein supply, and microbial efficiency in steers fed low-quality hay. Our hypothesis was that processing would be necessary to optimize canola use in diets based on low-quality forage. The basal diet consisted of ad libitum access to switchgrass hay (5.8% CP; DM basis) offered at 0700 daily. Treatments consisted of hay only (control), hay plus whole canola (8% of dietary DM), or hay plus ground canola (8% of dietary DM). Supplemental canola was provided based on the hay intake of the previous day. Steers were adapted to diets for 14 d followed by a 7-d collection period. Total DMI, OM intake, and OM digestibility were not affected (P > or = 0.31) by treatment. Similarly, no differences (P > or = 0.62) were observed for NDF or ADF total tract digestion. Bacterial OM at the duodenum increased (P = 0.01) with canola-containing diets compared with the control diet and increased (P = 0.08) in steers consuming ground canola compared with whole canola. Apparent and true ruminal CP digestibilities were increased (P = 0.01) with canola supplementation compared with the control diet. Canola supplementation decreased ruminal pH (P = 0.03) compared with the control diet. The molar proportion of acetate in the rumen tended (P = 0.10) to decrease with canola supplementation. The molar proportion of acetate in ruminal fluid decreased (P = 0.01), and the proportion of propionate increased (P = 0.01), with ground canola compared with whole canola. In situ disappearance rate of hay DM, NDF, and ADF were not altered by treatment (P > or = 0.32). In situ disappearance rate of canola DM, NDF, and ADF increased (P = 0.01) for ground canola compared with whole canola. Similarly, ground canola had greater (P = 0

  12. Dietary supplementation with purified mulberry (Morus australis Poir) anthocyanins suppresses body weight gain in high-fat diet fed C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Qi, Xueming; Liu, Yan; Guo, Jun; Zhu, Ruiyu; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Xiaodong; Yu, Ting

    2013-11-01

    We present our experiment about adding anthocyanins to the daily food of mice. Three kinds of anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside) purified from Chinese mulberry (Morus australis Poir) were evaluated for suppressing body weight gain of the male C57BL/6 mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). The results from a 12-week experiment show that consumption of purified mulberry anthocyanins (MACN) of 40 or 200mg/kg can significantly inhibit body weight gain, reduce the resistance to insulin, lower the size of adipocytes, attenuate lipid accumulation and decrease the leptin secretion. Thus, dietary supplementation with MACN can protect against body weight gain of the diet-induced obese mice.

  13. Comparative evaluation of anti-obesity effect of Aloe vera and Gymnema sylvestre supplementation in high-fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Rather, Sarver Ahmed; Singh, Satvinder

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate, anti-obesity effect of Aloe vera (AV), and Gymnema sylvestre (GS) whole extract powders administration to high-fat diet (HFD) fed C57BL/6J mice for 12 weeks. Materials and Methods: At the end of experiment, different parameters such as body weight, feed intake, organ weights, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, plasma lipid levels, and expression analysis of adipocytokines were evaluated. Results: At the end of experimental period, oral administration of both herbs showed a significant (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001) decrease in the plasma glucose and lipid levels in HFD fed mice. In addition, increased in the epididymal fat (E. fat) weight in the HFD group was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced on GS administration alone. Finally, quantitative mRNA expression analysis of adiponectin gene was significantly up-regulated in AV supplementation. Further, no effect was observed with the both herbs on pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-a) in the E. fat tissue of HFD fed group. Conclusions: The anti-obesity and other metabolic studies depend on the type of diet, different parts of herbal extractions, and animal models used. Further studies are required in this area to strengthen the anti-obesity effects of herbs with active component, and it can be used a pro-drug instead of whole extract. PMID:27757271

  14. Milk production, peripartal liver triglyceride concentration and plasma metabolites of dairy cows fed diets supplemented with calcium soaps or hydrogenated triglycerides of palm oil.

    PubMed

    Karcagi, Roland G; Gaál, Tibor; Ribiczey, Piroska; Huszenicza, Gyula; Husvéth, Ferenc

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the study was to test the effect of rumen-inert fat supplements of different chemical forms or containing different unsaturated/saturated (U/S) fatty acid contents on milk production, milk composition and liver and blood metabolic variables of high-yielding dairy cows in the peripartal period. Thirty Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were divided into three equal groups and fed a corn silage-based diet, without fat supplementation (control) or supplemented with 11.75 MJ NEl per day of calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (CAS; U/S=61/39) or with 11.75 MJ NEl per day of hydrogenated palm oil triglyceride (HTG; U/S=6/94). Each diet was fed from 25+/-2 d prior to the expected calving to 100+/-5 d post partum. Compared with the control, both CAS and HTG supplementation resulted in an increase of the average milk yield. Milk fat content and fat-corrected milk yield were higher in the HTG group but lower in the CAS group than in the control group. In all groups liver triglyceride concentrations (TGL) increased from 15 d prepartum to 5 d post partum, and then decreased thereafter. At 5 d TGL was lower in the HTG group than control or CAS cows. No significant differences were detected in TGL among dietary treatments at 15 d prepartum and 25 d post partum. Higher plasma glucose and insulin and lower non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations and aspartate aminotransferase activity were measured in the HTG group than in the control or CAS groups at 5 d or 25 d post partum. Our results show that HTG may provide a better energy supply for high-yielding dairy cows in negative energy balance than CAS around calving.

  15. Protective effects of maternal methyl donor supplementation on adult offspring of high fat diet-fed dams.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Fei; Yan, Xiaoshuang; Yu, Yuan; Zhu, Xiao; Ma, Ying; Yue, Zhen; Ou, Hailong; Yan, Zhonghai

    2016-08-01

    Obesity has become a global public health problem associated with metabolic dysfunction and chronic disorders. It has been shown that the risk of obesity and the DNA methylation profiles of the offspring can be affected by maternal nutrition, such as high-fat diet (HFD) consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate whether metabolic dysregulation and physiological abnormalities in offspring caused by maternal HFD can be alleviated by the treatment of methyl donors during pregnancy and lactation of dams. Female C57BL/6 mice were assigned to specific groups and given different nutrients (control diet, Control+Met, HFD and HFD+Met) throughout gestation and lactation. Offspring of each group were weaned onto a control diet at 3 weeks of age. Physiological (weight gain and adipose composition) and metabolic (plasma biochemical analyses) outcomes were assessed in male and female adult offspring. Expression and DNA methylation profiles of obesogenic-related genes including PPAR γ, fatty acid synthase, leptin and adiponectin were also detected in visceral fat of offspring. The results showed that dietary supplementation with methyl donors can prevent the adverse effects of maternal HFD on offspring. Changes in the expression and DNA methylation of obesogenic-related genes indicated that epigenetic regulation may contribute to the effects of maternal dietary factors on offspring outcomes.

  16. Femur morphometry, densitometry, geometry and mechanical properties in young pigs fed a diet free of inorganic phosphorus and supplemented with phytase.

    PubMed

    Skiba, Grzegorz; Sobol, Monika; Raj, Stanisława

    2017-02-01

    The study investigated in piglets the effect of replacing dietary inorganic P by addition of microbial phytase and its impact on performance, nutrient digestibility and on the geometrical characteristics and mineralisation of the femur. Sixteen pigs on day 58 of age were divided into two groups and fed either a diet free of additional inorganic phosphorus (P) and supplemented with phytase (Diet LP, 4.23 g total P/kg diet) or a diet with a mineral source of P and not supplemented with phytase (Diet SP, 5.38 g total P/kg diet). Performance data and the apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients were estimated between days 58 and 114, and 72 and 86 of age, respectively. On day 114 of age, the pigs were slaughtered, the femur was dissected and the mineral content and mineral density, maximum strength and maximum elastic strength, cortical wall thickness, cross-sectional area and cortical index were analysed. The growth performance and digestibility of nutrient fractions (with exception of P) did not differ between treatment groups. The P-digestibility was significantly higher in Group LP. The femur of pigs in Group LP had significantly greater cortical wall thickness, cortical index, bone mineral content, bone mineral density, maximum strength and maximum elastic strength than Group SP. Femur maximum strength and maximum elastic strength were correlated with cortical wall thickness and cortical index. Resulting from the different supply of digestible P, the femur geometrical, densitometric and mechanical properties of Group LP were better than those of Group SP. The mechanical properties of the femur of pigs depended more on its geometrical characteristics than on the degree of its mineralisation.

  17. Rumen adaptation of swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) by high level of urea supplementation when fed on rice straw-based diet.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-08-01

    Four rumen-fistulated swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were randomly allocated to investigate rumen adaptation of urea on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, fermentation efficiency, and microbial protein synthesis. Buffaloes were fed with rice straw ad libitum for a period of 2 weeks and then were shifted to a step-up diet regimen by supplementation of concentrate containing 20 and 40 g/kg urea at 5 g/kg BW for a period of 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. The results revealed that feed intake and nutrient digestibility were increased by urea supplementation (P < 0.05) both at two and four period of consumption. However, ruminal pH, temperature, and protozoal population were neither affected by urea nor adaptation period (P > 0.05) while bacterial and fungal zoospores were increased especially at 40 g/kg urea. Data from real-time PCR further showed that total bacteria and the three predominant cellulolytic bacteria (Ruminococcus albus, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens) were increased by urea supplementation both at 2 and 4 weeks of urea feeding. Furthermore, methane production was similar among treatments while microbial protein synthesis was enhanced when buffaloes were fed with urea after a period of 2 weeks especially at 40 g/kg urea (P < 0.05). It can be concluded that urea supplementation could increase feed intake, nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and fermentation efficiency of swamp buffaloes fed on rice straw. It is suggested that buffaloes could adapt well and utilize urea as a N source effectively within a period of 2 weeks uptake without adverse effect.

  18. Evaluation of isoquinoline alkaloid supplementation levels on ruminal fermentation, characteristics of digestion, and microbial protein synthesis in steers fed a high-energy diet.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Hernández, J A; Urías-Estrada, J D; López-Soto, M A; Barreras, A; Plascencia, A; Montaño, M; González-Vizcarra, V M; Estrada-Angulo, A; Castro-Pérez, B I; Barajas, R; Rogge, H I; Zinn, R A

    2016-01-01

    Four Holstein steers with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to examine the effect of daily intake of 0, 2, 4 or 6 g/steer of standardized plant extract containing a mixture of quaternary benzophenanthridine alkaloids and protopine alkaloids (QBA+PA) on the characteristics of ruminal fermentation and characteristics of digestion. The basal diet consisted of a steam-flaked corn-based finishing diet that contained 62% corn and 12% sudangrass hay and the rest of diet was composed of mainly dried distillers grains, molasses, fat, and minerals. The source of QBA+PA used was Sangrovit-RS (Phytobiotics Futterzusatzstoffe GmbH, Eltville, Germany) and supplementation levels of 2, 4, and 6 g Sangrovit-RS∙steer∙d, which represented a net daily ingestion of approximately 6, 12, and 18 mg of QBA+PA compounds, respectively. Inclusion of QBA+PA linearly increased ( = 0.04) flow to the duodenum of nonammonia N and linearly decreased ( < 0.01) duodenal flows of ammonia N. Ruminal microbial efficiency (duodenal microbial N; g/kg OM fermented in the rumen) and protein efficiency (duodenal nonammonia N; g/g N intake) were increased ( < 0.05) as the level of QBA+PA increased. There were no effects of QBA+PA supplementation on ruminal, postruminal, and total tract digestion of OM, starch, and NDF, but postruminal and total tract digestion of N increased ( < 0.01) as the level of QBA+PA increased. Digestible energy of the diet tended to increase (linear affect, = 0.09) with QBA+PA supplementation. Ruminal pH and total VFA molar concentrations were not different between treatments. Ruminal NH-N concentration linearly decreased ( = 0.02) with QBA+PA supplementation. Ruminal molar proportion of acetate increased ( = 0.04) as the supplementation level of QBA+PA increased. It is concluded that QBA+PA supplementation enhances efficiency of N utilization in feedlot steers fed a steam-flaked corn-based finishing diet. This effect was due, in part, to

  19. Interactive effects of phytase and xylanase supplementation with extractable salt-soluble protein content of corn in diets with adequate calcium and nonphytate phosphorus fed to broilers.

    PubMed

    Gehring, C K; Bedford, M R; Dozier, W A

    2013-07-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of extractable salt-soluble protein content of corn (PS) and exogenous enzyme supplementation on N, starch, and energy digestibility in broilers fed diets adequate in Ca and nonphytate P. Broilers were randomly distributed into floor pens (6 replicate pens per treatment) with 28 birds per pen at 1 d of age. Treatments consisting of 4 sources of corn varying in PS (A, 58.1; B, 54.2; C, 53.7; and D, 30.6 mg of BSA equivalent values) with or without phytase (0 and 1,000 phytase units/kg) and xylanase (0 and 16,000 units of xylanase activity/kg) were randomly assigned to each pen. Different sources of corn were provided from 1 to 9 and 24 to 29 d of age. However, enzyme treatments were provided throughout the experiment. From 1 to 9 d of age, no interactions were observed. Apparent ileal N digestibility (AIND) and apparent ileal digestible energy (IDE) of diets with the lowest PS (based on corn D) were lower (P ≤ 0.05) than those of diets with a higher PS. Phytase increased (P ≤ 0.01) AIND and IDE by 5 and 16%, respectively, and xylanase exerted the opposite effect (P ≤ 0.03). From 24 to 29 d of age, phytase and xylanase in combination resulted in reduced (P ≤ 0.05) AIND of diets with a low PS (based on corn D) compared with the basal diet in broilers. Broilers fed diets with the highest or lowest PS (based on corn A or D) had lower (3-way interaction; P ≤ 0.05) IDE when phytase and xylanase were supplemented in combination compared with either enzyme alone. In conclusion, responses to exogenous enzyme supplementation are not constant and are influenced by the source of ingredients as well as the age of broilers. The magnitudes of the responses to phytase on nutrient and energy digestibility were greater at 9 compared with 29 d of age.

  20. Species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of enterococci isolated from broilers infected experimentally with Eimeria spp and fed with diets containing different supplements

    PubMed Central

    Cassenego, A.P.V.; d’Azevedo, P.A.; Ribeiro, A.M.L.; Frazzon, J.; Van Der Sand, S.T.; Frazzon, A. P. G.

    2011-01-01

    Resistant bacteria in animal can be spread to environment and to humans. Poultry feed and infections caused by Eimeria spp. are important factors in determining the intestinal microbial communities. The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of species and antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterococcus isolated from broilers fed with different supplements and infected experimentally with Eimeria spp. Broilers were divided in eight groups, fed with diets supplemented with a combination of antimicrobial, ionophore-coccidiostatics, probiotic, essential oil. At 14 days old all birds, except the control, received a solution containing oocysts of Eimeria spp. Samples of cloacal swabs from broilers were collected. A total of 240 Enterococcus sp. strains were isolated, confirmed genus by PCR, classified as species, tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and screened by PCR for the presence of tet(L), tet(M) and erm(B) genes. The overall distribution of species isolated from fecal samples was E. faecalis (40%), followed by E. casseliflavus/E. gallinarum (10.8%), E. mundtii (10.8%), E. faecium (10.8%), E. columbae (5.8%) and E. gallinarum (4.2%). Changes in the composition or frequency of Enterococcus species were observed in all dietary supplementation. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed resistance phenotypes a range of antibiotics, especially used in humans such as, streptomycin, penicillin, rifampicin and vancomycin. There was no correlation between different supplementation for broilers and antimicrobial resistance and the presence of tet(M), tet(L) and erm(B) genes. Dietary supplementation had effect on the Enterococcus sp. colonization, but did not have significant effect on the phenotype and genotype of antimicrobial resistance in enterococci. PMID:24031659

  1. Dietary Resistant Starch Supplementation Increases High-Density Lipoprotein Particle Number in Pigs Fed a Western Diet.

    PubMed

    Rideout, Todd C; Harding, Scott V; Raslawsky, Amy; Rempel, Curtis B

    2017-05-04

    Resistant starch (RS) has been well characterized for its glycemic control properties; however, there is little consensus regarding the influence of RS on blood lipid concentrations and lipoprotein distribution and size. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the effect of daily RS supplementation in a controlled capsule delivery on biomarkers of cardiovascular (blood lipids, lipoproteins) and diabetes (glucose, insulin) risk in a pig model. Twelve 8-week-old male Yorkshire pigs were placed on a synthetic Western diet and randomly divided into two groups (n = 6/group) for 30 days: (1) a placebo group supplemented with capsules containing unmodified pre-gelatinized potato starch (0 g/RS/day); and (2) an RS group supplemented with capsules containing resistant potato starch (10 g/RS/day). Serum lipids including total-cholesterol (C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides did not differ (p > 0.05) between the RS and placebo groups. Although the total numbers of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles were similar (p > 0.05) between the two groups, total high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles were higher (+28%, p < 0.05) in the RS group compared with placebo, resulting from an increase (p < 0.05) in the small HDL subclass particles (+32%). Compared with the placebo group, RS supplementation lowered (p < 0.05) fasting serum glucose (-20%) and improved (p < 0.05) insulin resistance as estimated by Homeostatic Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) without a change in insulin. Additionally, total serum glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1) was higher (+141%, p < 0.05) following RS supplementation compared with placebo. This data suggests that in addition to the more well-characterized effect of RS intake in lowering blood glucose and improving insulin sensitivity, the consumption of RS may be beneficial in lipid management strategies by enhancing total

  2. Dietary supplementation with whey protein and ginseng extract counteracts oxidative stress and DNA damage in rats fed an aflatoxin-contaminated diet.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aziem, Sekena H; Hassan, Aziza M; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A

    2011-07-14

    Aflatoxins (AF) are among the most potent naturally occurring carcinogens and aflatoxin-B1 (AFB(1)) is classified as a group-1 carcinogen. Since the ingestion of aflatoxins-contaminated food is associated with several liver diseases, the aim of the present study was to evaluate whether AF-induced damage in rats can be counteracted by feeding with whey-protein concentrates (WPC) and Korean ginseng extract (KGE). Eighty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight equal groups and treated daily for 30 days as follows: a control group (fed an AF-free diet), a group fed ad libitum an AF-contaminated diet (2.5mg/kg diet), a group treated orally with WPC (0.5ml/rat/day), a group treated orally with KGE (20mg/kg body weight), a group treated orally with WPC+KGE, and three groups that were fed the AF-contaminated diet and were treated orally with WPC, KGE or WPC+KGE, respectively. Throughout the experimental period, animals received WPC or KGE during the consumption of their respective diet. Bone-marrow micronucleus formation, DNA fragmentation, fatty-acid synthesis (FAS) and phospholipid-hydroperoxide-glutathione-peroxidase (PHGPx) mRNA expression, and oxidative stress were assayed in liver and testis. The results indicated that ingestion of aflatoxin resulted in a significant increase in micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes (Mn-NCE) in bone marrow, DNA fragmentation, FAS mRNA expression and lipid peroxidation in both organs, and a significant decrease in micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes/micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes (PCE/NCE) ratio in bone marrow, PHGPx gene expression and GSH in liver and testis. Treatments with WPC and/or KGE had a significant effect on Mn-NCE or the PCE/NCE ratio in bone marrow. However, KGE or KGE+WPC increased PHGPx gene expression and GSH in testis accompanied with a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation in liver and testis and FAS-mRNA expression in liver. WPC, KGE or WPC+KGE treatments combined with exposure

  3. Cinnamaldehyde supplementation prevents fasting-induced hyperphagia, lipid accumulation, and inflammation in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Khare, Pragyanshu; Jagtap, Sneha; Jain, Yachna; Baboota, Ritesh K; Mangal, Priyanka; Boparai, Ravneet K; Bhutani, Kamlesh K; Sharma, Shyam S; Premkumar, Louis S; Kondepudi, Kanthi K; Chopra, Kanwaljit; Bishnoi, Mahendra

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamaldehyde, a bioactive component of cinnamon, is increasingly gaining interest for its preventive and therapeutic effects against metabolic complications like type-2 diabetes. This study is an attempt to understand the effect of cinnamaldehyde in high-fat diet (HFD)-associated increase in fasting-induced hyperphagia and related hormone levels, adipose tissue lipolysis and inflammation, and selected cecal microbial count in mice. Cinnamaldehyde, at 40 µM dose, prevented lipid accumulation and altered gene expression toward lipolytic phenotype in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell lines. In vivo, cinnamaldehyde coadministration prevented HFD-induced body weight gain, decreased fasting-induced hyperphagia, as well as circulating leptin and leptin/ghrelin ratio. In addition to that, cinnamaldehyde altered serum biochemical parameters related to lipolysis, that is, glycerol and free fatty acid levels. At transcriptional level, cinnamaldehyde increased anorectic gene expression in hypothalamus and lipolytic gene expression in visceral white adipose tissue. Furthermore, cinnamaldehyde also decreased serum IL-1β and inflammatory gene expression in visceral white adipose tissue. However, cinnamaldehyde did not modulate the population of selected gut microbial (Lactobacillus, Bifidibaceria, and Roseburia) count in cecal content. In conclusion, cinnamaldehyde increased adipose tissue lipolysis, decreased fasting-induced hyperphagia, normalized circulating levels of leptin/ghrelin ratio, and reduced inflammation in HFD-fed mice, which augurs well for its antiobesity role.

  4. A 12-month feeding study of reproduction/development in rats fed meat/milk powder supplemented diets derived from the progeny of cloned cattle produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Makiko; Itoh, Masaya; Ito, Yoshihiko; Watanabe, Shinya

    2008-10-01

    The present 12-month feeding study was carried out with rat groups fed a diet supplemented with meat or milk (meat/milk) derived from the progeny of clones produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology. It was conducted to obtain data concerning the chronic toxicities of these edible products during the process of development and reproduction in rats fed such products. The rats were subjected to clinical observations for general health condition and examinations such as sensory/reflex function, grip strength, motor activity, body weight, food consumption, ophthalmology and urinalysis. Moreover, sexually matured rats fed the test diets were mated and examined for items such as the reproductive performances of the dams and health of their pups. After the feeding period, factors related to rat health status, based on the findings for hematology, blood biochemistry, necropsy, organ weight and histology, were examined. There were no biologically significant differences in these factors between the rat groups fed meat/milk powder supplemented diets derived from the progeny and those fed meat/milk powder supplemented diets derived from conventionally bred cattle. Therefore, the present chronic toxicity study suggests that meat and milk derived from the progeny of SCNT cattle might be equivalent to those derived from conventionally bred cattle in use as dietary supplements for rats.

  5. Influence of level of barley supplementation on plasma carotenoid content and fat spectrocolorimetric characteristics in lambs fed a carotenoid-rich diet.

    PubMed

    Zawadzki, F; do Prado, I N; Prache, S

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated changes in plasma carotenoid concentration and fat reflectance spectrum characteristics and color in lambs fed a carotenoid-rich diet with low-level (L, 100 g/lamb/day) or high-level (H, 400 g/lamb/day) of barley supplementation for 75 days before slaughter. Each treatment used 24 Romane male lambs that were individually penned indoors. Plasma carotenoid concentration at slaughter was 16% lower in H lambs than in L lambs. H lambs had heavier and fatter carcasses than L lambs. Yellowness and redness of perirenal fat were slightly lower in H lambs than in L lambs. The absolute value of the mean integral (AVMI) calculated from the reflectance spectrum of the fat in the 450-510 nm band was not affected by the treatment. Yellowness, chroma and AVMI of subcutaneous fat were not affected by the treatment but decreased with initial animal's liveweight.

  6. Microalgal Oil Supplementation Has an Anti-Obesity Effect in C57BL/6J Mice Fed a High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Yook, Jin-Seon; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Park, Jeong Eun; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Cha, Youn-Soo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of microalgal oil (MO) on body weight management in C57BL/6J mice. Obesity was induced for 8 weeks and animals were orally supplemented with the following for 8 additional weeks: beef tallow (BT), corn oil, fish oil (FO), microalgal oil (MO), or none, as a high fat diet control group (HD). A normal control group was fed with a normal diet. After completing the experiment, the FO and MO groups showed significant decreases in body weight gain, epididymal fat pad weights, serum triglycerides, and total cholesterol levels compared to the HD and BT groups. A lower mRNA expression level of lipid anabolic gene and higher levels of lipid catabolic genes were observed in both FO and MO groups. Serum insulin and leptin concentrations were lower in the MO group. These results indicated that microalgal oil has an anti-obesity effect that can combat high fat diet-induced obesity in mice. PMID:26770909

  7. Behavior and inflammation of the rumen and cecum in Holstein bulls fed high-concentrate diets with different concentrate presentation forms with or without straw supplementation.

    PubMed

    Devant, M; Penner, G B; Marti, S; Quintana, B; Fábregas, F; Bach, A; Arís, A

    2016-09-01

    Twenty-four individually housed Holstein bulls (395 ± 7.3 kg BW and 252 ± 3.1 d age) were exposed to a 2 × 2 factorial design (meal vs. pellets; with vs. without straw) to evaluate the effect of concentrate form and provision of straw in finishing diets on behavior and expression of rumen and cecum epithelium genes related to inflammation and behavior. Concentrate and straw consumption were recorded monthly and behavior (self-grooming, social, oral nonnutritive, tongue rolling, eating, drinking, ruminating, and lying) was recorded every two weeks. Bulls were slaughtered after 64 d of exposure to treatments, lesions on the rumen and liver were assessed, and samples of the rumen and cecum were collected. Straw supplementation tended ( = 0.08) to increase concentrate intake (8.0 vs. 7.4 ± 0.26 kg/d), increased ( < 0.01) the proportion of time ruminating (9.4 vs. 3.1 ± 1.02%), and decreased ( < 0.01) the occurrence of oral nonnutritive behaviors (0.52 vs. 1.34 ± 0.123 times/15 min) relative to bulls deprived of straw. Provision of straw increased ruminal pH, but the magnitude of the change was greater when the concentrate was provided as meal compared with pellets (interaction, < 0.05). When straw was not supplemented, all rumen samples had papillae fusion, whereas only 16.7% of bulls fed pellets and straw had papillae fusions (interaction, < 0.05). Vacuole grading of the rumen papillae was less ( < 0.01) in bulls provided straw compared with bulls without straw. For the ruminal epithelium, straw provision tended to increase the relative expression ratio of (which stimulates peptide YY, PYY, and serotonin secretion; = 0.06) and α (which modulates immune reactions and behavior; = 0.09) and increased and (tight junction proteins; < 0.05), along with β and (proinflammatory cytokines; < 0.01) and ( < 0.01) in the rumen. Moreover, it also tended to increase the relative gene expression ratio of β (an antimicrobial peptide; = 0.10) and ( = 0.10). Bulls fed pellets

  8. Supplement of bamboo extract lowers serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 concentration in mice fed a diet containing a high level of saturated fat.

    PubMed

    Higa, Jason K; Liu, Wanyu; Berry, Marla J; Panee, Jun

    2011-12-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is an inflammatory chemokine up-regulated in obese subjects, contributing to the development of type 2 diabetes. The present study investigated the inhibitory effect of an ethanol-water extract from bamboo (BEX, Phyllostachys edulis) on the blood concentration of MCP-1. C57BL/6J mice were fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet with or without the BEX supplement (11 g dry mass/17 000 kJ) for 6 months. A total of ten mice were used in each group. Body weight and food consumption were measured weekly. After euthanisation, the weight of visceral fat and circulating MCP-1 concentration were measured. In comparison with the standard control group, the high-fat control group had increased body weight, abdominal fat storage and serum MCP-1 concentration by 60 % (P < 0·001), 266 % (P < 0·001) and 180 % (P < 0·01), respectively. In comparison with the high-fat control group, the high-fat BEX group showed a 3 % decrease in body weight (P < 0·01), 24 % decrease in mesenteric fat depot (P < 0·01) and 49 % decrease in serum MCP-1 concentration (P < 0·05). The present study suggests that the BEX supplement in the high-fat diet ameliorates elevated MCP-1 concentrations in the blood, and whether this is related to modulated endocrine properties of the visceral fat is to be studied.

  9. Long-term vitamin E supplementation reduces atherosclerosis and mortality in LDLR -/- mice, but not when fed Western style diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence indicated potential health benefits of vitamin E supplementation on coronary heart disease (CHD), but several clinical trials reported no benefit from vitamin E supplementation on CHD. We hypothesized that supplemental intake of vitamin E from early age may...

  10. Development of bone in chick embryos from Cobb 500 breeder hens fed diets supplemented with zinc, manganese, and copper from inorganic and amino acid-complexed sources.

    PubMed

    Favero, A; Vieira, S L; Angel, C R; Bos-Mikich, A; Lothhammer, N; Taschetto, D; Cruz, R F A; Ward, T L

    2013-02-01

    Sources of Zn, Mn, and Cu (IZMC) as sulfates or as amino acid complexes (OZMC) were used to supplement Cobb 500 breeder hen diets. Experimental treatments consisted of diets supplemented with 1) 100, 100, and 10 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, from IZMC (control); 2) 60, 60, and 3 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, from IZMC plus 40, 40, and 7 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, from OZMC (ISO); and 3) a diet with 100, 100, and 10 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, from IZMC as in control plus 40, 40, and 7 mg/kg of supplemental Zn, Mn, and Cu from OZMC (on top). Ten replications of 20 females and 2 males were used per treatment. Eggs from breeders at 30, 40, 50 and 60 wk of age were incubated, and 5 embryos per replicate were collected at 10 (E10), 14 (E14), and 18 (E18) d of incubation. Midshaft width and calcification were measured for left tibia and femur stained with Alcian Blue and Alizarin Red S. At hatch, the left tibia of 5 chicks per replicate was sampled for histological evaluation of the diaphysis and distal epiphysis. Feeding the ISO treatment compared with the control diet increased the Zn (P < 0.05) but not Mn and Cu content of the yolk and albumen blend. At E14, the ISO and on-top treatments had a trend to increase tibia calcification at the rates of 1.6 and 1%, respectively (P < 0.1). The E18 ISO and on-top treatments had 2% thicker tibia compared with the control, regardless of hen age (P < 0.05). Also, at E18, calcification of tibia and femur was higher from hens fed the on-top treatment (P < 0.05). The chicks from the ISO and on-top groups had increased tibia moment of inertia (P < 0.01) at day of hatch. Broiler breeder hens consuming OZMC associated with IZMC produced embryos and hatching chicks with improvements in selected bone mineralization parameters.

  11. Quality traits and modeling of coagulation, curd firming, and syneresis of sheep milk of Alpine breeds fed diets supplemented with rumen-protected conjugated fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Bittante, G; Pellattiero, E; Malchiodi, F; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Pazzola, M; Vacca, G M; Schiavon, S; Cecchinato, A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test the modeling of curd-firming (CF) measures and to compare the sheep milk of 3 Alpine breeds supplemented with or without rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid (rpCLA). Twenty-four ewes of the Brogna, Foza, and Lamon breeds were allotted to 6 pens (2 pens/breed) and fed a diet composed of corn grain, corn silage, dried sugar beet pulp, soybean meal, wheat bran, wheat straw, and a vitamin-mineral mixture. The rpCLA supplement (12 g/d per ewe plus 4 g/d for each lamb older than 30 d) was mixed into the diet of 1 pen per sheep breed (3 pens/treatment) to provide an average of 0.945 and 0.915 g/d per ewe of the cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 conjugated linoleic acid isomers, respectively. The trial started at 38 ± 23 d after parturition, and individual morning milk samples were collected on d 16, 23, 37, 44, and 59 of the trial. Milk samples were analyzed for composition, and duplicate samples were assessed for milk coagulation properties (MCP). A total of 180 CF measures for each sample (1 every 15s) were recorded. Model parameters were the rennet coagulation time, the asymptotic potential CF, the CF instant rate constant, the syneresis instant rate constant, the maximum CF achieved within 45 min (CFmax), and the time at achievement of CFmax. The data were analyzed using a hierarchical model that considered the fixed effects of breed, diet, lamb birth, and initial days in milk, which were tested on individual ewe (random) variance; the fixed effect of sampling day, which was tested on the within-ewe sample (random) variance; and the fixed effect of instrument or cuvette position (only for MCP), which was tested on the residual (replicates within samples) variance. The local Alpine sheep breeds displayed similar milk compositions, traditional MCP, and CF modeling parameters. Supplementation with rpCLA triggered changes in milk composition and worsened MCP (e.g., delayed rennet coagulation time, slower CF instant rate

  12. Effects of Supplementation of Branched-Chain Amino Acids to Reduced-Protein Diet on Skeletal Muscle Protein Synthesis and Degradation in the Fed and Fasted States in a Piglet Model

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Liufeng; Wei, Hongkui; He, Pingli; Zhao, Shengjun; Xiang, Quanhang; Pang, Jiaman; Peng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) has been demonstrated to promote skeletal muscle mass gain, but the mechanisms underlying this observation are still unknown. Since the regulation of muscle mass depends on a dynamic equilibrium (fasted losses–fed gains) in protein turnover, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of BCAA supplementation on muscle protein synthesis and degradation in fed/fasted states and the related mechanisms. Fourteen 26- (Experiment 1) and 28-day-old (Experiment 2) piglets were fed reduced-protein diets without or with supplemental BCAA. After a four-week acclimation period, skeletal muscle mass and components of anabolic and catabolic signaling in muscle samples after overnight fasting were determined in Experiment 1. Pigs in Experiment 2 were implanted with carotid arterial, jugular venous, femoral arterial and venous catheters, and fed once hourly along with the intravenous infusion of NaH13CO3 for 2 h, followed by a 6-h infusion of [1-13C]leucine. Muscle leucine kinetics were measured using arteriovenous difference technique. The mass of most muscles was increased by BCAA supplementation. During feeding, BCAA supplementation increased leucine uptake, protein synthesis, protein degradation and net transamination. The greater increase in protein synthesis than in protein degradation resulted in elevated protein deposition. Protein synthesis was strongly and positively correlated with the intramuscular net production of α-ketoisocaproate (KIC) and protein degradation. Moreover, BCAA supplementation enhanced the fasted-state phosphorylation of protein translation initiation factors and inhibited the protein-degradation signaling of ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome systems. In conclusion, supplementation of BCAA to reduced-protein diet increases fed-state protein synthesis and inhibits fasted-state protein degradation, both of which could contribute to the elevation of skeletal muscle mass in piglets

  13. Effects of Supplementation of Branched-Chain Amino Acids to Reduced-Protein Diet on Skeletal Muscle Protein Synthesis and Degradation in the Fed and Fasted States in a Piglet Model.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Liufeng; Wei, Hongkui; He, Pingli; Zhao, Shengjun; Xiang, Quanhang; Pang, Jiaman; Peng, Jian

    2016-12-28

    Supplementation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) has been demonstrated to promote skeletal muscle mass gain, but the mechanisms underlying this observation are still unknown. Since the regulation of muscle mass depends on a dynamic equilibrium (fasted losses-fed gains) in protein turnover, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of BCAA supplementation on muscle protein synthesis and degradation in fed/fasted states and the related mechanisms. Fourteen 26- (Experiment 1) and 28-day-old (Experiment 2) piglets were fed reduced-protein diets without or with supplemental BCAA. After a four-week acclimation period, skeletal muscle mass and components of anabolic and catabolic signaling in muscle samples after overnight fasting were determined in Experiment 1. Pigs in Experiment 2 were implanted with carotid arterial, jugular venous, femoral arterial and venous catheters, and fed once hourly along with the intravenous infusion of NaH(13)CO₃ for 2 h, followed by a 6-h infusion of [1-(13)C]leucine. Muscle leucine kinetics were measured using arteriovenous difference technique. The mass of most muscles was increased by BCAA supplementation. During feeding, BCAA supplementation increased leucine uptake, protein synthesis, protein degradation and net transamination. The greater increase in protein synthesis than in protein degradation resulted in elevated protein deposition. Protein synthesis was strongly and positively correlated with the intramuscular net production of α-ketoisocaproate (KIC) and protein degradation. Moreover, BCAA supplementation enhanced the fasted-state phosphorylation of protein translation initiation factors and inhibited the protein-degradation signaling of ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosome systems. In conclusion, supplementation of BCAA to reduced-protein diet increases fed-state protein synthesis and inhibits fasted-state protein degradation, both of which could contribute to the elevation of skeletal muscle mass in

  14. Characterization of antibiotic-resistant and potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli from soil fertilized with litter of broiler chickens fed antimicrobial-supplemented diets.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Laura E; Rempel, Heidi; Forge, Tom; Kannangara, Tissa; Bittman, Shabtai; Delaquis, Pascal; Topp, Edward; Ziebell, Kim A; Diarra, Moussa S

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize antimicrobial resistance and virulence determinants of Escherichia coli from soil amended with litter from 36-day-old broiler chickens ( Gallus gallus domesticus ) fed with diets supplemented with a variety of antimicrobial agents. Soil samples were collected from plots before and periodically after litter application in August to measure E. coli numbers. A total of 295 E. coli were isolated from fertilized soil samples between August and March. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by Sensititre, and polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the presence of resistance and virulence genes. The results confirmed that E. coli survived and could be quantified by direct plate count for at least 7 months in soil following litter application in August. The effects of feed supplementation were observed on E. coli numbers in November and January. Among the 295 E. coli, the highest antibiotic resistance level was observed against tetracycline and β-lactams associated mainly with the resistance genes tetB and bla(CMY-2), respectively. Significant treatment effects were observed for phylogenetic groups, antibiotic resistance profiles, and virulence gene frequencies. Serotyping, phylogenetic grouping, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis confirmed that multiple-antibiotic-resistant and potentially pathogenic E. coli can survive in soil fertilized with litter for several months regardless of antimicrobials used in the feed.

  15. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality, and tissue histology of growing pigs fed crude glycerin-supplemented diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality indices, and tissue histology of growing pigs fed crude glycerol were determined in a 138-d feeding trial. Crude glycerol utilized in the trial contained 84.51% glycerol, 11.95% water, 2.91% sodium chloride, and 0.32% methanol. Eight days pos...

  16. N-acetylcysteine supplementation decreases osteoclast differentiation and increases bone mass in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies have demonstrated that obesity induced by high-fat diets increases bone resorption, decreases trabecular bone mass, and reduces bone strength in various animal models. This study investigated whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant and a glutathione precursor, alters glutathione statu...

  17. Linking ileal digestible phosphorus and bone mineralization in broiler chickens fed diets supplemented with phytase and highly soluble calcium.

    PubMed

    Adeola, O; Walk, C L

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the ileal digestibility of P in potassium phosphate, phytase-related ileal digestible P release, bone-mineralization-based ileal digestible P equivalency of phytase, and phytase-related efficiency of ileal digestible P utilization for bone mineralization in broiler chickens at 2 dietary concentrations of highly soluble Ca (HSC). Birds were sorted by BW at d 15 posthatch and assigned to 8 cages per diet with 8 birds per cage. Twelve diets were arranged in a 2 × 6 factorial of HSC at 5 or 6 g/kg and P supply treatment at 6 levels consisting of 4 added P levels (P from KH2PO4 added at 0, 0.7, 1.4, or 2.1 g/kg of diet) or 2 added phytase levels (500 or 1,000 phytase units). On d 24 posthatch, ileal digesta were collected for ileal P digestibility (IPD) determination and the left tibia was collected from the 4 heaviest birds in each cage for bone ash determination. Weight gain, G:F, and tibia ash were higher (P < 0.05) at 5 than at 6 g of HSC/kg. Added P from KH2PO4 or added phytase linearly increased (P < 0.001) weight gain, G:F, tibia ash, and IPD. The IPD of KH2PO4 derived from multiple linear regressions of digestible on total P intake for the diets without added phytase showed a reduction (P < 0.05) from 89.5 to 84.5% with increased HSC from 5 to 6 g/kg. Polynomial regressions of digestible P intake on phytase intake indicated that 1,000 units of added phytase released 1.701 or 1.561 g of digestible P in diets containing 5 or 6 g of added HSC/kg, respectively. Polynomial regressions of tibia ash on digestible P or phytase intake in diets containing 5 or 6 g of added HSC/kg at 1,000 phytase units gave digestible P equivalency of 1.487 or 1.448 g, respectively. Thus, phytase-related efficiency of ileal digestible P utilization for bone mineralization was 87.4 and 92.8% in diets containing 5 or 6 g of added HSC/kg, respectively.

  18. The effect of chemical hepatocarcinogenesis on liver phospholipid composition in rats fed N-6 and N-3 fatty acid-supplemented diets.

    PubMed

    Nassar, B A; Das, U N; Huang, Y S; Ells, G; Horrobin, D F

    1992-03-01

    The effect of dietary fats on essential fatty acid metabolism in rats subjected to chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis was studied. Sixty male rats were fed a diet supplemented with one of the following three oil compositions: 10% hydrogenated coconut oil (HCO); 5% hydrogenated coconut oil and 5% gamma-linolenic acid (18:3n-6)-rich evening primrose oil (EPO); or 5% hydrogenated coconut oil and 5% marine oil (FO). Half of the animals in each dietary regimen were subjected to hepatocarcinogenesis induction using diethylnitrosamine and 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) followed by partial hepatectomy, whereas the other half underwent hepatectomy without receiving diethylnitrosamine and 2-acetylaminofluorene. Liver phospholipid composition was analyzed. In comparison to the HCO group, the EPO group showed raised levels of arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and suppressed n-3 fatty acids. The FO group, on the other hand, showed suppressed levels of n-6 and increased n-3 fatty acids. Hepatocarcinogenesis suppressed the level of 20:4n-6 and this effect was greater in the FO rats. The levels of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (20:3n-6) were increased by the hepatocarcinogenic treatment, and this effect was further accentuated in the EPO rats. These results suggest that hepatocarcinogenesis may suppress the activity of delta-5-desaturase, which may be one of the reasons why tumor cell membranes have low levels of long chain fatty acids, especially 20:4n-6 cells, and have an impaired capacity to undergo lipid peroxidation.

  19. The effects of supplemental microbial phytase on the performance and utilization of dietary calcium, phosphorus, copper, and zinc in broiler chickens fed corn-soybean diets.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, S; Touchburn, S P; Chavez, E R; Lague, P C

    1996-06-01

    A 3-wk feeding trial with 180 sexed day-old broiler chickens was conducted to study the efficacy of microbial phytase (Natuphos 1000) on growth performance, relative retention of P, Ca, Cu, and Zn, and mineral contents of plasma and bone. Treatments involved a normal P level corn-soybean diet, a low-P diet, and a low-P plus phytase (600 phytase units/kg) diet. Phytase supplementation increased (P < or = 0.05) body weight in male and female chickens by 13.2 and 5.8%, respectively, at 21 d. The improvements yielded body weights comparable to those obtained on the normal P diet. Phytase supplementation overcame (P < or = 0.05) the depression of feed intake observed on the low-P diet. Treatments had no effect on feed:gain ratio. Phytase supplementation of the low-P diet increased (P < or = 0.05) the relative retention of total P, Ca, Cu, and Zn by 12.5, 12.2, 19.3, and 62.3 percentage units, respectively, in male chickens. Microbial phytase increased the plasma P by 15.7% and reduced (P < or = 0.05) the Ca concentration by 34.1%, but had no effect on plasma concentrations of Cu or Zn. Phytase supplementation increased the percentage ash in both head and shaft portions of dry, fat-free tibia bone to a level comparable to that of the normal-P diet. Phytase supplementation had no effect on the concentration of any of the minerals measured in whole tibia ash but did increase (P < or = 0.05) the DM percentage of P and Ca min tibia head of male chickens by 0.65 and 1.4 percentage units, respectively. These results show that microbial phytase supplementation of a low-P diet increased growth and relative retention of total P, Ca, Cu, and Zn and improved bone mineralization in broiler chickens.

  20. High incidence of lipid deposition in the liver of rats fed a diet supplemented with branched-chain amino acids under vitamin B6 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kaimoto, Tae; Shibuya, Mayumi; Nishikawa, Kazutaka; Maeda, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were fed four diets composed of purified 20% vitamin-free casein diet with (+) or without (-) vitamin B(6) (7.0 mg of pyridoxine HCl/kg of diet) and with (+) or without (-) branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) of valine, leucine, and isoleucine (4.75%): B(6)(+)BCAA(-); B(6)(+)BCAA(+); B(6)(-)BCAA(-); and B(6)(-)BCAA(+) for 21 d. Among rats fed the B(6)(-)BCAA(+) diet, about a half showed lipid deposition in the liver. On the other hand, serum triacylglycerol levels in the B(6)(-)BCAA(+) group tended to be decreased. Hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels tended to increase in the B(6)(-)BCAA(+) group compared with the other three groups. Serum apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein E (apo E) levels in the B(6)(-)BCAA(+) group were the lowest among the three groups. In contrast, hepatic apo E levels in the B(6)(-)BCAA(+) group were the highest among the three groups. High-performance liquid chromatography of pooled serum of rats with lipid deposits revealed that triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) were decreased compared with other diet groups. These results strongly suggest that one of the mechanisms of lipid deposition in rats fed a B(6)(-)BCAA(+) diet is due to impaired secretion of VLDL.

  1. Comparative proteomic analyses of the parietal lobe from rhesus monkeys fed a high-fat/sugar diet with and without resveratrol supplementation, relative to a healthy diet: Insights into the roles of unhealthy diets and resveratrol on function.

    PubMed

    Swomley, Aaron M; Triplett, Judy C; Keeney, Jeriel T; Warrier, Govind; Pearson, Kevin J; Mattison, Julie A; de Cabo, Rafael; Cai, Jian; Klein, Jon B; Butterfield, D Allan

    2017-01-01

    A diet consisting of a high intake of saturated fat and refined sugars is characteristic of a Western-diet and has been shown to have a substantial negative effect on human health. Expression proteomics were used to investigate changes to the parietal lobe proteome of rhesus monkeys consuming either a high fat and sugar (HFS) diet, a HFS diet supplemented with resveratrol (HFS+RSV), or a healthy control diet for 2 years. Here we discuss the modifications in the levels of 12 specific proteins involved in various cellular systems including metabolism, neurotransmission, structural integrity, and general cellular signaling following a nutritional intervention. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms by which resveratrol functions through the up- or down-regulation of proteins in different cellular sub-systems to affect the overall health of the brain.

  2. The effect of protease, amylase, and nonstarch polysaccharide-degrading enzyme supplementation on nutrient utilization and growth performance of broiler chickens fed corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, S A; Rogiewicz, A; Mogielnicka, M; Rutkowski, A; Jones, R O; Slominski, B A

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine if amylase and protease addition would improve nutrient digestion during the first 2 wk of growth. The experimental treatments included a control corn-soybean meal-based diet and diets supplemented with either amylase or amylase plus protease. No effect of enzyme supplementation was observed on BW gain and feed conversion ratio. This was corroborated by similar ileal starch and protein digestibility values, which averaged 96.8, 96.8, and 96.9% and 83.9, 80.1, and 79.6%, respectively, for the control and for the amylase or amylase plus protease supplemented diets. Total tract digestibility of starch averaged 97.8, 97.7 and 97.7% for the 3 diets and was followed by a similar diet with AMEn values of 3,129, 3,129, and 3,106 kcal/kg. In another study, a 2(3) factorial arrangement of 8 dietary treatments was used to evaluate the effect of corn particle size (conventional or coarse vs. fine) and the addition of a nonstarch polysaccharide enzyme, amylase, or both on growth performance and nutrient utilization of broiler chickens from 1 to 21 d of age. Chickens fed a diet containing a conventionally ground corn (geometric mean diameter of 736 µm) showed higher (P < 0.001) BW gain (808 vs. 750 g/bird) and lower feed conversion ratio (1.27 vs. 1.32) than those consuming a fine corn-containing diet (geometric mean diameter of 482 µm). This was further substantiated by a lower AMEn content (2,852 vs. 2,972 kcal/kg). Addition of amylase had no effect on growth performance of chickens fed a conventional corn-containing diet, but improved BW gain, feed conversion ratio, and diet AMEn in those fed the finely ground corn, possibly due to increased starch digestion in the upper gut. Addition of nonstarch polysaccharide enzymes was effective for both diets, with the most pronounced effects observed in feed conversion ratio for the conventional corn-containing diet (1.27 vs. 1.23) and BW gain (750 vs. 789 g/bird) for the fine corn-containing diet

  3. Lower weight gain and hepatic lipid content in hamsters fed high fat diets supplemented with white rice protein, brown rice protein, and soy protein and their hydrolysates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The physiological effects of the hydrolysates from white rice, brown rice, and soy isolate were compared to the original protein source. White rice, brown rice, and soy protein were hydrolyzed with the food grade enzyme, alcalase2.4 L®. Male Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat diets containing eithe...

  4. Linseed oil supplementation to dairy cows fed diets based on red clover silage or corn silage: Effects on methane production, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Martineau, R; Gervais, R

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation to red clover silage (RCS)- or corn silage (CS)-based diets on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production. Twelve rumen-cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (35-d periods) with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed (ad libitum) RCS- or CS-based diets [forage:concentrate ratio 60:40; dry matter (DM) basis] without or with LO (4% of DM). Supplementation of LO to the RCS-based diet reduced enteric CH4 production (-9%) and CH4 energy losses (-11%) with no adverse effects on DM intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoa numbers, or milk production. The addition of LO to the CS-based diet caused a greater decrease in CH4 production (-26%) and CH4 energy losses (-23%) but was associated with a reduction in DM intake, total-tract fiber digestibility, protozoa numbers, acetate:propionate ratio, and energy-corrected milk yield. Urinary N excretion (g/d) decreased with LO supplementation to RCS- and CS-based diets, suggesting reduced potential of N2O emissions. Results from this study show that the depressive effect of LO supplementation on enteric CH4 production is more pronounced with the CS- than with the RCS-based diet. However, because of reduced digestibility with the CS-based diet, the reduction in enteric CH4 production may be offset by higher CH4 emissions from manure storage. Thus, the type of forage of the basal diet should be taken into consideration when using fat supplementation as a dietary strategy to reduce enteric CH4 production from dairy cows.

  5. A light- and electron-microscope study of hepatocytes of rats fed different diets.

    PubMed

    Eagles, Douglas A; Chapman, George B

    2007-01-01

    Ketogenic diets are used in the treatment of epilepsy in children refractory to drug therapy. This study identifies changes in liver morphology in rats fed four different diets: a normal rodent chow diet, a calorie-restricted high-fat (ketogenic) diet and each diet supplemented with clofibric acid. Hepatocytes of rats fed the ketogenic diet show many lipid droplets and these are reduced to control levels when clofibrate is present in the diet. Mitochondria are enlarged in the livers of rats fed the ketogenic diet and further enlarged if clofibrate is present. Alterations in the appearance or numbers of other organelles are also found.

  6. Influence of supplementing vitamin C to yearling steers fed a high sulfur diet during the finishing period on meat color, tenderness and protein degradation, and fatty acid profile of the longissimus muscle.

    PubMed

    Pogge, Danielle J; Lonergan, Steven M; Hansen, Stephanie L

    2014-08-01

    The objective was to determine the influence of vitamin C (VC) supplemented for approximately 102 d during the finishing period on color, tenderness, and fatty acid profile of longissimus thoracis (LT; n=136) from steers fed a 0.55% sulfur diet. Treatments included 4 supplemental VC concentrations: 1) 0 (CON), 2) 5 (5VC), 3) 10 (10VC), or 4) 20 (20VC) gVC·h(-1)∙d(-1) in a common diet. Increasing supplemental VC decreased (P<0.01) L*, but increased (P<0.01) vitamin E and tended to increase (P≤0.07) calcium and iron content of steaks. No VC (P≥0.25) effect was noted for WBSF, calpain-1 autolysis, troponin T degradation, or most fatty acid profiles. A quadratic effect (P≤0.03) was observed for cholesterol and CLA content of LT. Under the conditions of our study, supplementing VC to steers fed a 0.55% sulfur diet late in the finishing period did not influence color or tenderness, but increased the vitamin E content.

  7. Intraruminal supplementation with increasing levels of exogenous polysaccharide-degrading enzymes: effects on nutrient digestion in cattle fed a barley grain diet.

    PubMed

    Hristov, A N; McAllister, T A; Cheng, K J

    2000-02-01

    The effects of supplying increasing ruminal doses of exogenous polysaccharide-degrading enzymes (EPDE) on rumen fermentation and nutrient digestion were studied using eight ruminally cannulated heifers, four of which were also duodenally cannulated, in a replicated Latin square. The heifers were fed a diet of 85.5% rolled barley grain and 14% barley silage (DM basis), and once daily they were given intraruminal doses of 0 (Control), 100, 200, or 400 g of a preparation containing polysaccharide-degrading enzymes. Enzyme treatment decreased ruminal pH (linear, P<.001) and increased ammonia N (quadratic, P<.001) concentration. The ruminally soluble fraction and effective degradability of feed DM in situ were increased (quadratic response, P<.001) by enzyme treatment. Ruminal administration of EPDE increased ruminal fluid carboxymethylcellulase and xylanase activities linearly (P<.001) and beta-glucanase activity quadratically (P<.01), decreased (quadratic response, P<.05) ruminal fluid viscosity, and did not affect (P>.05) ruminal fluid amylase activity. Elevated levels of fibrolytic activities in the rumen resulted in increased (quadratic, P<.001) carboxymethylcellulase, xylanase, and beta-glucanase (P<.01) activities in duodenal digesta. Duodenal amylase activity and reducing sugar concentration were also increased (quadratic responses, P<.001 and P<.05, respectively) by EPDE. Xylanase activity of fecal DM was increased linearly (P<.05) with increasing ruminal EPDE levels. Apparent digestibilities of DM, crude protein, and NDF were not affected by EPDE supplementation. Enzyme treatment did not affect (P>.05) urinary excretion of allantoin and uric acid, or concentrations of glucose and urea in blood.

  8. Hypocholesterolemic effect of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Sansevieria senegambica Baker on plasma lipid profile and atherogenic indices of rats fed egg yolk supplemented diet

    PubMed Central

    Ikewuchi, Catherine Chidinma

    2012-01-01

    The effects of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Sansevieria senegambica on daily weight gain, lipid profile and atherogenic indices of rats fed egg yolk supplemented diet was studied. The control group was given normal feed while the other three groups received 50 g egg yolk/kg feed. The extract was orally administered daily at 150 and 200 mg/kg body weight; while the test control and control groups received appropriate volumes of water by the same route. On gas chromatographic analysis of the aqueous crude extract, the phytosterol and tannins fractions contained 100 % of β-sitosterol and tannic acid respectively. The mean daily weight gain of the test control group was higher though not significantly, than those of the other groups. The plasma total cholesterol levels, cardiac risk ratio and atherogenic coefficient of the test control group was significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of the test groups, but not significantly higher than that of the control group. The plasma low density lipoprotein and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of the test control group was significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of the control and test groups. The plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol of the test control group was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that of the control group, but not significantly lower than those of the test groups. There were no significant differences in the plasma triglyceride and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and the atherogenic index of plasma of all the groups. These results indicate a dose-dependent hypocholesterolemic effect of the extract, thus suggesting a likely protective role of the extract against the development of cardiovascular diseases. It also revealed the presence of pharmacologically active agents in the leaves. PMID:27418909

  9. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet.

