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Sample records for fed induction machine

  1. Doubly fed induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2005-10-11

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load including an energy converter device having a doubly fed induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer coupled to the energy converter device to control the flow of power or energy through the doubly fed induction machine.

  2. Grid-connected in-stream hydroelectric generation based on the doubly fed induction machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenberg, Timothy J.

    Within the United States, there is a growing demand for new environmentally friendly power generation. This has led to a surge in wind turbine development. Unfortunately, wind is not a stable prime mover, but water is. Why not apply the advances made for wind to in-stream hydroelectric generation? One important advancement is the creation of the Doubly Fed Induction Machine (DFIM). This thesis covers the application of a gearless DFIM topology for hydrokinetic generation. After providing background, this thesis presents many of the options available for the mechanical portion of the design. A mechanical turbine is then specified. Next, a method is presented for designing a DFIM including the actual design for this application. In Chapter 4, a simulation model of the system is presented, complete with a control system that maximizes power generation based on water speed. This section then goes on to present simulation results demonstrating proper operation.

  3. Induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Whitney H.

    1980-01-01

    A polyphase rotary induction machine for use as a motor or generator utilizing a single rotor assembly having two series connected sets of rotor windings, a first stator winding disposed around the first rotor winding and means for controlling the current induced in one set of the rotor windings compared to the current induced in the other set of the rotor windings. The rotor windings may be wound rotor windings or squirrel cage windings.

  4. Performances improvements and torque ripple minimization for VSI fed induction machine with direct control torque.

    PubMed

    Abdelli, R; Rekioua, D; Rekioua, T

    2011-04-01

    This paper describes a torque ripple reduction technique with constant switching frequency for direct torque control (DTC) of an induction motor (IM). This method enables a minimum torque ripple control. In order to obtain a constant switching frequency and hence a torque ripple reduction, we propose a control technique for IM. It consists of controlling directly the electromagnetic torque by using a modulated hysteresis controller. The design methodology is based on space vector modulation (SVM) of electrical machines with digital vector control. MATLAB simulations supported with experimental study are used. The simulation and experimental results of this proposed algorithm show an adequate dynamic to IM; however, the research can be extended to include synchronous motors as well. The implementation of the proposed algorithm is described. It doesn't require any PI controller in the torque control loop. The hardware inverter is controlled digitally using a Texas Instruments TMS320F240 digital signal processor (DSP) with composed C codes for generating the required references. The results obtained from simulation and experiments confirmed the feasibility of the proposed strategy compared to the conventional one.

  5. Hybrid-secondary uncluttered induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.

    2001-01-01

    An uncluttered secondary induction machine (100) includes an uncluttered rotating transformer (66) which is mounted on the same shaft as the rotor (73) of the induction machine. Current in the rotor (73) is electrically connected to current in the rotor winding (67) of the transformer, which is not electrically connected to, but is magnetically coupled to, a stator secondary winding (40). The stator secondary winding (40) is alternately connected to an effective resistance (41), an AC source inverter (42) or a magnetic switch (43) to provide a cost effective slip-energy-controlled, adjustable speed, induction motor that operates over a wide speed range from below synchronous speed to above synchronous speed based on the AC line frequency fed to the stator.

  6. Doubly fed machine review: agenda. Conference report, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    The visual aids presented at the doubly fed machine review are presented. The doubly fed machine is a generating system either for wind turbines or hydro systems. Conceptual design and trade-offs are included, as well as testing. (LEW)

  7. Brushless generation with cascaded doubly fed machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortmeyer, T. H.; Borger, W. U.

    The solid state converter used by the system operates at a fraction of the system power and frequency. What is more, the system operates without hydraulics. The fundamental characteristics of operation are discussed. Attention is given to the choice of optimum speeds and pole numbers for a given speed range. It is shown that two discrete operating modes exist for this type of system, namely subsynchronous and supersynchronous. System analysis is treated, and particular power, var, and frequency requirements for a 1.5:1 speed range system are presented. Cascaded doubly fed machines are seen as forming a viable basis for a generator system that holds considerable promise for operation that is high in reliability and low in cost.

  8. High Performance Variable Speed Drive System and Generating System with Doubly Fed Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yifan

    Doubly fed machines are another alternative for variable speed drive systems. The doubly fed machines, including doubly fed induction machine, self-cascaded induction machine and doubly excited brushless reluctance machine, have several attractive advantages for variable speed drive applications, the most important one being the significant cost reduction with a reduced power converter rating. With a better understanding, improved machine design, flexible power converters and innovated controllers, the doubly fed machines could favorably compete for many applications, which may also include variable speed power generations. The goal of this research is to enhance the attractiveness of the doubly fed machines for both variable speed drive and variable speed generator applications. Recognizing that wind power is one of the favorable clean, renewable energy sources that can contribute to the solution to the energy and environment dilemma, a novel variable-speed constant-frequency wind power generating system is proposed. By variable speed operation, energy capturing capability of the wind turbine is improved. The improvement can be further enhanced by effectively utilizing the doubly excited brushless reluctance machine in slip power recovery configuration. For the doubly fed machines, a stator flux two -axis dynamic model is established, based on which a flexible active and reactive power control strategy can be developed. High performance operation of the drive and generating systems is obtained through advanced control methods, including stator field orientation control, fuzzy logic control and adaptive fuzzy control. System studies are pursued through unified modeling, computer simulation, stability analysis and power flow analysis of the complete drive system or generating system with the machine, the converter and the control. Laboratory implementations and tested results with a digital signal processor system are also presented.

  9. Numerical analysis method for linear induction machines.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, D. G.

    1972-01-01

    A numerical analysis method has been developed for linear induction machines such as liquid metal MHD pumps and generators and linear motors. Arbitrary phase currents or voltages can be specified and the moving conductor can have arbitrary velocity and conductivity variations from point to point. The moving conductor is divided into a mesh and coefficients are calculated for the voltage induced at each mesh point by unit current at every other mesh point. Combining the coefficients with the mesh resistances yields a set of simultaneous equations which are solved for the unknown currents.

  10. Specialized induction machines for deep surface and surface hardening

    SciTech Connect

    Andryushchenko, V.T.

    1988-01-01

    Designs of specialized hardening equipment for electrothermal hardening of parts using induction heating are described. These designs include induction machines for deep surface hardening of truck axle shafts, the outer and inner rings of railroad car axle roller bearings, camshafts, axle parts, and the side members of truck frames. This study and others help develop and transmit the technology for producing and introducing specialized induction machines which are effective in heat treatment of heavily loaded machine parts and consume less amounts of metal.

  11. Brushless Doubly-Fed Machine system development program, phase 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, G. C.; Spee, R.; Wallace, A. K.

    Since the inception of the Brushless Doubly-Fed Machine (BDFM) System Development Program in 1989, the value of BDFM technology has become apparent. The BDFM provides for adjustable speed, synchronous operation while keeping costs associated with the required power conversion equipment lower than in competing technologies. This provides for an advantage in initial as well as maintenance expenses over conventional drive system. Thus, the BDFM enables energy efficient, adjustable speed process control for applications where established drive technology has not been able to deliver satisfactory returns on investment. At the same time, the BDFM challenges conventional drive technologies in established markets by providing for improved performance at lower cost. BDFM converter rating is kept at a minimum, which significantly improves power quality at the utility interface over competing power conversion equipment. In summary, BDFM technology can be expected to provide significant benefits to utilities as well as their customers. This report discusses technical research and development activities related to Phase 3 of the BDFM System Development Program, including work made possible by supplemental funds for laboratory improvement and prototype construction.

  12. General Theory of the Double Fed Synchronous Machine. Ph.D. Thesis - Swiss Technological Univ., 1950

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Magrabi, M. G.

    1982-01-01

    Motor and generator operation of a double-fed synchronous machine were studied and physically and mathematically treated. Experiments with different connections, voltages, etc. were carried out. It was concluded that a certain degree of asymmetry is necessary for the best utilization of the machine.

  13. Pole-phase modulated toroidal winding for an induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Miller, John Michael; Ostovic, Vlado

    1999-11-02

    A stator (10) for an induction machine for a vehicle has a cylindrical core (12) with inner and outer slots (26, 28) extending longitudinally along the inner and outer peripheries between the end faces (22, 24). Each outer slot is associated with several adjacent inner slots. A plurality of toroidal coils (14) are wound about the core and laid in the inner and outer slots. Each coil occupies a single inner slot and is laid in the associated outer slot thereby minimizing the distance the coil extends from the end faces and minimizing the length of the induction machine. The toroidal coils are configured for an arbitrary pole phase modulation wherein the coils are configured with variable numbers of phases and poles for providing maximum torque for cranking and switchable to a another phase and pole configuration for alternator operation. An adaptor ring (36) circumferentially positioned about the stator improves mechanical strength, and provides a coolant channel manifold (34) for removing heat produced in stator windings during operation.

  14. Global Transcriptional Dynamics of Diapause Induction in Non-Blood-Fed and Blood-Fed Aedes albopictus

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xin; Poelchau, Monica F.; Armbruster, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aedes albopictus is a vector of increasing public health concern due to its rapid global range expansion and ability to transmit Dengue virus, Chikungunya virus and a wide range of additional arboviruses. Traditional vector control strategies have been largely ineffective against Ae. albopictus and novel approaches are urgently needed. Photoperiodic diapause is a crucial ecological adaptation in a wide range of temperate insects. Therefore, targeting the molecular regulation of photoperiodic diapause or diapause-associated physiological processes could provide the basis of novel approaches to vector control. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the global transcriptional profiles of diapause induction in Ae. albopictus by performing paired-end RNA-Seq of biologically replicated libraries. We sequenced RNA from whole bodies of adult females reared under diapause-inducing and non-diapause-inducing photoperiods either with or without a blood meal. We constructed a comprehensive transcriptome assembly that incorporated previous assemblies and represents over 14,000 annotated dipteran gene models. Mapping of sequence reads to the transcriptome identified differential expression of 2,251 genes in response to diapause-inducing short-day photoperiods. In non-blood-fed females, potential regulatory elements of diapause induction were transcriptionally up-regulated, including two of the canonical circadian clock genes, timeless and cryptochrome 1. In blood-fed females, genes in metabolic pathways related to energy production and offspring provisioning were differentially expressed under diapause-inducing conditions, including the oxidative phosphorylation pathway and lipid metabolism genes. Conclusions/Significance This study is the first to utilize powerful RNA-Seq technologies to elucidate the transcriptional basis of diapause induction in any insect. We identified candidate genes and pathways regulating diapause induction, including a conserved set of

  15. Doubly Fed Induction Generator Wind Turbines with Fuzzy Controller: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sathiyanarayanan, J. S.; Senthil Kumar, A.

    2014-01-01

    Wind energy is one of the extraordinary sources of renewable energy due to its clean character and free availability. With the increasing wind power penetration, the wind farms are directly influencing the power systems. The majority of wind farms are using variable speed wind turbines equipped with doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) due to their advantages over other wind turbine generators (WTGs). Therefore, the analysis of wind power dynamics with the DFIG wind turbines has become a very important research issue, especially during transient faults. This paper presents fuzzy logic control of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine in a sample power system. Fuzzy logic controller is applied to rotor side converter for active power control and voltage regulation of wind turbine. PMID:25028677

  16. Doubly fed induction generator wind turbines with fuzzy controller: a survey.

    PubMed

    Sathiyanarayanan, J S; Kumar, A Senthil

    2014-01-01

    Wind energy is one of the extraordinary sources of renewable energy due to its clean character and free availability. With the increasing wind power penetration, the wind farms are directly influencing the power systems. The majority of wind farms are using variable speed wind turbines equipped with doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) due to their advantages over other wind turbine generators (WTGs). Therefore, the analysis of wind power dynamics with the DFIG wind turbines has become a very important research issue, especially during transient faults. This paper presents fuzzy logic control of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine in a sample power system. Fuzzy logic controller is applied to rotor side converter for active power control and voltage regulation of wind turbine. PMID:25028677

  17. Doubly fed induction generator wind turbines with fuzzy controller: a survey.

    PubMed

    Sathiyanarayanan, J S; Kumar, A Senthil

    2014-01-01

    Wind energy is one of the extraordinary sources of renewable energy due to its clean character and free availability. With the increasing wind power penetration, the wind farms are directly influencing the power systems. The majority of wind farms are using variable speed wind turbines equipped with doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) due to their advantages over other wind turbine generators (WTGs). Therefore, the analysis of wind power dynamics with the DFIG wind turbines has become a very important research issue, especially during transient faults. This paper presents fuzzy logic control of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine in a sample power system. Fuzzy logic controller is applied to rotor side converter for active power control and voltage regulation of wind turbine.

  18. Smart Sensor for Online Detection of Multiple-Combined Faults in VSD-Fed Induction Motors

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Ramirez, Armando G.; Osornio-Rios, Roque A.; Granados-Lieberman, David; Garcia-Perez, Arturo; Romero-Troncoso, Rene J.

    2012-01-01

    Induction motors fed through variable speed drives (VSD) are widely used in different industrial processes. Nowadays, the industry demands the integration of smart sensors to improve the fault detection in order to reduce cost, maintenance and power consumption. Induction motors can develop one or more faults at the same time that can be produce severe damages. The combined fault identification in induction motors is a demanding task, but it has been rarely considered in spite of being a common situation, because it is difficult to identify two or more faults simultaneously. This work presents a smart sensor for online detection of simple and multiple-combined faults in induction motors fed through a VSD in a wide frequency range covering low frequencies from 3 Hz and high frequencies up to 60 Hz based on a primary sensor being a commercially available current clamp or a hall-effect sensor. The proposed smart sensor implements a methodology based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT), RMS calculation and artificial neural networks (ANN), which are processed online using digital hardware signal processing based on field programmable gate array (FPGA).

  19. Suggestive evidence for the induction of colonic aberrant crypts in mice fed sodium nitrite.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Zahid, Muhammad; Anwar, Muhammad M; Pennington, Karen L; Cohen, Samuel M; Wisecarver, James L; Shostrom, Valerie; Mirvish, Sidney S

    2016-01-01

    A reported linkage between processed (nitrite-treated) meat products and the incidence of colon cancer could be due to sodium nitrite (NaNO2) itself or to N-nitroso compounds produced from the nitrite. Exposure to nitrite occurs due to residual nitrite in processed meat and to salivary nitrite arising by reduction of nitrate in vegetables and drinking water. Here we tested whether NaNO2 could induce colonic aberrant crypts (ABC) or ABC foci (ACF), which are putative precursors of colon cancer. We fed NaNO2 in drinking water for 20-25 wk to groups of 8-20 adult female mice. After sacrifice, ABC and ACF were counted in 2-cm distal colonic segments. In Experiment 1, no significant differences in ABC/ACF induction were seen between groups of 13-14 A/J mice fed 0, 0.5, or 1.0 g NaNO2/l drinking water. NaNO2 also did not affect fasting blood glucose levels. In Experiment 2, we fed 0, 1.0, 1.25, or 1.5 g NaNO2/l water to groups of 15 CF-1 mice. Five of the mice fed 1.5 g NaNO2/l showed ABC, whereas all other groups showed only 0-2 ABC/group, including 0 ABC for the group fed 1.25 g NaNO2/l. Overall statistical analysis indicated a dose-response p trends of 0.04. Pairwise comparison of ABC between groups fed 1.25 and 1.5 g NaNO2/l showed p 0.02 for both ABC and ACF, but a similar comparison between the untreated and 1.5 g/l groups showed no significant effects. In Experiment 3, hot dogs (18% of diet), which were fed to CF-1 mice previously treated with azoxymethane, inhibited ABC and ACF induction, but this effect was not significant (P = 0.10-0.12). In conclusion, these results support the view that NaNO2 may be a risk factor for colon carcinogenesis.

  20. Alterations in prey capture and induction of metallothioneins in grass shrimp fed cadmium-contaminated prey

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.G.; Hoexum Brouwer, T.M.; Brouwer, M.; Lopez, G.R.

    2000-04-01

    The aquatic oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri from a Cd-contaminated cove on the Hudson River, Foundry Cove, New York, USA, has evolved Cd resistance. Past studies have focused on how the mode of detoxification of Cd by these Cd-resistant worms influences Cd trophic transfer to the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. In the present study, the authors investigate reductions in prey capture in grass shrimp fed Cd-contaminated prey. They also investigate the induction of metal-binding proteins, metallothioneins, in these Cd-exposed shrimp. Grass shrimp were fed field-exposed Cd-contaminated Foundry Cove oligochaetes or laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated Artemia salina. Following these exposures, the ability of Cd- dosed and control shrimp to capture live A. salina was compared. Results show that shrimp fed laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated A. salina for 2 weeks exhibit significant reductions in their ability to successfully capture prey (live A. salina). Reductions in prey capture were also apparent, though not as dramatic in shrimp fed for 1 week on field-exposed Cd-contained Foundry Cove oligochaetes. Shrimp were further investigated for their subcellular distribution of Cd to examine if alterations in prey capture could be linked to saturation of Cd-metallothionein. Cd-dosed shrimp produced a low molecular weight CD-binding metallothionein protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Most importantly, successful prey capture decreased with increased Cd body burdens and increased Cd concentration bound to high molecular weight proteins.

  1. CFAVC scheme for high frequency series resonant inverter-fed domestic induction heating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajan, Booma; Reddy Sathi, Rama

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the investigations on the constant frequency asymmetric voltage cancellation control in the AC-AC resonant converter-fed domestic induction heating system. Conventional fixed frequency control techniques used in the high frequency converters lead to non-zero voltage switching operation and reduced output power. The proposed control technique produces higher output power than the conventional fixed-frequency control strategies. In this control technique, zero-voltage-switching operation is maintained during different duty cycle operation for reduction in the switching losses. Complete analysis of the induction heating power supply system with asymmetric voltage cancellation control is discussed in this article. Simulation and experimental study on constant frequency asymmetric voltage cancellation (CFAVC)-controlled full bridge series resonant inverter is performed. Time domain simulation results for the open and closed loop of the system are obtained using MATLAB simulation tool. The simulation results prove the control of voltage and power in a wide range. PID controller-based closed loop control system achieves the voltage regulation of the proposed system for the step change in load. Hardware implementation of the system under CFAVC control is done using the embedded controller. The simulation and experimental results validate the performance of the CFAVC control technique for series resonant-based induction cooking system.

  2. Five methods of stator natural frequency determination: case of induction and switched reluctance machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecointe, J.-P.; Romary, R.; Brudny, J.-F.; Czapla, T.

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, in order to predict magnetic acoustic noise emitted by electrical machines, five methods used to determine machine natural frequencies are presented and compared considering elementary structures such as smooth cylinders. Then, the cases of toothed rings such as induction and switched reluctance machine stators are taken into account, leading finally to consider these complete machines. The different methods can be divided into three sets. The first one is analytical and considers Jordan laws and suggested extension. The second one uses a finite element software. The three other methods are experimental and make use of an impact hammer, a shaker and the magnetic excitation technique.

  3. Comparison of Alternative Equivalent Circuits of Induction Motor with Real Machine Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradna, J.; Bauer, J.; Fligl, S.; Hlinovsky, V.

    The algorithms based on separated control of the motor flux and torque is used in order to gain the maximum performance from the induction machine. To push the efficiency and dynamics limits of the IM to its limits mostly FOC or DTC control strategies are used. Both are based on the knowledge of the hardly measurable variable-machine flux. To obtain the information about inner machine flux models based on the machine equivalent circuit are mostly used. Therefore the accuracy of the equivalent circuits has direct influence on the accuracy of the machine control. To reduce the complexity of the mathematical model the resistances and inductances are concentrated to one component and three phase winding is assumed to be symmetrical. In order to design control strategy for the induction motor, system equations and equivalent circuit must be established at first. This paper examines and compares some of the issues of adequate machine modeling and attempts to provide a firmer basis for selection of an appropriate model and to confirm or disprove the equivalence of different approaches. The results of the IM model run up are then compared to the results obtained from the measurements on the real machine and the equivalency is discussed.

  4. Electric Machine with Boosted Inductance to Stabilize Current Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, Steve

    2013-01-01

    High-powered motors typically have very low resistance and inductance (R and L) in their windings. This makes the pulse-width modulated (PWM) control of the current very difficult, especially when the bus voltage (V) is high. These R and L values are dictated by the motor size, torque (Kt), and back-emf (Kb) constants. These constants are in turn set by the voltage and the actuation torque-speed requirements. This problem is often addressed by placing inductive chokes within the controller. This approach is undesirable in that space is taken and heat is added to the controller. By keeping the same motor frame, reducing the wire size, and placing a correspondingly larger number of turns in each slot, the resistance, inductance, torque constant, and back-emf constant are all increased. The increased inductance aids the current control but ruins the Kt and Kb selections. If, however, a fraction of the turns is moved from their "correct slot" to an "incorrect slot," the increased R and L values are retained, but the Kt and Kb values are restored to the desired values. This approach assumes that increased resistance is acceptable to a degree. In effect, the heat allocated to the added inductance has been moved from the controller to the motor body, which in some cases is preferred.

  5. Direct torque control of induction machine under square wave conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chapuis, Y.A.; Pelissou, C.; Roye, D.

    1995-12-31

    The authors of this paper present the direct torque control (DTC) under square wave conditions. After describing the principles of the control system at high speed, they propose a control structure under square wave operation to optimize power and losses in the inverter and the machine. A transition method allowing transient problems between the two control modes to be minimized, is presented. Finally, they estimate the structure of the proposal by simulating good results on torque control obtained during square wave passage and up to very high machine speeds. They validate the control system at high speed by DSP implementation and experimental results.

  6. Reactive power generation in high speed induction machines by continuously occurring space-transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laithwaite, E. R.; Kuznetsov, S. B.

    1980-09-01

    A new technique of continuously generating reactive power from the stator of a brushless induction machine is conceived and tested on a 10-kw linear machine and on 35 and 150 rotary cage motors. An auxiliary magnetic wave traveling at rotor speed is artificially created by the space-transient attributable to the asymmetrical stator winding. At least two distinct windings of different pole-pitch must be incorporated. This rotor wave drifts in and out of phase repeatedly with the stator MMF wave proper and the resulting modulation of the airgap flux is used to generate reactive VA apart from that required for magnetization or leakage flux. The VAR generation effect increases with machine size, and leading power factor operation of the entire machine is viable for large industrial motors and power system induction generators.

  7. Induction squirrel cage machine design with minimization of electromagnetic noise

    SciTech Connect

    Hadj Amor, A.; Timar, P.L.; Poloujadoff, M.

    1995-12-01

    The noise created by an induction motor design, satisfying given specifications, is a function of eight independent variables. Its minimum value may be found by any unconstrained optimization technique. The minimum noise corresponds to a very expensive and heavy motor; therefore the conflict of interest must be dealt with. It is shown that the optimum design is independent of eccentricity.

  8. Induced electric fields in workers near low-frequency induction heating machines.

    PubMed

    Kos, Bor; Valič, Blaž; Kotnik, Tadej; Gajšek, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Published data on occupational exposure to induction heating equipment are scarce, particularly in terms of induced quantities in the human body. This article provides some additional information by investigating exposure to two such machines-an induction furnace and an induction hardening machine. Additionally, a spatial averaging algorithm for measured fields we developed in a previous publication is tested on new data. The human model was positioned at distances where measured values of magnetic flux density were above the reference levels. All human exposure was below the basic restriction-the lower bound of the 0.1 top percentile induced electric field in the body of a worker was 0.193 V/m at 30 cm from the induction furnace.

  9. Induced electric fields in workers near low-frequency induction heating machines.

    PubMed

    Kos, Bor; Valič, Blaž; Kotnik, Tadej; Gajšek, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Published data on occupational exposure to induction heating equipment are scarce, particularly in terms of induced quantities in the human body. This article provides some additional information by investigating exposure to two such machines-an induction furnace and an induction hardening machine. Additionally, a spatial averaging algorithm for measured fields we developed in a previous publication is tested on new data. The human model was positioned at distances where measured values of magnetic flux density were above the reference levels. All human exposure was below the basic restriction-the lower bound of the 0.1 top percentile induced electric field in the body of a worker was 0.193 V/m at 30 cm from the induction furnace. PMID:24203794

  10. Capacitance and Inductance based Rotor Ground Fault Location Method for Synchronous Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palanisamy, Ramanathan

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a capacitance and inductance based rotor ground fault location method for synchronous machines, which can detect and locate the ground fault in the rotor. The main contribution of this technique is to find the location of the ground fault in the rotor winding and reduce the repair time. This detection method is based on the measurement of inductance and capacitance of the rotor winding. It is suitable for salient pole synchronous machines. This method has been validated through experimental tests at the site.

  11. Effects of voltage unbalance and system harmonics on the performance of doubly fed induction wind generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiani, Morgan Mozhgan

    Inherent difficulties in management of electric power in the presence of an increasing demand for more energy, non-conventional loads such as digital appliances, and non-sustainable imported fossil fuels has initiated a multi-folded effort by many countries to restructure the way electric energy is generated, dispatched, and consumed. Smart power grid is the manifestation of many technologies that would eventually transforms the existing power grid into a more flexible, fault resilient, and intelligent system. Integration of distributed renewable energy sources plays a central role in successful implementation of this transformation. Among the renewable options, wind energy harvesting offers superior engineering and economical incentives with minimal environmental impacts. Doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) have turned into a serious contender for wind energy generators due to their flexibility in control of active and reactive power with minimal silicon loss. Significant presence of voltage unbalance and system harmonics in finite inertia transmission lines can potentially undermine the reliability of these wind generators. The present dissertation has investigated the impacts of system unbalances and harmonics on the performance of the DFIG. Our investigation indicates that these effects can result in an undesirable undulation in the rotor shaft which can potentially invoke mechanical resonance, thereby causing catastrophic damages to the installations and the power grid. In order to remedy the above issue, a control solution for real time monitoring of the system unbalance and optimal excitation of the three phase rotor currents in a DFIG is offered. The optimal rotor currents will create appropriate components of the magneto-motive force in the airgap that will actively compensate the undesirable magnetic field originated by the stator windings. Due to the iterative nature of the optimization procedure, field reconstruction method has been incorporated

  12. Converter Lifetime Assessment for Doubly-Fed Induction Generators Considering Derating Control Strategies at Low Rotor Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisse, Marcel; Bartschat, Arne; Wenske, Jan; Mertens, Axel

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, various control strategies around the synchronous operating point with the aim to reduce the thermal loading of the rotor-side converter in wind turbines equipped with doubly-fed induction generators are investigated regarding their assets and drawbacks. It is shown that there are various possibilities to prolong the lifetime expectation of the converter regarding its thermal stress by implementing these control strategies. However, every control measure requires a careful design process or a slight adjustment of the system to ensure a positive effect on the overall behaviour of the wind turbine.

  13. An improved fault-tolerant control scheme for PWM inverter-fed induction motor-based EVs.

    PubMed

    Tabbache, Bekheïra; Benbouzid, Mohamed; Kheloui, Abdelaziz; Bourgeot, Jean-Matthieu; Mamoune, Abdeslam

    2013-11-01

    This paper proposes an improved fault-tolerant control scheme for PWM inverter-fed induction motor-based electric vehicles. The proposed strategy deals with power switch (IGBTs) failures mitigation within a reconfigurable induction motor control. To increase the vehicle powertrain reliability regarding IGBT open-circuit failures, 4-wire and 4-leg PWM inverter topologies are investigated and their performances discussed in a vehicle context. The proposed fault-tolerant topologies require only minimum hardware modifications to the conventional off-the-shelf six-switch three-phase drive, mitigating the IGBTs failures by specific inverter control. Indeed, the two topologies exploit the induction motor neutral accessibility for fault-tolerant purposes. The 4-wire topology uses then classical hysteresis controllers to account for the IGBT failures. The 4-leg topology, meanwhile, uses a specific 3D space vector PWM to handle vehicle requirements in terms of size (DC bus capacitors) and cost (IGBTs number). Experiments on an induction motor drive and simulations on an electric vehicle are carried-out using a European urban driving cycle to show that the proposed fault-tolerant control approach is effective and provides a simple configuration with high performance in terms of speed and torque responses. PMID:23916869

  14. Feedback linearisation control of an induction machine augmented by single-hidden layer neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait Abbas, Hamou; Belkheiri, Mohammed; Zegnini, Boubakeur

    2016-01-01

    We consider adaptive output feedback control methodology of highly uncertain nonlinear systems with both parametric uncertainties and unmodelled dynamics. The approach is also applicable to systems of unknown, but bounded dimension. However, the relative degree of the regulated output is assumed to be known. This new control strategy is proposed to address the tracking problem of an induction motor based on a modified field-oriented control method. The obtained controller is then augmented by an online neural network that serves as an approximator for the neglected dynamics and modelling errors. The network weight adaptation rule is derived from the Lyapunov stability analysis, that guarantees boundedness of all the error signals of the closed-loop system. Computer simulations of an output feedback controlled induction machine, augmented via single-hidden-layer neural networks, demonstrate the practical potential of the proposed control algorithm.

  15. New Technique of High-Performance Torque Control Developed for Induction Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Barbara H.

    2003-01-01

    Two forms of high-performance torque control for motor drives have been described in the literature: field orientation control and direct torque control. Field orientation control has been the method of choice for previous NASA electromechanical actuator research efforts with induction motors. Direct torque control has the potential to offer some advantages over field orientation, including ease of implementation and faster response. However, the most common form of direct torque control is not suitable for the highspeed, low-stator-flux linkage induction machines designed for electromechanical actuators with the presently available sample rates of digital control systems (higher sample rates are required). In addition, this form of direct torque control is not suitable for the addition of a high-frequency carrier signal necessary for the "self-sensing" (sensorless) position estimation technique. This technique enables low- and zero-speed position sensorless operation of the machine. Sensorless operation is desirable to reduce the number of necessary feedback signals and transducers, thus improving the reliability and reducing the mass and volume of the system. This research was directed at developing an alternative form of direct torque control known as a "deadbeat," or inverse model, solution. This form uses pulse-width modulation of the voltage applied to the machine, thus reducing the necessary sample and switching frequency for the high-speed NASA motor. In addition, the structure of the deadbeat form allows the addition of the high-frequency carrier signal so that low- and zero-speed sensorless operation is possible. The new deadbeat solution is based on using the stator and rotor flux as state variables. This choice of state variables leads to a simple graphical representation of the solution as the intersection of a constant torque line with a constant stator flux circle. Previous solutions have been expressed only in complex mathematical terms without a

  16. Mixed eccentricity diagnosis in Inverter-Fed Induction Motors via the Adaptive Slope Transform of transient stator currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons-Llinares, J.; Antonino-Daviu, J.; Roger-Folch, J.; Moríñigo-Sotelo, D.; Duque-Pérez, O.

    2014-10-01

    This paper researches the detection of mixed eccentricity in Inverter-Fed Induction Motors. The classic FFT method cannot be applied when the stator current captured is not in steady state, which is very common in these motors. Therefore, a transform able to detect the time-frequency evolutions of the components present in the transient signal captured must be applied. In order to optimize the result, a method to calculate the theoretical time-frequency evolution of the stator current components is presented, using only the captured current. This previously obtained information enables the use of the proposed transform: the Adaptive Slope Transform, based on appropriately choosing the atom slope in each point analyzed. Thanks to its adaptive characteristics, the time-frequency evolution of the main components in a stator transient current is traced precisely and with high detail in the 2D time-frequency plot obtained. As a consequence, the time-frequency plane characteristic patterns produced by the Eccentricity Related Harmonics are easily and clearly identified enabling a reliable diagnosis. Moreover, the problem of quantifying the presence of the fault is solved presenting a simple and easy to apply method. The transform capabilities have been shown successfully diagnosing an Inverter-Fed Induction Motor with mixed eccentricity during a startup, a decrease in the assigned frequency, and a load variation with and without slip compensation.

  17. Homology Induction: the use of machine learning to improve sequence similarity searches

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Background The inference of homology between proteins is a key problem in molecular biology The current best approaches only identify ~50% of homologies (with a false positive rate set at 1/1000). Results We present Homology Induction (HI), a new approach to inferring homology. HI uses machine learning to bootstrap from standard sequence similarity search methods. First a standard method is run, then HI learns rules which are true for sequences of high similarity to the target (assumed homologues) and not true for general sequences, these rules are then used to discriminate sequences in the twilight zone. To learn the rules HI describes the sequences in a novel way based on a bioinformatic knowledge base, and the machine learning method of inductive logic programming. To evaluate HI we used the PDB40D benchmark which lists sequences of known homology but low sequence similarity. We compared the HI methodoly with PSI-BLAST alone and found HI performed significantly better. In addition, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that these improvements were robust for all reasonable error costs. The predictive homology rules learnt by HI by can be interpreted biologically to provide insight into conserved features of homologous protein families. Conclusions HI is a new technique for the detection of remote protein homolgy – a central bioinformatic problem. HI with PSI-BLAST is shown to outperform PSI-BLAST for all error costs. It is expect that similar improvements would be obtained using HI with any sequence similarity method. PMID:11972320

  18. Single-trial classification of NIRS signals during emotional induction tasks: towards a corporeal machine interface

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Corporeal machine interfaces (CMIs) are one of a few available options for restoring communication and environmental control to those with severe motor impairments. Cognitive processes detectable solely with functional imaging technologies such as near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can potentially provide interfaces requiring less user training than conventional electroencephalography-based CMIs. We hypothesized that visually-cued emotional induction tasks can elicit forehead hemodynamic activity that can be harnessed for a CMI. Methods Data were collected from ten able-bodied participants as they performed trials of positively and negatively-emotional induction tasks. A genetic algorithm was employed to select the optimal signal features, classifier, task valence (positive or negative emotional value of the stimulus), recording site, and signal analysis interval length for each participant. We compared the performance of Linear Discriminant Analysis and Support Vector Machine classifiers. The latency of the NIRS hemodynamic response was estimated as the time required for classification accuracy to stabilize. Results Baseline and activation sequences were classified offline with accuracies upwards of 75.0%. Feature selection identified common time-domain discriminatory features across participants. Classification performance varied with the length of the input signal, and optimal signal length was found to be feature-dependent. Statistically significant increases in classification accuracy from baseline rates were observed as early as 2.5 s from initial stimulus presentation. Conclusion NIRS signals during affective states were shown to be distinguishable from baseline states with classification accuracies significantly above chance levels. Further research with NIRS for corporeal machine interfaces is warranted. PMID:19900285

  19. Inductive machine learning for improved estimation of catchment-scale snow water equivalent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckingham, David; Skalka, Christian; Bongard, Josh

    2015-05-01

    Infrastructure for the automatic collection of single-point measurements of snow water equivalent (SWE) is well-established. However, because SWE varies significantly over space, the estimation of SWE at the catchment scale based on a single-point measurement is error-prone. We propose low-cost, lightweight methods for near-real-time estimation of mean catchment-wide SWE using existing infrastructure, wireless sensor networks, and machine learning algorithms. Because snowpack distribution is highly nonlinear, we focus on Genetic Programming (GP), a nonlinear, white-box, inductive machine learning algorithm. Because we did not have access to near-real-time catchment-scale SWE data, we used available data as ground truth for machine learning in a set of experiments that are successive approximations of our goal of catchment-wide SWE estimation. First, we used a history of maritime snowpack data collected by manual snow courses. Second, we used distributed snow depth (HS) data collected automatically by wireless sensor networks. We compared the performance of GP against linear regression (LR), binary regression trees (BT), and a widely used basic method (BM) that naively assumes non-variable snowpack. In the first experiment set, GP and LR models predicted SWE with lower error than BM. In the second experiment set, GP had lower error than LR, but outperformed BT only when we applied a technique that specifically mitigated the possibility of over-fitting.