    PubMed

    Yulistiani, Dwi; Jelan, Z A; Liang, J B; Yaakub, H; Abdullah, N

    2015-04-01

    A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS). The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW) and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05) among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM) intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW(0.75)) and DM, organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP). The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber) was significantly lower (p<0.05) for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively) compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively) and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively). Nitrogen (N) intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05) higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.0±0.32 g/d). In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N) concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05) in T1 (120.3 mM), whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%). However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05) higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of

  10. Effects of Supplementation of Mulberry (Morus alba) Foliage and Urea-rice Bran as Fermentable Energy and Protein Sources in Sheep Fed Urea-treated Rice Straw Based Diet

    PubMed Central

    Yulistiani, Dwi; Jelan, Z. A.; Liang, J. B.; Yaakub, H.; Abdullah, N.

    2015-01-01

    A digestibility study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing mulberry foliage and urea rice-bran as a source of fermentable energy and protein to 12 sheep fed diets based on urea-treated rice straw (TRS). The three dietary treatments were: T1, TRS with mulberry; T2, TRS with 50% mulberry replaced with rice bran and urea; and T3, TRS with rice bran and urea. The study was arranged in a completely randomized design with four replications for each treatment. The sheep were fed one of the three diets and the supplements were offered at 1.2% of the body weight (BW) and the TRS was provided ad libitum. There were no differences (p>0.05) among the three treatment groups with respect to dry matter (DM) intake (76.8±4.2 g/kg BW0.75) and DM, organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) digestibility (55.3±1.22; 69.9±0.85; 46.3±1.65% respectively for DM, OM, and CP). The digestibility of fiber (neutral detergent fiber [NDF] and acid detergent fiber) was significantly lower (p<0.05) for T3 (46.2 and 46.6 respectively) compared to T1 (55.8 and 53.7 respectively) and T2 (54.1 and 52.8 respectively). Nitrogen (N) intake by sheep on diet T3 was significantly (p<0.05) higher than sheep fed diet T1. However, N balance did not differ among the three diets (3.0±0.32 g/d). In contrast, the rumen ammonia (NH3-N) concentrations in sheep fed T2 and T3 were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in sheep fed T1. The NH3-N concentrations for all three diets were above the critical value required for optimum rumen microbial growth and synthesis. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were highest (p<0.05) in T1 (120.3 mM), whilst the molar proportion of propionic acid was highest in T3 (36.9%). However, the microbial N supply in sheep fed T1 and T3 was similar but was significantly (p<0.05) higher than for sheep fed T2. It was concluded that mulberry foliage is a potential supplement of fermentable energy and protein for sheep fed TRS based diet. The suggested level of

  11. Safety and Health Benefits of Novel Dietary Supplements Consisting Multiple Phytochemicals, Vitamins, Minerals and Essential Fatty Acids in High Fat Diet Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine safety and efficacy of health supplements "Beyond Tangy Tangerine," a multivitamin/mineral complex and combination of multivitamin/mineral complex, "Osteofx," a bone healthy supplement and "Ultimate Essential Fatty Acids" in Sprague Dawley rats consuming high-fat diets. Initially a pilot study was conducted which confirmed palatability and acceptability of supplements. In a second study, rats (n = 15/group) were randomized to Control; Multivitamin/mineral complex (2 g/kg BW) or Combination (2 g Multivitamin/mineral complex, 1.5 g Bone healthy supplement and 0.34 g Essential fatty acids/kg BW). No differences were observed in BW change, feed intake, organ weights or bone mineral composition with supplementations compared to control. Multivitamin/mineral complex supplementation decreased abdominal white adipose tissue weights (WAT) (p = .005), total (p = .033) and fat mass (p = .040), plasma IL-6 (p = .016) and ALKP (p = .038) and elevated plasma calcium (p < .001), phosphorus (p = .038), total protein (p = .002), albumin (p = .014) and globulin (p = .018), compared to control. Similarly, combination supplementation reduced WAT (p < .001), total (p = .023) and fat mass (p = .045), plasma triglycerides (p = .018), IL-6 (p = .002) and ALKP (p < .001) with increases in plasma calcium (p = .031), phosphorus (p < .001) compared to control. Results indicate that consuming either supplement can be considered safe and improves overall health by reducing inflammation, abdominal fat mass and plasma triglycerides, as well as promote bone health.

  12. Histomorphology and small intestinal sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 gene expression in piglets fed phytic acid and phytase-supplemented diets.

    PubMed

    Woyengo, T A; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Adeola, O; Nyachoti, C M

    2011-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary phytic acid (PA) and phytase supplementation on small intestinal histomorphology and Na-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) gene expression in piglets. Twenty-four piglets with an average initial BW of 7.60 ± 0.73 kg were randomly assigned to 3 experimental diets, to give 8 piglets per diet. The diets were a casein-cornstarch-based diet that was supplemented with 0 or 2% PA, or 2% PA (as Na phytate) plus an Escherichia coli-derived phytase at 500 phytase units/kg. The basal diet was formulated to meet the 1998 NRC energy, digestible AA, mineral, and vitamin requirements for piglets. After 10 d of feeding, the piglets were killed to determine small intestinal histomorphology and small intestinal SGLT1 gene expression. Phytic acid supplementation did not affect (P > 0.1) villus height (VH) and the VH-to-crypt depth (CD) ratio, but did decrease (P < 0.05) CD in the jejunum. Phytase supplementation did not affect (P > 0.1) VH, CD, and the VH-to-CD ratio. Phytic acid supplementation reduced SGLT1 gene expression in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum by 1.1-, 5.4-, and 2.4-fold, respectively. Phytase supplementation increased SGLT1 gene expression in the jejunum by 2.6-fold, but reduced SGLT1 gene expression in the duodenum and ileum by 2.0- and 4.0-fold, respectively. In conclusion, PA reduced CD in the jejunum and SGLT1 gene expression in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, whereas phytase supplementation increased the expression of SGLT1 in the jejunum. The reduced SGLT1 gene expression by PA implies that PA reduces nutrient utilization in pigs partly through reduced expression of SGLT1, which is involved in glucose and Na absorption. The increased expression of SGLT1 in the jejunum by phytase supplementation implies that phytase alleviated the negative effects of PA partly through increased expression of SGLT1.

  13. Descriptive sensory analysis of meat from broilers fed diets containing vitamin E or beta-carotene as antioxidants and different supplemental fats.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J A; Guerrero, L; Arnau, J; Guardia, M D; Esteve-Garcia, E

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary fat (lard, sunflower oil, and olive oil) and supplementation of alpha-tocopheryl acetate or beta-carotene on descriptive sensory changes in broiler leg meat as evaluated by a trained panel. Twenty-five descriptors were analyzed from chicken leg meat: 11 in raw meat and 14 in cooked meat. Rancid values were very low, possibly because samples were consumed between 1 and 4 d after slaughter, which maybe insufficient time for oxidative processes to decrease meat sensory quality. However, samples supplemented with vitamin E showed lower rancidity levels, although the differences were only significant when compared to a beta-carotene diet, whereas the control treatment showed intermediate scores. Beta-carotene modified texture scores compared to the control diet, although the differences were only significant in initial juiciness and teeth adhesion compared to the vitamin E treatment and in tenderness compared to the control. In addition, juiciness and tenderness were positively correlated according to the principal component analysis of sensory attributes. The effect of dietary fat on analyzed attributes was lower than the effect of dietary antioxidant. The most important effect of fat type was on hardness of internal fat. Chickens whose diets were supplemented with lard had higher scored values than chickens whose diets were supplemented with vegetable oils. However, type of fat added to diet did not significantly influence rancidity values. These results indicate that an increase in the degree of unsaturation of fat in meat does not cause an increase in the oxidation levels detected by the panel under the conditions of short-term storage.

  14. Combination of soya pulp and Bacillus coagulans lilac-01 improves intestinal bile acid metabolism without impairing the effects of prebiotics in rats fed a cholic acid-supplemented diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeonmi; Yoshitsugu, Reika; Kikuchi, Keidai; Joe, Ga-Hyun; Tsuji, Misaki; Nose, Takuma; Shimizu, Hidehisa; Hara, Hiroshi; Minamida, Kimiko; Miwa, Kazunori; Ishizuka, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    Intestinal bacteria are involved in bile acid (BA) deconjugation and/or dehydroxylation and are responsible for the production of secondary BA. However, an increase in the production of secondary BA modulates the intestinal microbiota due to the bactericidal effects and promotes cancer risk in the liver and colon. The ingestion of Bacillus coagulans improves constipation via the activation of bowel movement to promote defaecation in humans, which may alter BA metabolism in the intestinal contents. BA secretion is promoted with high-fat diet consumption, and the ratio of cholic acid (CA):chenodeoxycholic acid in primary BA increases with ageing. The dietary supplementation of CA mimics the BA environment in diet-induced obesity and ageing. We investigated whether B. coagulans lilac-01 and soya pulp influence both BA metabolism and the maintenance of host health in CA-supplemented diet-fed rats. In CA-fed rats, soya pulp significantly increased the production of secondary BA such as deoxycholic acid and ω-muricholic acids, and soya pulp ingestion alleviated problems related to plasma adiponectin and gut permeability in rats fed the CA diet. The combination of B. coagulans and soya pulp successfully suppressed the increased production of secondary BA in CA-fed rats compared with soya pulp itself, without impairing the beneficial effects of soya pulp ingestion. In conclusion, it is possible that a combination of prebiotics and probiotics can be used to avoid an unnecessary increase in the production of secondary BA in the large intestine without impairing the beneficial functions of prebiotics.

  15. Effect of aqueous extract of Ajuga iva supplementation on plasma lipid profile and tissue antioxidant status in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Chenni, A; Yahia, D Ait; Boukortt, F O; Prost, J; Lacaille-Dubois, M A; Bouchenak, M

    2007-01-19

    The present study was designed to explore the possible antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects of the aqueous extract of Ajuga iva (0.5% in the diet) in rats fed a high-cholesterol (1%) diet (HCD). The results indicated that the HCD-Ai versus HCD treatment led to many changes in biochemical parameters. They showed a decrease of plasma total cholesterol (TC) and VLDL-cholesterol but an increase of HDL(2)-cholesterol. The triacylglycerol contents were reduced in plasma and in VLDL. The lipid peroxidation determined by TBARS was decreased by 75% in plasma. TBARS in liver, heart and kidneys were highly reduced excepted in the adipose tissue. Ajuga iva treatment enhanced superoxide dismutase activity in liver and kidney. Glutathione reductase activity was lowered in adipose tissue but increased in liver and in kidney. A significant increase was noted in glutathione peroxidase activity in liver, heart and kidney but a low value in adipose tissue was observed. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that in addition to its potent TG and TC-lowering effects, Ajuga iva is effective in improving the antioxidant status by reducing lipid peroxidation in plasma and tissues and enhancing the antioxidant enzymes in rats fed high-cholesterol diet. Furthermore, Ajuga iva may reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption.

  16. Effect of Cheonggukjang supplementation upon hepatic acyl-CoA synthase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, acyl-CoA oxidase and uncoupling protein 2 mRNA levels in C57BL/6J mice fed with high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Soh, Ju-Ryoun; Shin, Dong-Hwa; Kwon, Dae Young

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of Cheonggukjang on mRNA levels of hepatic acyl-CoA synthase (ACS), carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-I), acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), and on serum lipid profiles in C57BL/6J mice. Thirty male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups; normal diet (ND), high fat diet (HD) and high fat diet with 40% Cheonggukjang (HDC). Energy intake was significantly higher in the HDC group than in the ND and HD groups. The HDC group normalized in weight gain, epididymal and back fat (g/100 g) accumulation which are increased by high fat diet. Serum concentrations of triglyceride and total cholesterol in the HDC were significantly lower than those in the HD group. These results were confirmed by hepatic mRNA expression of enzymes and protein (ACS, CPT-1, ACO, UCP2) which is related with lipid metabolism by RT-PCR. Hepatic CPT-I, ACO and UCP2 mRNA expression was increased by Cheonggukjang supplementation. We demonstrated that Cheonggukjang supplement leads to increased mRNA expressions of enzymes and protein involved in fatty acid oxidation in liver, reduced accumulation of body fat and improvement of serum lipids in high fat diet fed mice. PMID:18850232

  17. Effects of dietary boron and phytase supplementation on growth performance and mineral profile of broiler chickens fed on diets adequate or deficient in calcium and phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Çinar, M; Küçükyilmaz, K; Bozkurt, M; Çatli, A U; Bintaş, E; Akşit, H; Konak, R; Yamaner, Ç; Seyrek, K

    2015-01-01

    1. Two experiments were designed to determine the effect of dietary boron (B) in broiler chickens. In Experiment 1, a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effect of dietary calcium (Ca) and available phosphorus (aP) (adequate or deficient) and supplemental B (0, 20, 40, and 60 mg/kg diet). In Experiment 2, B, at 20 mg/kg, and phytase (PHY) (500 FTU/kg diet) were incorporated into a basal diet deficient in Ca and aP, either alone or in combination. 2. The parameters that were measured were growth performance indices, serum biochemical activity as well as ash and mineral (i.e. Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Cu and Zn) content of tibia, breast muscle and liver. 3. Results indicated that both supplemental B and dietary Ca and aP had marginal effects on performance indices of chickens grown for 42 d. 4. There were positive correlations (linear effect) between B concentrations of serum, bone, breast muscle and liver and the amount of B consumed. 5. Serum T3 and T4 activities increased linearly with higher B supplementation. 6. Increasing supplemental B had significant implications on breast muscle and liver mineral composition. Lowering dietary Ca and aP level increased Cu content in liver and both Fe and Zn retention in breast muscle. Tibia ash content and mineral composition did not respond to dietary modifications with either Ca-aP or B. 7. The results also suggested that dietary contents of Ca and aP do not affect the response to B regarding tissue mineral profile. Dietary combination with B and PHY did not create a synergism with regard to growth performance and bioavailability of the minerals.

  18. A Root-Based Combination Supplement Containing Pueraria lobata and Rehmannia glutinosa and Exercise Preserve Bone Mass in Ovariectomized Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Ok, Hyang Mok; Gebreamanuel, Meron Regu; Oh, Sang A; Jeon, Hyejin; Lee, Won Jun; Kwon, Oran

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a supplement containing Pueraria lobata/Rehmannia glutinosa (PR) root extracts on bone turnover in ovariectomized (OVX) rats (a model for postmenopausal osteoporosis). Female Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were randomized into eight groups: sham-operated rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with low-fat control diet + vehicle, OVX rats with high-fat diet (HFD) + vehicle, OVX rats with HFD + vehicle + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + PR (400 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + PR + exercise, OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day p.o.), OVX rats with HFD + 17β-estradiol + exercise. Bone microarchitecture, bone turnover markers (e.g., plasma alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), expressions of osteogenic and resorptive gene markers in the bone were measured. Eight weeks of PR and/or aerobic exercise improved cortical microarchitecture of the femur and decreased markers of bone turnover and expression of skeletal osteoclastogenic genes in the femur. PR supplementation combined with exercise preserved bone loss induced by estrogen deficiency and should be investigated further as an alternative to hormone replacement therapy for preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

  19. Effects of phytase supplementation on growth performance, jejunum morphology, liver health, and serum metabolites of Japanese quails fed sesame (Sesamum indicum) meal-based diets containing graded levels of protein.

    PubMed

    Rezaeipour, Vahid; Barsalani, Alireza; Abdullahpour, Rohullah

    2016-08-01

    A 2 × 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effects of two levels of dietary crude protein (200 or 240 g kg(-1)) and two inclusion rates of phytase enzyme supplementation (with or without) on performance, jejunum morphology, and some hematological parameters of Japanese quails fed diets based on three graded levels of sesame (Sesamum indicum) meal (0, 120, and 240 g kg(-1) of the diet). A total of 480 Japanese quail chicks were randomly allocated to 12 treatments with 4 replicates of 10 Japanese quails. The results showed that feed intake was decreased in quails fed diets containing 240 g kg(-1) of sesame meal (P < 0.05). Diets with 120 and 240 g kg(-1) inclusion rates of sesame meal improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) in Japanese quail (P < 0.05). Results indicated that the higher level of crude protein improved protein efficiency ratio (PER) and increased feed intake (P < 0.05). The results of jejunum morphology showed that diets containing 120 and 240 g kg(-1) sesame meal increased villus height and the ratio of VH to CD and decreased crypt depth (P < 0.05). Enzyme addition increased serum calcium and phosphorous of Japanese quails (P < 0.05). The liver weight was greater in Japanese quails fed diets containing 200 g kg(-1) crude protein and 120 g kg(-1) sesame meal (P < 0.05). The serum concentration of uric acid was increased in birds that received 240 g kg(-1) protein (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the use of sesame meal improved growth performance (FCR) of Japanese quails. Moreover, serum concentration of calcium and phosphorous was greater in quails with phytase supplementation included in their diet.

  20. Effects of linseed oil and natural or synthetic vitamin E supplementation in lactating ewes' diets on meat fatty acid profile and lipid oxidation from their milk fed lambs.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, B; Manca, M G; Mantecón, A R; Nudda, A; Manso, T

    2015-04-01

    Forty-eight Churra ewes with their new-born lambs were separated into four dietary treatments: Control (without added fat), LO (with 3% linseed oil), LO-Syn E (LO plus 400 mg/kg TMR of synthetic vitamin E) and LO-Nat E (LO plus 400 g/kg TMR of natural vitamin E). Linseed oil caused an increase in trans-11 C18:1 (VA), trans-10 C18:1, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2 (RA), trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 and C18:3 n-3 (ALA) in milk fat compared to the Control. The addition of vitamin E to the LO diets did not influence significantly the majority of milk fatty acids compared with the LO diet alone. Trans-10 C18:1, VA, RA, trans-10, cis-12 C18:2 and LA levels were higher in intramuscular lamb fat from treatments with linseed oil. No statistically significant differences were observed in these FA due to vitamin E supplementation or the type of vitamin E (synthetic vs. natural). Vitamin supplementation resulted in lipid oxidation levels below the threshold values for detection of rancidity in lamb meat.

  1. Incremental effect of a calcium salt of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids supplement on milk fatty acid composition in cows fed maize silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kliem, K E; Reynolds, C K; Humphries, D J; Kirkland, R M; Barratt, C E S; Livingstone, K M; Givens, D I

    2013-05-01

    In most Western countries, saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake exceeds recommended levels, which is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). As milk and dairy products are major contributors to SFA intake in many countries, recent research has focused on sustainable methods of producing milk with a lower saturated fat concentration by altering dairy cow diets. Human intervention studies have shown that CVD risk can be reduced by consuming dairy products with reduced SFA and increased cis-monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) concentrations. This milk fatty acid profile can be achieved by supplementing dairy cow diets with cis-MUFA-rich unsaturated oils. However, rumen exposure of unsaturated oils also leads to enhanced milk trans fatty acid (TFA) concentrations. Because of concerns about the effects of TFA consumption on CVD, feeding strategies that increase MUFA concentrations in milk without concomitant increases in TFA concentration are preferred by milk processors. In an attempt to limit TFA production and increase the replacement of SFA by cis-MUFA, a preparation of rumen-protected unsaturated oils was developed using saponification with calcium salts. Four multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows in mid-late lactation were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods to investigate the effect of incremental dietary inclusion of a calcium salt of cis-MUFA product (Ca-MUFA; 20, 40, and 60 g/kg of dry matter of a maize silage-based diet), on milk production, composition, and fatty acid concentration. Increasing Ca-MUFA inclusion reduced dry matter intake linearly, but no change was observed in estimated ME intake. No change in milk yield was noted, but milk fat and protein concentrations were linearly reduced. Supplementation with Ca-MUFA resulted in a linear reduction in total SFA (from 71 to 52 g/100 g of fatty acids for control and 60 g/kg of dry matter diets, respectively). In addition, concentrations of both cis- and trans-MUFA were

  2. Changes in bone mass, biomechanical properties, and microarchitecture of calcium- and iron-deficient rats fed diets supplemented with inulin-type fructans.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Alexandre R; Cocato, Maria Lucia; Jorgetti, Vanda; de Sá, Lílian R M; Nakano, Eduardo Y; Colli, Célia

    2009-12-01

    Feeding mineral-deficient diets enhances absorptive efficiency as an attempt of the body to compensate for the lack of an essential nutrient. Under certain circumstances, it does not succeed; and nutritional deficiency is produced. Our hypothesis was that inulin-type fructans (ITF), which are known to affect mineral absorption, could increase Ca and Fe bioavailability in Ca- and Fe-deficient rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 48, 4 weeks old) were assigned to 1 of 8 groups derived from 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design with 2 levels of added Fe (0 and 35 mg/kg), Ca (0 and 5 g/kg), and ITF (0 and 100 g/kg) for 33 days. The Fe status (hemoglobin, serum Fe, total Fe-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, liver minerals) was evaluated. Tibia minerals (Ca, Mg, and Zn), bone strength, and histomorphometry were determined. In nondeficient rats, ITF supplementation did not affect Fe status or organ minerals, with the exception of tibia Mg. Moreover, ITF improved bone resilience and led to a reduction in eroded surface per body surface and number of osteoclasts per area. In Ca-deficient rats, ITF increased liver (Fe and Zn) and tibia (Zn) mineral levels but impaired tibia Mg, yield load, and resilience. In conclusion, ITF worsened the tibia Mg levels and elastic properties when supplemented in Ca-deficient diets. In contrast, although bone Ca was not affected in nondeficient rats under the present experimental conditions, bone quality improved, as demonstrated by a moderate reduction in femur osteoclast resorption and significant increases in tibia Mg content and elasticity.

  3. First-pass uptake and oxidation of glucose by the splanchnic tissue in young goats fed soy protein-based milk diets with or without amino acid supplementation: glucose metabolism in goat kids after soy feeding.

    PubMed

    Schönhusen, U; Junghans, P; Flöter, A; Steinhoff-Wagner, J; Görs, S; Schneider, F; Metges, C C; Hammon, H M

    2013-04-01

    The study was designed to examine whether feeding soy protein isolate as partial replacement of casein (CN) affects glucose metabolism in young goats and whether effects may be ameliorated by supplementation of those AA known to be lower concentrated in soy than in CN. Goat kids (d 20 of age) were fed comparable milk protein diets, in which 50% of the crude protein was either CN (control, CON), soy protein isolate (SPI), or soy protein isolate supplemented with AA (SPIA) for 43 d (n=8 per group). On d 62 of age, a single bolus dose of d-[(13)C6]glucose (10mg/kg of BW) was given with the morning diet, and simultaneously, a single bolus dose of d-[6,6-(2)H2]glucose (5mg/kg of BW) was injected into a jugular vein. Blood samples were collected between -30 and +420 min relative to the tracer administration to measure the (13)C and (2)H enrichments of plasma glucose and the (13)C enrichment of blood CO2. Glucose first-pass uptake by the splanchnic tissues was calculated from the rate of appearance of differentially labeled glucose tracer in plasma. Glucose oxidation was calculated from (13)C enrichment in blood CO2. In addition, plasma concentrations of triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, insulin, and glucagon were measured. On d 63 of age, kids were killed and jejunal mucosa and liver samples were collected to measure lactase mRNA levels and lactase and maltase activities in the jejunum and activities of pyruvate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in the liver. Basal plasma glucose concentration tended to be higher in the CON than the SPIA group, whereas basal insulin was higher in the CON group than the SPI and SPIA groups, and glucagon was higher in the CON than the SPIA group. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations increased during the first hour after feeding, whereas plasma glucagon increased immediately after feeding and after 1h of feeding. First-pass uptake and glucose oxidation were not affected by diet. Maltase

  4. Impact of supplementing vitamin C for 56, 90, or 127 days on growth performance and carcass characteristics of steers fed a 0.31 or 0.59% sulfur diet.

    PubMed

    Pogge, D J; Lonergan, S M; Hansen, S L

    2015-05-01

    the HS CON, but liver GSH were not different due to S or VC (P ≥ 0.13). The ratio of oxidized to reduced liver GSH was greater (P < 0.01) in HS CON than HS steers supplemented with VC. Marbling score, LM area, KPH, and quality grade were not different (P ≥ 0.19) due to diet, but LS steers had greater (P = 0.05) back fat than HS steers. In conclusion, steers fed a HS diet had poorer live performance and unexpectedly greater plasma ascorbate concentrations than the LS-fed steers. Interestingly, increasing days of VC supplementation across the HS diets increased GSH indices, suggesting that although HS diets may negatively affect antioxidant capacity of cattle, supplementing VC may help correct this.

  5. Effects of duration of vitamin C supplementation during the finishing period on postmortem protein degradation, tenderness, and meat color of the longissimus muscle of calf-fed steers consuming a 0.31 or 0.59% sulfur diet.

    PubMed

    Pogge, D J; Lonergan, S M; Hansen, S L

    2015-05-01

    High-S (HS) diets have been identified as a causative agent in the development of oxidative stress in cattle, which in postmortem muscle can negatively alter meat quality. Vitamin C (VC) is a potent antioxidant produced endogenously by cattle; however, exogenous supplementation of VC may be useful when HS diets are fed to cattle. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of duration of VC supplementation, for the first 56, 90, or 127 d, during the finishing period on meat color and tenderness of the longissimus thoracis (LT) collected from calf-fed steers consuming a 0.31 or 0.59% S diet. Angus steers ( n= 42) were stratified to pens by initial BW (304 ± 13 kg) and GeneMax marbling score (4.3 ± 0.12), and each pen was randomly assigned to 1 of 7 treatments (6 steers/pen, 1 pen/treatment), including HS (0.59% S, a combination of dried distillers grains plus solubles and sodium sulfate) control (HS CON), HS CON + 10 g VC·steer·(-1)d(-1) for the first 56 d (HS VC56), 90 d (HS VC90), or 127 d (HS VC127), low S (LS; 0.31% S) + 10 g VC·steer·(-1)d(-1) for the first 56 d (LS VC56), 90 d (LS VC90), or 127 d (LS VC127). Steers were harvested (n = 40) and, after a 24-h chill, rib sections (LT) were collected. pH was determined on each rib section before division into 3 sections for determination of 1) 7-d retail display and color and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), 2) 14-d WBSF determination, and 3) protein degradation and collagen content (2 d postmortem). Data were analyzed by ANOVA as a completely randomized design, with the fixed effect of treatment. Individual feed intake was recorded, and steer was the experimental unit. The HS steers had a greater and lesser percent of the 80- and 76-kDa subunits of calpain-1 (P ≤ 0.05), respectively, and tended to have less (P = 0.08) troponin T degradation (d2), and more (P = 0.02) collagen than LS steers. Increasing days of VC supplementation decreased (P = 0.05) the percentage of the 80 kDa subunit of

  6. Dietary fish oil supplements depress milk fat yield and alter milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Kairenius, P; Ärölä, A; Leskinen, H; Toivonen, V; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Hurme, T; Griinari, J M; Shingfield, K J

    2015-08-01

    The potential of dietary fish oil (FO) supplements to increase milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations and the associated effects on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, intake, and milk production were examined. Four multiparous lactating cows offered a grass silage-based diet (forage:concentrate ratio 58:42, on a dry matter basis) supplemented with 0, 75, 150, or 300g of FO/d (FO0, FO75, FO150, and FO300, respectively) were used in a 4×4 Latin square with 28-d experimental periods. Milk FA composition was analyzed by complementary silver-ion thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and silver-ion HPLC. Supplements of FO decreased linearly dry matter intake, yields of energy-corrected milk, milk fat and protein, and milk fat content. Compared with FO0, milk fat content and yield were decreased by 30.1 and 40.6%, respectively, on the FO300 treatment. Supplements of FO linearly increased milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations from 0.07 to 0.18 and 0.03 to 0.10g/100g of FA, respectively. Enrichment of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was accompanied by decreases in 4- to 18-carbon saturated FA and increases in total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), trans FA, and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Fish oil elevated milk fat cis-9,trans-11 CLA content in a quadratic manner, reaching a maximum on FO150 (from 0.61 to 2.15g/100g of FA), whereas further amounts of FO increased trans-10 18:1 with no change in trans-11 18:1 concentration. Supplements of FO also resulted in a dose-dependent appearance of 37 unique 20- and 22-carbon intermediates in milk fat. Concentrations of 16-, 18-, 20-, and 22-carbon trans FA were all increased by FO, with enrichment of trans 18:1 and trans 18:2 being quantitatively the most important. Decreases in milk fat yield to FO were not related to changes in milk trans-10,cis-12 CLA concentration or estimated milk fat melting point. Partial least square regression analysis indicated that FO-induced milk fat depression was associated with

  7. Disparate Metabolic Responses in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet Supplemented with Maize-Derived Non-Digestible Feruloylated Oligo- and Polysaccharides Are Linked to Changes in the Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Junyi; Bindels, Laure B.; Segura Munoz, Rafael R.; Martínez, Inés; Walter, Jens; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E.; Rose, Devin J.

    2016-01-01

    Studies have suggested links between colonic fermentation of dietary fibers and improved metabolic health. The objectives of this study were to determine if non-digestible feruloylated oligo- and polysaccharides (FOPS), a maize-derived dietary fiber, could counteract the deleterious effects of high-fat (HF) feeding in mice and explore if metabolic benefits were linked to the gut microbiota. C57BL/6J mice (n = 8/group) were fed a low-fat (LF; 10 kcal% fat), HF (62 kcal% fat), or HF diet supplemented with FOPS (5%, w/w). Pronounced differences in FOPS responsiveness were observed: four mice experienced cecal enlargement and enhanced short chain fatty acid production, indicating increased cecal fermentation (F-FOPS). Only these mice displayed improvements in glucose metabolism compared with HF-fed mice. Blooms in the gut microbial genera Blautia and Akkermansia were observed in three of the F-FOPS mice; these shifts were associated with reductions in body and adipose tissue weights compared with the HF-fed control mice. No improvements in metabolic markers or weights were detected in the four mice whose gut microbiota did not respond to FOPS. These findings demonstrate that FOPS-induced improvements in weight gain and metabolic health in mice depended on the ability of an individual’s microbiota to ferment FOPS. PMID:26731528

  8. Comparison of growth, serum biochemistries and n-6 fatty acid metabolism in rats fed diets supplemented with high-gamma-linolenic acid safflower oil or borage oil for 90 days.

    PubMed

    Tso, Patrick; Caldwell, Jody; Lee, Dana; Boivin, Gregory P; DeMichele, Stephen J

    2012-06-01

    Recently, steps have been taken to further developments toward increasing gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) concentration and lowering costs in plant seed oils using transgenic technology. Through identification and expression of a fungal delta-6 desaturase gene in the high linoleic acid safflower plant, the seeds from this genetic transformation produce oil with >40% GLA (high GLA safflower oil (HGSO)). The aim of the study was to compare the effects of feeding HGSO to a generally recognized as safe source of GLA, borage oil, in a 90 day safety study in rats. Weanling male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a semi-synthetic, fat free, pelleted diet (AIN93G) supplemented with a 10% (wt/wt) oil blend containing HGSO or borage oil, with equivalent GLA levels. Results demonstrated that feeding diets containing HGSO or borage oil for 90 days had similar biologic effects with regard to growth characteristics, body composition, behavior, organ weight and histology, and parameters of hematology and serum biochemistries in both sexes. Metabolism of the primary n-6 fatty acids in plasma and organ phospholipids was similar, despite minor changes in females. We conclude that HGSO is biologically equivalent to borage oil and provides a safe alternative source of GLA in the diet.

  9. Differential regulation of hepatic transcription factors in the Wistar rat offspring born to dams fed folic acid, vitamin B12 deficient diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Meher, Akshaya; Joshi, Asmita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional status of the mother is known to influence various metabolic adaptations required for optimal fetal development. These may be mediated by transcription factors like peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), which are activated by long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The objective of the current study was to examine the expression of different hepatic transcription factors and the levels of global methylation in the liver of the offspring born to dams fed micronutrient deficient (folic acid and vitamin B12) diets and supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were divided into five groups (n = 8/group) as follows; control, folic acid deficient (FD), vitamin B12 deficient (BD) and omega-3 fatty acid supplemented groups (FDO and BDO). Diets were given starting from pre-conception and continued throughout pregnancy and lactation. Pups were dissected at the end of lactation. Liver tissues were removed; snap frozen and stored at -80°C. Maternal micronutrients deficiency resulted in lower (p<0.05) levels of pup liver docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) as compared to the control group. Pup liver PPARα and PPARγ expression was lower (p<0.05) in the BD group although there were no differences in the expression of SREBP-1c, LXRα and RXRα expression. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group normalized (p<0.05) levels of both PPARα and PPARγ but reduced (p<0.05) SREBP-1c, LXRα and RXRα expression. There was no change in any of the transcription factors in the pup liver in the FD group. Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation to this group reduced (p<0.05) PPARα, SREBP-1c and RXRα expression. Pup liver global methylation levels were higher (p<0.01) in both the micronutrients deficient groups and could be normalized (p<0.05) by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Our novel findings suggest a role for omega-3 fatty acids in the one carbon cycle in influencing the hepatic expression of transcription factors in the

  10. High dietary calcium level decreases colonic phytate degradation in pigs fed a rapeseed diet.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, A S; Larsen, T; Sandström, B

    1993-03-01

    The degradation of phytate (inositol hexaphosphate) in rapeseed meal diet not containing phytase activity was studied in 15 growing ileum-fistulated pigs. Stomach and small intestinal degradation and total gastrointestinal degradation were compared. The effect of addition of calcium carbonate to the rapeseed meal diet at two levels (9.2 and 18.5 g/kg diet) was investigated. A commercial barley-wheat-soybean diet with intrinsic phytase activity was used as reference. Phytate and its hydrolysis products in diets, ileal digesta and feces were determined by HPLC ion-pair chromatography. Hydrolysis of phytate in the stomach and small intestine was 35-45% in pigs fed the rapeseed meal diet independent of calcium addition, and 65% in pigs fed the reference diet. Total gastrointestinal degradation of phytate in pigs fed the rapeseed diet was 97, 77 and 42% (P < 0.001) when calcium intakes were 4.5, 9.9 and 15 g/d, respectively; total gastrointestinal degradation was 72% in pigs fed the reference diet. The intestinal phytate degradation pattern, when rapeseed diet was fed, indicated the activity of an unspecific phosphatase, whereas that of the reference diet indicated intrinsic dietary phytase activity. We conclude that dietary supplementation of calcium carbonate decreases the phytate degradation in the colon of pigs, but not in the stomach and small intestine.

  11. Effects of lipoic acid on growth and biochemical responses of common carp fed with carbohydrate diets.

    PubMed

    Santos, R A; Caldas, S; Primel, E G; Tesser, M B; Monserrat, J M

    2016-12-01

    Lipoic acid (LA) is an antioxidant that also favors glucose uptake in mammals. Until now, there are no studies evaluating the potential effect of this molecule on glycemic control in fish. It was evaluated LA effects on glucose uptake in common carp Cyprinus carpio fed with carbohydrate diets from two carbohydrate sources: glucose (GLU) and starch (STA), and supplemented or not with LA, being the diets: +GLU/-LA (GLU); +GLU/+LA (GLU + LA); +STA/-LA (STA); and +STA/+LA (STA + LA). Carp juveniles (6.5 ± 0.1 g) were fed with each diet ad libitum 4 times a day, during 68 days. Muscle glycogen concentration was higher (p < 0.05) in GLU and GLU + LA than in STA and STA + LA groups. On fish fed with starch, muscle cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were higher (p < 0.05) in fish fed diets supplemented with LA. Muscle protein levels were higher in fish fed with LA, independent of the diet carbohydrate source. Lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in fish muscle on fish fed the STA + LA diets when compared with the STA diet. Our findings indicate that LA modulates lipid, proteins and carbohydrate metabolism together with the well-known antioxidant effect. Also, LA showed to enhance starch utilization taking into account muscle cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

  12. Effects of anti-phospholipase A(2) antibody supplementation on dry matter intake feed efficiency, acute phase response, and blood differentials of steers fed forage- and grain-based diets.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, V R G; Waters, K M; Marquezini, G H L; Henry, D D; Ciriaco, F M; Arthington, J D; DiLorenzo, N; Lamb, G C

    2015-02-01

    cells/μL) than the 0.4% aPLA and MT treatments (6.71 × 10 ± 0.28 × 10 and 6.70 × 10 ± 0.28 × 10 cells/μL, respectively). Concentrations of plasma ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin were reduced ( < 0.05) for CON compared to aPLA steers (22.2 ± 0.83 vs. 24.4 ± 0.83 mg/dL and 0.18 ± 0.05 vs. 0.26 ± 0.05 mg/mL, respectively). Supplementation of aPLA improved FE of steers fed a forage-based growing diet but not when feeding grain-based diets. The 0.4% aPLA and MT treatments had decreased white blood cell counts and concentration of lymphocytes during the transition period compared to the 0.2% aPLA treatment, and CON steers had reduced concentrations of plasma ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin during the diet transition phase.

  13. Analysis of the Toll-Like Receptor 2-2 (TLR2-2) and TLR4 mRNA Expression in the Intestinal Mucosal Immunity of Broilers Fed on Diets Supplemented with Nickel Chloride

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bangyuan; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Huang, Jianying

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLRs) are important innate immune receptors, and TLR2 and TLR4 play an important role in intestinal mucosal innate immunity. It has been found that nickel (Ni) can affect the immune system in broilers. The purpose of this study was to analyze changes in TLR2-2 and TLR4 mRNA expression levels in the intestinal mucosal immunity system of broilers induced by dietary nickel chloride (NiCl2) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays. Two hundred and forty one-day-old avian broilers were divided into four groups and fed on a corn-soybean basal diet as control diet or the same basal diet supplemented with 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg of NiCl2 for 42 days. Results showed that the TLR2-2 and TLR4 mRNA expression levels in the intestinal mucosa and the cecal tonsil were lower (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) in the 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg groups than those in the control group. It was concluded that dietary NiCl2 in excess of 300 mg/kg could reduce TLR2-2 and TLR4 mRNA expression levels in the intestinal mucosa and cecal tonsil in broilers, implying that the innate immunity in intestinal mucosal immune system could be impaired by pathways involving injured surface epithelium cells or/and the inhibition of the TLR signal transduction. PMID:24394214

  14. Supplementation of organic and inorganic selenium to diets using grains grown in various regions of the United States with differing natural Se concentrations and fed to grower-finisher swine.

    PubMed

    Mahan, D C; Azain, M; Crenshaw, T D; Cromwell, G L; Dove, C R; Kim, S W; Lindemann, M D; Miller, P S; Pettigrew, J E; Stein, H H; van Heugten, E

    2014-11-01

    Grains grown in various regions of the United States vary in their innate or natural Se contents. A regional study evaluated the effects of adding inorganic Se (sodium selenite) or organic Se (Se yeast) to diets with differing innate Se contents. A 2 × 2 + 1 factorial experiment evaluating 2 Se sources (organic or inorganic) at 2 Se levels (0.15 or 0.30 mg/kg) in 18 total replicates (n = 360 total pigs). A basal diet was fed without supplemental Se and served as the negative (basal) control. The study was conducted as a randomized complete block design in 9 states (Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Nebraska, North Carolina, Ohio, South Dakota, Texas, and Wisconsin) with each station conducting 2 replicates. Pigs were fed from 25 to approximately 115 kg BW. Similar dietary formulations were used at each station, incorporating a common source of trace mineral and Se premixes. Three pigs per treatment in 16 replicates (n = 240) were bled at 55, 85, and 115 kg BW and serum Se and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined. Three pigs (n = 260) from each treatment pen were killed at 115 kg BW and issues (liver, loin, and hair) were analyzed for Se. The corn Se content from the various states ranged from 0.026 to 0.283 mg Se/kg while the soybean meal Se content ranged from 0.086 to 0.798 mg Se/kg. Tissue and serum Se concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) when supplemental organic Se was fed, whereas serum GSH-Px was greater (P < 0.01) as Se level increased. There were linear increases (P < 0.01) in loin and quadratic increases (P < 0.01) in liver and hair Se concentrations as dietary Se level increased within each state. There was a source × level interaction (P < 0.01) for each tissue resulting in a greater increase when organic Se was fed. Serum Se and GSH-Px activity increased (P < 0.01) when both Se sources were fed and plateaued at each state at 0.15 mg Se/kg. There was a high and significant correlation between each tissue Se, serum Se, and GSH

  15. Antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities of three Piper species on atherogenic diet fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Agbor, Gabriel A; Vinson, Joe A; Sortino, Julianne; Johnson, Robert

    2012-05-01

    Atherogenic diet is known to induce high plasma lipid concentration, oxidative stress and early atherosclerosis. Antioxidants have potentials to counter the effect of atherogenic diet. The present research aims at evaluating the antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic activities of three Piper species (Piper guineense, Piper nigrum and Piper umbellatum) on atherogenic diet fed hamsters. Hamsters divided into 8 groups: normal control, atherosclerotic control and six test groups. The normal animals fed normal rodent chow, the atherosclerotic control animals fed the same rodent chow supplemented with 0.2% cholesterol and 10% coconut oil (high cholesterol diet). The 6 test groups' animals fed same diet as the atherosclerotic control group but with additional supplementation of 2 graded doses (1 and 0.25 mg/kg body weight, o.p.) of plant extracts for 12 weeks. The atherogenic diet induced a collapse of the erythrocyte antioxidant defense system (significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities). Atherogenic diet also induced an increase in plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), oxidation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and accumulation of foam cells in the aorta a hall mark for atherosclerosis. Administration of the Piper species prevented the collapse of the antioxidant system and the increase of plasma parameters maintaining them towards normality. The Piper species also prevented LDL oxidation by increasing the time (lag time) for its oxidation. The results suggest that these Piper species have significant antioxidant and anti-atherogenic effect against atherogenic diet intoxication.

  16. Effect of feeding reduced protein, amino acid-supplemented diets on nitrogen and energy balance in grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Kerr, B J; Easter, R A

    1995-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of feeding reduced CP, amino acid (AA)-supplemented diets on the nitrogen (N) and energy (E) balance of grower pigs. In Exp. 1, 24 barrows (22.2 kg BW) were fed corn-soybean meal (C-SBM) diets containing either 16% CP, 12% CP, or 12% CP supplemented with lysine (LYS), tryptophan (TRP), and threonine (THR). After 6 d of adaptation to the diets and feeding frequency, a 5-d N and E balance trial was conducted. Supplementation of the 12% CP diet with LYS, TRP, and THR improved N retention ( P < .01) but failed to improve N retention to the level attained by pigs fed the 16% CP diet (P < .01). Efficiency of N retention was similar between pigs fed the AA-supplemented 12% CP diet and pigs fed the 16% CP diet (P > .10). Energy retention was increased by AA-supplementation of the 12% CP diet ( P < .10) to a level higher than that of pigs fed the 16% CP diet (P < .01). In Exp. 2, 60 barrows (21.7 kg BW) were fed one of the following diets: 16% CP; 12% CP diet supplemented with indispensable AA (IDAA) to simulate the 16% CP diet; 12% CP supplemented with LYS, TRP, THR, and dispensable AA N (DAAN); 12% CP supplemented with LYS, TRP, and THR; or a 12% CP negative control diet. After 6 d of adaptation to the diets and feeding frequency, a 5-d N and E balance trial was conducted. Nitrogen retention was improved (P < .01) by supplementing the 12% CP diet with LYS, TRP, and THR but remained inferior (P < .01) to that obtained when pigs were fed the other three diets. Pigs fed the 12% CP diet with LYS, TRP, THR, and DAAN supplementation retained less N (P < .07) than pigs fed the 16% CP but retained an amount similar (P > .10) to pigs fed the 12% CP diet with IDAA and DAAN supplementation. Pigs fed the 12% CP diet with LYS, TRP, and THR supplementation exhibited the highest efficiency of N retention (P < .01). Pigs fed the 12% CP diet supplemented with LYS, TRP, THR, and DAAN retained more (P < .01) E than pigs fed the 12% CP

  17. Effects of feeding sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines as a supplement on feed intake, growth performance, digestibility and carcass characteristics of Sidama goats fed a basal diet of natural grass hay.

    PubMed

    Megersa, Tadesse; Urge, Mengistu; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of substituting sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam] vines for concentrate on growth performance, digestibility, and carcass characteristics. Thirty yearling bucks (15.3 ± 1.64 kg) were assigned into six treatments in a randomized complete block design: natural grass hay alone (T1) or supplemented with 100 % sweet potato vines (SPV) (T2), 65 % SPV + 35 % concentrate (T3), 35 % SPV + 65 % concentrate (T4), and 100 % concentrate (T5) on dry matter (DM) basis. Supplemented goats (T2, T3, T4, and T5) consumed higher (p < 0.001) total DM (553, 567, 505, and 515 g/day), respectively, when compared to the nonsupplemented (T1) goats (349 g/day). The crude protein (CP) intake (32.0, 48.6, 54.7, and 69.2 g/day) increased with increasing levels of the concentrate in the diet for T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively. The DM digestibility in T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, was higher (P < 0.01) (0.69, 0.72, 0.72, and 0.74) than in T1 (0.56). Apparent digestibility of CP was observed to be higher (P < 0.001) in T3, T4, T5 (0.78, 0.83, and 0.88) when compared to the bucks in T2 (0.60). Higher (P < 0.001) daily weight gain (31.2, 46.4, 48.6, and 47.6 g/day) were recorded for T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively, whereas the nonsupplemented goats lost weight (-19.5 g/day). Slaughter weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib-eye muscle area, and total edible offals were higher (P < 0.05) in supplemented goats compared with nonsupplemented ones. Therefore, it could be concluded that sweet potato vine can replace the conventional concentrate and could be fed with poor quality hay to prevent body weight loss of animal in the absence of other feed supplements.

  18. Soybean hulls as a primary ingredient in forage-free diets for limit-fed growing cattle.

    PubMed

    Löest, C A; Titgemeyer, E C; Drouillard, J S; Blasi, D A; Bindel, D J

    2001-03-01

    In Exp. 1, 300 heifers (260 kg initial BW) were used to compare growth performance of cattle fed forage-free diets containing predominantly soybean hulls with that of cattle receiving roughage- and corn-based diets and to determine whether cattle fed soybean hull-based diets would respond to supplementation with methionine hydroxy analogue (MHA), lipid-coated betaine, or concentrated separator by-product (CSB; a source of betaine). Treatments included 1) a roughage-based diet fed at 2.75% of BW, 2) a corn-based diet fed at 1.5% of BW, 3) a corn-based diet fed at 2.25% of BW, 4) a soybean hull-based diet fed at 1.5% of BW (SH1.5), 5) a soybean hull-based diet fed at 2.25% of BW (SH2.25), 6) SH1.5 top-dressed with 11.4 g/d Alimet (10 g/d MHA), 7) SH2.25 top-dressed with 11.4 g/d Alimet, 8) SH2.25 top-dressed with 7 g/d of a lipid-coated betaine product (4.2 g/d betaine), and 9) SH2.25 top-dressed with 250 g/d CSB (15.5 g/d betaine). Supplemental MHA, betaine, and CSB did not change DMI, ADG, or gain:feed ratio for cattle fed soybean hulls. Heifers fed soybean hull-based diets gained 29% slower (P < 0.05) and had 27% lower gain:feed ratios than heifers fed the corn-based diets. Cattle fed soybean hull-based diets had gains that were lower (P < 0.05) than those of cattle fed the roughage-based diets, but gain:feed ratios were similar because cattle were fed less of the soybean hull-based diets. Roughage-fed cattle had similar gains but 25% lower (P < 0.05) gain:feed ratios than cattle fed the corn-based diets. In Exp. 2, degradation by ruminal microbes of betaine in anhydrous betaine, betaine-HCl, feed-grade betaine, lipid-coated betaine, and CSB was evaluated in vitro using ruminal inocula collected from steers fed a high-grain or high-roughage diet. The roughage diet led to less betaine disappearance than the grain diet. More betaine was degraded from CSB than from other sources, perhaps because sugars provided by CSB stimulated fermentation, but no large differences

  19. Site and extent of digestion, duodenal flow, and intestinal disappearance of total and esterified fatty acids in sheep fed a high-concentrate diet supplemented with high-linoleate safflower oil.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, R L; Scholljegerdes, E J; Lake, S L; Nayigihugu, V; Hess, B W; Rule, D C

    2006-02-01

    Our objective was to determine duodenal and ileal flows of total and esterified fatty acids and to determine ruminal fermentation characteristics and site and extent of nutrient digestion in sheep fed an 80% concentrate diet supplemented with high-linoleate (77%) safflower oil at 0, 3, 6, and 9% of DM. Oil was infused intraruminally along with an isonitrogenous basal diet (fed at 2% of BW) that contained bromegrass hay, cracked corn, corn gluten meal, urea, and limestone. Four crossbred wethers (BW = 44.3 +/- 15.7 kg) fitted with ruminal, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment, in which 14 d of dietary adaptation were followed by 4 d of duodenal, ileal, and ruminal sampling. Fatty acid intake increased (linear, P = 0.004 to 0.001) with increased dietary safflower oil. Digestibilities of OM, NDF, and N were not affected (P = 0.09 to 0.65) by increased dietary safflower oil. For total fatty acids (free plus esterified) and esterified fatty acids, duodenal flow of most fatty acids, including 18:2c-9,c-12, increased (P = 0.006 to 0.05) with increased dietary oil. Within each treatment, duodenal flow of total and esterified 18:2c-9,c-12 was similar (P = 0.32), indicating that duodenal flow of this fatty acid occurred because most of it remained esterified. Duodenal flow of esterified 18:1t-11 increased (P = 0.08) with increased dietary safflower oil, indicating that reesterification of ruminal fatty acids occurred. Apparent small intestinal disappearance of most fatty acids was not affected (P = 0.19 to 0.98) by increased dietary safflower oil, but increased (P = 0.05) for 18:2c-9,c-12, which ranged from 87.0 to 97.4%, and for 18:2c-9,t-11 (P = 0.03), which ranged from 37.9% with no added oil to 99.2% with supplemental oil. For esterified fatty acids, apparent small intestinal disappearance was from 80% for 18:3c-9,c-12,c-15 at the greatest level of dietary oil up to 100% for 18:1t-11 and 18:1c-12 with 0% oil. We concluded that

  20. Effects on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and the fat and meat fatty acid profile of rabbits fed diets with chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed supplements.

    PubMed

    Peiretti, P G; Meineri, G

    2008-12-01

    The effects of three levels (0%, 10%, or 15%) of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed (SHS) included in the diet on the growth performance, some carcass characteristics and fatty acid profile of rabbit meat and perirenal fat was studied. At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences among the groups in live weight, live weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, carcass yield or the percentages of edible organs. The percentage values of hind legs, fore legs, loin and abdominal wall, breast and ribs, skin and limbs, and head were not affected by the inclusion level of SHS. The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration in the longissimus dorsi muscle and perirenal fat was significantly increased with increasing SHS inclusion, while the saturated fatty acid (SFA) decreased. The n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio of the rabbit meat decreased from 4.55 in the control group, to 1.03 in the 15% SHS group.

  1. Effects of supplementing Erythrina brucei leaf as a substitute for cotton seed meal on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Sidama goats fed basal diet of natural grass hay.

    PubMed

    Yinnesu, Asmamaw; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2012-03-01

    The replacement value of dried Erythrina brucei leaf for cotton seed meal (CSM) on growth performance and carcass characteristics was evaluated. Twenty-five yearling buck goats (15.8 ± 1.4 kg) were assigned into five treatments in a randomized complete block design: natural grass hay alone (T1) or supplemented with 100% CSM (T2), 67% CSM + 33% E. brucei (T3), 33% CSM + 67% E. brucei (T4), and 100% E. brucei (T5) on dry matter (DM) basis. Supplemented goats consumed more (P < 0.05) total DM and organic matter (OM) than the non-supplemented group, but the intakes were not influenced (P > 0.05) by the proportion of the supplements. The highest (P < 0.05) crude protein (CP) intake was observed in goats supplemented with CSM alone, whereas the lowest intake was observed in the non-supplemented group. Total CP intake decreased (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of E. brucei in the supplement mixture. The supplemented goats gained more (P < 0.05) weight than the control group. Apparent DM and OM digestibility was higher (P < 0.05) in supplemented goats than in the non-supplemented ones, but similar (P > 0.05) among the supplemented group. The digestibility of CP was higher (P < 0.05) for supplemented goats, except in those goats fed E. brucei alone, than the non-supplemented group. Slaughter weight, empty body weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, rib eye muscle area, and total edible offals were higher (P < 0.05) for supplemented goats than for the non-supplemented ones. It could be concluded that E. brucei could be used as a substitute to CSM under smallholder production systems.

  2. Source and level of energy supplementation for yearling cattle fed ammoniated hay.

    PubMed

    Royes, J B; Brown, W F; Martin, F G; Bates, D B

    2001-05-01

    Brahman x British crossbred steers were used in growth and digestion trials to evaluate the response of source (corn, sugar cane molasses, or soybean hulls) and feeding rate (0, 1.4, or 2.8 kg DM per steer daily in the growth trials; 0, 15, or 30% of the ration DM in the digestion trial) of energy supplementation in cattle fed ammoniated (4% of forage DM) stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst var. nlemfuensis) hay. Cattle on all treatments were fed 0.5 kg cottonseed meal daily. In the growth trials, steers grazed dormant bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) pasture. Increasing the levels of supplementation decreased hay intake but increased total dietary intake for all diets (P < 0.07). Daily gain and feed efficiency of steers were improved (P < 0.03) with supplementation. Steers supplemented with corn or soybean hulls at 2.8 kg DM/d had a higher ADG (0.92 kg) and gain/feed (0.103) than steers supplemented with molasses (0.78 kg, 0.08, respectively) at the same level. Seven crossbred steers (200 kg) were used in a five-period digestion trial to evaluate apparent OM, NDF, ADF, and hemicellulose digestibility. Apparent OM digestibility of all diets increased linearly (P = 0.02) as the level of supplementation increased. Apparent NDF and ADF digestibility decreased (P < 0.03) as the level of supplementation with corn or molasses increased, whereas increasing the level of soybean hulls in the diet increased (P < 0.06) apparent NDF and ADF digestibility. Four ruminally fistulated crossbred steers (472 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 latin square design to investigate ruminal characteristics with energy supplementation at 30% of ration DM. Ruminal pH in steers supplemented with soybean hulls or corn declined after feeding. Ruminal pH decreased more rapidly with corn supplementation and remained below 6.2 for a longer period of time than with the other diets. Ruminal pH did not change within 24 h after feeding for steers fed the control or molasses diets. No change in total VFA

  3. Bioavailability of magnesium from inorganic and organic compounds is similar in rats fed a high phytic acid diet.

    PubMed

    Bertinato, Jesse; Plouffe, Louise J; Lavergne, Christopher; Ly, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    A large section of the North American population is not meeting recommended intakes for magnesium (Mg). Supplementation and consumption of Mg-fortified foods are ways to increase intake. Currently, information on Mg bioavailability from different compounds and their efficacy in improving Mg status is scant. This study compared the relative ability of inorganic and organic Mg compounds to preserve the Mg status of rats when fed at amounts insufficient to retain optimal Mg status. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12/diet group) were fed one of eight test diets supplemented with phytic acid (5 g/kg diet) and low levels of Mg (155 mg elemental Mg/kg diet) from Mg oxide, Mg sulphate, Mg chloride, Mg citrate, Mg gluconate, Mg orotate, Mg malate or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium Mg salt for five weeks. Rats were also fed three control diets that did not contain added phytic acid but were supplemented with 500 (NMgO, normal), 155 (LMgO, low) or 80 (DMgO, deficient) mg of Mg per kg diet as Mg oxide. Mg concentrations in femur, serum and urine showed a graded decrease in rats fed the control diets with lower Mg. Mg concentrations did not differ (P≥0.05) between rats fed the different test diets. Addition of phytic acid to the diet did not affect the Mg status of the rats. The results indicate that any differences in the Mg bioavailability of the compounds were small and physiologically irrelevant.

  4. Nutritional levels of diets fed to captive Amazon parrots: does mixing seed, produce, and pellets provide a healthy diet?

    PubMed

    Brightsmith, Donald J

    2012-09-01

    Poor nutrition is a serious problem in captive psittacine birds. Seed-based diets are known to contain excess fat, low calcium:phosphorus ratios, and other nutrient deficiencies, whereas many consider nutritionally superior, formulated diets to be monotonous. As a result, many bird owners feed a mixture of seed, produce, and formulated diet. However, the nutritional contents of such mixed diets have rarely been evaluated. In this study, we describe the nutrient contents of diets consumed by 7 adult (>6 years old), captive Amazon parrots offered produce (50% fresh weight), formulated diet (25%), and seed (25%). Diets consumed were deficient in calcium, sodium, and iron and contained more than the recommended amount of fat. In addition, the birds chose foods that exacerbated these imbalances. Birds offered low-seed diets (60% pellet, 22% produce, 18% seed, wet weight) consumed diets with more fat than recommended but acceptable levels of calcium and all other nutrients measured, as well as acceptable calcium:phosphorus ratios. This suggests that small quantities of seeds may not result in nutritionally imbalanced diets. Birds fed 75% formulated diet and 25% produce consumed diets within the recommendations for nearly all measured nutrients, demonstrating that owners of psittacine birds should be encouraged to supplement manufactured diets with low energy-density, fresh produce items to provide stimulation and foraging opportunities without fear of causing major nutritional imbalances.

  5. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Sesamum indicum L. in rabbits fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Najafi, Somayeh; Heidarian, Esfandiar; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of sesame in a high-fat fed rabbit model. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each for 60 days as follows: normal diet, hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol), hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol) + sesame seed (10%), and hypercholesterolemic diet (1% cholesterol) + sesame oil (5%). Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, apoA and apoB, SGOT, SGPT, glucose and insulin were measured at the end of supplementation period in all studied groups. Hypercholesterolemic feeding resulted in a significant elevation of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT as compared to the normocholesterolemic diet group (P < 0.05). Supplementation with sesame seed did not cause any significant alteration in lipid profile parameters, apolipoproteins, hepatic transaminases, glucose and insulin as compared to the hypercholesterolemic diet group (P > 0.05). In contrast, rabbits supplemented with sesame oil were found to have lower circulating concentrations of TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, SGOT and SGPT (P < 0.05), whilst concentrations of TG, apoA, apoB, insulin and glucose remained unaltered compared to the hypercholesterolemic diet group (P > 0.05). Supplementation with sesame oil, but not sesame seed, can ameliorate serum levels of lipids and hepatic enzymes in rabbits under a high-fat diet.

  6. Efficacy of phytases on egg production and nutrient digestibility in layers fed reduced phosphorus diets.

    PubMed

    Liu, N; Liu, G H; Li, F D; Sands, J S; Zhang, S; Zheng, A J; Ru, Y J

    2007-11-01

    The effects of phytases on the performance of layers and the ileal nutrient digestibility of corn-, soybean-, and by-product meal-based diets were assessed with 320 Hy-Line brown layers from 23 to 28 wk of age. Layers were grouped randomly into 5 treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 8 layers per replicate. The 5 diets consisted of a positive control diet with adequate Ca (3.30%), total P (0.50%), and nonphytate P (NPP; 0.28%), and a negative control diet with Ca reduced by 0.12%, total P reduced by 0.14%, NPP reduced by 0.13%, and 3 phytases (phytase A derived from Aspergillus niger, and phytases B and C derived from Escherichia coli) supplemented at 300 phytase units/kg of feed, respectively. Egg production and feed intake were recorded daily, and eggshell quality and ileal nutrient digestibility were measured at the end of a 6-wk feeding period. The results revealed that the reduction of Ca and P from the positive control diet significantly depressed feed intake, egg mass, eggshell hardness, and the digestibility of N, Ca, P, and amino acids (P < 0.05). Phytase supplementation in the negative control diet improved the digestibility of P and Ca by 11.08 and 9.81% (P < 0.05), respectively, whereas it improved the digestibility of amino acids by 2 to 8% (P < 0.05). However, the digestibility of most amino acids was not restored to the levels of the positive control diet by the application of phytases. Supplementing phytases in the negative control diet improved the rate of lay, egg mass, and egshell quality to the levels of birds fed the positive control diet. These results suggest that supplementing phytases can improve the digestibility not only of Ca and P, but also of amino acids in layers fed a corn-, soybean-, and by-product-based diet.

  7. Production responses by early lactation cows to whole sunflower seed or tallow supplementation of a diet based on barley.

    PubMed

    Markus, S B; Wittenberg, K M; Ingalls, J R; Undi, M

    1996-10-01

    A 2-yr study to evaluate the effectiveness of whole sunflower seed as a source of fat was conducted with 18 primiparous and 31 multiparous Holstein cows. The three diets evaluated were a basal diet based on barley (control), a basal diet supplemented with 2.7% tallow, and a basal diet supplemented with 7.1% whole sunflower seeds. The DMI of lactating cows during the 16-wk test period was not influenced by supplementation with either sunflower seeds or tallow. Milk production was 34.4, 34.6, and 35.5 kg/d for cows fed the control diet or the diets supplemented with sunflower or tallow, respectively, and was not influenced by diet. The production and concentrations of milk protein, fat, and SNF also were not influenced by diet. The concentrations of C6:0 to C14:1 fatty acids were highest in the milk of cows fed the control diet. The concentrations of C10:0 to C16:1 were higher when cows were fed the diet with the tallow supplement than when they were fed the diet with the sunflower supplement. However, the concentrations of C18:0 to C18:2 and C20:0 were higher in the milk of cows that were fed the sunflower supplement than in the milk of cows that were fed the tallow supplement or the control diet. Concentrations of individual VFA and the ratio of acetate to propionate were not influenced by diet. Body weight, body condition score, and reproduction parameters were similar for all diets, suggesting that there were no effects on subsequent production. The performance of cows fed whole sunflower seeds as a source of energy appeared to be similar to the performance of cows fed traditional high energy diets based on barley. The fatty acid profile of the milk of cows fed diets supplemented with sunflower seeds was more favorable than that of the milk of cows fed diets supplemented with tallow.

  8. Sympathetic activity is lower in rats fed a beef tallow diet than in rats fed a safflower oil diet.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, T; Shimomura, Y; Saitoh, S; Tokuyama, K; Takeuchi, H; Suzuki, M

    1995-07-01

    Effects of dietary fats consisting of different fatty acids on sympathetic activity and body fat accumulation were studied in rats. Rats were meal-fed an isoenergetic diet based on either beef tallow or safflower oil for 8 weeks. Carcass fat content was greater (P < .05) in rats fed the beef tallow diet than in rats fed the safflower oil diet. Norepinephrine (NE) turnover rate was significantly lower (P < .05) in interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) and pancreas in rats fed the beef tallow diet than in rats fed the safflower oil diet, resulting in a decreased (P < .05) diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and an increased (P < .05) serum insulin concentration in the former. To confirm the effects of dietary fats on sympathetic activity in relation to body fat accumulation, rats were chemically sympathectomized. Sympathectomy abolished the differences in body fat accumulation, DIT, and serum insulin concentration between the two dietary groups. These results suggest that the beef tallow diet promotes body fat accumulation by reducing sympathetic activity as compared with intake of the safflower oil diet.

  9. Increased plasma triglyceride secretion in EFA-deficient rats fed diets with or without saturated fat.

    PubMed

    Williams, M A; Tinoco, J; Hincenbergs, I; Thomas, B

    1989-05-01

    Metabolic responses to essential fatty acid-deficiency in rats include an increased rate of triglyceride secretion into the plasma, a large reduction in the HDL1 plasma lipoprotein concentration, and increased concentrations of liver triacylglycerols and cholesteryl esters. Because of differences in the types of EFA-deficient diets used, it is not clear whether these responses were solely due to the absence of EFA from the diet or whether saturated fat, or differences in acyl group chain length in this fat, might be responsible. Therefore, we fed rats diets differing only in amounts and kinds of fat, and measured triacylglycerol secretion rates and liver concentrations of triacylglycerols and cholesteryl esters, for comparison with our earlier measurements of plasma high density lipoprotein subpopulations in rats fed exactly the same diets. The purified diets contained either no fat, 5% by weight hydrogenated coconut oil, 5% hydrogenated cottonseed oil, or each of these three diets supplemented with 1% safflower oil, or 5% corn oil. We also fed some rats a nonpurified stock diet for comparison with literature reports. The present results indicate that the metabolic responses to essential fatty acid deficiency described above are definitely due to essential fatty acid-deficiency and not to the presence or chain length of acyl groups in saturated fat in the diet.

  10. Reduced use of antibiotic growth promoters in diets fed to weanling pigs: dietary tools, part 2.

    PubMed

    Stein, Hans H; Kil, Dong Y

    2006-01-01

    Diets formulated to maximize performance of weanling pigs need to support the development of intestinal tissue, support intestinal colonization with beneficial, mainly lactic acid-producing bacteria, and support development of the intestinal and overall immune system. This objective is not likely to be achieved using one single strategy, but there is strong evidence that diets formulated with cereal grains other than corn, with a low concentration of crude protein and with the use of direct-fed microbials, will improve intestinal health and performance of weanling pigs. Further improvements may be observed if the grain part of the diet is fermented prior to feeding or if the diet is fed in a liquid form, but the need for specialized equipment limit the implementation of this strategy. Dietary supplements such as essential oils and nucleosides or nucleotides may also be useful, but more research is needed to verify the effects of these substances.

  11. Boron enhances strength and alters mineral composition of bone in rabbits fed a high energy diet.

    PubMed

    Hakki, Sema S; Dundar, Niyazi; Kayis, Seyit Ali; Hakki, Erdogan E; Hamurcu, Mehmet; Kerimoglu, Ulku; Baspinar, Nuri; Basoglu, Abdullah; Nielsen, Forrest H

    2013-04-01

    An experiment was performed to determine whether boron had a beneficial effect on bone strength and composition in rabbits with apparent adiposity induced by a high energy diet. Sixty female New Zealand rabbits, aged 8 months, were randomly divided into five groups with the following treatments for seven months: control 1, fed alfalfa hay only (5.91 MJ/kg); control 2, high energy diet (11.76 MJ and 3.88 mg boron/kg); B10, high energy diet+10 mg/kg body weight boron gavage/96 h; B30, high energy diet+30 mg/kg body weight boron gavage/96 h; B50, high energy diet+50mg/kg body weight boron gavage/96 h. Bone boron concentrations were lowest in rabbits fed the high energy diet without boron supplementation, which suggested an inferior boron status. Femur maximum breaking force was highest in the B50 rabbits. Tibia compression strength was highest in B30 and B50 rabbits. All boron treatments significantly increased calcium and magnesium concentrations, and the B30 and B50 treatments increased the phosphorus concentration in tibia of rabbits fed the high energy diet. The B30 treatment significantly increased calcium, phosphorus and magnesium concentrations in femur of rabbits fed the high energy diet. Principal component analysis of the tibia minerals showed that the three boron treatments formed a separate cluster from controls. Discriminant analysis suggested that the concentrations of the minerals in femur could predict boron treatment. The findings indicate boron has beneficial effects on bone strength and mineral composition in rabbits fed a high energy diet.

  12. Diet supplemented with probiotic for Nile tilapia in polyculture system with marine shrimp.

    PubMed

    Jatobá, Adolfo; Vieira, Felipe do Nascimento; Buglione-Neto, Celso Carlos; Mouriño', José Luiz Pedreira; Silva, Bruno Corrêa; Seiftter, Walter Quadros; Andreatta, Edemar Roberto

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a probiotic (Lactobacillus plantarum) supplemented diet on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in a polyculture system with marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) as regards culture performance, hematology, and gut bacterial microbiota. Ten 20-m² pens were arranged in one earthen pond and stocked with 2 fish (41.9 g) m(-2) and 10 shrimp (2.3 g) m(-2), in total of 40 Nile tilapias and 200 shrimp per experimental unit. Tilapia groups in five of the experimental units were fed a commercial diet supplemented with L. plantarum and the other five with an unsupplemented commercial diet (control). After 12 weeks of culture, the tilapia groups fed the probiotic-supplemented diet presented values 13.6, 7.5, and 7.1% higher for feed efficiency, yield, and final weight, respectively. Viable culturable heterotrophic bacteria counts were reduced, and the number of lactic acid bacteria was increased in the gut of fish and shrimp fed the probiotic-supplemented diet. Hematological analyses showed higher number of thrombocytes and leukocytes in tilapia fed the supplemented diet. L. plantarum utilized in this study colonized the gut of tilapia and shrimp and resulted in reduced number of total bacteria and increased tilapia final weight and feed efficiency.

  13. EPA prevents fat mass expansion and metabolic disturbances in mice fed with a Western diet.

    PubMed

    Pinel, Alexandre; Pitois, Elodie; Rigaudiere, Jean-Paul; Jouve, Chrystele; De Saint-Vincent, Sarah; Laillet, Brigitte; Montaurier, Christophe; Huertas, Alain; Morio, Beatrice; Capel, Frederic

    2016-08-01

    The impact of alpha linolenic acid (ALA), EPA, and DHA on obesity and metabolic complications was studied in mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HF) diet. HF diets were supplemented with ALA, EPA, or DHA (1% w/w) and given to C57BL/6J mice for 16 weeks and to Ob/Ob mice for 6 weeks. In C57BL/6J mice, EPA reduced plasma cholesterol (-20%), limited fat mass accumulation (-23%) and adipose cell hypertrophy (-50%), and reduced plasma leptin concentration (-60%) compared with HF-fed mice. Furthermore, mice supplemented with EPA exhibited a higher insulin sensitivity (+24%) and glucose tolerance (+20%) compared with HF-fed mice. Similar effects were observed in EPA-supplemented Ob/Ob mice, although fat mass accumulation was not prevented. By contrast, in comparison with HF-fed mice, DHA did not prevent fat mass accumulation, increased plasma leptin concentration (+128%) in C57BL/6J mice, and did not improve glucose homeostasis in C57BL/6J and Ob/Ob mice. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, DHA stimulated leptin expression whereas EPA induced adiponectin expression, suggesting that improved leptin/adiponectin balance may contribute to the protective effect of EPA. In conclusion, supplementation with EPA, but not ALA and DHA, could preserve glucose homeostasis in an obesogenic environment and limit fat mass accumulation in the early stage of weight gain.

  14. /sup 54/Mn absorption and excretion in rats fed soy protein and casein diets

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.Y.; Johnson, P.E.

    1989-02-01

    Rats were fed diets containing either soy protein or casein and different levels of manganese, methionine, phytic acid, or arginine for 7 days and then fed test meals labeled with 2 microCi of 54Mn after an overnight fast. Retention of 54Mn in each rat was measured every other day for 21 days using a whole-body counter. Liver manganese was higher (P less than 0.0001) in soy protein-fed rats (8.8 micrograms/g) than in casein-fed rats (5.2 micrograms/g); manganese superoxide dismutase activity also was higher in soy protein-fed rats than in casein-fed rats (P less than 0.01). There was a significant interaction between manganese and protein which affected manganese absorption and biologic half-life of 54Mn. In a second experiment, rats fed soy protein-test meals retained more 54Mn (P less than 0.001) than casein-fed rats. Liver manganese (8.3 micrograms/g) in the soy protein group was also higher than that (5.7 micrograms/g) in the casein group (P less than 0.0001), but manganese superoxide dismutase activity was unaffected by protein. Supplementation with methionine increased 54Mn retention from both soy and casein diets (P less than 0.06); activity of manganese superoxide dismutase increased (P less than 0.05) but liver manganese did not change. The addition of arginine to casein diets had little effect on manganese bioavailability. Phytic acid affected neither manganese absorption nor biologic half-life in two experiments, but it depressed liver manganese in one experiment. These results suggest that neither arginine nor phytic acid was the component in soy protein which made manganese more available from soy protein diets than casein diets.

  15. Sweet blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) seed as a substitute for concentrate mix supplement in the diets of yearling washera rams fed on natural pasture hay as basal diet in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yeheyis, Likawent; Kijora, Claudia; Tegegne, Firew; Peters, Kurt J

    2012-08-01

    In the mixed crop-livestock farming system of Ethiopia where crop residues are the major feed resources and concentrate supplement feeds are not common, home-grown legume protein sources can help to minimise the feed problem. A 69-day feeding experiment on sheep was conducted to evaluate the potential of sweet blue lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.) cultivar Sanabor seed as a substitute for commercial concentrate supplement. Thirty yearling male intact Washera sheep with initial body weight of 21 ± 1.38 kg (mean ± SD) were used. The design was a randomised complete block design with six replications. The five experimental supplement feeds were 453 g concentrate (T1), 342 g concentrate + 74 g lupin seed (T2), 228 g concentrate + 147 g lupin seed (T3), 116 g concentrate + 219 g lupin seed (T4) and 290 g lupin seed (T5) in dry matter basis to supplement around 100 g crude protein per day per animal. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) in total dry matter, crude protein, ash and organic matter intakes among treatments. The average daily body weight gain for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 was 91, 79, 79, 87 and 74 g/day, respectively, and this difference was not significant (P > 0.05). It was concluded that blue lupin seed has a potential to substitute the commercial concentrate supplement feed in Ethiopia.

  16. Growth and antioxidant status of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense fed with diets containing vitamin E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weihong; Wang, Zisheng; Yu, Yebing; Qi, Zhitao; Lü, Linlan; Zhang, Yuxia; Lü, Fu

    2016-05-01

    A feeding trial was carried out to investigate the dietary vitamin E requirement of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (weight of 0.3-0.4 g) and its effect role on antioxidant activity. Prawns were fed with seven levels of vitamin E (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg diet) for 60 days. The results show that dietary vitamin E supplementation could significantly increased the prawn weight ( P < 0.05). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the hepatopancreas was significantly higher in prawns fed with diets supplemented with ≤75 mg/kg vitamin E than in those fed with diets supplemented with 100-400 mg/kg vitamin E ( P < 0.05). The activity of catalase (CAT) in the hepatopancreas decreased significantly as dietary vitamin E supplementation increased ( P < 0.05), and no significant difference was detected in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity between different dietary groups ( P >0.05). The contents of vitamin E in the hepatopancreas and in the muscle increased with increasing dietary vitamin E. There was a linear correlation between the vitamin E level in diet and that in muscle, and between the vitamin E level in diet and that in the hepatopancreas. All the above results indicated that dietary vitamin E can be stored in the hepatopancreas and muscle and lower both the activities of SOD and CAT in the hepatopancreas, suggesting that it is a potential antioxidant in M. nipponense. Broken line analysis conducted on the weight gains of prawns in each diet group showed that the dietary vitamin E requirement for maximum growth is 94.10 mg/kg.

  17. Short communication: effect of oilseed supplementation of an herbage diet on ruminal fermentation in continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Soder, K J; Brito, A F; Rubano, M D

    2013-04-01

    A 4-unit continuous culture fermentor system was used to evaluate the effects of oilseed supplementation of an herbage-based diet on nutrient digestibility, fermentation profile, and bacterial nitrogen (N) synthesis. Treatments were randomly assigned to fermentors in a 4×4 Latin square design with 7d for diet adaptation and 3d for data and sample collection. Dietary treatments were an herbage-only diet (HERB), or the following ground oilseeds supplemented to an herbage-based diet at 10% of total dry matter (DM) fed: flaxseed (FLAX), canola (CAN), or sunflower (SUN). Apparent DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber digestibility were not affected by diet, averaging 62, 68, and 78%, respectively. True DM and organic matter digestibility were not affected by diet, averaging 78 and 82%, respectively. Fermentor pH and total volatile fatty acids were not affected by diet. Branched-chain volatile fatty acids tended to be lower for HERB compared with the 3 oilseed diets. Ammonia N concentrations were lowest for the HERB diet. Crude protein digestibility was not affected by diet. Flow of NH3-N was lowest for the HERB diet reflecting the lowest culture concentration of NH3-N. Bacterial N flows were lowest for HERB and SUN diets, intermediate for FLAX, and greatest for CAN. Flows of total N, non-NH3-N, and dietary N were not affected by diet. Likewise, efficiency of bacterial N synthesis was not affected by diet. Supplementation with FLAX, CAN, or SUN at 10% of total DM fed did not affect nutrient digestibility or ruminal fermentation compared with an all-herbage diet. The oilseeds tested herein may be considered as alternative energy supplements for grazing dairy cows, particularly during times of low availability of corn. However, in vivo studies are needed to further evaluate the effects of oilseeds supplementation of an herbage-based diet on milk production and composition (specifically human-beneficial fatty acids).

  18. Effects of diet supplementation with white tea and methionine on lipid metabolism of gilthead sea bream juveniles (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Peres, Helena; Rubio, Vera Cruz; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2013-06-01

    A growth trial was performed with gilthead sea bream juveniles (Sparus aurata) to evaluate the effect of diet supplementation with white tea and methionine on fish performance and lipid metabolism. For that purpose, four diets were formulated: a fish meal-based diet (Control) and diets identical to the control diet but supplemented with 2.9 % white tea (Tea), 0.3 % methionine (Met) or 2.9 % white tea plus 0.3 % methionine (Tea + Met). Growth performance and feed efficiency parameters, whole-body and liver composition, plasma metabolites concentration and liver glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), malic enzyme (ME) and fatty acid synthetase (FAS) activities were determined. Feed intake was higher in fish fed methionine-supplemented diets, whereas this parameter and growth was decreased in fish fed white tea supplementation. Feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were not affected by diet composition. Plasma HDL cholesterol and total lipids concentration were higher in fish fed white tea-supplemented diets. Whole-body lipid, plasma glucose, liver glycogen concentration and liver G6PDH, ME and FAS activities were lower in fish fed white tea-supplemented diets. Results of the present study indicate that methionine seems to act as a feed attractant in diets for sea bream juveniles. Additionally, white tea is an important modulator of lipid metabolism in sea bream juveniles.

  19. Effects of phytic acid and exercise on some serum analytes in rats orally exposed to diets supplemented with cadmium.

    PubMed

    Daley, Tasha; Omoregie, Samson N; Wright, Vincent; Omoruyi, Felix O

    2013-03-01

    Cadmium is an environmental pollutant of increasing worldwide concern. It has been reported to be high in the soil where food crops are grown in some parishes of Jamaica. Surprisingly, no adverse effect of cadmium has been reported among the Jamaican population. However, phytic acid has also been shown to be high in some food crops grown in Jamaica. In this study, we evaluated the effects of phytic acid (1 %) and exercise on the metabolism of cadmium (5 mg cadmium/kg body weight) in rats. Five groups of rats were fed as follows: rats fed control diet, control diet supplemented with cadmium and subjected to exercise, control diet supplemented with phytic acid plus cadmium and subjected to exercise, control diet supplemented with cadmium plus phytic acid, and control diet supplemented with cadmium only. The animals were fed for 4 weeks and then sacrificed. Blood samples were collected for some biochemical assays. Percentage weight loss (28.42 %) was greatest in the group that had cadmium supplement only. The group fed control diet supplemented with cadmium only displayed increased liver enzymes and electrolytes except for the significant decrease in bicarbonate compared to other test groups. Similarly, blood urea nitrogen and uric acid were increased in the group fed cadmium supplement only compared to other test groups. Total cholesterol trended downwards in the test groups compared to control. These observations suggest that consumption of diet high in phytic acid with relatively high physical activity may be protective against the adverse effects of cadmium.

  20. Increased iron level in phytase-supplemented diets reduce performance and nutrient utilisation in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Akter, M; Iji, P A; Graham, H

    2017-04-11

    1. The effect of different levels of dietary iron on phytase activity and its subsequent effect on broiler performance was investigated in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement. A total of 360 day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were distributed to 6 experimental diets, formulated with three levels of Fe (60, 80 and 100 mg/kg) and two levels of phytase (0, 500 FTU/kg). 2. Phytase supplemented to mid-Fe diets increased feed consumption more than the non-supplemented diet at d 24. From hatch to d 35, Fe x phytase interaction significantly influenced the FI, BWG and FCR. The high-Fe diet supplemented with phytase significantly reduced FI and BWG of broilers than those supplemented with low or mid-Fe diets. The overall FCR was significantly better in birds fed on the mid-Fe diets with phytase supplementation. 3. A significant improvement in ileal digestibility of N, P, Mg and Fe was observed in birds feed diets containing 60 mg Fe/kg, with significant interaction between Fe and phytase. 4. Phytase improved the bone breaking strength when supplemented to low or mid-Fe diets, compared to the non-supplemented diets. There was a significant Fe x phytase interaction effect. Tibia Fe content was higher in birds fed on phytase-free diets with high Fe but the reverse was the case when phytase was added and their interaction was significant. High dietary Fe significantly increased the accumulation of Fe in liver. 5. Phytase improved Ca-Mg-ATPase, Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities in jejunum when supplemented to the diet containing 80 mg Fe/kg. 6. This study indicates that high (100 mg/kg) dietary Fe inhibited phytase efficacy and subsequently reduced the overall performance and nutrient utilisation of broilers.

  1. ACEMg Diet Supplement Modifies Progression of Hereditary Deafness

    PubMed Central

    Green, Kari L.; Swiderski, Donald L.; Prieskorn, Diane M.; DeRemer, Susan J.; Beyer, Lisa A.; Miller, Josef M.; Green, Glenn E.; Raphael, Yehoash

    2016-01-01

    Dietary supplements consisting of beta-carotene (precursor to vitamin A), vitamins C and E and the mineral magnesium (ACEMg) can be beneficial for reducing hearing loss due to aminoglycosides and overstimulation. This regimen also slowed progression of deafness for a boy with GJB2 (CONNEXIN 26) mutations. To assess the potential for treating GJB2 and other forms of hereditary hearing loss with ACEMg, we tested the influence of ACEMg on the cochlea and hearing of mouse models for two human mutations: GJB2, the leading cause of childhood deafness, and DIAPH3, a cause of auditory neuropathy. One group of mice modeling GJB2 (Gjb2-CKO) received ACEMg diet starting shortly after they were weaned (4 weeks) until 16 weeks of age. Another group of Gjb2-CKO mice received ACEMg in utero and after weaning. The ACEMg diet was given to mice modeling DIAPH3 (Diap3-Tg) after weaning (4 weeks) until 12 weeks of age. Control groups received food pellets without the ACEMg supplement. Hearing thresholds measured by auditory brainstem response were significantly better for Gjb2-CKO mice fed ACEMg than for the control diet group. In contrast, Diap3-Tg mice displayed worse thresholds than controls. These results indicate that ACEMg supplementation can influence the progression of genetic hearing loss. PMID:26965868

  2. ACEMg Diet Supplement Modifies Progression of Hereditary Deafness.

    PubMed

    Green, Kari L; Swiderski, Donald L; Prieskorn, Diane M; DeRemer, Susan J; Beyer, Lisa A; Miller, Josef M; Green, Glenn E; Raphael, Yehoash

    2016-03-11

    Dietary supplements consisting of beta-carotene (precursor to vitamin A), vitamins C and E and the mineral magnesium (ACEMg) can be beneficial for reducing hearing loss due to aminoglycosides and overstimulation. This regimen also slowed progression of deafness for a boy with GJB2 (CONNEXIN 26) mutations. To assess the potential for treating GJB2 and other forms of hereditary hearing loss with ACEMg, we tested the influence of ACEMg on the cochlea and hearing of mouse models for two human mutations: GJB2, the leading cause of childhood deafness, and DIAPH3, a cause of auditory neuropathy. One group of mice modeling GJB2 (Gjb2-CKO) received ACEMg diet starting shortly after they were weaned (4 weeks) until 16 weeks of age. Another group of Gjb2-CKO mice received ACEMg in utero and after weaning. The ACEMg diet was given to mice modeling DIAPH3 (Diap3-Tg) after weaning (4 weeks) until 12 weeks of age. Control groups received food pellets without the ACEMg supplement. Hearing thresholds measured by auditory brainstem response were significantly better for Gjb2-CKO mice fed ACEMg than for the control diet group. In contrast, Diap3-Tg mice displayed worse thresholds than controls. These results indicate that ACEMg supplementation can influence the progression of genetic hearing loss.

  3. A diet rich in leafy vegetable fiber improves cholesterol metabolism in high-cholesterol fed rats.

    PubMed

    Ezz El-Arab, A M

    2009-10-01

    In the present study, the hypocholesterolemic effect of leaf vegetable (Jew's mallow) was studied in high-cholesterol fed rats. The animals were fed diets supplemented with cholesterol (0.25%) for 4 weeks. Leaf vegetable diet produced an important hypocholesterolemic action: it led to a significant lowering (p<0.05) of cholesterol in the plasma and liver, as well as of the atherogenic index and a significant increase (p<0.05) in cecal short chain fatty acids, with respect to the control group. Concurrently, total fecal neutral sterols in the excretion increased (p<0.05) and apparent absorption of dietary cholesterol was significantly depressed (-58%). The consumption of leaf vegetable (Jew's mallow) with a hypercholesterolemic diet improved the lipidemic profile and increased excretion of the total cholesterol end-products.

  4. Influence of direct-fed fibrolytic enzymes on diet digestibility and ruminal activity in sheep fed a grass hay-based diet.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, L A; Tejido, M L; Ranilla, M J; Ramos, S; Carro, M D

    2008-07-01

    Six rumen-fistulated Merino sheep were used in a crossover design experiment to evaluate the effects of an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme preparation (12 g/d; ENZ), delivered directly into the rumen, on diet digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and microbial protein synthesis. The enzyme contained endoglucanase and xylanase activities. Sheep were fed a mixed grass hay:concentrate (70:30; DM basis) diet at a daily rate of 46.1 g/kg of BW(0.75). Samples of grass hay were incubated in situ in the rumen of each sheep to measure DM and NDF degradation. The supplementation with ENZ did not affect diet digestibility (P = 0.30 to 0.66), urinary excretion of purine derivatives (P = 0.34), ruminal pH (P = 0.46), or concentrations of NH(3)-N (P = 0.69) and total VFA (P = 0.97). In contrast, molar proportion of propionate were greater (P = 0.001) and acetate:propionate ratio was lower (P < 0.001) in ENZ-supplemented sheep. In addition, ENZ supplementation tended to increase (P = 0.06) numbers of cellulolytic bacteria at 4 h after feeding. Both the ruminally insoluble potentially degradable fraction of grass hay DM and its fractional rate of degradation were increased (P = 0.002 and 0.05, respectively) by ENZ treatment. Supplementation with ENZ also increased (P = 0.01 to 0.02) effective and potential degradability of grass hay DM and NDF. Ruminal fluid endoglucanase and xylanase activities were greater (P < 0.001 and 0.03, respectively) in ENZ-supplemented sheep than in control animals. It was found that ENZ supplementation did not affect either exoglucanase (P = 0.12) or amylase (P = 0.83) activity. The results indicate that supplementing ENZ directly into the rumen increased the fibrolytic activity and stimulated the growth of cellulolytic bacteria without a prefeeding feed-enzyme interaction.

  5. Growth performance, diet nutrient digestibility, and bone mineralization in weaned pigs fed pelleted diets containing thermostable phytase.

    PubMed

    Yáñez, J L; Landero, J L; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Cervantes, M; Zijlstra, R T

    2013-02-01

    Traditional supplemental dietary phytase loses activity during steam pelleting. The thermal tolerance and bioefficacy of a phytase product with a thermoprotective coating [coated phytase (C-phytase)] was compared in mash and pelleted diets to a traditional, uncoated phytase (U-phytase) added to a negative control (NC) diet, formulated with reduced dietary Ca and P, and compared with a corn-soybean meal based positive control (POC) diet. Growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and third metacarpal bone characteristics were response variables. Weaned pigs (n = 56; 8.20 ± 0.5 kg initial BW; 28 d of age) were individually housed and randomly allotted to 1 of 7 diets for 21 d. The diets were 1) POC mash, 2) NC mash, 3) NC pelleted at 90°C, 4) NC mash + 500 U/kg U-phytase, 5) NC mash + 500 U/kg C-phytase, 6) NC + 500 U/kg C-phytase pelleted at 80°C, and 7) NC + 500 U/kg C-phytase pelleted at 90°C. The POC and NC diets were formulated to be isoenergetic and isolysinic. The content of Ca and available P was 1.01 and 0.40% and 0.83 and 0.22% in the POC and NC diets, respectively. Pig BW and feed intake were measured on d 7, 14, and 21, and feces were collected for 2 d. On d 21, pigs were killed and ileal digesta and the third metacarpal bone collected. Pigs fed POC had greater (P < 0.05) ADG, G:F, P digestibility, and bone mineralization but lower (P < 0.01) energy digestibility than pigs fed NC. Pelleting the NC diet did not improve performance, nutrient digestibility, or P use. Adding the U-phytase to NC mash diet increased (P < 0.05) ADG, G:F, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP and Ile, Leu, Phe, Thr, Val, and Ser, and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of P compared with pigs fed NC. Pigs fed C-phytase in NC mash diets had increased (P < 0.05) G:F and an AID of CP and AA and ATTD of P compared with pigs fed NC but not different than pigs fed U-phytase NC mash diets. Pigs fed pelleted NC diet with C-phytase had a greater (P < 0.05) ATTD of P and

  6. Effect of sorghum grain supplementation on glucose metabolism in cattle and sheep fed temperate pasture.

    PubMed

    Aguerre, M; Carriquiry, M; Astessiano, A L; Cajarville, C; Repetto, J L

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of sorghum grain supplementation on plasma glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations, and hepatic mRNA concentrations of insulin receptor (INSR), pyruvate carboxylase (PC), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) mRNA and their association with nutrient intake, digestion and rumen volatile fatty acids (VFA) in cattle and sheep fed a fresh temperate pasture. Twelve Hereford × Aberdeen Angus heifers and 12 Corriedale × Milchschaf wethers in positive energy balance were assigned within each species to one of two treatments (n = 6 per treatment within specie): non-supplemented or supplemented with sorghum grain at 15 g/kg of their body weight (BW). Supplemented cattle had greater plasma glucose concentrations, decreased plasma glucagon concentrations and tended to have greater plasma insulin and insulin-to-glucagon ratio than non-supplemented ones. Hepatic expression of INSR and PC mRNA did not differ between treatments but PCK1 mRNA was less in supplemented than non-supplemented cattle. Supplemented sheep tended to have greater plasma glucagon concentrations than non-supplemented ones. Plasma glucose, insulin, insulin-to-glucagon ratio, and hepatic expression of INSR and PC mRNA did not differ between treatments, but PCK1 mRNA was less in supplemented than non-supplemented sheep. The inclusion of sorghum grain in the diet decreased PCK1 mRNA but did not affect PC mRNA in both species; these effects were associated with changes in glucose and endocrine profiles in cattle but not in sheep. Results would suggest that sorghum grain supplementation of animals in positive energy balance (cattle and sheep) fed a fresh temperate pasture would modify hepatic metabolism to prioritize the use of propionate as a gluconeogenic precursor.

  7. Dietary hydroxypropyl methylcellulose increases excretion of saturated and trans fats by hamsters fed fast food diets.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Wallace; Anderson, William H K; Albers, David R; Hong, Yun-Jeong; Langhorst, Marsha L; Hung, Shao-Ching; Lin, Jiann-Tsyh; Young, Scott A

    2011-10-26

    In animal studies, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) intake results in increased fecal fat excretion; however, the effects on dietary saturated fatty acids (SATs) and trans-fatty acids (TRANS) remain unknown. This study investigated the effect of HPMC on digestion and absorption of lipids in male Golden Syrian hamsters fed either freeze-dried ground pizza (PZ), pound cake (PC), or hamburger and fries (BF) supplemented with dietary fiber from either HPMC or microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) for 3 weeks. We observed greater excretion of SATs and TRANS by both diets supplemented with HPMC or MCC as compared to the feed. SAT, TRANS, and unsaturated fatty acids (UNSAT) contents of feces of the PZ diet supplemented with HPMC were 5-8 times higher than diets supplemented with MCC and tended to be higher in the PC- and BF-HPMC supplemented diets as well. We also observed significant increases in fecal excretion of bile acids (2.6-3-fold; P < 0.05), sterols (1.1-1.5-fold; P < 0.05), and unsaturated fatty acids (UNSAT, 1.7-4.5-fold; P < 0.05). The animal body weight gain was inversely correlated with the excretion of fecal lipid concentrations of bile acids (r = -0.56; P < 0.005), sterols (r = -0.48; P < 0.005), SAT (r = -0.69; P < 0.005), UNSAT (r = -0.67; P < 0.005), and TRANS (r = -0.62; P < 0.005). Therefore, HPMC may be facilitating fat excretion in a biased manner with preferential fecal excretion of both TRANS and SAT in hamsters fed fast food diets.

  8. Effects of supplemental coated or crystalline methionine in low-fishmeal diet on the growth performance and body composition of juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui; Liu, Hongyu

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated the effects of supplemental coated and crystalline methionine (Met) on the growth performance and feed utilization of juvenile cobia ( Rachycentron canadum Linnaeus) in a 60-d feeding trial. Fish groups were fed one of six isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets: 1) fishmeal control; 2) un-supplemented experimental (low-fish-meal diet deficient in Met); or 3) one of four Met diets supplemented with crystalline L-Met, cellulose-acetate-phthalate coated L-Met, acrylic-resin coated L-Met, or tripalmitin-polyvinyl alcohol coated L-Met. The test diets were fed to triplicate groups of cobia (initial body weight 5.40±0.07 g) twice a day. The weight gain and specific growth rate of the fish fed the RES diet were highest among the Met-supplemented groups and were 23.64% and 7.99%, respectively, higher than those of the fish fed with the un-supplemented experimental diet ( P<0.05). The protein efficiency ratio of the fish fed the MET diet was significantly higher than that of the fish fed the un-supplemented experimental diet and the fish in the other methionine supplementation groups ( P<0.05). Our results suggest that supplementation of crystalline Met in low-fish-meal diets promotes the growth performance of juvenile cobia.

  9. Coacervate whey protein improves inflammatory milieu in mice fed with high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Functional foods with bioactive properties may help in treat obesity, as they can lead to a decreased risks of inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chitosan coacervate whey protein on the proinflammatory processes in mice fed with high-fat diet. Methods Mice were divided into two groups receiving either a normolipidic or high-fat diet; the animals in each of the two diet groups were given a diet supplement of either coacervate (gavage, 36 mg protein/kg of body weight) or tap water for four weeks [groups: normolipidic diet plus water (C); normolipidic diet and coacervate (CC); high-fat diet and water (H); and high-fat diet and coacervate (HC)]. Results The high-fat diet promoted inflammation, possibly by decreased adiponectin/sum of adipose tissues ratio and increased phosphorylation of NF-κB p50. In HC we observed a positive correlation between IL-10 and TNF-α in mesenteric adipose tissue, retroperitoneal adipose tissue and liver tissue. We also observed a positive correlation between lipopolisaccharide with IL-10 in the liver tissue. Conclusions High-fat diet treatment promoted metabolic alterations and inflammation, and chitosan coacervate whey protein modulated inflammatory milieu. PMID:24673809

  10. Doxycycline plasma concentrations in macaws fed a medicate corn diet.

    PubMed

    Prus, S E; Clubb, S L; Flammer, K

    1992-01-01

    A trial was conducted to determine the doxycycline plasma concentrations attained by feeding a medicated corn diet to large psittacine birds. Doxycycline is the preferred drug for the treatment of chlamydiosis in psittacine birds. Healthy macaws were fed a 0.1% doxycycline-medicated corn diet for 45 days, and plasma doxycycline concentrations were determined by microbiological assay on treatment days 3, 15, 30, and 45. Plasma doxycycline concentrations exceeded 1 microgram/ml in 87% of the samples assayed. As blood concentrations of 1 microgram/ml are considered therapeutic, a doxycycline-medicated corn diet may be efficacious in the treatment of chlamydiosis in large psittacine birds.

  11. Piper species protect cardiac, hepatic and renal antioxidant status of atherogenic diet fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Agbor, Gabriel A; Akinfiresoye, Luli; Sortino, Julianne; Johnson, Robert; Vinson, Joe A

    2012-10-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical studies points to the use of antioxidants as an effective measure to reduce the progression of oxidative stress related disorders. The present study evaluate the effect of three Piper species (Piper guineense, Piper nigrum and Piper umbellatum) for the protection of cardiac, hepatic and renal antioxidant status of atherogenic diet fed hamsters. Hamsters were classified into eight groups: a normal control, atherogenic control and six other experimental groups (fed atherogenic diet supplemented with different doses of P. nigrum, P. guineense and P. umbellatum (1 and 0.25 g/kg) for 12 weeks. At the end of the feeding period the heart, liver and kidney from each group were analyzed for lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes activities. Atherogenic diet induced a significant (P<0.001) increase in the lipid profile across the board and equally significantly altered the antioxidant enzyme activities. Supplementation with Piper species significantly inhibited the alteration effect of atherogenic diet on the lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes activities. The Piper extracts may possess an antioxidant protective role against atherogenic diet induced oxidative stress in cardiac, hepatic and renal tissues.

  12. Effect of evening primrose oil on platelet aggregation in rabbits fed an atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    De La Cruz, J P; Martín-Romero, M; Carmona, J A; Villalobos, M A; Sánchez de la Cuesta, F

    1997-07-01

    Evening primrose oil (Oenothera biennis) is a rich source of omega-6 series fatty acids. We report here the effects of dietary supplementation with evening primrose oil (EPO) on platelet aggregation as the main factor in arterial thrombus formation in an experimental model of atherogenesis in rabbits. A total of 40 male white New Zealand rabbits were divided into four groups (n = 10 animals/group): 1: normal diet, 2: atherogenic diet (ATD), 3: normal diet enriched with 15% EPO, 4: ATD + EPO. Each group was kept on the diet for 6 weeks. We determined serum lipid profile, platelet aggregation in whole blood, platelet thromboxane B2 production and platelet lipid peroxides. The atherogenic diet increased platelet aggregation (135% when ADP was used, and 185% when collagen was used as the inducer). Evening primrose oil reduced hyperaggregation to the values obtained in rabbits fed with the normal diet. Thromboxane synthesis was increased from 0.18 to 2.28 nmol/10(9) platelets); EPO reduced this value to 1.38 nmol/10(9) platelets. Lipid peroxides were increased by ATD from 0.27 to 0.81 nmol/10(8) platelets; EPO prevented this increase (0.35 nmol/10(8) platelets). In conclusion, EPO reduced platelet hyperaggregability in rabbits fed an atherogenic diet.

  13. Bardoxolone methyl prevents the development and progression of cardiac and renal pathophysiologies in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Camer, Danielle; Yu, Yinghua; Szabo, Alexander; Wang, Hongqin; Dinh, Chi H L; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2016-01-05

    Obesity caused by the consumption of a high-fat (HF) diet is a major risk factor for the development of associated complications, such as heart and kidney failure. A semi-synthetic triterpenoid, bardoxolone methyl (BM) was administrated to mice fed a HF diet for 21 weeks to determine if it would prevent the development of obesity-associated cardiac and renal pathophysiologies. Twelve week old male C57BL/6J mice were fed a lab chow (LC), HF (40% fat), or a HF diet supplemented with 10 mg/kg/day BM in drinking water. After 21 weeks, the left ventricles of hearts and cortex of kidneys of mice were collected for analysis. Histological analysis revealed that BM prevented HF diet-induced development of structural changes in the heart and kidneys. BM prevented HF diet-induced decreases in myocyte number in cardiac tissue, although this treatment also elevated cardiac endothelin signalling molecules. In the kidneys, BM administration prevented HF diet-induced renal corpuscle hypertrophy and attenuated endothelin signalling. Furthermore, in both the hearts and kidneys of mice fed a HF diet, BM administration prevented HF diet-induced increases in fat accumulation, macrophage infiltration and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) gene expression. These findings suggest that BM prevents HF diet-induced developments of cardiac and renal pathophysiologies in mice fed a chronic HF diet by preventing inflammation. Moreover, these results suggest that BM has the potential as a therapeutic for preventing obesity-induced cardiac and renal pathophysiologies.

  14. A Canola Oil-Supplemented Diet Prevents Type I Diabetes-Caused Lipotoxicity and Renal Dysfunction in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Cano-Europa, Edgar; Ortiz-Butron, Rocio; Camargo, Estela Melendez; Esteves-Carmona, María Miriam; Oliart-Ros, Rosa Maria; Blas-Valdivia, Vanessa; Franco-Colin, Margarita

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the effect of a canola oil-supplemented diet on the metabolic state and diabetic renal function of a type I diabetes experimental model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: (1) normoglycemic+chow diet, (2) normoglycemic+a canola oil-supplemented chow diet, (3) diabetic+chow diet, and (4) diabetic+a canola oil-supplemented chow diet. For 15 weeks, animals were fed a diet of Purina rat chow alone or supplemented with 30% canola oil. Energetic intake, water intake, body weight, and adipose tissue fat pad were measured; renal function, electrolyte balance, glomerular filtration rate, and the plasmatic concentration of free fatty acids, cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose were evaluated. The mesenteric, retroperitoneal, and epididymal fat pads were dissected and weighed. The kidneys were used for lipid peroxidation (LP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) quantifications. Diabetic rats fed with a canola oil-supplemented diet had higher body weights, were less hyperphagic, and their mesenteric, retroperitoneal, and epididymal fat pads weighed more than diabetic rats on an unsupplemented diet. The canola oil-supplemented diet decreased plasmatic concentrations of free fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol; showed improved osmolarity, water clearances, and creatinine depuration; and had decreased LP and ROS. A canola oil-supplemented diet decreases hyperphagia and prevents lipotoxicity and renal dysfunction in a type I diabetes mellitus model.

  15. The effect of supplementation on productive performance of Boer goat bucks fed winter veld hay.

    PubMed

    Almeida, A M; Schwalbach, L M; de Waal, H O; Greyling, J P C; Cardoso, L A

    2006-07-01

    Fifteen Boer goat bucks, (6-8 months old), were allocated into two groups and fed ad libitum for a period of 29 days. The WH group (winter hay; n = 8) received a chopped diet consisting of grass hay, predominantly Themeda trianda grass (cut during the winter) from a natural pasture (veld). The WH+S group (winter hay plus supplement; n = 7) received a chopped diet consisting of Themeda trianda veld hay, supplemented with maize meal, molasses meal and urea. Body weights and feed consumption were recorded. Animals were slaughtered and carcass characteristics (weight and percentages of selected carcass cuts) and the carcass chemical composition were determined. The WH+S animals showed a higher live weight and cumulated feed intake. Carcass cuts from WH animals represented a higher percentage of the total carcass, especially cuts where muscle depots are higher (legs, best end chops and prime cuts). There is an attempt by non-supplemented animals to preserve the body's nitrogen reserves under prolonged nutritional stress conditions, and there is consequently a necessity to supplement feeding of small ruminants fed winter veld hay, especially if the animals are to be used in subsequent breeding seasons.

  16. Energy Value of Cassava Products in Broiler Chicken Diets with or without Enzyme Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, M M; Iji, P A

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the metabolizable energy (ME) intake, net energy of production (NEp), heat production (HP), efficiencies of ME use for energy, lipid and protein retention as well as the performance of broiler chickens fed diets based on cassava chips or pellets with or without supplementation with an enzyme product containing xylanase, amylase, protease and phytase. The two products, cassava chips and pellets, were analysed for nutrient composition prior to feed formulation. The cassava chips and pellets contained 2.2% and 2.1% crude protein; 1.2% and 1.5% crude fat; and 75.1% and 67.8% starch, respectively. Lysine and methionine were 0.077%, 0.075%, and 0.017%, 0.020% protein material, respectively, while calculated ME was 12.6 and 11.7 MJ/kg, respectively. Feed intake to day 21 was lower (p<0.01) on the diet containing cassava chips compared to diets with cassava pellets. Enzyme supplementation increased (p<0.01) feed intake on all diets. Live weight at day 21 was significantly (p<0.01) reduced on the diet based on cassava chips compared to pellets, but an improvement (p<0.01) was noticed with the enzyme supplementation. Metabolizable energy intake was reduced (p<0.01) by both cassava chips and pellets, but was increased (p<0.01) on all diets by enzyme supplementation. The NEp was higher (p<0.01) in the maize-based diets than the diets containing cassava. Enzyme supplementation improved (p<0.01) NEp in all the diets. Heat production was highest (p<0.01) on diets containing cassava pellets than on cassava chips. It is possible to use cassava pellets in diets for broiler chickens at a level close to 50% of the diet to reduce cost of production, and the nutritive value of such diets can be improved through supplementation of enzyme products containing carbohydrases, protease, and phytase.

  17. Dietary krill oil supplementation reduces hepatic steatosis, glycemia, and hypercholesterolemia in high-fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Tandy, Sally; Chung, Rosanna W S; Wat, Elaine; Kamili, Alvin; Berge, Kjetil; Griinari, Mikko; Cohn, Jeffrey S

    2009-10-14

    Krill oil (KO) is rich in n-3 fatty acids that are present in phospholipids rather than in triglycerides. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dietary KO on cardiometabolic risk factors in male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet. Mice (n = 6-10 per group) were fed for 8 weeks either: (1) a nonpurified chow diet (N); (2) a high-fat semipurified diet containing 21 wt % buttermilk + 0.15 wt % cholesterol (HF); (3) HF supplemented with 1.25 wt % KO (HFKO1.25); (4) HF with 2.5 wt % KO (HFKO2.5); or (5) HF with 5 wt % KO (HFKO5.0). Dietary KO supplementation caused a significant reduction in liver wt (i.e., hepatomegaly) and total liver fat (i.e., hepatic steatosis), due to a dose-dependent reduction in hepatic triglyceride (mean +/- SEM: 35 +/- 6, 47 +/- 4, and 51 +/- 5% for HFKO1.25, -2.5, and -5.0 vs HF, respectively, P < 0.001) and cholesterol (55 +/- 5, 66 +/- 3, and 71 +/- 3%, P < 0.001). Serum cholesterol levels were reduced by 20 +/- 3, 29 +/- 4, and 29 +/- 5%, and blood glucose was reduced by 36 +/- 5, 34 +/- 6, and 42 +/- 6%, respectively. Serum adiponectin was increased in KO-fed animals (HF vs HFKO5.0: 5.0 +/- 0.2 vs 7.5 +/- 0.6 microg/mL, P < 0.01). These results demonstrate that dietary KO is effective in improving metabolic parameters in mice fed a high-fat diet, suggesting that KO may be of therapeutic value in patients with the metabolic syndrome and/or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  18. Effect of Bacillus spp. direct-fed microbial on slurry characteristics and gaseous emissions in growing pigs fed with high fibre-based diets.

    PubMed

    Prenafeta-Boldú, F X; Fernández, B; Viñas, M; Lizardo, R; Brufau, J; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Walsh, M C; Awati, A

    2017-02-01

    A 26-day trial with 18 Pietrain×(Landrace×Duroc) pigs was conducted to investigate the effect of two dose levels of a specifically selected Bacillus spp. direct-fed microbial (DFM) product, on the emission of environmentally harmful gasses (methane, ammonia and hydrogen sulphide) from manure. Pigs were assigned to one of three treatments in a randomized complete block design according to their sex and initial BW. Each treatment contained three replications with two pigs per pen. The test treatments included a Bacillus spp. DFM containing 3×108 colony-forming unit/g, added at a low (250 mg/kg) and high (500 mg/kg) dose to an antibiotic free high fibre-based diet, and a non-supplemented control diet. Manure from pigs fed with the supplemented diets emitted lower amounts of atmospheric contaminants. The most significant reduction was observed with low DFM supplementation, in which methane and ammonia volatilization decreased (P40% and 50%, respectively, on fresh weight basis in relation to the control. Microbiome analysis of manure by high through put sequencing techniques on eubacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes highlighted the complex interactions between indigenous gut microflora and inoculated Bacillus spp. The tested Bacillus DFM could be considered as a best available technique in reducing the environmental impacts of growing pigs fed with high fibre-based diets.

  19. Spermatogenesis in bald eagles experimentally fed a diet containing DDT

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Chura, N.J.; Stewart, P.A.

    1966-01-01

    When Bald Eagles were fed DDT in the diet at the level of 10 ppm (dry weight basis) for periods of 60 and 120 days, there was no interference with spermatogenic activity. Degenerative testicular changes were produced only by levels of DDT that produced abnormal neurological signs and usually resulted in death. Histological examination of these testes indicates that Bald Eagles have a seasonal testicular cycle similar to that reported for many other birds of the Northern Hemisphere.

  20. Blood values of adult captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) fed either supplemented beef or whole rabbit carcasses.

    PubMed

    Depauw, Sarah; Hesta, M; Whitehouse-Tedd, K; Stagegaard, J; Buyse, J; Janssens, G P J

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated nutrient intake and relevant blood parameters of 14 captive cheetahs, randomly assigned to a meat-only diet (supplemented beef, SB) or a whole prey diet (whole rabbit, WR) for 4 weeks each. Despite a higher food intake, daily metabolizable energy intake was lower when fed WR (308 kJ BW(-1) ) compared with SB (347 kJ BW(-1) ) (P = 0.002). The ratio of protein to fat was markedly lower for WR (2.3:1) compared with SB (8.8:1), which was reflected in higher serum urea levels when fed SB (P = 0.033), and a tendency for elevated cholesterol levels when fed WR (P = 0.055). Taurine intake of cheetahs fed WR was low (0.06% on DM basis); however, analytical error during taurine analysis cannot be ruled out. Feeding WR resulted in a well-balanced mineral intake, in contrast to SB. The latter provided a low calcium:phosphorus ratio (1:2.3), thereby increasing the risk of metabolic bone disease. The high zinc content of SB (200 mg/kg DM), compared with WR (94 mg/kg DM), was reflected in higher serum zinc concentrations (P = 0.011). Feeding WR resulted in an increase in serum vitamin A (P = 0.011). Therefore, the risk of hypervitaminosis A in captive cheetahs when fed WR exclusively on a long-term basis should be evaluated. Our findings suggest that neither diet is likely to provide appropriate nutrition to captive cheetahs when fed exclusively.