  20. Impact of PPAR-α induction on glucose homoeostasis in alcohol-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Lebrun, Valérie; Molendi-Coste, Olivier; Lanthier, Nicolas; Sempoux, Christine; Cani, Patrice D; van Rooijen, Nico; Stärkel, Peter; Horsmans, Yves; Leclercq, Isabelle A

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is a major cause of liver disease. It also associates with increased cardiovascular risk and Type 2 diabetes. ALD (alcoholic liver disease) and NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) share pathological features, pathogenic mechanisms and pattern of disease progression. In NAFLD, steatosis, lipotoxicity and liver inflammation participate to hepatic insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to verify the effect of alcohol on hepatic insulin sensitivity and to evaluate the role of alcohol-induced steatosis and inflammation on glucose homoeostasis. C57BL/6J mice were fed for 20 days a modified Lieber-DeCarli diet in which the alcohol concentration was gradually increased up to 35% of daily caloric intake. OH (alcohol liquid diet)-fed mice had liver steatosis and inflammatory infiltration. In addition, these mice developed insulin resistance in the liver, but not in muscles, as demonstrated by euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp and analysis of the insulin signalling cascade. Treatment with the PPAR-α (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-α) agonist Wy14,643 protected against OH-induced steatosis and KC (Kupffer cell) activation and almost abolished OH-induced insulin resistance. As KC activation may modulate insulin sensitivity, we repeated the clamp studies in mice depleted in KC to decipher the role of macrophages. Depletion of KC using liposomes-encapsuled clodronate in OH-fed mice failed both to improve hepatic steatosis and to restore insulin sensitivity as assessed by clamp. Our study shows that chronic alcohol consumption induces steatosis, KC activation and hepatic insulin resistance in mice. PPAR-α agonist treatment that prevents steatosis and dampens hepatic inflammation also prevents alcohol-induced hepatic insulin resistance. However, KC depletion has little impact on OH-induced metabolic disturbances.

  1. Post-weaning mice fed exclusively milk have deficits in induction of long-term depression in the CA1 hippocampal region and spatial learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Nishie, Hideaki; Miyata, Ryouhei; Fujikawa, Ryu; Kinoshita, Ken-ichi; Muroi, Yoshikage; Ishii, Toshiaki

    2012-08-01

    Previously, we have found that post-weaning mice fed exclusively milk display low-frequency exploratory behavior compared to mice fed a food pellet diet (Ishii et al., 2005a). Because cognitive functions play a key role in animal exploration, in the present study we examined the effect of an exclusively milk formula diet on spatial learning and memory in a water maze and also on induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) at the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse in the hippocampus. Exclusively milk-fed mice exhibited slower learning and memory deficits in hidden water maze tests as compared with pellet-fed mice. Moreover, milk-fed mice showed a significant inhibition of LTD but a normal induction of LTP. Despite these functional deficits, adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, which has been proposed to have a causal relationship to spatial memory, was stimulated in milk-fed mice. These result suggest that an exclusively milk formula diet after weaning leads to a stimulation of hippocampal neurogenesis but causes deficits in the induction of LTD in the CA1 hippocampal region and impairment of spatial learning and memory.

  2. Method for reducing peak phase current and decreasing staring time for an internal combustion engine having an induction machine

    DOEpatents

    Amey, David L.; Degner, Michael W.

    2002-01-01

    A method for reducing the starting time and reducing the peak phase currents for an internal combustion engine that is started using an induction machine starter/alternator. The starting time is reduced by pre-fluxing the induction machine and the peak phase currents are reduced by reducing the flux current command after a predetermined period of time has elapsed and concurrent to the application of the torque current command. The method of the present invention also provides a strategy for anticipating the start command for an internal combustion engine and determines a start strategy based on the start command and the operating state of the internal combustion engine.

  3. Eddy current loss and coil inductance evaluation in DC machines by a PG-based F. E. Code

    SciTech Connect

    Arturi, C.M.; Ubaldini, M. )

    1991-09-01

    The present paper deals with the evaluation of both the eddy current loss and the self and mutual inductances of the commutating coils of a dc machine armature-winding for railway traction by a two-dimension PC-based finite element commercial code. The comparison among several distribution of the conductors occupying a given slot and among slots with different ratio of depth to width is made in this paper in order to determine, for a given dc machine, the best design solution with references to both the loss and the self and mutual inductances of the commutating coils.

  4. Robust fractional order sliding mode control of doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimkhani, Sadegh

    2016-07-01

    Wind power plants have nonlinear dynamics and contain many uncertainties such as unknown nonlinear disturbances and parameter uncertainties. Thus, it is a difficult task to design a robust reliable controller for this system. This paper proposes a novel robust fractional-order sliding mode (FOSM) controller for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind energy conversion system. In order to enhance the robustness of the control system, uncertainties and disturbances are estimated using a fractional order uncertainty estimator. In the proposed method a continuous control strategy is developed to achieve the chattering free fractional order sliding-mode control, and also no knowledge of the uncertainties and disturbances or their bound is assumed. The boundedness and convergence properties of the closed-loop signals are proven using Lyapunov׳s stability theory. Simulation results in the presence of various uncertainties were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control scheme.

  5. Encoderless Model Predictive Control of Doubly-Fed Induction Generators in Variable-Speed Wind Turbine Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelrahem, Mohamed; Hackl, Christoph; Kennel, Ralph

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, an encoderless finite-control-set model predictive control (FCS-MPC) strategy for doubly-fed induction generators (DFIGs) based on variable-speed wind turbine systems (WTSs) is proposed. According to the FCS-MPC concept, the discrete states of the power converter are taken into account and the future converter performance is predicted for each sampling period. Subsequently, the voltage vector that minimizes a predefined cost function is selected to be applied in the next sampling instant. Furthermore, a model reference adaptive system (MRAS) observer is used to estimate the rotor speed and position of the DFIG. Estimation and control performance of the proposed encoderless control method are validated by simulation results for all operation conditions. Moreover, the performance of the MRAS observer is tested under variations of the DFIG parameters.

  6. Real time automatic detection of bearing fault in induction machine using kurtogram analysis.

    PubMed

    Tafinine, Farid; Mokrani, Karim

    2012-11-01

    A proposed signal processing technique for incipient real time bearing fault detection based on kurtogram analysis is presented in this paper. The kurtogram is a fourth-order spectral analysis tool introduced for detecting and characterizing non-stationarities in a signal. This technique starts from investigating the resonance signatures over selected frequency bands to extract the representative features. The traditional spectral analysis is not appropriate for non-stationary vibration signal and for real time diagnosis. The performance of the proposed technique is examined by a series of experimental tests corresponding to different bearing conditions. Test results show that this signal processing technique is an effective bearing fault automatic detection method and gives a good basis for an integrated induction machine condition monitor.

  7. Dual-loop self-optimizing robust control of wind power generation with Doubly-Fed Induction Generator.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quan; Li, Yaoyu; Seem, John E

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a self-optimizing robust control scheme that can maximize the power generation for a variable speed wind turbine with Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) operated in Region 2. A dual-loop control structure is proposed to synergize the conversion from aerodynamic power to rotor power and the conversion from rotor power to the electrical power. The outer loop is an Extremum Seeking Control (ESC) based generator torque regulation via the electric power feedback. The ESC can search for the optimal generator torque constant to maximize the rotor power without wind measurement or accurate knowledge of power map. The inner loop is a vector-control based scheme that can both regulate the generator torque requested by the ESC and also maximize the conversion from the rotor power to grid power. An ℋ(∞) controller is synthesized for maximizing, with performance specifications defined based upon the spectrum of the rotor power obtained by the ESC. Also, the controller is designed to be robust against the variations of some generator parameters. The proposed control strategy is validated via simulation study based on the synergy of several software packages including the TurbSim and FAST developed by NREL, Simulink and SimPowerSystems.

  8. Robust fractional order sliding mode control of doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimkhani, Sadegh

    2016-07-01

    Wind power plants have nonlinear dynamics and contain many uncertainties such as unknown nonlinear disturbances and parameter uncertainties. Thus, it is a difficult task to design a robust reliable controller for this system. This paper proposes a novel robust fractional-order sliding mode (FOSM) controller for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind energy conversion system. In order to enhance the robustness of the control system, uncertainties and disturbances are estimated using a fractional order uncertainty estimator. In the proposed method a continuous control strategy is developed to achieve the chattering free fractional order sliding-mode control, and also no knowledge of the uncertainties and disturbances or their bound is assumed. The boundedness and convergence properties of the closed-loop signals are proven using Lyapunov׳s stability theory. Simulation results in the presence of various uncertainties were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed control scheme. PMID:27018145

  9. Dual-loop self-optimizing robust control of wind power generation with Doubly-Fed Induction Generator.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quan; Li, Yaoyu; Seem, John E

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a self-optimizing robust control scheme that can maximize the power generation for a variable speed wind turbine with Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) operated in Region 2. A dual-loop control structure is proposed to synergize the conversion from aerodynamic power to rotor power and the conversion from rotor power to the electrical power. The outer loop is an Extremum Seeking Control (ESC) based generator torque regulation via the electric power feedback. The ESC can search for the optimal generator torque constant to maximize the rotor power without wind measurement or accurate knowledge of power map. The inner loop is a vector-control based scheme that can both regulate the generator torque requested by the ESC and also maximize the conversion from the rotor power to grid power. An ℋ(∞) controller is synthesized for maximizing, with performance specifications defined based upon the spectrum of the rotor power obtained by the ESC. Also, the controller is designed to be robust against the variations of some generator parameters. The proposed control strategy is validated via simulation study based on the synergy of several software packages including the TurbSim and FAST developed by NREL, Simulink and SimPowerSystems. PMID:26071967

  10. Induction machine bearing faults detection based on a multi-dimensional MUSIC algorithm and maximum likelihood estimation.

    PubMed

    Elbouchikhi, Elhoussin; Choqueuse, Vincent; Benbouzid, Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    Condition monitoring of electric drives is of paramount importance since it contributes to enhance the system reliability and availability. Moreover, the knowledge about the fault mode behavior is extremely important in order to improve system protection and fault-tolerant control. Fault detection and diagnosis in squirrel cage induction machines based on motor current signature analysis (MCSA) has been widely investigated. Several high resolution spectral estimation techniques have been developed and used to detect induction machine abnormal operating conditions. This paper focuses on the application of MCSA for the detection of abnormal mechanical conditions that may lead to induction machines failure. In fact, this paper is devoted to the detection of single-point defects in bearings based on parametric spectral estimation. A multi-dimensional MUSIC (MD MUSIC) algorithm has been developed for bearing faults detection based on bearing faults characteristic frequencies. This method has been used to estimate the fundamental frequency and the fault related frequency. Then, an amplitude estimator of the fault characteristic frequencies has been proposed and fault indicator has been derived for fault severity measurement. The proposed bearing faults detection approach is assessed using simulated stator currents data, issued from a coupled electromagnetic circuits approach for air-gap eccentricity emulating bearing faults. Then, experimental data are used for validation purposes. PMID:27038887

  11. Digital signal processing control of induction machine`s torque and stator flux utilizing the direct stator flux field orientation method

    SciTech Connect

    Seiz, J.B.

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents a review of the Direct Stator Flux Field Orientation control method. This method can be used to control an induction motor`s torque and flux directly and is the application of interest for this thesis. This control method is implemented without the traditional feedback loops and associated hardware. Predictions are made, by mathematical calculations, of the stator voltage vector. The voltage vector is determined twice a switching period. The switching period is fixed throughout the analysis. The three phase inverter duty cycle necessary to control the torque and flux of the induction machine is determined by the voltage space vector Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique. Transient performance of either the flux or torque requires an alternate modulation scheme which is also addressed in this thesis. A block diagram of this closed loop system is provided. 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Differential Evolution Based IDWNN Controller for Fault Ride-Through of Grid-Connected Doubly Fed Induction Wind Generators.

    PubMed

    Manonmani, N; Subbiah, V; Sivakumar, L

    2015-01-01

    The key objective of wind turbine development is to ensure that output power is continuously increased. It is authenticated that wind turbines (WTs) supply the necessary reactive power to the grid at the time of fault and after fault to aid the flowing grid voltage. At this juncture, this paper introduces a novel heuristic based controller module employing differential evolution and neural network architecture to improve the low-voltage ride-through rate of grid-connected wind turbines, which are connected along with doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs). The traditional crowbar-based systems were basically applied to secure the rotor-side converter during the occurrence of grid faults. This traditional controller is found not to satisfy the desired requirement, since DFIG during the connection of crowbar acts like a squirrel cage module and absorbs the reactive power from the grid. This limitation is taken care of in this paper by introducing heuristic controllers that remove the usage of crowbar and ensure that wind turbines supply necessary reactive power to the grid during faults. The controller is designed in this paper to enhance the DFIG converter during the grid fault and this controller takes care of the ride-through fault without employing any other hardware modules. The paper introduces a double wavelet neural network controller which is appropriately tuned employing differential evolution. To validate the proposed controller module, a case study of wind farm with 1.5 MW wind turbines connected to a 25 kV distribution system exporting power to a 120 kV grid through a 30 km 25 kV feeder is carried out by simulation.

  13. Differential Evolution Based IDWNN Controller for Fault Ride-Through of Grid-Connected Doubly Fed Induction Wind Generators

    PubMed Central

    Manonmani, N.; Subbiah, V.; Sivakumar, L.

    2015-01-01

    The key objective of wind turbine development is to ensure that output power is continuously increased. It is authenticated that wind turbines (WTs) supply the necessary reactive power to the grid at the time of fault and after fault to aid the flowing grid voltage. At this juncture, this paper introduces a novel heuristic based controller module employing differential evolution and neural network architecture to improve the low-voltage ride-through rate of grid-connected wind turbines, which are connected along with doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs). The traditional crowbar-based systems were basically applied to secure the rotor-side converter during the occurrence of grid faults. This traditional controller is found not to satisfy the desired requirement, since DFIG during the connection of crowbar acts like a squirrel cage module and absorbs the reactive power from the grid. This limitation is taken care of in this paper by introducing heuristic controllers that remove the usage of crowbar and ensure that wind turbines supply necessary reactive power to the grid during faults. The controller is designed in this paper to enhance the DFIG converter during the grid fault and this controller takes care of the ride-through fault without employing any other hardware modules. The paper introduces a double wavelet neural network controller which is appropriately tuned employing differential evolution. To validate the proposed controller module, a case study of wind farm with 1.5 MW wind turbines connected to a 25 kV distribution system exporting power to a 120 kV grid through a 30 km 25 kV feeder is carried out by simulation. PMID:26516636

  14. Differential Evolution Based IDWNN Controller for Fault Ride-Through of Grid-Connected Doubly Fed Induction Wind Generators.

    PubMed

    Manonmani, N; Subbiah, V; Sivakumar, L

    2015-01-01

    The key objective of wind turbine development is to ensure that output power is continuously increased. It is authenticated that wind turbines (WTs) supply the necessary reactive power to the grid at the time of fault and after fault to aid the flowing grid voltage. At this juncture, this paper introduces a novel heuristic based controller module employing differential evolution and neural network architecture to improve the low-voltage ride-through rate of grid-connected wind turbines, which are connected along with doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs). The traditional crowbar-based systems were basically applied to secure the rotor-side converter during the occurrence of grid faults. This traditional controller is found not to satisfy the desired requirement, since DFIG during the connection of crowbar acts like a squirrel cage module and absorbs the reactive power from the grid. This limitation is taken care of in this paper by introducing heuristic controllers that remove the usage of crowbar and ensure that wind turbines supply necessary reactive power to the grid during faults. The controller is designed in this paper to enhance the DFIG converter during the grid fault and this controller takes care of the ride-through fault without employing any other hardware modules. The paper introduces a double wavelet neural network controller which is appropriately tuned employing differential evolution. To validate the proposed controller module, a case study of wind farm with 1.5 MW wind turbines connected to a 25 kV distribution system exporting power to a 120 kV grid through a 30 km 25 kV feeder is carried out by simulation. PMID:26516636

  15. Quantifying human subjective experience and social interaction using the eXperience Induction Machine.

    PubMed

    Bernardet, Ulysses; Väljamäe, Aleksander; Inderbitzin, Martin; Wierenga, Sytse; Mura, Anna; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2011-06-30

    With the advance of novel brain imaging technology more correlations between complex human properties and the neuronal substrate can be assessed. However, thus far, not many well-validated paradigms exist that would allow for a systematic and quantitative exploration of these phenomena. For instance, despite the rapid technological advances in the domain of mixed and virtual reality systems, a fundamental issue remains how we can define and quantify "presence". A standard approach has been to use questionnaires and self-report measures. However, it has been well established that humans' capabilities to access and externalize their internal states are limited. Hence, we have investigated the question whether other less subjective measures can be devised that can corroborate subjective self-reports on presence. In particular, we have developed a quantitative recollection task that assesses the ability of human subjects (N=40) to recollect the factual structure and organization of a structured and fully controlled experience in a human accessible mixed reality space, the eXperience Induction Machine (XIM). In this structured experience - referred to as the "Autodemo"--a virtual guide explains the key elements and properties of XIM while the user is able to freely move around in the space. To evaluate the users' experience and the amount of factual information retained about the Autodemo, we used the ITC-SOPI questionnaire and a recall test specifically designed for the Autodemo. We found significant correlations between spatial presence and engagement factors of ITC-SOPI and recall performance. Moreover we observed an interaction with the participants' gender. Our results show that we can assess correlates of "presence" by focusing on other dependent measures such as those related to memory and performance. Additionally, our work exemplifies how virtual and mixed reality systems provide new ways to address fundamental questions in psychology and cognitive neuroscience

  16. Etude de sensibilite du profil de durete des engrenages traites thermiquement par induction en fonction des parametres machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barka, Noureddine

    This project involves a study of sensitivity of the hardness profile of cylindrical bars and spur gears heated by induction using finite element models (axisymmetric and 2D) combined with experimental tests. This sensitivity study is considered as the basic step towards the development of prediction models. The study mainly aims at evaluating the effect of material properties and machine parameters on the hardness profile. As the induction heating is very fast, it is reasonable to assume that the material properties are different from those measured under thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. For this reason, the study attempts to measure the effect of variations in material properties on the surface temperature using the axisymmetric model. The results show that the relative magnetic permeability is the property that most significantly influences surface temperatures and the variation of this property has a large effect on the hardness profile. The effects of specific heat and electrical conductivity are rather low, while the thermal conductivity has a negligible effect on the model developed. Moreover, the variation in temperature of austenitizing margins have limited effects on the developed model. Therefore, the use of material properties at thermodynamic equilibrium was sufficient to establish models for predicting trends. Moreover, study of global sensitivity profile of hardness as a function of machine parameters allowed, in the first place, to compare the two cases of heat to medium and high frequency, by applying them to a disc and a gear and determine the effect of the imposed current density and heating time on the hardness profile using the results of the simulations. It appears that the edge effect is smaller in the MF heating case. In addition, the 2D model can confirm that the MF power heat more the tooth root, while the HF power heat the tooth tip region. Finally, the regression models developed were used to estimate surface temperatures and depths

  17. Cytochrome P4501A induction and DNA adduct formation in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus), fed with environmentally contaminated gull eggs.

    PubMed

    Østby, Lene; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Krøkje, Ase

    2005-11-01

    This study indicates that complex mixtures of pollutants found in the Arctic marine environment have genotoxic effects in glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). DNA adducts were quantified, by the (32)P-postlabeling technique, in liver samples from gulls fed with hen eggs (controls) and from gulls fed with environmentally contaminated gull eggs (exposed). All birds were grown and fed under laboratory conditions. Hepatic homologues to mammalian cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) proteins were also determined by Western blotting. DNA adducts were detected in all but one liver sample, but the exposed birds had a significantly increased level of DNA adducts relative to that of the controls. There was no clear significant correlation between the DNA adduct level and the level of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in blood. The level of CYP1A protein was significantly higher in the liver of exposed male gulls than in the liver of control males and positively correlated, with significance, to the level of OC compounds measured in blood. There was no significant correlation between the level of DNA adducts and the CYP1A protein content. PMID:16216630

  18. Effects of stator and rotor core ovality on induction machine behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Salon, S.J.; Burow, D.W.; DeBortoli, M.J.; Slavik, C.J.

    1996-09-01

    Asymmetries in the air gap of induction motors produce additional harmonics in the flux density and force waves. A complete transient finite element model analyzes the harmonics produced from two possible asymmetries, a stator core ovality and a rotor ovality. The analysis of the air gap flux density and magnetic force waves determined by the finite element model shows unique harmonic frequencies due to the ovality of the air gap.

  19. Effects of stator and rotor core ovality on induction machine behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Salon, S.J.; Burow, D.W.

    1995-07-01

    Asymmetries in the air gap of induction motors produce additional harmonics in the flux density and force waves. A complete transient finite element model analyzes the harmonics produced from two possible asymmetries, a stator core ovality and a rotor ovality. The analysis of the air gap flux density and magnetic force waves determined by the finite element model shows unique harmonic frequencies due to the ovality of the air gap.

  20. Control algorithm for the inverter fed induction motor drive with DC current feedback loop based on principles of the vector control

    SciTech Connect

    Vuckovic, V.; Vukosavic, S. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper brings out a control algorithm for VSI fed induction motor drives based on the converter DC link current feedback. It is shown that the speed and flux can be controlled over the wide speed and load range quite satisfactorily for simpler drives. The base commands of both the inverter voltage and frequency are proportional to the reference speed, but each of them is further modified by the signals derived from the DC current sensor. The algorithm is based on the equations well known from the vector control theory, and is aimed to obtain the constant rotor flux and proportionality between the electrical torque, the slip frequency and the active component of the stator current. In this way, the problems of slip compensation, Ri compensation and correction of U/f characteristics are solved in the same time. Analytical considerations and computer simulations of the proposed control structure are in close agreement with the experimental results measured on a prototype drive.

  1. Acidification of methanol-fed anaerobic granular sludge bioreactors by cobalt deprivation: Induction and microbial community dynamics.

    PubMed

    Fermoso, Fernando G; Collins, Gavin; Bartacek, Jan; O'Flaherty, Vincent; Lens, Piet

    2008-01-01

    The acidification of mesophilic (30 degrees C) methanol-fed upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors induced by cobalt deprivation from the influent was investigated by coupling the reactor performance (pH 7.0; organic loading rate 4.5 g COD . L(-1) . d(-1)) to the microbial ecology of the bioreactor sludge. The latter was investigated by specific methanogenic activity (SMA) measurements and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to quantify the abundance of key organisms over time. This study hypothesized that under cobalt limiting conditions, the SMA on methanol of the sludge gradually decreases, which ultimately results in methanol accumulation in the reactor effluent. Once the methanol accumulation surpasses a threshold value (about 8.5 mM for the sludge investigated), reactor acidification occurs because acetogens outcompete methylothrophic methanogens at these elevated methanol concentrations. Methanogens present in granular sludge at the time of the acidification do not use methanol as the direct substrate and are unable to degrade acetate. Methylotrophic/acetoclastic methanogenic activity was found to be lost within 10 days of reactor operation, coinciding with the disappearance of the Methanosarcina population. The loss of SMA on methanol can thus be used as an accurate parameter to predict reactor acidification of methanol-fed UASB reactors operating under cobalt limiting conditions.

  2. Rats fed soy protein isolate (SPI) have impaired hepatic CYP1A1 induction by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as a result of interference with aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Rohit; Badger, Thomas M; Ronis, Martin J

    2008-03-01

    Consumption of soy diets has been found to reduce cancer incidence in animals and is associated with reduced cancer risk in humans. Previously, we have demonstrated that female Sprague-Dawley rats fed purified AIN-93G diets with soy protein isolate (SPI) as the sole protein source had reduced CYP1A1 induction and basal aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) levels relative to those fed the same diet containing casein (CAS). In the present study, the molecular mechanisms underlying reduced AhR expression have been studied. The SPI-effect on AhR was not observed after feeding diets containing the purified soy isoflavones genistein or daidzein. Rat hepatoma FGC-4 cells were treated with the serum obtained from rats fed CAS- or SPI-containing diets. Reduced AhR levels (P<0.05) were observed after 24 h exposure to SPI-serum without any changes in the overall expression of chaperone proteins--HSP90 and XAP2. SPI-serum-stimulated AhR degradation was inhibited by treating the cells with the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, and was observed to be preceded by ubiquitination of the receptor. A reduced association of XAP2 with the immunoprecipitated AhR complex was observed. SPI-serum-mediated AhR degradation was preceded by nuclear translocation of the receptor. However, the translocated receptor was found to be unable to heterodimerize with ARNT or to bind to XRE elements on the CYP1A1 enhancer. These data suggest that feeding SPI-containing diets antagonizes AhR signaling by a novel mechanism which differs from those established for known AhR antagonists.

  3. Rats fed soy protein isolate (SPI) have impaired hepatic CYP1A1 induction by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as a result of interference with aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, Rohit; Badger, Thomas M.; Ronis, Martin J.

    2008-03-01

    Consumption of soy diets has been found to reduce cancer incidence in animals and is associated with reduced cancer risk in humans. Previously, we have demonstrated that female Sprague-Dawley rats fed purified AIN-93G diets with soy protein isolate (SPI) as the sole protein source had reduced CYP1A1 induction and basal aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) levels relative to those fed the same diet containing casein (CAS). In the present study, the molecular mechanisms underlying reduced AhR expression have been studied. The SPI-effect on AhR was not observed after feeding diets containing the purified soy isoflavones genistein or daidzein. Rat hepatoma FGC-4 cells were treated with the serum obtained from rats fed CAS- or SPI-containing diets. Reduced AhR levels (P < 0.05) were observed after 24 h exposure to SPI-serum without any changes in the overall expression of chaperone proteins-HSP90 and XAP2. SPI-serum-stimulated AhR degradation was inhibited by treating the cells with the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, and was observed to be preceded by ubiquitination of the receptor. A reduced association of XAP2 with the immunoprecipitated AhR complex was observed. SPI-serum-mediated AhR degradation was preceded by nuclear translocation of the receptor. However, the translocated receptor was found to be unable to heterodimerize with ARNT or to bind to XRE elements on the CYP1A1 enhancer. These data suggest that feeding SPI-containing diets antagonizes AhR signaling by a novel mechanism which differs from those established for known AhR antagonists.

  4. Efficient production of a thermophilic 2-deoxyribose-5-phosphate aldolase in glucose-limited fed-batch cultivations of Escherichia coli by continuous lactose induction strategy.

    PubMed

    Pei, Xiao-Lin; Wang, Qiu-Yan; Li, Cheng-Lu; Qiu, Xiao-Feng; Xie, Kai-Lin; Huang, Li-Feng; Wang, An-Ming; Zeng, Zhao-Wu; Xie, Tian

    2011-09-01

    The production of a thermophilic 2-deoxyribose-5-phosphate aldolases (DERA) in Escherichia coli BL21 under continuous lactose induction strategy was investigated. The process was combined with the exponential feeding method, controlling the feeding rate to maintain the specific growth rate at 0.15 h(-1). The results indicate that the lactose concentration in the feed medium affected directly the expression of the target protein. The use of 50 g/L in the feed medium resulted in the biomass concentration of 39.3 g DCW/L, and an expression level of above 30%, and the maximum final DERA concentration of 16,200 U/L. Furthermore, the acetate concentration remained at a low level in the fed-batch phase, less than 0.5 g/L. In conclusion, combining glucose feeding with lactose induction is a more powerful way to achieve high cell density cultures and to efficiently produce the thermophilic DERA. The results also indicate the potential industrial utility in the scale production of other recombinant proteins. PMID:21509600

  5. Induction of ketosis in rats fed low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets depends on the relative abundance of dietary fat and protein.

    PubMed

    Bielohuby, Maximilian; Menhofer, Dominik; Kirchner, Henriette; Stoehr, Barbara J M; Müller, Timo D; Stock, Peggy; Hempel, Madlen; Stemmer, Kerstin; Pfluger, Paul T; Kienzle, Ellen; Christ, Bruno; Tschöp, Matthias H; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate/high-fat diets (LC-HFDs) in rodent models have been implicated with both weight loss and as a therapeutic approach to treat neurological diseases. LC-HFDs are known to induce ketosis; however, systematic studies analyzing the impact of the macronutrient composition on ketosis induction and weight loss success are lacking. Male Wistar rats were pair-fed for 4 wk either a standard chow diet or one of three different LC-HFDs, which only differed in the relative abundance of fat and protein (percentages of fat/protein in dry matter: LC-75/10; LC-65/20; LC-55/30). We subsequently measured body composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), analyzed blood chemistry and urine acetone content, evaluated gene expression changes of key ketogenic and gluconeogenic genes, and measured energy expenditure (EE) and locomotor activity (LA) during the first 4 days and after 3 wk on the respective diets. Compared with chow, rats fed with LC-75/10, LC-65/20, and LC-55/30 gained significantly less body weight. Reductions in body weight were mainly due to lower lean body mass and paralleled by significantly increased fat mass. Levels of β-hydroxybutyate were significantly elevated feeding LC-75/10 and LC-65/20 but decreased in parallel to reductions in dietary fat. Acetone was about 16-fold higher with LC-75/10 only (P < 0.001). In contrast, rats fed with LC-55/30 were not ketotic. Serum fibroblast growth factor-21, hepatic mRNA expression of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA-lyase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1β were increased with LC-75/10 only. Expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase was downregulated by 50-70% in LC-HF groups. Furthermore, EE and LA were significantly decreased in all groups fed with LC-HFDs after 3 wk on the diets. In rats, the absence of dietary carbohydrates per se does not induce ketosis. LC-HFDs must be high in fat

  6. Brazed Diamond Micropowder Bur Fabricated by Supersonic Frequency Induction Heating for Precision Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Bojiang; Lou, Jianpeng; Pang, Qian

    2014-04-01

    The common brazed diamond micropowder bur fabricated in a vacuum furnace produces an even brazing alloy surface. The small brazed diamond grits show low outcropping from the brazing alloy surface, and the chip space between them is small. The bur shows a low grinding efficiency and poor heat dissipation. In this study, a brazed diamond micropowder bur was fabricated by supersonic frequency induction heating. The method afforded a fluctuant surface on the brazing alloy. The brazed diamond grits with an outcropping height distributed uniformly on the fluctuant surface. The fluctuant surface showed a certain chip space. These characteristics of the tool increased the grinding efficiency and decreased the temperature of the grinding arc area. The roughness R a of the ceramic tile surface trimmed by the tool cylinder was between 0.09 and 0.12 μm. In the first 90 min, the decrease in the weight of the ceramic tile ground by the tool cylinder was higher than that ground by the tool fabricated in a vacuum furnace. When the ceramic tile was cylindrically ground, the temperature of the grinding arc area measured using a thermocouple remained below 70 °C.

  7. Induction of Olfaction and Cancer-Related Genes in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet as Assessed through the Mode-of-Action by Network Identification Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Youngshim; Hur, Cheol-Goo; Park, Taesun

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of obesity and metabolic diseases are not well understood. To gain more insight into the genetic mediators associated with the onset and progression of diet-induced obesity and metabolic diseases, we studied the molecular changes in response to a high-fat diet (HFD) by using a mode-of-action by network identification (MNI) analysis. Oligo DNA microarray analysis was performed on visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues and muscles of male C57BL/6N mice fed a normal diet or HFD for 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Each of these data was queried against the MNI algorithm, and the lists of top 5 highly ranked genes and gene ontology (GO)-annotated pathways that were significantly overrepresented among the 100 highest ranked genes at each time point in the 3 different tissues of mice fed the HFD were considered in the present study. The 40 highest ranked genes identified by MNI analysis at each time point in the different tissues of mice with diet-induced obesity were subjected to clustering based on their temporal patterns. On the basis of the above-mentioned results, we investigated the sequential induction of distinct olfactory receptors and the stimulation of cancer-related genes during the development of obesity in both adipose tissues and muscles. The top 5 genes recognized using the MNI analysis at each time point and gene cluster identified based on their temporal patterns in the peripheral tissues of mice provided novel and often surprising insights into the potential genetic mediators for obesity progression. PMID:23555558

  8. Induction of olfaction and cancer-related genes in mice fed a high-fat diet as assessed through the mode-of-action by network identification analysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngshim; Hur, Cheol-Goo; Park, Taesun

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of obesity and metabolic diseases are not well understood. To gain more insight into the genetic mediators associated with the onset and progression of diet-induced obesity and metabolic diseases, we studied the molecular changes in response to a high-fat diet (HFD) by using a mode-of-action by network identification (MNI) analysis. Oligo DNA microarray analysis was performed on visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues and muscles of male C57BL/6N mice fed a normal diet or HFD for 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Each of these data was queried against the MNI algorithm, and the lists of top 5 highly ranked genes and gene ontology (GO)-annotated pathways that were significantly overrepresented among the 100 highest ranked genes at each time point in the 3 different tissues of mice fed the HFD were considered in the present study. The 40 highest ranked genes identified by MNI analysis at each time point in the different tissues of mice with diet-induced obesity were subjected to clustering based on their temporal patterns. On the basis of the above-mentioned results, we investigated the sequential induction of distinct olfactory receptors and the stimulation of cancer-related genes during the development of obesity in both adipose tissues and muscles. The top 5 genes recognized using the MNI analysis at each time point and gene cluster identified based on their temporal patterns in the peripheral tissues of mice provided novel and often surprising insights into the potential genetic mediators for obesity progression.

  9. Phase 3 of a Brushless Doubly-Fed Machine System Development Program : Final Technical Report for Period January 1, 1992-June 30, 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Gerald C.; Spee, Rene; Wallace, Alan K.

    1993-12-31

    Since the inception of the BDFM development program in 1989, the value of BDFM technology has become apparent. The BDFM provides for adjustable speed, synchronous operation while keeping costs associated with the required power conversion equipment lower than in competing technologies. This provides for an advantage in initial as well as maintenance expenses over conventional drive system. Thus, the BDFM enables energy efficient, adjustable speed process control for applications where established drive technology has not been able to deliver satisfactory returns on investment. At the same time, the BDFM challenges conventional drive technologies in established markets by providing for improved performance at lower cost. BDFM converter rating is kept at a minimum, which significantly improves power quality at the utility interface over competing power conversion equipment. In summary, BDFM technology can be expected to provide significant benefits to utilities as well as their customers. This report discusses technical research and development activities related to Phase 3 of the Brushless Doubly-Fed Machine System Development Program, including work made possible by supplemental funds for laboratory improvement and prototype construction. Market research for the BDFM was provided by the College of Business at Oregon State University; market study results will be discussed in a separate report.

  10. A novel transient rotor current control scheme of a doubly-fed induction generator equipped with superconducting magnetic energy storage for voltage and frequency support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yang-Wu; Ke, De-Ping; Sun, Yuan-Zhang; Daniel, Kirschen; Wang, Yi-Shen; Hu, Yuan-Chao

    2015-07-01

    A novel transient rotor current control scheme is proposed in this paper for a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) equipped with a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) device to enhance its transient voltage and frequency support capacity during grid faults. The SMES connected to the DC-link capacitor of the DFIG is controlled to regulate the transient dc-link voltage so that the whole capacity of the grid side converter (GSC) is dedicated to injecting reactive power to the grid for the transient voltage support. However, the rotor-side converter (RSC) has different control tasks for different periods of the grid fault. Firstly, for Period I, the RSC injects the demagnetizing current to ensure the controllability of the rotor voltage. Then, since the dc stator flux degenerates rapidly in Period II, the required demagnetizing current is low in Period II and the RSC uses the spare capacity to additionally generate the reactive (priority) and active current so that the transient voltage capability is corroborated and the DFIG also positively responds to the system frequency dynamic at the earliest time. Finally, a small amount of demagnetizing current is provided after the fault clearance. Most of the RSC capacity is used to inject the active current to further support the frequency recovery of the system. Simulations are carried out on a simple power system with a wind farm. Comparisons with other commonly used control methods are performed to validate the proposed control method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51307124) and the Major Program of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51190105).