  1. Productivity, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics of fattening Zandi lambs fed sodium bentonite supplemented total mixed rations.

    PubMed

    Khadem, A A; Soofizadeh, M; Afzalzadeh, A

    2007-10-15

    Thirty male Zandy lambs (25 +/- 0.50 kg BW, 10 lambs in each group) were randomly allocated in three (control, 2% bentonite and 4% bentonite) treatment groups. Lambs were fed Total Mixed Rations (TMRs) containing 75% Concentrate Mixture (CM) and 25% forage. Sodium bentonite was mixed with the CM part of TMRs before being mixed with the forage. The fattening period lasted 84 days and data were collected on the performance, blood metabolites and carcass characteristics of lambs. Results showed that sheep fed bentonite added diets had relatively higher feed intake than the control group which ended to slightly higher weight change with a fairly appropriate feed conversion ratio in bentonite fed animals. Compared to the control group, a reasonably lower glucose and urea concentration and a higher total protein content was observed in the blood of sheep fed bentonite supplemented diets. The use of bentonite in diets did not affect the blood cholesterol contents of sheep. Slaughter weights, carcass dressing out percentages and carcass cuts were a bit higher in sheep of bentonite fed groups compared to those in control group. Sheep fed bentonite added diets produced carcasses with lower subcutaneous fat thicknesses and lower fat-tail percentages. Furthermore, feed cost was estimated to be lower for sheep in 2% bentonite group than that in other two groups. In conclusion, the use of two-percent sodium bentonite is suggested for diets of fattening lambs in Iranian feed markets.

  2. HPMC supplementation reduces abdominal fat content, intestinal permeability, inflammation, and insulin resistance in diet-induced obese mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), a highly viscous non-fermentable soluble dietary fiber, were evaluated on adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance in diet induced obese (DIO) mice fed a high fat (HF) diet supplemented with either HPMC or insoluble fiber. DIO C57BL/6J m...

  3. Effect of supplement type on ruminal fermentation of an orchardgrass-based pasture diet during continuous culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A dual-flow continuous culture fermenter system was used to investigate the effect of supplemental crude protein (CP) level on digestion and ruminal fermentation of a vegetative orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) pasture-based diet. Treatments were: 10, 12, 14, and 16% supplemental CP fed at a rat...

  4. Supplementation of the diet of dairy cows with trehalose results in milk with low lipid peroxide and high antioxidant content.

    PubMed

    Aoki, N; Furukawa, S; Sato, K; Kurokawa, Y; Kanda, S; Takahashi, Y; Mitsuzumi, H; Itabashi, H

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with the disaccharides trehalose and cellobiose on antioxidant activity in rumen fluid, blood, and milk of dairy cows. Nine Holstein dairy cows housed in a free-stall barn were divided into 3 groups, with each group receiving a different dietary treatment (a control diet, a 1% trehalose-supplemented diet, or a 1% cellobiose-supplemented diet) following a 3x3 Latin square design. Feed intake and milk production increased in cows receiving the trehalose-supplemented diet compared with those receiving the control and cellobiose-supplemented diets. The total protozoa numbers in the rumen fluid of cows fed trehalose- or cellobiose-supplemented diets were greater than those of the control group. The C18:0 and C18:1 fatty acid content was increased in the milk of cows fed the trehalose-supplemented diet compared with that of the control group, and the C18:3n-3 fatty acid content in the milk of cows fed the cellobiose-supplemented diet was less than that of the control group. Plasma biochemical parameters were unchanged among the different treatments. In rumen fluid, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and superoxide dismutase activity were increased 2h after feeding in cows receiving the cellobiose-supplemented diet compared with the control group, and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the rumen fluid of cows fed the cellobiose-supplemented diet was decreased. In contrast, the values of these parameters measured in the milk of cows fed the cellobiose-supplemented diet were no different from those of control cows. Dietary supplementation with trehalose did, however, bring about an improvement of the oxidative status of milk and blood in these animals compared with controls. These results provide the first evidence supporting the use of dietary disaccharides to decrease lipid peroxide levels and increase the antioxidant content of dairy

  5. Biphasic modulation of atherosclerosis induced by graded dietary copper supplementation in the cholesterol-fed rabbit.

    PubMed

    Lamb, D J; Avades, T Y; Ferns, G A

    2001-10-01

    There has been considerable debate about how copper status may affect the biochemical and cellular processes associated with atherogenesis. We have investigated the effects of graded dietary copper supplementation on processes likely to contribute to atherogenesis, using the cholesterol-fed New Zealand White rabbit model. Rabbits (n = 40) were fed a 0.25-1% cholesterol diet deficient in copper. Animals received either 0, 1, 3 or 20 mg copper/day and were killed after 13 weeks. Plasma cholesterol levels were similar in each dietary group. Aortic concentrations of copper were higher in the 20 mg copper/day animals compared to those receiving 0 mg copper/day (3.70 +/- 0.78 vs. 1.33 +/- 0.46 microg/g wet tissue; P < 0.05). Aortic superoxide dismutase activity was higher in animals receiving 20 mg copper/day (323 +/- 21 IU/mg tissue) compared to the other groups (187 +/- 21; 239 +/- 53; 201 +/- 33 IU/mg tissue) (P > 0.05). En face staining of aortae with oil red O showed that both high copper supplementation (20 mg/day) (67.1 +/- 5.5%) and a deficient diet (0 mg/day) (63.1 +/- 4.8%) was associated with significantly larger lesions (P < 0.05) compared to moderately supplemented animals (1 mg/day and 3 mg/day) (51.3 +/- 6.3 and 42.8 +/- 7.9%). These data indicate that in the cholesterol-fed rabbit, there is an optimal dietary copper intake and that dietary copper deficiency or excess are associated with an increased susceptibility to aortic atherosclerosis. Many Western diets contain insufficient copper and these findings indicate that a moderate dietary copper content may confer a degree of cardiac protection to the human population.

  6. Betaine alleviates hepatic lipid accumulation via enhancing hepatic lipid export and fatty acid oxidation in rats fed with a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Huang, Danping; Hu, Qiaolin; Wu, Jing; Wang, Yizhen; Feng, Jie

    2015-06-28

    To assess the effects of betaine on hepatic lipid accumulation and investigate the underlying mechanism, thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100 (sd 2·50) g were divided into four groups, and started on one of four treatments: basal diet, basal diet with betaine administration, high-fat diet and high-fat diet with betaine administration. The results showed that no significant difference of body weight was found among experimental groups. Compared with high-fat diet-fed rats, a betaine supplementation decreased (P< 0·05) hepatic TAG accumulation induced by high-fat diet, which was also supported by hepatic histology results. Additionally, hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase concentration [corrected] as well as its mRNA abundance and lecithin level were found increased (P< 0·05) by betaine supplementation in both basal diet-fed rats and high-fat diet-fed rats. Betaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats exhibited a higher (P< 0·05) concentration [corrected] of hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) compared with high-fat diet-fed rats. High-fat diet inhibited (P< 0·05) the gene expression of hepatic PPARα and CPT1. However, betaine administration in high-fat diet-fed rats elevated (P< 0·05) the gene expression of PPARα and CPT1. Moreover, concentration, gene and protein expressions of hepatic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) were increased (P< 0·05) in response to betaine administration in high-fat diet group; meanwhile the gene expression of hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase was increased (P< 0·05) as well. The results suggest that betaine administration enhanced hepatic lipid export and fatty acid oxidation in high-fat diet-fed rats, thus effectively alleviating fat accumulation in the liver.

  7. Effects of lycopene supplementation in both maternal and offspring diets on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters in chicks.

    PubMed

    Sun, B; Chen, C; Wang, W; Ma, J; Xie, Q; Gao, Y; Chen, F; Zhang, X; Bi, Y

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of different supplementation ways of lycopene during pre-hatch (from the diet of hens) and post-hatch (from the diet of progeny) on production performance, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters in chicks. In total, 360 hens were fed diets supplemented with 0 (control group) or 40 mg lycopene/kg diet. From 28 to 34 days after the start of supplementation (30 weeks old), 650 qualified eggs were collected to artificial incubation. In this trial, 2 × 2 factorial designs were used. Male chicks hatched from hens fed with 0 or 40 mg lycopene/kg diet were fed a diet containing either 0 or 40 mg lycopene/kg diet. The results showed that, relative to control, in ovo-deposited lycopene significantly increased chick birth body weight, improved liver total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione to oxidized glutathione ratio (GSH: GSSG), and significantly declined liver malondialdehyde (MDA) level and increased liver lycopene content during 0-14 days after hatching. On days 14 after hatching, dietary lycopene in diet began to take over gradually. Both supplementation ways of lycopene increased immune organ index, serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, villus length and villus/crypt in duodenum, jejunum and ileum. Data in this study suggested lycopene supplementation could improve antioxidant capacity and immune function, and regulate lipid metabolism in chicks.

  8. Effects of one-seed juniper on intake, rumen fermentation, and plasma amino acids in sheep and goats fed supplemental protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the effect of feeding one-seed juniper on total intake, VFA profile, and plasma amino acids (AA) of 12 does and 12 ewes fed sudangrass and a basal diet with no protein supplement (Control; 5% CP) or rumen degradable (SBM; RDP 15% CP) or undegradable (FM; RUP 15% CP) protein supplement. Aft...

  9. Effects of Maternal Linseed Oil Supplementation on Metabolic Parameters in Cafeteria Diet-induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Benaissa, Nawel; Merzouk, Hafida; Merzouk, Sid Ahmed; Narce, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Because linseed oil may influence maternal and fetal metabolisms, we investigated its role in the modulation of lipid metabolism in cafeteria diet-induced obese rats and their offspring. Female Wistar rats were fed control or cafeteria food, which were either supplemented or not supplemented with linseed oil (5%) for 1 month before and during gestation. At parturition, serum and tissue lipids and enzyme activities were analyzed. Cafeteria diet induced adverse metabolic alterations in both mothers and offspring. Linseed oil improved metabolic status. In conclusion, linseed oil displayed health benefits by modulating tissue enzyme activities in both obese mothers and their newborns.

  10. Influence of corn silage particle length on the performance of lactating dairy cows fed supplemental tallow.

    PubMed

    Onetti, S G; Shaver, R D; Bertics, S J; Grummer, R R

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the length of chop of processed corn silage influences the impact of supplemental fat on rumen fermentation and performance of dairy cows. We hypothesized that increasing forage particle length may alleviate the interference of fat on rumen fermentation. Sixteen Holstein cows averaging 120 d in milk were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial with 0 or 2% tallow (dry matter basis), and corn silage harvested at either 19 or 32 mm theoretical length of cut. The forage:concentrate ratio was 50:50, and diets were formulated to contain 18% crude protein and 32% neutral detergent fiber (dry matter basis). Cows were allowed ad libitum consumption of diets that were fed twice daily as a total mixed ration. Fat supplemented cows had lower dry matter intake and produced less milk fat relative to nonsupplemented cows. No effect of corn silage particle length was observed for dry matter intake and milk fat production. Proportion of trans-10 C18:1 and of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid was highest in milk fat of cows fed 2% supplemental tallow. Rumen pH was not affected by feeding tallow, and tended to be highest for cows eating the 32-mm theoretical length of chop corn silage diets. No effect of treatments was observed for rumen acetate-to-propionate ratio or rumen ammonia concentration. In this study, tallow supplementation had a negative impact on performance of dairy cows regardless of the corn silage particle length. Feeding tallow increased formation of trans-fatty acids in the rumen in the absence of significant changes in the rumen environment.

  11. Antioxidant effects of fucoxanthin rich powder in rats fed with high fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ae Wha; Na, Se Jung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the antioxidant effect of fucoxanthin. After rats were fed a normal fat diet (NF), high fat diet (HF), and high fat with 0.2% fucoxanthin diet (HF + Fxn) for 4 weeks, the markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity like lipid peroxidation, plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and gluthathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) were determined. mRNA expression of transcription factor, nuclear erythroid factor like 2 (Nrf2), and its target genes such as NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were also determined. Mean weight gain in the HF + Fxn group was lower, without statistical significance, and the total food intake in the HF + Fxn group was lower than that in the HF group (P < 0.05). The activity of GSH-Px (P < 0.05) in plasma was significantly higher in the HF + Fxn group than those in the HF group (P < 0.05). In the liver, the activities of catalase (P < 0.05) and GSH-Px (P < 0.05) in the HF + Fxn group were significantly higher than those in the HF group. Plasma TAC level was significantly higher in the HF + Fxn group than that in the HF group (P < 0.05). Lipid peroxidation in plasma tended to be lower without statistical significance. Fucoxanthin supplements were shown to have higher mRNA expression of Nrf2 and NQO1 than those in the high fat diet only group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, supplementation of fucoxanthin improved the antioxidant capacity, depleted by high fat diet, by activating the Nrf2 pathway and its downstream target gene NQO1. Therefore, supplementation of fucoxanthin, especially for those who consume high fat in their diet, may benefit from reduced risk of oxidative stress. PMID:24353833

  12. Effects of complete vitamin and mineral supplementation in full potential all-milk diets on growth and health of Holstein bull calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-ruminant Holstein bull calves were fed two diets of pasteurized whole milk (PWM) in amounts that either limited intake or that maximized intake according to common commercial practice. Diets then were either supplemented or not supplemented with a full complement of vitamins and trace minerals ...

  13. Effects of tallow on the energy metabolism of wethers fed barley finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M L; Westberg, H H; Parish, S M

    2001-07-01

    A balance trial was conducted to titrate the effects of tallow on the energy metabolism of wethers fed barley finishing diets. Six dietary levels of tallow (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10%) in a barley finishing diet were fed to six crossbred wethers (35+/-1.1 kg) in a randomized complete block design. Diets were 73% barley, 10% tallow and(or) bentonite, 10% alfalfa pellets, and 7% supplement. There was no effect of tallow level on OM intake (1,103.1+/-51 g/d), OM digestibility (84+/-0.9%), GE digestibility (83+/-1.1%), or cell solubles digestibility (84.2+/-1.2%). The level of tallow quadratically decreased ADF digestibility (P < 0.05), methane emissions, and methane energy as a percentage of GE P < 0.01). There were linear increases in dietary GE (megacalories per kilogram of OM [P < 0.01]), dietary DE (megacalories per kilogram of OM [P < 0.05]), and dietary ME (megacalories per kilogram of OM [P < 0.01]), as dietary tallow increased. Numbers of ruminal protozoa (Entodinium spp. and Polyplastron sp.) decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with increased level of tallow. The energy value of tallow (calculated by difference) was low. The total-tract fatty acid digestibility of tallow was calculated by linear regression, without intercept, after accounting for the fatty acids digested from the base diet (0% tallow fed to a wether in a period). Fatty acids of the same carbon length were pooled for the regression analysis. All linear regressions were significant (P < 0.10) indicating no effect of tallow level on fatty acid digestibility. Lauric acid had low digestibility. The high digestibility of all C16 (89%) and C18 (104%) fatty acids suggests an effect of tallow on endogenous and microbial fatty acid excretion. Fatty acid digestibility was probably a minor contributor to the low energy content of tallow, calculated by difference, in these diets.

  14. Diet-induced thermogenesis is lower in rats fed a lard diet than in those fed a high oleic acid safflower oil diet, a safflower oil diet or a linseed oil diet.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, H; Matsuo, T; Tokuyama, K; Shimomura, Y; Suzuki, M

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of the present study were to examine the effects of dietary fats differing in fatty acid composition on diet-induced thermogenesis, sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue and body fat accumulation in rats. Rats were meal-fed for 12 wk an isoenergetic diet based on lard, high oleic acid safflower oil, safflower oil or linseed oil, and norepinephrine turnover rates in brown adipose tissue were then estimated. Whole-body oxygen consumption after the meal indicated that diet-induced thermogenesis was significantly lower in rats fed the lard diet than in those fed the other diets. The norepinephrine turnover rate in the interscapular brown adipose tissue was also significantly lower in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups. The carcass fat content was significantly higher in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups, whereas the abdominal adipose tissue weights were the same in all diet groups. These results suggest that the intake of animal fats rich in saturated fatty acids, compared with the intake of vegetable oils rich in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids, decreases diet-induced thermogenesis by a decline of sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue, resulting in the promotion of body fat accumulation.

  15. Ileal microbiota composition of broilers fed various commercial diet compositions.

    PubMed

    van der Hoeven-Hangoor, E; van der Vossen, J M B M; Schuren, F H J; Verstegen, M W A; de Oliveira, J E; Montijn, R C; Hendriks, W H

    2013-10-01

    Microbiota plays a role in the release and absorption of nutrients from feed components, thereby affecting digesta composition and moisture content of the excreta. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of 5 different diets varying in ingredients (medium-chain fatty acids, nonstarch polysaccharides, and starch) on the microbiota composition of ileal digesta of broiler chickens and excreta DM content. Each treatment was repeated 6 times in cages each containing 18 Ross 308 broilers, with growth performance measured from 0 to 34 d of age and excreta DM and ileal microbiota composition analyzed at 34 d of age. Microbiota composition was evaluated using a novel ribosomal RNA microarray technology containing 370 different probes covering various genera, groups of microbial species, and individual species of the chicken gut microbiota, of which 321 had a signal above the background threshold. Replacing part of the animal fat and soybean oil in the wheat-based diet with medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA; 0.3% C10 and 2.7% C12) improved feed efficiency compared with the other dietary treatments. This coincided with a suppression of gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum of the Firmicutes, including Lactobacillus species, and species belonging to the family of the Enterococcaceae and Micrococcaceae, whereas the gram-negative bacteria belonging to the family of the Enterobacteriaceae were promoted. None of the other diets used in the present study notably changed the ileal digesta bacteria composition. Excreta DM content was not affected by dietary treatment. The variation between individual birds per dietary treatment was more pronounced than variation caused by feed composition, with the exception of the digesta microbiota of the birds fed the MCFA diet. It is concluded that a diet with MCFA significantly changes the ileal microbiota composition, whereas the effect of the other diets on the composition of the microbiota and excreta DM content

  16. Betaine supplementation prevents fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet: effects on one-carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Deminice, Rafael; da Silva, Robin P; Lamarre, Simon G; Kelly, Karen B; Jacobs, René L; Brosnan, Margaret E; Brosnan, John T

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of betaine supplementation on the regulation of one-carbon metabolism and liver lipid accumulation induced by a high-fat diet in rats. Rats were fed one of three different liquid diets: control diet, high-fat diet and high-fat diet supplemented with betaine. The control and high-fat liquid diets contained, respectively, 35 and 71 % of energy derived from fat. Betaine supplementation involved the addition of 1 % (g/L) to the diet. After three weeks on the high-fat diet the rats had increased total liver fat concentration, liver triglycerides, liver TBARS and plasma TNF-α. The high-fat diet decreased the hepatic S-adenosylmethionine concentration and the S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratio compared to the control as well as altering the expression of genes involved in one-carbon metabolism. Betaine supplementation substantially increased the hepatic S-adenosylmethionine concentration (~fourfold) and prevented fatty liver and hepatic injury induced by the high-fat diet. It was accompanied by the normalization of the gene expression of BHMT, GNMT and MGAT, which code for key enzymes of one-carbon metabolism related to liver fat accumulation. In conclusion, the regulation of the expression of MGAT by betaine supplementation provides an additional and novel mechanism by which betaine supplementation regulates lipid metabolism and prevents accumulation of fat in the liver.

  17. Raspberry ketone fails to reduce adiposity beyond decreasing food intake in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Cotten, Bradley M; Diamond, Stephanie A; Banh, Taylor; Hsiao, Yung-Hsuan; Cole, Rachel M; Li, Jinhui; Simons, Christopher T; Bruno, Richard S; Belury, Martha A; Vodovotz, Yael

    2017-04-05

    As the incidence of obesity continues to increase, identifying novel nutritional therapies to enhance weight loss are needed. Raspberry ketone (RK; 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl) butan-2-one) is a bioactive phytochemical that is marketed as a weight loss supplement in the United States, yet there is scant scientific evidence demonstrating that RK promotes weight loss. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of RK on accumulation of adipose mass, hepatic lipid storage, and levels of plasma adiponectin in mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Mice were individually housed and fed a HF control diet (45% kcal from fat) for two weeks to induce weight gain, then assigned to HF control, high-dose (1.74% wt/wt) raspberry ketone (HRK), low-dose (0.25% wt/wt) raspberry ketone (LRK), or a pair-fed group (PF) fed similar food intake to LRK mice. Following five weeks of feeding, mice fed LRK and HRK diets showed reduced food intake and body weight compared to mice maintained on control diet. When normalized to body weight, mice fed HRK diet exhibited decreased inguinal fat mass and increased liver mass compared to the control group. Hepatic steatosis was lowest in mice fed HRK diet, whereas LRK diet did not have an effect when compared to the PF group. Plasma adiponectin concentration was unaffected by RK and pair-feeding. Our findings demonstrate that RK supplementation has limited benefit to adipose loss beyond reducing energy intake in mice fed a high-fat diet. The present study supports the need for appropriate study design when validating weight-loss supplements.

  18. Effects of microbial phytase on apparent and standardized total tract digestibility of calcium in calcium supplements fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Stein, H H

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that differences in the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of Ca exist among Ca supplements and that inclusion of microbial phytase increases the ATTD and STTD of Ca. One hundred and four growing barrows (average initial BW of 17.73 ± 2.53 kg) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 13 dietary treatments and 8 pigs per treatment. A basal diet containing corn, cornstarch, potato protein isolate, soybean oil, calcium carbonate, monosodium phosphate, vitamins, and minerals was formulated. Five additional diets were formulated by adding monocalcium phosphate (MCP), dicalcium phosphate (DCP), calcium carbonate, Lithothamnium calcareum Ca, or a high-Ca sugar beet co-product to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. Six additional diets that were similar to the previous 6 diets with the exception that they also contained 500 units per kilogram of microbial phytase were also formulated. A Ca-free diet was used to determine basal endogenous losses of Ca. Feces were collected using the marker-to-marker approach. Results indicated that regardless of inclusion of microbial phytase, MCP had the greatest (P < 0.05) ATTD and STTD of Ca. The ATTD and STTD of Ca in DCP were greater (P < 0.05) than in calcium carbonate, L. calcareumC a, or in the sugar beet co-product, but no differences were observed among the ATTD and STTD of Ca in calcium carbonate, L. calcareum Ca, or sugar beet co-product. Inclusion of microbial phytase increased (P < 0.05) the ATTD and STTD of Ca in the diets, but this was not the case in the Ca supplements. Regardless of inclusion of microbial phytase, the ATTD of P was greater ( P< 0.05) in pigs fed basal, MCP, or DCP diets than in pigs fed calcium carbonate, L. calcareum Ca, or the sugar beet co-product, but pigs fed calcium carbonate diets had greater ( P< 0.05) ATTD of P than pigs fed L. calcareumCa or the sugar beet co

  19. Gene expression of insulin signal-transduction pathway intermediates is lower in rats fed a beef tallow diet than in rats fed a safflower oil diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y B; Nakajima, R; Matsuo, T; Inoue, T; Sekine, T; Komuro, M; Tamura, T; Tokuyama, K; Suzuki, M

    1996-09-01

    To elucidate the effects of dietary fatty acid composition on the insulin signaling pathway, we measured the gene expression of the earliest steps in the insulin action pathway in skeletal muscle of rats fed a safflower oil diet or a beef tallow diet. Rats were meal-fed an isoenergetic diet based on either safflower oil or beef tallow for 8 weeks. Both diets provided 45%, 35%, and 20% of energy as fat, carbohydrate, and protein, respectively. Insulin resistance, assessed from the diurnal rhythm of plasma glucose and insulin and the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), developed in rats fed a beef tallow diet. Body fat content was greater in rats fed a beef tallow diet versus a safflower oil diet. The level of insulin receptor mRNA, relative expression of the insulin receptor mRNA isoforms, and receptor protein were not affected by the composition of dietary fatty acids. The abundance of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase mRNA and protein was significantly lower in rats fed a beef tallow diet versus a safflower oil diet. We conclude that long-term feeding of a high-fat diet with saturated fatty acids induces decrease in IRS-1 and PI 3-kinase mRNA and protein levels, causing insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

  20. Bardoxolone methyl prevents insulin resistance and the development of hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Camer, Danielle; Yu, Yinghua; Szabo, Alexander; Dinh, Chi H L; Wang, Hongqin; Cheng, Licai; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2015-09-05

    High-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity is a major risk factor for the development of insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. We examined the hypothesis that bardoxolone methyl (BM) would prevent the development of insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in mice fed a HF diet. C57BL/6J male mice were fed a lab chow (LC), HF (40% fat), or HF diet supplemented with 10 mg/kg/day BM orally for 21 weeks. Glucose metabolism was assessed using a glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin sensitivity test (IST). Signalling molecules involved in insulin resistance, inflammation, and lipid metabolism were examined in liver tissue via western blotting and RT-PCR. BM prevented HF diet-induced insulin resistance and alterations in the protein levels of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) and BDNF, and expression of the insulin receptor (IR), IRS-1 and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) genes. Furthermore, BM prevented fat accumulation in the liver and decreases in the β-oxidation gene, peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 (ACOX) in mice fed a HF diet. In the livers of HF fed mice, BM administration prevented HF diet-induced macrophage infiltration, inflammation as indicated by reduced IL-6 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein levels and TNFα mRNA expression, and increased nuclear factor-like 2 (Nrf2) mRNA expression and nuclear protein levels. These findings suggest that BM prevents HF diet induced insulin resistance and the development of hepatic steatosis in mice fed a chronic HF diet through modulation of molecules involved in insulin signalling, lipid metabolism and inflammation in the liver.

  1. L-Carnitine effects on chemical composition of plasma lipoproteins of rabbits fed with normal and high cholesterol diets.

    PubMed

    Diaz, M; Lopez, F; Hernandez, F; Urbina, J A

    2000-06-01

    L-Carnitine plays an important role in the mitochondrial uptake of long-chain fatty acids in mammals. It has recently been shown that this compound has a marked hypo-cholesterolemic effect when used in conjunction with lipid-rich diets. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of L-carnitine on the fatty acid composition of plasma lipoproteins in rabbits fed with different diets. Four different groups were investigated: group I (standard diet), group II (standard diet supplemented with L-carnitine at 80 mg/kg), group III (standard diet supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol), and group IV (standard diet supplemented with 0.5% cholesterol plus L-carnitine at 80 mg/kg). The feeding period was 126 d. Total plasma cholesterol was indistinguishable in groups I and II, but increased nearly 40-fold in group III. This increment was reduced by 50% in group IV. Correspondingly, total cholesterol content in lipoprotein fractions [very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) separated by agarose gel chromatography was the same for groups I and II, while for animals fed a cholesterol-rich diet (III) total cholesterol in VLDL + LDL increased nearly 100-fold when compared with groups I and II but, again, the increment was reduced by 50% in group IV. In contrast, total cholesterol in HDL increased only fivefold for both groups III and IV when compared with groups I and II, indicating no effects of L-carnitine on this parameter. The reduction of total cholesterol in VLDL + LDL particles in animals fed a cholesterol-rich diet plus L-carnitine was associated with a marked decrease in the ratio of cholesteryl ester to free cholesterol and a dramatic increase in their phospholipid content; opposite effects were observed for HDL. L-Carnitine induced a marked decrease in the saturated to unsaturated C16 + C18 fatty acid ratio in cholesteryl esters associated with VLDL and LDL from animals fed with both normal and cholesterol

  2. Effects of Supplemental Beta-mannanase on Digestible Energy and Metabolizable Energy Contents of Copra Expellers and Palm Kernel Expellers Fed to Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, W. B.; Kim, B. G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of β-mannanase supplementation on digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) contents of copra expellers (CE) and palm kernel expellers (PKE) fed to pigs. Six barrows with an initial body weight of 38.0 kg (standard deviation = 1.5) were randomly allotted to a 6×6 Latin square design with 6 dietary treatments and 6 periods. Six experimental diets were prepared in a 3×2 factorial treatment arrangement with 3 diets of a corn-soybean meal-based diet, a CE 30% diet, and a PKE 30% diet and with 2 concentrations of supplemental β-mannanase at 0 or 2,400 U/kg. All diets had the same proportion of corn:soybean meal ratio at 2.88:1. The marker-to-marker procedure was used for fecal and urine collection with 4-d adaptation and 5-d collection periods. No interactive effects were observed between diet and β-mannanase on energy digestibility and DE and ME contents of experimental diets. However, diets containing CE or PKE had less (p<0.05) DE and ME contents compared with the corn-soybean meal-based diet. The DE and ME contents in CE and PKE were not affected by supplemental β-mannanase. Taken together, we failed to find the effect of β-mannanase supplementation on energy utilization in CE and PKE fed to pigs. PMID:26104407

  3. Antioxidant efficacy of curcuminoids from turmeric ( Curcuma longa L.) powder in broiler chickens fed diets containing aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Nisarani K S; Ledoux, David R; Rottinghaus, Goerge E; Bermudez, Alex J; Chen, Yin C

    2009-12-01

    A 3-week-feeding study (1-21 d post-hatch) was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of total curcuminoids (TCMN), as an antioxidant, to ameliorate the adverse effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in broiler chickens. Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L.) that contained 2.55 % TCMN was used as a source of TCMN. Six cage replicates of five chicks each were assigned to each of six dietary treatments, which included: basal diet; basal diet supplemented with 444 mg/kg TCMN; basal diet supplemented with 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 74 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 222 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 444 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1. The addition of 74 and 222 mg/kg TCMN to the AFB1 diet significantly (P < 0.05) improved weight gain and feed efficiency. Increase (P < 0.05) in relative liver weight in birds fed AFB1 was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) with the addition of 74, 222 and 444 mg/kg TCMN to the AFB1 diet. The inclusion of 222 mg/kg TCMN ameliorated the adverse effects of AFB1 on serum chemistry in terms of total protein, albumin and gamma-glutamyl transferase activity. The decreased antioxidant functions due to AFB1 were also alleviated by the inclusion of 222 mg/kg TCMN. It is concluded that the addition of 222 mg/kg TCMN to the 1.0 mg/kg AFB1 diet demonstrated maximum antioxidant activity against AFB1.

  4. Intestinal hydrogen and methane of men fed space diet.

    PubMed

    Calloway, D H; Murphy, E L

    1969-01-01

    Intestinal bacteria form two gases, hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4), that could constitute a fire hazard in a closed chamber. So H2 and CH4 pass from the anus but these gases are also transported by the blood to the lungs and removed to the atmosphere. Several factors affect gas formation: 1) amount and kind of fermentable substrate; 2) abundance, types, and location of microflora; and 3) psychic and somatic conditions that affect the gut. We evaluated the first factor by studying men fed different diets and have also recorded influences of uncontrollable factors. One group of 6 men ate Gemini-type diet (S) and another received a bland formula (F), for 42 days. Breath and rectal gases were analyzed during the first and final weeks. Flatus gases varied widely within dietary groups but much more gas was generated with diet S than with F. In the first 12-hour collection, subjects fed S passed 3 to 209 ml (ATAP) of rectal H2 (avg 52) and 24 to 156 ml (avg 69) from the lungs (assuming normal pulmonary ventilation). With F, these values were 0 to 3 ml (avg 1) and 6 to 36 ml (avg 20). Subjects were calmer during the second test. Gas production was lower with S than initially; F values were unchanged. Methane differed idiosyncratically, presumably due to differences in flora. Computed from 12-hour values, maximum potential daily H2 and CH4 are per man: for S, 730 ml and 382 ml; for F, 80 and 222 ml. Volumes would be larger at reduced spacecraft and suit pressures.

  5. Insoluble fibres, satiety and food intake in cats fed kibble diets.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, B A; Sakomura, N K; Vasconcellos, R S; Sembenelli, G; Gomes, M O S; Monti, M; Malheiros, E B; Kawauchi, I M; Carciofi, A C

    2016-04-14

    Fibre is generally considered to dilute food energy, alter intestinal transit time and promote satiety; however, in cats, conflicting results have been found. In this study, two insoluble fibres were evaluated in four feline diets: control (no added fibre); diet with 10% sugar cane fibre; diet with 20% sugar cane fibre; and diet with 10% cellulose. The experiment was conducted with 32 cats, eight animals per diet, over 42 days: 1-7 for diet adaptation; 8-14 for total collection of faeces for digestibility; 15-17 for fresh faeces collection for fermentation products measurements; 18-20 for gastrointestinal transit time determination; 21 and 37 to evaluate the pattern of food intake; and 22 and 42 to assess satiety. Means were compared by analysis of variance and orthogonal contrasts, and the pattern of food intake was compared by repeated-measures analysis of variance (p < 0.05). The cats exhibited increased food intake after fibre addition to the diets (p < 0.05), achieving similar energy consumption. Cellulose and the two levels of sugar cane fibre reduced nutrient availability and energy digestibility, but only sugar cane fibre reduced fat digestibility (p < 0.05). Faecal output and the number of defecations per day increased with fibre inclusion (p < 0.05). Gastrointestinal transit time did not change with sugar cane fibre inclusion, but it was reduced with cellulose addition (p = 0.032). The pattern of food intake did not change, but cats fed fibre-supplemented diets exhibited greater consumption of a challenge meal, increasing energy intake (p < 0.01) when exposed to a palatable, energy-dense food.

  6. The role of vitamin E or clay in growing Japanese quail fed diets polluted by cadmium at various levels.

    PubMed

    Abou-Kassem, D E; Mahrose, Kh M; Alagawany, M

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to verify whether vitamin (Vit) E or natural clay as feed additives has the potential to modulate the deleterious effects resulting from exposure to cadmium (Cd) in growing Japanese quail. 648 Japanese quail chicks (1 week old) were used to evaluate the effects of dietary Cd (0, 40, 80 and 120 mg/kg diet) and two levels of Vit E (0, 250 mg/kg diet) or two levels of natural clay (0 and 100 mg/kg diet) to study the influences of Cd, Vit E, clay or their different combinations on growth performance, carcass traits, some blood biochemical components and Cd residues in muscles and liver. Live BW and weight gain of quails were linearly decreased with increasing dietary Cd levels. Moreover, feed conversion was significantly worsened with increasing Cd level. Mortality percentage was linearly increased as dietary Cd level increased up to 120 mg/kg diet. Carcass percentage was linearly decreased as dietary Cd level increased. While, giblets percentage were linearly and quadratically differed as dietary Cd level increased. Cd caused significant changes in total plasma protein, albumin, globulin, A/G ratio, creatinine, urea-N and uric acid concentrations as well as ALT, AST and ALP activities. Increasing dietary Cd level was associated with its increase in the muscles and liver. Dietary supplementation with 250 mg of Vit E/kg diet or 100 mg clay/kg improved live BW, BW gain and feed conversion when compared with the un-supplemented diet. Quails fed diet contained 250 mg Vit E/kg and those fed 100 mg clay/kg had the highest percentages of carcass and dressing than those fed the un-supplemented diet. Blood plasma biochemical components studied were better when birds received 250 mg of Vit E/kg diet and those received 100 mg clay/kg. Cd residues in the muscles and liver were significantly less in the birds had 250 mg of Vit E/kg or those received 100 mg clay/kg diet than those un-supplemented with Vit E. Growth performance traits and blood plasma

  7. Methyl Donor Supplementation Blocks the Adverse Effects of Maternal High Fat Diet on Offspring Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Teresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during pregnancy increases the offspring risk for obesity. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that maternal consumption of a high fat (60%) diet leads to global and gene specific decreases in DNA methylation in the brain of the offspring. The present experiments were designed to attempt to reverse this DNA hypomethylation through supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors, and to determine whether methyl donor supplementation could block or attenuate phenotypes associated with maternal consumption of a HF diet. Metabolic and behavioral (fat preference) outcomes were assessed in male and female adult offspring. Expression of the mu-opioid receptor and dopamine transporter mRNA, as well as global DNA methylation were measured in the brain. Supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors attenuated the development of some of the adverse effects seen in offspring from dams fed a high fat diet; including weight gain, increased fat preference (males), changes in CNS gene expression and global hypomethylation in the prefrontal cortex. Notable sex differences were observed. These findings identify the importance of balanced methylation status during pregnancy, particularly in the context of a maternal high fat diet, for optimal offspring outcome. PMID:23658839

  8. Intestinal development and function of broiler chickens on diets supplemented with clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Wu, Q J; Zhou, Y M; Wu, Y N; Wang, T

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of natural clinoptilolite (NCLI) and modified clinoptilolite (MCLI) on broiler performance, gut morphology, intestinal length and weight, and gut digestive enzyme activity. A total of 240 d-old male chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments, each of which comprised 8 pens of 10 chicks per pen. Birds in the control group were fed the basal diet, while those in the experimental groups were fed diets supplemented with NCLI at 2% (NCLI group), or MCLI at 2% (MCLI group), respectively, for 42 d. Compared with the control, supplementation with NCLI or MCLI had no significant (p>0.05) effects on productive parameters from d 1 to 42. Supplementation with NCLI or MCLI had no influence on the relative length and weight of small intestine at d 1 to 21. But supplementation with NCLI or MCLI significantly reduced the relative weight of duodenum. Supplementation with MCLI and NCLI was associated with greater (p<0.05) villus height in the jejunal and ileal mucosa compared with those areas in the controls from d 1 to 42. However, supplementation with NCLI and MCLI had no significant (p>0.05) influence on the crypt depth in the jejunal and ileal mucosa compared with those in the controls. The addition of either NCLI or MCLI to the diet improved the activities of total protease, and amylase in the small intestinal contents. In conclusion, supplementation with NCLI or MCLI in diets improved intestinal morphology, increased the intestinal length and weigh and gut digestive enzyme activity.

  9. Intestinal Development and Function of Broiler Chickens on Diets Supplemented with Clinoptilolite

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Q. J.; Zhou, Y. M.; Wu, Y. N.; Wang, T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of natural clinoptilolite (NCLI) and modified clinoptilolite (MCLI) on broiler performance, gut morphology, intestinal length and weight, and gut digestive enzyme activity. A total of 240 d-old male chicks were randomly assigned to 3 treatments, each of which comprised 8 pens of 10 chicks per pen. Birds in the control group were fed the basal diet, while those in the experimental groups were fed diets supplemented with NCLI at 2% (NCLI group), or MCLI at 2% (MCLI group), respectively, for 42 d. Compared with the control, supplementation with NCLI or MCLI had no significant (p>0.05) effects on productive parameters from d 1 to 42. Supplementation with NCLI or MCLI had no influence on the relative length and weight of small intestine at d 1 to 21. But supplementation with NCLI or MCLI significantly reduced the relative weight of duodenum. Supplementation with MCLI and NCLI was associated with greater (p<0.05) villus height in the jejunal and ileal mucosa compared with those areas in the controls from d 1 to 42. However, supplementation with NCLI and MCLI had no significant (p>0.05) influence on the crypt depth in the jejunal and ileal mucosa compared with those in the controls. The addition of either NCLI or MCLI to the diet improved the activities of total protease, and amylase in the small intestinal contents. In conclusion, supplementation with NCLI or MCLI in diets improved intestinal morphology, increased the intestinal length and weigh and gut digestive enzyme activity. PMID:25049877

  10. The effects of coadministration of dietary copper and zinc supplements on atherosclerosis, antioxidant enzymes and indices of lipid peroxidation in the cholesterol-fed rabbit.

    PubMed

    Alissa, Eman M; Bahijri, Suhad M; Lamb, David J; Ferns, Gordon A A

    2004-10-01

    It has previously been shown that dietary copper can modulate the extent of atherosclerosis in the thoracic aorta of cholesterol-fed rabbits. The metabolism of copper and zinc are closely related, and it has been hypothesized that the balance of dietary copper to zinc may be important in determining coronary risk. Hence, we have investigated the interaction between dietary copper and zinc in atherogenesis in the New Zealand White rabbit. Juvenile male rabbits were randomly allocated to eight groups. Four groups were fed a normal chow diet with zinc (0.5%, w/w), copper (0.2%, w/w), copper plus zinc or neither in their drinking water for 12 weeks. Four other groups were fed a diet containing 0.25-1% (w/w) cholesterol plus zinc, copper, both or neither. Serum cholesterol of individual animals was maintained at approximately 20 mmol/l. Integrated plasma cholesterol levels were similar for all groups receiving cholesterol and significantly higher than those in the chow-fed groups (P < 0.001). Aortic copper concentrations were higher in the animals receiving cholesterol diets with copper compared to rabbits receiving normal chow and copper (P < 0.001). Aortic zinc content was significantly higher in cholesterol-fed rabbits supplemented with zinc alone or with copper than in those fed cholesterol alone (P < 0.001). Plasma ceruloplasmin concentrations were significantly higher in groups receiving cholesterol, irrespective of their trace element supplementation (P < 0.001). However, trace element supplementation increased the level significantly (P < 0.05). Trace element supplements did not appear to affect erythrocyte superoxide dismutase in the cholesterol-fed animals; however, zinc supplementation was associated with a significant increase in the enzyme in chow-fed animals (P < 0.05). The activity of the enzyme per mg of protein in aortic tissue was higher in animals receiving copper in the presence of cholesterol (P < 0.05) but not significantly so in its absence

  11. Inhibition of angiotensin-1-converting enzyme activity by two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Akinyemi, Ayodele Jacob; Ademiluyi, Adedayo Oluwaseun; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2014-03-01

    Angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study sought to investigate the inhibitory effect of two varieties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) commonly consumed in Nigeria on ACE activity in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. The inhibition of ACE activity of two varieties of ginger (Z. officinale) was investigated in a high cholesterol (2%) diet fed to rats for 3 days. Feeding high cholesterol diets to rats caused a significant (P<.05) increase in the ACE activity. However, there was a significant (P<.05) inhibition of ACE activity as a result of supplementation with the ginger varieties. Rats that were fed 4% white ginger had the greatest inhibitory effect as compared with a control diet. Furthermore, there was a significant (P<.05) increase in the plasma lipid profile with a concomitant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) content in rat liver and heart tissues. However, supplementing the diet with red and white ginger (either 2% or 4%) caused a significant (P<.05) decrease in the plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, and in MDA content in the tissues. Conversely, supplementation caused a significant (P<.05) increase in plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level when compared with the control diet. Nevertheless, rats fed 4% red ginger had the greatest reduction as compared with control diet. In conclusion, both ginger varieties exhibited anti-hypercholesterolemic properties in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats. This activity of the gingers may be attributed to its ACE inhibitory activity. However, white ginger inhibited ACE better in a high cholesterol diet fed to rats than red ginger. Therefore, both gingers could serve as good functional foods/nutraceuticals in the management/treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Effect of curcumin on hepatic heme oxygenase 1 expression in high fat diet fed rats: is there a triangular relationship?

    PubMed

    Öner-İyidoğan, Yildiz; Tanrıkulu-Küçük, Sevda; Seyithanoğlu, Muhammed; Koçak, Hikmet; Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Semra; Aydin, A Fatih; Beyhan-Özdaş, Şule; Yapişlar, Hande; Koçak-Toker, Necla

    2014-10-01

    High fat diet (HFD) is associated with oxidative stress induced fatty liver. Curcumin, an extract of Curcuma longa, has been shown to possess potent antioxidant and hypolipidemic properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of curcumin treatment on hepatic heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression along with pro-oxidant-antioxidant status and lipid accumulation in rats fed an HFD. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed among 4 groups: Group 1, which was fed the control diet (10% of total calories from fat); Group 2, which was fed the HFD (60% of total calories from fat); and groups 3 and 4, which received the HFD supplemented with curcumin and the control diet supplemented with curcumin (1 g/kg diet; w/w), respectively, for 16 weeks. HFD caused increases in hepatic lipid levels, production of reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation. Further, HO-1 expression was significantly decreased. Histopathological examination showed hepatic fat accumulation and slight fibrotic changes. Curcumin treatment reduced hepatic lipids and oxidative stress parameters, and HO-1 expression was significantly increased. These findings suggest that increased HO-1 expression, along with suppressed oxidative stress as well as reduced hepatic fat accumulation and fibrotic changes, contribute to the beneficial effects of curcumin in attenuating the pathogenesis of fatty liver induced metabolic diseases.

  13. Exercise Improves Glucose Disposal and Insulin Signaling in Pregnant Mice Fed a High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Lindsay G; Ngo Tenlep, Sara Y; Woollett, Laura A; Pearson, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Physical activity has been suggested as a non-pharmacological intervention that can be used to improve glucose homeostasis in women with gestational diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of voluntary exercise on glucose tolerance and body composition in pregnant high fat diet fed mice. Methods Female mice were put on a standard diet or high fat diet for two weeks. The mice were then split into 4 groups; control standard diet fed, exercise standard diet fed, control high fat diet fed, and exercise high fat diet fed. Exercise mice had voluntary access to a running wheel in their home cage one week prior to mating, during mating, and throughout pregnancy. Glucose tolerance and body composition were measured during pregnancy. Akt levels were quantified in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue isolated from saline or insulin injected pregnant dams as a marker for insulin signaling. Results Consumption of the high fat diet led to significantly increased body weight, fat mass, and impaired glucose tolerance in control mice. However, voluntary running in the high fat diet fed dams significantly reduced weight gain and fat mass and ultimately improved glucose tolerance compared to control high fat diet fed dams. Further, body weight, fat mass, and glucose disposal in exercise high fat diet dams were indistinguishable from control dams fed the standard diet. High fat diet fed exercise dams also had significantly increased insulin stimulated phosphorylated Akt expression in adipose tissue, but not skeletal muscle, compared to control dams on high fat diet. Conclusion The use of voluntary exercise improves glucose homeostasis and body composition in pregnant female mice. Thus, future studies could investigate potential long-term health benefits in offspring born to obese exercising dams. PMID:26966635

  14. Antihyperlipidemic activity of adenosine triphosphate in rabbits fed a high-fat diet and hyperlipidemic patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lianshan; Liang, Libin; Tong, Tong; Qin, Yuguo; Xu, Yanping; Tong, Xinglong

    2016-10-01

    Context Recently, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was occasionally found to decrease the triglyceride (TG) levels in several hyperlipidemic patients in our clinical practice. Objective The study investigates the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of ATP in a high-fat fed rabbit model and hyperlipidemic patients. Materials and methods Twenty-four rabbits were randomly divided into three groups of eight animals each as follows: normal diet, high-fat diet and high-fat diet + ATP group. ATP supplementation (40 mg/day) was started at the 20th day and lasted for 10 days. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol (TC), TG, LDL-C, HDL-C were measured on the 20th day and 30th day. Heart, liver and aorta were subjected histopathological examination. Twenty outpatients diagnosed primary hyperlipidemia took ATP at a dose of 60 mg twice a day for 1 week. Results Feeding rabbits with a high-fat diet resulted in a significant elevation of lipid parameters including TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C compared to the normal diet group (p < 0.01). ATP treatment significantly decreased serum TG level (p < 0.01), whilst other parameters remained statistically unaltered. Meanwhile, ATP significantly reduced the thickness of fat layer in cardiac epicardium (p < 0.05) and pathological gradation of ballooning degeneration in hepatocytes (p < 0.05). After taking ATP for 1 week, hyperlipidemia patients exhibited a significant decrease of TG (p < 0.01), but other lipid parameters had no significant change. Discussion and conclusion The study indicates that ATP selectively decreases serum TG levels in high-fat diet rabbits and hyperlipidemic patients. Therefore, ATP supplementation may provide an effective approach to control TG level.

  15. Evaluation of fermentable oligosaccharides in diets fed to dogs in comparison to fiber standards.

    PubMed

    Middelbos, I S; Fastinger, N D; Fahey, G C

    2007-11-01

    Blends of fermentable oligosaccharides in combination with nonfermentable fiber, cellulose, were evaluated for their ability to serve as dietary fibers in dog foods. Using a 6 x 6 Latin square design, 6 diets were evaluated that contained either no supplemental fiber, beet pulp, cellulose, or blends of cellulose, fructooligosaccharides, and yeast cell wall added at 2.5% of the diet. Six ileal-cannulated dogs were fed 175 g of their assigned diet twice daily. Chromic oxide served as a digestibility marker. Nutrient digestibility, fecal microbial populations, fermentative end products, and immunological indices were measured. Total tract DM and OM digestibilities were lowest (P < 0.05) for the cellulose treatment. Crude protein digestibility was lower (P < 0.05) for the treatments containing carbohydrate blends. The cellulose treatment had the lowest (P < 0.05) concentration of bacteria, and all diets containing fermentable fiber had greater (P < 0.05) fecal bifidobacteria concentrations compared with the diets without supplemental fermentable fiber. Lactobacilli concentrations tended to be greater (P < 0.08) in treatments containing fermentable fiber compared with the cellulose treatment. Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli concentrations were similar for the beet pulp treatment compared with the fermentable oligosaccharide blends. Total fecal short-chain fatty acid concentration was greater for the beet pulp treatment (P < 0.05) compared with the control and cellulose treatments. The treatments containing fermentable fiber had greater (P < 0.05) fecal butyrate concentrations compared with cellulose and control treatments. Immune indices were not affected by treatment. Our results suggest that dog foods containing blends of fermentable and nonfermentable carbohydrates produce similar physiological results as dog food containing beet pulp as a fiber source. Therefore, blends of these carbohydrates could be useful substitutes for beet pulp in dog foods.

  16. Intake, performance, and efficiency of nutrient utilization in Saanen goat kids fed diets containing calcium salts of fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Possamai, Ana Paula Silva; Alcalde, Claudete Regina; de Souza, Rodrigo; Gomes, Ludmila Couto; de Macedo, Francisco de Assis Fonseca; Martins, Elias Nunes

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding Saanen goat kids with calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) in diet, on intake, performance, digestibility of nutrients, and blood parameters. Twenty-eight uncastrated male goat kids, with round average age to 112.86 ± 4.81 days and an average body weight (BW) of 19.54 ± 2.76 kg, were distributed in a completely randomized design distributed into four groups with seven animals per group: one control group fed a diet containing 2.5 Mcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg dry matter (DM) and three groups fed a diet containing 2.6, 2.7, or 2.8 Mcal ME/kg DM, with CSFA added to increase the energy levels. The animals were fed the diets until they reached an average BW of 28 kg. There was hardly any apparent effect of dietary CSFA on intake of DM and organic matter (OM). The digestibility of DM and OM showed an improvement with 2.64 and 2.65 Mcal ME/kg DM in the diet. The diets containing CSFA improved average daily gain and reduced the time on the feedlot to 30 days fed diet with 2.8 Mcal ME/kg DM. However, lipid supplementation increased serum cholesterol levels. Thus, CSFA can be used to increase the energy density of the diet in finisher Saanen goat kids and improve performance by reducing days on feedlot.

  17. Blunted hypothalamic ghrelin signaling reduces diet intake in rats fed a low-protein diet in late pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diet intake in pregnant rats fed a low-protein (LP) diet was significantly reduced during late pregnancy despite elevated plasma levels of ghrelin. In this study, we hypothesized that ghrelin signaling in the hypothalamus is blunted under a low-protein diet condition and therefore, it does not stimu...

  18. Fatty acid profile of cheese from dairy goats fed a diet enriched with castor, sesame and faveleira vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Ertha; Queiroga, Rita; Oliveira, Maria; Medeiros, Ariosvaldo; Sabedot, Mayara; Bomfim, Marco; Madruga, Marta

    2014-01-15

    The addition of vegetable oils to the diets of dairy goats is an alternative to supplemental feeding during the dry period and improves the lipid profile of milk and by-products. Cheeses were produced using milk from cross bred goats (Saanen×Alpina) fed diets enriched with 4% vegetable oil (faveleira, sesame or castor), the fatty acid profile of cheeses was studied. Supplementation with vegetable oils did not increase the total fat percentage of the cheese (p≥0.05) but did increase the percentage of CLA isomers, long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); in addition, the index of desirable fatty acids (DFA--expressed as the sum of unsaturated fatty acids plus stearic acid) was increased for cheese made from milk from goats fed sesame or faveleira oil. Cheeses may have had increased percentages of cis-9,trans-11-CLA due to the supplementation of animal diets with vegetable oils rich in C18:2, such as faveleira and sesame oils. The fatty acid profile of goat cheese did not change significantly in response to the use of castor oil. Thus, the addition of sesame and faveleira oils to goat diets positively altered the fatty acid profile, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat present in goat cheese.

  19. Energy Value of Cassava Products in Broiler Chicken Diets with or without Enzyme Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Bhuiyan, M. M.; Iji, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the metabolizable energy (ME) intake, net energy of production (NEp), heat production (HP), efficiencies of ME use for energy, lipid and protein retention as well as the performance of broiler chickens fed diets based on cassava chips or pellets with or without supplementation with an enzyme product containing xylanase, amylase, protease and phytase. The two products, cassava chips and pellets, were analysed for nutrient composition prior to feed formulation. The cassava chips and pellets contained 2.2% and 2.1% crude protein; 1.2% and 1.5% crude fat; and 75.1% and 67.8% starch, respectively. Lysine and methionine were 0.077%, 0.075%, and 0.017%, 0.020% protein material, respectively, while calculated ME was 12.6 and 11.7 MJ/kg, respectively. Feed intake to day 21 was lower (p<0.01) on the diet containing cassava chips compared to diets with cassava pellets. Enzyme supplementation increased (p<0.01) feed intake on all diets. Live weight at day 21 was significantly (p<0.01) reduced on the diet based on cassava chips compared to pellets, but an improvement (p<0.01) was noticed with the enzyme supplementation. Metabolizable energy intake was reduced (p<0.01) by both cassava chips and pellets, but was increased (p<0.01) on all diets by enzyme supplementation. The NEp was higher (p<0.01) in the maize-based diets than the diets containing cassava. Enzyme supplementation improved (p<0.01) NEp in all the diets. Heat production was highest (p<0.01) on diets containing cassava pellets than on cassava chips. It is possible to use cassava pellets in diets for broiler chickens at a level close to 50% of the diet to reduce cost of production, and the nutritive value of such diets can be improved through supplementation of enzyme products containing carbohydrases, protease, and phytase. PMID:26194227

  20. Enhancement of phosphorus utilization in growing pigs fed phytate-rich diets by using rye bran.

    PubMed

    Pointillart, A

    1991-03-01

    Some cereal by-products, such as bran, exhibit a high phytase activity that may enhance phytate P digestibility. This was studied in growing pigs fed a phytase-rich (1,200 IU/kg) diet containing 20% rye bran. The trial involved 12 animals; six were fed a control diet and six were fed a diet containing rye bran for 2 mo. Both diets contained the same levels of energy, protein, Ca (.7%) and total P (.4%). No inorganic P was added; thus, the dietary P was mainly phytic. Pigs fed the control diet, in contrast to those fed the diet containing rye bran, developed a P deficiency, as indicated by hypophosphatemia, hypophosphaturia, hyperhydroxyprolinuria, hypercalcemia, and hypercalciuria. Phosphorus from the rye bran diet was more completely absorbed (55 vs 36%) and retained (50 vs 36%) than that from the control diet. Calcium absorption was equal for the two diets, but Ca retention was higher in pigs fed rye bran than in controls. Pigs fed the rye bran diet showed greater bone density, ash content, and bending moments than controls. In conclusion, high dietary phytase levels or phytase-rich by-products increased phytate P availability and consequently improved bone scores.