  11. A discrete time model of a power conditioner fed permanent magnet brushless dc motor system for aerospace and electric vehicle applications for design purpose using finite elements for machine parameter determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehl, T. W.

    1980-12-01

    A discrete state space model of a power conditioner fed permanent magnet brushless dc motor for aerospace and electric vehicle applications is developed. The parameters which describe that machine portion of this model are derived from a two dimensional nonlinear magnetic field analysis using the finite element method. The model predicts the instantaneous mechanical and electrical behavior of a prototype electromechanical actuator for possible use on board the shuttle orbiter. The model is also used to simulate the instantaneous performance of an advanced electric vehicle propulsion unit. The results of the computer simulations are compared with experimental test data and excellent agreement between the two is found in all cases.

  12. Cable-Twisting Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurnett, S.

    1982-01-01

    New cable-twisting machine is smaller and faster than many production units. Is useful mainly in production of short-run special cables. Already-twisted cable can be fed along axis of machine. Faster operation than typical industrial cable-twisting machines possible by using smaller spools of wire.

  13. [Measurement and hygienic evaluation of electromagnetic fields in the environment of diathermy, welding machines and induction heaters].

    PubMed

    Aniołczyk, H

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of electromagnetic field intensity at work-stations, as well as in the environment of 36 induction heaters, 24 welders and 6 diathermies have been taken. Maximum values of field E intensity at the work-stations with induction heaters ranged from below 2 V/m to 96 V/m, and for field H -- from below 0.5 A/m to 8.2 A/m. Maximum values of field E intensity at the work-stations with welders ranged from 25 V/m to 480 V/m. And Maximum values of field E with diathermy exceeded 300 V/m near electrodes. At the work-station of medical staff operating diathermy, the field intensity values ranged from 5.1 to 16 V/m. Basing on the obtained values of the e-m intensity at work-stations and in the environment of the mentioned instruments, protective zones ranges have been determined: intermediate, weerning and dangerous. In addition, effective e-m field exposure duration, at specific instruments, has been determined.

  14. Supplemental epilactose prevents metabolic disorders through uncoupling protein-1 induction in the skeletal muscle of mice fed high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yuki; Ojima-Kato, Teruyo; Saburi, Wataru; Mori, Haruhide; Matsui, Hirokazu; Tanabe, Soichi; Suzuki, Takuya

    2015-12-14

    Obesity is one of the major health problems throughout the world. The present study investigated the preventive effect of epilactose--a rare non-digestible disaccharide--on obesity and metabolic disorders in mice fed high-fat (HF) diets. Feeding with HF diets increased body weight gain, fat pad weight and adipocyte size in mice (P<0·01), and these increases were effectively prevented by the use of supplemental epilactose without influencing food intake (P<0·01). Caecal pools of SCFA such as acetic and propionic acids in mice fed epilactose were higher compared with mice not receiving epilactose. Supplemental epilactose increased the expression of uncoupling protein (UCP)-1, which enhances energy expenditure, to 2-fold in the gastrocnemius muscle (P=0·04) and to 1·3-fold in the brown adipose tissue (P=0·02) in mice fed HF diets. Feeding HF diets induced pro-inflammatory macrophage infiltration into white adipose tissue, as indicated by the increased expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1, TNF-α and F4/80, and these increases were attenuated by supplemental epilactose. In differentiated myogenic-like C2C12 cells, propionic acid, but not acetic or n-butyric acids, directly enhanced UCP-1 expression by approximately 2-fold (P<0·01). Taken together, these findings indicate that the epilactose-mediated increase in UCP-1 in the skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue can enhance whole-body energy expenditure, leading to effective prevention of obesity and metabolic disorders in mice fed HF diets. It is suggested that propionic acid--a bacterial metabolite--acts as a mediator to induce UCP-1 expression in skeletal muscles.

  15. Acute induction of uncoupling protein 1 by citrulline in cultured explants of white adipose tissue from lean and high-fat-diet-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Joffin, Nolwenn; Jaubert, Anne-Marie; Bamba, Jessica; Barouki, Robert; Noirez, Philippe; Forest, Claude

    2015-01-01

    A diet enriched with citrulline (CIT) reduces white adipose tissue (WAT) mass. We recently showed that CIT stimulated β-oxidation in rat WAT explants from young (2–4 months) but not old (25 months) rats. Here we show that both in old rats and high-fat-diet-fed young rats, uncoupling protein one (UCP1) mRNA and protein expressions were weaker than those in young control rats. Selectively in WAT from young rats, a 24h CIT treatment up-regulated expressions of UCP1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), PPARγ-coactivator-1-α and mitochondrial-transcription-factor-A whereas it down-regulated PPARγ2 gene expression, whatever the diet. These results suggest that CIT induces a new metabolic status in WAT, with increased β-oxidation and uncoupling of respiratory chain, resulting in energy expenditure that favors fat mass reduction. PMID:26167416

  16. Relevance of a Hypersaline Sodium-Rich Naturally Sparkling Mineral Water to the Protection against Metabolic Syndrome Induction in Fructose-Fed Sprague-Dawley Rats: A Biochemical, Metabolic, and Redox Approach

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Cidália Dionísio; Severo, Milton; Araújo, João Ricardo; Guimarães, João Tiago; Pestana, Diogo; Santos, Alejandro; Ferreira, Rita; Ascensão, António; Magalhães, José; Azevedo, Isabel; Monteiro, Rosário; Martins, Maria João

    2014-01-01

    The Metabolic Syndrome increases the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Increased fructose consumption and/or mineral deficiency have been associated with Metabolic Syndrome development. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 8 weeks consumption of a hypersaline sodium-rich naturally sparkling mineral water on 10% fructose-fed Sprague-Dawley rats (Metabolic Syndrome animal model). The ingestion of the mineral water (rich in sodium bicarbonate and with higher potassium, calcium, and magnesium content than the tap water used as control) reduced/prevented not only the fructose-induced increase of heart rate, plasma triacylglycerols, insulin and leptin levels, hepatic catalase activity, and organ weight to body weight ratios (for liver and both kidneys) but also the decrease of hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity and oxidized glutathione content. This mineral-rich water seems to have potential to prevent Metabolic Syndrome induction by fructose. We hypothesize that its regular intake in the context of modern diets, which have a general acidic character interfering with mineral homeostasis and are poor in micronutrients, namely potassium, calcium, and magnesium, could add surplus value and attenuate imbalances, thus contributing to metabolic and redox health and, consequently, decreasing the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:24672546

  17. Relevance of a Hypersaline Sodium-Rich Naturally Sparkling Mineral Water to the Protection against Metabolic Syndrome Induction in Fructose-Fed Sprague-Dawley Rats: A Biochemical, Metabolic, and Redox Approach.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cidália Dionísio; Severo, Milton; Araújo, João Ricardo; Guimarães, João Tiago; Pestana, Diogo; Santos, Alejandro; Ferreira, Rita; Ascensão, António; Magalhães, José; Azevedo, Isabel; Monteiro, Rosário; Martins, Maria João

    2014-01-01

    The Metabolic Syndrome increases the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Increased fructose consumption and/or mineral deficiency have been associated with Metabolic Syndrome development. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 8 weeks consumption of a hypersaline sodium-rich naturally sparkling mineral water on 10% fructose-fed Sprague-Dawley rats (Metabolic Syndrome animal model). The ingestion of the mineral water (rich in sodium bicarbonate and with higher potassium, calcium, and magnesium content than the tap water used as control) reduced/prevented not only the fructose-induced increase of heart rate, plasma triacylglycerols, insulin and leptin levels, hepatic catalase activity, and organ weight to body weight ratios (for liver and both kidneys) but also the decrease of hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity and oxidized glutathione content. This mineral-rich water seems to have potential to prevent Metabolic Syndrome induction by fructose. We hypothesize that its regular intake in the context of modern diets, which have a general acidic character interfering with mineral homeostasis and are poor in micronutrients, namely potassium, calcium, and magnesium, could add surplus value and attenuate imbalances, thus contributing to metabolic and redox health and, consequently, decreasing the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:24672546

  18. A simple and practical control of the authenticity of organic sugarcane samples based on the use of machine-learning algorithms and trace elements determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Rommel M; Batista, Bruno L; Barião, Camila V; Varrique, Renan M; Coelho, Vinicius A; Campiglia, Andres D; Barbosa, Fernando

    2015-10-01

    A practical and easy control of the authenticity of organic sugarcane samples based on the use of machine-learning algorithms and trace elements determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is proposed. Reference ranges for 32 chemical elements in 22 samples of sugarcane (13 organic and 9 non organic) were established and then two algorithms, Naive Bayes (NB) and Random Forest (RF), were evaluated to classify the samples. Accurate results (>90%) were obtained when using all variables (i.e., 32 elements). However, accuracy was improved (95.4% for NB) when only eight minerals (Rb, U, Al, Sr, Dy, Nb, Ta, Mo), chosen by a feature selection algorithm, were employed. Thus, the use of a fingerprint based on trace element levels associated with classification machine learning algorithms may be used as a simple alternative for authenticity evaluation of organic sugarcane samples.

  19. Ion Induction Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, John J.; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    The description of beams in RF and induction accelerators share many common features. Likewise, there is considerable commonality between electron induction accelerators (see Chap. 7) and ion induction accelerators. However, in contrast to electron induction accelerators, there are fewer ion induction accelerators that have been operated as application-driven user facilities. Ion induction accelerators are envisioned for applications (see Chap. 10) such as Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF), High Energy Density Physics (HEDP), and spallation neutron sources. Most ion induction accelerators constructed to date have been limited scale facilities built for feasibility studies for HIF and HEDP where a large numbers of ions are required on target in short pulses. Because ions are typically non-relativistic or weakly relativistic in much of the machine, space-charge effects can be of crucial importance. This contrasts the situation with electron machines, which are usually strongly relativistic leading to weaker transverse space-charge effects and simplified longitudinal dynamics. Similarly, the bunch structure of ion induction accelerators relative to RF machines results in significant differences in the longitudinal physics.

  20. Educational Inductive Gravimeter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunn, John

    2014-01-01

    A simple inductive gravimeter constructed from a rigid plastic pipe and insulated copper wire is described. When a magnet is dropped through the vertically mounted pipe it induces small alternating voltages. These small signals are fed to the microphone input of a typical computer and sampled at a typical rate of 44.1 kHz using a custom computer…

  1. Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Achim; Mahidadia, Ashesh

    The purpose of this chapter is to present fundamental ideas and techniques of machine learning suitable for the field of this book, i.e., for automated scientific discovery. The chapter focuses on those symbolic machine learning methods, which produce results that are suitable to be interpreted and understood by humans. This is particularly important in the context of automated scientific discovery as the scientific theories to be produced by machines are usually meant to be interpreted by humans. This chapter contains some of the most influential ideas and concepts in machine learning research to give the reader a basic insight into the field. After the introduction in Sect. 1, general ideas of how learning problems can be framed are given in Sect. 2. The section provides useful perspectives to better understand what learning algorithms actually do. Section 3 presents the Version space model which is an early learning algorithm as well as a conceptual framework, that provides important insight into the general mechanisms behind most learning algorithms. In section 4, a family of learning algorithms, the AQ family for learning classification rules is presented. The AQ family belongs to the early approaches in machine learning. The next, Sect. 5 presents the basic principles of decision tree learners. Decision tree learners belong to the most influential class of inductive learning algorithms today. Finally, a more recent group of learning systems are presented in Sect. 6, which learn relational concepts within the framework of logic programming. This is a particularly interesting group of learning systems since the framework allows also to incorporate background knowledge which may assist in generalisation. Section 7 discusses Association Rules - a technique that comes from the related field of Data mining. Section 8 presents the basic idea of the Naive Bayesian Classifier. While this is a very popular learning technique, the learning result is not well suited for

  2. HIGH GRADIENT INDUCTION ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G J; Sampayan, S; Chen, Y; Blackfield, D; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Krogh, M; Nelson, S; Nunnally, W; Paul, A; Poole, B; Rhodes, M; Sanders, D; Selenes, K; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J

    2007-06-21

    A new type of compact induction accelerator is under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that promises to increase the average accelerating gradient by at least an order of magnitude over that of existing induction machines. The machine is based on the use of high gradient vacuum insulators, advanced dielectric materials and switches and is stimulated by the desire for compact flash x-ray radiography sources. Research describing an extreme variant of this technology aimed at proton therapy for cancer will be described. Progress in applying this technology to several applications will be reviewed.

  3. Machine Shop Grinding Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James

    This curriculum manual is one in a series of machine shop curriculum manuals intended for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes, as well as part-time adult classes. The curriculum can also be adapted to open-entry, open-exit programs. Its purpose is to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the…

  4. Structure-activity relationships derived by machine learning: the use of atoms and their bond connectivities to predict mutagenicity by inductive logic programming.

    PubMed Central

    King, R D; Muggleton, S H; Srinivasan, A; Sternberg, M J

    1996-01-01

    We present a general approach to forming structure-activity relationships (SARs). This approach is based on representing chemical structure by atoms and their bond connectivities in combination with the inductive logic programming (ILP) algorithm PROGOL. Existing SAR methods describe chemical structure by using attributes which are general properties of an object. It is not possible to map chemical structure directly to attribute-based descriptions, as such descriptions have no internal organization. A more natural and general way to describe chemical structure is to use a relational description, where the internal construction of the description maps that of the object described. Our atom and bond connectivities representation is a relational description. ILP algorithms can form SARs with relational descriptions. We have tested the relational approach by investigating the SARs of 230 aromatic and heteroaromatic nitro compounds. These compounds had been split previously into two subsets, 188 compounds that were amenable to regression and 42 that were not. For the 188 compounds, a SAR was found that was as accurate as the best statistical or neural network-generated SARs. The PROGOL SAR has the advantages that it did not need the use of any indicator variables handcrafted by an expert, and the generated rules were easily comprehensible. For the 42 compounds, PROGOL formed a SAR that was significantly (P < 0.025) more accurate than linear regression, quadratic regression, and back-propagation. This SAR is based on an automatically generated structural alert for mutagenicity. PMID:8552655

  5. High current induction linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, W.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Lee, E.

    1994-07-01

    Induction linacs are among the most powerful accelerators in existence. They have accelerated electron bunches of several kiloamperes, and are being investigated as drivers for heavy ion driven inertial confinement fusion (HIF), which requires peak beam currents of kiloamperes and average beam powers of some tens of megawatts. The requirement for waste transmutation with an 800 MeV proton or deuteron beam with an average current of 50 mA and an average power of 40 MW lies midway between the electron machines and the heavy ion machines in overall difficulty. Much of the technology and understanding of beam physics carries over from the previous machines to the new requirements. The induction linac allows use of a very large beam aperture, which may turn out to be crucial to reducing beam loss and machine activation from the beam halo. The major issues addressed here are transport of high intensity beams, availability of sources, efficiency of acceleration, and the state of the needed technology for the waste treatment application. Because of the transformer-like action of an induction core and the accompanying magnetizing current, induction linacs make the most economic sense and have the highest efficiencies with large beam currents. Based on present understanding of beam transport limits, induction core magnetizing current requirements, and pulse modulators, the efficiencies could be very high. The study of beam transport at high intensities has been the major activity of the HIF community. Beam transport and sources are limiting at low energies but are not significant constraints at the higher energies. As will be shown, the proton beams will be space-charge-dominated, for which the emittance has only a minor effect on the overall beam diameter but does determine the density falloff at the beam edge.

  6. Neural network machine vision

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.O.; Czerniejewski, F.; Fluet, F.; Mitchell, E.

    1988-09-01

    Gould, Inc. and Nestor, Inc. cooperated on a joint development project to combine machine vision technology with neural network technology. The result is a machine vision system which can be trained by an inexperienced operator to perform qualitative classification. The hardware preprocessor reduces the information in the 2D camera image from 122,880 (i.e. 512 x 240) bytes to several hundred bytes in 64 milliseconds. The output of the preprocessor, which is in the format of connected lines, is fed to the first neural network. This neural network performs feature recognition. The output of the first neural network is a probability map. This map is fed to the input of the second neural network which performs object verification. The output of the second neural network is the object location and classification in the field of view. This information can optionally be fed into a third neural network which analyzes spatial relationships of objects in the field of view. The final output is a classification, by quality level, or by style. The system has been tested on applications ranging from the grading of plywood and the grading of paper to the sorting of fabricated metal parts. Specific application examples are presented.

  7. Proceedings of FED remote maintenance equipment workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, P.; Garin, J.; Hager, E.R.; Spampinato, P.T.; Tobias, D.; Young, N.

    1981-11-01

    A workshop was convened in two sessions in January and March 1981, on the remote maintenance equipment for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). The objectives of the first session were to familiarize the participants with the status of the design of the FED and to develop a remote maintenance equipment list for the FED. The objective of the second session was to have the participants present design concepts for the equipment which had been identified in the first session. The equipment list was developed for general purpose and special purpose equipment. The general purpose equipment was categorized as manipulators and other, while the special purpose equipment was subdivided according to the reactor subsystem it serviced: electrical, magnetic, and nuclear. Both mobile and fixed base manipulators were identified. Handling machines were identified as the major requirement for special purpose equipment.

  8. Induction motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly utilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilizes induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  9. Induction motor control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1990-01-01

    Electromechanical actuators developed to date have commonly ultilized permanent magnet (PM) synchronous motors. More recently switched reluctance (SR) motors have been advocated due to their robust characteristics. Implications of work which utilized induction motors and advanced control techniques are discussed. When induction motors are operated from an energy source capable of controlling voltages and frequencies independently, drive characteristics are obtained which are superior to either PM or SR motors. By synthesizing the machine frequency from a high-frequency carrier (nominally 20 kHz), high efficiencies, low distortion, and rapid torque response are available. At this time multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of aerospace actuators. This effort is based upon high-frequency power distribution and management techniques developed by NASA for Space Station Freedom.

  10. Induction linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    The principle of linear induction acceleration is described, and examples are given of practical configurations for induction linacs. These examples include the Advanced Technology Accelerator, Long Pulse Induction Linac, Radial Line Accelerator (RADLAC), and Magnetically-Insulated Electron-Focussed Ion Linac. A related concept, the auto accelerator, is described in which the high-current electron-beam technology in the sub-10 MeV region is exploited to produce electron beams at energies perhaps as high as the 100 to 1000 MeV range. Induction linacs for ions are also discussed. The efficiency of induction linear acceleration is analyzed. (LEW)

  11. Educational inductive gravimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, John

    2014-01-01

    A simple inductive gravimeter constructed from a rigid plastic pipe and insulated copper wire is described. When a magnet is dropped through the vertically mounted pipe it induces small alternating voltages. These small signals are fed to the microphone input of a typical computer and sampled at a typical rate of 44.1 kHz using a custom computer program. Knowing the geometrical dimensions of the gravimeter and calculating the time intervals between peaks of the recorded signal it is possible to calculate the local gravitational acceleration (g). Limitations and improvements are discussed. Instructions are included throughout so that teachers and pupils can replicate the experiment in their own schools.

  12. Integrated Inverter For Driving Multiple Electric Machines

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui-Jia [Knoxville, TN; Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2006-04-04

    An electric machine drive (50) has a plurality of inverters (50a, 50b) for controlling respective electric machines (57, 62), which may include a three-phase main traction machine (57) and two-phase accessory machines (62) in a hybrid or electric vehicle. The drive (50) has a common control section (53, 54) for controlling the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b) with only one microelectronic processor (54) for controlling the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b), only one gate driver circuit (53) for controlling conduction of semiconductor switches (S1-S10) in the plurality of inverters (50a, 50b), and also includes a common dc bus (70), a common dc bus filtering capacitor (C1) and a common dc bus voltage sensor (67). The electric machines (57, 62) may be synchronous machines, induction machines, or PM machines and may be operated in a motoring mode or a generating mode.

  13. Electric machine

    SciTech Connect

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  14. Nonplanar machines

    SciTech Connect

    Ritson, D. )

    1989-05-01

    This talk examines methods available to minimize, but never entirely eliminate, degradation of machine performance caused by terrain following. Breaking of planar machine symmetry for engineering convenience and/or monetary savings must be balanced against small performance degradation, and can only be decided on a case-by-case basis. 5 refs.

  15. Induction linear accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birx, Daniel

    1992-03-01

    Among the family of particle accelerators, the Induction Linear Accelerator is the best suited for the acceleration of high current electron beams. Because the electromagnetic radiation used to accelerate the electron beam is not stored in the cavities but is supplied by transmission lines during the beam pulse it is possible to utilize very low Q (typically<10) structures and very large beam pipes. This combination increases the beam breakup limited maximum currents to of order kiloamperes. The micropulse lengths of these machines are measured in 10's of nanoseconds and duty factors as high as 10-4 have been achieved. Until recently the major problem with these machines has been associated with the pulse power drive. Beam currents of kiloamperes and accelerating potentials of megavolts require peak power drives of gigawatts since no energy is stored in the structure. The marriage of liner accelerator technology and nonlinear magnetic compressors has produced some unique capabilities. It now appears possible to produce electron beams with average currents measured in amperes, peak currents in kiloamperes and gradients exceeding 1 MeV/meter, with power efficiencies approaching 50%. The nonlinear magnetic compression technology has replaced the spark gap drivers used on earlier accelerators with state-of-the-art all-solid-state SCR commutated compression chains. The reliability of these machines is now approaching 1010 shot MTBF. In the following paper we will briefly review the historical development of induction linear accelerators and then discuss the design considerations.

  16. Permutation Machines.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Swapnil; LaBoda, Craig; Yanez, Vanessa; Haddock-Angelli, Traci; Densmore, Douglas

    2016-08-19

    We define a new inversion-based machine called a permuton of n genetic elements, which allows the n elements to be rearranged in any of the n·(n - 1)·(n - 2)···2 = n! distinct orderings. We present two design algorithms for architecting such a machine. We define a notion of a feasible design and use the framework to discuss the feasibility of the permuton architectures. We have implemented our design algorithms in a freely usable web-accessible software for exploration of these machines. Permutation machines could be used as memory elements or state machines and explicitly illustrate a rational approach to designing biological systems.

  17. Permutation Machines.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Swapnil; LaBoda, Craig; Yanez, Vanessa; Haddock-Angelli, Traci; Densmore, Douglas

    2016-08-19

    We define a new inversion-based machine called a permuton of n genetic elements, which allows the n elements to be rearranged in any of the n·(n - 1)·(n - 2)···2 = n! distinct orderings. We present two design algorithms for architecting such a machine. We define a notion of a feasible design and use the framework to discuss the feasibility of the permuton architectures. We have implemented our design algorithms in a freely usable web-accessible software for exploration of these machines. Permutation machines could be used as memory elements or state machines and explicitly illustrate a rational approach to designing biological systems. PMID:27383067

  18. FED-A, an advanced performance FED based on low safety factor and current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1983-08-01

    The FED-A study aims to quantify the potential improvement in cost-effectiveness of the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by assuming low safety factor q (less than 2 as opposed to about 3) at the plasma edge and noninductive current drive (as opposed to only inductive current drive). The FED-A performance objectives are set to be : (1) ignition assuming International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR) plamsa confinement scaling, but still achieving a fusion power amplification Q greater than or equal to 5 when the confinement is degraded by a factor of 2; (2) neutron wall loading of about 1 MW/m/sup 2/, with 0.5 MW/m/sup 2/ as a conservative lower bound; and (3) more clearly power-reactor-like operations, such as steady state.

  19. Prevention by 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate of the induction but not growth of putative preneoplastic, glutathione S-transferase placental form-positive, focal lesions in the livers of rats fed a choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined diet.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Y; Nakae, D; Akai, H; Kishida, H; Okajima, E; Kitayama, W; Denda, A; Tsujiuchi, T; Murakami, A; Koshimizu, K; Ohigashi, H; Konishi, Y

    1998-10-01

    The effects of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) on endogenous rat liver carcinogenesis because of chronic feeding of a choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet were examined. Male Fischer 344 rats, 6 weeks old, received the CDAA diet containing ACA at doses of 0, 0.005, 0.010 and 0.050% for 12 weeks and were then killed. ACA decreased the numbers of putative preneoplastic, glutathione S-transferase placental form (GST-P)-positive, focal lesions developing in the livers of rats fed the CDAA diet but did not alter their sizes. At the same time, ACA reduced the levels of 8-hydroxyguanine, a parameter of oxidative DNA damage, but did not significantly affect generation of 2-thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances, indicators of oxidative extra-DNA damage, or hepatocyte proliferation. Furthermore, ACA did not exert any significant effects on the numbers or sizes of GST-P-positive lesions in the livers of rats when administered between weeks 2 and 8 after initiation with a single i.p. dose of 200 mg/kg body wt of N-nitrosodiethylamine. These results indicate that ACA prevents the CDAA diet-associated induction of putative preneoplastic lesions by reduction of oxidative DNA damage but does not affect their subsequent growth.

  20. Inducting Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Carl

    1989-01-01

    Principal induction is the process by which new school principals make the transition from theoretical to operational leadership. Many approaches to induction have been tried, ranging from simply handing over the building keys to comprehensive career development programs. To exemplify ongoing research and development in educational administration…

  1. Induction technology optimization code

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G.J.; Brooks, A.L.; Kirbie, H.C.

    1992-08-21

    A code has been developed to evaluate relative costs of induction accelerator driver systems for relativistic klystrons. The code incorporates beam generation, transport and pulsed power system constraints to provide an integrated design tool. The code generates an injector/accelerator combination which satisfies the top level requirements and all system constraints once a small number of design choices have been specified (rise time of the injector voltage and aspect ratio of the ferrite induction cores, for example). The code calculates dimensions of accelerator mechanical assemblies and values of all electrical components. Cost factors for machined parts, raw materials and components are applied to yield a total system cost. These costs are then plotted as a function of the two design choices to enable selection of an optimum design based on various criteria. The Induction Technology Optimization Study (ITOS) was undertaken to examine viable combinations of a linear induction accelerator and a relativistic klystron (RK) for high power microwave production. It is proposed, that microwaves from the RK will power a high-gradient accelerator structure for linear collider development. Previous work indicates that the RK will require a nominal 3-MeV, 3-kA electron beam with a 100-ns flat top. The proposed accelerator-RK combination will be a high average power system capable of sustained microwave output at a 300-Hz pulse repetition frequency. The ITOS code models many combinations of injector, accelerator, and pulse power designs that will supply an RK with the beam parameters described above.

  2. Monel Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Castle Industries, Inc. is a small machine shop manufacturing replacement plumbing repair parts, such as faucet, tub and ballcock seats. Therese Castley, president of Castle decided to introduce Monel because it offered a chance to improve competitiveness and expand the product line. Before expanding, Castley sought NERAC assistance on Monel technology. NERAC (New England Research Application Center) provided an information package which proved very helpful. The NASA database was included in NERAC's search and yielded a wealth of information on machining Monel.

  3. Applications of Ion Induction Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, John J.; Briggs*, Richard J.

    As discussed in Chap. 9, the physics of ion induction accelerators has many commonalities with the physics of electron induction accelerators. However, there are important differences, arising because of the different missions of ion machines relative to electron machines and also because the velocity of the ions is usually non-relativistic in these applications. The basic architectures and layout reflects these differences. In Chaps. 6, 7, and 8 a number of examples of electron accelerators and their applications were given, including machines that have already been constructed. In this chapter, we give several examples of potential uses for ion induction accelerators. Although, as of this writing, none of these applications have come to fruition, in the case of heavy ion fusion (HIF) , small scale experiments have been carried out and a sizable effort has been made in laying the groundwork for such an accelerator. A second application, using ion beams for study of High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) or Warm Dense Matter (WDM) physics will soon be realized and the requirements for this machine will be discussed in detail. Also, a concept for a spallation neutron source is discussed in lesser detail.

  4. Induction voidmeter

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Thomas T.; Roop, Conard J.; Schmidt, Kenneth J.; Brewer, John

    1986-01-01

    An induction voidmeter for detecting voids in a conductive fluid may comprise: a four arm bridge circuit having two adjustable circuit elements connected as opposite arms of said bridge circuit, an input branch, and an output branch; two induction coils, bifilarly wound together, connected as the remaining two opposing arms of said bridge circuit and positioned such that the conductive fluid passes through said coils; applying an AC excitation signal to said input branch; and detecting the output signal generated in response to said excitation signal across said output branch. The induction coils may be located outside or inside a non-magnetic pipe containing the conductive fluid.

  5. Induction voidmeter

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, T.T.; Roop, C.J.; Schmidt, K.J.; Brewer, J.

    1983-12-21

    An induction voidmeter for detecting voids in a conductive fluid may comprise: a four arm bridge circuit having two adjustable circuit elements connected as opposite arms of said bridge, an input branch, and an output branch; two induction coils, bifilarly wound together, connected as the remaining two opposing arms of said bridge circuit and positioned such that the conductive fluid passes through said coils; means for applying an AC excitation signal to said input branch; and means for detecting the output signal generated in response to said excitation signal across said output branch. The induction coils may be located outside or inside a non-magnetic pipe containing the conductive fluid.

  6. Plasma diagnostics for FED

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    An overview of the plasma diagnostic instruments recommended for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is described. First the role and need for plasma diagnostics is discussed. This is followed by an identification of particles and radiation eminating from the plasma. Next some design considerations are presented for the overall set of diagnostic instruments. Finally, instruments used for control and for plasma performance measurements are included in separate lists.

  7. Workout Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Orbotron is a tri-axle exercise machine patterned after a NASA training simulator for astronaut orientation in the microgravity of space. It has three orbiting rings corresponding to roll, pitch and yaw. The user is in the middle of the inner ring with the stomach remaining in the center of all axes, eliminating dizziness. Human power starts the rings spinning, unlike the NASA air-powered system. Marketed by Fantasy Factory (formerly Orbotron, Inc.), the machine can improve aerobic capacity, strength and endurance in five to seven minute workouts.

  8. Wacky Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fendrich, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Collectors everywhere know that local antique shops and flea markets are treasure troves just waiting to be plundered. Science teachers might take a hint from these hobbyists, for the next community yard sale might be a repository of old, quirky items that are just the things to get students thinking about simple machines. By introducing some…

  9. A mathematical model for the doubly fed wound rotor generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, F. J.

    1983-01-01

    A mathematical analysis of a doubly-fed wound rotor machine used as a constant frequency generator is presented. The purpose of this analysis is to derive a consistent set of circuit equations which produce constant stator frequency and constant stator voltage. Starting with instantaneous circuit equations, the necessary rotor voltages and currents are derived. The model, thus obtained, is assumed to be valid, since the resulting relationships between mechanical power and active volt-amperes agrees with the results of others. In addition, the model allows for a new interpretation of the power flow in the doubly-fed generator.

  10. A double-sided linear primary permanent magnet vernier machine.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi; Zou, Chunhua; Liu, Xianxing

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new double-sided linear primary permanent magnet (PM) vernier (DSLPPMV) machine, which can offer high thrust force, low detent force, and improved power factor. Both PMs and windings of the proposed machine are on the short translator, while the long stator is designed as a double-sided simple iron core with salient teeth so that it is very robust to transmit high thrust force. The key of this new machine is the introduction of double stator and the elimination of translator yoke, so that the inductance and the volume of the machine can be reduced. Hence, the proposed machine offers improved power factor and thrust force density. The electromagnetic performances of the proposed machine are analyzed including flux, no-load EMF, thrust force density, and inductance. Based on using the finite element analysis, the characteristics and performances of the proposed machine are assessed.

  11. A double-sided linear primary permanent magnet vernier machine.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi; Zou, Chunhua; Liu, Xianxing

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new double-sided linear primary permanent magnet (PM) vernier (DSLPPMV) machine, which can offer high thrust force, low detent force, and improved power factor. Both PMs and windings of the proposed machine are on the short translator, while the long stator is designed as a double-sided simple iron core with salient teeth so that it is very robust to transmit high thrust force. The key of this new machine is the introduction of double stator and the elimination of translator yoke, so that the inductance and the volume of the machine can be reduced. Hence, the proposed machine offers improved power factor and thrust force density. The electromagnetic performances of the proposed machine are analyzed including flux, no-load EMF, thrust force density, and inductance. Based on using the finite element analysis, the characteristics and performances of the proposed machine are assessed. PMID:25874250

  12. A Double-Sided Linear Primary Permanent Magnet Vernier Machine

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new double-sided linear primary permanent magnet (PM) vernier (DSLPPMV) machine, which can offer high thrust force, low detent force, and improved power factor. Both PMs and windings of the proposed machine are on the short translator, while the long stator is designed as a double-sided simple iron core with salient teeth so that it is very robust to transmit high thrust force. The key of this new machine is the introduction of double stator and the elimination of translator yoke, so that the inductance and the volume of the machine can be reduced. Hence, the proposed machine offers improved power factor and thrust force density. The electromagnetic performances of the proposed machine are analyzed including flux, no-load EMF, thrust force density, and inductance. Based on using the finite element analysis, the characteristics and performances of the proposed machine are assessed. PMID:25874250

  13. Charging machine

    DOEpatents

    Medlin, John B.

    1976-05-25

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine.

  14. Fullerene Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Saini, Subhash

    1998-01-01

    Recent computational efforts at NASA Ames Research Center and computation and experiment elsewhere suggest that a nanotechnology of machine phase functionalized fullerenes may be synthetically accessible and of great interest. We have computationally demonstrated that molecular gears fashioned from (14,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes and benzyne teeth should operate well at 50-100 gigahertz. Preliminary results suggest that these gears can be cooled by a helium atmosphere and a laser motor can power fullerene gears if a positive and negative charge have been added to form a dipole. In addition, we have unproven concepts based on experimental and computational evidence for support structures, computer control, a system architecture, a variety of components, and manufacture. Combining fullerene machines with the remarkable mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes, there is some reason to believe that a focused effort to develop fullerene nanotechnology could yield materials with tremendous properties.

  15. Growth of breast-fed and formula-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2006-01-01

    Growth and nutrition during infancy are being viewed with renewed interest because of the possibility that they may be linked to cardiovascular and metabolic health in later life. Of particular interest are differences between breast- and formula-fed infants with regard to nutrient intake and growth because breastfeeding has been shown to be associated with a reduced risk of obesity in later life. During the first 6-8 weeks of life there is little difference in growth (gain in weight and length) between breast- and formula-fed infants. However, from about 2 months of age to the end of the first year of life formula-fed infants gain weight and length more rapidly than breast-fed infants. There are no consistent differences in adiposity during the first 4-5 months of life, but during the later part of the first year of life the preponderance of the evidence suggests that breast-fed infants are leaner than formula-fed infants. Formula-fed infants at 4-5 months of age show higher plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin and certain amino acids than breast-fed infants. Whereas the protein intake of breast-fed infants decreases with age and closely matches the requirements for protein during the early months of life, the protein intake of formula-fed infants exceeds requirements after the first 1-2 months of life. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that differences in protein intake are mainly responsible for differences in growth between breast- and formula-fed infants. Differences in energy intake probably are responsible for differences in adiposity observed in older infants.

  16. Channel-wall limitations in the magnetohydrodynamic induction generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, W. D.; Pierson, E. S.

    1969-01-01

    Discussion of magnetohydrodynamic induction generator examines the machine in detail and materials problems influencing its design. The higher upper-temperature limit of the MHD system promises to be more efficient than present turbine systems for generating electricity.

  17. Design And Rotor Geometry Analysis Of Permanent Magnet-Assisted Synchronous Reluctance Machines Using Ferrite Magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Zhou, Libing

    2015-11-01

    Various electric machines can be the candidate for electric vehicles applications, including induction machines, permanent magnet synchronous machines, switched reluctance machines, etc. Another class of machine, which has been relatively ignored, is synchronous reluctance machines. In order to enhance and increase torque density of pure synchronous reluctance machines, the low cost permanent magnet can be inserted into rotor lamination to contribute torque production, which is so-called permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance machines. This paper presents the design and rotor geometry analysis of low cost ferrite permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance machines with transversally-laminated rotor. The advanced finite element method will be employed to calculate d-axis and q-axis inductance variation with rotor geometric parameters. The electromagnetic performance of optimized permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance machines will be evaluated as well.

  18. Inductive System Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L.

    2004-01-01

    The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software was developed to provide a technique to automatically produce health monitoring knowledge bases for systems that are either difficult to model (simulate) with a computer or which require computer models that are too complex to use for real time monitoring. IMS uses nominal data sets collected either directly from the system or from simulations to build a knowledge base that can be used to detect anomalous behavior in the system. Machine learning and data mining techniques are used to characterize typical system behavior by extracting general classes of nominal data from archived data sets. IMS is able to monitor the system by comparing real time operational data with these classes. We present a description of learning and monitoring method used by IMS and summarize some recent IMS results.

  19. Electrical machine

    DOEpatents

    De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Alexander, James Pellegrino; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Gerstler, William Dwight; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2016-06-21

    An apparatus, such as an electrical machine, is provided. The apparatus can include a rotor defining a rotor bore and a conduit disposed in and extending axially along the rotor bore. The conduit can have an annular conduit body defining a plurality of orifices disposed axially along the conduit and extending through the conduit body. The rotor can have an inner wall that at least partially defines the rotor bore. The orifices can extend through the conduit body along respective orifice directions, and the rotor and conduit can be configured to provide a line of sight along the orifice direction from the respective orifices to the inner wall.

  20. TEMPO machine

    SciTech Connect

    Rohwein, G.J.; Lancaster, K.T.; Lawson, R.N.

    1986-06-01

    TEMPO is a transformer powered megavolt pulse generator with an output pulse of 100 ns duration. The machine was designed for burst mode operation at pulse repetition rates up to 10 Hz with minimum pulse-to-pulse voltage variations. To meet the requirement for pulse duration a nd a 20-..omega.. output impedance within reasonable size constraints, the pulse forming transmission line was designed as two parallel water-insulated, strip-type Blumleins. Stray capacitance and electric fields along the edges of the line elements were controlled by lining the tank with plastic sheet.

  1. Design and Performance Improvement of AC Machines Sharing a Common Stator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lusu

    With the increasing demand on electric motors in various industrial applications, especially electric powered vehicles (electric cars, more electric aircrafts and future electric ships and submarines), both synchronous reluctance machines (SynRMs) and interior permanent magnet (IPM) machines are recognized as good candidates for high performance variable speed applications. Developing a single stator design which can be used for both SynRM and IPM motors is a good way to reduce manufacturing and maintenance cost. SynRM can be used as a low cost solution for many electric driving applications and IPM machines can be used in power density crucial circumstances or work as generators to meet the increasing demand for electrical power on board. In this research, SynRM and IPM machines are designed sharing a common stator structure. The prototype motors are designed with the aid of finite element analysis (FEA). Machine performances with different stator slot and rotor pole numbers are compared by FEA. An 18-slot, 4-pole structure is selected based on the comparison for this prototype design. Sometimes, torque pulsation is the major drawback of permanent magnet synchronous machines. There are several sources of torque pulsations, such as back-EMF distortion, inductance variation and cogging torque due to presence of permanent magnets. To reduce torque pulsations in permanent magnet machines, all the efforts can be classified into two categories: one is from the design stage, the structure of permanent magnet machines can be optimized with the aid of finite element analysis. The other category of reducing torque pulsation is after the permanent magnet machine has been manufactured or the machine structure cannot be changed because of other reasons. The currents fed into the permanent magnet machine can be controlled to follow a certain profile which will make the machine generate a smoother torque waveform. Torque pulsation reduction methods in both categories will be

  2. The Fed's Year of Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark C.; Niederjohn, Scott

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to: (1) Examine the historical development of the Federal Reserve System; (2) Provide background on Ben Bernanke, the new Fed chairman; (3) Explain the basic tools of monetary policy used by the Fed; (4) Examine the causes of the Great Depression, a topic of special interest to Bernanke; and (5) Provide some key…

  3. Mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, H.R.

    1984-12-04

    A mining machine is disclosed comprising a mobile base and a cutting head assembly at a forward end of the mobile base having a cutter drum rotatable about an output shaft disposed along the longitudinal axis of the cutter drum. A drive system for the cutting head assembly comprises at least one motor for driving at least one toothed motor pinion and a generally cylindrical combination gear having generally circular end surfaces. A bevel or face gear is formed in at least one of the end surfaces, having teeth adapted to mate with and be driven by the toothed motor pinion. The combination gear has a worm gear formed in the outside cylindrical surface, which is disposed in driving engagement with the teeth of an output gear integrally and coaxially connected to the output shaft of the cutter drum.

  4. Performance Evaluation of a Permanent-Magnet Induction Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukami, Tadashi; Yokoi, Masahiro; Kanamaru, Yasunori; Miyamoto, Toshio

    A permanent-magnet induction generator (PMIG) is a special induction machine self-excited from the inside of the squirrel-cage rotor by a permanent-magnet rotor (PM rotor). In order to evaluate the practical value of the PMIG, its steady-state performance is analyzed theoretically and experimentally. As a result, it was found that the PMIG exhibits good power factor and efficiency compared to a general-purpose induction generator (GPIG) of the same size.

  5. Entropy generation analysis of magnetohydrodynamic induction devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, Hugo; Cuevas, Sergio; López de Haro, Mariano

    1999-10-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) induction devices such as electromagnetic pumps or electric generators are analysed within the approach of entropy generation. The flow of an electrically-conducting incompressible fluid in an MHD induction machine is described through the well known Hartmann model. Irreversibilities in the system due to ohmic dissipation, flow friction and heat flow are included in the entropy-generation rate. This quantity is used to define an overall efficiency for the induction machine that considers the total loss caused by process irreversibility. For an MHD generator working at maximum power output with walls at constant temperature, an optimum magnetic field strength (i.e. Hartmann number) is found based on the maximum overall efficiency.

  6. Machine wanting.

    PubMed

    McShea, Daniel W

    2013-12-01

    Wants, preferences, and cares are physical things or events, not ideas or propositions, and therefore no chain of pure logic can conclude with a want, preference, or care. It follows that no pure-logic machine will ever want, prefer, or care. And its behavior will never be driven in the way that deliberate human behavior is driven, in other words, it will not be motivated or goal directed. Therefore, if we want to simulate human-style interactions with the world, we will need to first understand the physical structure of goal-directed systems. I argue that all such systems share a common nested structure, consisting of a smaller entity that moves within and is driven by a larger field that contains it. In such systems, the smaller contained entity is directed by the field, but also moves to some degree independently of it, allowing the entity to deviate and return, to show the plasticity and persistence that is characteristic of goal direction. If all this is right, then human want-driven behavior probably involves a behavior-generating mechanism that is contained within a neural field of some kind. In principle, for goal directedness generally, the containment can be virtual, raising the possibility that want-driven behavior could be simulated in standard computational systems. But there are also reasons to believe that goal-direction works better when containment is also physical, suggesting that a new kind of hardware may be necessary. PMID:23792091

  7. Machine wanting.

    PubMed

    McShea, Daniel W

    2013-12-01

    Wants, preferences, and cares are physical things or events, not ideas or propositions, and therefore no chain of pure logic can conclude with a want, preference, or care. It follows that no pure-logic machine will ever want, prefer, or care. And its behavior will never be driven in the way that deliberate human behavior is driven, in other words, it will not be motivated or goal directed. Therefore, if we want to simulate human-style interactions with the world, we will need to first understand the physical structure of goal-directed systems. I argue that all such systems share a common nested structure, consisting of a smaller entity that moves within and is driven by a larger field that contains it. In such systems, the smaller contained entity is directed by the field, but also moves to some degree independently of it, allowing the entity to deviate and return, to show the plasticity and persistence that is characteristic of goal direction. If all this is right, then human want-driven behavior probably involves a behavior-generating mechanism that is contained within a neural field of some kind. In principle, for goal directedness generally, the containment can be virtual, raising the possibility that want-driven behavior could be simulated in standard computational systems. But there are also reasons to believe that goal-direction works better when containment is also physical, suggesting that a new kind of hardware may be necessary.

  8. Kinematic performance analysis of a parallel-chain hexapod machine

    SciTech Connect

    Jing Song; Jong-I Mou; Calvin King

    1998-05-18

    Inverse and forward kinematic models were derived to analyze the performance of a parallel-chain hexapod machine. Analytical models were constructed for both ideal and real structures. Performance assessment and enhancement algorithms were developed to determine the strut lengths for both ideal and real structures. The strut lengths determined from both cases can be used to analyze the effect of structural imperfections on machine performance. In an open-architecture control environment, strut length errors can be fed back to the controller to compensate for the displacement errors and thus improve the machine's accuracy in production.

  9. Induction generator-induction motor wind-powered pumping system

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, M.S.; Lyra, R.O.C.; Silva, S.R.

    1997-12-31

    The energy storage matter plays an important role in wind-electric conversion systems for isolated applications. Having that in mind, two different approaches can be basically considered: either the immediate conversion of the generated electric energy, as in a water pumping system or electric energy storage for later use, as in a battery charging system. Due to some features such as no need of an external reactive power source and, sometimes, a gearbox, permanent-magnet synchronous generators have been broadly used in low rated power isolated systems. Despite that, system performance can be affected when the generator is feeding an inductive load (e.g., an induction motor) under variable-speed-variable-frequency operational conditions. Since there is no effective flux control, motor overload may occur at high wind speeds. Thus, good system performance can be obtained through additional control devices which may increase system cost. Although being rugged and cheap, induction machines always work as a reactive power drain; therefore, they demand an external reactive power source. Considering that, reactive static compensators appear as an attractive alternative to the cost x performance problem. In addition to that, different control strategies can be used so that system performance can be improved.

  10. The FedEx Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Kent

    2010-01-01

    The original shipping strategy of FedEx was to fly all packages to a hub during the afternoon and evening, sort them there, and then fly them to their destinations overnight for delivery the next day. This leads to interesting mathematical questions: Given a population represented by points in Euclidean space or on a sphere, what is the location…

  11. Reproduction in mallards fed selenium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Krynitsky, A.J.; Weller, D.M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed diets containing 1, 5, 10, 25 or 100 ppm selenium as sodium selenite, a diet containing 10 ppm selenium as seleno-DL-methionine or a control diet. There were no effects of 1, 5 or 10 ppm selenium as sodium selenite on either weight or survival of adults or on reproductive success, and there did not appear to be a dose-response relationship at these lower levels. The 100 ppm selenium diet killed 11 of 12 adults; one adult male fed 25 ppm selenium died. Selenium at 25 and 100 ppm caused weight loss in adults. Females fed 25 ppm selenium took longer to begin laying eggs and intervals between eggs were longer than in females in other treatment groups. Hatching success appeared to be reduced in birds fed 10 ppm selenium at selenomethionine, but the reduction was not statistically significant. The survival of ducklings and the mean number of 21-d-old ducklings produced per female were reduced in the 25 ppm selenium as sodium selenite group and the 10 ppm selenium as selenomethionine group. Egg weights were not affected by any selenium treatment, but 25 ppm selenium lowered the Ratcliffe Index. Duckling weights at hatching and at 21 d of age were reduced 28 and 36%, respectively, in birds fed 25 ppm selenium, as compared with controls. Body weights measured on day 21 were lower for ducklings fed 10 ppm selenium as selenomethionine than in some other groups. Selenium in concentrations of 10 and 25 ppm as sodium selenite caused mainly embryotoxic effects, whereas 10 ppm as selenomethionine was more teratogenic, causing hydrocephaly, bill defects, eye defects (microphthalmia and anophthalmia) and foot and toe defects, including ectrodactyly. Selenomethionine was much more readily taken up by mallards and passed into their eggs than was sodium selenite, and a greater proportion of the selenium in the eggs ended up in the white when selenomethionine was fed. Adult males accumulated more selenium than did females, probably because of the

  12. Tube Alinement for Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, J.

    1984-01-01

    Tool with stepped shoulders alines tubes for machining in preparation for welding. Alinement with machine tool axis accurate to within 5 mils (0.13mm) and completed much faster than visual setup by machinist.

  13. Stirling machine operating experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Brad; Dudenhoefer, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that Stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and were not expected to operate for any lengthy period of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered.

  14. Women, Men, and Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Form, William; McMillen, David Byron

    1983-01-01

    Data from the first national study of technological change show that proportionately more women than men operate machines, are more exposed to machines that have alienating effects, and suffer more from the negative effects of technological change. (Author/SSH)

  15. Your Sewing Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Marion E.

    The programed instruction manual is designed to aid the student in learning the parts, uses, and operation of the sewing machine. Drawings of sewing machine parts are presented, and space is provided for the student's written responses. Following an introductory section identifying sewing machine parts, the manual deals with each part and its…

  16. Automatic Inspection During Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, Clyde L.

    1988-01-01

    In experimental manufacturing process, numerically-controlled machine tool temporarily converts into inspection machine by installing electronic touch probes and specially-developed numerical-control software. Software drives probes in paths to and on newly machined parts and collects data on dimensions of parts.

  17. Apprentice Machine Theory Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford. Div. of Vocational-Technical Schools.

    This volume contains outlines for 16 courses in machine theory that are designed for machine tool apprentices. Addressed in the individual course outlines are the following topics: basic concepts; lathes; milling machines; drills, saws, and shapers; heat treatment and metallurgy; grinders; quality control; hydraulics and pneumatics;…

  18. Continuous mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, H.E.

    1992-02-11

    This patent describes a continuous mining machine for excavating a longitudinal shaft or tunnel underneath the surface of the earth, the mining machine. It comprises: transport means for moving the machine over a floor of the shaft or tunnel that is being excavated; a working platform having forward and trailing ends.

  19. The Digital Simulation of Synchronous Motors Fed by Voltage-Source Inverters Over Wide Speed and Frequency Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowihal, Said Soliman

    Both voltage-source and current-source inverters are widely used for supplying three-phase power to induction motor drives, each having their advantages and disadvantages. For high power drives and applications requiring accurate speed and tracking coordination, the synchronous motors are the optimum choice. For constant speed applications of synchronous motor drives, current-source inverters tend to be favored as the motor can usually be operated in the overexcited leading power factor region, thus providing the inverter with sufficient electro-motive force to allow natural commutation. Generally speaking low speed operation of synchronous motors is not satisfactory from naturally commutated current-source inverters. To provide a dynamic range of speed and frequency would require expensive control circuitry and complicates the performance of the drive. The advantage of the voltage-source inverter for the wide range of speed and frequency control herein envisaged is that forced commutation is employed throughout the range and the commutating circuits have been well developed and established. On balance, voltage-source inverters represent a viable compromise for variable-speed three -phase synchronous motor drives including start-up. To investigate the transient response of the voltage -source fed-synchronous motor drives, a digital computer program is developed. The program is based on two models --machine model and inverter model. The machine is represented by a detailed two-axis model which includes the effects due to saliency, damper windings, and machine resistances. The inverter model represents a forced-commutated voltage-source inverter assuming ideal switching devices (thyristors and diodes). To cope with the wide variations of power factor during start-up, a thyristor with a reverse connected parallel diode are integrated as a bidirectional switch. The digital program provides the machine variables of interest (phase currents, field current, damper winding

  20. Failed induction of labor.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Corina; Navathe, Reshama

    2015-10-01

    Induction of labor will affect almost a quarter of all pregnancies, but historically there has been no generally accepted definition of failed induction of labor. Only recently have studies analyzed the lengths of latent labor that are associated with successful labor induction ending in a vaginal delivery, and recommendations for uniformity in the diagnosis of failed induction have largely resulted from this data. This review assesses the most recent and inclusive definition for failed induction, risk factors associated with failure, complications, and special populations that may be at risk for a failed induction.

  1. Cyclodextrin-based molecular machines.

    PubMed

    Hashidzume, Akihito; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Harada, Akira

    2014-01-01

    This chapter overviews molecular machines based on cyclodextrins (CDs). The categories of CD-based molecular machines, external stimuli for CD-based molecular machines, and typical examples of CD-based molecular machines are briefly described.

  2. Four quadrant control of induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1991-01-01

    Induction motors are the nation's workhorse, being the motor of choice in most applications due to their simple rugged construction. It has been estimated that 14 to 27 percent of the country's total electricity use could be saved with adjustable speed drives. Until now, induction motors have not been suited well for variable speed or servo-drives, due to the inherent complexity, size, and inefficiency of their variable speed controls. Work at NASA Lewis Research Center on field oriented control of induction motors using pulse population modulation method holds the promise for the desired drive electronics. The system allows for a variable voltage to frequency ratio which enables the user to operate the motor at maximum efficiency, while having independent control of both the speed and torque of an induction motor in all four quadrants of the speed torque map. Multiple horsepower machine drives were demonstrated, and work is on-going to develop a 20 hp average, 40 hp peak class of machine. The pulse population technique, results to date, and projections for implementation of this existing new motor control technology are discussed.

  3. Flight Experiment Demonstration System (FEDS): Mathematical specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shank, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    Computational models for the flight experiment demonstration system (FEDS) code 580 were developed. The FEDS is a modification of the automated orbit determination system which was developed during 1981 and 1982. The purpose of FEDS is to demonstrate, in a simulated spacecraft environment, the feasibility of using microprocessors to perform onboard orbit determination with limited ground support.

  4. Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) version 7.0

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-31

    Designed for building energy managers, utilities and firms providing energy services, FEDS provides a comprehensive and user-friendly method for users to quickly and accurately identifying energy conversion and end-use technology improvements that offer maximum savings in energy usage and cost. FEDS enables the user to assess energy efficiency and consumption, identify retrofit opportunities, select minimum life cycle costs, determine payback, and prioritize investments in energy efficiency retrofit projects for multiple or single buildings across a particular site. As part of the life-cycle cost optimization it also considers several options for partial or complete abandonment of central energy plants including: individual technologies dropping off a thermal loop, a loop and all technologies dropping off a central plant, and all technologies and loops dropping off a central plant resulting in its complete abandonment. Improvements in release 7.0 include: • FEDS 7.0 is now a full hourly simulation model (runs every hour of the year as opposed to the previous simplified hourly approach which ran 9 24-hour periods to represent each month). • Enhanced building operation and occupancy modeling • New HVAC technology options (VAV, Economizers, Demand Controlled Ventilation, Terminal Reheat, Subcool Dehumidification) • Additional chiller types • New lighting technologies (LED, Halogen, Induction, additional fluorescent options) • Completely updated retrofit cost and performance data • Regional cost data tied to zip code (previously applied state level averages) • Updated and enhanced reporting capabilities • New pier floor model

  5. Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) version 7.0

    2014-10-31

    Designed for building energy managers, utilities and firms providing energy services, FEDS provides a comprehensive and user-friendly method for users to quickly and accurately identifying energy conversion and end-use technology improvements that offer maximum savings in energy usage and cost. FEDS enables the user to assess energy efficiency and consumption, identify retrofit opportunities, select minimum life cycle costs, determine payback, and prioritize investments in energy efficiency retrofit projects for multiple or single buildings across amore » particular site. As part of the life-cycle cost optimization it also considers several options for partial or complete abandonment of central energy plants including: individual technologies dropping off a thermal loop, a loop and all technologies dropping off a central plant, and all technologies and loops dropping off a central plant resulting in its complete abandonment. Improvements in release 7.0 include: • FEDS 7.0 is now a full hourly simulation model (runs every hour of the year as opposed to the previous simplified hourly approach which ran 9 24-hour periods to represent each month). • Enhanced building operation and occupancy modeling • New HVAC technology options (VAV, Economizers, Demand Controlled Ventilation, Terminal Reheat, Subcool Dehumidification) • Additional chiller types • New lighting technologies (LED, Halogen, Induction, additional fluorescent options) • Completely updated retrofit cost and performance data • Regional cost data tied to zip code (previously applied state level averages) • Updated and enhanced reporting capabilities • New pier floor model« less

  6. Hepatic microsomal cytochromes P450 in mink fed Saginaw Bay carp (SBC)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melancon, M.J.; LeCaptain, L.; Rattner, B.A.; Heaton, S.; Aulerich, R.; Tillitt, D.; Stegeman, John J.; Woodin, B.

    1992-01-01

    Livers from mink fed diets containing 0% (n = 12), 10% (n = 11), 20% (n = 12) and 40% (n = 10) SBC for 6 months contained 0.1, 2.2, 3.6, and 6.3 ug/g total PCBs, respectively. Hepatic microsomes were prepared and assayed for protein, arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (BROD), ethoxy-ROD (ER0D), pentoxy-ROD (PROD), and ethoxycoumarin-OD (ECOD). Mink fed SBC had increased AHH, EROD, and ECOD (group means 2.2-3.4 X control means), decreased BROD and unchanged PROD (the latter 2 assays indicators for phenobarbital-type induction in mammals). Three samples from each group were examined by western blot using a polyclonal anti-P450llB antibody and a monoclonal anti-P450lA antibody (MAb 1-12-3). Mink fed SBC showed induction of a protein recognized by anti-P450lA (8 X control), but had little protein recognized by anti-P450IlB. The monooxygenase activities and western blot data give a consistent picture of MC-type but not PB-type induction in mink fed SBC.

  7. Short Circuit Analysis of Induction Machines Wind Power Application

    SciTech Connect

    Starke, Michael R; Smith, Travis M; Howard, Dustin; Harley, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    he short circuit behavior of Type I (fixed speed) wind turbine-generators is analyzed in this paper to aid in the protection coordination of wind plants of this type. A simple network consisting of one wind turbine-generator is analyzed for two network faults: a three phase short circuit and a phase A to ground fault. Electromagnetic transient simulations and sequence network calculations are compared for the two fault scenarios. It is found that traditional sequence network calculations give accurate results for the short circuit currents in the balanced fault case, but are inaccurate for the un-faulted phases in the unbalanced fault case. The time-current behavior of the fundamental frequency component of the short circuit currents for both fault cases are described, and found to differ significantly in the unbalanced and balanced fault cases

  8. Method and device for determining bond separation strength using induction heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coultrip, Robert H. (Inventor); Johnson, Samuel D. (Inventor); Copeland, Carl E. (Inventor); Phillips, W. Morris (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An induction heating device includes an induction heating gun which includes a housing, a U-shaped pole piece having two spaced apart opposite ends defining a gap there between, the U-shaped pole piece being mounted in one end of the housing, and a tank circuit including an induction coil wrapped around the pole piece and a capacitor connected to the induction coil. A power source is connected to the tank circuit. A pull test machine is provided having a stationary chuck and a movable chuck, the two chucks holding two test pieces bonded together at a bond region. The heating gun is mounted on the pull test machine in close proximity to the bond region of the two test pieces, whereby when the tank circuit is energized, the two test pieces are heated by induction heating while a tension load is applied to the two test pieces by the pull test machine to determine separation strength of the bond region.

  9. Machine tool locator

    DOEpatents

    Hanlon, John A.; Gill, Timothy J.

    2001-01-01

    Machine tools can be accurately measured and positioned on manufacturing machines within very small tolerances by use of an autocollimator on a 3-axis mount on a manufacturing machine and positioned so as to focus on a reference tooling ball or a machine tool, a digital camera connected to the viewing end of the autocollimator, and a marker and measure generator for receiving digital images from the camera, then displaying or measuring distances between the projection reticle and the reference reticle on the monitoring screen, and relating the distances to the actual position of the autocollimator relative to the reference tooling ball. The images and measurements are used to set the position of the machine tool and to measure the size and shape of the machine tool tip, and examine cutting edge wear. patent

  10. Fault Tolerant State Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Gary R.; Taft, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    State machines are commonly used to control sequential logic in FPGAs and ASKS. An errant state machine can cause considerable damage to the device it is controlling. For example in space applications, the FPGA might be controlling Pyros, which when fired at the wrong time will cause a mission failure. Even a well designed state machine can be subject to random errors us a result of SEUs from the radiation environment in space. There are various ways to encode the states of a state machine, and the type of encoding makes a large difference in the susceptibility of the state machine to radiation. In this paper we compare 4 methods of state machine encoding and find which method gives the best fault tolerance, as well as determining the resources needed for each method.

  11. Ultra precision machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debra, Daniel B.; Hesselink, Lambertus; Binford, Thomas

    1990-05-01

    There are a number of fields that require or can use to advantage very high precision in machining. For example, further development of high energy lasers and x ray astronomy depend critically on the manufacture of light weight reflecting metal optical components. To fabricate these optical components with machine tools they will be made of metal with mirror quality surface finish. By mirror quality surface finish, it is meant that the dimensions tolerances on the order of 0.02 microns and surface roughness of 0.07. These accuracy targets fall in the category of ultra precision machining. They cannot be achieved by a simple extension of conventional machining processes and techniques. They require single crystal diamond tools, special attention to vibration isolation, special isolation of machine metrology, and on line correction of imperfection in the motion of the machine carriages on their way.

  12. Perspex machine II: visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2005-01-01

    We review the perspex machine and improve it by reducing its halting conditions to one condition. We also introduce a data structure, called the "access column," that can accelerate a wide class of perspex programs. We show how the perspex can be visualised as a tetrahedron, artificial neuron, computer program, and as a geometrical transformation. We discuss the temporal properties of the perspex machine, dissolve the famous time travel paradox, and present a hypothetical time machine. Finally, we discuss some mental properties and show how the perspex machine solves the mind-body problem and, specifically, how it provides one physical explanation for the occurrence of paradigm shifts.

  13. Perspex machine II: visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2004-12-01

    We review the perspex machine and improve it by reducing its halting conditions to one condition. We also introduce a data structure, called the "access column," that can accelerate a wide class of perspex programs. We show how the perspex can be visualised as a tetrahedron, artificial neuron, computer program, and as a geometrical transformation. We discuss the temporal properties of the perspex machine, dissolve the famous time travel paradox, and present a hypothetical time machine. Finally, we discuss some mental properties and show how the perspex machine solves the mind-body problem and, specifically, how it provides one physical explanation for the occurrence of paradigm shifts.

  14. Parallel Kinematic Machines (PKM)

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R.S.

    2000-03-17

    The purpose of this 3-year cooperative research project was to develop a parallel kinematic machining (PKM) capability for complex parts that normally require expensive multiple setups on conventional orthogonal machine tools. This non-conventional, non-orthogonal machining approach is based on a 6-axis positioning system commonly referred to as a hexapod. Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) was the lead site responsible for a multitude of projects that defined the machining parameters and detailed the metrology of the hexapod. The role of the Kansas City Plant (KCP) in this project was limited to evaluating the application of this unique technology to production applications.

  15. On-Machine Acceptance

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, K.F.

    2000-02-14

    Probing processes are used intermittently and not effectively as an on-line measurement device. This project was needed to evolve machine probing from merely a setup aid to an on-the-machine inspection system. Use of probing for on-machine inspection would significantly decrease cycle time by elimination of the need for first-piece inspection (at a remote location). Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T) had the manufacturing facility and the ability to integrate the system into production. The Contractor had a system that could optimize the machine tool to compensate for thermal growth and related error.

  16. FED baseline engineering studies report

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  17. Machine learning of fault characteristics from rocket engine simulation data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ke, Min; Ali, Moonis

    1990-01-01

    Transformation of data into knowledge through conceptual induction has been the focus of our research described in this paper. We have developed a Machine Learning System (MLS) to analyze the rocket engine simulation data. MLS can provide to its users fault analysis, characteristics, and conceptual descriptions of faults, and the relationships of attributes and sensors. All the results are critically important in identifying faults.

  18. Circle diagram approach for self excited induction generators

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Carlin, P.W.; Osgood, R.M.

    1993-05-01

    When an induction generator is connected to a utility line supply, the voltage and frequency at the terminal output are the same as the voltage and frequency of the utility line supply to which the generator is connected. The reactive power needed by the induction generator is supplied by the utility and the real power is returned to the utility. With a fixed frequency dictated by the utility, the induction machine starts generating above the synchronous speed. The range of speed is also limited by the slip. At a very high slip, the copper losses increases as the current increases. On the other hand, in an isolated operation, the induction generator operates in self-excitation mode. It determines its own voltage and frequency. These two quantities depend on the size of the AC capacitor, the induction machine parameters, the electrical load, and the speed of the generator. The operating speed of the induction generator is extended without generating excessive loss. This paper presents an analytical study by utilizing a circle diagram to illustrate the operation of the induction generator in isolated operation. The steady-state calculations are presented to support the analysis. Possible applications for the system in variable-speed generation are currently under investigation. The output can be directly connected to equipment that is non-sensitive to the frequency (a heater, battery charger, etc.) or can be connected to a converter to get a fixed-frequency AC output.

  19. Diamond machine tool face lapping machine

    DOEpatents

    Yetter, H.H.

    1985-05-06

    An apparatus for shaping, sharpening and polishing diamond-tipped single-point machine tools. The isolation of a rotating grinding wheel from its driving apparatus using an air bearing and causing the tool to be shaped, polished or sharpened to be moved across the surface of the grinding wheel so that it does not remain at one radius for more than a single rotation of the grinding wheel has been found to readily result in machine tools of a quality which can only be obtained by the most tedious and costly processing procedures, and previously unattainable by simple lapping techniques.

  20. Performance Analysis of Saturated Induction Motors by Virtual Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojaghi, M.; Faiz, J.; Kazemi, M.; Rezaei, M.

    2012-01-01

    Many undergraduate-level electrical machines textbooks give detailed treatments of the performance of induction motors. Students can deepen this understanding of motor performance by performing the appropriate practical work in laboratories or in simulation using proper software packages. This paper considers various common and less-common tests…

  1. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  2. Semantics via Machine Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culhane, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

  3. An asymptotical machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristallini, Achille

    2016-07-01

    A new and intriguing machine may be obtained replacing the moving pulley of a gun tackle with a fixed point in the rope. Its most important feature is the asymptotic efficiency. Here we obtain a satisfactory description of this machine by means of vector calculus and elementary trigonometry. The mathematical model has been compared with experimental data and briefly discussed.

  4. Technique for Machining Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Process for machining glass with conventional carbide tools requires a small quantity of a lubricant for aluminum applied to area of glass to be machined. A carbide tool is then placed against workpiece with light pressure. Tool is raised periodically to clear work of glass dust and particles. Additional lubricant is applied as it is displaced.

  5. Compound taper milling machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, N. R.

    1969-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive milling machine tapers panels from a common apex to a uniform height at panel edge regardless of the panel perimeter configuration. The machine consists of an adjustable angled beam upon which the milling tool moves back and forth above a rotatable table upon which the workpiece is held.

  6. Stirling machine operating experience

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, B.; Dudenhoefer, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy operating lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and are not expected to operate for lengthy periods of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered. The record in this paper is not complete, due to the reluctance of some organizations to release operational data and because several organizations were not contacted. The authors intend to repeat this assessment in three years, hoping for even greater participation.

  7. Machining heavy plastic sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalkup, O. M.

    1967-01-01

    Machining technique produces consistently satisfactory plane-parallel optical surfaces for pressure windows, made of plexiglass, required to support a photographic study of liquid rocket combustion processes. The surfaces are machined and polished to the required tolerances and show no degradation from stress relaxation over periods as long as 6 months.

  8. THE TEACHING MACHINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLEIN, CHARLES; WAYNE, ELLIS

    THE ROLE OF THE TEACHING MACHINE IS COMPARED WITH THE ROLE OF THE PROGRAMED TEXTBOOK. THE TEACHING MACHINE IS USED FOR INDIVIDUAL INSTRUCTION, CONTAINS AND PRESENTS PROGRAM CONTENT IN STEPS, PROVIDES A MEANS WHEREBY THE STUDENT MAY RESPOND TO THE PROGRAM, PROVIDES THE STUDENT WITH IMMEDIATE INFORMATION OF SOME KIND CONCERNING HIS RESPONSE THAT CAN…

  9. Simple Machines Made Simple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Andre, Ralph E.

    Simple machines have become a lost point of study in elementary schools as teachers continue to have more material to cover. This manual provides hands-on, cooperative learning activities for grades three through eight concerning the six simple machines: wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, pulley, wedge, and lever. Most activities can be…

  10. Machine Translation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajis, Katie

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics and capabilities of existing machine translation systems were examined and procurement recommendations were developed. Four systems, SYSTRAN, GLOBALINK, PC TRANSLATOR, and STYLUS, were determined to meet the NASA requirements for a machine translation system. Initially, four language pairs were selected for implementation. These are Russian-English, French-English, German-English, and Japanese-English.

  11. Sequential inductive learning

    SciTech Connect

    Gratch, J.

    1996-12-31

    This article advocates a new model for inductive learning. Called sequential induction, it helps bridge classical fixed-sample learning techniques (which are efficient but difficult to formally characterize), and worst-case approaches (which provide strong statistical guarantees but are too inefficient for practical use). Learning proceeds as a sequence of decisions which are informed by training data. By analyzing induction at the level of these decisions, and by utilizing the only enough data to make each decision, sequential induction provides statistical guarantees but with substantially less data than worst-case methods require. The sequential inductive model is also useful as a method for determining a sufficient sample size for inductive learning and as such, is relevant to learning problems where the preponderance of data or the cost of gathering data precludes the use of traditional methods.

  12. 14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  13. BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRITISH MOLDING MACHINE, PBQ AUTOMATIC COPE AND DRAG MOLDING MACHINE MAKES BOTH MOLD HALVES INDIVIDUALLY WHICH ARE LATER ROTATED, ASSEMBLED, AND LOWERED TO POURING CONVEYORS BY ASSISTING MACHINES. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Casting, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  14. Introduction to machine learning.

    PubMed

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods. PMID:24272434

  15. Introduction to machine learning.

    PubMed

    Baştanlar, Yalin; Ozuysal, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The machine learning field, which can be briefly defined as enabling computers make successful predictions using past experiences, has exhibited an impressive development recently with the help of the rapid increase in the storage capacity and processing power of computers. Together with many other disciplines, machine learning methods have been widely employed in bioinformatics. The difficulties and cost of biological analyses have led to the development of sophisticated machine learning approaches for this application area. In this chapter, we first review the fundamental concepts of machine learning such as feature assessment, unsupervised versus supervised learning and types of classification. Then, we point out the main issues of designing machine learning experiments and their performance evaluation. Finally, we introduce some supervised learning methods.

  16. Micro-machining.

    PubMed

    Brinksmeier, Ekkard; Preuss, Werner

    2012-08-28

    Manipulating bulk material at the atomic level is considered to be the domain of physics, chemistry and nanotechnology. However, precision engineering, especially micro-machining, has become a powerful tool for controlling the surface properties and sub-surface integrity of the optical, electronic and mechanical functional parts in a regime where continuum mechanics is left behind and the quantum nature of matter comes into play. The surprising subtlety of micro-machining results from the extraordinary precision of tools, machines and controls expanding into the nanometre range-a hundred times more precise than the wavelength of light. In this paper, we will outline the development of precision engineering, highlight modern achievements of ultra-precision machining and discuss the necessity of a deeper physical understanding of micro-machining.

  17. A mathematical model for the doubly-fed wound rotor generator, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, F. J.

    1984-01-01

    A mathematical analysis of a doubly-fed wound rotor generator is presented. The constraints of constant stator voltage and frequency to the circuit equations were applied and expressions for the currents and voltages in the machine obtained. The derived variables are redefined as direct and quadrature components. In addition, the apparent (complex) power for both the rotor and the stator are derived in terms of these redefined components.

  18. A mathematical model for the doubly-fed wound rotor generator. II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical analysis of a doubly-fed wound rotor generator is presented. The constraints of constant stator voltage and frequency to the circuit equations were applied and expressions for the currents and voltages in the machine obtained. The derived variables are redefined as direct and quadrature components. In addition, the apparent (complex) power for both the rotor and the stator are derived in terms of these redefined components.