  1. Absorption of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron and zinc in growing male rats fed diets containing either phytate-free soybean protein or soybean protein isolate or casein.

    PubMed

    Kamao, M; Tsugawa, N; Nakagawa, K; Kawamoto, Y; Fukui, K; Takamatsu, K; Kuwata, G; Imai, M; Okano, T

    2000-02-01

    The effect of dietary phytate-free soybean protein (PFS) on intestinal mineral absorption and retention was examined in growing male rats using a three-day mineral balance technique. The rats were fed diets containing PFS, soybean protein isolate (SPI) or casein at a 20% level for 5 wk. Total calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) contents in diets were adjusted to 0.35, 0.05, 0.7, 0.0035 and 0.003%, respectively, by supplementation of the diet with their salts. Mineral absorption and retention ratios in rats fed the PFS diet were significantly higher than those in rats fed either the SPI or casein diet. These results suggest that PFS may be a promising dietary protein source for improving the mineral bioavailability in humans.

  2. Antihyperlipidemic effect of methanolic extract from Opuntia joconostle seeds in mice fed a hypercholesterolemic diet.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Esquivel, Obed; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Alvarez, Valente B; Hernández-Navarro, María Dolores

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of a methanolic extract from Opuntia joconostle seeds fed to mice in a hypercholesterolemic diet. Acute toxicity of the methanolic extract was investigated by an established method. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and DPPH, respectively. The total phenolic content of Opuntia joconostle seeds was 47.85 ± 1.29 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight. The main phenolic compounds were identified as quercetin, rutin, and cafeic acid. Percent inhibition of DPPH⁺ was 49.76 ± 0.49 %. The oral LD₅₀ for the methanolic extract from the Opuntia joconostle seeds was >5,000 mg/kg BW. Mice fed a hypercholesterolemic diet for six days exhibited significantly (P ≤ 0.001) higher plasma lipid levels than mice fed a normal diet. Remarkably, supplementation with methanolic extract from Opuntia joconostle at doses of 1, 2, and 5 g/kg body weight significantly (P ≤ 0.001) prevented the increase in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides level, and atherogenic index. Similar concentrations of the HDL cholesterol were observed in both treated and control groups. A significant dose-dependent reduction in lipid levels was noted for treated groups compared to the hypercholesterolemic group. We attribute this result to the seeds' phenolic composition. This methanolic extract has potential to be included in short-term hypercholesterolemia treatment regimens as it exhibits hypolipidemic activity with no apparent toxic manifestations.

  3. Biochemical responses over time in common carp Cyprinus carpio (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) during fed supplementation with α-lipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Enamorado, Alain D; Martins, Atila C; Flores, Juliana A; Tesser, Marcelo Borges; Caldas, Sergiane S; Primel, Ednei G; Monserrat, José Maria

    2015-10-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the influence of lipoic acid (LA) supplementation (439.84±6.71 mg LA/kg feed) on antioxidants responses throughout the time in intestine, liver and muscle of juvenile common carp Cyprinus carpio. Two experimental groups were fed during four weeks with a diet with or without LA. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, glutathione (GSH) content, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP) and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were evaluated in these organs. Also, a technique to measure protein disulfide bonds and sulfhydryl groups was optimized for intestine samples. GST activity was significantly higher (p<0.05) in intestine after two weeks of supplementation. GSH content was also significantly higher (p<0.05) in intestine, liver and muscle of fish fed with LA after two and three weeks, respectively. Total capacity antioxidant against peroxyl radicals was significantly increased (p<0.05) in the muscle of animals fed with LA after the fourth week. Concentration of disulfide bonds was higher in the intestine of fish fed with LA but this group also showed higher concentration of sulfhydryl groups (p<0.05). It is concluded that supplementation with LA is a safe strategy to induce antioxidant responses and improves the antioxidant status in different organs of common carp. Two week of supplementation are required to induce antioxidant responses in intestine and liver and three week for muscle.

  4. Fish Oil and Microalga Omega-3 as Dietary Supplements: A Comparative Study on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in High-Fat Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Haimeur, Adil; Mimouni, Virginie; Ulmann, Lionel; Martineau, Anne-Sophie; Messaouri, Hafida; Pineau-Vincent, Fabienne; Tremblin, Gérard; Meskini, Nadia

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can have beneficial effects on a number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). We compared the effects of two n-3 PUFA rich food supplements (freeze-dried Odontella aurita and fish oil) on risk factors for CVD. Male rats were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each and fed with the following diets: control group (C) received a standard diet containing 7 % lipids; second group (HF high fat) was fed with a high-fat diet containing 40 % lipids; third group (HFFO high fat+fish oil) was fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with 0.5 % fish oil; and fourth group (HFOA high fat+O. aurita) received the high-fat diet supplemented with 12 % of freeze-dried O. aurita. After 8 weeks rats fed with the high-fat diet supplemented with O. aurita displayed a significantly lower bodyweight than those in the other groups. Both the microalga and the fish oil significantly reduced insulinemia and serum lipid levels. O. aurita was more effective than the fish oil in reducing hepatic triacyglycerol levels and in preventing high-fat diet-induced steatosis. O. aurita and fish oil also reduced platelet aggregation and oxidative status induced by high fat intake. After an OA supplementation, the adipocytes in the HFOA group were smaller than those in the HF group. Freeze-dried O. aurita showed similar or even greater biological effects than the fish oil. This could be explained by a potential effect of the n-3 PUFA but also other bioactive compounds of the microalgae.

  5. Effects of soybean meal or canola meal on milk production and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Gidlund, H; Hetta, M; Krizsan, S J; Lemosquet, S; Huhtanen, P

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of soybean meal (SBM) and heat-moisture-treated canola meal (TCM) on milk production and methane emissions in dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets. Twenty-eight Swedish Red cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with 4 periods of 21 d and with treatments in 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (however, the control diet without supplementary protein was not fed in replicate). The diets were fed ad libitum as a total mixed ration containing 600 g/kg of grass silage and 400 g/kg of concentrates on a dry matter (DM) basis. The concentrate without supplementary protein consisted of crimped barley and premix (312 and 88 g/kg of DM), providing 130 g of dietary crude protein (CP)/kg of DM. The other 6 concentrates were formulated to provide 170, 210, or 250 g of CP/kg of DM by replacing crimped barley with incremental amounts of SBM (50, 100, or 150 g/kg of diet DM) or TCM (70, 140, or 210 g/kg of diet DM). Feed intake was not influenced by dietary CP concentration, but tended to be greater in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Milk and milk protein yield increased linearly with dietary CP concentration, with greater responses in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Apparent N efficiency (milk N/N intake) decreased linearly with increasing dietary CP concentration and was lower for cows fed SBM diets than cows fed TCM diets. Milk urea concentration increased linearly with increased dietary CP concentration, with greater effects in cows fed SBM diets than in cows fed TCM diets. Plasma concentrations of total AA and essential AA increased with increasing dietary CP concentration, but no differences were observed between the 2 protein sources. Plasma concentrations of Lys, Met, and His were similar for both dietary protein sources. Total methane emissions were not influenced by diet, but emissions per kilogram of DM intake decreased quadratically, with the lowest value observed in cows fed intermediate levels of protein

  6. Intake and digestibility in cattle fed low-quality tropical forage and supplemented with nitrogenous compounds.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Claudia B; Detmann, Edenio; Paulino, Mario F; Valadares Filho, Sebastiao C; de Souza, Marjorrie A; Lazzarini, Isis; Paulino, Pedro V Rodrigues; de Queiroz, Augusto C

    2010-10-01

    The effects of supplementation with nitrogenous compounds on intake, digestibility, and microbial protein synthesis in cattle fed low-quality tropical forage were assessed. Five rumen fistulated crossbred Holstein x Gir heifers were used, with initial average live weight of 180 +/- 21 kg. Signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) hay (48.6 g kg(-1) of crude protein (CP), on a dry matter (DM) basis) was used as roughage. Five treatments were defined according to nitrogen supplementation level (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 g of CP kg(-1) above the CP level of the hay). A mixture of urea, ammonium sulfate, and albumin at the ratios of 4.5:0.5:1.0, respectively, was used as nitrogen source. The experiment consisted of five experimental periods, according to a 5 x 5 Latin square design. The average CP contents in the diets were 51.9, 71.1, 86.0, 116.7, and 130.2 g kg(-1), on a DM basis. A quadratic effect was detected (P < 0.10) of the CP levels in the diets on DM and neutral detergent fiber intake (kg/day), with maximum response at the levels of 102.4 and 100.5 g CP kg(-1) DM, respectively. The average daily concentration of rumen ammonia nitrogen showed increasing linear pattern (P < 0.01) as function of CP levels in the diet, with estimated value of 9.64 mg dL(-1) equivalent to the maximum DM intake. Microbial nitrogen flow in the intestine was linearly and positively related (P < 0.01) with the CP levels in the diet.

  7. Broiler chicks fed low-calcium diets. 2. Increased sensitivity to copper toxicity.

    PubMed

    Leach, R M; Rosenblum, C I; Amman, M J; Burdette, J

    1990-11-01

    Young broiler chicks were more sensitive to copper toxicity when they were fed diets deficient or marginal in calcium content. Growth rate was depressed and liver copper concentration was increased under these conditions. Chicks fed a casein-gelatin diet were more sensitive to copper toxicity than those fed a corn-soybean meal diet. Addition of phytic acid to the casein-gelatin basal diet enhanced copper toxicity as evidenced by effects on growth rate and liver copper content. Measurements of intestinal and biliary copper content suggested that the influence of calcium on copper toxicity was mediated via intestinal absorption rather than through influences on copper excretion.

  8. Growth response and resistance to Streptococcus iniae of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fed diets containing different levels of wheat distiller dried grains with solubles with or without lysine supplementation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary levels of wheat distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with or without lysine supplementation on growth, body composition, hematology, immune response, and resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, to Streptococcus iniae challen...

  9. Effects of different forms of white lupin (Lupinus albus) grain supplementation on feed intake, digestibility, growth performance and carcass characteristics of Washera sheep fed Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Tefera, Gebru; Tegegne, Firew; Mekuriaw, Yeshambel; Melaku, Solomon; Tsunekawa, Atsushi

    2015-12-01

    Protein is the major limiting nutrient in feeding ruminants especially in dryland areas. Thus, looking for locally available protein sources such as white lupin (Lupinus albus) grain is commendable. The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of supplementation of different forms of white lupin grain (WLG) on feed and nutrient intake, digestibility, growth and carcass characteristics. Twenty-five yearling male Washera sheep with initial body weight (BW) of 16.26 ± 1.41 kg (mean ± SD) were used. Animals were blocked into five based on their initial BW and were randomly assigned to one of the following five dietary treatments: Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay (RGH) alone (T1) or supplemented with 300 g (on dry matter (DM) basis) raw WLG (T2) or raw soaked and dehulled WLG (T3) or roasted WLG (T4) or raw soaked WLG (T5). Supplementation with WLG significantly improved total DM and nutrient intake (P < 0.001), nutrient digestibility (P < 0.01), and average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) (P < 0.001). Carcass quality parameters were significantly (P < 0.001) higher for supplemented sheep. However, the difference in carcass quality parameters among supplemented groups was not significant (P > 0.05). It is concluded that roasting white lupin grain can lead to a better feed and nutrient intake and consequently better carcass quality. White lupin grain can be recommended not only for maintenance but also for optimum performance of ruminants.

  10. Comparison of growth and exploratory behavior in mice fed an exclusively milk formula diet and mice fed a food-pellet diet post weaning.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Toshiaki; Itou, Takuya; Nishimura, Masakazu

    2005-11-26

    An exclusively milk formula diet stunted the growth of mice immediately following weaning. Milk-fed mice displayed a low-frequency profile of exploratory behavior, while pellet-fed mice showed high-frequency exploration. In contrast to exploratory behavior, feeding behavior did not differ significantly between milk- and pellet-fed mice. Despite showing low-frequency exploratory behavior, mice on an exclusively milk formula diet showed no difference in behavioral activities analyzed by an automatic hole-board apparatus compared to pellet-fed mice. These results suggest that the growth stunt caused by an exclusively milk formula diet retards the acquisition of active exploratory behavior without affecting the emotional state of mice.

  11. Effect of L-arginine supplementation on insulin resistance and serum adiponectin concentration in rats with fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Miczke, Anna; Suliburska, Joanna; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Ostrowska, Lucyna; Jabłecka, Anna; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Skrypnik, Damian; Bogdański, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Object: The purpose of this study was to determine whether supplementation with L-arginine, a substrate used in the production of nitric oxide, had an effect on adiponectin concentration in rats fed a high-fat diet. The influence of L-arginine on insulin resistance was also evaluated. Materials and methods: The experiment was performed using 36 Wistar rats divided into three groups: group 1 was fed a standard diet, group 2 a high-fat (HF) diet, group 3 a HF diet supplemented with L-arginine. After 42 days, serum levels of lipids, glucose, insulin, NO, and adiponectin were measured. Insulin resistance (IR) was estimated by the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA). Results: Body mass was equal in all 3 groups, at the beginning as well as at the end of the study, however, in group 2 the amount of visceral fat was greater after 42 days. In group 3, there was a tendency for visceral fat to decrease. An increase in cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin and HOMA-IR, as well as a decrease in NO and adiponectin were seen in group 2, while in group 3, L-arginine supplementation ameliorated these disturbances. Conclusions: Our study shows that L-arginine supplementation in rats fed a HF diet is associated with an increase in insulin sensitivity. Our findings suggest that the underlying mechanism could be at least partially related to an increase in adiponectin concentration. PMID:26379826

  12. Effects of one-seed juniper and polyethylene glycol on intake, rumen fermentation, and plasma amino acids in sheep and goats fed supplemental protein and tannins.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on juniper and total intake, rumen fermentation, and plasma amino acids (AA) of 12 does and 12 ewes fed sudangrass and basal diets containing 10% quebracho tannins with no protein supplement (Control; 5% CP) or high rumen degradable (RDP 15% CP) or u...

  13. Effects of protein hydrolysates supplementation in low fish meal diets on growth performance, innate immunity and disease resistance of red sea bream Pagrus major.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Sanaz; Rahimnejad, Samad; Herault, Mikaël; Fournier, Vincent; Lee, Cho-Rong; Dio Bui, Hien Thi; Jeong, Jun-Bum; Lee, Kyeong-Jun

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the supplemental effects of three different types of protein hydrolysates in a low fish meal (FM) diet on growth performance, feed utilization, intestinal morphology, innate immunity and disease resistance of juvenile red sea bream. A FM-based diet was used as a high fish meal diet (HFM) and a low fish meal (LFM) diet was prepared by replacing 50% of FM by soy protein concentrate. Three other diets were prepared by supplementing shrimp, tilapia or krill hydrolysate to the LFM diet (designated as SH, TH and KH, respectively). Triplicate groups of fish (4.9 ± 0.1 g) were fed one of the test diets to apparent satiation twice daily for 13 weeks and then challenged by Edwardsiella tarda. At the end of the feeding trial, significantly (P < 0.05) higher growth performance was obtained in fish fed HFM and hydrolysate treated groups compared to those fed the LFM diet. Significant improvements in feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios were obtained in fish fed the hydrolysates compared to those fed the LFM diet. Significant enhancement in digestibility of protein was found in fish fed SH and KH diets and dry matter digestibility was increased in the group fed SH diet in comparison to LFM group. Fish fed the LFM diet showed significantly higher glucose level than all the other treatments. Whole-body and dorsal muscle compositions were not significantly influenced by dietary treatments. Histological analysis revealed significant reductions in goblet cell numbers and enterocyte length in the proximal intestine of fish fed the LFM diet. Superoxide dismutase activity and total immunoglobulin level were significantly increased in fish fed the diets containing protein hydrolysates compared to the LFM group. Also, significantly higher lysozyme and antiprotease activities were found in fish fed the hydrolysates and HFM diets compared to those offered LFM diet. Fish fed the LFM diet exhibited the lowest disease resistance against E. tarda

  14. Diphenyl diselenide-supplemented diet and swimming exercise enhance novel object recognition memory in old rats.

    PubMed

    Cechella, José L; Leite, Marlon R; Rosario, Alisson R; Sampaio, Tuane B; Zeni, Gilson

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of exercise and the element selenium on mental health and cognitive performance are well documented. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the intake of a diet supplemented with diphenyl diselenide [(PhSe)2] and the swimming exercise could enhance memory in old Wistar rats. Male Wistar rats (24 months) were fed daily with standard diet chow or standard chow supplemented with 1 ppm of (PhSe)2 during 4 weeks. Animals were submitted to swimming training with a workload (3 % of body weight, 20 min/day for 4 weeks). After 4 weeks, the object recognition test (ORT) and the object location test (OLT) were performed. The results of this study demonstrated that intake of a supplemented diet with (PhSe)2 and swimming exercise was effective in improving short-term and long-term memory as well as spatial learning, increasing the hippocampal levels of phosphorylated cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) in old rats. This study also provided evidence that (PhSe)2-supplemented diet facilitated memory of old rats by modulating cAMP levels and stimulating CREB phosphorylation, without altering the levels of Akt.

  15. Performance of broiler chicks fed on alkali-treated neem (Azadirachta indica) kernel cake as a protein supplement.

    PubMed

    Nagalakshmi, D; Sastry, V R; Agrawal, D K; Katiyar, R C; Verma, S V

    1996-09-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to evaluate growth and nutrient efficiency of broiler chicks from 3 to 42 d fed on diets containing alkali-treated neem (Azadirachta indica A. juss) kernel cake (NKC) as a protein supplement in place of peanut meal (PNM). 2. NKC was treated with sodium hydroxide at 10 (ANKC 1) or 20 g (ANKC 2)/kg and incorporated into the test diets at 135 or 300 g/kg to replace 50 (low-L) or 100 (High-H)% of the PNM protein of the reference diet. 3. Despite comparable retentions of dry matter and total carbohydrate on L-ANKC 1 and 2, fibre on L-and H-ANKC 2 and nitrogen, calcium and acid detergent fibre on all experimental diets compared to the retentions of chicks on the reference diet, only the chicks fed L-ANKC 2 were found to grow and utilise food as well as those on the reference diet. 4. The activities of serum alkaline phosphatase on H-ANKC 1 and alanine amino transferase on all test diets were depressed (P < 0.05), but the activity of serum aspartate amino transferase, total erythrocyte count and concentration of blood haemoglobin and urea were similar in all chicks. 5. No significant differences were noticed in the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the meat of chicks fed on the reference diet and on diets incorporating ANKC at the lower concentrations. Feeding ANKC protein did not impart any untoward taste as evaluated in pressure cooked meat by a semitrained panel on a 7 point Hedonic scale. 6. Except for duodenal and jejunal inflammation in chicks on both reference and test diets, all the vital organs were normal, ruling out any adverse affects caused by residual neem bitters. 7. Comparable performance and cost of chicks fed on the reference and L-ANKC 2 diets, warrants the utilisation of hitherto wasted protein-rich NKC after alkali treatment in broiler chick diets to spare peanut meal for human consumption in developing countries.

  16. Body fat accumulation in zebrafish is induced by a diet rich in fat and reduced by supplementation with green tea extract.

    PubMed

    Meguro, Shinichi; Hasumura, Takahiro; Hase, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Fat-rich diets not only induce obesity in humans but also make animals obese. Therefore, animals that accumulate body fat in response to a high-fat diet (especially rodents) are commonly used in obesity research. The effect of dietary fat on body fat accumulation is not fully understood in zebrafish, an excellent model of vertebrate lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effects of dietary fat and green tea extract, which has anti-obesity properties, on body fat accumulation in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were allocated to four diet groups and over 6 weeks were fed a high-fat diet containing basal diet plus two types of fat or a low-fat diet containing basal diet plus carbohydrate or protein. Another group of adult zebrafish was fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% green tea extract supplementation. Zebrafish fed the high-fat diets had nearly twice the body fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat) volume and body fat volume ratio (body fat volume/body weight) of those fed low-fat diets. There were no differences in body fat accumulation between the two high-fat groups, nor were there any differences between the two low-fat groups. Adding green tea extract to the high-fat diet significantly suppressed body weight, body fat volume, and body fat volume ratio compared with the same diet lacking green tea extract. 3-Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with green tea extract than in those fed the unsupplemented diet. Our results suggest that a diet rich in fat, instead of protein or carbohydrate, induced body fat accumulation in zebrafish with mechanisms that might be similar to those in mammals. Consequently, zebrafish might serve as a good animal model for research into obesity induced by high-fat diets.

  17. Impact of combined β-glucanase and xylanase enzymes on growth performance, nutrients utilization and gut microbiota in broiler chickens fed corn or wheat-based diets.

    PubMed

    Munyaka, P M; Nandha, N K; Kiarie, E; Nyachoti, C M; Khafipour, E

    2016-03-01

    The effects of a xylanase and β-glucanase (XB) blend (2,500 U of xylanase and 250 U of β-glucanase per kg of complete feed) on growth performance, nutrients utilization and digesta microbiota in broiler chickens were investigated. A total of 140 day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 7 replicate cages and fed experimental diets. Diets were based on either corn or wheat without or with supplemental XB. Performance was monitored weekly and excreta were collected from d 17 to 20 for nutrients digestibility and AMEn measurements. On d 21, jejunal contents were collected for viscosity determination whereas ileal and cecal contents were obtained for microbial analysis by Illumina sequencing. Microbial data were analyzed using QIIME and PLS-DA whilst other data were analyzed using SAS. Birds fed wheat diets had higher (P < 0.001) BWG (3.4%) than birds fed corn-based diet whilst birds fed XB had better BWG (4%) and FCR (7%) than birds fed non-XB diets. Birds fed wheat diet had higher (P < 0.001) NDF (46.5%) and less (P = 0.01) CP (-5.4%) digestibility compared to birds fed corn-based diet. XB reduced (P < 0.001) jejunal digesta viscosity to a greater extent in wheat diet (-31%) than in corn-based diet (-10%). Birds fed wheat-based diet with XB had higher (3.5%) starch digestibility than birds fed this diet without XB. Janthinobacterium was associated with non-XB corn-based diet, whereas Ruminococcus, Lachnospiraceae, Lactobacillaceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, Clostridiales, Acidovorax and Blautia were associated with XB corn-based diet in the ileum. A relatively similar microbiome clustering was observed in wheat-based treatments in the cecum. There were no significant (P ≥ 0.05) correlations between selected ileal or cecal bacterial taxa and AMEn. Diet impacted growth performance but XB was efficacious across diet types, implying that degradation of dietary fibrous components by feed enzymes may stimulate performance in young birds. Data provided

  18. Cinnamon Polyphenol Extract Inhibits Hyperlipidemia and Inflammation by Modulation of Transcription Factors in High-Fat Diet-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tuzcu, Zeynep; Orhan, Cemal; Sahin, Nurhan; Juturu, Vijaya

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of cinnamon polyphenol extract on hepatic transcription factors expressions including SREBP-1c and LXR-α in rats fed high fat diet (HFD). Twenty-eight Wistar rats were allocated into four groups: (i) normal control: animals fed with normal chow; (ii) cinnamon: animals supplemented with cinnamon polyphenol; (iii) HFD: animals fed a high-fat diet; and (iv) HFD + cinnamon: animals fed a high-fat diet and treated with cinnamon polyphenol. Obesity was linked to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and oxidative stress as imitated by elevated serum glucose, lipid profile, and serum and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. Cinnamon polyphenol decreased body weight, visceral fat, liver weight and serum glucose and insulin concentrations, liver antioxidant enzymes, and lipid profile (P < 0.05) and reduced serum and liver MDA concentration compared to HFD rats (P < 0.05). Cinnamon polyphenol also suppressed the hepatic SREBP-1c, LXR-α, ACLY, FAS, and NF-κB p65 expressions and enhanced the PPAR-α, IRS-1, Nrf2, and HO-1 expressions in the HFD rat livers (P < 0.05). In conclusion, cinnamon polyphenol reduces the hyperlipidemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress through activating transcription factors and antioxidative defense signaling pathway in HFD rat liver.

  19. Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids to a low-protein diet regulates intestinal expression of amino acid and peptide transporters in weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shihai; Qiao, Shiyan; Ren, Man; Zeng, Xiangfang; Ma, Xi; Wu, Zhenlong; Thacker, Philip; Wu, Guoyao

    2013-11-01

    This study determined the effects of dietary branched-chain amino acids (AA) (BCAA) on growth performance, expression of jejunal AA and peptide transporters, and the colonic microflora of weanling piglets fed a low-protein (LP) diet. One hundred and eight Large White × Landrace × Duroc piglets (weaned at 28 days of age) were fed a normal protein diet (NP, 20.9 % crude protein), an LP diet (LP, 17.1 % crude protein), or an LP diet supplemented with BCAA (LP + BCAA, 17.9 % crude protein) for 14 days. Dietary protein restriction reduced piglet growth performance and small-intestinal villous height, which were restored by BCAA supplementation to the LP diet to values for the NP diet. Serum concentrations of BCAA were reduced in piglets fed the LP diet while those in piglets fed the LP + BCAA diet were similar to values for the NP group. mRNA levels for Na(+)-neutral AA exchanger-2, cationic AA transporter-1, b(0,+) AA transporter, and 4F2 heavy chain were more abundant in piglets fed the LP + BCAA diet than the LP diet. However, mRNA and protein levels for peptide transporter-1 were lower in piglets fed the LP + BCAA diet as compared to the LP diet. The colonic microflora did not differ among the three groups of pigs. In conclusion, growth performance, intestinal development, and intestinal expression of AA transporters in weanling piglets are enhanced by BCAA supplementation to LP diets. Our findings provide a new molecular basis for further understanding of BCAA as functional AA in animal nutrition.

  20. HPMC supplementation reduces fatty liver, intestinal permeability, and insulin resistance with altered hepatic gene expression in diet-induced obese mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), a highly viscous nonfermentable soluble dietary fiber, were evaluated on global hepatic gene profiles, steatosis and insulin resistance in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. DIO C57BL/6J mice were fed a HF diet supplemented with either ...

  1. Intestinal morphology, brush border and digesta enzyme activities of broilers fed on a diet containing Cu2+-loaded montmorillonite.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y L; Guo, T

    2008-01-01

    1. A total of 320 1-d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were used to investigate the effect of Cu(2+)-loaded montmorillonite (CM) on the growth performance, intestinal morphology and activities of brush border enzyme in the intestinal mucosa and digestive enzyme in the intestinal digesta of broilers. 2. The chicks were assigned randomly into 4 groups with 80 chicks per treatment. The 4 dietary treatments were: basal diet only (control group), basal diet + 2 g montmorillonite/kg, basal diet + 1 g CM/kg, and basal diet + 2 g CM/kg. The chicks were raised in cages and feed and water were provided ad libitum for a period of 42 d. 3. The addition of CM to the diet of broilers significantly increased body weight and feed efficiency. Similarly, birds receiving montmorillonite had higher feed efficiency than the control after 42 d of feeding. 4. Data on villus height and crypt depth for duodenum, jejunum and ileum indicated that treating the diet of broilers with either CM or montmorillonite improved the mucosal morphology of the small intestine. 5. The presence of CM in the diet of broilers significantly increased the activities of maltase, aminopeptidase N and alkaline phosphatase in small intestinal mucosa. However, the activities of protease, trypsin, chymotrypsin, amylase and lipase in small intestinal digesta of broilers fed on the CM-supplemented diet were slightly higher than control values.

  2. Effects of crystalline amino acid supplementation to the diet on odor from pig manure.

    PubMed

    Le, P D; Aarnink, A J A; Jongbloed, A W; van der Peet Schwering, C M C; Ogink, N W M; Verstegen, M W A

    2007-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of specific crystalline AA supplementation to a diet on odor emission, odor intensity, odor hedonic tone, and ammonia emission from pig manure, and on manure characteristics (pH; ammonia N; total nitrogen; sulfurous, indolic, and phenolic compounds; and VFA concentrations). An experiment was conducted with growing pigs (n = 18) in a randomized complete block design, with 3 treatments in 6 blocks. Treatment groups were (1) a 15%-CP basal diet with 3 times the requirement of sulfur-containing AA (14.2 g/kg of diet, as-fed basis); (2) the basal diet with 2 times the requirement of Trp and Phe+Tyr (2.9 and 20.4 g/kg of diet, respectively, as-fed basis); and (3) the basal diet with AA supplementation to levels sufficient for maximum protein gain. Pigs with an initial BW of 41.2 +/- 0.8 kg were individually penned in partly slatted floor pens and offered a daily feed allowance of 2.8 times the maintenance requirement for NE (293 kJ/kg of BW(0.75)). Feed was mixed with water at 1:2.5 (wt/wt). Feces and urine of each pig was allowed to accumulate in separate manure pits under the slatted floor. After an adaptation period of 2 wk, and after cleaning the manure pits, manure was subsequently collected. In wk 5 of the collection period, separate samples were collected directly from each manure pit for odor, ammonia, and manure composition analyses. Air samples were analyzed for odor concentration and for hedonic tone and odor intensity above the odor detection threshold. Results showed that supplementing crystalline S-containing AA in surplus of the requirement increased odor emission (P < 0.001) and odor intensity (P < 0.05) and reduced odor hedonic tone (P < 0.05) from the air above the manure pits. Supplementing crystalline Trp, Tyr, and Phe in surplus of the recommended requirements did not affect odor emission, odor intensity, or odor hedonic tone. Regardless of dietary treatment, all pigs had similar performance

  3. Body fat accumulation is greater in rats fed a beef tallow diet than in rats fed a safflower or soybean oil diet.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroo; Suzuki, Masashige

    2002-01-01

    The effects of dietary fats , consisting of different fatty acids, on body fat accumulation and uncoupling protein (UCP) in interscapular brown adipose tissue were studied in rats. Metabolisable energy in experimental diets based on safflower oil, soybean oil or beef tallow was measured strictly (experiment 1). Male Wistar rats were then meal-fed an isoenergetic diet for 8 weeks (experiment 2). Each group of rats showed the same weight gain during the 8-week experimental period. Carcass fat content was greater in rats fed the beef tallow diet than in those fed the with the safflower or soybean oil diets, whereas the weight of abdominal adipose tissue was the same for all three dietary groups. Gene expression of UCP1 and the UCP content of the interscapular brown adipose tissue was lower in the beef tallow diet group than in the other dietary groups. A negative correlation was observed between carcass fat content and n-6 unsaturated fatty acid content in dietary fats. These results suggest that the greater body fat accumulation in rats fed the beef tallow diet results from lower expression of UCP1 mRNA and lower UCP content in brown adipose tissue. n-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acids may be the most effective fatty acids in limiting body fat.

  4. Complete nutrient content of four species of commercially available feeder insects fed enhanced diets during growth.

    PubMed

    Finke, Mark D

    2015-11-01

    Commercially raised feeder insects used to feed captive insectivores are a good source of many nutrients but are deficient in several key nutrients. Current methods used to supplement insects include dusting and gut-loading. Here, we report on the nutrient composition of four species of commercially raised feeder insects fed a special diet to enhance their nutrient content. Crickets, mealworms, superworms, and waxworms were analyzed for moisture, crude protein, fat, ash, acid detergent fiber, total dietary fiber, minerals, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, taurine, carotenoids, inositol, and cholesterol. All four species contained enhanced levels of vitamin E and omega 3 fatty acids when compared to previously published data for these species. Crickets, superworms, and mealworms contained β-carotene although using standard conversion factors only crickets and superworms would likely contain sufficient vitamin A activity for most species of insectivores. Waxworms did not contain any detectable β-carotene but did contain zeaxanthin which they likely converted from dietary β-carotene. All four species contained significant amounts of both inositol and cholesterol. Like previous reports all insects were a poor source of calcium and only superworms contained vitamin D above the limit of detection. When compared to the nutrient requirements as established by the NRC for growing rats or poultry, these species were good sources of most other nutrients although the high fat and low moisture content of both waxworms and superworms means when corrected for energy density these two species were deficient in more nutrients than crickets or mealworms. These data show the value of modifying the diet of commercially available insects as they are growing to enhance their nutrient content. They also suggest that for most insectivores properly supplemented lower fat insects such as crickets, or smaller mealworms should form the bulk of the diet.

  5. Effectual comparison of quinoa and amaranth supplemented diets in controlling appetite; a biochemical study in rats.

    PubMed

    Mithila, M V; Khanum, Farhath

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of two current cynosure protein substitutes; quinoa and amaranth in controlling short term food intake and satiety in rats. Experimental rats were allotted to three groups (n = 8 per group) and fed with diets containing casein, quinoa and amaranth as major protein sources, with casein diet kept as control. At the end of the experiment it was observed that the rats ingesting quinoa and amaranth supplemented diets exhibited lesser food intake (p < 0.01) and lesser body weight gain significantly in amaranth (p < 0.05) as compared to control. They seemed to bring down plasma ghrelin levels while meliorating plasma leptin and cholecystokinin (CCK) levels postprandially (p < 0.01). Although both quinoa diet and amaranth diet were effective in improving blood glucose response and maintaining plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and general lipid profiles subsequently after the meal, amaranth diet showed significant effects when compared to control and amaranth diets. There was 15 % improvement in blood glucose profile in the amaranth group with respect to the control at 90 min, where as there was only 3.4 % improvement in the quinoa group. These findings provide a scientific rationale to consider incorporation of these modest cereals in a diet meant to fight against growing obesity and poverty.

  6. Influence of Kaolinite Clay Supplementation on Growth Performance and Digestive Function in Finishing Calf-fed Holstein Steers

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, José; Montaño, Martín; Plascencia, Alejandro; Salinas, Jaime; Torrentera, Noemí; Zinn, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the influence of kaolinite clay supplementation (0%, 1%, or 2% diet dry matter [DM] basis) on characteristics of digestion (Trial 1) and growth performance (Trial 2) in calf-fed Holstein steers fed a finishing diet. In Trial 1, 6 Holstein steers (539±15 kg) with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used to evaluate treatment effects on characteristics of digestion. Kaolinite clay supplementation decreased total tract DM digestion (linear effect, p<0.01) without effects (p≥0.10) on site and extent of digestion of organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, starch and N, or ruminal microbial efficiency. There were no treatment effects on ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids molar proportions or estimated methane production. In Trial 2, 108 Holstein steers (132.4±5.6 kg) were used in a 308-d study to evaluate growth performance and carcass characteristics. There were no treatment effects (p>0.10) on average daily gain (ADG) and gain efficiency (ADG/dry matter intake). Kaolinite supplementation tended (linear effect, p = 0.08) to increase dietary net energy (NE) during the initial 112-d period. However, the overall (308-d) effect of supplementation dietary NE was not appreciable (p>0.20). However, due to the inertness of kaolinite, itself, the ratio of observed-to-expected dietary NE increased with kaolinite supplementation. This effect was more pronounced (linear effect, p 0.03) during the initial 224 d of the study. Overall (308 d), kaolinite supplementation tended to increase (linear effect, p = 0.07) dietary NE by 3% over expected. Kaolinite supplementation did not affect carcass weight, yield grade, longissimus area, kidney, pelvic and heart fat, and quality grade, but decreased (linear effect, p = 0.01) dressing percentage. It is concluded that kaolinite supplementation up to 2% of diet DM may enhance energetic efficiency of calf-fed Holstein steers in a manner independent of changes in characteristics of ruminal and total

  7. The effects of chromium complex and level on glucose metabolism and memory acquisition in rats fed high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Kazim; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Orhan, Cemal; Agca, Can A; Sahin, Nurhan; Guvenc, Mehmet; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Staniek, Halina; Hayirli, Armagan

    2011-11-01

    Conditions in which glucose metabolism is impaired due to insulin resistance are associated with memory impairment. It was hypothesized that supplemental chromium (Cr) may alleviate insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes and consequently improve memory acquisition, depending upon its source and level. In a complete randomized design experiment, male Wistar rats (n=60; weighing 200-220 g) were fed either normal (8%, normal diet (ND)) or high-fat (40%, high-fat diet (HFD)) diet and supplemented with Cr as either chromium-glycinate (CrGly) or chromium-acetate (CrAc) at doses of 0, 40, or 80 μg/kg body weight (BW) via drinking water from 8 to 20 weeks of age. Feeding HFD induced type 2 diabetes, as reflected by greater glucose/insulin ratio (2.98 vs. 2.74) comparing to feeding ND. Moreover, HFD rats had greater BW (314 vs. 279 g) and less serum (53 vs. 68 μg/L) and brain (14 vs. 24 ng/g) Cr concentrations than ND rats. High-fat diet caused a 32% reduction in expressions of glucose transporters 1 and 3 (GLUTs) in brain tissue and a 27% reduction in mean percentage time spent in the target quadrant and a 38% increase in spatial memory acquisition phase (SMAP) compared with ND. Compared with supplemental Cr as CrAc, CrGly was more effective to ameliorate response variables (i.e., restoration of tissue Cr concentration, enhancement of cerebral GLUTs expressions, and reduction of the glucose/insulin ratio and SMAP) in a dose-response manner, especially in rats fed HFD. Supplemental Cr as CrGly may have therapeutic potential to enhance insulin action and alleviate memory acquisition in a dose-dependent manner, through restoring tissue Cr reserve and enhancing cerebral GLUTs expressions.

  8. Nutrient digestibility and mass balance in laying hens fed a commercial or acidifying diet.

    PubMed

    Wu-Haan, W; Powers, W J; Angel, C R; Hale, C E; Applegate, T J

    2007-04-01

    The objectives of the current study were to evaluate the effect of an acidifying diet (gypsum) combined with zeolite and slightly reduced crude protein (R) vs. a control diet (C) on nutrient retention in laying hens and compare 3 approaches to estimating nutrient excretion from hens: 1) mass balance calculation (feed nutrients - egg nutrient), 2) use of an indigestible marker with analyzed feed and excreta nutrient content, and 3) an environmental chamber that allowed for capturing all excreted and volatilized nutrients. Hens (n = 640) were allocated randomly to 8 environmental chambers for 3-wk periods. Excreta samples were collected at the end of each trial to estimate apparent retention of N, S, P, and Ca. No diet effects on apparent retention of N were observed (53.44%, P > 0.05). Apparent retention of S, P, and Ca decreased in hens fed R diet (18.7, - 11.4, and 22.6%, respectively) compared with hens fed the C diet (40.7, 0.3, and 28.6%, respectively; P < 0.05). Total N excretion from hens fed the C and R diet was not different (1.16 g/hen/d); however, mass of chamber N remaining in excreta following the 3-wk period was less from hens fed the C diet (1.27 kg) than from hens fed the R diet (1.43 kg). Gaseous emissions of NH(3) over the 3-wk period from hens fed the C diet (0.74 kg per chamber) were greater than emissions from hens fed the R diet (0.45 kg). The 3-wk S excretion mass (estimated using the calculation, indigestible marker, and environmental chamber methods, respectively) was greater from hens fed the R diet (1.85, 1.54, and 1.27 kg, respectively) compared with hens fed the C diet (0.24, 0.20, and 0.14 kg, respectively). The 3-wk P excretion was similar between diets (0.68 kg). Results demonstrate that feeding the acidified diet resulted in decreased N emissions, but because of the acidulant fed, greatly increased S excretion and emissions.

  9. Effects of supplementing zinc or chromium to finishing steers fed ractopamine hydrochloride on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Edenburn, B M; Kneeskern, S G; Bohrer, B M; Rounds, W; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C; Felix, T L

    2016-02-01

    Objectives were to determine the effects of feeding ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) with zinc (Zn) and chromium (Cr) on feedlot growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality. Steers ( = 179; initial BW = 533 ± 94 kg) were blocked by BW and allotted to 30 pens, and pens were randomly assigned 1 of 5 treatments: (1) control (CONT), (2) RAC only (RO), (3) RAC + Zn (RZ), (4) RAC + Cr (RC), or (5) RAC + Zn + Cr (RZC). Trace minerals were fed from d 0 to 63 to target 1 g of Zn/steer·d (KemTRACE Zn; Kemin Industries, Inc., Des Moines, IA) and 3 mg Cr/steer·d (KemTRACE Chromium; Kemin Industries, Inc.) for Zn and Cr treatments, respectively. Dry-rolled corn, 0.605 kg/steer, was removed from the diet and 400 mg RAC, per 0.605 kg of ground corn carrier, was top dressed per steer immediately following feed delivery to pens fed RAC. There were no effects ( ≥ 0.45) of trace mineral supplementation on DMI, ADG, or G:F before RAC feeding. There were also no treatment effects ( ≥ 0.46) over all 63 d of the trial on DMI, ADG, or G:F. Despite the lack of differences in live performance, steers fed RO and RC averaged 0.10 kg/d greater ( = 0.10) carcass ADG than steers fed RZC and CONT, while steers fed RZ were intermediate and not different. Steers fed RO had the greatest ( = 0.09) carcass G:F, while steers fed CONT had the least carcass G:F, 0.0875 and 0.0774, respectively. Steers fed RO and RC averaged 5.5 kg heavier ( = 0.09) HCW than steers fed RZC and CONT, while steers fed RZ were intermediate and not different. There were no treatment effects ( ≥ 0.32) on LM area, 12th rib fat, marbling score, KPH, carcass yield, or USDA yield grade and distribution. However, carcasses from steers fed RC had the greatest ( = 0.10) percentage grading USDA Select. There were no treatment effects ( ≥ 0.20) on shear force, intramuscular fat, pH, a*, and b*. Steaks from steers fed RO and RC had 11.4% greater ( = 0.08) cook loss than steaks from steers fed CONT and RZC

  10. Basis for regulation of selenium supplements in animal diets.

    PubMed

    Ullrey, D E

    1992-12-01

    Selenium was discovered 174 yr ago but, until 1957, was given little notice by biologists or was vilified as an agent that caused toxicity in grazing ruminants and horses in the northern Great Plains. After its status as an essential nutrient was established, Se received intense scrutiny, and hundreds of papers have been published dealing with its metabolic functions and the consequences of a Se deficiency. Because regions of Se deficiency are so extensive in the United States, great efforts have been made to gain Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for Se supplementation of animal diets. Initially, these efforts were thwarted by concern that Se might be carcinogenic. After this concern was resolved, researchers established supplemental Se levels that were efficacious, safe for animals, safe for humans that eat animal products, and protective of the environment. First approval of Se supplements was given in 1974 for supplementation of swine or growing chicken diets at .1 ppm. Supplements for turkey diets were approved at .2 ppm. Ultimately, in 1987, levels of supplemental Se in diets for chickens, turkeys, ducks, swine, sheep, and cattle were approved at .3 ppm. However, FDA regulations do not mention horses or zoo animals, and those who would ensure the welfare of these species by supplementing Se-deficient diets may be in violation of FDA interpretation of the law. In addition, the association of Se with death and deformities in aquatic birds at the Kesterson Reservoir in California has led to pressure on the FDA to reverse the 1987 amendments to the feed additive regulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Folic acid supplementation during high-fat diet feeding restores AMPK activation via an AMP-LKB1-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sid, Victoria; Wu, Nan; Sarna, Lindsei K; Siow, Yaw L; House, James D; O, Karmin

    2015-11-15

    AMPK is an endogenous energy sensor that regulates lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is regarded as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome with impaired lipid and glucose metabolism and increased oxidative stress. Our recent study showed that folic acid supplementation attenuated hepatic oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in high-fat diet-fed mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of folic acid on hepatic AMPK during high-fat diet feeding and the mechanisms involved. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a control diet (10% kcal fat), a high-fat diet (60% kcal fat), or a high-fat diet supplemented with folic acid (26 mg/kg diet) for 5 wk. Mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited hyperglycemia, hepatic cholesterol accumulation, and reduced hepatic AMPK phosphorylation. Folic acid supplementation restored AMPK phosphorylation (activation) and reduced blood glucose and hepatic cholesterol levels. Activation of AMPK by folic acid was mediated through an elevation of its allosteric activator AMP and activation of its upstream kinase, namely, liver kinase B1 (LKB1) in the liver. Consistent with in vivo findings, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (bioactive form of folate) restored phosphorylation (activation) of both AMPK and LKB1 in palmitic acid-treated HepG2 cells. Activation of AMPK by folic acid might be responsible for AMPK-dependent phosphorylation of HMG-CoA reductase, leading to reduced hepatic cholesterol synthesis during high-fat diet feeding. These results suggest that folic acid supplementation may improve cholesterol and glucose metabolism by restoration of AMPK activation in the liver.

  12. Burdock fermented by Aspergillus awamori elevates cecal Bifidobacterium, and reduces fecal deoxycholic acid and adipose tissue weight in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yukako; Sitanggang, Novita Vivi; Sato, Satoko; Ohnishi, Nanae; Inoue, Junji; Iguchi, Takafumi; Watanabe, Toshiro; Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Harada, Kazuki; Kato, Norihisa

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with burdock powder and Aspergillus awamori-fermented burdock powder at 5% on the intestinal luminal environment and body fat in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Food intake and growth were unaffected by dietary manipulation. Consumption of the burdock and fermented burdock diets significantly elevated fecal IgA and mucins (indices of intestinal immune and barrier functions) and reduced fecal lithocholic acid (a risk factor for colon cancer) (p<0.05). The fermented burdock diet markedly elevated cecal Bifidobacterium and organic acids, including lactate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate, and reduced fecal deoxycholic acid (a risk factor for colon cancer) and perirenal adipose tissue weight (p<0.05), but the burdock diet did not. These results suggest that consumption of fermented burdock improves the intestinal luminal environment and suppresses obesity in rats fed a HF diet.

  13. Feeding reduced crude protein diets with crystalline amino acids supplementation reduce air gas emissions from housing.

    PubMed

    Li, Q-F; Trottier, N; Powers, W

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that reducing dietary CP by 1.5% and supplementing crystalline AA (CAA) to meet the standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA requirements for growing and finishing pigs decreases air emissions of ammonia (NH), nitrous oxide (NO), and carbon dioxide (CO) compared with an industry standard diet, without reducing growth performance. Seventy-two pigs were allocated to 12 rooms (6 pigs per room) and 2 diets (6 rooms per diet) formulated according to a 5-phase feeding program across the grow-finish period (107 d total). The diets consisted of a standard diet containing 18.5 to 12.2% CP or a reduced CP diet containing 17.5 to 11.0% CP + CAA over the course of the 5-phase feeding program. Gases (NH, NO, hydrogen sulfide, methane, nonmethane total hydrocarbon, and CO) and ventilation rates were measured continuously from the rooms. Compared with standard diet, ADG and feed conversion of pigs fed reduced CP + CAA diets did not differ (2.7 kg gain/d and 0.37 kg gain/kg feed, respectively). Compared with standard diet, feeding reduced CP + CAA diets decreased ( < 0.01) NH emissions by 46% over the 107-d period (5.4 and 2.9 g · pig · d, respectively). Change in NH emissions for each percentage unit reduction in dietary CP concentration corresponded with 47.9, 53.2, 26.8, 26.5, and 51.6% during Phases 1 through 5, respectively. Emissions of other gases did not differ between diets. Feeding reduced CP diets formulated based on SID AA requirements for grow-finisher swine is effective in reducing NH emissions from housing compared with recent industry formulations and does not impact growth performances.

  14. Mitochondrial biogenesis and increased uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue of mice fed a ketone ester diet.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shireesh; Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; King, M Todd; Baxa, Ulrich; Tam, Joseph; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Clarke, Kieran; Veech, Richard L

    2012-06-01

    We measured the effects of a diet in which D-β-hydroxybutyrate-(R)-1,3 butanediol monoester [ketone ester (KE)] replaced equicaloric amounts of carbohydrate on 8-wk-old male C57BL/6J mice. Diets contained equal amounts of fat, protein, and micronutrients. The KE group was fed ad libitum, whereas the control (Ctrl) mice were pair-fed to the KE group. Blood d-β-hydroxybutyrate levels in the KE group were 3-5 times those reported with high-fat ketogenic diets. Voluntary food intake was reduced dose dependently with the KE diet. Feeding the KE diet for up to 1 mo increased the number of mitochondria and doubled the electron transport chain proteins, uncoupling protein 1, and mitochondrial biogenesis-regulating proteins in the interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT). [(18)F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in IBAT of the KE group was twice that in IBAT of the Ctrl group. Plasma leptin levels of the KE group were more than 2-fold those of the Ctrl group and were associated with increased sympathetic nervous system activity to IBAT. The KE group exhibited 14% greater resting energy expenditure, but the total energy expenditure measured over a 24-h period or body weights was not different. The quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index was 73% higher in the KE group. These results identify KE as a potential antiobesity supplement.

  15. A rapid HPLC post-column reaction analysis for the quantification of ergothioneine in edible mushrooms and in animals fed a diet supplemented with extracts from the processing waste of cultivated mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, The Han; Giri, Anupam; Ohshima, Toshiaki

    2012-07-15

    For establishing an efficient and sensitive method for the quantitative determination of 2-thiol-l-histidine-betaine (ergothioneine, ERG) in edible mushrooms and the blood and muscles of animals, a technique using reversed-phase separation and post-column reaction between 2'-dipyridyl disulphide and ERG was developed. A corresponding derivative 2-thiopyridone, detected at 343 nm, was used for estimating ERG concentration. The flow rate, temperature, pH, and composition of the solution were optimised. A low limit of quantification (1.41 ppm) and a simpler sample preparation made this technique more rapid compared to other methods using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The coefficient of variation (CV) values for the reproducibility and recovery of ERG were within the acceptable values of 6% and 97.5-100.0%, respectively. The efficiency of this methodology was compared with that of spectrophotometric and mass-spectrometric quantitative methods, and was assessed in the light of previous studies. The ERG contents in different mushrooms were 12.69-234.85 mg/kg wet weight basis. Dietary supplementation with extracts from mushroom processing waste significantly improved ERG bioavailability in the blood of yellowtail fish and muscle tissue of cattle.

  16. Production and economic performance of F1-crossbred dairy cattle fed non-conventional protein supplements in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Gusha, Jacob; Manyuchi, Clive Rolex; Imbayarwo-Chikosi, Venancio Edward; Hamandishe, Vimbayi Rangaridzo; Katsande, Simbarashe; Zvinorova, Plaxedis Ivy

    2014-01-01

    The effects of supplementing crossbred cows with non-conventional protein sources on dry matter intake, milk yield parameters and economic returns were investigated. Twenty-five lactating F1 Holstein-Mashona crossbreds averaging 115 ± 24 days in milk were used. Five treatments, total mixed ration (TMR), urea-treated maize stover, untreated maize stover, Macroptilium atropurpureum (Siratro) hay and veld hay, were randomly assigned to cows and replicated five times in a completely randomised design. Nutrient composition, intake, milk yield and economic returns were determined. M. atropurpureum hay, urea-treated maize stover and TMR had equal crude protein content. Daily dry matter intake and yield differed significantly among the treatment diets (P < 0.05). Cows on TMR, urea-treated maize stover and M. atropurpureum consumed more (P < 0.05) than cows on untreated maize stover and veld hay. Supplementing with TMR, urea-treated maize stover and M. atropurpureum hay increased (P < 0.05) milk yields. Mean daily milk yield was highest for cows supplemented with urea-treated maize stover. Percent fat, protein and total solids in milk from cows fed urea-treated stover compared favourably to that of milk for cows supplemented with TMR. Income over supplement cost was highest for cows supplemented with M. atropurpureum hay and urea-treated maize stover. Urea-treated maize stover and M. atropurpureum can therefore be used as a replacer protein supplements for dairy cattle in Zimbabwe.

  17. Chem I Supplement: Nutrition (Diet) and Athletics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lineback, David R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various aspects related to nutrition and athletics. Examines nutritional requirements, energy use, carbohydrate loading, and myths and fallacies regarding food and athletic performance. Indicates that scientific evidence does not validate the use of any special diet by an athlete. (JN)

  18. Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on growth performance, nutrient utilization, and nitrogen balance of broilers fed with animal fat

    PubMed Central

    Murali, P.; George, S. K.; Ally, K.; Dipu, M. T.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of L-carnitine supplementation on growth performance, nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance in broilers fed with animal fat. Materials and Methods: 80 day-old Cobb commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned into two dietary treatment groups with four replicates of ten chicks each. The diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The birds in both the control (T1) and treatment group (T2) were fed with a diet having 5% animal fat, while the treatment group (T2) was supplemented with 900 mg of L-carnitine. The birds were fed with standard broiler starter ration up to 4 weeks of age and finisher ration up to 6 weeks of age. Results: The average body weight (g), cumulative feed intake (g) and cumulative feed conversion ratio belonging to groups T1 and T2 at 6th week of age were 2091.25 and 2151.11, 3976.49 and 4171.68, 1.97 and 1.96 respectively. The percentage availability of the nutrients of two experimental rations T1 and T2 was 68.23 and 68.00 for dry matter, 58.72 and 55.98 for crude protein, 73.85 and 71.35 for ether extract, 34.19 and 33.86 for crude fiber, 79.18 and 79.59 for nitrogen free extract, 70.24 and 70.03 for energy efficiency and nitrogen balance (g/day) were 2.35 and 2.39, respectively. Conclusion: This study suggests that the supplementation of 900 mg L-carnitine in diet with added animal fat had no effect on growth performance, nutrient utilization, and nitrogen balance of broilers. PMID:27047119

  19. Effects of pectin lyase-modified red ginseng extracts in high-fat diet-fed obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hak-Yong; Park, Kwang-Hyun; Park, Young-Mi; Moon, Dae-In; Oh, Hong-Geun; Kwon, Dae-Young; Yang, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Okjin; Kim, Dong-Woo; Yoo, Ji-Hyun; Hong, Se-Chul; Lee, Kun-Hee; Seol, Su-Yeon; Park, Yong-Sik; Park, Jong-Dae

    2014-01-01

    Red ginseng and its extracts have been used as traditional medicines and functional foods in countries worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine the bioavailability of pectin lyase-modified red ginseng extracts (GS-E3D), and the effects of GS-E3D on adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes, as well as on metabolic disorders such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and fatty liver in high-fat diet fed obese C57BL/6 mice. Mice were divided into 5 groups: normal diet group, high fat diet-vehicle group, high fat diet + 0.1 g/kg GS-E3D (0.1-GS-E3D), high fat diet + 0.3 g/kg (0.3-GS-E3D), high fat diet + 1.0 g/kg (1.0-GS-E3D). Treatment of GS-E3D reduced differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with low cytotoxicity. In the animal model, compared to the high fat diet control, serum glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TG, and leptin level were reduced in treatment animals in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, we found that GS-E3D could decrease total hepatic lipid droplets. These results suggest that GS-E3D, as a dietary supplement, has beneficial effects on obesity and may have useful effects in health-care products. PMID:25628725

  20. Ethanolic extract of Taheebo attenuates increase in body weight and fatty liver in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Hee; Um, Min Young; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Park, Myung Kyu; Ha, Tae Youl

    2014-10-08

    We evaluated whether intake of an ethanolic extract of Taheebo (TBE) from Tabebuia avellanedae protects against body weight increase and fat accumulation in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Four-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD (25% fat, w/w) for 11 weeks. The diet of control (HFD) mice was supplemented with vehicle (0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by gavage); the diet of experimental (TBE) mice was supplemented with TBE (150 mg/kg body weight/day by gavage). Mice administered TBE had significantly reduced body weight gain, fat accumulation in the liver, and fat pad weight, compared to HFD mice. Reduced hypertrophy of fat cells was also observed in TBE mice. Mice administered TBE also showed significantly lower serum levels of triglycerides, insulin, and leptin. Lipid profiles and levels of mRNAs and proteins related to lipid metabolism were determined in liver and white adipose tissue of the mice. Expression of mRNA and proteins related to lipogenesis were decreased in TBE-administered mice compared to mice fed HFD alone. These results suggest that TBE inhibits obesity and fat accumulation by regulation of gene expression related to lipid metabolism in HFD-induced obesity in mice.