  19. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... machinery and hammers Gear cutting and finishing machines Grinding machines Hydraulic and pneumatic presses, power driven Machining centers and way-type machines Manual presses Mechanical presses, power...

  20. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... machinery and hammers Gear cutting and finishing machines Grinding machines Hydraulic and pneumatic presses, power driven Machining centers and way-type machines Manual presses Mechanical presses, power...

  1. Cytokine and Chemokine Expression Associated with Steatohepatitis and Hepatocyte Proliferation in Rats Fed Ethanol Via Total Enteral Nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sprague-Dawley rats were intragastrically fed low carbohydrate-containing ethanol (EtOH) diets via total enteral nutrition for up to 49 d. Induction of EtOH metabolism and appearance of steatosis preceded development of oxidative stress, inflammation, and cell death. A transitory peak of tumor necro...

  2. The basic anaesthesia machine.

    PubMed

    Gurudatt, Cl

    2013-09-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia.

  3. Machine learning and radiology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers.

  4. Machine Learning and Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  5. The Basic Anaesthesia Machine

    PubMed Central

    Gurudatt, CL

    2013-01-01

    After WTG Morton's first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey's machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia. PMID:24249876

  6. DNA-based machines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuan; Willner, Bilha; Willner, Itamar

    2014-01-01

    The base sequence in nucleic acids encodes substantial structural and functional information into the biopolymer. This encoded information provides the basis for the tailoring and assembly of DNA machines. A DNA machine is defined as a molecular device that exhibits the following fundamental features. (1) It performs a fuel-driven mechanical process that mimics macroscopic machines. (2) The mechanical process requires an energy input, "fuel." (3) The mechanical operation is accompanied by an energy consumption process that leads to "waste products." (4) The cyclic operation of the DNA devices, involves the use of "fuel" and "anti-fuel" ingredients. A variety of DNA-based machines are described, including the construction of "tweezers," "walkers," "robots," "cranes," "transporters," "springs," "gears," and interlocked cyclic DNA structures acting as reconfigurable catenanes, rotaxanes, and rotors. Different "fuels", such as nucleic acid strands, pH (H⁺/OH⁻), metal ions, and light, are used to trigger the mechanical functions of the DNA devices. The operation of the devices in solution and on surfaces is described, and a variety of optical, electrical, and photoelectrochemical methods to follow the operations of the DNA machines are presented. We further address the possible applications of DNA machines and the future perspectives of molecular DNA devices. These include the application of DNA machines as functional structures for the construction of logic gates and computing, for the programmed organization of metallic nanoparticle structures and the control of plasmonic properties, and for controlling chemical transformations by DNA machines. We further discuss the future applications of DNA machines for intracellular sensing, controlling intracellular metabolic pathways, and the use of the functional nanostructures for drug delivery and medical applications.

  7. DNA-based machines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuan; Willner, Bilha; Willner, Itamar

    2014-01-01

    The base sequence in nucleic acids encodes substantial structural and functional information into the biopolymer. This encoded information provides the basis for the tailoring and assembly of DNA machines. A DNA machine is defined as a molecular device that exhibits the following fundamental features. (1) It performs a fuel-driven mechanical process that mimics macroscopic machines. (2) The mechanical process requires an energy input, "fuel." (3) The mechanical operation is accompanied by an energy consumption process that leads to "waste products." (4) The cyclic operation of the DNA devices, involves the use of "fuel" and "anti-fuel" ingredients. A variety of DNA-based machines are described, including the construction of "tweezers," "walkers," "robots," "cranes," "transporters," "springs," "gears," and interlocked cyclic DNA structures acting as reconfigurable catenanes, rotaxanes, and rotors. Different "fuels", such as nucleic acid strands, pH (H⁺/OH⁻), metal ions, and light, are used to trigger the mechanical functions of the DNA devices. The operation of the devices in solution and on surfaces is described, and a variety of optical, electrical, and photoelectrochemical methods to follow the operations of the DNA machines are presented. We further address the possible applications of DNA machines and the future perspectives of molecular DNA devices. These include the application of DNA machines as functional structures for the construction of logic gates and computing, for the programmed organization of metallic nanoparticle structures and the control of plasmonic properties, and for controlling chemical transformations by DNA machines. We further discuss the future applications of DNA machines for intracellular sensing, controlling intracellular metabolic pathways, and the use of the functional nanostructures for drug delivery and medical applications. PMID:24647836

  8. Induction: Making the Leap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Lorraine M.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a critical examination of a variety of approaches to induction focusing especially upon Australia and other Pacific Rim countries. The question of the purposes induction serves for graduate teachers, experienced teachers and education systems is addressed in terms of whether it is a technical exercise which preserves the…

  9. Induction Programs that Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilles, Carol; Davis, Barbara; McGlamery, Sheryl

    2009-01-01

    The Comprehensive Teacher Induction Consortium, a group of similar teacher induction programs, has used a highly successful model for over 15 years. Four crucial aspects of that model are a full year of mentored support for first-year teachers, coursework leading to a master's degree, opportunities for sharing with other beginning teachers, and…

  10. Novel 3-Phase Inductive Fault Current Limiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosa, Janos

    The paper describes the inductive three-phase fault current limiter. In this work I examine the novel arrangements of the perfect closed superconducting loop made of HTS wire. I applied one iron core with 3 limbs and special loops for uniform temperature of the superconducting wire. In this work I present the results of my experiments with this device. I present the static and dynamic measured results of this solution. It has got several advantages e. g. fast switching and less fault power for high-power electric machines. The advantage of the equipment is that in the case of single-phase short circuit the current will decrease in all the three phases. This can be an appropriate solution for high power machines. For example, in the case of high-power electric motor if there is a single-phase breaking or a single phase short circuit, we can decrease the current in the three phases.

  11. Quantum Boltzmann Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulchytskyy, Bohdan; Andriyash, Evgeny; Amin, Mohammed; Melko, Roger

    The field of machine learning has been revolutionized by the recent improvements in the training of deep networks. Their architecture is based on a set of stacked layers of simpler modules. One of the most successful building blocks, known as a restricted Boltzmann machine, is an energetic model based on the classical Ising Hamiltonian. In our work, we investigate the benefits of quantum effects on the learning capacity of Boltzmann machines by extending its underlying Hamiltonian with a transverse field. For this purpose, we employ exact and stochastic training procedures on data sets with physical origins.

  12. Machine Tool Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  13. Wind motor machine

    SciTech Connect

    Goedecke, A.

    1984-12-25

    An improved wind motor machine having a wind rotor rotatable about a vertical axis. The rotor core body of the machine is provided with convexly curved wind application surfaces and coacting outer wing bodies having load supporting airplane wing-shaped cross-sections. The efficiency of the machine is improved by means of stream guiding bodies disposed in the intermediate space between the rotor core body and the wing bodies. These stream guiding bodies extend in a desired streaming direction, that is normal to the rotational axis of the wind body, which insures substantially laminar air streaming within the intermediate space.

  14. OPTICAM machine design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedes, Jyrki T.

    1992-01-01

    Rank Pneumo has worked with the Center of Optics Manufacturing to design a multiple-axis flexible machining center for spherical lens fabrication. The OPTICAM/SM prototype machine has been developed in cooperation with the Center's Manufacturing Advisory Board. The SM will generate, fine grind, pre-polish, and center a spherical lens surface in one setup sequence. Unique features of the design incorporate machine resident metrology to provide RQM (Real-time Quality Management) and closed-loop feedback control that corrects for lens thickness, diameter, and centering error. SPC (Statistical Process Control) software can compensate for process drift and QA data collection is provided without additional labor.

  15. Machine tools get smarter

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1995-11-01

    This article describes how, using software, sensors, and controllers, a new generation of intelligent machine tools are optimizing grinding, milling, and molding processes. A paradox of manufacturing parts is that the faster the parts are made, the less accurate they are--and vice versa. However, a combination of software, sensors, controllers, and mechanical innovations are being used to create a new generation of intelligent machine tools capable of optimizing their own grinding, milling, and molding processes. These brainy tools are allowing manufacturers to machine more-complex, higher-quality parts in shorter cycle times. The technology also lowers scrap rates and reduces or eliminates the need for polishing inadequately finished parts.

  16. Reproduction and health of mallards fed endrin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spann, J.W.; Heinz, G.H.; Hulse, C.S.

    1986-01-01

    Concentrations of 0, 1 and 3 ppm endrin in dry duck mash were fed to mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) starting in December, and health and reproduction were measured the following spring and summer. One male fed 3 ppm endrin died with 2.0 ppm endrin (wet weight), a diagnostically lethal level, in its brain. Birds fed 1 ppm endrin reproduced as well as, if not better than, controls. Birds fed 1 ppm endrin had significantly greater hatching success of fertile eggs than did those fed 0 or 3 ppm, and their clutches hatched significantly earlier than did those of birds fed 3 ppm. Mallards fed 3 ppm endrin appeared to reproduce more poorly than controls, but this finding must be regarded with caution because the results of statistical tests often were not significant. Endrin accumulated in eggs to a mean of 1.1 and 2.9 ppm (wet weight) when fed to hens at 1 and 3 ppm. The concentration of endrin in the cacasses of adults was similar to that in eggs, but the concentration in the fat of adults was about 4 to 7 times higher than in eggs.

  17. Flight Experiment Demonstration System (FEDS) analysis report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shank, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the Flight Experiment Demonstration System (FEDS) was to show, in a simulated spacecraft environment, the feasibility of using a microprocessor to automate the onboard orbit determination functions. The software and hardware configuration used to support FEDS during the demonstration and the results of the demonstration are discussed.

  18. FED. Zoning for TRUMP Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Elrod, D.

    1987-10-23

    FED reduces the effort required to obtain the necessary geometric input for problems which are to be solved using the heat-transfer code, TRUMP. TRUMP calculates transient and steady-state temperature distributions in multidimensional systems. FED can properly zone any body of revolution in one, two, or three dimensions.

  19. FED-R: a fusion engineering device utilizing resistive magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Jassby, D.L.; Kalsi, S.S.

    1983-06-01

    The principal purpose of the FED-R tokamak facility is to provide a substantial quasisteady flux of fusion neutrons irradiating a large test area in order to carry out thermal, neutronic, and radiation effects testing of experimental blanket assemblies. The emphasis on reliable nuclear testing capability demands that the plasma physics characteristics and technological features of the fusion machine be chosen as close to mid-1980s state of the art as possible, with the important exception that FED-R requires high-duty-factor operation. The outboard nuclear test region is at least 80-cm deep with approximately 60 m/sup 2/ of exposure area. The neutron wall loading is 0.4 MW/m/sup 2/ in Stage I operation (Q/sub p/ = 1.5) and 1.3 MW/m/sup 2/ in Stage II (Q/sub p/ = 2.5). The toroidal field coils are fabricated of water-cooled copper plates with demountable joints and operate steady state with a power dissipation of 180 MW in Stage I and 280 MW in Stage II.

  20. Data Machine Independence

    1994-12-30

    Data-machine independence achieved by using four technologies (ASN.1, XDR, SDS, and ZEBRA) has been evaluated by encoding two different applications in each of the above; and their results compared against the standard programming method using C.

  1. The TUM walking machines.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Friedrich

    2007-01-15

    This paper presents some aspects of walking machine design with a special emphasis on the three machines MAX, MORITZ and JOHNNIE, having been developed at the Technical University of Munich within the last 20 years. The design of such machines is discussed as an iterative process improving the layout with every iteration. The control concepts are event-driven and follow logical rules, which have largely been transferred from neurobiological findings. At least for the six-legged machine MAX, a nearly perfect autonomy could be achieved, whereas for the biped JOHNNIE, a certain degree of autonomy could be realized by a vision system with appropriate decision algorithms. This vision system was developed by the group of Prof. G. Schmidt, TU-München. A more detailed description of the design and realization is presented for the biped JOHNNIE.

  2. Laser machining of ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Laudel, A.

    1980-01-01

    The Kansas City Division of The Bendix Corporation manufactures hybrid microcircuits (HMCs) using both thin film and thick film technologies. Laser machining is used to contour the ceramic substrates and to drill holes in the ceramic for frontside-backside interconnections (vias) and holes for mounting components. A 1000 W CO/sub 2/ type laser is used. The laser machining process, and methods used for removing protruding debris and debris from holes, for cleaning the machined surfaces, and for refiring are described. The laser machining process described consistently produces vias, component holes and contours with acceptable surface quality, hole locations, diameter, flatness and metallization adhesion. There are no cracks indicated by dipping in fluorescent dye penetrant and the substances are resistant to repeated thermal shock.

  3. 16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to south (90mm lens). Note the large segmental-arched doorway to move locomotives in and out of Machine Shop. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  4. Flexible machining systems described

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butters, H. J.

    1985-03-01

    The rationalization and gradual automation of short rotationally symmetric parts in the Saalfeld VEB Machine Tool Factory was carried out in three stages: (1) part-specific manufacturing; (2) automated production line for manufacturing toothed gears; and (3) automated manufacturing section for short rotationally symmetric parts. The development of numerically controlled machine tools and of industrial robot technology made possible automated manufacturing. The design of current facilities is explored, manufacturing control is examined, experience is reported.

  5. Human-machine interactions

    DOEpatents

    Forsythe, J. Chris; Xavier, Patrick G.; Abbott, Robert G.; Brannon, Nathan G.; Bernard, Michael L.; Speed, Ann E.

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  6. Metalworking and machining fluids

    DOEpatents

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  7. Sealing intersecting vane machines

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Jedd N.; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

    2007-06-05

    The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through intersecting surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the width of one or both tracks at the point of intermeshing. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

  8. Sealing intersecting vane machines

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Jedd N.; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

    2005-06-07

    The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through intersecting surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the width of one or both tracks at the point of intermeshing. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

  9. A Function Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Dave

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a lesson he observed involving a function machine. This function machine was a box with a slot at the top of one side and a large cut-out hole at the bottom of the opposite side. A card with a number written on it (the input) was pushed into the slot and the teacher put their hand through the hole of the other…

  10. Opticam PM machine design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedes, Jyrki T.

    1992-12-01

    Rank Pneumo has worked with the Center for Optics Manufacturing and the Center's Manufacturing Advisory Board to design a multi-axis prism grinding machine. The Opticam PM is a three axis, high precision CNC reciprocating grinder. It is designed for the automated manufacturing of glass prisms. Unique features of the design incorporate electrolytic in- process dressing of the finishing wheel, nested grinding wheels and machine resident metrology to provide RQM (Real-time Quality Management).

  11. Could a machine think

    SciTech Connect

    Churchland, P.M.; Churchland, P.S. )

    1990-01-01

    There are many reasons for saying yes. One of the earliest and deepest reason lay in two important results in computational theory. The first was Church's thesis, which states that every effectively computable function is recursively computable. The second important result was Alan M. Turing's demonstration that any recursively computable function can be computed in finite time by a maximally simple sort of symbol-manipulating machine that has come to be called a universal Turing machine. This machine is guided by a set of recursively applicable rules that are sensitive to the identity, order and arrangement of the elementary symbols it encounters as input. The authors reject the Turing test as a sufficient condition for conscious intelligence. They base their position of the specific behavioral failures of the classical SM machines and on the specific virtues of machines with a more brain-like architecture. These contrasts show that certain computational strategies have vast and decisive advantages over others where typical cognitive tasks are concerned, advantages that are empirically inescapable. Clearly, the brain is making systematic use of these computational advantage. But it need not be the only physical system capable of doing so. Artificial intelligence, in a nonbiological but massively parallel machine, remain a compelling and discernible prospect.

  12. Electro-mechanical energy conversion system having a permanent magnet machine with stator, resonant transfer link and energy converter controls

    DOEpatents

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2006-01-10

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load comprising an energy converter device including a permanent magnet induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer to control the flow of power or energy through the permanent magnetic induction machine.

  13. Phenylalanine kinetics differ between formula-fed and human milk-fed preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Darling, Pauline B; Dunn, Michael; Gilani, G Sarwar; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B

    2004-10-01

    Infants fed casein-dominant formulas have higher plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations than those fed mother's milk. Conversely, elevated plasma threonine concentrations are observed in infants fed whey-dominant formulas. We recently showed that formula-fed preterm infants have a lower capacity to degrade threonine than do preterm infants fed mother's milk. We hypothesized that these same infants (n = 18) would differ in their catabolism of phenylalanine in response to phenylalanine loads provided by formulas with increasing casein content of formulas (whey:casein 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80) compared with preterm infants fed mother's milk. Plasma phenylalanine concentrations significantly rose (49, 46, 79 micromol . L(-1) for whey:casein 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80, respectively, pooled SD 8, P < 0.05); and plasma phenylalanine concentrations in infants fed mother's milk were low (40 +/- 4 micromol . L(-1)). Using [1-(13)C]phenylalanine tracer and (13)CO(2) production in breath we found that although there was a significant positive relation between phenylalanine oxidation and phenylalanine intake in formula-fed infants (r(2) = 0.43, P = 0.03), these infants were not able to increase their oxidation of phenylalanine enough to prevent a significant rise in plasma phenylalanine when fed the 20:80 formula. Compared to infants fed mother's milk, formula-fed infants had significantly lower phenylalanine oxidation (39.1 vs. 30.7% of phenylalanine intake, respectively, P < 0.05). We conclude that one of the mechanisms for the differences in plasma amino acid concentration between formula-fed and mother's milk-fed preterm infants may be in vivo down-regulated catabolism of 2 important essential amino acids (phenylalanine in addition to threonine) in formula-fed preterm infants.

  14. Improvements on transient characteristics of transverse flux homopolar linear machines using artificial knowledge-based strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.; Kuo, J.L.

    1995-06-01

    This paper, which continues the preceding works will provide further detailed discussions about both parasitic hunting-effect alleviation of transverse flux homopolar linear induction machine (TFLIM), and improvement on closed-loop transient characteristics of transverse flux homopolar linear oscillating machine (TFLOM). Novel artificial knowledge-based compensators are proposed here to solve above problems for these time-varying and highly nonlinear machine systems. It will be shown that not only this approach is easy of practical implementation, but also the involved design tasks of such compensators are applicable for other linear machine control objectives. Illustrations and verifications will be supplied to confirm the graceful features of this intelligent strategy.

  15. Direct reading inductance meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolby, R. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A direct reading inductance meter comprised of a crystal oscillator and an LC tuned oscillator is presented. The oscillators function respectively to generate a reference frequency, f(r), and to generate an initial frequency, f(0), which when mixed produce a difference equal to zero. Upon connecting an inductor of small unknown value in the LC circuit to change its resonant frequency to f(x), a difference frequency (f(r)-f(x)) is produced that is very nearly a linear function of the inductance of the inductor. The difference frequency is measured and displayed on a linear scale in units of inductance.

  16. The induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redinz, José Arnaldo

    2015-09-01

    We obtain analytical expressions for the torques and angular speed of an induction motor with a simple geometry, resembling the geometry of the first induction motor investigated by Arago in 1824. The rotor is a conducting disc rotating between the magnetic poles of two off-axis solenoids, displaced in space by 90^\\circ from each other. We apply our results to discuss a theory for the ubiquitous electromechanical watt-hour meter. For comparison of the theoretical result for the angular speed with measurements, we propose a simple experiment in which an induction motor with an aluminum disc rotor is constructed.

  17. Electromagnetic induction in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilley, F. E. M.

    Electromagnetic induction at the terrestrial surface is a general and ubiquitous process. This note, which covers research on the subject in Australia, reflects the writer's own interest and refers particularly to induction by natural source fields in the period range of 1 minute to 1 day.Such source fields arise external to Earth, in the ionosphere and beyond, in the magnetosphere. The process of electromagnetic induction by these fields involves the flow through Earth of tens of thousands of amperes, over scale lengths of thousands of kilometers.

  18. The Knife Machine. Module 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the knife machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers one topic: performing special operations on the knife machine (a single needle or multi-needle machine which sews and cuts at the same time). These components are provided: an introduction, directions, an objective,…

  19. Feedback in sequential machine realizations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlow, C. A.; Coates, C. L., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A method is described for determining the realizability of a sequential machine with trigger or set-reset flip-flop memory elements when the feedback of the machine is given by a Boolean function. Feedbacks in several types of sequential machines with different memory elements are compared, showing the memory specifications allowing the realization of such machines.

  20. Alternate carbohydrate and nontraditional inducer leads to increased productivity of a collagen binding domain fusion protein via fed-batch fermentation.

    PubMed

    Fruchtl, McKinzie; Sakon, Joshua; Beitle, Robert

    2016-05-20

    The production of collagen binding domain fusion proteins is of significant importance because of their potential as therapeutic biomaterials. It was previously reported that the expression of collagen-binding domain fusion proteins in Escherichia coli was higher when expressed using lactose as an inducer and chemically defined growth media on a shake flask scale. In an effort to further investigate factors that affect expression levels on a fed-batch scale, alternative induction techniques were tested in conjunction with fed-batch fermentation. In this paper, we discuss ten fed-batch fermentation experiments utilizing either glucose or glycerol feed and using lactose or isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) as an induction source. It was found that glycerol-fed fermentations induced with lactose allowed for greater expression of target protein, though lesser cell densities were achieved.

  1. Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) software system

    SciTech Connect

    Dirks, J.A.; Wrench, L.E.

    1993-08-01

    The Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) Model is under development at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory. FEDS is a multi-level energy analysis software system designed to provide a comprehensive approach to fuel-neutral, technology-independent, integrated (energy) resource planning and acquisition. The FEDS system includes Level-1, a top-down, first-pass energy systems analysis and energy resource acquisition decision software model for buildings and facilities; and the Level-2 software model, which allows specific engineering inputs and provides detailed output. FEDS Level-1 is a user-friendly, DOS-based, menu-driven software program for assessing the energy efficiency resource at a large federal installation. It uses high-level installation information (number, age, size, and types of buildings and energy systems), an internal data base of typical energy-system configurations and performance data, and sophisticated energy simulation and optimization models to estimate the net present value of potential energy retrofits in federal installations. The FEDS Level-1 analysis will typically be followed by a FEDS Level-2 analysis, which allows FEDS Level-1 information to be augmented with detailed energy-system information, and returns detailed project-by-project technology selection and economic information. FEDS Level-1 was released in October 1992. FEDS Level-2 is planned for release in October 1993. The first release which includes both levels will cover only building systems. The next release in early 1994 will cover other energy systems, including central heating and cooling plants and thermal distribution loops.

  2. Non-traditional machining techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Day, Robert D; Fierro, Frank; Garcia, Felix P; Hatch, Douglass J; Randolph, Randall B; Reardon, Patrick T; Rivera, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    During the course of machining targets for various experiments it sometimes becomes necessary to adapt fixtures or machines, which are designed for one function, to another function. When adapting a machine or fixture is not adequate, it may be necessary to acquire a machine specifically designed to produce the component required. In addition to the above scenarios, the features of a component may dictate that multi-step machining processes are necessary to produce the component. This paper discusses the machining of four components where adaptation, specialized machine design, or multi-step processes were necessary to produce the components.

  3. Using Induction to Refine Information Retrieval Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baudin, Catherine; Pell, Barney; Kedar, Smadar

    1994-01-01

    Conceptual information retrieval systems use structured document indices, domain knowledge and a set of heuristic retrieval strategies to match user queries with a set of indices describing the document's content. Such retrieval strategies increase the set of relevant documents retrieved (increase recall), but at the expense of returning additional irrelevant documents (decrease precision). Usually in conceptual information retrieval systems this tradeoff is managed by hand and with difficulty. This paper discusses ways of managing this tradeoff by the application of standard induction algorithms to refine the retrieval strategies in an engineering design domain. We gathered examples of query/retrieval pairs during the system's operation using feedback from a user on the retrieved information. We then fed these examples to the induction algorithm and generated decision trees that refine the existing set of retrieval strategies. We found that (1) induction improved the precision on a set of queries generated by another user, without a significant loss in recall, and (2) in an interactive mode, the decision trees pointed out flaws in the retrieval and indexing knowledge and suggested ways to refine the retrieval strategies.

  4. Induction heating coupler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Copeland, Carl E. (Inventor); Swaim, Robert J. (Inventor); Coultrip, Robert H. (Inventor); Johnston, David F. (Inventor); Phillips, W. Morris (Inventor); Johnson, Samuel D. (Inventor); Dinkins, James R. (Inventor); Buckley, John D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An induction heating device includes a handle having a hollow interior and two opposite ends, a wrist connected to one end of the handle, a U-shaped pole piece having two spaced apart ends, a tank circuit including an induction coil wrapped around the pole piece and a capacitor connected to the induction coil, a head connected to the wrist and including a housing for receiving the U-shaped pole piece, the two spaced apart ends of the pole piece extending outwardely beyond the housing, and a power source connected to the tank circuit. When the tank circuit is energized and a susceptor is placed in juxtaposition to the ends of the U-shaped pole piece, the susceptor is heated by induction heating due to magnetic flux passing between the two ends of the pole piece.

  5. Induction melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Roach, Jay A [Idaho Falls, ID; Richardson, John G [Idaho Falls, ID; Raivo, Brian D [Idaho Falls, ID; Soelberg, Nicholas R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-06-17

    Apparatus and methods of operation are provided for a cold-crucible-induction melter for vitrifying waste wherein a single induction power supply may be used to effect a selected thermal distribution by independently energizing at least two inductors. Also, a bottom drain assembly may be heated by an inductor and may include an electrically resistive heater. The bottom drain assembly may be cooled to solidify molten material passing therethrough to prevent discharge of molten material therefrom. Configurations are provided wherein the induction flux skin depth substantially corresponds with the central longitudinal axis of the crucible. Further, the drain tube may be positioned within the induction flux skin depth in relation to material within the crucible or may be substantially aligned with a direction of flow of molten material within the crucible. An improved head design including four shells forming thermal radiation shields and at least two gas-cooled plenums is also disclosed.

  6. Enhancing Induction Coil Reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreter, K.; Goldstein, R.; Yakey, C.; Nemkov, V.

    2014-12-01

    In induction hardening, thermal fatigue is one of the main copper failure modes of induction heat treating coils. There have been papers published that describe this failure mode and others that describe some good design practices. The variables previously identified as the sources of thermal fatigue include radiation from the part surface, frequency, current, concentrator losses, water pressure and coil wall thickness. However, there is very little quantitative data on the factors that influence thermal fatigue in induction coils is available in the public domain. By using finite element analysis software this study analyzes the effect of common design variables of inductor cooling, and quantifies the relative importance of these variables. A comprehensive case study for a single shot induction coil with Fluxtrol A concentrator applied is used for the analysis.

  7. Silicon on Raised Insulator Field Effect Diode Sori-Fed for Alleviating Scaling Problem in Fed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadizadeh, Mahdi; Fathipour, Morteza; Darvish, Ghafar

    2014-12-01

    One of the main shortcomings in a field effect diode (FED) is its scaling. Use of an oxide layer in the channel is proposed to enhance the control of the gate on the channel carriers. This is the so-called silicon on raised insulator FED (SORI-FFD) structure. The Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) mechanism is one of the main components of leakage current in FED devices. The potential induced by the gates in the OFF-state of a SORI-FFD, is larger than that induced by the gates of a regular FED. This reduces, SRH recombination rate. Hence, OFF-state characteristics of the SORI-FED device improves. We evaluate the impact of band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) on the electrical characteristics of Modified FED (M-FED).We show that for channel lengths of 35 nm and lower this device does not turn off. While, the proposed structure makes device channel length scaling possible down to 15 nm. We will also compare electrical characteristics of SORI-FED and M-FED using three metrics: gate delay time versus channel length, gate delay time versus ION/IOFF ratio and energy-delay product versus channel length. Benchmarking results show the proposed FED structure provides improvement in ION/IOFF ratio and holds promise for future logic transistor applications.

  8. FED-A, an advanced performance FED based on low safety factor and current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yueng Kay Martin; Rutherford, P. H.; Hogan, J.T.; Attenberger, S. E.; Holmes, J.A.; Borowski, S. K.; Brown, T. G.; Carreras, B. A.; Ehst, D. A.; Haines, J.R.; Hively, L. M.; Houlberg, Wayne A; Iida, H.; Lee, V. D.; Lynch, S.J.; Reid, R. L.; Rothe, K. E.; Strickler, Dennis J; Stewart, L. D.

    1983-08-01

    This document is one of four describing studies performed in FY 1982 within the context of the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) Program for the Office of Fusion Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. The documents are: 1. FED Baseline Engineering Studies (ORNL/FEDC-82/2), 2. FED-A, An Advanced Performance FED Based on Low Safety Factor and Current Drive (this document), 3. FED-R, A Fusion Device Utilizing Resistive Magnets (ORNL/FEDC-82/1), and 4. Technology Demonstration Facility TDF. These studies extend the FED Baseline concept of FY 1981 and develop innovative and alternative concepts for the FED. The FED-A study project was carried out as part of the Innovative and Alternative Tokamak FED studies, under the direction of P. H. Rutherford, which were part of the national FED program during FY 1982. The studies were performed jointly by senior scientists in the magnetic fusion community and the staff of the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC). Y-K. M. Peng of the FEDC, on assignment from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, served as the design manager.

  9. Metabolomic analysis of survival in carbohydrate pre-fed pigs subjected to shock and polytrauma.

    PubMed

    Witowski, Nancy E; Lusczek, Elizabeth R; Determan, Charles E; Lexcen, Daniel R; Mulier, Kristine E; Wolf, Andrea; Ostrowski, Beverly G; Beilman, Greg J

    2016-04-26

    Hemorrhagic shock, a result of extensive blood loss, is a dominant factor in battlefield morbidity and mortality. Early rodent studies in hemorrhagic shock reported carbohydrate feeding prior to the induction of hemorrhagic shock decreased mortality. When repeated in our laboratory with a porcine model, carbohydrate pre-feed resulted in a 60% increase in death rate following hemorrhagic shock with trauma when compared to fasted animals (15/32 or 47% vs. 9/32 or 28%). In an attempt to explain the unexpected death rate for pre-fed animals, we further investigated the metabolic profiles of pre-fed non-survivors (n = 15) across 4 compartments (liver, muscle, serum, and urine) at specific time intervals (pre-shock, shock, and resuscitation) and compared them to pre-fed survivors (n = 17). As hypothesized, pre-fed pigs that died as a result of hemorrhage and trauma showed differences in their metabolic and physiologic profiles at all time intervals and in all compartments when compared to pre-fed survivors. Our data suggest that, although all animals were subjected to the same shock and trauma protocol, non-survivors exhibited altered carbohydrate processing as early as the pre-shock sampling point. This was evident in (for example) the higher levels of ATP and markers of greater anabolic activity in the muscle at the pre-shock time point. Based on the metabolic findings, we propose two mechanisms that connect pre-fed status to a higher death rate: (1) animals that die are more susceptible to opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, a major factor in ischemia/reperfusion injury; and (2) loss of fasting-associated survival mechanisms in pre-fed animals.

  10. Induction launcher design considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driga, M. D.; Weldon, W. F.

    1989-01-01

    New concepts in the design of induction accelerators and their power supplies for space and military applications are discussed. Particular attention is given to a piecewise-rising-frequency power supply in which each elementary generator (normal compulsator or rising frequency generator) has a different base frequency. A preliminary design of a coaxial induction accelerator for a hypersonic real gas facility is discussed to illustrate the concepts described.

  11. Linear induction accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Buttram, M.T.; Ginn, J.W.

    1988-06-21

    A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities. 4 figs.

  12. Malformations of dorsal induction.

    PubMed

    Kanekar, Sangam; Kaneda, Heather; Shively, Alexis

    2011-06-01

    Dorsal induction includes the formation and closure of neural tube, occurs during 3-5 weeks of gestation. Neurulation occurs in two phases, primary neurulation (formation of the neural plate and subsequently neural tube) and secondary neurulation (formation of distal cord and sacral and coccygeal segments). Failure of dorsal induction leads to anencephaly, exencephaly, cephaloceles, Chiari malformation and spinal dysraphism. In this article we discuss the relevant embryology, etiopathology and detail imaging appearances of these malformations.

  13. Thyristor-based current-fed drive with direct power control for permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, J.; Kwak, S.-S.; Toliyat, H. A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes a robust and simple direct power control (DPC) of a thyristor-based current-fed drive for generator applications. A current-fed drive and permanent magnet-assisted synchronous reluctance generator (PMa-SynRG) are investigated to deliver 3 kW power using a combustion engine. The current-fed drive utilises a thyristor-based three-phase rectifier to convert generator power to DC-link power and a single-phase current-fed inverter to supply a single-phase inductive load. In addition, a new control algorithm is developed based on DPC for the current-fed drive. The DC-link voltage-based DPC is proposed in order to directly control the output power. The goal of the DPC is to maintain the DC-link voltage at the required output power operating point. The DPC has advantages such as a simple algorithm for constant speed operation. Another feature of the developed current-fed drive is its inherent capability to provide generating action by making the PMa-SynRG operates as a generator, rectifying the phase voltages by means of the three-phase rectifier and feeding the power into the load. These features make the current-fed drive a good candidate for driving any type of synchronous generators including the proposed PMa-SynRG.

  14. The Bearingless Electrical Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bichsel, J.

    1992-01-01

    Electromagnetic bearings allow the suspension of solids. For rotary applications, the most important physical effect is the force of a magnetic circuit to a high permeable armature, called the MAXWELL force. Contrary to the commonly used MAXWELL bearings, the bearingless electrical machine will take advantage of the reaction force of a conductor carrying a current in a magnetic field. This kind of force, called Lorentz force, generates the torque in direct current, asynchronous and synchronous machines. The magnetic field, which already exists in electrical machines and helps to build up the torque, can also be used for the suspension of the rotor. Besides the normal winding of the stator, a special winding was added, which generates forces for levitation. So a radial bearing, which is integrated directly in the active part of the machine, and the motor use the laminated core simultaneously. The winding was constructed for the levitating forces in a special way so that commercially available standard ac inverters for drives can be used. Besides wholly magnetic suspended machines, there is a wide range of applications for normal drives with ball bearings. Resonances of the rotor, especially critical speeds, can be damped actively.

  15. Non Contact Measuring Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Fernando D.; Sebastiao, Pedro; Henriques, Bernardo G.

    1989-01-01

    One of the problems of the production of cables is the measurement of the thickness plastic cover at the production line. If for some reason the thickness of the plastic is smaller than the minimum necessary several meters of cable may be lost. If the problem exists in the middle of a long cable and the default is not detected in time, the loss will be significant. To solve this problem it is possible to use automatic measuring machines which may detect a default as soon as it happens. It is also possible to interact with the production line in order to avoid any losses. In this paper it is presented a non contact measuring machine, developed for this purpose. The machine uses a laser which is scanned through a field of 80 mm. The interruption of the beam gives information about the external dimension of the object. The technical study of the resolution, sensitivity and precision are presented on the paper. Also the hardware solution and the software are presented. The machine has an interface which allows communication with a PC. The PC may receive information from several measuring units and to interact with machines installed at the production line. The prototype is finished and is going to be tested in the industry.

  16. Extreme ultraviolet lithography machine

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, D.A.; Kubiak, G.D.; Haney, S.J.; Sweeney, D.W.

    2000-02-29

    An extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system is disclosed for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10--14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.

  17. Extreme ultraviolet lithography machine

    DOEpatents

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Haney, Steven J.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    2000-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10-14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.

  18. Meso-Machining Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    BENAVIDES,GILBERT L.; ADAMS,DAVID P.; YANG,PIN

    2001-06-01

    Meso-scale manufacturing processes are bridging the gap between silicon-based MEMS processes and conventional miniature machining. These processes can fabricate two and three-dimensional parts having micron size features in traditional materials such as stainless steels, rare earth magnets, ceramics, and glass. Meso-scale processes that are currently available include, focused ion beam sputtering, micro-milling, micro-turning, excimer laser ablation, femtosecond laser ablation, and micro electro discharge machining. These meso-scale processes employ subtractive machining technologies (i.e., material removal), unlike LIGA, which is an additive meso-scale process. Meso-scale processes have different material capabilities and machining performance specifications. Machining performance specifications of interest include minimum feature size, feature tolerance, feature location accuracy, surface finish, and material removal rate. Sandia National Laboratories is developing meso-scale mechanical components and actuators which require meso-scale parts fabricated in a variety of materials. Subtractive meso-scale manufacturing processes expand the functionality of meso-scale components and complement silicon based MEMS and LIGA technologies.

  19. Flight Experiment Demonstration System (FEDS) functional description and interface document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, R. C.; Shank, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    This document presents a functional description of the Flight Experiment Demonstration System (FEDS) and of interfaces between FEDS and external hardware and software. FEDS is a modification of the Automated Orbit Determination System (AODS). FEDS has been developed to support a ground demonstration of microprocessor-based onboard orbit determination. This document provides an overview of the structure and logic of FEDS and details the various operational procedures to build and execute FEDS. It also documents a microprocessor interface between FEDS and a TDRSS user transponder and describes a software simulator of the interface used in the development and system testing of FEDS.

  20. Machinable oxide ceramic

    SciTech Connect

    Rayne, R.J.; Toth, L.E.; Jones, L.D.; Soulen, R.J. Jr.; Bender, B.A.

    1993-06-01

    A method of forming a machinable bulk superconductor by melt-casting the described comprising the steps of: weighing out amounts of powdered SrCO[sub 3], CuO, CaCO[sub 3], and Bi[sub 2]O[sub 3] for the desired stoichiometry of the superconductor; combining the amounts of Bi[sub 2]O[sub 3], SrCO[sub 3], CuO and CaCO[sub 3] to form a mixture of uniform color; removing the carbonates in the mixture; heating the mixture until the mixture melts completely, to form a melt; pouring the melt into a preheated, non-reactive mold; cooling the melted mixture in the mold to room temperature, to form a casting; inducing a superconducting phase having randomly oriented platelets within the casting; and machining, by a metal cutting technique, said casting having said induced superconducting phase; wherein said machining step is performed with a steel tool.

  1. Micro-machined resonator

    DOEpatents

    Godshall, Ned A.; Koehler, Dale R.; Liang, Alan Y.; Smith, Bradley K.

    1993-01-01

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  2. Micro-machined resonator

    DOEpatents

    Godshall, N.A.; Koehler, D.R.; Liang, A.Y.; Smith, B.K.

    1993-03-30

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  3. Soft Computing Application in Fault Detection of Induction Motor

    SciTech Connect

    Konar, P.; Puhan, P. S.; Chattopadhyay, P. Dr.

    2010-10-26

    The paper investigates the effectiveness of different patter classifier like Feed Forward Back Propagation (FFBPN), Radial Basis Function (RBF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) for detection of bearing faults in Induction Motor. The steady state motor current with Park's Transformation has been used for discrimination of inner race and outer race bearing defects. The RBF neural network shows very encouraging results for multi-class classification problems and is hoped to set up a base for incipient fault detection of induction motor. SVM is also found to be a very good fault classifier which is highly competitive with RBF.

  4. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOEpatents

    Strand, O.T.; Lowry, M.E.

    1999-01-05

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectronic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems. 26 figs.

  5. Automated fiber pigtailing machine

    DOEpatents

    Strand, Oliver T.; Lowry, Mark E.

    1999-01-01

    The Automated Fiber Pigtailing Machine (AFPM) aligns and attaches optical fibers to optoelectonic (OE) devices such as laser diodes, photodiodes, and waveguide devices without operator intervention. The so-called pigtailing process is completed with sub-micron accuracies in less than 3 minutes. The AFPM operates unattended for one hour, is modular in design and is compatible with a mass production manufacturing environment. This machine can be used to build components which are used in military aircraft navigation systems, computer systems, communications systems and in the construction of diagnostics and experimental systems.

  6. New photolithography stepping machine

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, L.; Klingmann, J.; Markle, D.

    1995-03-08

    A joint development project to design a new photolithography steeping machine capable of 150 nanometer overlay accuracy was completed by Ultratech Stepper and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The principal result of the project is a next-generation product that will strengthen the US position in step-and-repeat photolithography. The significant challenges addressed and solved in the project are the subject of this report. Design methods and new devices that have broader application to precision machine design are presented in greater detail while project specific information serves primarily as background and motivation.

  7. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  8. Precision Robotic Assembly Machine

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-14

    The world's largest laser system is the National Ignition Facility (NIF), located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. NIF's 192 laser beams are amplified to extremely high energy, and then focused onto a tiny target about the size of a BB, containing frozen hydrogen gas. The target must be perfectly machined to incredibly demanding specifications. The Laboratory's scientists and engineers have developed a device called the "Precision Robotic Assembly Machine" for this purpose. Its unique design won a prestigious R&D-100 award from R&D Magazine.

  9. Intersecting vane machines

    DOEpatents

    Bailey, H. Sterling; Chomyszak, Stephen M.

    2007-01-16

    The invention provides a toroidal intersecting vane machine incorporating intersecting rotors to form primary and secondary chambers whose porting configurations minimize friction and maximize efficiency. Specifically, it is an object of the invention to provide a toroidal intersecting vane machine that greatly reduces the frictional losses through meshing surfaces without the need for external gearing by modifying the function of one or the other of the rotors from that of "fluid moving" to that of "valving" thereby reducing the pressure loads and associated inefficiencies at the interface of the meshing surfaces. The inventions described herein relate to these improvements.

  10. Paradigms for machine learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlimmer, Jeffrey C.; Langley, Pat

    1991-01-01

    Five paradigms are described for machine learning: connectionist (neural network) methods, genetic algorithms and classifier systems, empirical methods for inducing rules and decision trees, analytic learning methods, and case-based approaches. Some dimensions are considered along with these paradigms vary in their approach to learning, and the basic methods are reviewed that are used within each framework, together with open research issues. It is argued that the similarities among the paradigms are more important than their differences, and that future work should attempt to bridge the existing boundaries. Finally, some recent developments in the field of machine learning are discussed, and their impact on both research and applications is examined.

  11. Induction in a Modular Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Susanne E.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a theory of inductive learning--Autonomous Induction Theory--a form of induction that takes place within the autonomous and modular representational systems of the language faculty. Argues that Autonomous Induction Theory is constrained enough to be taken seriously as a plausible approach to explaining second language acquisition.…

  12. Mothers' experiences of induction

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Ann

    1977-01-01

    Mothers of a random sample of 2182 legitimate live births were interviewed about their experiences of pregnancy, labour, and delivery. Of these, 24% reported that their labours were induced, and data about this from a subsample of mothers tallied with information obtained through the doctors in charge in 88% of cases. All but 3% of the mothers who were induced perceived some medical reason for the induction. The proportion of inductions in the 24 study areas ranged from 6% to 39%. A relatively small proportion of labours in “teaching” hospitals, small hospitals with less than 100 beds, and GP maternity hospitals were induced, but a comparatively high proportion of private patients had an induction. There was no clear association between induction and the mother's age or parity. Despite being given more pain relief, those who were induced reported similar intensities of pain during the first and second stages of labour to those whose labour started spontaneously; they also reported that they had “bad pains” for a similar period. The period they had contractions was shorter for the induced than for those starting spontaneously, and the intensity of pain at delivery was rated somewhat less by those who were induced. There was no difference between induced babies and others in the proportion who were held by their mothers immediately after their birth. Two-fifths of the mothers who were induced would have liked more information about induction; and a similar proportion said they had not discussed induction with a doctor, midwife, or nurse during their pregnancy. Only 17% of the mothers who had an induction said they would prefer to be induced if they had another baby. This contrasts with 63% of those who had epidural analgesia who would opt for the same procedure next time, while 83% of those who had had a baby in hospital, and 91% of those having had a home birth, would want their next baby in the same type of place. PMID:912282

  13. Machine speech and speaking about machines

    SciTech Connect

    Nye, A.

    1996-12-31

    Current philosophy of language prides itself on scientific status. It boasts of being no longer contaminated with queer mental entities or idealist essences. It theorizes language as programmable variants of formal semantic systems, reimaginable either as the properly epiphenomenal machine functions of computer science or the properly material neural networks of physiology. Whether or not such models properly capture the physical workings of a living human brain is a question that scientists will have to answer. I, as a philosopher, come at the problem from another direction. Does contemporary philosophical semantics, in its dominant truth-theoretic and related versions, capture actual living human thought as it is experienced, or does it instead reflect, regardless of (perhaps dubious) scientific credentials, pathology of thought, a pathology with a disturbing social history.

  14. 12. Photocopied August 1978. CHANNELING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 1898. THESE MACHINES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photocopied August 1978. CHANNELING MACHINES, NOVEMBER 1898. THESE MACHINES BLOCKED OUT SECTIONS IN THE ROCK CUT IN PREPARATION FOR DRILLING AND BLASTING. (17) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  15. BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BRASS FOUNDRY MACHINE ROOM USED TO MACHINE CAST BRONZE PIECES FOR VALVES AND PREPARE BRONZE VALVE BODIES FOR ASSEMBLY. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Brass Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  16. 14. Machine in north 1922 section of Building 59. Machine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Machine in north 1922 section of Building 59. Machine is 24' Jointer made by Oliver Machinery Co. Camera pointed E. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Pattern Shop, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  17. A Turing Machine Simulator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Aaron B.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a program in Level II BASIC for a TRS-80 computer that simulates a Turing machine and discusses the nature of the device. The program is run interactively and is designed to be used as an educational tool by computer science or mathematics students studying computational or automata theory. (MP)

  18. Support vector machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garay, Michael J.; Mazzoni, Dominic; Davies, Roger; Wagstaff, Kiri

    2004-01-01

    Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are a type of supervised learning algorith,, other examples of which are Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Decision Trees, and Naive Bayesian Classifiers. Supervised learning algorithms are used to classify objects labled by a 'supervisor' - typically a human 'expert.'.

  19. Electrical discharge machining.

    PubMed

    LaBarge, K W

    1997-11-01

    This article describes a laboratory technique of achieving the highest degree of passive fit of an implant-retained restoration using electric discharge machining (EDM). This process can save time by eliminating the need for conventional soldering procedures, increase the longevity of the restoration, and when used along with the clinical technique of fabricating a verification index, eliminate the clinical try-in phase.

  20. Laser machining of explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.; Banks, Paul S.; Myers, Booth R.; Sefcik, Joseph A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  1. Cybernetic anthropomorphic machine systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    Functional descriptions are provided for a number of cybernetic man machine systems that augment the capacity of normal human beings in the areas of strength, reach or physical size, and environmental interaction, and that are also applicable to aiding the neurologically handicapped. Teleoperators, computer control, exoskeletal devices, quadruped vehicles, space maintenance systems, and communications equipment are considered.

  2. Working with Simple Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, John W.

    2006-01-01

    A set of examples is provided that illustrate the use of work as applied to simple machines. The ramp, pulley, lever and hydraulic press are common experiences in the life of a student, and their theoretical analysis therefore makes the abstract concept of work more real. The mechanical advantage of each of these systems is also discussed so that…

  3. Biomimetic machine vision system.

    PubMed

    Harman, William M; Barrett, Steven F; Wright, Cameron H G; Wilcox, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Real-time application of digital imaging for use in machine vision systems has proven to be prohibitive when used within control systems that employ low-power single processors without compromising the scope of vision or resolution of captured images. Development of a real-time machine analog vision system is the focus of research taking place at the University of Wyoming. This new vision system is based upon the biological vision system of the common house fly. Development of a single sensor is accomplished, representing a single facet of the fly's eye. This new sensor is then incorporated into an array of sensors capable of detecting objects and tracking motion in 2-D space. This system "preprocesses" incoming image data resulting in minimal data processing to determine the location of a target object. Due to the nature of the sensors in the array, hyperacuity is achieved thereby eliminating resolutions issues found in digital vision systems. In this paper, we will discuss the biological traits of the fly eye and the specific traits that led to the development of this machine vision system. We will also discuss the process of developing an analog based sensor that mimics the characteristics of interest in the biological vision system. This paper will conclude with a discussion of how an array of these sensors can be applied toward solving real-world machine vision issues.

  4. Electrical Discharge Machining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, C. M.

    The manual is for use by students learning electrical discharge machining (EDM). It consists of eight units divided into several lessons, each designed to meet one of the stated objectives for the unit. The units deal with: introduction to and advantages of EDM, the EDM process, basic components of EDM, reaction between forming tool and workpiece,…

  5. Machine-Aided Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Charles R.

    Progress is reported at the 1,000,000 word level on the development of a partial syntatic analysis technique for indexing text. A new indexing subroutine for hyphens is provided. New grammars written and programmed for Machine Aided Indexing (MAI) are discussed. (ED 069 290 is a related document) (Author)

  6. The Art Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vertelney, Harry; Grossberger, Lucia

    1983-01-01

    Introduces educators to possibilities of computer graphics using an inexpensive computer system which takes advantage of existing equipment (35mm camera, super 8 movie camera, VHS video cassette recorder). The concept of the "art machine" is explained, highlighting input and output devices (X-Y plotter, graphic tablets, video digitizers). (EJS)

  7. The Answer Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Discusses information retrieval systems and the need to have them adapt to user needs, integrate information in any format, reveal patterns and trends in information, and answer questions. Topics include statistics and probability; natural language processing; intelligent agents; concept mapping; machine-aided indexing; text mining; filtering;…

  8. Giving Machines the Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Amherst Systems manufactures foveal machine vision technology and systems commercially available to end-users and system integrators. This technology was initially developed under NASA contracts NAS9-19335 (Johnson Space Center) and NAS1-20841 (Langley Research Center). This technology is currently being delivered to university research facilities and military sites. More information may be found in www.amherst.com.

  9. Wrapper Induction Software

    2011-08-18

    Wrapper Induction is a software package that allows for unsupervised, semi-supervised, and manual extraction of social media data independent of language or site architecture. A large range of blog formats is available to individuals as means of publishing data to the internet. Blogs are a source of rich information for analysts. With a growing volume of information and blog engines, there is an increased need for automatic or semi-automatic extraction of that data for processingmore » to help deliver results to analysts. Wrapper Induction is designed to automatically or semi-automatically create a template that can be used to harvest blog data from websites. Blogs are in a variety of formats and languages. Wrapper Induction creates a template and extracts blog data in a way that is independent of a specified blog format or language.« less

  10. Wrapper Induction Software

    SciTech Connect

    2011-08-18

    Wrapper Induction is a software package that allows for unsupervised, semi-supervised, and manual extraction of social media data independent of language or site architecture. A large range of blog formats is available to individuals as means of publishing data to the internet. Blogs are a source of rich information for analysts. With a growing volume of information and blog engines, there is an increased need for automatic or semi-automatic extraction of that data for processing to help deliver results to analysts. Wrapper Induction is designed to automatically or semi-automatically create a template that can be used to harvest blog data from websites. Blogs are in a variety of formats and languages. Wrapper Induction creates a template and extracts blog data in a way that is independent of a specified blog format or language.

  11. 8. VIEW OF THE MACHINE SHOP. BY 1966, THE MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF THE MACHINE SHOP. BY 1966, THE MACHINE SHOP HANDLED PRIMARILY STAINLESS STEEL COMPONENTS, WHICH WERE SENT TO THE MACHINE SHOP TO BE FORMED INTO THEIR FINAL SHAPES. (7/24/70) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  12. Progress in Documentation: Machine Translation and Machine-Aided Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the prospects for fully automatic machine translation of good quality. Sections include history and background, operational and experimental machine translation systems of recent years, descriptions of interactive systems and machine-assisted translation, and a general survey of present problems and future possibilities. (VT)

  13. Induction powered biological radiosonde

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, T. B. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An induction powered implanted monitor for epidurally measuring intracranial pressure and telemetering the pressure information to a remote readout is disclosed. The monitor utilizes an inductance-capacitance (L-C) oscillator in which the C comprises a variable capacitance transducer, one electrode of which is a small stiff pressure responsive diaphragm. The oscillator is isolated from a transmitting tank circuit by a buffer circuit and all electric components in the implanted unit except an input and an output coil are shielded by a metal housing.

  14. Inductive Adder development

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.B.; Davis, B.B.; Bayless, J.

    1989-05-01

    TITAN has successfully developed an Inductive Adder for use with a Hewlett-Packard Model 43734A Marx pulser. The unit provides an 800 kV peak output pulse to a modified HP 5081-9551 1 MV x-ray tube. The tube fits into the adder unit, and can thus be remotely operated. It delivers a peak on-axis dose of 35 mR at a one meter distance. Supporting radiography analyses, a description of the inductive adder approach and construction, and detailed test data are presented.

  15. Tattoo machines, needles and utilities.

    PubMed

    Rosenkilde, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Starting out as a professional tattooist back in 1977 in Copenhagen, Denmark, Frank Rosenkilde has personally experienced the remarkable development of tattoo machines, needles and utilities: all the way from home-made equipment to industrial products of substantially improved quality. Machines can be constructed like the traditional dual-coil and single-coil machines or can be e-coil, rotary and hybrid machines, with the more convenient and precise rotary machines being the recent trend. This development has resulted in disposable needles and utilities. Newer machines are more easily kept clean and protected with foil to prevent crosscontaminations and infections. The machines and the tattooists' knowledge and awareness about prevention of infection have developed hand-in-hand. For decades, Frank Rosenkilde has been collecting tattoo machines. Part of his collection is presented here, supplemented by his personal notes. PMID:25833620

  16. Transcriptomic profiling of spleen in grass-fed and grain-fed Angus cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The grass-fed cattle obtain nutrients directly from pastures containing limited assimilable energy but abundant amount of fiber; by contrast, grain-fed steers receive a diet that is comprised mainly of grains and serves as an efficient source of high-digestible energy. Besides energy, these two type...

  17. Outcome Differences between Breast-Fed and Bottle-Fed Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Sandra K.; And Others

    DiPietro, Larson, and Porges (1987) found behavioral and physiological differences between breast-fed and bottle-fed newborns. It was suggested that breast-feeding is associated with more optimal physiological organization and with increased irritable reactivity early in the neonatal period. The present study investigated whether breast-fed…

  18. Relationship of Breast-fed and Bottle-fed First Grade Students and I.Q.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Danette

    Previous studies have indicated some support for the hypothesis that breast feeding has a positive effect on intelligence and attainment among young children. This study examined the effects of breast-feeding versus bottle-feeding on the intelligence quotients (IQs) of first graders. A total of 26 breast-fed and 26 bottle-fed first graders from an…

  19. Automatically-Programed Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purves, L.; Clerman, N.

    1985-01-01

    Software produces cutter location files for numerically-controlled machine tools. APT, acronym for Automatically Programed Tools, is among most widely used software systems for computerized machine tools. APT developed for explicit purpose of providing effective software system for programing NC machine tools. APT system includes specification of APT programing language and language processor, which executes APT statements and generates NC machine-tool motions specified by APT statements.

  20. Machine Shop Fundamentals: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael G.; And Others

    These instructional materials were developed and designed for secondary and adult limited English proficient students enrolled in machine tool technology courses. Part 1 includes 24 lessons covering introduction, safety and shop rules, basic machine tools, basic machine operations, measurement, basic blueprint reading, layout, and bench tools.…

  1. Hydraulic Fatigue-Testing Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodo, James D.; Moore, Dennis R.; Morris, Thomas F.; Tiller, Newton G.

    1987-01-01

    Fatigue-testing machine applies fluctuating tension to number of specimens at same time. When sample breaks, machine continues to test remaining specimens. Series of tensile tests needed to determine fatigue properties of materials performed more rapidly than in conventional fatigue-testing machine.

  2. Association installs condom machine.

    PubMed

    1994-08-01

    On the occasion of World Population Day (11 July), India installed its first condom vending machine. The machine was inaugurated by Mr. Eruch Lala, an official of the Family Planning Association of India, as part of the association's campaign to help the country curb its rapid population growth rate and stem the spread of AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). Each condom, called sangam ("union" in English) costs Rupees 2 (about 6.5 US cents). The machine is located at a textile mill in Bombay. The Association said it would install at least 60 such machines in Bombay over the coming months. "A psychological advantage of the machine is that the user need not personally meet the dispenser and can collect a condom without any embarrassment," Mr. Lala said. "The machine is expected to promote efforts at curbing population growth and prevent the spread of AIDS," he said. In a separate report, AIDS has been found to be racing through India just eight years after the first case was detected. Prostitutes, drug addicts and untested blood supplies are the conduits. More than half of the prostitutes in cities such as Bombay have HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), which causes AIDS. The truck drivers and itinerant workers they serve carry it to their own villages, according to the report by Mr. Thomas Wagner writing for the Associated Press. There are 43 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases reported each year in the country, according to the report. The HIV virus has been reported in all 25 states of India. Although the AIDS pandemic came to India later than most large countries, the National AIDS Control Organization estimates there are 1.62 million cases in the population, up 60% from 1993, according to the report. "AIDS is no longer just a problem of high-risk groups; it has spread to every area of India," Dr. P.R. Das Gupta of the national AIDS agency said in an interview. "So many people are migrating from their villages in search of jobs that this

  3. Prediction of Machine Tool Condition Using Support Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peigong; Meng, Qingfeng; Zhao, Jian; Li, Junjie; Wang, Xiufeng

    2011-07-01

    Condition monitoring and predicting of CNC machine tools are investigated in this paper. Considering the CNC machine tools are often small numbers of samples, a condition predicting method for CNC machine tools based on support vector machines (SVMs) is proposed, then one-step and multi-step condition prediction models are constructed. The support vector machines prediction models are used to predict the trends of working condition of a certain type of CNC worm wheel and gear grinding machine by applying sequence data of vibration signal, which is collected during machine processing. And the relationship between different eigenvalue in CNC vibration signal and machining quality is discussed. The test result shows that the trend of vibration signal Peak-to-peak value in surface normal direction is most relevant to the trend of surface roughness value. In trends prediction of working condition, support vector machine has higher prediction accuracy both in the short term ('One-step') and long term (multi-step) prediction compared to autoregressive (AR) model and the RBF neural network. Experimental results show that it is feasible to apply support vector machine to CNC machine tool condition prediction.

  4. Using Continuity Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hathaway, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Here is a technique for proving the fundamental theorems of analysis that provides a unified way to pass from local properties to global properties on the real line, just as ordinary induction passes from local implication (if true for "k", the theorem is true for "k" + 1) to a global conclusion in the natural numbers.

  5. Induction and Well Ordering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinker, Aron

    1976-01-01

    In a pilot study of college students' understanding of mathematical induction, the author asked 2,320 students and 152 faculty members to determine whether eight statements were true or false. The difficulty of the statements was analyzed for subgroups of the population. (SD)

  6. Electron Induction Linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporaso, George J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan

    Electron induction linacs have been used for over four decades for a variety of applications. As discussed in Chap. 8, these include basic studies in magnetically confined fusion, transport of intense electron beams in various gases, the generation of electromagnetic radiation from free electron lasers, radiation processing of materials and food, and flash X-ray radiography sources.

  7. Iteration, Not Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this note is to present and justify proof via iteration as an intuitive, creative and empowering method that is often available and preferable as an alternative to proofs via either mathematical induction or the well-ordering principle. The method of iteration depends only on the fact that any strictly decreasing sequence of…

  8. Effect of Machining Velocity in Nanoscale Machining Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Sumaiya; Ibrahim, Raafat; Khondoker, Noman

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the generated forces and deformations of single crystal Cu with (100), (110) and (111) crystallographic orientations at nanoscale machining operation. A nanoindenter equipped with nanoscratching attachment was used for machining operations and in-situ observation of a nano scale groove. As a machining parameter, the machining velocity was varied to measure the normal and cutting forces. At a fixed machining velocity, different levels of normal and cutting forces were generated due to different crystallographic orientations of the specimens. Moreover, after machining operation percentage of elastic recovery was measured and it was found that both the elastic and plastic deformations were responsible for producing a nano scale groove within the range of machining velocities from 250-1000 nm/s.

  9. Acoustic sensor for real-time control for the inductive heating process

    DOEpatents

    Kelley, John Bruce; Lu, Wei-Yang; Zutavern, Fred J.

    2003-09-30

    Disclosed is a system and method for providing closed-loop control of the heating of a workpiece by an induction heating machine, including generating an acoustic wave in the workpiece with a pulsed laser; optically measuring displacements of the surface of the workpiece in response to the acoustic wave; calculating a sub-surface material property by analyzing the measured surface displacements; creating an error signal by comparing an attribute of the calculated sub-surface material properties with a desired attribute; and reducing the error signal below an acceptable limit by adjusting, in real-time, as often as necessary, the operation of the inductive heating machine.

  10. Distribution of temperature in the slot of an induction MHD pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishbergs, R.

    2007-09-01

    At thermal calculations of the induction MHD machines, the mean temperatures of main parts of the machine are often defined. Yet, with the increase of specific electromagnetic loads, with the use of new heat-resistant insulating materials and with the intention to use electrically short windings (a small number of poles that causes asymmetry of phase currents) in the pumps of mean power determining are the local temperature peaks in the winding, though the winding mean temperature is far from limiting. The paper considers the temperature distribution over the slot height in the induction MHD pump. Figs 2, Refs 13.

  11. Engineering molecular machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erman, Burak

    2016-04-01

    Biological molecular motors use chemical energy, mostly in the form of ATP hydrolysis, and convert it to mechanical energy. Correlated thermal fluctuations are essential for the function of a molecular machine and it is the hydrolysis of ATP that modifies the correlated fluctuations of the system. Correlations are consequences of the molecular architecture of the protein. The idea that synthetic molecular machines may be constructed by designing the proper molecular architecture is challenging. In their paper, Sarkar et al (2016 New J. Phys. 18 043006) propose a synthetic molecular motor based on the coarse grained elastic network model of proteins and show by numerical simulations that motor function is realized, ranging from deterministic to thermal, depending on temperature. This work opens up a new range of possibilities of molecular architecture based engine design.

  12. Wholly Synthetic Molecular Machines.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chuyang; Stoddart, J Fraser

    2016-06-17

    The past quarter of a century has witnessed an increasing engagement on the part of physicists and chemists in the design and synthesis of molecular machines de novo. This minireview traces the development of artificial molecular machines from their prototypes in the form of shuttles and switches to their emergence as motors and pumps where supplies of energy in the form of chemical fuel, electrochemical potential and light activation become a minimum requirement for them to function away from equilibrium. The challenge facing this rapidly growing community of scientists and engineers today is one of putting wholly synthetic molecules to work, both individually and as collections. Here, we highlight some of the recent conceptual and practical advances relating to the operation of wholly synthetic rotary and linear motors.

  13. Machinations of thought

    SciTech Connect

    Waldrop, M.M.

    1985-03-01

    After three decades of frustrating work, artificial intelligence is coming of age--moving out of the laboratories and into the marketplace. Expert systems, computer programs that give advice like a human specialist, are pinpointing mineral deposits and diagnosing diseases. Programs are taking shape that can do a pretty fair job of understanding plain English or French. Robotics will soon benefit from computer vision systems able to store a digitized photograph of an object or scene and recognize a good bit of what is there. As the more exuberant enthusiasts see it, we might soon have machines to advise us about our income taxes or the baby's fever; silicon tutors could help a child master the enthralling possibilities of geometry and numbers; trucks might drive themselves through the night and unload themselves at their destination. In short, we could one day have machines to do almost anything that now requires intelligence in a human.

  14. Pressure fed thrust chamber technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Glen M.

    1992-01-01

    This is the final report for the Pressure Fed Technology Program. It details the design, fabrication, and testing of subscale hardware which successfully characterized Liquid Oxygen Rocket Propulsion (LOX/RP) combustion for low cost pressure fed design. The innovative modular injector design is described in detail as well as hot-fire test results which showed excellent performance. The program summary identifies critical LOX/RP design issues that have been resolved in this testing, and details the low risk development requirements for low cost engines for future Expandable Launch Vehicles (ELV).

  15. Pressure fed thrust chamber technology program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Glenn M.

    1992-08-01

    This is the final report for the Pressure Fed Technology Program. It details the design, fabrication and testing of subscale hardware which successfully characterized LOX/RP combustion for a low cost pressure fed design. The innovative modular injector design is described in detail as well as hot-fire test results which showed excellent performance. The program summary identifies critical LOX/RP design issues that have been resolved by this testing, and details the low risk development requirements for a low cost engine for future Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELVi).

  16. Pressure fed thrust chamber technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Glenn M.

    1992-01-01

    This is the final report for the Pressure Fed Technology Program. It details the design, fabrication and testing of subscale hardware which successfully characterized LOX/RP combustion for a low cost pressure fed design. The innovative modular injector design is described in detail as well as hot-fire test results which showed excellent performance. The program summary identifies critical LOX/RP design issues that have been resolved by this testing, and details the low risk development requirements for a low cost engine for future Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELVi).

  17. A Boltzmann machine for the organization of intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moed, Michael C.; Saridis, George N.

    1989-01-01

    In the present technological society, there is a major need to build machines that would execute intelligent tasks operating in uncertain environments with minimum interaction with a human operator. Although some designers have built smart robots, utilizing heuristic ideas, there is no systematic approach to design such machines in an engineering manner. Recently, cross-disciplinary research from the fields of computers, systems AI and information theory has served to set the foundations of the emerging area of the design of intelligent machines. Since 1977 Saridis has been developing an approach, defined as Hierarchical Intelligent Control, designed to organize, coordinate and execute anthropomorphic tasks by a machine with minimum interaction with a human operator. This approach utilizes analytical (probabilistic) models to describe and control the various functions of the intelligent machine structured by the intuitively defined principle of Increasing Precision with Decreasing Intelligence (IPDI) (Saridis 1979). This principle, even though resembles the managerial structure of organizational systems (Levis 1988), has been derived on an analytic basis by Saridis (1988). The purpose is to derive analytically a Boltzmann machine suitable for optimal connection of nodes in a neural net (Fahlman, Hinton, Sejnowski, 1985). Then this machine will serve to search for the optimal design of the organization level of an intelligent machine. In order to accomplish this, some mathematical theory of the intelligent machines will be first outlined. Then some definitions of the variables associated with the principle, like machine intelligence, machine knowledge, and precision will be made (Saridis, Valavanis 1988). Then a procedure to establish the Boltzmann machine on an analytic basis will be presented and illustrated by an example in designing the organization level of an Intelligent Machine. A new search technique, the Modified Genetic Algorithm, is presented and proved

  18. Machine Translation from Text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habash, Nizar; Olive, Joseph; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John

    Machine translation (MT) from text, the topic of this chapter, is perhaps the heart of the GALE project. Beyond being a well defined application that stands on its own, MT from text is the link between the automatic speech recognition component and the distillation component. The focus of MT in GALE is on translating from Arabic or Chinese to English. The three languages represent a wide range of linguistic diversity and make the GALE MT task rather challenging and exciting.

  19. Copying Machine Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Manufacturer of the Model 2210 copying machine was looking for a plastic valve bushing material that could be produced by a low-cost injection molding process to replace the unsuitable valve bushing they were using. NERAC conducted a computer search of the NASA database and was able to supply Nashua Corporation with several technical reports in their area of interest. Information aided the company's development of a urethane valve bushing which solved the problem and created a dramatic reduction in unit cost.

  20. Austempered Ductile Iron Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilc, Jozef; Šajgalík, Michal; Holubják, Jozef; Piešová, Marianna; Zaušková, Lucia; Babík, Ondrej; Kuždák, Viktor; Rákoci, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    This article deals with the machining of cast iron. In industrial practice, Austempered Ductile Iron began to be used relatively recently. ADI is ductile iron that has gone through austempering to get improved properties, among which we can include strength, wear resistance or noise damping. This specific material is defined also by other properties, such as high elasticity, ductility and endurance against tenigue, which are the properties, that considerably make the tooling characteristic worse.

  1. Machine Learning in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Deo, Rahul C

    2015-11-17

    Spurred by advances in processing power, memory, storage, and an unprecedented wealth of data, computers are being asked to tackle increasingly complex learning tasks, often with astonishing success. Computers have now mastered a popular variant of poker, learned the laws of physics from experimental data, and become experts in video games - tasks that would have been deemed impossible not too long ago. In parallel, the number of companies centered on applying complex data analysis to varying industries has exploded, and it is thus unsurprising that some analytic companies are turning attention to problems in health care. The purpose of this review is to explore what problems in medicine might benefit from such learning approaches and use examples from the literature to introduce basic concepts in machine learning. It is important to note that seemingly large enough medical data sets and adequate learning algorithms have been available for many decades, and yet, although there are thousands of papers applying machine learning algorithms to medical data, very few have contributed meaningfully to clinical care. This lack of impact stands in stark contrast to the enormous relevance of machine learning to many other industries. Thus, part of my effort will be to identify what obstacles there may be to changing the practice of medicine through statistical learning approaches, and discuss how these might be overcome. PMID:26572668

  2. Machine Learning in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Deo, Rahul C

    2015-11-17

    Spurred by advances in processing power, memory, storage, and an unprecedented wealth of data, computers are being asked to tackle increasingly complex learning tasks, often with astonishing success. Computers have now mastered a popular variant of poker, learned the laws of physics from experimental data, and become experts in video games - tasks that would have been deemed impossible not too long ago. In parallel, the number of companies centered on applying complex data analysis to varying industries has exploded, and it is thus unsurprising that some analytic companies are turning attention to problems in health care. The purpose of this review is to explore what problems in medicine might benefit from such learning approaches and use examples from the literature to introduce basic concepts in machine learning. It is important to note that seemingly large enough medical data sets and adequate learning algorithms have been available for many decades, and yet, although there are thousands of papers applying machine learning algorithms to medical data, very few have contributed meaningfully to clinical care. This lack of impact stands in stark contrast to the enormous relevance of machine learning to many other industries. Thus, part of my effort will be to identify what obstacles there may be to changing the practice of medicine through statistical learning approaches, and discuss how these might be overcome.

  3. Architectures for intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saridis, George N.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of intelligent machines has been recently reformulated to incorporate new architectures that are using neural and Petri nets. The analytic functions of an intelligent machine are implemented by intelligent controls, using entropy as a measure. The resulting hierarchical control structure is based on the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence. Each of the three levels of the intelligent control is using different architectures, in order to satisfy the requirements of the principle: the organization level is moduled after a Boltzmann machine for abstract reasoning, task planning and decision making; the coordination level is composed of a number of Petri net transducers supervised, for command exchange, by a dispatcher, which also serves as an interface to the organization level; the execution level, include the sensory, planning for navigation and control hardware which interacts one-to-one with the appropriate coordinators, while a VME bus provides a channel for database exchange among the several devices. This system is currently implemented on a robotic transporter, designed for space construction at the CIRSSE laboratories at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The progress of its development is reported.

  4. Laser machining - Theory and practice

    SciTech Connect

    Chryssolouris, G.

    1991-01-01

    Recent developments and the state of the art in the field of laser machining are reviewed with emphasis on practical applications. First, an overview of conventional material removing processes is presented. Laser machining systems are then described, and an overview is provided of the necessary knowledge from heat transfer and fluid mechanics required in order to understand the physical mechanisms and thermal processes associated with laser machining. The applications of laser machining discussed include drilling, cutting, marking, and three-dimensional machining of metals, ceramics, plastics, composites, and other materials, and micromachining. 209 refs.