  1. Effects of Ilex latifolia and Camellia sinensis on cholesterol and circulating immune complexes in rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xian-Yang; Li, Na-Na; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Hypercholesterolaemia is one of the risk factors for atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular disease. Here, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with Ilex latifolia or green tea (Camellia sinensis) on the levels of plasma total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and circulating immune complexes in Sprague Dawley rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet. We demonstrated that daily administration by gavage of I. latifolia or C. sinensis at doses of 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg body weight for 30 days resulted in a significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol levels and circulating immune complexes and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in rats fed with a high-cholesterol diet compared with levels in the high-cholesterol diet control group. C. sinensis was more effective than I. latifolia. I. latifolia and C. sinensis could be used as food supplements to protect against the development of hypercholesterolaemia.

  2. Mitochondrial biogenesis and increased uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue of mice fed a ketone ester diet

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Shireesh; Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; King, M. Todd; Baxa, Ulrich; Tam, Joseph; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Clarke, Kieran; Veech, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    We measured the effects of a diet in which d-β-hydroxybutyrate-(R)-1,3 butanediol monoester [ketone ester (KE)] replaced equicaloric amounts of carbohydrate on 8-wk-old male C57BL/6J mice. Diets contained equal amounts of fat, protein, and micronutrients. The KE group was fed ad libitum, whereas the control (Ctrl) mice were pair-fed to the KE group. Blood d-β-hydroxybutyrate levels in the KE group were 3-5 times those reported with high-fat ketogenic diets. Voluntary food intake was reduced dose dependently with the KE diet. Feeding the KE diet for up to 1 mo increased the number of mitochondria and doubled the electron transport chain proteins, uncoupling protein 1, and mitochondrial biogenesis-regulating proteins in the interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT). [18F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in IBAT of the KE group was twice that in IBAT of the Ctrl group. Plasma leptin levels of the KE group were more than 2-fold those of the Ctrl group and were associated with increased sympathetic nervous system activity to IBAT. The KE group exhibited 14% greater resting energy expenditure, but the total energy expenditure measured over a 24-h period or body weights was not different. The quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index was 73% higher in the KE group. These results identify KE as a potential antiobesity supplement.—Srivastava, S., Kashiwaya, Y., King, M. T. Baxa, U., Tam, J., Niu, G., Chen, X., Clarke, K., Veech, R. L. Mitochondrial biogenesis and increased uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue of mice fed a ketone ester diet. PMID:22362892

  3. Effect of dietary supplementation with copper sulfate or tribasic copper chloride on the growth performance, liver copper concentrations of broilers fed in floor pens, and stabilities of vitamin E and phytase in feeds.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lin; Wang, Run L; Zhang, Zheng J; Steward, Fred A; Luo, Xugang; Liu, Bin

    2010-12-01

    An experiment was conducted using a total of 840, 1-day-old, Arbor Acres commercial male broilers to compare copper (Cu) sulfate and tribasic Cu chloride (TBCC, Cu(2)(OH)(3)Cl) as sources of supplemental Cu for broilers fed in floor pens. Chicks were randomly allotted to one of seven treatments for six replicate pens of 20 birds each, and were fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet (10.20 mg/kg Cu) supplemented with 0, 100, 150, or 200 mg/kg Cu from either Cu sulfate or TBCC for 21 days. Chicks fed 200 mg/kg Cu as TBCC had a higher (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) than those consuming other diets. Liver Cu contents of broilers fed diets supplemented with TBCC were numerically lower (P > 0.05) than those of broilers fed diets supplemented with Cu sulfate. The vitamin E contents and the phytase activities in the feed fortified with TBCC were higher (P < 0.01) and numerically higher (P > 0.05) compared with those in the feeds fortified with Cu sulfate stored at room temperature, respectively. The vitamin E contents in liver and plasma of broilers fed diets supplemented with TBCC were higher (P < 0.05) than those of birds fed diets supplemented with Cu sulfate. This result indicates that TBCC is more effective than Cu sulfate in improving the growth of broilers fed in floor pens, and it is chemically less active than Cu sulfate in promoting the undesirable oxidation of vitamin E in feeds.

  4. Effects of probiotic supplementation in different energy and nutrient density diets on performance, egg quality, excreta microflora, excreta noxious gas emission, and serum cholesterol concentrations in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z F; Kim, I H

    2013-10-01

    This 6-wk study was conducted to determine the effects of probiotic (Enterococcus faecium DSM 7134) supplementation of different energy and nutrient density diets on performance, egg quality, excreta microflora, excreta noxious gas emission, and serum cholesterol concentrations in laying hens. A total of 432 Hy-Line brown layers (40 wk old) were allotted into 4 dietary treatments with 2 levels of probiotic supplementation (0 or 0.01%) and 2 levels of energy (2,700 or 2,800 kcal ME/kg) and nutrient density. Weekly feed intake, egg quality, and daily egg production were determined. Eighteen layers per treatment (2 layers/replication) were bled to determine serum cholesterol concentrations at wk 3 and 6. Excreta microbial shedding of Lactobacillus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella and noxious gas emission were determined at the end of the experiment. Hens fed the high-energy and high-nutrient-density diets had less (P < 0.01) ADFI than those fed the low-energy and low-nutrient-density diets throughout the experimental period. During wk 4 to 6 and overall, hens fed the diets supplemented with the probiotic had greater (P < 0.01) egg production, egg weight, and eggshell thickness than hens fed the diets without the probiotic. Dietary supplementation of the probiotic increased (P = 0.01) excreta Lactobacillus counts and decreased (P = 0.02) Escherichia coli counts compared with hens fed the diets without the probiotic. The excreta ammonia emission was decreased (P = 0.02) in hens fed the probiotic diets compared with hens fed the diets without the probiotic. Serum total cholesterol concentration was decreased (P < 0.01) by feeding hens with the probiotic at wk 3 and 6. Layers fed the probiotic-incorporated diets had greater (P < 0.01) high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and lower (P = 0.03) low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations than hens fed the nonsupplemented diets at wk 6. Interactive effects (P < 0.05) of energy and nutrient density and the

  5. Carbon and Nitrogen Sources for Shrimp Postlarvae Fed Natural Diets from a Tropical Mangrove System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittel, A. I.; Epifanio, C. E.; Cifuentes, L. A.; Kirchman, D. L.

    1997-11-01

    Postlarvae ofPenaeus vannameiwere fed various diets in order to examine the importance of detritus and other possible prey items in supporting postlarval growth. Stable isotopes (C and N) were used to determine the carbon and nitrogen source of the prey in the various diets. The zooplankton diet contained mostly copepods. The subtidal detritus treatment consisted mostly of plant material whereas the diets from both intertidal sites contained a mixture of plant detritus and associated meiofauna. Postlarvae reared on zooplankton and detritus plus meiofauna diets more than tripled their weight during a 6-day period. In contrast, postlarvae fed the detritus diet barely doubled their weight. Based on isotopic composition, postlarvae appear to obtain their carbon and nitrogen from various food sources. Postlarvae were enriched by 0·4‰ in13C and 2·7‰ in15N relative to the zooplankton diet, which is consistent with isotopic fractionation between successive trophic levels. In turn, the isotopic signal of the zooplankton was consistent with phytoplankton being the initial source of organic matter. In contrast, mean δ13C values of the shrimp fed detritus plus meiofauna were significantly different from their respective diets. Isotopic ratios of the postlarvae fed the mixed diet from Chomes were two trophic levels above benthic algae suggesting that the shrimp preyed on organisms that derived their carbon and nitrogen from benthic algae and/or phytoplankton.

  6. Bioaccumulation of PCB and the effects of supplemented diets in striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of PCBs (Aroclor 1254) from contaminated water (1.0 0.1 ppB) and Artemia (1.0 0.1 ppB) was studied using striped bass (Morone saxatilis) larvae. After 10 and 20 days exposure, striped bass were transferred to PCB-free environments for depuration examination. Results showed that striped bass can significantly accumulate PCBs in either 10- or 20-day exposures. When fed contaminated water and Artemia together to striped bass resulted higher PCB body burdens than when fed either contaminated water or Artemia. Among these treatments, 1.0 ppB water and 1.0 ppB treated Artemia caused the highest PCB residues, 323.62 ppB and 647.90 ppB, in 10- and 20-day exposures, respectively. A diet containing 0.1 ppB PCB contaminated Artemia accounted for 10--27% of the total body burden in this experiment. The percent body burden due to dietary contaminants increased when striped bass were fed 1.0 ppB contaminated Artemia. This suggests that a higher feeding dose could elevate the percent contribution of the total PCB uptake in aquatic food chains. The percent of PCBs remaining in striped bass when transferred to PCB-free environments is less in the 20-day depuration period than in 10-day period. In an effort to culture this valuable fish species, experiments were conducted by adding protease, attractants and protein hydrolysates to striped bass diet for the purpose of elevating growth and survival of this fish species through feeding trials. No significant difference was found for the growth and survival between protease supplemented diet and basal diet (19.0%). The combination of sucrose, glutamic acid and glycine for the 0.5% supplemented diet produced a final fish weight close to values obtained by feeding the basal diet. Live Artemia nauplii diet fed to the larvae gave the best performance in both growth and survival.

  7. An Optimal Dietary Zinc Level of Brown-Egg Laying Hens Fed a Corn-Soybean Meal Diet.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shizhen; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Xichun; Liao, Xiudong; Zhang, Liyang; Guo, Yanli; Luo, Xugang

    2016-11-19

    An experiment was conducted to estimate the optimal dietary zinc (Zn) level of brown-egg laying hens fed a corn-soybean meal diet from 20 to 40 weeks of age. A total of 120 20-week-old Beijing Red commercial laying hens were randomly allotted by bodyweight to one of five treatments with six replicates of four birds each in a completely randomized design, and fed a Zn-unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet containing 27.95 mg Zn/kg by analysis and the basal diets supplemented with 30, 60, 90, or 120 mg Zn/kg as Zn sulfate (reagent grade ZnSO4·7H2O) for a duration of 20 weeks. Laying performance, egg quality, tissue Zn concentrations, and activities of serum alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and liver copper-Zn superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) were measured. Regression analyses were performed to estimate an optimal dietary Zn level whenever a significant quadratic response (P < 0.05) was observed. Tibia Zn concentration (P = 0.002) and serum AKP activity (P = 0.010) showed significant quadratic responses to dietary supplemental Zn levels. The estimates of dietary Zn requirements for brown-egg laying hens from 20 to 40 weeks of age were 71.95 and 64.63 mg/kg for tibia Zn concentration and serum AKP activity, respectively. The results from this study indicate that the tibia Zn might be a more suitable and reliable parameter for Zn requirement estimation, and the optimal dietary Zn level would be about 72 mg/kg for brown-egg laying hens fed a corn-soybean meal diet from 20 to 40 weeks of age.

  8. Impact of dietary dairy polar lipids on lipid metabolism of mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Reis, Mariza G; Roy, Nicole C; Bermingham, Emma N; Ryan, Leigh; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Young, Wayne; Krause, Lutz; Berger, Bernard; North, Mike; Stelwagen, Kerst; Reis, Marlon M

    2013-03-20

    The effect of milk polar lipids on lipid metabolism of liver, adipose tissue, and brain and on composition of intestinal microbiota was investigated. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 5 weeks, followed by 5 weeks with HFD without (control) or supplemented with total polar lipids (TPL), phospholipids (PL), or sphingolipids (SPL). Animals fed SPL showed a tendency for lower triglyceride synthesis (P = 0.058) in the liver, but not in adipose tissue. PL and TPL reduced de novo hepatic fatty acid biosynthesis. The ratio of palmitoleic to palmitic acid in the liver was lower for animals fed SPL or TPL compared to control. There was little effect of the supplementation on the cecal microbiota composition. In the brain, DHA (C22:6) content correlated negatively with tetracosanoic acid (C24:0) after TPL supplementation (-0.71, P = 0.02) but not in control (0.26, P = 0.44). Arachidonic acid (C20:4) was negatively correlated with C24:0 in both groups (TPL, -0.77, P = 0.008; control, -0.81, P = 0.003).

  9. Dietary putrescine effects on performance parameters, nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology and tissue polyamine content of broilers fed low protein diet

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, S. M; Loh, T. C; Foo, H. L; Zulkifli, I; Hair-Bejo, M

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary putrescine (PUT) on broiler’s response fed low crude protein (CP) diets. A total of 192 male day old chicks were fed with four dietary treatments including two levels of PUT (0 and 0.03%) and two levels of CP (normal and low) with factorial combinations. Weekly growth performance, nutrient digestibility and intestinal morphology (at the age of 21 days) and liver and intestinal tissue polyamines content were measured. As a result of this study lower dietary CP had a significant (P<0.05) lower body weight gain (BWG) and improved protein efficiency ratio (PER). PUT improved energy efficiency ratio (EER) significantly (P<0.05). Dry matter (DM) digestibility was decreased by lower dietary CP whereas 0.03% PUT significantly (P<0.05) increased it. Low CP caused significant (P<0.05) greater calcium digestibility, while this effect was not found when PUT was added. PUT had no effect on intestine villous height and crypt depth. Polyamine content of intestine and liver was influenced by the age of the birds, while PUT had no effects on them. In conclusion, dietary PUT has beneficial effects on EER in chicks fed CP-deficient diet, indicating possible involvement of PUT in energy metabolism. PUT supplementation did not moderate the reduced BWG of the chicks fed low protein. Intestinal and liver polyamine concentration was mainly affected by dietary CP and age of the birds rather than dietary PUT. PMID:27175136

  10. Efficiency of manganese absorption in chicks fed corn-soy and casein diets.

    PubMed

    Halpin, K M; Chausow, D G; Baker, D H

    1986-09-01

    Experiments were conducted with young chicks to quantify the absorption efficiency of manganese (Mn) using tibia Mn uptake as the response criterion. Chicks in experiment 1 were fed a corn-soybean meal diet and either injected intraperitoneally or crop intubated twice daily with three levels of inorganic Mn provided as MnSO4 X H2O. After 14 d, chicks were killed, and intact tibias were removed to facilitate calculation of bone Mn concentration. Excellent straight-line fits (bone Mn concentration as a function of Mn administered) allowed estimation of gut absorption efficiency of Mn by slope-ratio methodology. Absorption efficiency of Mn was calculated to be 1.71% for chicks fed the corn-soy diet. Identical methodology was employed in experiment 2 wherein chicks were fed a phytate- and fiber-free casein-dextrose diet. An absorption efficiency of 2.40% was estimated for chicks fed this diet. Hence, absorption efficiency of inorganic Mn was 40% greater in chicks fed the purified diet than in those fed the conventional corn-soy diet.

  11. Phytase supplementation improved growth performance and bone characteristics in broilers fed varying levels of dietary calcium.

    PubMed

    Powell, S; Bidner, T D; Southern, L L

    2011-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Ca level on the efficacy of phytase. A total of 288 male Ross × Ross 708 broilers with initial and final BW of 37 and 705 g, respectively, were used in brooder batteries from 0 to 21 d posthatch. Each treatment had 8 replications with 6 broilers/replicate pen. All diets were corn-soybean meal based and formulated to contain 1.26% total Lys. The treatments were positive control with 0.45% nonphytate P and 1% Ca and a negative control with 0.20% nonphytate P with 0.67, 1.00, or 1.33% Ca fed with or without 500 phytase units of Optiphos (Escherichia coli-derived phytase; JBS United Inc., Sheridan, IN). Increasing Ca from 0.67 to 1.33% linearly decreased (P ≤ 0.003) ADG, ADFI, bone breaking strength, bone weight, tibia ash weight, and percentage tibia ash; however, quadratic effects were found for ADFI, G:F, percentage tibia ash, and mortality (P ≤ 0.09). Phytase supplementation increased (P < 0.001) ADG, ADFI, bone breaking strength, bone weight, ash weight, and percentage tibia ash and decreased (P = 0.054) mortality. The increase in ADG, ADFI, bone weight, ash weight, and percentage tibia ash (P ≤ 0.026) and decrease in mortality (phytase × Ca linear; P = 0.058) from phytase supplementation was greater in broilers fed the higher levels of Ca. Calcium utilization was linearly decreased (P < 0.002) with increasing Ca. Phosphorus digestibility and utilization were increased with increasing levels of Ca (P ≤ 0.002); however, P utilization decreased at 1% Ca and increased at 1.33% (quadratic; P < 0.070). Phytase supplementation increased Ca utilization (P < 0.024), P digestibility (P < 0.001), and P utilization (P < 0.029). However, the increase in P digestibility (phytase × Ca; P < 0.021) was greater at the lower levels of Ca whereas P utilization (phytase × Ca; P < 0.001) was greater at 1.33% Ca with phytase supplementation. The results of this research indicate that dietary Ca level, within

  12. Determination of the need for selenium by chicks fed practical diets adequate in vitamin E

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, G.F. Jr.; Su, Q.; Liu, C.H.; Sinisalo, M.; Combs, S.B.

    1986-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the dietary needs for selenium (Se) by chicks fed either purified (amino acid-based) or practical (corn- and soy-based) diets that were adequate with respect to vitamin E (i.e., contained 100 IU/kg) and all other known nutrients with the single exception of Se (i.e., contained only 0.10 ppm Se). Studies were conducted in Ithaca using Single Comb White Leghorn chicks fed the purified basal diet and in Beijing using chicks of the same breed fed either the same purified basal diet or the practical diet formulated to be similar to that used in poultry production in some parts of China and the US. Results showed that each basal diet produced severe depletion of Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGSHpx) in plasma, liver and pancreas according to the same time-course, but that other consequences of severe uncomplicated Se deficiency were much more severe among chicks fed the purified diet (e.g., growth depression, pancreatic dysfunction as indicated by elevated plasma amylase and abnormal pancreatic histology). Chicks fed the practical Se-deficient diet showed reduced pancreas levels of copper, zinc and molybdenum and elevated plasma levels of iron; they required ca. 0.10 ppm dietary Se to sustain normal SeGSHpx in several tissues and to prevent elevated amylase in plasma. The dietary Se requirement of the chick is, therefore, estimated to be 0.10 ppm.

  13. Inorganic and organic trace mineral supplementation in weanling pig diets.

    PubMed

    Thomaz, Maria C; Watanabe, Pedro H; Pascoal, Leonardo A F; Assis, Murilo M; Ruiz, Urbano S; Amorim, Alessandro B; Silva, Susana Z; Almeida, Vivian V; Melo, Gabriel M P; Robles-Huaynate, Rizal A

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary inorganic and organic trace minerals in two levels of supplementation regarding performance, diarrhea occurrence, hematological parameters, fecal mineral excretion and mineral retention in metacarpals and liver of weanling pigs. Seventy piglets weaned at 21 days of age with an average initial body weight of 6.70 ± 0.38 kg were allotted in five treatments: control diet (no added trace mineral premix); 50% ITMP (control diet with inorganic trace mineral premix supplying only 50% of trace mineral requirements); 50% OTMP (control diet with organic trace mineral premix supplying only 50% of trace mineral requirements); 100% ITMP (control diet with inorganic trace mineral premix supplying 100% of trace mineral requirements); and 100% OTMP (control diet with organic trace mineral premix supplying 100% of trace mineral requirements). Feed intake and daily weight gain were not affected by treatments, however, piglets supplemented by trace minerals presented better gain:feed ratio. No differences were observed at calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sodium and sulfur excreted in feces per kilogram of feed intake. Treatments did not affect calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur and iron content in metacarpals. Trace mineral supplementation, regardless of level and source, improved the performance of piglets.

  14. Effect of complementary food supplementation on breastfeeding and home diet in rural Bangladeshi children12

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Kristen M; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Chowdhury, Zaynah T; Mehra, Sucheta; de Pee, Saskia; Ahmed, Tahmeed; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Complementary food supplements (CFSs) can enhance growth where stunting is common, but substitution for the usual diet may reduce observed benefits. Objective: We aimed to characterize dietary diversity from home foods in a CFS efficacy trial and determine whether supplementation reduced breastfeeding frequency or displaced home foods. Design: In a cluster-randomized controlled trial in rural Bangladesh, children (n = 5499) received, for 1 y starting at age 6 mo, periodic child feeding counseling for mothers (control) or counseling plus 1 of 4 CFSs fed as a daily snack. Breastfeeding status and past 24-h diet were assessed at enrollment and every 3 mo thereafter until 18 mo of age. A 7–food group dietary diversity score (DDS) was calculated from home foods only, and a DDS ≥4 constituted minimum dietary diversity (MDD). Results: Most children (97%) were breastfed through 18 mo of age, and 24-h breastfeeding frequency did not differ by supplementation group. Child dietary diversity was low; only 51% of children met the MDD by 18 mo. Rice, potatoes, and biscuits (cookies) were the most frequently consumed foods, whereas the legumes, dairy, eggs, and vitamin A–rich fruit and vegetable food groups were each consumed by <50% of children. The odds of meeting the MDD through the consumption of home foods were equal or greater in the supplemented groups compared with the control group at all ages. High socioeconomic status and any maternal education were associated with increased odds of MDD at age 18 mo, whereas child sex and household food security were not associated with MDD. Conclusions: In a setting where daily complementary food supplementation improved linear growth, there was no evidence that supplementation displaced breastfeeding or home foods, and the supplementation may have improved dietary diversity. Pathways by which supplementation with fortified foods may enhance dietary diversity, such as an improved appetite and increased body size

  15. Estimation of the leucine and histidine requirements for piglets fed a low-protein diet.

    PubMed

    Wessels, A G; Kluge, H; Mielenz, N; Corrent, E; Bartelt, J; Stangl, G I

    2016-11-01

    Reduction of the CP content in the diets of piglets requires supplementation with crystalline essential amino acids (AA). Data on the leucine (Leu) and histidine (His) requirements of young pigs fed low-CP diets are limited and have primarily been obtained from nonlinear models. However, these models do not consider the possible decline in appetite and growth that can occur when pigs are fed excessive amounts of AA such as Leu. Therefore, two dose-response studies were conducted to estimate the standardised ileal digestible (SID) Leu : lysine (Lys) and His : Lys required to optimise the growth performance of young pigs. In both studies, the average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and gain-to-feed ratio (G : F) were determined during a 6-week period. To ensure that the diets had sub-limiting Lys levels, a preliminary Lys dose-response study was conducted. In the Leu study, 60 35-day-old piglets of both sexes were randomly assigned to one of five treatments and fed a low-CP diet (15%) with SID Leu : Lys levels of 83%, 94%, 104%, 115% or 125%. The His study used 120 31-day-old piglets of both sexes, which were allotted to one of five treatments and fed a low-CP diet (14%) with SID His : Lys levels of 22%, 26%, 30%, 34% or 38%. Linear broken-line, curvilinear-plateau and quadratic-function models were used for estimations of SID Leu : Lys and SID His : Lys. The minimum SID Leu : Lys level needed to maximise ADG, ADFI and G : F was, on average, 101% based on the linear broken-line and curvilinear-plateau models. Using the quadratic-function model, the minimum SID Leu : Lys level needed to maximise ADG, ADFI and G : F was 108%. Data obtained from the quadratic-function analysis further showed that a ±10% deviation from the identified Leu requirement was accompanied by a small decline in the ADG (-3%). The minimum SID His : Lys level needed to maximise ADG, ADFI and G : F was 27% and 28% using the linear broken-line and curvilinear-plateau models

  16. Innate immune response to yeast-derived carbohydrates in broiler chickens fed organic diets and challenged with Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Yitbarek, A; Echeverry, H; Brady, J; Hernandez-Doria, J; Camelo-Jaimes, G; Sharif, S; Guenter, W; House, J D; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C

    2012-05-01

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) caused by Clostridium perfringens is a reemerging disease of economic importance in areas of the world where antibiotic growth promoters have been banned. The effect of mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) supplementation in organic diets of broilers challenged with C. perfringens on performance, gut morphology, and innate immunity was investigated. Three hundred Ross-308 broilers were fed antibiotic-free certified organic starter and grower diets. On d 14, birds were orally challenged with 1 mL of C. perfringens culture at 3 × 10(10) cfu/bird. Treatments consisted of a control no-challenge (CO; 0 g/kg of MOS in the basal diet), control challenge (COC, 0 g/kg of MOS in the basal diet), and MOS challenge (2 g/kg of MOS in the basal diet). Challenge of birds resulted in decreased feed intake and BW gain (P = 0.048 and P = 0.026, respectively). Even though supplementation of diet with MOS improved feed intake (P = 0.985), BW gain and G:F were not improved compared with those of the CO group (P = 0.026 and P = <0.001, respectively). There was no significant difference among treatments in jejunal and ileal villus height, crypt depth, and goblet cells/mm(2) (P > 0.05). Quantitative real-time PCR showed that, in the ileum, the MOS diet resulted in an upregulation of toll-like receptor (TLR)2b, TLR4, interleukin (IL)-12p35, and interferon (IFN)-γ compared with CO (P = 0.003, P = 0.018, and P = 0.024, respectively). In the cecal tonsil, challenging birds with C. perfringens resulted in an upregulation of TLR2b compared with CO (P = 0.036), and MOS resulted in an upregulation of TLR4 (P = 0.018). In conclusion, feeding a MOS-supplemented diet to C. perfringens-challenged broiler chickens did not improve performance and gut morphology-associated responses. However, MOS was capable of altering TLR and cytokine profiles, where dual TLR2 and TLR4 pathways were associated with MOS supplementation with subsequent upregulation of ileal IL-12p35 and IFN

  17. Individual mineral supplement intake by ewes swath grazing or confinement fed pea-barley forage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has reported high variation in intake of self-fed protein and/or energy supplements by individual animals, however little is known about variation in consumption of mineral supplements. Sixty mature range ewes (non-pregnant, non-lactating) were used in a completely randomized desig...

  18. Effects of dietary amylase and sucrose on productivity of cows fed low-starch diets.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Rodriguez, C F; Engstrom, M; Azem, E; Bradford, B J

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies have observed positive effects of both sucrose and exogenous amylase on the productivity of dairy cattle. Our objective was to evaluate direct effects and interactions of amylase and sucrose on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and milk components. Forty-eight multiparous Holstein cows between 70 and 130 d in milk were randomly assigned to each of 4 pens (12 cows/pen). Pens were randomly assigned to treatment sequence in a 4 × 4 Latin square design, balanced for carryover effects. Treatment periods were 28 d, with 24 d for diet adaptation and 4d for sample and data collection. The treatments were a control diet (36% NDF and 21% starch), the control diet with amylase [0.5 g/kg of DM; Ronozyme RumiStar 600 (CT); DSM Nutritional Products Ltd., Basel, Switzerland], a diet with sucrose replacing corn grain at 2% of DM, and the sucrose diet with amylase (0.5 g/kg of DM). All data were analyzed with mixed models, including the fixed effects of sugar, amylase, and their interaction, and the random effects of period and pen. Milk data included the random effects of cow nested within pen and pen × period to provide the error term for the pen-level analysis. Dry matter intake was not affected by treatments. Milk yield and milk composition were not altered by the inclusion of sucrose or amylase; however, a tendency for an amylase × sucrose interaction was observed for milk protein content, reflecting slightly lower milk protein concentrations for amylase and sucrose treatments (3.00 and 2.99 ± 0.03%) compared with the control and amylase + sucrose treatments (3.02 and 3.03 ± 0.03%). Solids-corrected and fat-corrected milk yields were not significantly altered by treatment, although the direct effect of amylase approached significance for both variables, suggesting possible small increases with amylase supplementation (~0.5 kg/d). Feed efficiency (energy-corrected milk divided by dry matter intake) numerically increased with either amylase (1.57 ± 0

  19. Impaired translation initiation activation and reduced protein synthesis in weaned piglets fed a low-protein diet.

    PubMed

    Deng, Dun; Yao, Kang; Chu, Wuying; Li, Tiejun; Huang, Ruiling; Yin, Yulong; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Jianshe; Wu, Guoyao

    2009-07-01

    Weanling mammals (including infants) often experience intestinal dysfunction when fed a high-protein diet. Recent work with the piglet (an animal model for studying human infant nutrition) shows that reducing protein intake can improve gut function during weaning but compromises the provision of essential amino acids (EAA) for muscle growth. The present study was conducted with weaned pigs to test the hypothesis that supplementing deficient EAA (Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, Leu, Ile and Val) to a low-protein diet may maintain the activation of translation initiation factors and adequate protein synthesis in tissues. Pigs were weaned at 21 days of age and fed diets containing 20.7, 16.7 or 12.7% crude protein (CP), with the low-CP diets supplemented with EAA to achieve the levels in the high-CP diet. On Day 14 of the trial, tissue protein synthesis was determined using the phenylalanine flooding dose method. Reducing dietary CP levels decreased protein synthesis in pancreas, liver, kidney and longissimus muscle. A low-CP diet reduced the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1) in skeletal muscle and liver while increasing the formation of an inactive eIF4E.4E-BP1 complex in muscle. Dietary protein deficiency also decreased the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the formation of an active eIF4E.eIF4G complex in liver. These results demonstrate for the first time that chronic feeding of a low-CP diet suppresses protein synthesis in animals partly by inhibiting mTOR signaling. Additionally, our findings indicate that supplementing deficient EAA to low-protein diets is not highly effective in restoring protein synthesis or whole-body growth in piglets. We suggest that conditionally essential amino acids (e.g., glutamine and arginine) may be required to maintain the activation of translation initiation factors and optimal protein synthesis in neonates.

  20. Time-restricted feeding reduces adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm contributes to obesity. The present study investigated the effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF) of a high-fat diet on adiposity in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week-old mice were fed a low-fat or high-fat diet (16% or 45% of energy from corn oil) ad libitum (ad l...

  1. Evaluation of some biological parameters of Opuntia ficus indica. 2. Influence of seed supplemented diet on rats.

    PubMed

    Ennouri, Monia; Fetoui, Hamadi; Bourret, Evelyne; Zeghal, Najiba; Guermazi, Fadhel; Attia, Hamadi

    2006-11-01

    The present research was undertaken to evaluate some biological parameters in rats fed with a supplemented diet with Opuntia ficus indica powder seeds. Feed intake and body weight of rats were measured every two days during nine weeks of treatment. Digestibility, feed conversion efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were determined. No difference in digestibility was noticed between the different diets. The results indicated a significant decrease in body weight of rats receiving a diet partially substituted with O. ficus indica powder seeds, probably due to a significant decrease in serum-free thyroxin (FT(4)) compared to the control group. In the treated group, a decrease of glucose concentration in blood and an increase of glycogen in liver and skeletal muscle were noticed. A significant increase in HDL-cholesterol was noted in the group receiving the supplemented diet with O. ficus indica powder seeds. These results suggest that O. ficus indica seeds can be used as a healthy food.

  2. Effects of tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility of minerals in diets fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Merriman, L A; Walk, C L; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H

    2016-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of supplementing diets fed to growing pigs with fat sources differing in their composition of fatty acids on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals. A diet based on corn, potato protein isolate, and 7% sucrose was formulated. Five additional diets that were similar to the previous diet with the exception that sucrose was replaced by 7% tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil were also formulated. Diets were formulated to contain 0.70% Ca and 0.33% standardized total tract digestible P. Growing barrows ( = 60; 15.99 ± 1.48 kg initial BW) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 30 pigs, 6 dietary treatments, and 10 replicate pigs per treatment. Experimental diets were provided for 12 d with the initial 5 d being the adaptation period. Total feces were collected for a 5-d collection period using the marker-to-marker approach, and the ATTD of minerals, ether extract, and acid hydrolyzed ether extract was calculated for all diets. Digestibility of DM was greater ( < 0.05) in the diet containing soybean oil compared with the diet containing choice white grease or the basal diet, with all other diets being intermediate. The ATTD of Ca, S, and P was greater ( < 0.05) for pigs fed diets containing soybean oil, corn oil, palm oil, or tallow than for pigs fed the basal diet or the diet containing choice white grease. The ATTD of Mg, Zn, Mn, Na, and K were not different among dietary treatments. The ATTD of ether extract was greater ( < 0.05) in diets containing palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil compared with the diet containing choice white grease, and the ATTD of acid hydrolyzed ether extract in the diet containing soybean oil was also greater ( < 0.05) than in the diet containing choice white grease. In conclusion, supplementation of a basal diet with tallow, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil may increase the ATTD of some macrominerals, but that

  3. Muscle antioxidant (vitamin E) and major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour of meat from lambs fed a roughage based diet with flaxseed or algae.

    PubMed

    Ponnampalam, Eric N; Burnett, Viv F; Norng, Sorn; Hopkins, David L; Plozza, Tim; Jacobs, Joe L

    2016-01-01

    The effect of feeding flaxseed or algae supplements to lambs on muscle antioxidant potential (vitamin E), major fatty acid groups, lipid oxidation and retail colour was investigated. Lambs (n=120) were randomly allocated to one of 4 dietary treatments according to liveweight and fed the following diets for eight weeks: Annual ryegrass hay [60%]+subterranean clover hay [40%] pellets=Basal diet; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%)=Flax; Basal diet with algae (1.8%)=Algae; Basal diet with flaxseed (10.7%) and algae (1.8%)=FlaxAlgae. Flaxseed or algae supplementation significantly affected major fatty acid groups in muscle. The addition of algae (average of Algae and FlaxAlgae) resulted in lower vitamin E concentration in muscle (P<0.003; 1.0 vs 1.3mg/kg of muscle) compared with lambs fed a diet without algae (average of Basal and Flax). Increasing muscle EPA+DHA by algae supplementation significantly increased lipid oxidation, but retail display colour of fresh meat was not affected.

  4. Microbial phytase addition resulted in a greater increase in phosphorus digestibility in dry-fed compared with liquid-fed non-heat-treated wheat-barley-maize diets for pigs.

    PubMed

    Blaabjerg, K; Thomassen, A-M; Poulsen, H D

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet with 88% dry matter (DM)) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of phosphorus (P) in pigs fed a dry or soaked diet. Twenty-four pigs (65±3 kg) from six litters were used. Pigs were housed in metabolism crates and fed one of four diets for 12 days; 5 days for adaptation and 7 days for total, but separate collection of feces and urine. The basal diet was composed of wheat, barley, maize, soybean meal and no mineral phosphate. Dietary treatments were: basal dry-fed diet (BDD), BDD with microbial phytase (BDD+phy), BDD soaked for 24 h at 20°C before feeding (BDS) and BDS with microbial phytase (BDS+phy). Supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of DM and crude protein (N×6.25) by 2 and 3 percentage units (P<0.0001; P<0.001), respectively. The ATTD of P was affected by the interaction between microbial phytase and soaking (P=0.02). This was due to a greater increase in ATTD of P by soaking of the diet containing solely plant phytase compared with the diet supplemented with microbial phytase: 35%, 65%, 44% and 68% for BDD, BDD+phy, BSD and BSD+phy, respectively. As such, supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of P in the dry-fed diet, but not in the soaked diet. The higher ATTD of P for BDS compared with BDD resulted from the degradation of 54% of the phytate in BDS by wheat and barley phytases during soaking. On the other hand, soaking of BDS+phy did not increase ATTD of P significantly compared with BDD+phy despite that 76% of the phytate in BDS+phy was degraded before feeding. In conclusion, soaking of BDS containing solely plant phytase provided a great potential for increasing ATTD of P. However, this potential was not present when microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet) was supplemented, most likely because soaking of BDS+phy for 24 h at 20°C did not result in a complete degradation of phytate before feeding.

  5. The risk of salmonellae shedding by dogs fed Salmonella-contaminated commercial raw food diets.

    PubMed

    Finley, Rita; Ribble, Carl; Aramini, Jeff; Vandermeer, Meredith; Popa, Maria; Litman, Marcus; Reid-Smith, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-eight research dogs were enrolled to determine the prevalence of salmonellae shedding after consumption of 1 Salmonella-contaminated commercial raw food diet meal. Sixteen dogs were exposed to Salmonella-contaminated commercial raw food diets and 12 to Salmonella-free commercial raw food diets. Seven of the exposed dogs shed salmonellae 1-7 days after consumption of Salmonella-contaminated raw food diets. None of the dogs fed Salmonella-free diets shed salmonellae. No clinical signs were observed in either group. Five of the 7 dogs shed the same serotypes as those recovered from food samples used for feeding. Results showed the same serotypes and antimicrobial resistance pattern in 2 of the 7 shedders. Dogs fed Salmonella-contaminated raw food diets can shed salmonellae and may, therefore, be a source of environmental contamination potentially leading to human or animal illness.

  6. Maternal methyl supplemented diets and effects on offspring health

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Rachel J.; Vrana, Paul B.; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S.

    2014-01-01

    Women seeking to become pregnant and pregnant women are currently advised to consume high amounts of folic acid and other methyl donors to prevent neural tube defects in their offspring. These diets can alter methylation patterns of several biomolecules, including nucleic acids, and histone proteins. Limited animal model data suggests that developmental exposure to these maternal methyl supplemented (MS) diets leads to beneficial epimutations. However, other rodent and humans studies have yielded opposing findings with such diets leading to promiscuous epimutations that are likely associated with negative health outcomes. Conflict exists to whether these maternal diets are preventative or exacerbate the risk for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in children. This review will discuss the findings to date on the potential beneficial and aversive effects of maternal MS diets. We will also consider how other factors might influence the effects of MS diets. Current data suggest that there is cause for concern as maternal MS diets may lead to epimutations that underpin various diseases, including neurobehavioral disorders. Further studies are needed to explore the comprehensive effects maternal MS diets have on the offspring epigenome and subsequent overall health. PMID:25206362

  7. Preferential fat intake of pups nursed by dams fed low fat diet during pregnancy and lactation is higher than that of pups nursed by dams fed control diet and high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Yoko; Tsukita, Yoko; Yokoyama, Meiko

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the effect of dams' dietary fat type during pregnancy and lactation on fat choice of pups, three groups of dams were fed one of three diets: a low fat diet (LFD), a control diet (CTD) or a high fat diet (HFD). After weaning their pups were offered a self-selection regimen of both a fat protein diet (FPD) and a carbohydrate protein diet (CPD) for 3 wk. Although the ratio of FPD intake [FPD intake (g)/total intake (g)] by pups nursed by dams fed LFD during the self-selection period was higher than that by pups nursed by dams fed CTD and HFD, no significant difference in the ratio was observed between pups nursed by dams fed CTD and HFD. It was considered that pups nursed by dams fed CTD and HFD self-selected FPD and CPD in an adequate fat energy ratio (F ratio) compared to that of AIN-93G and AIN-93M. The ratio of FPD intake by pups of these three groups was 16-21% within the first week after weaning. Although pups nursed by dams fed CTD continued to consume the same ratio of FPD during the self-selection period, the ratio of pups nursed by dams fed LFD increased and that of pups nursed by dams fed HFD decreased. These findings indicate that: [1] pups nursed by dams fed CTD and HFD have the ability to consume FPD and CPD in an adequate F ratio, and [2] preferential fat intake of pups nursed by dams fed LFD is stronger than that of pups nursed by dams fed CTD and HFD.

  8. Antioxidative Diet Supplementation Reverses High-Fat Diet-Induced Increases of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Robles, Hilda; Rios, Amelia; Arellano-Mendoza, Monica; Escalante, Bruno A.; Schnoor, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic that is characterized not only by excessive fat deposition but also by systemic microinflammation, high oxidative stress, and increased cardiovascular risk factors. While diets enriched in natural antioxidants showed beneficial effects on oxidative stress, blood pressure, and serum lipid composition, diet supplementation with synthetic antioxidants showed contradictive results. Thus, we tested in C57Bl/6 mice whether a daily dosage of an antioxidative mixture consisting of vitamin C, vitamin E, L-arginine, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (corabion) would affect cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity. Obese mice showed increased serum triglyceride and glucose levels and hypertension after eight weeks of being fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Importantly, corabion ameliorated all of these symptoms significantly. Oxidative stress and early signs of systemic microinflammation already developed after two weeks of high-fat diet and were significantly reduced by daily doses of corabion. Of note, the beneficial effects of corabion could not be observed when applying its single antioxidative components suggesting that a combination of various nutrients is required to counteract HFD-induced cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, daily consumption of corabion may be beneficial for the management of obesity-related cardiovascular complications. PMID:25922641

  9. Effect of including canola meal and supplemental iodine in diets of dairy cows on short-term changes in iodine concentrations in milk.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; Wyatt, D J; Kleinschmit, D H; Socha, M T

    2015-07-01

    The dietary requirement for iodine is based on thyroxine production, but data are becoming available showing potential improvements in hoof health when substantially greater amounts of I are fed. Feeding high amounts of I, however, can result in the milk having excessive concentrations of I. Canola meal contains goitrogenic compounds that reduce the transfer of I into milk. We hypothesized that including canola meal in diets would allow high supplementation rates of I without producing milk with unacceptable concentrations of I. Thirty midlactation Holstein cows were fed a diet with all supplemental protein from soybean meal (0% of diet dry matter as canola meal) or with all supplemental protein from canola meal (13.9% canola meal). A third treatment has a mix of soybean meal and canola meal (3.9% canola meal). Within canola-meal treatment, cows were fed 0.5 or 2.0mg of supplemental I per kilogram of diet dry matter from ethylenediamine dihydroiodide. Cows were maintained on the canola treatment for the duration of the experiment but were changed from one I treatment to the other after 13d of receiving the treatment. Milk I concentration before the treatments started (cows fed 0.5mg/kg of I) averaged 272μg/L and increased within 22h after cows were first fed diets with 2mg/kg of I. As inclusion rate of canola meal increased, the concentration of I in milk decreased linearly. After 12d of supplementation, milk from cows fed 0.5mg/kg of I had 358, 289, and 169μg of I/L for the 0, 3.9%, and 13.9% canola-meal treatments. For cows fed 2.0mg/kg of I, milk I concentrations were 733, 524, and 408μg/L, respectively. Concentrations of I in serum increased with increased I supplementation, but the effect of canola meal was opposite of what was observed for milk I. Cows fed the highest canola-meal diets had the highest serum I whether cows were fed 0.5 or 2.0mg/kg of I. Feeding dairy cows diets with 13.9% canola meal maintained milk I concentrations below 500μg/L when

  10. Aspects of physiological effects of sodium zeolite A supplementation in dry, non-pregnant dairy cows fed grass silage.

    PubMed

    Enemark, J M; Frandsen, A M; Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor serum and urine biochemical changes in dairy cows during and after oral administration of a synthetic sodium aluminium-silicate (zeolite A). A prospective longitudinal study involving four non-pregnant and non-lactating cows was chosen. Cows were randomly allocated to either a control or experimental group. The period of observation was three weeks. During the first week (period 1) cows were maintained on basic ration for the purpose of recording baseline values. During the second week (period 2) control cows were fed a basic diet (grass silage), while cows in the experimental group were fed the basic diet and supplemented with 1 kg zeolite pellets once daily. During the third week (period 3) both groups were fed the basic ration only and observed for any persistent effects after zeolite withdraw. Daily sampling included blood and urine. Selected physiological parameters were compared between groups during period 2 and 3, whereas mean values from period 1, 2 and 3 were compared within the groups. Zeolite supplementation revealed a significant influence on calcium homeostasis. A slight decrease in serum Ca and in renal excretion of calcium was observed in the experimental group at initiation of supplementation, whereas an increment in these parameters was recorded after withdrawal of zeolite supplementation. It is assumed, that zeolite caused a reduction in the availability of dietary calcium during supplementation, which possibly elicited an activation of calcium mobilisation. The influence of zeolite on calcium homeostasis was not evident from monitoring serum concentration of calcium regulating hormones (PTH, 1,25(OH)2D3, 25(OH)VitD) or renal excretion of markers of bone resorption. Enhanced active intestinal calcium absorption and bone resorption was therefore considered insignificant in the calcium mobilisation under the conditions of this experiment. The origin of the increased amount of Ca, which was observed

  11. Lipid concentrations of fillets, liver, plasma and lipoproteins of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822), fed diets with varying protein concentrations.

    PubMed

    Matter, F; Peganova, S; Eder, K

    2004-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of the dietary protein concentration on lipid concentrations in fillet and liver and concentrations of lipids in plasma and lipoproteins in African catfish. Two experiments were carried out, in which African catfish were fed diets with various protein concentrations. In experiment 1, semisynthetic diets with various concentrations of casein (350, 450 or 550 g protein/kg) were used. In experiment 2, diets were based on a commercial trout diet supplemented with various amounts of casein or carbohydrates, resulting in protein concentrations between 282 and 545 g/kg diet. In both experiments, the dietary protein concentration had a significant effect on growth, feed conversion ratio and carcass composition. Maximum of body weight gains and feed efficiency ratios were reached in both experiments at the highest dietary protein concentrations. Increasing the dietary protein concentration continuously increased masses of fillets and reduced masses of the liver and adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity. Fish fed the diets with the highest protein concentrations had the lowest concentration of total lipids, triglycerides and cholesterol in the fillets, the highest percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in total lipids of fillets and the lowest concentrations of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Fish fed the diets with the highest protein concentration also had the lowest concentrations of triglycerides in the liver, the highest percentages of PUFA in liver total lipids and the lowest percentages of SFA. Moreover, fish fed diets with high protein concentrations (501 and 545 g/kg) had significantly lower concentrations of triglycerides, cholesterol and phospholipids in plasma than fish fed diets with lower protein concentrations. In conclusion, this study shows that the dietary protein concentration does not only influence growth, feed efficiency and carcass composition in African catfish, but also influences their lipid metabolism and

  12. Cystitis, Pyelonephritis, and Urolithiasis in Rats Accidentally Fed a Diet Deficient in Vitamin A

    PubMed Central

    Munday, John S; McKinnon, Hilary; Aberdein, Danielle; Collett, Mark G; Parton, Kathleen; Thompson, Keith G

    2009-01-01

    Female Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 100; age, 3 wk) were fed diets that included a vitamin premix and either albumin or milk powder. Rats fed the albumin diet gained weight more slowly than did the other group. Between 19 and 28 wk of being fed the albumin diet, 12 rats died of bacterial cystitis and pyelonephritis. In addition, 2 more rats from the same dietary group developed peritonitis after ovariohysterectomy. Examination of the 44 rats fed the albumin diet that completed the 34-wk experiment revealed pyelonephritis in 68%, cystitis in 66%, urolithiasis in 27%, and nephrolithiasis in 5%. Squamous metaplasia of the transitional epithelium was present in all 44 rats, although other epithelia were histologically normal. Vitamin A deficiency was diagnosed after analyses of blood and liver samples. Analysis of the vitamin premix revealed approximately 25% of the expected amount of vitamin A. Because the milk powder contained sufficient vitamin A, deficiency did not occur in rats fed the milk powder diet. The major consequences of vitamin A deficiency in the rats were squamous metaplasia, bacterial infection, and calculus formation within the urinary tract. This report illustrates the importance of careful formulation and storage of vitamin premixes used in experimental diets. Vitamin A deficiency should be considered in rats with decreased weight gain and urinary tract disease even if ocular lesions are not present. PMID:19930829

  13. Supplementation of a high-fat diet with chlorogenic acid is associated with insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Mubarak, Aidilla; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Considine, Michael J; Croft, Kevin D; Matthews, Vance B

    2013-05-08

    The increasing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome requires a greater need for therapeutic and prevention strategies. Higher coffee consumption is consistently associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in population studies. Dietary polyphenols have been linked to benefits on several features of the metabolic syndrome. Chlorogenic acid (CGA), a major component of coffee, is one of the most consumed polyphenols in the diet. In our study, we conducted a controlled dietary intervention over 12 weeks in male mice. There were three dietary groups: (i) normal diet, (ii) high-fat diet, and (iii) high-fat diet + CGA. We assessed the effect of CGA at a physiologically obtainable dose (1 g/kg of diet) on high-fat-diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and also fatty acid oxidation and insulin signaling in C57BL/6 male mice. Supplementation of CGA in the high-fat diet did not reduce body weight compared to mice fed the high-fat diet alone (p = 0.32). CGA resulted in increased insulin resistance compared to mice fed a high-fat diet only (p < 0.05). CGA resulted in decreased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) (p < 0.001) and acetyl carboxylase β (ACCβ), a downstream target of AMPK (p < 0.05), in liver. The liver of mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with CGA had a higher lipid content (p < 0.05) and more steatosis relative to mice fed a high-fat diet only, indicating impaired fatty acid oxidation. This study suggests that CGA supplementation in a high-fat diet does not protect against features of the metabolic syndrome in diet-induced obese mice.

  14. Protein levels and colony development of Africanized and European honey bees fed natural and artificial diets.

    PubMed

    Morais, M M; Turcatto, A P; Pereira, R A; Francoy, T M; Guidugli-Lazzarini, K R; Gonçalves, L S; de Almeida, J M V; Ellis, J D; De Jong, D

    2013-12-19

    Pollen substitute diets are a valuable resource for maintaining strong and health honey bee colonies. Specific diets may be useful in one region or country and inadequate or economically unviable in others. We compared two artificial protein diets that had been formulated from locally-available ingredients in Brazil with bee bread and a non-protein sucrose diet. Groups of 100 newly-emerged, adult workers of Africanized honey bees in Brazil and European honey bees in the USA were confined in small cages and fed on one of four diets for seven days. The artificial diets included a high protein diet made of soy milk powder and albumin, and a lower protein level diet consisting of soy milk powder, brewer's yeast and rice bran. The initial protein levels in newly emerged bees were approximately 18-21 µg/µL hemolymph. After feeding on the diets for seven days, the protein levels in the hemolymph were similar among the protein diet groups (~37-49 µg/µL after seven days), although Africanized bees acquired higher protein levels, increasing 145 and 100% on diets D1 and D2, respectively, versus 83 and 60% in the European bees. All the protein diets resulted in significantly higher levels of protein than sucrose solution alone. In the field, the two pollen substitute diets were tested during periods of low pollen availability in the field in two regions of Brazil. Food consumption, population development, colony weight, and honey production were evaluated to determine the impact of the diets on colony strength parameters. The colonies fed artificial diets had a significant improvement in all parameters, while control colonies dwindled during the dearth period. We conclude that these two artificial protein diets have good potential as pollen substitutes during dearth periods and that Africanized bees more efficiently utilize artificial protein diets than do European honey bees.

  15. Nitrogen digestion and urea recycling in Hokkaido native horses fed hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Obitsu, Taketo; Hata, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Kohzo

    2015-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) digestion and urea-N metabolism in Hokkaido native horses fed roughage-based diets containing different types and levels of protein sources were studied. Horses (173 ± 4.8 kg) fitted with an ileum cannula were fed four diets consisting of 100% timothy hay (TH), 88% TH and 12% soybean meal (SBM), 79% TH and 21% SBM, and 51% TH and 49% alfalfa hay at 2.2% of body weight. Dietary protein content varied from 5% to 15% of dry matter. Apparent N digestibilities in the pre-cecum and total tract for the TH diet were lower than those for other diets. However, the proportion of post-ileum N digestion to N intake was not affected by the diets. Urea-N production was linearly related to N intake, but gut urea-N entry was not affected by the diets. The proportion of gut urea-N entry to urea-N production tended to be higher for the TH diet (57%) than the two SBM diets (39%). Anabolic use of urea-N entering the gut was not affected by the diets (20-36% of gut urea-N entry). These results indicate that urea-N recycling provides additional N sources for microbial fermentation in the hindgut of Hokkaido native horses fed low-quality roughages.

  16. Relationship between parotid amylase secretion and osmolality in the gastric contents of rats fed a pelleted or liquid diet.

    PubMed

    Kurahashi, M; Inomata, K

    1999-12-01

    The relationship between parotid amylase secretion and the osmolality in the gastric contents of rats fed a pelleted or liquid diet was investigated. In sham-operated rats fed a pelleted diet, amylase activity in the parotid glands decreased, amylase activity in the plasma increased, and there was strong amylase activity in the gastric contents. As a result, both reducing sugar concentration and osmolality in the gastric contents increased. In parotid duct-ligated rats, the feeding of a pelleted diet affected neither parotid nor plasma amylase activity and there was little amylase activity in the gastric contents; this resulted in decreased starch digestion. The amylase activity in the gastric contents of rats fed a liquid diet was lower than that of rats fed the pelleted diet. Both the reducing sugar concentration and osmolality in the gastric contents of rats fed the liquid diet were lower than those of rats fed the pelleted diet. However, both the reducing sugar concentration and osmolality in the gastric contents of rats fed the liquid diet were higher than those in the liquid diet itself. A small quantity of parotid amylase seems to effectively digest a large part of the starch in the stomaches of rats fed the liquid diet. These findings suggest that amylase secreted from parotid glands increases osmolality in the gastric contents via the production of reducing sugars from starch in rats when fed either pelleted or liquid diets.

  17. Feeding value of different levels of malt sprout and katikala atella on nutrient utilization and growth performance of sheep fed basal diet of Rhodes grass hay.

    PubMed

    Nurfeta, Ajebu; Abdu, Yunus

    2014-03-01

    Nonconventional agro-industrial by-products such as traditional liquor residues (locally called katikala atella) are widely used by livestock farmers in Ethiopia. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the supplementary value of katikala atella and malt sprout (MS) on performance of sheep fed a basal diet of Rhodes grass hay. Thirty intact yearling male sheep with an average initial body weight of 17.4 ± 0.74 kg (mean ± SD) were assigned to the treatments in a completely randomized block design: atella alone (T1), 75 % atella + 25 % malt sprout (MS) (T2), 50 % atella + 50 % MS (T3), 25 % atella + 75 % MS (T4), MS alone (T5), and Rhodes grass hay alone (T6). Grass hay was fed ad libitum to all treatments. The total dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intakes of sheep fed T4, T5, and T3 diets were the highest (P < 0.05), while sheep receiving T6 had the lowest DM intake. The highest (P < 0.05) total crude protein (CP) intake was for sheep fed T5 diet, while the lowest was for those fed T6 diet. Sheep receiving T3 diet had higher (P < 0.05) DM, OM, CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) digestibility as compared with those fed T1, T2, and T6 diets. Sheep supplemented with 50-100 % malt sprout had similar (P > 0.05) DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF digestibility. The highest (P < 0.05) average daily gain was for sheep fed T3, T4, and T5 diets, while sheep in T6 lost body weight. Sheep fed T5 diet had the highest (P < 0.05) nitrogen retention, while those fed T6 diet had the lowest. The study has shown that a mixture diet consisting of equal parts of katikala atella and malt sprout (T3) are found to be superior in most of the required nutrient characteristics.