  5. Staff Induction: Issues Surrounding Induction into International Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirzaker, Rosalind

    2004-01-01

    This article analyses the literature on staff induction into international schools. It defines what is meant by the term "induction" and identifies the benefits to both individuals and organization if it is done well. It stresses that induction is a process, not an event, and discusses the various stages involved: the initial recruitment, the…

  6. Optimum Construction of Heating Coil for Domestic Induction Cooker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Dola; Bandyopadhyay, Atanu; Sadhu, Pradip Kumar; Pal, Nitai

    2010-10-01

    The design and optimization of the parameters of heating coil is very important for the analytical analysis of high frequency inverter fed induction cooker. Moreover, accurate prediction of high frequency winding loss (i.e., losses due to skin and proximity effects) is necessary as the induction cooker used in power electronics applications. At high frequency current penetration in the induction coil circuit is very difficult for conducting wire due to skin-effect. To eradicate the skin effect heating coil is made up of bundle conductor i.e., litz wire. In this paper inductances and AC resistances of a litz-wire are calculated and optimized by considering the input parameters like wire type, shape, number of strand, number of spiral turn, number of twist per feet of heating coil and operating frequency. A high frequency half bridge series resonant mirror inverter circuit is used in this paper and taking the optimum values of inductance and ac resistance the circuit is simulated through PSPICE simulations. It has been noticed that the results are feasible enough for real implementation.

  7. Measurement of Self-Inductance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, S. Y.; Tao, P. K.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses four different methods for measuring self-inductance based on the definition of inductance, the alternative definition, phase difference and LC resonance. Provides circuit diagrams and typical oscilloscope traces. (YP)

  8. Sialic acid content of infant saliva: comparison of breast fed with formula fed infants

    PubMed Central

    Tram, T; Miller, J; McNeil, Y; McVeagh, P

    1997-01-01

    

 Sialic acid is found in especially high concentrations in brain gangliosides, and supplementary sialic acid is associated with increased learning behaviour in animals. It was hypothesised that breast fed infants may have higher concentrations of sialic acid in body fluids and tissues because human milk is a rich source of sialylated oligosaccharides, while formulas contain very little. The aim therefore was to compare the sialic acid content of saliva collected from full term infants who were either solely breast fed or formula fed until weaning at 3-5 months of age. Thirty three infants, 18 breast fed and 15 formula fed, were studied at a mean (SD) age of 5 (2) months. The breast fed infants, when compared with formula fed infants, were found to have almost two times more free sialic acid in saliva (mean (SE) 16.0 (2.7) v 8.2 (2.1) mg/l, p < 0.036) and nearly 50% more total sialic acid (47.3 (3.9) v 32.2 (4.4) mg/l, p<0.014). The findings provide a preliminary indication that an exogenous source of sialic acids derived from human milk may contribute to higher concentrations of sialic acid in body fluids. There are important implications for the formulation of human milk substitutes.

 PMID:9389234

  9. Performance scaling of gas-fed pulsed plasma thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemer, John Kenneth

    The performance scaling of gas-fed pulsed plasma thrusters (GFPPTs) is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Analytical models of the discharge current suggest that close to critically damped current waveforms provide the best energy transfer efficiency. A characteristic velocity for GFPPTs that depends on the inductance-per-unit-length and the square root of the capacitance-to-initial-inductance ratio is also derived in these models. The total efficiency is predicted to be proportional to the ratio of the exhaust velocity to the GFPPT characteristic velocity. A numerical non-dimensional model is used to span a large parameter space of possible operating conditions and suggest optimal configurations. From the non-dimensional model, the exhaust velocity is predicted to scale with a non-dimensional parameter called the dynamic impedance parameter to a power that depends on the mass loading prior to the discharge. To test the validity of the predicted scaling relations, the performance of two rapid-pulse-rate GFPPT designs, PT5 (coaxial electrodes) and PT9 (parallel-plate electrodes), has been measured over 70 different operating conditions with argon propellant. The performance measurements are made in a recently renovated facility that uses liquid nitrogen cooled baffles and a micro-thrust stand capable of measuring impulses <20 muNs within <10%. The measurements demonstrate that the impulse bit scales linearly with the integral of the discharge current squared, as expected for an electromagnetic accelerator. The measured performance scaling in both electrode geometries is shown to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions using the GFPPT characteristic velocity. Normalizing the exhaust velocity and the impulse-to-energy ratio by the GFPPT characteristic velocity collapses almost all the measured data onto single curves that represent the scaling relations for these GFPPTs.

  10. Ruminal Transcriptomic Analysis of Grass-Fed and Grain-Fed Angus Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaokun; Carrillo, José A; Ding, Yi; He, YangHua; Zhao, Chunping; Zan, Linsen; Song, Jiuzhou

    2015-01-01

    Beef represents a major diet component and one of the major sources of protein in human. The beef industry in the United States is currently undergoing changes and is facing increased demands especially for natural grass-fed beef. The grass-fed beef obtained their nutrients directly from pastures, which contained limited assimilable energy but abundant amount of fiber. On the contrary, the grain-fed steers received a grain-based regime that served as an efficient source of high-digestible energy. Lately, ruminant animals have been accused to be a substantial contributor for the green house effect. Therefore, the concerns from environmentalism, animal welfare and public health have driven consumers to choose grass-fed beef. Rumen is one of the key workshops to digest forage constituting a critical step to supply enough nutrients for animals' growth and production. We hypothesize that rumen may function differently in grass- and grain-fed regimes. The objective of this study was to find the differentially expressed genes in the ruminal wall of grass-fed and grain-fed steers, and then explore the potential biopathways. In this study, the RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) method was used to measure the gene expression level in the ruminal wall. The total number of reads per sample ranged from 24,697,373 to 36,714,704. The analysis detected 342 differentially expressed genes between ruminal wall samples of animals raised under different regimens. The Fisher's exact test performed in the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software found 16 significant molecular networks. Additionally, 13 significantly enriched pathways were identified, most of which were related to cell development and biosynthesis. Our analysis demonstrated that most of the pathways enriched with the differentially expressed genes were related to cell development and biosynthesis. Our results provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms resulting in the phenotype difference between grass-fed and grain-fed

  11. Ruminal Transcriptomic Analysis of Grass-Fed and Grain-Fed Angus Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaokun; Carrillo, José A; Ding, Yi; He, YangHua; Zhao, Chunping; Zan, Linsen; Song, Jiuzhou

    2015-01-01

    Beef represents a major diet component and one of the major sources of protein in human. The beef industry in the United States is currently undergoing changes and is facing increased demands especially for natural grass-fed beef. The grass-fed beef obtained their nutrients directly from pastures, which contained limited assimilable energy but abundant amount of fiber. On the contrary, the grain-fed steers received a grain-based regime that served as an efficient source of high-digestible energy. Lately, ruminant animals have been accused to be a substantial contributor for the green house effect. Therefore, the concerns from environmentalism, animal welfare and public health have driven consumers to choose grass-fed beef. Rumen is one of the key workshops to digest forage constituting a critical step to supply enough nutrients for animals' growth and production. We hypothesize that rumen may function differently in grass- and grain-fed regimes. The objective of this study was to find the differentially expressed genes in the ruminal wall of grass-fed and grain-fed steers, and then explore the potential biopathways. In this study, the RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) method was used to measure the gene expression level in the ruminal wall. The total number of reads per sample ranged from 24,697,373 to 36,714,704. The analysis detected 342 differentially expressed genes between ruminal wall samples of animals raised under different regimens. The Fisher's exact test performed in the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software found 16 significant molecular networks. Additionally, 13 significantly enriched pathways were identified, most of which were related to cell development and biosynthesis. Our analysis demonstrated that most of the pathways enriched with the differentially expressed genes were related to cell development and biosynthesis. Our results provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms resulting in the phenotype difference between grass-fed and grain-fed

  12. Ruminal Transcriptomic Analysis of Grass-Fed and Grain-Fed Angus Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yaokun; Carrillo, José A.; Ding, Yi; He, YangHua; Zhao, Chunping; Zan, Linsen; Song, Jiuzhou

    2015-01-01

    Beef represents a major diet component and one of the major sources of protein in human. The beef industry in the United States is currently undergoing changes and is facing increased demands especially for natural grass-fed beef. The grass-fed beef obtained their nutrients directly from pastures, which contained limited assimilable energy but abundant amount of fiber. On the contrary, the grain-fed steers received a grain-based regime that served as an efficient source of high-digestible energy. Lately, ruminant animals have been accused to be a substantial contributor for the green house effect. Therefore, the concerns from environmentalism, animal welfare and public health have driven consumers to choose grass-fed beef. Rumen is one of the key workshops to digest forage constituting a critical step to supply enough nutrients for animals’ growth and production. We hypothesize that rumen may function differently in grass- and grain-fed regimes. The objective of this study was to find the differentially expressed genes in the ruminal wall of grass-fed and grain-fed steers, and then explore the potential biopathways. In this study, the RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq) method was used to measure the gene expression level in the ruminal wall. The total number of reads per sample ranged from 24,697,373 to 36,714,704. The analysis detected 342 differentially expressed genes between ruminal wall samples of animals raised under different regimens. The Fisher’s exact test performed in the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software found 16 significant molecular networks. Additionally, 13 significantly enriched pathways were identified, most of which were related to cell development and biosynthesis. Our analysis demonstrated that most of the pathways enriched with the differentially expressed genes were related to cell development and biosynthesis. Our results provided valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms resulting in the phenotype difference between grass-fed and

  13. Microbial biodiversity in glacier-fed streams

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Linda; Singer, Gabriel A; Fasching, Christina; Battin, Tom J; Besemer, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    While glaciers become increasingly recognised as a habitat for diverse and active microbial communities, effects of their climate change-induced retreat on the microbial ecology of glacier-fed streams remain elusive. Understanding the effect of climate change on microorganisms in these ecosystems is crucial given that microbial biofilms control numerous stream ecosystem processes with potential implications for downstream biodiversity and biogeochemistry. Here, using a space-for-time substitution approach across 26 Alpine glaciers, we show how microbial community composition and diversity, based on 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, in biofilms of glacier-fed streams may change as glaciers recede. Variations in streamwater geochemistry correlated with biofilm community composition, even at the phylum level. The most dominant phyla detected in glacial habitats were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria/chloroplasts. Microorganisms from ice had the lowest α diversity and contributed marginally to biofilm and streamwater community composition. Rather, streamwater apparently collected microorganisms from various glacial and non-glacial sources forming the upstream metacommunity, thereby achieving the highest α diversity. Biofilms in the glacier-fed streams had intermediate α diversity and species sorting by local environmental conditions likely shaped their community composition. α diversity of streamwater and biofilm communities decreased with elevation, possibly reflecting less diverse sources of microorganisms upstream in the catchment. In contrast, β diversity of biofilms decreased with increasing streamwater temperature, suggesting that glacier retreat may contribute to the homogenisation of microbial communities among glacier-fed streams. PMID:23486246

  14. Optimization of a bundle divertor for FED

    SciTech Connect

    Hively, L.M.; Rothe, K.E.; Minkoff, M.

    1982-01-01

    Optimal double-T bundle divertor configurations have been obtained for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). On-axis ripple is minimized, while satisfying a series of engineering constraints. The ensuing non-linear optimization problem is solved via a sequence of quadratic programming subproblems, using the VMCON algorithm. The resulting divertor designs are substantially improved over previous configurations.

  15. Microbial biodiversity in glacier-fed streams.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Linda; Singer, Gabriel A; Fasching, Christina; Battin, Tom J; Besemer, Katharina

    2013-08-01

    While glaciers become increasingly recognised as a habitat for diverse and active microbial communities, effects of their climate change-induced retreat on the microbial ecology of glacier-fed streams remain elusive. Understanding the effect of climate change on microorganisms in these ecosystems is crucial given that microbial biofilms control numerous stream ecosystem processes with potential implications for downstream biodiversity and biogeochemistry. Here, using a space-for-time substitution approach across 26 Alpine glaciers, we show how microbial community composition and diversity, based on 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, in biofilms of glacier-fed streams may change as glaciers recede. Variations in streamwater geochemistry correlated with biofilm community composition, even at the phylum level. The most dominant phyla detected in glacial habitats were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria/chloroplasts. Microorganisms from ice had the lowest α diversity and contributed marginally to biofilm and streamwater community composition. Rather, streamwater apparently collected microorganisms from various glacial and non-glacial sources forming the upstream metacommunity, thereby achieving the highest α diversity. Biofilms in the glacier-fed streams had intermediate α diversity and species sorting by local environmental conditions likely shaped their community composition. α diversity of streamwater and biofilm communities decreased with elevation, possibly reflecting less diverse sources of microorganisms upstream in the catchment. In contrast, β diversity of biofilms decreased with increasing streamwater temperature, suggesting that glacier retreat may contribute to the homogenisation of microbial communities among glacier-fed streams.

  16. Inductive Reasoning: A Training Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauer, Karl Josef; Phye, Gary D.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have examined inductive reasoning to identify different cognitive processes when participants deal with inductive problems. This article presents a prescriptive theory of inductive reasoning that identifies cognitive processing using a procedural strategy for making comparisons. It is hypothesized that training in the use of the…

  17. Agrobacterium virulence gene induction.

    PubMed

    Gelvin, Stanton B

    2006-01-01

    The ability of Agrobacterium to transform plants and other organisms is under highly regulated genetic control. Two Virulence (Vir) proteins, VirA and VirG, function as a two-component regulatory system to sense particular phenolic compounds synthesized by wounded plant tissues. Induction by these phenolic compounds, in the presence of certain neutral or acid sugars, results in activation of other vir genes, leading to the processing of T-DNA from the Ti-plasmid and transfer of T-DNA to recipient host cells. Many plant, and most nonplant, species do not provide sufficient quantities of the correct phenolic compounds to permit efficient Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation to occur. In order to transform these species, phenolic inducing compounds must be added to agrobacteria before and/or during cocultivation of recipient cells with the bacteria. This chapter discusses conditions for efficient induction of Agrobacterium virulence genes by phenolic compounds. PMID:16988335

  18. Inductive Position Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Simmons, Stephen M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An inductive position sensor uses three independent inductors inductively coupled by a common medium such as air. First and second inductors are separated by a fixed distance with the first inductor's axial core and second inductor's axial core maintained parallel to one another. A third inductor is disposed between the first and second inductors with the third inductor's axial core being maintained parallel to those of the first and second inductors. The combination of the first and second inductors are configured for relative movement with the third inductor's axial core remaining parallel to those of the first and second inductors as distance changes from the third inductor to each of the first inductor and second inductor. An oscillating current can be supplied to at least one of the three inductors, while voltage induced in at least one of the three inductors not supplied with the oscillating current is measured.

  19. Induction plasma tube

    DOEpatents

    Hull, D.E.

    1982-07-02

    An induction plasma tube having a segmented, fluid-cooled internal radiation shield is disclosed. The individual segments are thick in cross-section such that the shield occupies a substantial fraction of the internal volume of the plasma enclosure, resulting in improved performance and higher sustainable plasma temperatures. The individual segments of the shield are preferably cooled by means of a counterflow fluid cooling system wherein each segment includes a central bore and a fluid supply tube extending into the bore. The counterflow cooling system results in improved cooling of the individual segments and also permits use of relatively larger shield segments which permit improved electromagnetic coupling between the induction coil and a plasma located inside the shield. Four embodiments of the invention, each having particular advantages, are disclosed.

  20. Induction plasma tube

    DOEpatents

    Hull, Donald E.

    1984-01-01

    An induction plasma tube having a segmented, fluid-cooled internal radiation shield is disclosed. The individual segments are thick in cross-section such that the shield occupies a substantial fraction of the internal volume of the plasma enclosure, resulting in improved performance and higher sustainable plasma temperatures. The individual segments of the shield are preferably cooled by means of a counterflow fluid cooling system wherein each segment includes a central bore and a fluid supply tube extending into the bore. The counterflow cooling system results in improved cooling of the individual segments and also permits use of relatively larger shield segments which permit improved electromagnetic coupling between the induction coil and a plasma located inside the shield. Four embodiments of the invention, each having particular advantages, are disclosed.

  1. Hybrid-secondary uncluttered permanent magnet machine and method

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.

    2005-12-20

    An electric machine (40) has a stator (43), a permanent magnet rotor (38) with permanent magnets (39) and a magnetic coupling uncluttered rotor (46) for inducing a slip energy current in secondary coils (47). A dc flux can be produced in the uncluttered rotor when the secondary coils are fed with dc currents. The magnetic coupling uncluttered rotor (46) has magnetic brushes (A, B, C, D) which couple flux in through the rotor (46) to the secondary coils (47c, 47d) without inducing a current in the rotor (46) and without coupling a stator rotational energy component to the secondary coils (47c, 47d). The machine can be operated as a motor or a generator in multi-phase or single-phase embodiments and is applicable to the hybrid electric vehicle. A method of providing a slip energy controller is also disclosed.

  2. Modeling of autoresonant control of a parametrically excited screen machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolfazl Zahedi, S.; Babitsky, Vladimir

    2016-10-01

    Modelling of nonlinear dynamic response of a screen machine described by the nonlinear coupled differential equations and excited by the system of autoresonant control is presented. The displacement signal of the screen is fed to the screen excitation directly by means of positive feedback. Negative feedback is used to fix the level of screen amplitude response within the expected range. The screen is anticipated to vibrate with a parametric resonance and the excitation, stabilization and control response of the system are studied in the stable mode. Autoresonant control is thoroughly investigated and output tracking is reported. The control developed provides the possibility of self-tuning and self-adaptation mechanisms that allow the screen machine to maintain a parametric resonant mode of oscillation under a wide range of uncertainty of mass and viscosity.

  3. Diagnostics for induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1996-04-01

    The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at LLNL from the early 1960`s to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400 ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore`s Site 300 produced 10,000 Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and LBNL. This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high current, short pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail.

  4. 15. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to northeast (90mm lens). The arched cutouts in the bottom chords of the roof trusses were necessary to provide clearance for the smokestacks of steam locomotives, and also mark the location of the former inspection pit in the floor (now filled in and covered by a new concrete floor). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  5. Diamond Measuring Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Krstulic, J.F.

    2000-01-27

    The fundamental goal of this project was to develop additional capabilities to the diamond measuring prototype, work out technical difficulties associated with the original device, and perform automated measurements which are accurate and repeatable. For this project, FM and T was responsible for the overall system design, edge extraction, and defect extraction and identification. AccuGem provided a lab and computer equipment in Lawrence, 3D modeling, industry expertise, and sets of diamonds for testing. The system executive software which controls stone positioning, lighting, focusing, report generation, and data acquisition was written in Microsoft Visual Basic 6, while data analysis and modeling were compiled in C/C++ DLLs. All scanning parameters and extracted data are stored in a central database and available for automated analysis and reporting. The Phase 1 study showed that data can be extracted and measured from diamond scans, but most of the information had to be manually extracted. In this Phase 2 project, all data required for geometric modeling and defect identification were automatically extracted and passed to a 3D modeling module for analysis. Algorithms were developed which automatically adjusted both light levels and stone focus positioning for each diamond-under-test. After a diamond is analyzed and measurements are completed, a report is printed for the customer which shows carat weight, summarizes stone geometry information, lists defects and their size, displays a picture of the diamond, and shows a plot of defects on a top view drawing of the stone. Initial emphasis of defect extraction was on identification of feathers, pinpoints, and crystals. Defects were plotted color-coded by industry standards for inclusions (red), blemishes (green), and unknown defects (blue). Diamonds with a wide variety of cut quality, size, and number of defects were tested in the machine. Edge extraction, defect extraction, and modeling code were tested for

  6. Will machines ever think

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence research has come under fire for failing to fulfill its promises. A growing number of AI researchers are reexamining the bases of AI research and are challenging the assumption that intelligent behavior can be fully explained as manipulation of symbols by algorithms. Three recent books -- Mind over Machine (H. Dreyfus and S. Dreyfus), Understanding Computers and Cognition (T. Winograd and F. Flores), and Brains, Behavior, and Robots (J. Albus) -- explore alternatives and open the door to new architectures that may be able to learn skills.

  7. CENTRIFUGAL CASTING MACHINE

    DOEpatents

    Shuck, A.B.

    1958-04-01

    A device is described that is specifically designed to cast uraniumn fuel rods in a vacuunn, in order to obtain flawless, nonoxidized castings which subsequently require a maximum of machining or wastage of the expensive processed material. A chamber surrounded with heating elements is connected to the molds, and the entire apparatus is housed in an airtight container. A charge of uranium is placed in the chamber, heated, then is allowed to flow into the molds While being rotated. Water circulating through passages in the molds chills the casting to form a fine grained fuel rod in nearly finished form.

  8. A taxonomy of inductive problems.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Charles; Jern, Alan

    2014-02-01

    Inductive inferences about objects, features, categories, and relations have been studied for many years, but there are few attempts to chart the range of inductive problems that humans are able to solve. We present a taxonomy of inductive problems that helps to clarify the relationships between familiar inductive problems such as generalization, categorization, and identification, and that introduces new inductive problems for psychological investigation. Our taxonomy is founded on the idea that semantic knowledge is organized into systems of objects, features, categories, and relations, and we attempt to characterize all of the inductive problems that can arise when these systems are partially observed. Recent studies have begun to address some of the new problems in our taxonomy, and future work should aim to develop unified theories of inductive reasoning that explain how people solve all of the problems in the taxonomy.

  9. Neonatal weight loss in breast and formula fed infants

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, P; Ross, S; Grant, L; Young, D

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To define the range of neonatal weight loss in a population relative to feeding method. Design: Prospective observational cohort study. Setting: Maternity service providing geographically defined, community based newborn follow up. Participants: 971 consecutive term newborns of birth weight ⩾ 2500 g during the first 2–3 weeks of life; 34 excluded (inadequate data). 937 included: 45% breast fed, 42% formula fed, 13% breast and formula fed. Outcome measures: Maximum weight loss and timing, age on regaining birth weight. Results: Median weight loss: formula fed 3.5%, breast fed 6.6%. Upper centiles for maximum weight loss differ considerably (95th centiles: breast fed = 11.8%, formula fed = 8.4%; 97.5th centiles: breast fed = 12.8%, formula fed = 9.5%). Median time of maximum weight loss: 2.7 days for breast fed and formula fed. Recovery of birth weight: breast fed median 8.3 days, 95th centile 18.7 days, 97.5th centile 21.0 days; formula fed median 6.5 days, 95th centile 14.5 days, 97.5th centile 16.7 days. The time taken to regain birth weight correlates with both the degree and timing of initial weight loss for all groups. Conclusions: Early neonatal weight loss is defined allowing identification of infants who merit closer assessment and support. PMID:14602693

  10. Formal modeling of virtual machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cremers, A. B.; Hibbard, T. N.

    1978-01-01

    Systematic software design can be based on the development of a 'hierarchy of virtual machines', each representing a 'level of abstraction' of the design process. The reported investigation presents the concept of 'data space' as a formal model for virtual machines. The presented model of a data space combines the notions of data type and mathematical machine to express the close interaction between data and control structures which takes place in a virtual machine. One of the main objectives of the investigation is to show that control-independent data type implementation is only of limited usefulness as an isolated tool of program development, and that the representation of data is generally dictated by the control context of a virtual machine. As a second objective, a better understanding is to be developed of virtual machine state structures than was heretofore provided by the view of the state space as a Cartesian product.

  11. Interaction with Machine Improvisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assayag, Gerard; Bloch, George; Cont, Arshia; Dubnov, Shlomo

    We describe two multi-agent architectures for an improvisation oriented musician-machine interaction systems that learn in real time from human performers. The improvisation kernel is based on sequence modeling and statistical learning. We present two frameworks of interaction with this kernel. In the first, the stylistic interaction is guided by a human operator in front of an interactive computer environment. In the second framework, the stylistic interaction is delegated to machine intelligence and therefore, knowledge propagation and decision are taken care of by the computer alone. The first framework involves a hybrid architecture using two popular composition/performance environments, Max and OpenMusic, that are put to work and communicate together, each one handling the process at a different time/memory scale. The second framework shares the same representational schemes with the first but uses an Active Learning architecture based on collaborative, competitive and memory-based learning to handle stylistic interactions. Both systems are capable of processing real-time audio/video as well as MIDI. After discussing the general cognitive background of improvisation practices, the statistical modelling tools and the concurrent agent architecture are presented. Then, an Active Learning scheme is described and considered in terms of using different improvisation regimes for improvisation planning. Finally, we provide more details about the different system implementations and describe several performances with the system.

  12. Smart Test Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Vern Wedeven, president of Wedeven Associates, developed the WAM4, a computer-aided "smart" test machine for simulating stress on equipment, based on his bearing lubrication expertise gained while working for Lewis Research Center. During his NASA years from the 1970s into the early 1980s, Wedeven initiated an "Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Tribology," an effort that involved NASA, six universities, and several university professors. The NASA-sponsored work provided foundation for Wedeven in 1983 to form his own company. Several versions of the smart test machine, the WAM1, WAM2, and WAM3, have proceeded the current version, WAM4. This computer-controlled device can provide detailed glimpses at gear and bearing points of contact. WAM4 can yield a three-dimensional view of machinery as an operator adds "what-if" thermal and lubrication conditions, contact stress, and surface motion. Along with NASA, a number of firms, including Pratt & Whitney, Caterpillar Tractor, Exxon, and Chevron have approached Wedeven for help on resolving lubrication problems.

  13. Large Surface Measuring Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egdall, Mark; Breidenthal, Robert S.

    1983-09-01

    A new surface measuring concept developed under government contract at Itek Optical Systems has been previously reported by Allen Greenleaf. The method uses four steerable distance-measuring interferometers at the corners of a tetrahedron to determine the posi-tions of a retroreflecting target at various locations on the surface being measured. A small wooden breadboard had been built and tested, demonstrating the feasibility of the concept. This paper reports the building of a scaled-up prototype surface measuring machine to allow the measurement of large aspheric surfaces. A major advantage of the device is that, unlike conventional interferometry, it provides surface measurement in absolute coordinates, thus allowing direct determination of radius of curvature. In addition, the device is self-calibrating. Measurements of a 24-inch mirror have been made with the new machine, giving repeatability of 4 µ m peak sag in the curvature and accuracy of 0.7 μm rms in the surface figure at best focus. The device is currently being used in the production grinding of large aspheric mirrors at Itek. The device is potentially scalable to other industries where highly accurate measurement of unusual surfaces is required.

  14. Multiple man-machine interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, L.; Cook, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    The multiple man machine interfaces inherent in military pilot training, their social implications, and the issue of possible negative feedback were explored. Modern technology has produced machines which can see, hear, and touch with greater accuracy and precision than human beings. Consequently, the military pilot is more a systems manager, often doing battle against a target he never sees. It is concluded that unquantifiable human activity requires motivation that is not intrinsic in a machine.

  15. Diamond Machining Applications And Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benjamin, Roland J.

    1983-12-01

    Aspheric surface generation and precision machining have been important technologies at Hughes Optical Products, Inc. (formerly Optical Division, Bell & Howell Company) for over twenty years. Present machining capabilities and supporting services which are available on a custom basis are described. A variety of applications of diamond machining are illustrated, involving not only the usual reflective materials such as aluminum, copper, and electroless nickel but also such IR refractive materials as germanium, silicon, and chalcogenide glasses.

  16. Low inductance gas switching.

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Ray; Harjes, Henry Charles III; Wallace, Zachariah; Elizondo, Juan E.

    2007-10-01

    The laser trigger switch (LTS) is a key component in ZR-type pulsed power systems. In ZR, the pulse rise time through the LTS is > 200 ns and additional stages of pulse compression are required to achieve the desired <100 ns rise time. The inductance of the LTS ({approx}500nH) in large part determines the energy transfer time through the switch and there is much to be gained in improving system performance and reducing system costs by reducing this inductance. The current path through the cascade section of the ZR LTS is at a diameter of {approx} 6-inches which is certainly not optimal from an inductance point of view. The LTS connects components of much greater diameter (typically 4-5 feet). In this LDRD the viability of switch concepts in which the diameter of cascade section is greatly increased have been investigated. The key technical question to be answered was, will the desired multi-channel behavior be maintained in a cascade section of larger diameter. This LDRD proceeded in 2 distinct phases. The original plan for the LDRD was to develop a promising switch concept and then design, build, and test a moderate scale switch which would demonstrate the key features of the concept. In phase I, a switch concept which meet all electrical design criteria and had a calculated inductance of 150 nH was developed. A 1.5 MV test switch was designed and fabrication was initiated. The LDRD was then redirected due to budgetary concerns. The fabrication of the switch was halted and the focus of the LDRD was shifted to small scale experiments designed to answer the key technical question concerning multi-channel behavior. In phase II, the Multi-channel switch test bed (MCST) was designed and constructed. The purpose of MCST was to provide a versatile, fast turn around facility for the study the multi-channel electrical breakdown behavior of a ZR type cascade switch gap in a parameter space near that of a ZR LTS. Parameter scans on source impedance, gap tilt, gap spacing and

  17. Urea synthesis in rats fed diet containing kidney beans.

    PubMed

    Scislowski, P W; Grant, G; Harris, I; Pickard, K; Pusztai, A

    1992-10-01

    When rats were fed a diet containing kidney bean (Phaesolus vulgaris) urea excretion was increased 3-5 fold. Isolated liver mitochondria from rats fed the kidney bean diet produced 40% more citrulline in the presence of arginine than mitochondria isolated from control rats. Mitochondrial activities of urea cycle enzymes and N-acetylglutamate synthetase were similar in animals fed diets containing kidney bean or lactalbumin. The possible mechanisms causing acute urea production in rats fed with kidney bean are discussed.

  18. Urea synthesis in rats fed diet containing kidney beans.

    PubMed

    Scislowski, P W; Grant, G; Harris, I; Pickard, K; Pusztai, A

    1992-10-01

    When rats were fed a diet containing kidney bean (Phaesolus vulgaris) urea excretion was increased 3-5 fold. Isolated liver mitochondria from rats fed the kidney bean diet produced 40% more citrulline in the presence of arginine than mitochondria isolated from control rats. Mitochondrial activities of urea cycle enzymes and N-acetylglutamate synthetase were similar in animals fed diets containing kidney bean or lactalbumin. The possible mechanisms causing acute urea production in rats fed with kidney bean are discussed. PMID:1445392

  19. Altered avoidance behavior of young black ducks fed cadmium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Haseltine, S.D.; Sileo, L.

    1983-01-01

    Pairs of adult black ducks (Anas rubripes) were fed a diet containing 0, 4 or 40 ppm cadmium as cadmium chloride. One-week-old ducklings that had been fed thc same dietary concentrations of cadmium as had their parents were tested for avoidance of a fright stimulus. Ducklings fed 4 ppm cadmium ran significantly farther from the stimulus than did controls or ducklings fed 40 ppm cadmium. Such an alteration in behavior could have harmful effects on wild birds.

  20. Standardized Curriculum for Machine Tool Operation/Machine Shop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents for two courses in Mississippi are provided: machine tool operation/machine shop I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) orientation; (2) shop safety; (3) shop math; (4) measuring tools and instruments; (5) hand and bench tools; (6) blueprint reading; (7)…

  1. Machine Shop Milling Machines. Oklahoma Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, James

    This curriculum guide provides instructional materials designed to equip students with basic knowledge and skills that will enable them to enter the machine trades at the machine-operator level. The curriculum is designed for use in full-time secondary and postsecondary classes and part-time adult classes. It can also be adapted to open-entry,…

  2. Production Machine Shop Employment Competencies. Part Four: The Milling Machine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishart, Gus; Werner, Claire

    Competencies for production machine shop are provided for the fourth of four topic areas: the milling machine. Each competency appears in a one-page format. It is presented as a goal statement followed by one or more "indicator" statements, which are performance objectives describing an ability that, upon attainment, will establish competency for…

  3. The Two-Brains Hypothesis: Towards a guide for brain-brain and brain-machine interfaces.

    PubMed

    Goodman, G; Poznanski, R R; Cacha, L; Bercovich, D

    2015-09-01

    Great advances have been made in signaling information on brain activity in individuals, or passing between an individual and a computer or robot. These include recording of natural activity using implants under the scalp or by external means or the reverse feeding of such data into the brain. In one recent example, noninvasive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) allowed feeding of digitalized information into the central nervous system (CNS). Thus, noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) recordings of motor signals at the scalp, representing specific motor intention of hand moving in individual humans, were fed as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at a maximum intensity of 2.0[Formula: see text]T through a circular magnetic coil placed flush on each of the heads of subjects present at a different location. The TMS was said to induce an electric current influencing axons of the motor cortex causing the intended hand movement: the first example of the transfer of motor intention and its expression, between the brains of two remote humans. However, to date the mechanisms involved, not least that relating to the participation of magnetic induction, remain unclear. In general, in animal biology, magnetic fields are usually the poor relation of neuronal current: generally "unseen" and if apparent, disregarded or just given a nod. Niels Bohr searched for a biological parallel to complementary phenomena of physics. Pertinently, the two-brains hypothesis (TBH) proposed recently that advanced animals, especially man, have two brains i.e., the animal CNS evolved as two fundamentally different though interdependent, complementary organs: one electro-ionic (tangible, known and accessible), and the other, electromagnetic (intangible and difficult to access) - a stable, structured and functional 3D compendium of variously induced interacting electro-magnetic (EM) fields. Research on the CNS in health and disease progresses including that on brain

  4. The Two-Brains Hypothesis: Towards a guide for brain-brain and brain-machine interfaces.

    PubMed

    Goodman, G; Poznanski, R R; Cacha, L; Bercovich, D

    2015-09-01

    Great advances have been made in signaling information on brain activity in individuals, or passing between an individual and a computer or robot. These include recording of natural activity using implants under the scalp or by external means or the reverse feeding of such data into the brain. In one recent example, noninvasive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) allowed feeding of digitalized information into the central nervous system (CNS). Thus, noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG) recordings of motor signals at the scalp, representing specific motor intention of hand moving in individual humans, were fed as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at a maximum intensity of 2.0[Formula: see text]T through a circular magnetic coil placed flush on each of the heads of subjects present at a different location. The TMS was said to induce an electric current influencing axons of the motor cortex causing the intended hand movement: the first example of the transfer of motor intention and its expression, between the brains of two remote humans. However, to date the mechanisms involved, not least that relating to the participation of magnetic induction, remain unclear. In general, in animal biology, magnetic fields are usually the poor relation of neuronal current: generally "unseen" and if apparent, disregarded or just given a nod. Niels Bohr searched for a biological parallel to complementary phenomena of physics. Pertinently, the two-brains hypothesis (TBH) proposed recently that advanced animals, especially man, have two brains i.e., the animal CNS evolved as two fundamentally different though interdependent, complementary organs: one electro-ionic (tangible, known and accessible), and the other, electromagnetic (intangible and difficult to access) - a stable, structured and functional 3D compendium of variously induced interacting electro-magnetic (EM) fields. Research on the CNS in health and disease progresses including that on brain

  5. Using a PC and External Media to Quantitatively Investigate Electromagnetic Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonanno, A.; Bozzo, G.; Camarca, M.; Sapia, P.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we describe an experimental learning path about electromagnetic induction which uses an Atwood machine where one of the two hanging bodies is a cylindrical magnet falling through a plexiglass guide, surrounded either by a coil or by a copper pipe. The first configuration (magnet falling across a coil) allows students to…

  6. Harmonic reduction of Direct Torque Control of six-phase induction motor.

    PubMed

    Taheri, A

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a new switching method in Direct Torque Control (DTC) of a six-phase induction machine for reduction of current harmonics is introduced. Selecting a suitable vector in each sampling period is an ordinal method in the ST-DTC drive of a six-phase induction machine. The six-phase induction machine has 64 voltage vectors and divided further into four groups. In the proposed DTC method, the suitable voltage vectors are selected from two vector groups. By a suitable selection of two vectors in each sampling period, the harmonic amplitude is decreased more, in and various comparison to that of the ST-DTC drive. The harmonics loss is greater reduced, while the electromechanical energy is decreased with switching loss showing a little increase. Spectrum analysis of the phase current in the standard and new switching table DTC of the six-phase induction machine and determination for the amplitude of each harmonics is proposed in this paper. The proposed method has a less sampling time in comparison to the ordinary method. The Harmonic analyses of the current in the low and high speed shows the performance of the presented method. The simplicity of the proposed method and its implementation without any extra hardware is other advantages of the proposed method. The simulation and experimental results show the preference of the proposed method.