  18. Red Cabbage Microgreens Lower Circulating Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL), Liver Cholesterol, and Inflammatory Cytokines in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiqiu; Jiang, Xiaojing; Xiao, Zhenlei; Yu, Lu; Pham, Quynhchi; Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei; Yokoyama, Wallace; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Luo, Yaguang Sunny; Wang, Thomas T Y

    2016-12-07

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, and hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor. Population studies, as well as animal and intervention studies, support the consumption of a variety of vegetables as a means to reduce CVD risk through modulation of hypercholesterolemia. Microgreens of a variety of vegetables and herbs have been reported to be more nutrient dense compared to their mature counterparts. However, little is known about the effectiveness of microgreens in affecting lipid and cholesterol levels. The present study used a rodent diet-induced obesity (DIO) model to address this question. C57BL/6NCr mice (n = 60, male, 5 weeks old) were randomly assigned to six feeding groups: (1) low-fat diet; (2) high-fat diet; (3) low-fat diet + 1.09% red cabbage microgreens; (4) low-fat diet + 1.66% mature red cabbage; (5) high-fat diet + 1.09% red cabbage microgreens; (6) high-fat diet + 1.66% mature red cabbage. The animals were on their respective diets for 8 weeks. We found microgreen supplementation attenuated high-fat diet induced weight gain. Moreover, supplementation with microgreens significantly lowered circulating LDL levels in animals fed the high-fat diet and reduced hepatic cholesterol ester, triacylglycerol levels, and expression of inflammatory cytokines in the liver. These data suggest that microgreens can modulate weight gain and cholesterol metabolism and may protect against CVD by preventing hypercholesterolemia.

  19. Antidiabetic Effect of Fresh Nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) in Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Seung Hwan; Kang, Il-Jun; Lim, Soon Sung

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate α-glucosidase inhibitory and antidiabetic effects of Nopal water extract (NPWE) and Nopal dry power (NADP) in low-dose streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by HFD and low-dose STZ. The rats were divided into four groups as follows: (1) nondiabetic rats fed a regular diet (RD-Control); (2) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD (HF-STZ-Control); (3) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with NPWE (100 mg/kg body weight, HF-STZ-NPWE); and (4) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with comparison medication (rosiglitazone, 10 mg/kg, body weight, HF-STZ-Rosiglitazone). In results, NPWE and NADP had IC50 values of 67.33 and 86.68 μg/mL, both of which exhibit inhibitory activities but lower than that of acarbose (38.05 μg/mL) while NPWE group significantly decreased blood glucose levels compared to control and NPDP group on glucose tolerance in the high-fat diet fed rats model (P < 0.05). Also, the blood glucose levels of HR-STZ-NPWE group were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than HR-STZ-Control group on low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD. Based on these findings, we suggested that NPWE could be considered for the prevention and/or treatment of blood glucose and a potential use as a dietary supplement.

  20. Antidiabetic Effect of Fresh Nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica) in Low-Dose Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Seung Hwan; Kang, Il-Jun

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate α-glucosidase inhibitory and antidiabetic effects of Nopal water extract (NPWE) and Nopal dry power (NADP) in low-dose streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The type 2 diabetic rat model was induced by HFD and low-dose STZ. The rats were divided into four groups as follows: (1) nondiabetic rats fed a regular diet (RD-Control); (2) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD (HF-STZ-Control); (3) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with NPWE (100 mg/kg body weight, HF-STZ-NPWE); and (4) low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD and supplemented with comparison medication (rosiglitazone, 10 mg/kg, body weight, HF-STZ-Rosiglitazone). In results, NPWE and NADP had IC50 values of 67.33 and 86.68 μg/mL, both of which exhibit inhibitory activities but lower than that of acarbose (38.05 μg/mL) while NPWE group significantly decreased blood glucose levels compared to control and NPDP group on glucose tolerance in the high-fat diet fed rats model (P < 0.05). Also, the blood glucose levels of HR-STZ-NPWE group were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than HR-STZ-Control group on low-dose STZ-induced diabetic rats fed HFD. Based on these findings, we suggested that NPWE could be considered for the prevention and/or treatment of blood glucose and a potential use as a dietary supplement. PMID:28303158

  1. Comparative analysis of the composition of intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides fed different diets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Wei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Meng-Lou

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of the intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) larvae and adults was assayed by PCR-DGGE to determine whether different artificial diets could influence these bacterial communities. Two diets were used for feeding the larvae and four for the adults. Escherichia, Desemzia, Staphylococcus, Asticcacaulis, Cellvibrio, Aurantimonas, and Planomicrobium were isolated from the gut of the adults, with Escherichia and Staphylococcus being the main bacterial communities, and the quantities of intestinal bacterial were different in the adults fed different diets. Specifically, the amount of intestinal bacteria from the adults fed different diets had the following ranking according to the major component of the diet: ant powder > darkling beetle pupa powder > cricket powder > silkworm pupa powder. Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Planococcaceae, Ralstonia, Leptothrix, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were isolated from the gut of the larvae. The quantity of intestinal bacteria from the larvae fed the darkling beetle pupae was greater than that from the larvae fed other artificial diets. This study, for the first time, investigated the effect of artificial diets on the bacterial community and the intestinal microbial diversity of D. helophoroides.

  2. Comparative Analysis of the Composition of Intestinal Bacterial Communities in Dastarcus helophoroides Fed Different Diets

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Wei; He, Cai; Cui, Jun; Wang, Hai-Dong; Li, Meng-Lou

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of the intestinal bacterial communities in Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) larvae and adults was assayed by PCR-DGGE to determine whether different artificial diets could influence these bacterial communities. Two diets were used for feeding the larvae and four for the adults. Escherichia, Desemzia, Staphylococcus, Asticcacaulis, Cellvibrio, Aurantimonas, and Planomicrobium were isolated from the gut of the adults, with Escherichia and Staphylococcus being the main bacterial communities, and the quantities of intestinal bacterial were different in the adults fed different diets. Specifically, the amount of intestinal bacteria from the adults fed different diets had the following ranking according to the major component of the diet: ant powder > darkling beetle pupa powder > cricket powder > silkworm pupa powder. Escherichia, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Kurthia, Planococcaceae, Ralstonia, Leptothrix, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas were isolated from the gut of the larvae. The quantity of intestinal bacteria from the larvae fed the darkling beetle pupae was greater than that from the larvae fed other artificial diets. This study, for the first time, investigated the effect of artificial diets on the bacterial community and the intestinal microbial diversity of D. helophoroides. PMID:25199878

  3. Thiamine status of feedlot cattle fed a high-concentrate diet.

    PubMed

    Karapinar, Tolga; Dabak, Murat; Kizil, Omer

    2010-11-01

    As thiamine status of ruminants is adversely affected by rumen acidity, this study investigated whether or not thiamine deficiency occurs in feedlot cattle fed a high concentrate diet. Fifty 1- to 2-year-old feedlot cattle fed a high concentrate diet (75% barley) for at least 3 mo (high concentrate diet group) and 15 healthy feedlot cattle of similar ages (control group) that were fed a low concentrate diet (30% barley) were used. Rumen fluid samples were obtained by rumenocentesis and their pH was determined with a portable pH meter. Blood samples taken from all animals from a jugular vein were used to determine erythrocyte transketolase enzyme activity, and hence thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) effect. Odor and mean pH values of ruminal fluid samples from the high concentrate diet and control group were acidic (pH 5.3) and aromatic (pH 6.1), respectively. The mean TPP effect % in the high concentrate diet group (47.2 ± 3.2) was significantly higher than in the control group (19.53 ± 2.5) (P < 0.001). The study provides evidence of a TPP effect in feedlot cattle fed a high concentrate diet.

  4. Nutritive value of methane fermentation residue in diets fed to feedlot steers

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.M.; Shirley, R.L.; Palmer, A.Z.

    1982-12-01

    Nutritive value of the methane fermentation residue (MFR) from the effluent of a large scale thermophilic methane generator was determined in diets fed to feedlot steers. The MFR contained 22.2% dry matter and 21.9% crude protein (dry basis). Two diets containing 10.6% (dry basis) MFR were formulated using the Urea Fermentation Potential (UFP) system such that in one diet N was in excess (-1.6 UFP) while in the other diet energy was in excess (+2.6 UFP). These two diets were compared in a California Net Energy trial with a feedlot diet (-.3 UFP) containing the same ingredients except the MFR. Six steers were fed in a replicated 3(2) Latin square metabolism trial and 70 steers were fed in a 118-d comparative-slaughter, feedlot trial. Digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, acid detergent fiber, ash, total digestible nutrients (TDN) and metabolizable energy were depressed (all P less than .05) in the MFR-containing diets. Steers fed the MFR-containing diets had lower (P less than .05) rates of gain and increased (P less than .05) feed requirements per unit gain. Net energies for maintenance and gain were slightly lower for the MFR-containing diets than the control diet. Crude protein digestibility for the MFR calculated by difference, for the -UFP and the +UFP diets were 37.8 and 50.7%, while corresponding values for TDN were 28.8 and 12.8%, respectively. Concentrations of potentially toxic elements in kidney, liver and muscle as well as flavor and tenderness of steaks were not affected by feeding MFR.

  5. Effect of type and level of dietary fat on rumen fermentation and performance of dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets.

    PubMed

    Onetti, S G; Shaver, R D; McGuire, M A; Grummer, R R

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of tallow and choice white grease (CWG) fed at 0, 2, and 4% of the diet dry matter (DM) on rumen fermentation and performance of dairy cows when corn silage is the sole forage source. Fifteen midlactation Holstein cows were used in a replicated 5 x 5 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were 0% fat (control), 2% tallow, 2% CWG, 4% tallow, and 4% CWG (DM basis). The forage:concentrate ratio was 50:50, and diets were formulated to contain 18% crude protein and 32% neutral detergent fiber (DM basis). Cows were allowed ad libitum consumption of diets fed twice daily as total mixed rations. Cows fed supplemental fat had lower DM intake and produced less milk and milk fat than cows fed the control diet. Feeding 4% fat reduced milk production and milk fat yield relative to feeding 2% fat. Treatments had little effect on the concentration of trans-octadecenoic acids in milk fat. Total trans fatty acids were poorly related to changes in milk fat percentage. Ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acids concentration were not affected by supplemental fat. The acetate:propionate ratio, NH3-N, and numbers of protozoa in the rumen were significantly decreased when fat was added to the diets. Source of dietary fat did not affect rumen parameters. There was no treatment effect on in situ corn silage DM and neutral detergent fiber disappearance. Including fat in corn silage-based diets had negative effects on milk production and rumen fermentation regardless of the source or level of supplemental fat.

  6. Microbial ecology of the rumen evaluated by 454 GS FLX pyrosequencing is affected by starch and oil supplementation of diets.

    PubMed

    Zened, Asma; Combes, Sylvie; Cauquil, Laurent; Mariette, Jérôme; Klopp, Christophe; Bouchez, Olivier; Troegeler-Meynadier, Annabelle; Enjalbert, Francis

    2013-02-01

    To provide a comprehensive examination of the bacterial diversity in the rumen content of cows fed different diets, high-throughput 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing was used. Four rumen fistulated nonlactating Holstein cows received 12 kg of dry matter per day of four diets based on maize silage during four periods: the low-starch diet (22% starch, 3% fat); the high-starch diet, supplemented with wheat plus barley (35% starch, 3% fat); the low-starch plus oil diet, supplemented with 5% of sunflower oil (20% starch, 7.6% fat) and the high-starch plus oil diet (33% starch, 7.3% fat). Samples were taken after 12 days of adaptation, 5 h postfeeding. Whatever the diet, bacterial community of sieved rumen contents was dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Prevotellaceae, and Rikenellaceae families were highly present and were clearly affected by cow diet. The highest abundance of Prevotellaceae and the lowest abundance of Ruminococcaceae and Rikenellaceae were found with the high-starch plus oil diet. Dietary starch increased the relative abundance of only three genera: Barnesiella, Oribacterium and Olsenella, but decreased the relative abundances of several genera, with very significant effects for Rikenellaceae_RC9 and Butyrivibrio-Pseudobutyrivibrio. Oil alone had a limited effect, but interestingly, starch plus oil addition differently affected the bacterial populations compared to starch addition without oil.

  7. Impaired glucose tolerance in rats fed low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Sisley, Stephanie; Sandoval, Darleen; Herbach, Nadja; Zengin, Ayse; Fischereder, Michael; Menhofer, Dominik; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Stemmer, Kerstin; Wanke, Rüdiger; Tschöp, Matthias H; Seeley, Randy J; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Moderate low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LC-HF) diets are widely used to induce weight loss in overweight subjects, whereas extreme ketogenic LC-HF diets are used to treat neurological disorders like pediatric epilepsy. Usage of LC-HF diets for improvement of glucose metabolism is highly controversial; some studies suggest that LC-HF diets ameliorate glucose tolerance, whereas other investigations could not identify positive effects of these diets or reported impaired insulin sensitivity. Here, we investigate the effects of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism in a well-characterized animal model. Male rats were fed isoenergetic or hypocaloric amounts of standard control diet, a high-protein "Atkins-style" LC-HF diet, or a low-protein, ketogenic, LC-HF diet. Both LC-HF diets induced lower fasting glucose and insulin levels associated with lower pancreatic β-cell volumes. However, dynamic challenge tests (oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests, insulin-tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps) revealed that LC-HF pair-fed rats exhibited impaired glucose tolerance and impaired hepatic and peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity, the latter potentially being mediated by elevated intramyocellular lipids. Adjusting visceral fat mass in LC-HF groups to that of controls by reducing the intake of LC-HF diets to 80% of the pair-fed groups did not prevent glucose intolerance. Taken together, these data show that lack of dietary carbohydrates leads to glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rats despite causing a reduction in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Our results argue against a beneficial effect of LC-HF diets on glucose and insulin metabolism, at least under physiological conditions. Therefore, use of LC-HF diets for weight loss or other therapeutic purposes should be balanced against potentially harmful metabolic side effects.

  8. Nicotinic acid supplementation in diet favored intramuscular fat deposition and lipid metabolism in finishing steers

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhu-Qing; Bao, Lin-Bin; Zhao, Xiang-Hui; Wang, Can-Yu; Zhou, Shan; Wen, Lu-Hua; Fu, Chuan-Bian; Gong, Jian-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acid (NA) acting as the precursor of NAD+/NADH and NADP+/NADPH, participates in many biochemical processes, e.g. lipid metabolism. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary NA on carcass traits, meat quality, blood metabolites, and fat deposition in Chinese crossbred finishing steers. Sixteen steers with the similar body weight and at the age of 24 months were randomly allocated into control group (feeding basal diet) and NA group (feeding basal diet + 1000 mg/kg NA). All experimental cattle were fed a 90% concentrate diet and 10% forage straw in a 120-day feeding experiment. The results showed that supplemental NA in diet increased longissimus area, intramuscular fat content (17.14% vs. 9.03%), marbling score (8.08 vs. 4.30), redness (a*), and chroma (C*) values of LD muscle, but reduced carcass fat content (not including imtramuscular fat), pH24 h and moisture content of LD muscle, along with no effect on backfat thickness. Besides, NA supplementation increased serum HDL-C concentration, but decreased the serum levels of LDL-C, triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acid, total cholesterol, and glycated serum protein. In addition, NA supplementation increased G6PDH and ICDH activities of LD muscle. These results suggested that NA supplementation in diet improves the carcass characteristics and beef quality, and regulates the compositions of serum metabolites. Based on the above results, NA should be used as the feed additive in cattle industry. PMID:27048556

  9. Effects of dietary chromium (III) picolinate on growth performance, respiratory rate, plasma variables, and carcass traits of pigs fed high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beob G; Lindemann, Merlin D; Cromwell, Gary L

    2010-02-01

    We investigated the effects of supplemental chromium (Cr) as Cr (III) picolinate on pigs fed high-fat diets (HFD) in a 56-day experiment. Thirty-two crossbred pigs (9.6 kg) were allotted to four treatments with four blocks and two pigs/pen. Treatments included: (1) low-fat diet (fat < 3.5%; LFD) with no Cr, (2) HFD (fat > 30%) with no Cr, (3) HFD with 1,000 ppb Cr, and (4) HFD with 2,000 ppb Cr. Pigs fed HFD gained weight faster, consumed less, and had lower feed:gain (p < 0.05). Pigs fed HFD had higher respiration rates than pigs fed LFD on d 41 (p < 0.05). Plasma insulin on d 14 linearly decreased with Cr (p = 0.05). Plasma cholesterol concentrations were higher in the pigs fed HFD than those fed LFD, but were largely unaffected by supplemental Cr. Consumption of HFD resulted in greater carcass weight, perirenal fat, and backfat measures (p < 0.01) compared with the LFD group. Cr resulted in linear reductions of hot carcass weight (p = 0.08) and average backfat (p < 0.05). The effects of Cr on carcass fat measures were more pronounced in castrated males than in females. These results indicate that Cr attenuates some effects of a HFD, mainly body fat accretion of pigs, and especially in castrated pigs.

  10. Effects of diet on growth and survival of rats fed toxic levels of tartrazine (FD & C Yellow No. 5) and sunset yellow FCF (FD & C Yellow No. 6).

    PubMed

    Ershoff, B H

    1977-05-01

    Tests were conducted on the effects of diet on the response of immature male rats to massive doses of tartrazine (FD&C Yellow No.5) and Sunset Yellow FCF (FD&C Yellow No. 6). When incorporated at a 5% level in a stock diet, tartrazine and Sunset Yellow FCF had no grossly observable toxic effects. When fed with a purified diet, however, both tartrazine and Sunset Yellow FCF at 5% level in the diet resulted in a marked retardation in growth, an unthrifty appearance of the fur and death of 50% or more of the rats within an experimental period of 14 days. The toxic effects obtained by feeding the latter diets were counteracted by the concurrent feeding of blond psyllium seed powder, carrot root powder, alfalfa leaf meal and wheat bran. Supplements of the known nutrients had little if any protective effect. Supplements of purified cellulose were without protective effect for the rats fed tartrazine but had a moderate protective effect for those fed Sunset Yellow FCF.

  11. Anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activity of Hemidesmus indicus in rats fed with high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Venkateshan, Suganya; Subramaniyan, Vetriselvan; Chinnasamy, Velmurugan; Chandiran, Sarath

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Dietary changes play major risk roles in oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease and modulate normal metabolic function. The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of different extracts of Hemidesmus indicus to experimental high-fat diet in wistar rats, and their possible mechanism of action. Materials and Methods: Male wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (n=6/group) and fed with a standard diet (control), high-fat diet (HFD), high-fat diet supplemented with different extracts and positive control for 9 weeks. High-fat diet induced changes in average body weight and oxidative stress and elevated levels of plasma lipid profile in rats. Results: Oral administration of methanolic extract of H. indicus (200 mg/kg) offered a significant dose-dependent protection against HFD-induced oxidative stress, as reflected in the levels of catalase (p<0.001 in the aorta, heart and liver), superoxide dismutase (p<0.001 in the aorta, heart and liver), and glutathione peroxidase (p<0.001 in the aorta, heart and liver). Hyperlipidemia condition assessed in terms of body weight, total cholesterol, free cholesterol, ester cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides, and atherogenic index and the results showed significant differences between HFD and non-HFD fed rats (p<0.001). High-fat diet treated rats showed changes in hepatic tissue architecture such as micro and macrovascular steatosis, increased fatty infiltration, and inflammation. Conclusion: The present study revealed that the methanolic extract of H. indicus protects against oxidative stress, hyperlipidemia and liver damage. PMID:27761421

  12. Digestibility and retention of zinc, copper, manganese, iron, calcium, and phosphorus in pigs fed diets containing inorganic or organic minerals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Ma, Y L; Zhao, J M; Vazquez-Añón, M; Stein, H H

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to measure the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and the retention rate of Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe in pigs fed either inorganic or organic sources of Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. There were 2 types of diets (corn grits-based or corn-soybean meal [SBM]-based diets) and 3 micromineral treatments (basal micromineral premix [BMM], inorganic micromineral premix [IMM], and organic micromineral premix [OMM]). The BMM contained no added Zn, Cu, Mn, or Fe; the IMM microminerals were provided as sulfates of Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe at 40, 50, 20, and 100 mg/kg, respectively. The OMM contained the same levels of the 4 microminerals as IMM, but Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe in this premix were provided by Zn(2-hydroxy-4-methylthio butanoic acid [HMTBa])2, Cu(HMTBa)2, Mn(HMTBa)2, and FeGly, respectively. Forty-eight barrows (initial BW: 31.1 ± 4.2 kg) were housed individually and allowed ad libitum access to the corn grits diet with BMM for 2 wk. All pigs were then moved to metabolism cages and randomly assigned to 1 of the 6 treatment diets with 8 replicates per diet. Fecal and urine samples were collected for 5 d following a 5-d adaptation period. Compared with corn grits diets, pigs fed corn-SBM diets had greater (P < 0.05) absorption and retention of Zn, Cu, and Mn but less (P < 0.05) ATTD of Zn and Cu. Compared with BMM, supplementation of IMM or OMM increased (P < 0.05) absorption, retention, ATTD, and retention rate of Zn, Cu, Mn, and Fe. Compared with IMM, adding OMM to the corn-SBM diet improved (P < 0.05) the absorption and retention of Cu and Mn and the ATTD of Cu, but these differences were not observed in the corn grits diets (interaction, P < 0.05). In addition, adding OMM to the corn-SBM diet increased (P < 0.05) absorption and retention of Zn and Fe and ATTD of Zn, Mn, and Fe compared with adding IMM to the corn-SBM diet

  13. Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soymilk on Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Maki; Hirahata, Rie; Egusa, Shintaro; Fukuda, Mitsuru

    2012-01-01

    The effect of fermented soymilk on rats fed a high cholesterol diet was investigated to clarify the cholesterol-lowering function. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 7 weeks were fed a control diet (1% cholesterol, high cholesterol diet), high cholesterol diet containing 11.7% fermented soymilk diet (5% soy protein as final concentration, F-5), or high cholesterol diet containing 23.4% fermented soymilk diet (10% soy protein as final concentration, F-10) for 5 weeks. The liver weight and fat mass were decreased by the ingestion of fermented soymilk. The hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels in the F-5 and F-10 groups were significantly lowered compared to those in the control group. The plasma total cholesterol level of the F-10 group was significantly decreased. The expression of SREBP-2, a cholesterol synthesis-related gene, was significantly decreased in liver of the F-5 group, but the expression of CYP7a1, a cholesterol catabolism-related gene, was significantly increased. These results suggest that fermented soymilk can modulate the cholesterol metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. PMID:23112918

  14. Plasma levels of arginine, ornithine, and urea and growth performance of broilers fed supplemental L-arginine during cool temperature exposure.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Feria, C A; Kidd, M T; Wideman, R F

    2001-03-01

    Two experiments (Experiment 1 and 2) were conducted to evaluate growth performance, ascites mortality, and concentrations of plasma Arg, urea, and ornithine in male broilers raised in floor pens (2 x 4 factorial experiment, six pens for treatment) and exposed to cool temperatures averaging 16 C after 21 d of age. Broilers were fed low- or high-CP diets in both Experiments. In Experiment 1, Arg treatments consisted of control (no supplemental Arg); 0.15 or 0.3% supplemental Arg in the diet (low- and medium-Arg feed, respectively); and 0.3% supplemental Arg in the drinking water (Arg-water). Arginine levels were increased in Experiment 2 and consisted of the following: control (no supplemental Arg); 0.3 or 0.85% supplemental Arg in the diet (medium- and high-Arg feed, respectively); and 0.6% supplemental Arg in the drinking water (Arg-water). The water treatment followed a 3-d cyclic regimen, with supplemental Arg being provided for 24 h, followed by tap water for 48 h. When the broilers reached 37 d of age and all groups had consumed tap water for the previous 48 h, blood samples were collected from one bird per pen (Time 0, 0700 h); then supplemental Arg was provided in the Arg-water group, and additional blood samples were collected from the control and Arg-water groups at 3, 6, 12, and 36 h after Time 0. Plasma amino acids were analyzed using HPLC. Birds fed the high-CP diet were heavier at 49 d than birds fed the low-CP diet in Experiment 1, but not in Experiment 2. No differences were found in feed conversion or ascites mortality due to CP or Arg treatments in either experiment. In both experiments, plasma Arg was similar for all groups at Time 0, but increased in the Arg-water group at 3, 6, and 12 h after Arg was provided in the water. Within 12 h after returning to tap water, plasma Arg levels of the Arg-water group did not differ from the control group. Plasma urea and ornithine were parallel to plasma Arg concentrations, and the high-CP diets resulted in

  15. Effects of cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose and inulin fed to rats as single supplements or in combinations on their caecal parameters.

    PubMed

    Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2004-12-01

    We compared the effect of diets containing different nondigestible carbohydrates: cellulose (C), inulin (IN) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as single supplements or in dietary combination on caecal physiology of rats. Sixty male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were divided into five groups and for 4 weeks were fed a casein diet with the compared carbohydrates (4% of diet) or a combination of IN+C or IN+CMC (both 4+4%). Diet intake and FCR index remained unaffected by the treatments, whereas IN improved the body weight gain of rats compared to CMC. Compared to C group, all diets containing IN and CMC decreased the caecal pH as well as enlarged the caecum, thus increasing the weights of contents and tissue, especially upon CMC treatment. Rats given carboxymethylcellulose (CMC and IN+CMC groups) had watery caecal digesta, and some of them suffered from diarrhoea. In the case of CMC, the caecal enlargement was due to tissue hypertrophy and digesta accumulation mostly in response to an increased bulk of contents. Unlike C+IN, the dietary combination of CMC- and inulin-enhanced fermentation in the caecum of rats, however the proportion of acetate, propionate and butyrate was less beneficial. Compared to CMC, inulin gave a higher concentration of SCFA, especially of butyrate and propionate. The action of inulin in the caecum of rats could be pronounced by dietary treatment combined with CMC.

  16. Conjugated linoleic acids content in M.longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo steers fed a concentrate supplemented with soybean oil, sodium bicarbonate-based monensin, fish oil.

    PubMed

    Song, M K; Jin, G L; Ji, B J; Chang, S S; Jeong, J; Smith, S B; Choi, S H

    2010-06-01

    We hypothesized that increasing ruminal pH would lead to enrichment of adipose tissue with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four Korean native (Hanwoo) steers were used to investigate the additive effects of monensin (30ppm, SO-BM) and/or fish oil (0.7%, SO-BMF) in the diets along with soybean oil (7%) and sodium bicarbonate (0.5%, SO-B) on cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLAs in adipose tissue. The steers were assigned to randomly four groups of six animals each based on body weight. The control group (CON) was fed a commercial concentrate for the late fattening stage. Supplementation of oil and sodium bicarbonate reduced feed intake and daily gain, and fish oil further decreased feed intake (P<0.001) and daily gain (P<0.087) compared to steers fed other diets. Total CLA and CLA isomers in M.longissimus dorsi were not affected when steers were fed SO-B and SO-BM diets compared with those of steers fed CON and SO-BMF diets. However, total poly unsaturated fatty acids were higher (P=0.03) in steers fed SO than in CON steers.

  17. Milk Yield, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Dairy Cows Fed a High-concentrate Diet Blended with Oil Mixtures Rich in Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Thanh, Lam Phuoc; Suksombat, Wisitiporn

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of feeding linseed oil or/and sunflower oil mixed with fish oil on milk yield, milk composition and fatty acid (FA) profiles of dairy cows fed a high-concentrate diet, 24 crossbred primiparous lactating dairy cows in early lactation were assigned to a completely randomized design experiment. All cows were fed a high-concentrate basal diet and 0.38 kg dry matter (DM) molasses per day. Treatments were composed of a basal diet without oil supplement (Control), or diets of (DM basis) 3% linseed and fish oils (1:1, w/w, LSO-FO), or 3% sunflower and fish oils (1:1, w/w, SFO-FO), or 3% mixture (1:1:1, w/w) of linseed, sunflower, and fish oils (MIX-O). The animals fed SFO-FO had a 13.12% decrease in total dry matter intake compared with the control diet (p<0.05). No significant change was detected for milk yield; however, the animals fed the diet supplemented with SFO-FO showed a depressed milk fat yield and concentration by 35.42% and 27.20%, respectively, compared to those fed the control diet (p<0.05). Milk c9, t11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) proportion increased by 198.11% in the LSO-FO group relative to the control group (p<0.01). Milk C18:3n-3 (ALA) proportion was enhanced by 227.27% supplementing with LSO-FO relative to the control group (p<0.01). The proportions of milk docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were significantly increased (p<0.01) in the cows fed LSO-FO (0.38%) and MIX-O (0.23%) compared to the control group (0.01%). Dietary inclusion of LSO-FO mainly increased milk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), whereas feeding MIX-O improved preformed FA and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). While the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio was found in the LSO-FO, the decreased atherogenecity index (AI) and thrombogenicity index (TI) seemed to be more extent in the MIX-O. Therefore, to maximize milk c9, t11-CLA, ALA, DHA, and n-3 PUFA and to minimize milk n-6/n-3 ratio, AI and TI, an ideal supplement would appear to be either LSO-FO or

  18. Mango modulates body fat and plasma glucose and lipids in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Edralin A; Li, Wenjia; Peterson, Sandra K; Brown, Angela; Kuvibidila, Solo; Perkins-Veazie, Penny; Clarke, Stephen L; Smith, Brenda J

    2011-11-01

    Consumption of fruits and vegetables has been investigated for their role in the prevention of many chronic conditions. Among the fruits, mango provides numerous bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, vitamin C and phenolic compounds, which have been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study examined the effects of dietary supplementation of freeze-dried mango pulp, in comparison with the hypolipidaemic drug, fenofibrate, and the hypoglycaemic drug, rosiglitazone, in reducing adiposity and alterations in glucose metabolism and lipid profile in mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Male C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into six treatment groups (eight to nine/group): control (10 % energy from fat); HF (60 % energy from fat); HF+1 or 10 % freeze-dried mango (w/w); HF+fenofibrate (500 mg/kg diet); HF+rosiglitazone (50 mg/kg diet). After 8 weeks of treatment, mice receiving the HF diet had a higher percentage body fat (P = 0·0205) and epididymal fat mass (P = 0·0037) compared with the other treatment groups. Both doses of freeze-dried mango, similar to fenofibrate and rosiglitazone, prevented the increase in epididymal fat mass and the percentage of body fat. Freeze-dried mango supplementation at the 1 % dose improved glucose tolerance as shown by approximately 35 % lower blood glucose area under the curve compared with the HF group. Moreover, freeze-dried mango lowered insulin resistance, as indicated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, to a similar extent as rosiglitazone and modulated NEFA. The present findings demonstrate that incorporation of freeze-dried mango in the diet of mice improved glucose tolerance and lipid profile and reduced adiposity associated with a HF diet.

  19. Influence of protein nutrition and virginiamycin supplementation on feedlot growth performance and digestive function of calf-fed Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Chavira, J; Barreras, A; Plascencia, A; Montano, M F; Navarrete, J D; Torrentera, N; Zinn, R A

    2016-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the influence of protein and virginiamycin (VM) supplementation on feedlot growth performance, digestion, and metabolizable AA (MAA) supply of calf-fed Holstein steers. Growth performance and dietary energetics were evaluated in 120 Holstein steers (127 ± 9 kg). During the initial 112-d feeding period, a steam-flaked corn-based diet was balanced to meet either 100% (MAB) or 87% (UREA) of MAA requirements. Diets were supplemented with or without 22.5 mg/kg VM in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Subsequently (d 112 to 308), all steers received the UREA diet with or without VM. During the initial 112-d, MAB increased ADG, G:F, and dietary NE ( < 0.01). Thereafter, when all steers received the UREA diet, ADG, G:F, and dietary NE were not different ( > 0.10) across initial supplementation treatments. Overall (d 1 to 308), MAB did not affect ADG ( > 0.10) but enhanced G:F efficiency ( = 0.03) and dietary NE ( = 0.05). During the initial 112-d period and through the remainder of the experiment, VM increased G:F ( < 0.01) and dietary NE ( < 0.01). Four Holstein steers (146 ± 4 kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to evaluate initial 112-d treatment effects on digestive function. There were no treatment effects ( > 0.10) on ruminal digestion of OM, NDF, starch, microbial efficiency, or total tract digestion of OM and NDF. The MAB increased indispensable AA flow to the small intestine ( < 0.01) and total tract digestion of N ( < 0.01) and starch ( = 0.04). Observed AA supply to small intestine was in agreement with expected supply ( = 0.96). Virginiamycin decreased ( = 0.04) nonammonia N flow to the small intestine and did not affect ( > 0.10) total tract N digestion. Extrapolating from AA supplies in the metabolism study, MAB satisfied indispensable AA requirements during the initial 112-d period, whereas the UREA diet met 73.5% and 79.2% of methionine and lysine

  20. Corn silk extract improves cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mouse fed high-fat diets

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jae Hoon; Kim, Sun Rim; Kang, Hyun Joong; Kim, Myung Hwan; Ha, Ae Wha

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Corn silk (CS) extract contains large amounts of maysin, which is a major flavonoid in CS. However, studies regarding the effect of CS extract on cholesterol metabolism is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CS extract on cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mouse fed high-fat diets. MATERIALS/METHODS Normal-fat group fed 7% fat diet, high-fat (HF) group fed 25% fat diet, and high-fat with corn silk (HFCS) group were orally administered CS extract (100 mg/kg body weight) daily. Serum and hepatic levels of total lipids, triglycerides, and total cholesterol as well as serum free fatty acid, glucose, and insulin levels were determined. The mRNA expression levels of acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase (CYP7A1), farnesoid X receptor (FXR), lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), low-density lipoprotein receptor, 3-hyroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), adiponectin, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor α were determined. RESULTS Oral administration of CS extract with HF improved serum glucose and insulin levels as well as attenuated HF-induced fatty liver. CS extracts significantly elevated mRNA expression levels of adipocytokines and reduced mRNA expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase, ACAT, and FXR. The mRNA expression levels of CYP7A1 and LCAT between the HF group and HFCS group were not statistically different. CONCLUSIONS CS extract supplementation with a high-fat diet improves levels of adipocytokine secretion and glucose homeostasis. CS extract is also effective in decreasing the regulatory pool of hepatic cholesterol, in line with decreased blood and hepatic levels of cholesterol though modulation of mRNA expression levels of HMG-CoA reductase, ACAT, and FXR. PMID:27698957

  1. Epidermal growth factor-expressing Lactococcus lactis enhances growth performance of early-weaned pigs fed diets devoid of blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Bedford, A; Li, Z; Li, M; Ji, S; Liu, W; Huai, Y; de Lange, C F M; Li, J

    2012-12-01

    The effect of supplementing Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) that was engineered to express epidermal growth factor (EGF-LL) to early-weaned pigs fed diets with typical levels of blood plasma (5%) or diets without blood plasma [blood plasma was substituted with soybean (Glycine max) meal and fish meal, based on amino acid supply] was examined. A total of 108 weaned piglets (19-26 d of age; mean initial BW 6.58 kg; 9 pigs per pen) were fed ad libitum according to a 2-phase feeding program without growth promoters. Three pens were assigned to each of 4 treatments: i) blood plasma-containing diet with blank bacterial growth medium (BP-Con), ii) blood plasma-containing diet with fermented EGF-LL (BP-EGF), iii) blood plasma-free diet with blank bacterial growth medium (BPF-Con), and iv) blood plasma-free diet with fermented EGF-LL (BPF-EGF). The amount of epidermal growth factor (EGF) was determined in the fermentation product and pigs were allotted 60 μg EGF/kg BW/d for 3 wk postweaning. There were no differences in overall growth performance between BP-Con and BP-EGF pigs and no differences in overall growth performance between LoCon and BPF-EGF pigs. Pigs fed BPF-EGF showed increased daily BW gain (410 vs. 260 g/d; P < 0.01) and gain:feed (0.67 vs. 0.58; P < 0.05) compared to BPF-Con pigs in wk 3 postweaning; this was comparable to values for the BP-Con group (400 g/d and 0.64). These results indicate that supplementation with EGF-LL can be effective in enhancing the performance of early-weaned piglets fed a low complexity diet and reduces the need for feeding high-quality animal proteins and antibiotics.

  2. Extra-phosphoric effects of phytase with and without xylanase in corn-soybean meal-based diets fed to broilers.

    PubMed

    Gehring, C K; Bedford, M R; Dozier, W A

    2013-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the extra-phosphoric effects of phytase on amino acid (AA) and energy digestibility (experiments 1 and 2) and growth performance (experiment 2) of broilers fed diets adequate in Ca and nonphytate P supplemented with xylanase. Ross × Ross 708 broiler chicks (864 males in experiment 1 and 1,152 females in experiment 2) were randomly distributed into battery cages (6 replicate cages per treatment) with 12 birds per cage at 1 d of age. In both experiments, factorial arrangements of treatments were evaluated consisting of 6 phytase [0, 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, 8,000, or 16,000 phytase units (FTU)/kg] and 2 xylanase [0 or 16,000 birch xylan units (BXU)/kg] concentrations in experiment 1 and 4 phytase (0, 500, 1,000 or 2,000 FTU/kg) and 4 xylanase (0, 8,000, 16,000, or 32,000 BXU/kg) concentrations in experiment 2. Treatments were provided from 27 to 32 d of age in experiment 1 and from 1 to 32 d of age in experiment 2. Digesta contents of the terminal ileum were collected at 32 d of age (experiment 1 and 2), and growth performance was measured at 1, 14, and 25 d of age in experiment 2. There was no interaction of phytase and xylanase; only main effects of phytase were observed. In experiment 1, broilers fed diets supplemented with phytase at 1,000 FTU/kg had increased (P < 0.05) apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of all AA with the exception of Ala and Met. Diets fed to broilers supplemented with higher concentrations of phytase did not further increase AID of any AA (P > 0.05) above the addition of 1,000 FTU/kg of phytase. Phytase supplementation did not affect ileal digestible energy (P > 0.05). For all variables measured, significant log-linear or log-quadratic effects of phytase (P > 0.05) were not observed. In contrast, broilers fed diets supplemented with phytase in experiment 2 exhibited log-linear (P < 0.05) increases in AID of AA but not apparent ileal digestible energy. However, supplementation with 2,000 FTU/kg of

  3. Inhibition by dietary D-psicose of body fat accumulation in adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masaru; Nakanishi, Yosuke; Yamada, Takako; Iida, Tetsuo; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-obesity effects of dietary D-psicose on adult rats fed a high-sucrose diet. Wistar rats (16 weeks old) that had previously been fed a high-sucrose diet (HSD) were fed HSD or a high-starch diet (HTD) with or without 5% D-psicose for 8 weeks. The food efficiency, carcass fat percentage, abdominal fat accumulation, and body weight gain were all significantly suppressed by dietary D-psicose.

  4. Intestinal bacterial community and growth performance of chickens fed diets containing antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Pedroso, A A; Menten, J F M; Lambais, M R; Racanicci, A M C; Longo, F A; Sorbara, J O B

    2006-04-01

    This study was conducted to relate the performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing growth-promoting antibiotics to changes in the intestinal microbiota. The technique of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of amplicons of the region V3 of 16S rDNA was used to characterize the microbiota. Two experiments were conducted, one with broilers raised in battery cages and the other with broilers raised in floor pens. Antibiotics improved the performance of the chickens raised in floor pens only. Avilamycin, bacitracin methylene disalicylate, and enramycin induced changes in the composition of the intestinal bacterial community of the birds in both experiments. The number of bacterial genotypes found in the intestinal tract of chickens was not reduced by the antibiotics supplemented in either environment. However, the changes in the composition of the intestinal bacterial community induced by antibiotics may be related to improvement in growth performance. This was indicated by the suppression of 6 amplicons and the presence of 4 amplicons exclusive to the treatment that had the best performance in the floor pen experiment.

  5. Which sources of flavonoids: complex diets or dietary supplements?

    PubMed

    Egert, Sarah; Rimbach, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the potential health benefits of dietary flavonoids. Fruits and vegetables, tea, and cocoa are rich natural sources of flavonoids. Epidemiological studies have indicated that consumption of these foods is likely to be associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, but the etiology of this benefit is not yet clearly defined. Furthermore, in some acute interventions, a positive effect of tea and cocoa on vascular function has been reported. An alternative source of flavonoids is dietary supplements, which have become increasingly popular in the recent past. In this context, it needs to be critically evaluated whether vascular health-promoting and other positive properties of flavonoid-rich diets can be replaced by purified flavonoids as dietary supplements. Plant sources of flavonoids contain a complex mixture of secondary plant metabolites and not only flavonoids per se. This complex mixture of secondary plant metabolites cannot be simply exchanged by single purified compounds as dietary supplements. If flavonoids are given as dietary supplements, toxicity issues as well as nutrient drug interactions need to be taken into account. Purified flavonoids given in high doses as dietary supplements may affect trace element, folate, and vitamin C status. Furthermore, they may exhibit antithyroid and goitrogenic activities. In this review article, the available literature on the safety issues surrounding high dose supplemental flavonoid consumption has been summarized.

  6. Postprandial lipoprotein composition in pigs fed diets differing in type and amount of dietary fat.

    PubMed

    Luhman, C M; Faidley, T D; Beitz, D C

    1992-01-01

    To determine the effects of diet on postprandial lipoprotein composition, growing pigs were fed diets containing 20 or 40% of energy as soybean oil, tallow or a 50:50 blend of soybean oil and tallow. At the end of wk 6, a blood sample was drawn from pigs fasted for 12 h. Pigs were then fed, and blood samples were drawn 1 and 4 h later. In LDL, concentrations of free and total cholesterol were greater in pigs fed 40% of energy as fat than in pigs fed 20% of energy as fat (P less than 0.02). Pigs fasted for 12 h had lesser concentrations of triacylglycerol and greater concentrations of phospholipid in LDL and HDL than did pigs fasted for 1 and 4 h (P less than 0.05). In HDL, total cholesterol and phospholipid concentrations were greater in pigs fed 40% of energy as fat than in pigs fed 20% of energy as fat (P less than 0.01). A greater concentration of triacylglycerol was found in VLDL of pigs fed 40% of energy as fat than in pigs fed 20% of energy as fat (P less than 0.01). Amount of dietary fat had a greater effect than did type of dietary fat on composition of lipoproteins from postprandial pigs.

  7. Silage or limit-fed grain growing diets for steers: I. Growth and carcass quality.

    PubMed

    Coleman, S W; Gallavan, R H; Williams, C B; Phillips, W A; Volesky, J D; Rodriguez, S; Bennett, G L

    1995-09-01

    The influence of energy source (silage- [S] or grain- [G] based) on organ growth, carcass quality, and meat acceptability independent of rate of gain was examined. Sixty-four Angus steers were allotted to one of the two treatments and given ad libitum access to silage or limit-fed grain for 145 d. All steers were then given ad libitum access to a grain diet for 45, 75, or 105 d. Eight steers from each treatment were slaughtered at the end of the growing phase and at each of the termination dates. The silage-based growing diet consisted (DM basis) of 55% sorghum silage (averaged 23.6% dry matter), 22% alfalfa hay, 10.8% ground shelled corn, and 10.8% soybean meal and contained 12.8% CP. Dry matter in the grain-based diet, composed of 76.5% ground shelled corn, 5% soybean meal, 13.6% cottonseed hulls, 3.5% molasses, and .4% salt and 1% limestone, contained 12.1% CP. It was limit-fed to produce rates of gain similar to the silage diet eaten ad libitum, using net energy for gain of each diet calculated from organic matter digestibility determined in digestion trials. The finishing diet was similar to the grain growing diet except that alfalfa hay replaced the cottonseed hulls. No implants or ionophores were used. High silage moisture decreased ADG the first 45 d, so steers fed grain gained faster, but thereafter gains were similar. At the end of the growing phase, steers fed grain had heavier shrunk and empty body weights and larger livers. However, liver size was not different when adjusted for growing ADG. By 45 d with ad libitum access to the finishing diet, 75% of the carcasses from steers fed both diets graded Choice. Steers fed silage had tougher (P < .05) steaks with less flavor intensity (P < .05) at the end of the growing phase; these differences diminished after 75 d on feed. These results suggest that choice beef can be produced in only 45 d in the feedlot, but tenderness and flavor among Choice carcasses remained inferior for steers fed silage for at least

  8. Diet and supplements and their impact on colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pericleous, Marinos; Mandair, Dalvinder

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the third commonest cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death among men and women. It has been proposed that dietary factors are responsible for 70-90% of colorectal cancer and diet optimization may prevent most cases. Aim To evaluate the role of dietary components and supplements in colorectal cancer. Methods Bibliographical searches were performed in Pubmed for the terms “diet and colorectal cancer”, “diet and colon cancer”, “diet and rectal cancer”, “nutrition and colorectal cancer”, “probiotics and colorectal cancer”, “prebiotics and colorectal cancer”, “alcohol and cancer” and “colorectal cancer epidemiology”. Results Consumption of processed or red meat, especially when cooked at high temperatures may be associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer. The evidence for dietary fibre is unclear but foods that contain high amounts of fibre are usually rich in polyphenols which have been shown to alter molecular processes that can encourage colorectal carcinogenesis. Meta-analyses provide evidence on the benefits of circulating, diet-derived and supplemented, vitamin D and Calcium. We also found that diets rich in Folate may prevent colorectal carcinoma. The evidence on dietary micronutrients such as Zinc and Selenium in association with colorectal cancer is not conclusive. It has been suggested that there may be a direct association between alcohol intake and colorectal cancer. In vitro and in vivo studies have highlighted a possible protective role of prebiotics and probiotics. Conclusions The lack of randomized trials and the presence of confounding factors including smoking, physical activity, obesity and diabetes may often yield inconclusive results. Carefully designed randomized trials are recommended. PMID:24294513

  9. Response of chicks to two diets of differing energy levels under conditions of brooding with or without supplemental heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkoh, A.; Kese, A. G.

    1987-12-01

    A 2×2 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the performance and certain physiological parameters of 200 day-old chicks fed diets containing either 2600 or 3000 kcal metabolizable energy (ME) per kilogram for a period of 28 days under conditions of brooding with or without supplemental heat in a hot humid tropical area. The results indicated that within each dietary energy level, there was no significant difference in growth rates of chicks brooded with or without supplemental heat, however, the high energy diet significantly (P<0.01) promoted greater weight gains than the low energy diet. Brooding chicks with supplemental heat and with the high energy diet, decreased feed intake and improved feed conversion efficiency. Chicks brooded without supplemental heat consumed significantly (P<0.01) less water than those brooded with heat, irrespective of the dietary energy level. Mortality and blood glucose levels were not affected by the heat and dietary energy treatments. Thyroid weight expressed as percentage of body weight, haemoglobin and hematocrit values were significantly (P<0.01) higher for chicks brooded without supplemental heat. On the other hand, dietary energy levels did not exert any effect on these physiological parameters. No significant heat and dietary energy level interaction effects were noted on all the parameters considered under this trial.

  10. Irradiation of diets fed to captive exotic felids: microbial destruction, consumption, and fecal consistency.

    PubMed

    Crissey, S D; Slifka, K A; Jacobsen, K L; Shumway, P J; Mathews, R; Harper, J

    2001-09-01

    Two frozen, raw horse meat-based diets fed to captive exotic felids at Brookfield Zoo were irradiated to determine the extent of microbial destruction and whether radiation treatment would affect consumption and/or fecal consistency in exotic cats. Fifteen cats, two African lions (Panthera leo), two Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), one Amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis), two clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa), two caracals (Felis caracal), one bobcat (Felis rufus), and five fishing cats (Felis viverrinus), housed at Brookfield Zoo were fed nonirradiated and irradiated raw diets containing horse meat with cereal products and fortified with nutrients: Nebraska Brand Feline and/or Canine Diet (Animal Spectrum, North Platte, Nebraska 69103, USA). Baseline data were obtained during a 2-wk control period (nonirradiated diets), which was followed by a 4-wk period of feeding comparable irradiated diets. Feed intake and fecal consistency data were collected. An estimated radiation dose range of 0.5-3.9 kilograys reduced most microbial populations, depending on specific diet and microbe type. Irradiation had no overall effect on either feed consumption or fecal consistency in captive exotic cats, regardless of species, age, sex, or body mass. Data indicate that irradiation of frozen horse meat-based diets (packaged in 2.2-kg portions) result in microbial destruction in these products but that product storage time between irradiation and sampling may also affect microbial reduction. However, irradiation would be an appropriate method for reducing potentially pathologic bacteria in raw meat fed to exotic cats.

  11. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidative effects of Hydroxyethyl Methylcellulose (HEMC) and Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose (HPMC) in mice fed with a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Ban, Su Jeong; Rico, Catherine W; Um, In Chul; Kang, Mi Young

    2012-01-01

    The effect of dietary feeding of hydroxyethyl methylcellulose (HEMC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) on the glucose metabolism and antioxidative status in mice under high fat diet conditions was investigated. The mice were randomly divided and given experimental diets for six weeks: normal control (NC group), high fat (HF group), and high fat supplemented with either HEMC (HF+HEMC group) or HPMC (HF+HPMC group). At the end of the experimental period, the HF group exhibited markedly higher blood glucose and insulin levels as well as a higher erythrocyte lipid peroxidation rate relative to the control group. However, diet supplementation of HEMC and HPMC was found to counteract the high fat-induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress via regulation of antioxidant and hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities. These findings illustrate that HEMC and HPMC were similarly effective in improving the glucose metabolism and antioxidant defense system in high fat-fed mice and they may be beneficial as functional biomaterials in the development of therapeutic agents against high fat dietinduced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress.

  12. Antihyperglycemic and Antioxidative Effects of Hydroxyethyl Methylcellulose (HEMC) and Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose (HPMC) in Mice Fed with a High Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Su Jeong; Rico, Catherine W.; Um, In Chul; Kang, Mi Young

    2012-01-01

    The effect of dietary feeding of hydroxyethyl methylcellulose (HEMC) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) on the glucose metabolism and antioxidative status in mice under high fat diet conditions was investigated. The mice were randomly divided and given experimental diets for six weeks: normal control (NC group), high fat (HF group), and high fat supplemented with either HEMC (HF+HEMC group) or HPMC (HF+HPMC group). At the end of the experimental period, the HF group exhibited markedly higher blood glucose and insulin levels as well as a higher erythrocyte lipid peroxidation rate relative to the control group. However, diet supplementation of HEMC and HPMC was found to counteract the high fat-induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress via regulation of antioxidant and hepatic glucose-regulating enzyme activities. These findings illustrate that HEMC and HPMC were similarly effective in improving the glucose metabolism and antioxidant defense system in high fat-fed mice and they may be beneficial as functional biomaterials in the development of therapeutic agents against high fat dietinduced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. PMID:22489179

  13. Effects of three Chinese herbal medicines on plasma and liver lipids in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tohru; Suzuki, Satoe; Kudo, Hideki; Sassa, Shuji; Nomura, Makoto; Sakamoto, Shinobu

    2007-01-19

    Chinese herbal medicines, Inchinko-to, Bofu-tsusho-san and Dai-saiko-to, containing 3, 18 and 8 components, respectively, have since long been used as an anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, choleretic and diuretic agent for liver disorders and jaundice, as an anti-obesity agent, a hypocholesterolemic agent for liver disorders and a therapeutic and/or preventive agent for cholesterol gallstone disease with hypertriglycerid-emia in China and Japan, respectively. In the present study, we investigated the effects of these three herbal medicines in young male mice fed a high-fat diet. Plasma levels of lipids and the numbers of the fatty droplets in the liver cytoplasm were markedly lowered by the diets supplemented with three herbal medicines. The liver weights and the body growth were reduced by the diet supplemented with Dai-saiko-to, which slightly affected the concentrations of total protein, albumin, creatinine or calcium, and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase. Thus, Dai-saiko-to, besides Bofu-tsusho-san, seems effective in the activities of anti-obesity, anti-hyperlipidemia and anti-hyperlipids in liver cytoplasm, when used carefully.

  14. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid profile and liver histology in laboratory rats fed high-fructose diet.

    PubMed

    Kostogrys, Renata B; Pisulewski, Paweł M

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the effect of CLA on serum lipid profile, plasma malondialdehyde and liver histology in Wistar rats fed high-fructose diet. Eighteen rats were randomly assigned to three experimental groups and fed for the next 21 days. The experimental diets were: I, Control; II, Fructose (63.2% of fructose); and III, CLA+Fructose (1% CLA and 63.2% of fructose). The experimental treatments had no effect on body weight of the rats. The LDL+VLDL cholesterol, TG and liver weight were significantly increased in animals fed Fructose. MDA concentrations were significantly increased in rats fed Fructose diet but CLA+Fructose diet had no effect on this marker. In the same line, the histological examination of the livers showed a series of morphological alterations, notably hepatic steatosis in animals fed high-fructose diet. No signs of the steatosis in rats fed CLA+Fructose diet were observed. In conclusion, CLA in high-fructose diet, decreases serum LDL+VLDL and TG and plasma MDA concentrations as well as liver weight and liver cholesterol, thus opposing the effects of high-fructose diet and showing a potential antiatherogenic effect. Similarly, dietary CLA fed at 1% level (w/w) in high-fructose diet, prevented steatosis observed histologically in livers of rats fed high-fructose diets.

  15. Effects of combining three fungal phytases with a bacterial phytase on plasma phosphorus status of weanling pigs fed a corn-soy diet.

    PubMed

    Stahl, C H; Roneker, K R; Pond, W G; Lei, X G

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine possible synergistic effects of supplementing one of three fungal phytases: Aspergillus fumitagus PhyA (AFP),A. niger PhyA (ANP), or Peniophora lyci phytase (PLP) with an Escherichia coli AppA phytase (EP) in diets for pigs. Three experiments, each lasting for 4 wk, were conducted with a total of 106 weanling pigs (5 wk old). The corn-soybean meal basal diet (BD) contained no supplemental inorganic P. In Exp. 1, 35 pigs (8.6 +/- 1.0 kg BW) were fed (as-fed basis) BD + AFP at 750 U/ kg of feed, BD + inorganic P (0.2% P), or BD + PLP at 500, 750, or 1,000 U/kg feed. Pigs fed BD + AFP or BD + 0.2% P had higher (P < 0.05) plasma inorganic P concentrations than those fed BD + PLP at the end of the trial (wk 4). In Exp. 2, 35 pigs (8.1 +/- 0.9 kg BW) were fed BD + AFP, EP, PLP, a 1:1 mix of AFP:EP, or a 1:1 mix of PLP:EP at 500 U/kg. Pigs fed the AFP:EP mixture had growth performance and plasma measures similar to those fed either enzyme alone. Pigs fed the PLP:EP mixture had lower (P < 0.05) plasma alkaline phosphatase activity than those fed BD + PLP. Pigs fed BD + PLP had lower (P < 0.05) plasma inorganic P concentrations than pigs fed BD + EP, and higher (P < 0.05) plasma alkaline phosphatase activity than all other groups at wk 4. In Exp. 3, 36 pigs (9.1 +/- 1.2 kg BW) were fed BD + ANP, EP, or a 1:1 mix of ANP:EP at 500 U/kg feed. Pigs fed the two enzymes together had lower (P < 0.05) plasma inorganic P concentration than those fed BD + EP and lower (P < 0.05) plasma alkaline phosphatase activity than pigs fed BD + ANP at wk 4. In conclusion, although the four phytases showed different effects on plasma P status of weanling pigs, there was no synergistic effect between any of the three fungal phytases and the bacterial phytase on the plasma measures or growth performance under the conditions of the present study.

  16. Digestion of carbohydrates and utilization of energy in sows fed diets with contrasting levels and physicochemical properties of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Serena, A; Jørgensen, H; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2008-09-01

    Three experimental diets were used to investigate the digestion of carbohydrates and utilization of energy in sows fed diets with different levels and physicochemical properties of dietary fiber (DF). The low-fiber diet (LF; DF, 16%; soluble DF, 4.8%) was based on wheat and barley. The high-fiber 1 diet (HF1; DF, 41%; soluble DF, 11%) was based on wheat and barley supplemented with the coproducts: sugar beet pulp, potato pulp, and pectin residue, and the high-fiber 2 diet (HF2; DF, 44%; soluble DF, 7.3%) was based on wheat and barley supplemented with approximately 1/3 of the coproducts used in diet HF1 and 2/3 of brewers spent grain, seed residue, and pea hull (1:1:1, respectively). The diets were studied in 2 series of experiments. In Exp. 1, the digestibility and ileal and fecal flow of nutrients were studied in 6 ileal-cannulated sows placed in metabolic cages designed as a repeated 3 x 3 Latin square design. In Exp. 2, energy metabolism was measured in respiration chambers using 6 sows in a repeated 3 x 3 Latin square design. The DF level influenced the ileal flow of most nutrients, in particular carbohydrates, which increased from 190 g/d when feeding the LF diet to 538 to 539 g/d when feeding the HF diets; this was also reflected in the digestibility of OM and carbohydrates (P < 0.05). The ranking of total excretion of fecal materials was HF2 > > HF1 > LF, which also was reflected in the digestibility of OM, protein, and carbohydrates. Feeding HF diets resulted in greater CH(4) production, which was related to the amount of carbohydrates (r = 0.79) and OM (r = 0.72) fermented in the large intestine, but with no difference in heat production (12.2 to 13.1 MJ/kg of DM). Retained energy (MJ/kg of DM) was decreased when feeding HF1 compared with LF and negative when feeding HF2. Feeding sows HF1 reduced the activity of animals (5.1 h/24 h) compared with LF (6.1 h/24 h; P = 0.045).

  17. Reproductive parameters and oxidative stress status of male rats fed with low and high salt diet

    PubMed Central

    Iranloye, Bolanle O.; Oludare, Gabriel O.; Morakinyo, Ayodele O.; Esume, Naomi A.; Ekeh, Lucy C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deficiency of minerals and micronutrients has been reported to impair the process of spermatogenesis. Historically, salt has been used by women on their husbands to increase their libido, however, the role of salt diet on sperm parameters are yet to be ascertained. AIM: The present study was designed to determine the effect of low and high salt diet on sperm parameters, oxidative status and reproductive hormone levels of male rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 18 rats were divided into three groups: Group I: (control) received 0.3% salt diet, Group II: low salt (received 0.14% salt diet) and Group III: high salt (received 8% salt diet). All animals were treated for 6 weeks; after which epididymal sperm parameters; oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase) in the testes and epididymal tissues, as well as follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone levels were determined. RESULTS: The results showed decreased sperm count in the low salt diet rats while increased sperm count was observed in the high salt diet treated rats. Both low salt and high salt diet fed rats exhibited increased abnormal sperm cells and increased epididymal oxidative stress when compared with their respective control. FSH and testosterone levels were increased in the high salt fed rats while LH level was decreased when compared with the control values. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that both low and high salt diet play a negative role in the fertility of male rats. PMID:24672168

  18. Lingonberries alter the gut microbiota and prevent low-grade inflammation in high-fat diet fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Heyman-Lindén, Lovisa; Kotowska, Dorota; Sand, Elin; Bjursell, Mikael; Plaza, Merichel; Turner, Charlotta; Holm, Cecilia; Fåk, Frida; Berger, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background The gut microbiota plays an important role in the development of obesity and obesity-associated impairments such as low-grade inflammation. Lingonberries have been shown to prevent diet-induced obesity and low-grade inflammation. However, it is not known whether the effect of lingonberry supplementation is related to modifications of the gut microbiota. The aim of the present study was to describe whether consumption of different batches of lingonberries alters the composition of the gut microbiota, which could be relevant for the protective effect against high fat (HF)-induced metabolic alterations. Methods Three groups of C57BL/6J mice were fed HF diet with or without a supplement of 20% lingonberries from two different batches (Lingon1 and Lingon2) during 11 weeks. The composition and functionality of the cecal microbiota were assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing and PICRUSt. In addition, parameters related to obesity, insulin sensitivity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation and gut barrier function were examined. Results HF-induced obesity was only prevented by the Lingon1 diet, whereas both batches of lingonberries reduced plasma levels of markers of inflammation and endotoxemia (SAA and LBP) as well as modified the composition and functionality of the gut microbiota, compared to the HF control group. The relative abundance of Akkermansia and Faecalibacterium, genera associated with healthy gut mucosa and anti-inflammation, was found to increase in response to lingonberry intake. Conclusions Our results show that supplementation with lingonberries to an HF diet prevents low-grade inflammation and is associated with significant changes of the microbiota composition. Notably, the anti-inflammatory properties of lingonberries seem to be independent of effects on body weight gain. PMID:27125264

  19. Quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone affects energy homeostasis and intestinal fat absorption in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Foucault, Anne-Sophie; Even, Patrick; Lafont, René; Dioh, Waly; Veillet, Stanislas; Tomé, Daniel; Huneau, Jean-François; Hermier, Dominique; Quignard-Boulangé, Annie

    2014-04-10

    In a previous study, we have demonstrated that a supplementation of a high-fat diet with a quinoa extract enriched in 20-hydroxyecdysone (QE) or pure 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) could prevent the development of obesity. In line with the anti-obesity effect of QE, we used indirect calorimetry to examine the effect of dietary QE and 20E in high-fat fed mice on different components of energy metabolism. Mice were fed a high-fat (HF) diet with or without supplementation by QE or pure 20E for 3 weeks. As compared to mice maintained on a low-fat diet, HF feeding resulted in a marked physiological shift in energy homeostasis, associating a decrease in global energy expenditure (EE) and an increase in lipid utilization as assessed by the lower respiratory quotient (RQ). Supplementation with 20E increased energy expenditure while food intake and activity were not affected. Furthermore QE and 20E promoted a higher rate of glucose oxidation leading to an increased RQ value. In QE and 20E-treated HFD fed mice, there was an increase in fecal lipid excretion without any change in stool amount. Our study indicates that anti-obesity effect of QE can be explained by a global increase in energy expenditure, a shift in glucose metabolism towards oxidation to the detriment of lipogenesis and a decrease in dietary lipid absorption leading to reduced dietary lipid storage in adipose tissue.

  20. Effect of magnesium deficiency on lipid metabolism in rats fed a high carbohydrate diet.

    PubMed

    Rayssiguier, Y; Gueux, E; Weiser, D

    1981-11-01

    The effects of acute magnesium deficiency on lipid metabolism were examined in weaning rats fed a high carbohydrate diet containing starch or sucrose for 8 days. Rats were killed after the feeding period. In plasma, magnesium deficiency increased triglyceride and free cholesterol levels and decreased esterified cholesterol levels. Rats fed a magnesium-deficient diet containing sucrose showed particularly high triglyceride plasma levels. In liver, magnesium-deficient rats fed sucrose showed a significant increase in triglycerides, lactate and alpha-glycerophosphate and a significant decrease in glycogen. Changes in triglycerides and glycogen in the liver of magnesium-deficient rats fed starch were not significant. In sucrose-fed rats, serum lipoproteins were isolated by ultracentrifugation. With magnesium deficiency, triglycerides were significantly increased in the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) fractions and cholesterol levels were increased in the VLDL and LDL and significantly lower in the high density lipoprotein (HDL) fractions. The detrimental effect of severe magnesium deficiency associated particularly with a high carbohydrate diet content and more especially with a sucrose diet is discussed.

  1. Plant Products Affect Growth and Digestive Efficiency of Cultured Florida Pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) Fed Compounded Diets

    PubMed Central

    Lech, Gregory P.; Reigh, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Costs of compounded diets containing fish meal as a primary protein source can be expected to rise as fish meal prices increase in response to static supply and growing demand. Alternatives to fish meal are needed to reduce production costs in many aquaculture enterprises. Some plant proteins are potential replacements for fish meal because of their amino acid composition, lower cost and wide availability. In this study, we measured utilization of soybean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) by Florida pompano fed compounded diets, to determine the efficacy of these products as fish meal replacements. We also calculated apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for canola meal (CM), corn gluten meal (CGM), and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), following typical methods for digestibility trials. Juvenile Florida pompano were fed fish-meal-free diets containing graded levels of SBM and SPC, and weight gain was compared to a control diet that contained SBM, SPC, and fish meal. Fish fed diets that contained 25–30 percent SBM in combination with 43–39 percent SPC had weight gain equivalent to fish fed the control diet with fish meal, while weight gain of fish fed other soy combinations was significantly less than that of the control group. Apparent crude protein digestibility of CGM was significantly higher than that of DDGS but not significantly different from CM. Apparent energy digestibility of DDGS was significantly lower than CGM but significantly higher than CM. Findings suggested that composition of the reference diet used in a digestibility trial affects the values of calculated ADCs, in addition to the chemical and physical attributes of the test ingredient. PMID:22536344

  2. CCK(1) receptor is essential for normal meal patterning in mice fed high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Michael J; Paulino, Gabriel; Raybould, Helen E

    2007-12-05

    Cholecystokinin (CCK), released by lipid in the intestine, initiates satiety by acting at cholecystokinin type 1 receptors (CCK(1)Rs) located on vagal afferent nerve terminals located in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, we determined the role of the CCK(1)R in the short term effects of a high fat diet on daily food intake and meal patterns using mice in which the CCK(1)R gene is deleted. CCK(1)R(-/-) and CCK(1)R(+/+) mice were fed isocaloric high fat (HF) or low fat (LF) diets ad libitum for 18 h each day and meal size, meal frequency, intermeal interval, and meal duration were determined. Daily food intake was unaltered by diet in the CCK(1)R(-/-) compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice. However, meal size was larger in the CCK(1)R(-/-) mice compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice when fed a HF diet, with a concomitant decrease in meal frequency. Meal duration was increased in mice fed HF diet regardless of phenotype. In addition, CCK(1)R(-/-) mice fed a HF diet had a 75% decrease in the time to 1st meal compared to CCK(1)R(+/+) mice following a 6 h fast. These data suggest that lack of the CCK(1)R results in diminished satiation, causing altered meal patterns including larger, less frequent meals when fed a high fat diet. These results suggest that the CCK(1)R is involved in regulating caloric intake on a meal to meal basis, but that other factors are responsible for regulation of daily food intake.

  3. Plant products affect growth and digestive efficiency of cultured Florida pompano (Trachinotus carolinus) fed compounded diets.

    PubMed

    Lech, Gregory P; Reigh, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    Costs of compounded diets containing fish meal as a primary protein source can be expected to rise as fish meal prices increase in response to static supply and growing demand. Alternatives to fish meal are needed to reduce production costs in many aquaculture enterprises. Some plant proteins are potential replacements for fish meal because of their amino acid composition, lower cost and wide availability. In this study, we measured utilization of soybean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) by Florida pompano fed compounded diets, to determine the efficacy of these products as fish meal replacements. We also calculated apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for canola meal (CM), corn gluten meal (CGM), and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), following typical methods for digestibility trials. Juvenile Florida pompano were fed fish-meal-free diets containing graded levels of SBM and SPC, and weight gain was compared to a control diet that contained SBM, SPC, and fish meal. Fish fed diets that contained 25-30 percent SBM in combination with 43-39 percent SPC had weight gain equivalent to fish fed the control diet with fish meal, while weight gain of fish fed other soy combinations was significantly less than that of the control group. Apparent crude protein digestibility of CGM was significantly higher than that of DDGS but not significantly different from CM. Apparent energy digestibility of DDGS was significantly lower than CGM but significantly higher than CM. Findings suggested that composition of the reference diet used in a digestibility trial affects the values of calculated ADCs, in addition to the chemical and physical attributes of the test ingredient.

  4. Anaerobic facultative bacteria isolated from the gut of rabbits fed different diets.

    PubMed

    Canganella, F; Zirletta, G; Gualterio, L; Massa, S; Trovatelli, L D

    1992-11-01

    Anaerobic facultative bacteria colonizing the intestinal tract of conventional rabbits fed three different diets (standard pellet, hay and pellet/hay mixture) were enumerated in brain heart infusion agar. Colony counts recovered from homogenized samples of small intestine, caecum and rectum differed with reference to the diet given. Among anaerobic groups, identified from rabbit fed pellet/hay mixture, Enterococci (E. faecalis, E. avium, E. faecium and E. durans) represented the predominant flora. Enterobacters (E. cloacae and E. aerogenes) accounted for about 10 to 25% of the bacteria in the rectum and colon respectively, whereas Staphylococci (S. intermedius, S. epidermidis and S. lentus) represented 11% of the bacteria isolated from colon.

  5. Castration influences intestinal microflora and induces abdominal obesity in high-fat diet-fed mice

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Naoki; Hanaoka, Ryo; Horiuchi, Hiroko; Kitakaze, Tomoya; Mitani, Takakazu; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2016-01-01

    Late-onset hypogonadism (i.e. androgen deficiency) raises the risk for abdominal obesity in men. The mechanism for this obesity is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that hypogonadism after castration caused abdominal obesity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed, but not in standard diet (SD)-fed, C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, the phenotype was not induced in mice treated with antibiotics that disrupt the intestinal microflora. In HFD-fed mice, castration increased feed efficiency and decreased fecal weight per food intake. Castration also induced in an increase of visceral fat mass only in the absence of antibiotics in HFD-fed mice, whereas subcutaneous fat mass was increased by castration irrespective of antibiotics. Castration reduced the expression in the mesenteric fat of both adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase in HFD-fed mice, which was not observed in the presence of antibiotics. Castration decreased thigh muscle (i.e. quadriceps and hamstrings) mass, elevated fasting blood glucose levels, and increased liver triglyceride levels in a HFD-dependent manner, whereas these changes were not observed in castrated mice treated with antibiotics. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Lactobacillus species increased in the feces of HFD-fed castrated mice. These results show that androgen (e.g. testosterone) deficiency can alter the intestinal microbiome and induce abdominal obesity in a diet-dependent manner. PMID:26961573

  6. Bacterial and protozoal communities and fatty acid profile in the rumen of sheep fed a diet containing added tannins.

    PubMed

    Vasta, Valentina; Yáñez-Ruiz, David R; Mele, Marcello; Serra, Andrea; Luciano, Giuseppe; Lanza, Massimiliano; Biondi, Luisa; Priolo, Alessandro

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of tannins on ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) due to shifts in the ruminal microbial environment in sheep. Thirteen lambs (45 days of age) were assigned to two dietary treatments: seven lambs were fed a barley-based concentrate (control group) while the other six lambs received the same concentrate with supplemental quebracho tannins (9.57% of dry matter). At 122 days of age, the lambs were slaughtered, and the ruminal contents were subjected to fatty acid analysis and sampled to quantify populations of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, which converts C(18:2) c9-c12 (linoleic acid [LA]) to C(18:2) c9-t11 (rumenic acid [RA]) and then RA to C(18:1) t11 (vaccenic acid [VA]); we also sampled for Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus, which converts VA to C(18:0) (stearic acid [SA]). Tannins increased (P < 0.005) VA in the rumen compared to the tannin-free diet. The concentration of SA was not affected by tannins. The SA/VA ratio was lower (P < 0.005) for the tannin-fed lambs than for the controls, suggesting that the last step of the BH process was inhibited by tannins. The B. proteoclasticus population was lower (-30.6%; P < 0.1), and B. fibrisolvens and protozoan populations were higher (+107% and +56.1%, respectively; P < 0.05) in the rumen of lambs fed the tannin-supplemented diet than in controls. These results suggest that quebracho tannins altered BH by changing ruminal microbial populations.

  7. Time-restricted feeding reduces adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Sneha; Yan, Lin

    2016-06-01

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm contributes to obesity. This study tested the hypothesis that time-restricted feeding (TRF) reduces high-fat diet-induced increase in adiposity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed the AIN93G or the high-fat diet ad libitum (ad lib); TRF of the high-fat diet for 12 or 8hours during the dark cycle was initiated when high-fat diet-fed mice exhibited significant increases in body weight. Energy intake of the TRF 12-hour group was not different from that of the high-fat ad lib group, although that of the TRF 8-hour group was slightly but significantly lower. Restricted feeding of the high-fat diet reduced body fat mass and body weight compared with mice fed the high-fat diet ad lib. There were no differences in respiratory exchange ratio (RER) among TRF and high-fat ad lib groups, but the RER of these groups was lower than that of the AIN93G group. Energy expenditure of the TRF groups was slightly but significantly lower than that of the high-fat ad lib group. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin were increased in TRF groups compared with both AIN93G and high-fat ad lib groups. Elevations of plasma concentrations of insulin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-1 by high-fat ad lib feeding were reduced by TRF to the levels of mice fed the AIN93G diet. In conclusion, TRF during the dark cycle reduces high-fat diet-induced increases in adiposity and proinflammatory cytokines. These results indicate that circadian timing of food intake may prevent obesity and abate obesity-related metabolic disturbance.

  8. Adipokine production in mice fed high-fat diets containing different types of dietary fats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present study compared high-fat diets containing different types of dietary fats with various levels of linoleic acid (18:2n6, LA) and a-linolenic acid (18:3n3, ALA) on adipokine production in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week old mice were fed AIN93G diet (15% of energy from corn oil, control) or ...

  9. Effect of galangin supplementation on oxidative damage and inflammatory changes in fructose-fed rat liver.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Allur Subramaniyan; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2011-09-05

    The study examined the effects of galangin (GA) on oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokine levels and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation in fructose-fed rat liver. Adult male albino Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. Groups 1 and 4 received the control diet containing starch as the source of carbohydrate while groups 2 and 3 were fed a diet containing fructose. Groups 3 and 4 additionally received GA (100μg/kg, p.o) from the 15th day. At the end of 60 days, the levels of plasma glucose, insulin and triglycerides, insulin sensitivity indices and oxidative stress markers in the liver were determined. Cytokines of interest were assayed by ELISA and RT-PCR and NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation by Western blot and RT-PCR. Compared to control diet-fed animals, fructose-fed animals developed hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance (IR) (all p<0.01). GA prevented the rise in plasma glucose, insulin and triglycerides and improved insulin sensitivity. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in plasma and the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α and transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β(1)) in liver were significantly higher in fructose-fed rats than control rats. However, treatment with GA downregulated the expression of these cytokines. Translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus was also increased in fructose diet-fed animals, which was prevented by GA. These results suggest that GA prevents oxidative damage and has a downregulatory effect on the inflammatory pathway in liver of fructose-fed rats.

  10. Dietary supplementation of Chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Ca...

  11. Evaluation of supplemental fish bone meal made from Alaska seafood processing byproducts and dicalcium phosphate in plant-protein based diets for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a balanced dietary mix of plant-proteins supplemented with either fish bone meal (FBM) derived from Alaskan seafood processing byproducts or dicalcium phosphate. Seven experimental diets were formulated to contain two levels of dicalci...

  12. Feeding value of supplemental curcas crude oil in finishing diets for feedlot lambs.

    PubMed

    Félix-Bernal, J A; Estrada-Angulo, A; Angulo-Escalante, M A; Castro-Pérez, B I; Landeros-López, H; López-Soto, M A; Barreras, A; Zinn, R A; Plascencia, A

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the feeding value of a mechanically extracted nontoxic variety of oil (JCO) as source of energy for feedlot lambs. Twenty Pelibuey × Katahdin lambs were individually fed a dry-rolled-corn-based finishing diet supplemented with 0%, 2%, 4%, or 6% JCO (diet dry matter basis). Supplemental JCO replaced dry rolled corn in the basal diet. Fatty acid composition of JCO was C16:0, 14.0%; C18:0, 8.2%; C18:1, 26.0%; C18:2, 50.3%, and C18:3, 0.4%. Daily intakes of JCO averaged 24.7, 51.1, and 77.3 g/day or 0.57, 1.08, and 1.62 g/kg LW for the 2%, 4%, and 6% levels of supplementation, respectively. Supplemental JCO did not affect ( = 0.33) dry matter intake (DMI), but tended to increase (linear effect, = 0.06) average daily gain, efficiency of gain (linear effect, < 0.01), and dietary net energy (linear effect, < 0.01) and decreased (linear effect, < 0.01) the ratio of observed/expected DMI. At low levels (20 g/kg diet dry matter) of supplementation, the net energy (NE) value of JCO corresponds closely (0.99) to the NE value assigned by current standards (), and this NE value decreased linearly as the inclusion level of JCO increased. There were not treatment effects on plasma metabolites. Across treatments, the concentrations of hemoglobin (11.64 ± 1.08 g/dL), hematocrit (39.15 ± 3.67%), glucose (85.2 ± 17.64 mg/dL), creatinine (1.43 ± 0.28 mg/dL), and urea (20.70 ± 4.35 mg/dL) were within normal (9-15 g/dL, 27%-40%, 50-90 mg/dL, 1.0-1.8 mg/dL, and 15-50 mg/dL, for hemoglobin, hematocrit, glucose, creatinine, and urea, respectively) ranges for healthy lambs. Based on DMI, performance and plasma metabolites observed in this study, nontoxic JCO is a suitable source of energy in finishing diets for lambs.

  13. Pyrosequencing survey of intestinal microbiota diversity in cultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed functional diets.

    PubMed

    Carda-Diéguez, Miguel; Mira, Alex; Fouz, Belén

    2014-02-01

    The routine use of chemotherapy to control bacterial diseases in aquatic populations has resulted in the development and spread of antibiotic resistance. The inclusion of immunostimulants in fish diets (functional diets) is one of the main strategies to solve this threat. This study aimed to analyse the intestinal microbiota of cultured European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed two functional diets applying pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene. Quality-filtered reads were assigned to family and genus taxonomic levels using the Ribosomal Database Project classifier. The autochthonous intestinal microbiota of sea bass consisted of two dominant bacterial genera: Dysgonomonas (Bacteroidetes) and Ralstonia (Betaproteobacteria), but effects of diet on this dominance were observed. In fact, the genus Dysgonomonas significantly decreased in samples from fish fed functional diets, recovering control levels at the end of the study. However, Ralstonia proportion significantly raised in samples from fish fed diet C and maintained this high level along the study period. The developed protocol could be used to study the composition of bacterial communities in the fish intestine under different nutritional and environmental conditions and its impact on infection, immune system and general fitness of fish.

  14. BCG vaccination enhances resistance to M. tuberculosis infection in guinea pigs fed a low casein diet.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Isamu; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Mizuno, Satoru

    2007-03-01

    In order to examine the relationship between malnutrition and tuberculosis development in vivo, a malnourished guinea pig model fed with a low casein (5%) diet was developed. After being fed with the low casein diet, the guinea pigs were infected with Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis Kurono strain by aerosol infection, and seven weeks later were subjected to histopathologic examination, colony-forming unit (CFU) assay, fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for interferon (IFN)-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-12 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA. Another group of guinea pigs were vaccinated subcutaneously with 10(6) CFU BCG Tokyo for three weeks and then similarly infected by aerosol. Eighty-eight% (7/8) of the malnourished guinea pigs succumbed to mycobacterial infection within 85 days after infection, while the malnourished guinea pigs vaccinated with BCG Tokyo survived. CFU assay showed that lung and splenic CFUs were higher in the low casein diet-fed groups than in the control diet (20% casein)-fed groups, although both groups had significantly lower CFUs after vaccination with BCG Tokyo (p<0.01). Examination of lung histopathology revealed that pulmonary granulomas were large and disorganized in the groups fed the low casein diet. The number of visible lesions on the surfaces of the fixed lungs in guinea pigs fed control diet+BCG and low casein diet+BCG was low significantly. Pan T-, CD4-, CD8- and Mac antigen-positive cells were also recognized in the infected lung tissues of low casein-fed guinea pigs and Pan T-, CD4- and Mac antigen-positive cells increased after vaccination with BCG Tokyo. Expression of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-12 and iNOS mRNA was also recognized in the infected lung tissues of low casein-fed guinea pigs and IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha mRNA expression was enhanced with BCG vaccination. These results indicate that

  15. Efficacy of phytosterols and fish-oil supplemented high-oleic-sunflower oil rich diets in hypercholesterolemic growing rats.

    PubMed

    Alsina, Estefania; Macri, Elisa V; Lifshitz, Fima; Bozzini, Clarisa; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Boyer, Patricia M; Friedman, Silvia M

    2016-06-01

    Phytosterols (P) and fish-oil (F) efficacy on high-oleic-sunflower oil (HOSO) diets were assessed in hypercholesterolemic growing rats. Controls (C) received a standard diet for 8 weeks; experimental rats were fed an atherogenic diet (AT) for 3 weeks, thereafter were divided into four groups fed for 5 weeks a monounsaturated fatty acid diet (MUFA) containing either: extra virgin olive oil (OO), HOSO or HOSO supplemented with P or F. The diets did not alter body weight or growth. HOSO-P and HOSO-F rats showed reduced total cholesterol (T-chol), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-chol) and triglycerides and increased HDL-chol levels, comparably to the OO rats. Total body fat (%) was similar among all rats; but HOSO-F showed the lowest intestinal, epididymal and perirenal fat. However, bone mineral content and density, and bone yield stress and modulus of elasticity were unchanged. Growing hypercholesterolemic rats fed HOSO with P or F improved serum lipids and fat distribution, but did not influence material bone quality.

  16. Diet-induced obesity, energy metabolism and gut microbiota in C57BL/6J mice fed Western diets based on lean seafood or lean meat mixtures.

    PubMed

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Rønnevik, Alexander; Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Fjære, Even; Fauske, Kristin Røen; Liisberg, Ulrike; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Liaset, Bjørn

    2016-05-01

    High protein diets may protect against diet-induced obesity, but little is known regarding the effects of different protein sources consumed at standard levels. We investigated how a mixture of lean seafood or lean meat in a Western background diet modulated diet-induced obesity, energy metabolism and gut microbiota. Male C57BL/6J mice fed a Western diet (WD) containing a mixture of lean seafood (seafood WD) for 12weeks accumulated less fat mass than mice fed a WD containing a mixture of lean meat (meat WD). Meat WD-fed mice exhibited increased fasting blood glucose, impaired glucose clearance, elevated fasting plasma insulin and increased plasma and liver lipid levels. We observed no first choice preference for either of the WDs, but over time, mice fed the seafood WD consumed less energy than mice fed the meat WD. Mice fed the seafood WD exhibited higher spontaneous locomotor activity and a lower respiratory exchange ratio (RER) than mice fed the meat WD. Thus, higher activity together with the decreased energy intake contributed to the different phenotypes observed in mice fed the seafood WD compared to mice fed the meat WD. Comparison of the gut microbiomes of mice fed the two WDs revealed significant differences in the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the orders Bacteroidales and Clostridiales, with genes involved in metabolism of aromatic amino acids exhibiting higher relative abundance in the microbiomes of mice fed the seafood WD.

  17. Effect of Supplementation of Fish and Canola Oil in the Diet on Milk Fatty Acid Composition in Early Lactating Holstein Cows

    PubMed Central

    Vafa, Toktam S.; Naserian, Abbas A.; Heravi Moussavi, Ali R.; Valizadeh, Reza; Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of supplementation of fish oil and canola oil in the diet on milk yield, milk components and fatty acid composition of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation. Eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (42±12 DIM, 40±6 kg daily milk yield) were fed a total mixed ration supplemented with either 0% oil (Control), 2% fish oil (FO), 1% canola oil +1% fish oil (FOCO), or 2% canola oil (CO) according to a double 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 3 wk; experimental analyses were restricted to the last week of each period. Supplemental oils were added to a basal diet which was formulated according to NRC (2001) and consisted of 20% alfalfa, 20% corn silage and 60% concentrate. Milk yield was similar between diets (p>0.05), but dry matter intake (DMI) was lower (p<0.05) in cows fed FO diet compared to other diets. Milk fat percentage and daily yield decreased (p<0.01) with the supplementation of fish and canola oil. The daily yield and percentage of milk protein, lactose and solids-not-fat (SNF) were not affected by diets (p>0.05). The proportion (g/100 g fatty acids) of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased (p<0.05) in milk of all cows fed diets supplemented with oil. The proportions of 6:0, 8:0, 10:0 12:0 and 14:0 fatty acids in milk fat decreased (p<0.01) for all diets supplemented with oil, but the proportions of 14:1, 16:0 and 16:1 fatty acids were not affected by diets (p>0.05). The proportion of trans(t)-18:1 increased (p<0.01) in milk fat of cows fed FO and FOCO diets, but CO diet had the highest proportion of cis(c)-11 18:1 (p<0.01). The concentration of t-10, c-12 18:2, c-9 t-11 18:2, 18:3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) increased (p<0.05) in FO and FOCO diets in comparison with the other two diets. These data indicate that including fish oil in combination with canola oil significantly modifies the fatty acid composition of

  18. Green tea catechins, alleviate hepatic lipidemic-oxidative injury in Wistar rats fed an atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, E; Jayakumar, T; Elanchezhian, R; Sakthivel, M; Geraldine, P; Thomas, P A

    2009-06-15

    In the present study, the efficacy of green tea catechins (GTC from the plant Camellia sinensis), with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), as the major component, was studied in relation to hepatic oxidative abnormalities in atherosclerotic rats. When male albino Wistar rats were fed an atherogenic diet for 30 days and then treated with saline for 7 or 15 days, there was a significant decline in hepatic mean activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase), and non-enzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione, vitamins C and E) while there was a significant elevation in the mean level of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), in comparison to the values noted in control rats fed a normal diet. In addition, a concomitant increase in the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was noted, when compared to the values in control rats. Following intraperitoneal administration of GTC (100mg/kg) for 7 or 15 days to rats fed the atherogenic diet, significantly higher mean activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and lower mean levels of MDA in hepatic tissue and lower mean activities of AST, ALT, ALP and LDH in serum were observed, compared to the values in the rats fed the atherogenic diet and treated with saline. Histopathological studies were performed to provide direct evidence of the atherogenic diet-induced hepatic changes and of the hepatoprotective effect of GTC. These results suggest that EGCG as a major component of green tea catechins may protect against the hepatic abnormalities occurring in Wistar rats fed an atherogenic diet.

  19. Performance of growing pigs fed diets based on by-products of maize and wheat processing.

    PubMed

    Mwesigwa, Robert; Mutetikka, David; Kugonza, Donald Rugira

    2013-02-01

    Forty-eight crossbred Landrace × Large white pigs with an average body weight of 8.5 ± 0.4 kg and aged 2 months were used to evaluate performance and carcass characteristics of pigs fed two diets in which bran from maize or wheat was used as the energy source. A third diet based on whole maize grain was used as a control. Animals in groups of four, balanced for litter, sex and weight were allotted to dietary treatments in a completely randomised design with four replications. Data were collected on feed intake and weight gain for a period of 4 months. A digestibility trial was carried at the end of the feeding trial using two male pigs per treatment while six pigs per treatment were randomly selected for slaughter to determine carcass characteristics. Daily gain averaged 0.23, 0.31 and 0.13 kg/day, for pigs fed maize bran, wheat bran and whole maize diets, respectively. Average feed intake and final body weight were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by diets. Digestibility of dry matter, crude fibre and calcium were higher (P < 0.05) for pigs fed maize bran while crude protein digestibility was highest (P < 0.05) for the pigs fed wheat bran. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) between the diets in carcass yield, ham, head, trotters and heart weights and also for rib weight, rib eye muscle and other tissues. This study indicates that comparable performance of growing pigs fed cereal bran and full-grain diets are real.

  20. Effect of alfalfa forage preservation method and particle length on performance of dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets and tallow.

    PubMed

    Onetti, S G; Reynal, S M; Grummer, R R

    2004-03-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of including alfalfa preserved either as silage or long-stem or chopped hay on DMI and milk fat production of dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets with supplemental tallow (T). Fifteen Holstein cows that averaged 117 DIM were used in a replicated 5 x 5 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments (DM basis) were: 1) 50% corn silage:50% concentrate without T (CS); 2) 50% corn silage:50% concentrate with 2% T (CST); 3) 25% corn silage:25% short-cut alfalfa hay:50% concentrate with 2% T (SAHT); 4) 25% corn silage:25% long-cut alfalfa hay:50% concentrate with 2% T (LAHT); and 5) 25% corn silage:25% alfalfa silage:50% concentrate with 2% T (AST). Cows were allowed ad libitum consumption of a TMR fed 4 times daily. Diets averaged 16.4% CP and 30.3% NDF. Including 2% T in diets with corn silage as the sole forage source decreased DMI and milk fat percentage and yield. Replacing part of corn silage with alfalfa in diets with 2% T increased milk fat percentage and yield. The milk fat of cows fed CST was higher in trans-10 C18:1 than that of cows fed diets with alfalfa. No effect of alfalfa preservation method or hay particle length was observed on DMI and milk production. The milk fat percentage and yield were lower, and the proportion of trans-10 C18:1 in milk fat was higher for cows fed LAHT than for cows fed SAHT. Alfalfa preservation method had no effect on milk fat yield. Ruminal pH was higher for cows fed alfalfa in the diets, and it was higher for cows fed LAHT than SAHT. Feeding alfalfa silage or chopped hay appears to be more beneficial than long hay in sustaining milk fat production when 2% T is fed with diets high in corn silage. These results support the role of trans fatty acids in milk fat depression.

  1. Evaluation of a Bacillus direct-fed microbial candidate on digesta viscosity, bacterial translocation, microbiota composition and bone mineralisation in broiler chickens fed on a rye-based diet.

    PubMed

    Latorre, J D; Hernandez-Velasco, X; Bielke, L R; Vicente, J L; Wolfenden, R; Menconi, A; Hargis, B M; Tellez, G

    2015-01-01

    1. The effects of the dietary inclusion of a Bacillus-based direct-fed microbial (DFM) candidate on digesta viscosity, bacterial translocation, microbiota composition and bone mineralisation were evaluated in broilers consuming rye-based diets. 2. In the present study, control mash rye-based diets (CON) or Bacillus-DFM supplemented diets (TRT) were administered ad libitum to male broilers in three independent experiments. 3. In Experiments 1 and 2 (n = 25/group), liver samples were taken to evaluate bacterial translocation, digesta samples were used for viscosity measurements and the intestinal microbial flora was evaluated from different intestinal sections to enumerate total recovered gram-negative bacteria (TGB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and anaerobic bacteria (TAB). Additionally, both tibias were removed for assessment of bone quality. 4. In Experiment 3, each experimental group had 8 replicates of 20 chickens (n = 160/group). Weekly, body weight (BW), feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were evaluated. At d 28-of-age, samples were taken to determine bacterial translocation, digesta viscosity and bone quality characteristics. 5. In all experiments, consumption of Bacillus-DFM reduced bacterial translocation to the liver and digesta viscosity. Additionally, DFM supplementation improved BW, bone quality measurements and FCR. Moreover, chickens fed on the Bacillus-DFM diet in Experiments 1 and 2 showed a significant reduction in the number of gram-negative and anaerobic bacteria in the duodenal content compared to control. 6. In summary, chickens fed on a rye-based diet without DFM inclusion showed an increase in bacterial translocation and digesta viscosity, accompanied by reduced performance and bone quality variables relative to the Bacillus-DFM candidate group. Hence, incorporation into the feed of a selected DFM ameliorated the adverse anti-nutritional effects related to utilisation of rye-based diets in broilers chickens.

  2. Feed intake and production parameters of lactating crossbred cows fed maize-based diets of stover, silage or quality protein silage.

    PubMed

    Gebrehawariat, Efrem; Tamir, Berhan; Tegegne, Azage

    2010-12-01

    Thirty-six Boran × Friesian dairy cows (392 ± 12 kg; mean ± SD) in early parity were used in a randomised complete block design. Cows were blocked by parity into three blocks of 12 animals and offered normal maize (NM) stover (T1), NM silage (T2) or quality protein maize (QPM) silage (T3) basal diets supplemented with a similar concentrate mix. Feed intake, body weight and condition changes and milk yield and composition were assessed. The daily intake of DM, OM, NDF and ADF for cows fed the NM stover-based diet was higher (P<0.05) than for the cows fed the NM silage and QPM silage-based diets. However, the daily intake of DOM (9.3 kg) and ME (140.8 MJ) for cows on QPM silage-based diet was higher (P<0.05) than for cows on NM stover-based diet (8.4 kg and 124.2 MJ) and NM silage-based diet (7.9 kg and 119.1 MJ). Body weight of cows was affected (P<0.05) by the diet, but diet had no effect (P>0.05) on body condition score, milk yield and milk composition. The digestible organic matter in the NM stover-based diet (724 g/kg DM) was lower (P<0.05) than that in the NM (770 g/kg DM) and QPM silage-based diet (762 g/kg DM). It was concluded that the performances of the cows on the NM silage and QPM silage diets were similar and were not superior to that of the NM stover-based diet.

  3. Betaine improved adipose tissue function in mice fed a high-fat diet: a mechanism for hepatoprotective effect of betaine in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhigang; Yao, Tong; Pini, Maria; Zhou, Zhanxiang; Fantuzzi, Giamila; Song, Zhenyuan

    2010-05-01

    Adipose tissue dysfunction, featured by insulin resistance and/or dysregulated adipokine production, plays a central role not only in disease initiation but also in the progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Promising beneficial effects of betaine supplementation on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have been reported in both clinical investigations and experimental studies; however, data related to betaine therapy in NAFLD are still limited. In this study, we examined the effects of betaine supplementation on hepatic fat accumulation and injury in mice fed a high-fat diet and evaluated mechanisms underlying its hepatoprotective effects. Male C57BL/6 mice weighing 25 +/- 0.5 (SE) g were divided into four groups (8 mice/group) and started on one of four treatments: control diet, control diet supplemented with betaine, high-fat diet, and high-fat diet supplemented with betaine. Betaine was supplemented in the drinking water at a concentration of 1% (wt/vol) (anhydrous). Our results showed that long-term high-fat feeding caused NAFLD in mice, which was manifested by excessive neutral fat accumulation in the liver and elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase levels. Betaine supplementation alleviated hepatic pathological changes, which were concomitant with attenuated insulin resistance as shown by improved homeostasis model assessment of basal insulin resistance values and glucose tolerance test, and corrected abnormal adipokine (adiponectin, resistin, and leptin) productions. Specifically, betaine supplementation enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue as shown by improved extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 and protein kinase B activations. In adipocytes freshly isolated from mice fed a high-fat diet, pretreatment of betaine enhanced the insulin signaling pathway and improved adipokine productions. Further investigation using whole liver tissues revealed that betaine supplementation alleviated the high-fat diet

  4. Neuronal-glial interactions in rats fed a ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Melø, Torun Margareta; Nehlig, Astrid; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2006-01-01

    Glucose is the preferred energy substrate for the adult brain. However, during periods of fasting and consumption of a high fat, low carbohydrate (ketogenic) diet, ketone bodies become major brain fuels. The present study was conducted to investigate how the ketogenic diet influences neuronal-glial interactions in amino acid neurotransmitter metabolism. Rats were kept on a standard or ketogenic diet. After 21 days all animals received an injection of [1-(13)C]glucose plus [1,2-(13)C]acetate, the preferential substrates of neurons and astrocytes, respectively. Extracts from cerebral cortex and plasma were analyzed by (13)C and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and HPLC. Increased amounts of valine, leucine and isoleucine and a decreased amount of glutamate were found in the brains of rats receiving the ketogenic diet. Glycolysis was decreased in ketotic rats compared with controls, evidenced by the reduced amounts of [3-(13)C]alanine and [3-(13)C]lactate. Additionally, neuronal oxidative metabolism of [1-(13)C]glucose was decreased in ketotic rats compared with controls, since amounts of [4-(13)C]glutamate and [4-(13)C]glutamine were lower than those of controls. Although the amount of glutamate from [1-(13)C]glucose was decreased, this was not the case for GABA, indicating that relatively more [4-(13)C]glutamate is converted to GABA. Astrocytic metabolism was increased in response to ketosis, shown by increased amounts of [4,5-(13)C]glutamine, [4,5-(13)C]glutamate, [1,2-(13)C]GABA and [3,4-(13)C]-/[1,2-(13)C]aspartate derived from [1,2-(13)C]acetate. The pyruvate carboxylation over dehydrogenation ratio for glutamine was increased in the ketotic animals compared to controls, giving further indication of increased astrocytic metabolism. Interestingly, pyruvate recycling was higher in glutamine than in glutamate in both groups of animals. An increase in this pathway was detected in glutamate in response to ketosis. The decreased glycolysis and oxidative

  5. Effects of Puerarin on Lipid Accumulation and Metabolism in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guodong; Lin, Lezhen; Zhong, Shusheng; Zhang, Qingfeng; Li, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms by which puerarin from kudzu root extract regulates lipid metabolism, fifty mice were randomly assigned to five groups: normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD containing 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.8% puerarin for 12 weeks. Body weight, intraperitioneal adipose tissue (IPAT) weight, serum biochemical parameters, and hepatic and feces lipids were measured. Activity and mRNA and protein expressions of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes were analyzed. Compared with HFD, 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin significantly decreased body and IPAT weight. There was a significant decrease in the serum and hepatic concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and leptin in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets compared with HFD. Fatty acid synthase activity was suppressed in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets, while the activities of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), carnitine acyltransferase (CAT) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) were increased. mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ 2 (PPARγ 2) was down-regulated in liver of mice fed the 0.8% diet compared with HFD, while mRNA expression of CAT and HSL was considerably up-regulated by 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. The protein expression of PPARγ2 in liver was decreased and those of p-AMPK, HSL and p-HSL were increased in mice fed 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. These results suggest that > 0.4% puerarin influenced the activity, mRNA and protein levels of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes, decreasing serum and liver lipids, body weight gain and fat accumulation. Puerarin might be beneficial to prevent lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:25822741

  6. Incremental amounts of ground flaxseed decrease milk yield but increase n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in dairy cows fed high-forage diets(1).

    PubMed

    Resende, T L; Kraft, J; Soder, K J; Pereira, A B D; Woitschach, D E; Reis, R B; Brito, A F

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of incremental amounts of ground flaxseed (GFX) on milk yield and concentrations and yields of milk components, milk fatty acids (FA) profile, ruminal metabolism, and nutrient digestibility in dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean ± SD) 112±68d in milk and 441±21kg of body weight and 8 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 98±43d in milk and 401±43kg of body weight were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21d with 14d for diet adaptation and 7d for data and sample collection. Treatments were fed as a total mixed ration (63:37 forage-to-concentrate ratio) with corn meal and soybean meal replaced by incremental levels (i.e., 0, 5, 10, or 15% diet dry matter) of GFX. The ruminal molar proportions of acetate and butyrate decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, whereas the ruminal molar proportion of propionate increased linearly resulting in decreased acetate-to-propionate ratio. Apparent total-tract digestibilities of nutrients either decreased (dry matter) or tended to decrease (organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber) linearly in cows fed GFX. Milk yield decreased linearly in cows fed increasing amounts of GFX, which is explained by the linear reduction in dry matter intake. Except for the concentrations of milk protein and urea N, which decreased linearly with GFX supplementation, no other changes in the concentration of milk components were observed. However, yields of milk protein and fat decreased linearly with GFX supplementation. The linear decrease in the yields of milk fat and protein are explained by reduced milk yield, whereas that in milk urea N is explained by decreased crude protein intake. No treatment effects were observed for plasma urea N and nonesterified fatty acids, serum cortisol, and body weight change. Milk odd- and branched-chain FA and saturated FA

  7. Effects of direct-fed microbial supplementation on digestibility and fermentation end-products in horses fed low- and high-starch concentrates.

    PubMed

    Swyers, K L; Burk, A O; Hartsock, T G; Ungerfeld, E M; Shelton, J L

    2008-10-01

    content changed from LS to HS. There was a tendency for elevated fecal pH (P < 0.10) in LAC1 horses compared with CON horses. These results confirm that increasing starch in the equine diet can enhance nutrient digestibility of the diet. Supplementing equine diets with either a single or mixed strain direct-fed lactic acid bacteria had limited effects on nutrient digestibility or on reducing the risk of acidosis associated with feeding high-starch concentrates to horses. The potential response of DFM supplementation should be evaluated when a more acute acidotic state is induced in horses than in the current study.

  8. Influence of high dose of phytase and an emulsifier on performance, apparent metabolisable energy and nitrogen retention in broilers fed on diets containing soy oil or tallow.

    PubMed

    Zaefarian, F; Romero, L F; Ravindran, V

    2015-01-01

    The effects of high dose of microbial phytase and an emulsifier on the performance, apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and nitrogen (N) retention in broilers fed on diets containing different fat sources were examined in a 5-week trial. Two fat sources (soy oil and tallow), two inclusion levels of E. coli phytase (500 or 1000 phytase units (FTU)/kg diet) and two inclusion levels of lysolecithin emulsifier (0 or 3.5 g/kg of diet) were evaluated in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Throughout the 5-week trial, soy oil supplementation improved weight gain and feed per gain compared with tallow, but had no effect on feed intake. The high dose of phytase increased the weight gain and feed intake and lowered the feed per gain during d 1-21, but had no effect on performance parameters over the whole trial period. An effect of emulsifier was observed for feed intake during d 1-21 and over the whole trial period. Addition of emulsifier increased feed intake compared with diets without emulsifier. During weeks 1, 2, 3 and 5, birds fed on soy oil-based diets had higher nitrogen-corrected AME (AMEN) compared with those fed on tallow-based diets. During weeks 2, 3 and 5, the effect of phytase was significant for AMEN, with the high dose increasing the AMEN. During week 2, AMEN was increased with emulsifier addition. During weeks 1, 2, 3 and 5, birds fed on soy oil-based diets had higher fat retention compared with those fed on tallow-based diets. The high dose of phytase improved the retention of fat during week 5 and the addition of emulsifier resulted in higher fat retention during week 1. During weeks 2, 3 and 5, an interaction between fat source × phytase × emulsifier was observed for N retention. In soy oil-based diets, emulsifier plus 1000 FTU/kg phytase increased N retention compared with other groups, while in tallow-based diets, emulsifier addition increased N retention in diets with 500 FTU/kg, but not in 1000 FTU/kg diet. Overall, the

  9. Effects of probiotic-supplemented diets on growth performance and intestinal immune characteristics of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bai, S P; Wu, A M; Ding, X M; Lei, Y; Bai, J; Zhang, K Y; Chio, J S

    2013-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of a probiotic product incorporating Lactobacillus fermentum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the growth performance and intestinal immune status in broiler chickens. A total of six hundred ninety-six 1-d-old male Cobb broilers were randomly allotted by BW in 1 of 4 treatments for 6-wk trial. The dietary treatments included the basal diet (NC), and the basal diets supplemented with an antibiotic (100 mg of chlortetracycline/kg of diet; PC), 0.1%, or 0.2% probiotic product (containing 1 × 10(7) cfu/g of Lactobacillus fermentum JS and 2 × 10(6) cfu/g of Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Each treatment had 6 replicates with 29 broilers each. The ADG and feed efficiency were improved (P < 0.05) in broilers fed the probiotic diet compared with NC, and were similar to the PC group during 1 to 21 d. However, there were no significant differences in growth performance of broilers during 22 to 42 d among different dietary treatments. Chicks fed probiotics had higher proportions of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, whereas the antibiotic diet decreased the proportion of CD8+ T-lymphocytes in the foregut of broilers at 21 and 42 d compared with the NC group. No significant difference was observed in the mRNA expression level of chicken B-cell marker chB6 (Bu-1) in the foregut of chickens among different treatments. Probiotic-supplemented diets increased (P < 0.05) the mRNA expression levels of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR 4 at 21 d, and only the TLR2 mRNA level at 42 d in the foregut of chickens, but did not change (P > 0.05) TLR7 mRNA expression compared with NC or PC. There was no significant difference in the above TLR mRNA levels in the intestine of broilers between PC and NC. These results indicated that the probiotic product incorporating Lactobacillus fermentum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae could stimulate intestinal T-cell immune system without decreasing growth performance in broilers during 1 to 21 d.

  10. Dietary trimethylamine N-oxide exacerbates impaired glucose tolerance in mice fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Liu, Xiaofang; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu; Xue, Yong; Wang, Yuming

    2014-10-01

    Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is an oxidation product of trimethylamine (TMA) and is present in many aquatic foods. Here, we investigated the effects of TMAO on glucose tolerance in high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to the control, high fat (HF), and TMAO groups. The HF group was fed a diet containing 25% fat, and the TMAO group was fed the HFD plus 0.2% TMAO for 4 weeks. After 3 weeks of feeding, oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Dietary TMAO increased fasting insulin levels and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and exacerbated the impaired glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. These effects were associated with the expression of genes related to the insulin signal pathway, glycogen synthesis, gluconeogenesis and glucose transport in liver. mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine MCP-1 increased significantly and of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 greatly decreased in adipose tissue. Our results suggest that dietary TMAO exacerbates impaired glucose tolerance, obstructs the hepatic insulin signaling pathway, and causes adipose tissue inflammation in mice fed a high fat diet.

  11. Effect of inositol and phytases on hematological indices and α-1 acid glycoprotein levels in laying hens fed phosphorus-deficient corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    PubMed

    Zyła, K; Grabacka, M; Pierzchalska, M; Duliński, R; Starzyńska-Janiszewska, A

    2013-01-01

    The effects of feeding low nonphytate phosphorus (NPP) corn-soybean meal-based diets supplemented with myo-inositol at 0.1%, or with phytase B at 1,300 acid phosphatase units/kg, or with phytase B enriched in 6-phytase A at 300 phytase units/kg on the hematological indices and the α-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentrations in the blood of Bovans Brown laying hens were investigated. The experimental design comprised also a negative control diet and an internal control diet that had the NPP content adjusted by the addition of 0.304 g of monocalcium phosphate per kg to reach the NPP level similar to that resulting from the combined action of both phytases. A total of sixty 50-wk-old hens were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments with 12 cage replicates of 1 hen, and fed the experimental diets until wk 62, when the blood samples were taken and analyzed for basic hematological indices and for AGP concentrations in sera. The hematological indices from all the experimental groups remained in a normal range; nevertheless, the statistically significant effects of diet on hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.003), erythrocyte counts (P = 0.035), the percentage of lymphocytes (P = 0.020), heterophils (P = 0.002), eosinophils (P = 0.023), and basophils (P = 0.001) in the leucocyte population, as well as on the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (P = 0.003), were observed. The highest erythrocyte counts were characteristic for hens fed the diet supplemented with both phytase A and phytase B. The highest heterophil to lymphocyte ratios were found in blood of hens fed the diet supplemented with phytase B, whereas the highest basophil percentages and the highest AGP concentrations occurred in birds fed the negative control diet. A highly significant correlation was observed between AGP concentrations in sera and BW losses determined previously. The results indicate that the low-NPP corn soybean meal-based diets increased acute phase protein level in laying hens. Phytase B alone

  12. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghipour, Alireza; Ilchizadeh Kavgani, Ali; Ghahramani, Reza; Shahabzadeh, Saleh; Anissian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia. PMID:25295067

  13. Global study of microbial communites in tilipia gut fed sludge-infused diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this project was to examine the impact of microbial diversity in feed on gut communities of fish. To do so, tilapia larvae were fed three experimental diets incorporated with sludge produced under either aerobic, methanogenic or denitrifying conditions. Microbial diversity between differ...

  14. Performance of Yellowstone and Snake River Cutthroat Trout Fry Fed Seven Different Diets.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five commercial diets and two formulated feeds were fed to initial-feeding Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri fry and Snake River cutthroat trout O. clarkii spp. (currently being petitioned for classification as O. clarkii behnkei) fry for 18 weeks to evaluate fish performance...

  15. Fecal excretion pattern of bile acids in rats fed high fat diets and neomycin in induced colon tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Panda, S K; Broitman, S A

    1999-09-06

    Neomycin augments colon tumorigenesis in 1,2 - dimethylhydrazine treated rats fed polyunsaturated fat diet and decreases fecal cholic acid excretion, while it inhibits tumorigenesis with increased cholic acid and decreased deoxycholic acid excretions in rats fed high cholesterol diet. Participation of other fecal bile acids seems to be insignificant in relation to colon carcinogenesis.

  16. The SIRT1 activator SRT1720 extends lifespan and improves health of mice fed a standard diet

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Sarah J.; Martin-Montalvo, Alejandro; Mercken, Evi M.; Palacios, Hector H.; Ward, Theresa M.; Abulwerdi, Gelareh; Minor, Robin K.; Vlasuk, George P.; Ellis, James L.; Sinclair, David A.; Dawson, John; Allison, David B.; Zhang, Yongqing; Becker, Kevin G.; Bernier, Michel; de Cabo, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The prevention or delay of the onset of age-related diseases prolongs survival and improves quality of life while reducing the burden on the health care system. Activation of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an NAD+ deacetylase, improves metabolism and confers protection against physiological and cognitive disturbances in old age. SRT1720 is a specific SIRT1 activator that has health and lifespan benefits in adult mice fed a high-fat diet. We found extension in lifespan, delayed onset of age-related metabolic diseases, and improved general health in mice fed a standard diet after SRT1720 supplementation. Inhibition of pro-inflammatory gene expression both in the liver and muscle of SRT1720-treated animals was noted. SRT1720 lowered phosphorylation of NF-κB pathway regulators in vitro only when SIRT1 was functionally present. Combined with our previous work, the current study further supports the beneficial effects of SRT1720 on health across the lifespan in mice. PMID:24582957