  7. Lactase phlorhizin hydrolase turnover in vivo in water-fed and colostrum-fed newborn pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, M A; Burrin, D G; Quaroni, A; Rosenberger, J; Cook, G; Nichols, B L; Reeds, P J

    1996-01-01

    We have estimated the synthesis rates in vivo of precursor and brush-border (BB) polypeptides of lactase phlorhizin hydrolase (LPH) in newborn pigs fed with water or colostrum for 24h post partum. At the end of the feeding period, piglets were anaesthetized and infused intravenously for 3h with L-[4-3H]- phenylalanine. Blood and jejunal samples were collected at timed intervals. The precursor and BB forms of LPH were isolated from jejunal mucosa by immunoprecipitation followed by SDS/PAGE, and their specific radioactivity in Phe determined. The kinetics of precursor and BB LPH labelling were analysed by using a linear compartmental model. Immunoisolated LPH protein consisted of five polypeptides [high-mannose LPH precursor (proLPHh), complex glycosylated LPH precursor (proLPHe), intermediate complex glycosylated LPH precursor (proLPH1i) and two forms of BB LPH]. The fractional synthesis rate (Ks) of proLPHh and proLPHc (approx. 5%/min) were the same in the two groups but the absolute synthesis rate (in arbitrary units, min-1) of proLPHh in the colostrum-fed animals was twice that of the water-fed animals. The Ks values of proLPHi polypeptides were significantly different (water-fed, 3.89%/min; colostrum-fed, 1.6%/min), but the absolute synthesis rates did not differ. The Ks of BB LPH was not different between experimental treatment groups (on average 0.037%/min). However, the proportion of newly synthesized proLPHh processed to BB LPH was 48% lower in colostrum-fed than in water-fed animals. We conclude that in neonatal pigs, the ingestion of colostrum stimulates the synthesis of proLPHh but, at least temporarily, disrupts the processing of proLPH polypeptides to the BB enzyme. PMID:9003357

  8. The Potential to Machine Superconductors with Electrochemical Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leese, Rebecca J.; Ivanov, Atanas; Babu-Nadendla, Hari

    2016-01-01

    Superconductors (SCs), such as gadolinium barium copper oxide, are brittle ceramics which are very difficult to machine conventionally due to the easy propagation of cracks. The cracks formed during conventional machining destroy the superconductive properties of the material. As a result a new method to machine ceramic SCs is needed. In this paper, polarization experiments were conducted in various nonaqueous salt electrolytes to determine whether electrochemical machining (ECM) is a suitable method for machining gadolinium barium copper oxide with silver inclusions (GdBCO-Ag) for the first time. Sodium chloride in formic acid proved to be the best electrolyte for this application with higher dissolution rates and achieving a better surface finish. It was noted that GdBCO-Ag dissolved at higher rates in NaCl in formic acid than in other salt-solvent systems.

  9. Role of nitrate and nitrite in the induction of nitrite reductase in leaves of barley seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, M.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    The role of NO3- and NO2- in the induction of nitrite reductase (NiR) activity in detached leaves of 8-day-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings was investigated. Barley leaves contained 6 to 8 micromoles NO2-/gram fresh weight x hour of endogenous NiR activity when grown in N-free solutions. Supply of both NO2- and NO3- induced the enzyme activity above the endogenous levels (5 and 10 times, respectively at 10 millimolar NO2- and NO3- over a 24 hour period). In NO3(-)-supplied leaves, NiR induction occurred at an ambient NO3- concentration of as low as 0.05 millimolar; however, no NiR induction was found in leaves supplied with NO2- until the ambient NO2- concentration was 0.5 millimolar. Nitrate accumulated in NO2(-)-fed leaves. The amount of NO3- accumulating in NO2(-)-fed leaves induced similar levels of NiR as did equivalent amounts of NO3- accumulating in NO3(-)-fed leaves. Induction of NiR in NO2(-)-fed leaves was not seen until NO3- was detectable (30 nanomoles/gram fresh weight) in the leaves. The internal concentrations of NO3-, irrespective of N source, were highly correlated with the levels of NiR induced. When the reduction of NO3- to NO2- was inhibited by WO4(2-), the induction of NiR was inhibited only partially. The results indicate that in barley leaves in NiR is induced by NO3- directly, i.e. without being reduced to NO2-, and that absorbed NO2- induces the enzyme activity indirectly after being oxidized to NO3- within the leaf.

  10. Extremal quantum cloning machines

    SciTech Connect

    Chiribella, G.; D'Ariano, G. M.; Perinotti, P.; Cerf, N.J.

    2005-10-15

    We investigate the problem of cloning a set of states that is invariant under the action of an irreducible group representation. We then characterize the cloners that are extremal in the convex set of group covariant cloning machines, among which one can restrict the search for optimal cloners. For a set of states that is invariant under the discrete Weyl-Heisenberg group, we show that all extremal cloners can be unitarily realized using the so-called double-Bell states, whence providing a general proof of the popular ansatz used in the literature for finding optimal cloners in a variety of settings. Our result can also be generalized to continuous-variable optimal cloning in infinite dimensions, where the covariance group is the customary Weyl-Heisenberg group of displacement000.

  11. Electropulse chemical machining

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T.A.; Rospopo, S.D.

    1984-08-01

    Electropulse Chemical Machining is a new technique in chemical milling, and we have applied it to the photoforming of molybdenum. We apply direct current in short pulses at current densities of thousands of amperes per square foot with little thermal degradation of resists or workpieces. We have achieved etch rates an order of magnitude faster than those of existing methods, with a corresponding improvement in surface finish. Equipment designed for pulse plating can be used and is readily available from plating suppliers. Chemicals are commercially available and may be diluted to levels that protect resist images, reduce hazards to personnel, and simplify disposal. We speculate that this process can be applied to other refractory metals and noble metals.

  12. Induction of Ovulation

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Emmet J.

    1965-01-01

    Every effort should be made to find the cause of anovulation since specific therapy directed at correction of a specific hormonal deficiency or excess is, of course, much more effective than any empiric treatment. Moreover, some patients with disorders of ovulation may have serious, even fatal, underlying disorders. The use of thyroid or cortisone has been disappointing except in the treatment of an overt deficiency of thyroid or cortisone or an excess of adrenal androgens. Estrogens and progestational agents have not been consistently effective in the induction of ovulation. The use of clomiphene citrate, which apparently stimulates the release of gonadotropins, and the use of purified gonadotropins of human origin have been quite successful in the induction of ovulation in a variety of disorders of ovarian function. Because of real and potential hazards, the use of these new agents should be restricted to women for whom pregnancy is the primary goal or in whom standard methods of therapy have failed. Neither drug has been released by the Food and Drug Administration for routine clinical use. PMID:14336790

  13. Offline detection of broken rotor bars in AC induction motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Craig Stephen

    ABSTRACT. OFFLINE DETECTION OF BROKEN ROTOR BARS IN AC INDUCTION MOTORS. The detection of the broken rotor bar defect in medium- and large-sized AC induction machines is currently one of the most difficult tasks for the motor condition and monitoring industry. If a broken rotor bar defect goes undetected, it can cause a catastrophic failure of an expensive machine. If a broken rotor bar defect is falsely determined, it wastes time and money to physically tear down and inspect the machine only to find an incorrect diagnosis. Previous work in 2009 at Baker/SKF-USA in collaboration with the Korea University has developed a prototype instrument that has been highly successful in correctly detecting the broken rotor bar defect in ACIMs where other methods have failed. Dr. Sang Bin and his students at the Korea University have been using this prototype instrument to help the industry save money in the successful detection of the BRB defect. A review of the current state of motor conditioning and monitoring technology for detecting the broken rotor bar defect in ACIMs shows improved detection of this fault is still relevant. An analysis of previous work in the creation of this prototype instrument leads into the refactoring of the software and hardware into something more deployable, cost effective and commercially viable.

  14. Bearing Fault Detection in Induction Motor-Gearbox Drivetrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, Jaroslav; Ebbesen, Morten K.; Robbersmyr, Kjell G.

    2012-05-01

    The main contribution in the hereby presented paper is to investigate the fault detection capability of a motor current signature analysis by expanding its scope to include the gearbox, and not only the induction motor. Detecting bearing faults outside the induction motor through the stator current analysis represents an interesting alternative to traditional vibration analysis. Bearing faults cause changes in the stator current spectrum that can be used for fault diagnosis purposes. A time-domain simulation of the drivetrain model is developed. The drivetrain system consists of a loaded single stage gearbox driven by a line-fed induction motor. Three typical bearing faults in the gearbox are addressed, i.e. defects in the outer raceway, the inner raceway, and the rolling element. The interaction with the fault is modelled by means of kinematical and mechanical relations. The fault region is modelled in order to achieve gradual loss and gain of contact. A bearing fault generates an additional torque component that varies at the specific bearing defect frequency. The presented dynamic electromagnetic dq-model of an induction motor is adjusted for diagnostic purpose and considers such torque variations. The bearing fault is detected as a phase modulation of the stator current sine wave at the expected bearing defect frequency.

  15. Machining of uranium and uranium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, T.O.

    1981-12-14

    Uranium and uranium alloys can be readily machined by conventional methods in the standard machine shop when proper safety and operating techniques are used. Material properties that affect machining processes and recommended machining parameters are discussed. Safety procedures and precautions necessary in machining uranium and uranium alloys are also covered. 30 figures.

  16. The Machine Scoring of Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

  17. Cleaning of Free Machining Brass

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, T

    2005-12-29

    We have investigated four brightening treatments proposed by two cleaning vendors for cleaning free machining brass. The experimental results showed that none of the proposed brightening treatments passed the swipe test. Thus, we maintain the recommendation of not using the brightening process in the cleaning of free machining brass for NIF application.

  18. Self-Adjusting Teaching Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dovgyallo, A. M.

    A study was made on the synthesis of teaching machine elements to ensure the stabilization of the chi indicator of the teaching process of each student. At first, a procedure was developed for calculating the chi indicator for the case when the teaching machine predicts the magnitude of this indicator based on probabilities derived from an…

  19. Contraction-Only Exercise Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doerr, Donald F.; Maples, Arthur B.; Campbell, Craig M.

    1992-01-01

    Standard knee-extension machine modified so subject experiences force only when lifting leg against stack of weights. Exerts little force on leg while being lowered. Hydraulic cylinder and reservoir mounted on frame of exercise machine. Fluid flows freely from cylinder to reservoir during contraction (lifting) but in constricted fashion from reservoir to cylinder during extension (lowering).

  20. The Machine Intelligence Hex Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalup, Stephan K.; Mellor, Drew; Rosamond, Fran

    2005-01-01

    Hex is a challenging strategy board game for two players. To enhance students' progress in acquiring understanding and practical experience with complex machine intelligence and programming concepts we developed the Machine Intelligence Hex (MIHex) project. The associated undergraduate student assignment is about designing and implementing Hex…

  1. Machine Trades Lab Management Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This manual was developed to guide machine trades instructors and vocational supervisors in sequencing laboratory instruction and controlling the flow of work for a 2-year machine trades training program. The first part of the guide provides information on program management (program description, safety concerns, academic issues, implementation…

  2. Man and Machines: Three Criticisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Edward F.

    As machines have become a more common part of daily life through the passage of time, the idea that the line separating man and machine is slowly fading has become more popular as well. This paper examines three critics of change through their most famous works. One of the most popular views of Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein" is that it is a…

  3. TEACHING MACHINES AND PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JOHNSON, HERBERT; AND OTHERS

    THE TEACHING MACHINE AND PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION ARE EXPLAINED ANALYTICALLY IN TERMS OF LABORATORY PROCEDURES. AN EXPLANATION IS GIVEN OF THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE STUDENT. TEACHING MACHINES ALLEVIATE SOME PROBLEMS OF STUDENT-TEACHER RELATIONSHIPS, SUCH AS APATHY, STUBBORNNESS, AND RESENTMENT. HIGHER LEVELS OF CONCENTRATION ARE MAINTAINED. SOME…

  4. TEACHING MACHINE STUDY. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EVCO, Albuquerque, NM.

    IN AN INVESTIGATION OF THE POTENTIAL OF TEACHING MACHINES IN THE JOB CORPS MATHEMATICS PROGRAM, EXISTING JOB CORPS ARITHMETIC MATERIAL WAS PREPARED FOR INSTRUCTION BY MACHINE AND PROGRAMED TEXT, AND THEN FIELD TESTED. REVISIONS WERE MADE, AND A PROGRAMED MANUAL FOR INSTRUCTORS WRITTEN, AFTER WHICH A NEW FIELD TEST WAS RUN. IN THE INITIAL FIELD…

  5. Machine Shop: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    Intended for use by all machine shop instructors in the Metropolitan Nashville Public Schools, this guide provides a sequential listing of course content and scope. A course description provides a brief overview of the content of the courses offered in the machine shop program. General course objectives are then listed. Outlines of the course…

  6. Man Machine Systems in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sall, Malkit S.

    This review of the research literature on the interaction between humans and computers discusses how man machine systems can be utilized effectively in the learning-teaching process, especially in secondary education. Beginning with a definition of man machine systems and comments on the poor quality of much of the computer-based learning material…

  7. Induction of anaesthesia in children.

    PubMed

    Boezaart, A P; van Hasselt, C H

    1987-05-16

    Induction of anaesthesia in children in the age group 2-6 years is a special challenge. In order to minimise emotional and physical stress during induction of anaesthesia by gas inhalation, a toy telephone has been modified to deliver induction gases to the mouthpiece while taped nursery stories can be heard from a small speaker placed in the earpiece. The child holds the hand set and listens to a suitable story, while appropriate concentrations of inhalation agents are adjusted inconspicuously. PMID:3576386

  8. Eriobotrya japonica improves hyperlipidemia and reverses insulin resistance in high-fat-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chun-Ching; Lin, Cheng-Hsiu; Wu, Jin-Bin

    2010-12-01

    The effect of Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. (loquat) on insulin resistance was examined in mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. First, the mice were divided randomly into two groups: the control (CON) group was fed a low-fat diet, whereas the experimental group was fed with a 45% HF diet for 10 weeks. After 6 weeks of induction, the HF group was subdivided into five groups and was given orally loquat or not for 4 weeks afterward. It was demonstrated that loquat was effective in ameliorating the HF diet-induced hyperglycemia, hyperleptinemia, hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia, as well as in decreasing the levels of free fatty acid (FFA), but increasing the adipose PPARγ (peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor γ) and hepatic PPARα mRNA levels. Loquat significantly decreased the body weight gain, weights of white adipose tissue and visceral fat accompanying the suppressed leptin mRNA levels. Loquat not only suppressed the hepatic mRNA levels of enzymes involved in fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis and lowered the sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA level, but also affected fatty acid oxidation enzyme levels. These regulations may contribute to triacylglycerol accumulation in white adipose tissue. The findings provide a nutritional basis for the use of loquat as a functional food factor that may have benefits for the prevention of hyperlipidemia and diabetes.

  9. Induction Linac Pulsers

    SciTech Connect

    Faltens, Andris

    2011-01-07

    The pulsers used in most of the induction linacs evolved from the very large body of work that was done in the U.S. and Great Britain during the development of the pulsed magnetron for radar. The radar modulators started at {approx}100 kW and reached >10 MW by 1945. A typical pulse length was 1 {mu}s at a repetition rate of 1,000 pps. A very comprehensive account of the modulator development is Pulse Generators by Lebacqz and Glasoe, one of the Radiation Laboratory Series. There are many permutations of possible modulators, two of the choices being tube type and line type. In earlier notes I wrote that technically the vacuum tube pulser met all of our induction linac needs, in the sense that a number of tubes, in series and parallel if required, could produce our pulses, regulate their voltage, be useable in feed-forward correctors, and provide a low source impedance. At a lower speed, an FET array is similar, and we have obtained and tested a large array capable of >10 MW switching. A modulator with an electronically controlled output only needs a capacitor for energy storage and in a switched mode can transfer the energy from the capacitor to the load at high efficiency. Driving a full size Astron induction core and a simulated resistive 'beam load' we achieved >50% efficiency. These electronically controlled output pulses can produce the pulses we desire but are not used because of their high cost. The second choice, the line type pulser, visually comprises a closing switch and a distributed or a lumped element transmission line. The typical switch cannot open or stop conducting after the desired pulse has been produced, and consequently all of the initially stored energy is dissipated. This approximately halves the efficiency, and the original cost estimating program LIACEP used this factor of two, even though our circuits are usually worse, and even though our inveterate optimists often omit it. The 'missing' energy is that which is reflected back into the

  10. Comprehensive Teacher Induction: Linking Teacher Induction to Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keilwitz, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher retention is a wide concern in education and in response school districts throughout the United States are developing more comprehensive teacher induction programs. Components of teacher induction programs that have assisted with successful teacher development include release time for teacher observation, assignment of a knowledgeable…

  11. Comparative induction of nitrate reductase by nitrate and nitrite in barley leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, M.; Rosichan, J. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1987-01-01

    The comparative induction of nitrate reductase (NR) by ambient NO3- and NO2- as a function of influx, reduction (as NR was induced) and accumulation in detached leaves of 8-day-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings was determined. The dynamic interaction of NO3- influx, reduction and accumulation on NR induction was shown. The activity of NR, as it was induced, influenced its further induction by affecting the internal concentration of NO3-. As the ambient concentration of NO3- increased, the relative influences imposed by influx and reduction on NO3- accumulation changed with influx becoming a more predominant regulant. Significant levels of NO3- accumulated in NO2(-)-fed leaves. When the leaves were supplied cycloheximide or tungstate along with NO2-, about 60% more NO3- accumulated in the leaves than in the absence of the inhibitors. In NO3(-)-supplied leaves NR induction was observed at an ambient concentration of as low as 0.02 mM. No NR induction occurred in leaves supplied with NO2- until the ambient NO2- concentration was 0.5 mM. In fact, NR induction from NO2- solutions was not seen until NO3- was detected in the leaves. The amount of NO3- accumulating in NO2(-)-fed leaves induced similar levels of NR as did equivalent amounts of NO3- accumulating from NO3(-)-fed leaves. In all cases the internal concentration of NO3-, but not NO2-, was highly correlated with the amount of NR induced. The evidence indicated that NO3- was a more likely inducer of NR than was NO2-.

  12. Programming Inductive Proofs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pientka, Brigitte

    In this paper, we present an overview to programming with proofs in the reasoning framework, Beluga. Beluga supports the specification of formal systems given by axioms and inference rules within the logical framework LF. It also supports implementing proofs about formal systems as dependently typed recursive functions. What distinguishes Beluga from other frameworks is that it not only represents binders using higher-order abstract syntax, but directly supports reasoning with contexts and contextual objects. Contextual types allows us to characterize precisely hypothetical and parametric derivations, i.e. derivations which depend on variables and assumptions, and lead to a direct and elegant implementation of inductive proofs as recursive functions. Because of the intrinsic support for binders and contexts, one can think of the design of Beluga as the most advanced technology for specifying and prototyping formal systems together with their meta-theory.

  13. Borehole induction coil transmitter

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, Gale; Wilt, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A borehole induction coil transmitter which is a part of a cross-borehole electromagnetic field system that is used for underground imaging applications. The transmitter consists of four major parts: 1) a wound ferrite or mu-metal core, 2) an array of tuning capacitors, 3) a current driver circuit board, and 4) a flux monitor. The core is wound with several hundred turns of wire and connected in series with the capacitor array, to produce a tuned coil. This tuned coil uses internal circuitry to generate sinusoidal signals that are transmitted through the earth to a receiver coil in another borehole. The transmitter can operate at frequencies from 1-200 kHz and supplies sufficient power to permit the field system to operate in boreholes separated by up to 400 meters.

  14. Kinetic inductance magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Luomahaara, Juho; Vesterinen, Visa; Grönberg, Leif; Hassel, Juha

    2014-09-10

    Sensing ultra-low magnetic fields has various applications in the fields of science, medicine and industry. There is a growing need for a sensor that can be operated in ambient environments where magnetic shielding is limited or magnetic field manipulation is involved. To this end, here we demonstrate a new magnetometer with high sensitivity and wide dynamic range. The device is based on the current nonlinearity of superconducting material stemming from kinetic inductance. A further benefit of our approach is of extreme simplicity: the device is fabricated from a single layer of niobium nitride. Moreover, radio frequency multiplexing techniques can be applied, enabling the simultaneous readout of multiple sensors, for example, in biomagnetic measurements requiring data from large sensor arrays.

  15. Inductive Position Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Simmons, Stephen M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An inductive position sensor uses three parallel inductors, each of which has an axial core that is an independent magnetic structure. A first support couples first and second inductors and separate them by a fixed distance. A second support coupled to a third inductor disposed between the first and second inductors. The first support and second support are configured for relative movement as distance changes from the third inductor to each of the first and second inductors. An oscillating current is supplied to the first and second inductors. A device measures a phase component of a source voltage generating the oscillating current and a phase component of voltage induced in the third inductor when the oscillating current is supplied to the first and second inductors such that the phase component of the voltage induced overlaps the phase component of the source voltage.

  16. Tolerance Induction in Liver.

    PubMed

    Karimi, M H; Geramizadeh, B; Malek-Hosseini, S A

    2015-01-01

    Liver is an exclusive anatomical and immunological organ that displays a considerable tolerance effect. Liver allograft acceptance is shown to occur spontaneously within different species. Although in human transplant patients tolerance is rarely seen, the severity level and cellular mechanisms of transplant rejection vary. Non-paranchymal liver cells, including Kupffer cells, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, hepatic stellate cells, and resident dendritic cells may participate in liver tolerogenicity. The mentioned cells secret anti-inflammatory cytokines such as TGF-β and IL-10 and express negative co-stimulatory molecules like PD-L1 to mediate immunosuppression. Other mechanisms such as microchimerism, soluble major histocompatibility complex and regulatory T cells may take part in tolerance induction. Understanding the mechanisms involved in liver transplant rejection/tolerance helps us to improve therapeutic options to induce hepatic tolerance. PMID:26082828

  17. Thermal analog device reduces machining errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclure, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Thermal analog devices predict thermal expansion and contraction of machine structures subjected to various heat inputs. Analog devices correct positioning of machine tools to compensate for distortion of machine frame.

  18. Induction of pluripotency.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Corey; Liu, Jun; Sumer, Huseyin; Malaver-Ortega, Luis F; Verma, Rajneesh; Carvalho, Edmund; Verma, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    The molecular and phenotypic irreversibility of mammalian cell differentiation was a fundamental principle of developmental biology at least until the 1980s, despite numerous reports dating back to the 1950s of the induction of pluripotency in amphibian cells by nuclear transfer (NT). Landmark reports in the 1980s and 1990s in sheep progressively challenged this dogmatic assumption; firstly, embryonic development of reconstructed embryos comprising whole (donor) blastomeres fused to enucleated oocytes, and famously, the cloning of Dolly from a terminally differentiated cell. Thus, the intrinsic ability of oocyte-derived factors to reverse the differentiated phenotype was confirmed. The concomitant elucidation of methods for human embryonic stem cell isolation and cultivation presented opportunities for therapeutic cell replacement strategies, particularly through NT of patient nuclei to enucleated oocytes for subsequent isolation of patient-specific (autologous), pluripotent cells from the resulting blastocysts. Associated logistical limitations of working with human oocytes, in addition to ethical and moral objections prompted exploration of alternative approaches to generate autologous stem cells for therapy, utilizing the full repertoire of factors characteristic of pluripotency, primarily through cell fusion and use of pluripotent cell extracts. Stunningly, in 2006, Japanese scientists described somatic cell reprogramming through delivery of four key factors (identified through a deductive approach from 24 candidate genes). Although less efficient than previous approaches, much of current stem cell research adopts this focused approach to cell reprogramming and (autologous) cell therapy. This chapter is a quasi-historical commentary of the various aforementioned approaches for the induction of pluripotency in lineage-committed cells, and introduces transcriptional and epigenetic changes occurring during reprogramming.

  19. Induction of pluripotency.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Corey; Liu, Jun; Sumer, Huseyin; Malaver-Ortega, Luis F; Verma, Rajneesh; Carvalho, Edmund; Verma, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    The molecular and phenotypic irreversibility of mammalian cell differentiation was a fundamental principle of developmental biology at least until the 1980s, despite numerous reports dating back to the 1950s of the induction of pluripotency in amphibian cells by nuclear transfer (NT). Landmark reports in the 1980s and 1990s in sheep progressively challenged this dogmatic assumption; firstly, embryonic development of reconstructed embryos comprising whole (donor) blastomeres fused to enucleated oocytes, and famously, the cloning of Dolly from a terminally differentiated cell. Thus, the intrinsic ability of oocyte-derived factors to reverse the differentiated phenotype was confirmed. The concomitant elucidation of methods for human embryonic stem cell isolation and cultivation presented opportunities for therapeutic cell replacement strategies, particularly through NT of patient nuclei to enucleated oocytes for subsequent isolation of patient-specific (autologous), pluripotent cells from the resulting blastocysts. Associated logistical limitations of working with human oocytes, in addition to ethical and moral objections prompted exploration of alternative approaches to generate autologous stem cells for therapy, utilizing the full repertoire of factors characteristic of pluripotency, primarily through cell fusion and use of pluripotent cell extracts. Stunningly, in 2006, Japanese scientists described somatic cell reprogramming through delivery of four key factors (identified through a deductive approach from 24 candidate genes). Although less efficient than previous approaches, much of current stem cell research adopts this focused approach to cell reprogramming and (autologous) cell therapy. This chapter is a quasi-historical commentary of the various aforementioned approaches for the induction of pluripotency in lineage-committed cells, and introduces transcriptional and epigenetic changes occurring during reprogramming. PMID:23696349

  20. Combining data mining and machine learning for effective user profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Fawcett, T.; Provost, F.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the automatic design of methods for detecting fraudulent behavior. Much of the design is accomplished using a series of machine learning methods. In particular, we combine data mining and constructive induction with more standard machine learning techniques to design methods for detecting fraudulent usage of cellular telephones based on profiling customer behavior. Specifically, we use a rule-learning program to uncover indicators of fraudulent behavior from a large database of cellular calls. These indicators are used to create profilers, which then serve as features to a system that combines evidence from multiple profilers to generate high-confidence alarms. Experiments indicate that this automatic approach performs nearly as well as the best hand-tuned methods for detecting fraud.

  1. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future.

  2. Multi-machine comparison of drift fluid dimensionless parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Militello, F.; Fundamenski, W.

    2011-09-01

    The behaviour of the turbulence in magnetic fusion plasmas is discussed in the framework of dimensional analysis. Three main dimensionless parameters are identified, which directly affect the adiabatic response of the plasma and hence control the electron response. They were originally introduced by Scott (1997 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 39 1635) and Rogers and Drake (1997 Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 229), and represent the effect of the electromagnetic induction, collisions and electron inertia. The dimensionless parameters are then evaluated at different radial positions in four existing divertor machines (ALCATOR C-MOD, ASDEX-Upgrade, JET and MAST) and in three future experiments (MAST-Upgrade, ITER and DEMO). Clear multi-machine trends, suggesting a quasi-universal behaviour of the plasma, are identified and discussed. Exploiting this quasi-universality, useful insight into the physics of the machines is obtained without complex calculations or expensive numerical simulations. In particular, the trends show a clear separation of the plasma in four distinct regions: core, edge, scrape-off layer and divertor, each of them characterized by a different set of parameters which, in turn, lead to significant variation of the dominant physical mechanisms across the machine.

  3. Machine and process characterization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Love, L.W.

    1992-12-01

    A study was conducted to statistically characterize 11 precision machining centers to determine their operating characteristics and process capabilities. Measurement probes and a ball plate were used for measurement analysis. A generic test part designed with geometric features that the department typically manufactures was machined using various machining processes. A better understanding of each machine`s characteristics and process capability was realized through repeating these methods on each machine.

  4. CAFE: Calar Alto Fiber-fed Échelle spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceituno, J.; Sánchez, S. F.; Grupp, F.; Lillo, J.; Hernán-Obispo, M.; Benitez, D.; Montoya, L. M.; Thiele, U.; Pedraz, S.; Barrado, D.; Dreizler, S.; Bean, J.

    2013-04-01

    We present here CAFE, the Calar Alto Fiber-fed Échelle spectrograph, a new instrument built at the Centro Astronomico Hispano Alemán (CAHA). CAFE is a single-fiber, high-resolution (R ~ 70 000) spectrograph, covering the wavelength range between 3650-9800 Å. It was built on the basis of the common design for Échelle spectrographs. Its main aim is to measure radial velocities of stellar objects up to V ~ 13-14 mag with a precision as good as a few tens of m s-1. To achieve this goal the design was simplified at maximum, removing all possible movable components, the central wavelength is fixed, as is the wavelength coverage; there is no filter wheel, etc. Particular care was taken with the thermal and mechanical stability. The instrument is fully operational and publically accessible at the 2.2 m telescope of the Calar Alto Observatory. In this article we describe (i) the design, summarizing its manufacturing phase; (ii) characterize the main properties of the instrument; (iii) describe the reduction pipeline; and (iv) show the results from the first light and commissioning runs. The preliminar results indicate that the instrument fulfills the specifications and can achieve the planned goals. In particular, the results show that the instrument is more efficient than anticipated, reaching a signal-to-noise of ~20 for a stellar object as faint as V ~ 14.5 mag in ~2700 s integration time. The instrument is a wonderful machine for exoplanetary research (by studying large samples of possible systems cotaining massive planets), galactic dynamics (highly precise radial velocities in moving groups or stellar associations), or astrochemistry.

  5. Machine vision for digital microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yong-Jun; Lee, Jeong-Bong

    2010-01-01

    Machine vision is widely used in an industrial environment today. It can perform various tasks, such as inspecting and controlling production processes, that may require humanlike intelligence. The importance of imaging technology for biological research or medical diagnosis is greater than ever. For example, fluorescent reporter imaging enables scientists to study the dynamics of gene networks with high spatial and temporal resolution. Such high-throughput imaging is increasingly demanding the use of machine vision for real-time analysis and control. Digital microfluidics is a relatively new technology with expectations of becoming a true lab-on-a-chip platform. Utilizing digital microfluidics, only small amounts of biological samples are required and the experimental procedures can be automatically controlled. There is a strong need for the development of a digital microfluidics system integrated with machine vision for innovative biological research today. In this paper, we show how machine vision can be applied to digital microfluidics by demonstrating two applications: machine vision-based measurement of the kinetics of biomolecular interactions and machine vision-based droplet motion control. It is expected that digital microfluidics-based machine vision system will add intelligence and automation to high-throughput biological imaging in the future.

  6. Machine vision for digital microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yong-Jun; Lee, Jeong-Bong

    2010-01-01

    Machine vision is widely used in an industrial environment today. It can perform various tasks, such as inspecting and controlling production processes, that may require humanlike intelligence. The importance of imaging technology for biological research or medical diagnosis is greater than ever. For example, fluorescent reporter imaging enables scientists to study the dynamics of gene networks with high spatial and temporal resolution. Such high-throughput imaging is increasingly demanding the use of machine vision for real-time analysis and control. Digital microfluidics is a relatively new technology with expectations of becoming a true lab-on-a-chip platform. Utilizing digital microfluidics, only small amounts of biological samples are required and the experimental procedures can be automatically controlled. There is a strong need for the development of a digital microfluidics system integrated with machine vision for innovative biological research today. In this paper, we show how machine vision can be applied to digital microfluidics by demonstrating two applications: machine vision-based measurement of the kinetics of biomolecular interactions and machine vision-based droplet motion control. It is expected that digital microfluidics-based machine vision system will add intelligence and automation to high-throughput biological imaging in the future.

  7. Applications of the connection machine

    SciTech Connect

    Waltz, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Connection Machine development effort was initiated in the belief that parallel processing and artificial intelligence could together accelerate the rate of progress toward truly intelligent machines. This progress is the result of the ease with which the machine can be programmed and the dramatic increase in compute power that the machine can bring to bear. The authors have been able to run many trials of experiments in instances where previously, running just one would have been considered an achievement and no further experimentation would have been done. This has enabled exploring a great many more hypotheses and to work on much larger problems that had been possible on previous-generation artificial intelligence workstations. The ease of programming is in part the result of a decision to use existing serial machines (the Symbolics 3600 or Digital Equipment Corporation VAX), thus leaving unchanged the operating systems, editors, file systems, debuggers, network communications systems, and so on, so as to provide familiar programming environments. The Connection Machine is programmed in conservative extensions of Common Lisp and C. Users familiar with these languages and with front-end computer systems have been able to produce results on the Connection Machine on the first day that they use it.

  8. Virtual Machine Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grasso, Christopher; Page, Dennis; O'Reilly, Taifun; Fteichert, Ralph; Lock, Patricia; Lin, Imin; Naviaux, Keith; Sisino, John

    2005-01-01

    Virtual Machine Language (VML) is a mission-independent, reusable software system for programming for spacecraft operations. Features of VML include a rich set of data types, named functions, parameters, IF and WHILE control structures, polymorphism, and on-the-fly creation of spacecraft commands from calculated values. Spacecraft functions can be abstracted into named blocks that reside in files aboard the spacecraft. These named blocks accept parameters and execute in a repeatable fashion. The sizes of uplink products are minimized by the ability to call blocks that implement most of the command steps. This block approach also enables some autonomous operations aboard the spacecraft, such as aerobraking, telemetry conditional monitoring, and anomaly response, without developing autonomous flight software. Operators on the ground write blocks and command sequences in a concise, high-level, human-readable programming language (also called VML ). A compiler translates the human-readable blocks and command sequences into binary files (the operations products). The flight portion of VML interprets the uplinked binary files. The ground subsystem of VML also includes an interactive sequence- execution tool hosted on workstations, which runs sequences at several thousand times real-time speed, affords debugging, and generates reports. This tool enables iterative development of blocks and sequences within times of the order of seconds.

  9. Frozen beverage machine

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.D.

    1988-04-12

    A frozen beverage machine is described, comprising: a. a frame having an exterior, an interior, a front and a back; b. a cylinder, having an interior and an exterior as well as first and second ends and further having an opening in each of the ends, the cylinder being horizontally and fixedly positioned within the interior of the frame with the second end facing the front of the frame; c. a means, sealingly attached to the opening in the second end of the cylinder, for emptying the cylinder; d. a means, positioned within the frame and communicating with the exterior of the cylinder, for removing heat from the cylinder; e. at least one support bracket; f. a shaft, rotatably attached within the opening in the support bracket and rotatably and sealingly attached within the opening in the first end of the cylinder and extending to the interior of the cylinder; g. a motor assembly, operatively connected to a portion of the shaft exterior to the cylinder and suspended from the shaft such that the weight of the motor assembly is supported only by the shaft; h. a contact switch; and i. a resilient means, connected to the frame and the motor assembly, for maintaining the position of the motor assembly relative to the shaft until a desired threshold resistance to rotation of the shaft within the cylinder occur, and then allowing the motor assembly to rotate to a desired position relative to the shaft.

  10. Video Time Encoding Machines

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Aurel A.; Pnevmatikakis, Eftychios A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate architectures for time encoding and time decoding of visual stimuli such as natural and synthetic video streams (movies, animation). The architecture for time encoding is akin to models of the early visual system. It consists of a bank of filters in cascade with single-input multi-output neural circuits. Neuron firing is based on either a threshold-and-fire or an integrate-and-fire spiking mechanism with feedback. We show that analog information is represented by the neural circuits as projections on a set of band-limited functions determined by the spike sequence. Under Nyquist-type and frame conditions, the encoded signal can be recovered from these projections with arbitrary precision. For the video time encoding machine architecture, we demonstrate that band-limited video streams of finite energy can be faithfully recovered from the spike trains and provide a stable algorithm for perfect recovery. The key condition for recovery calls for the number of neurons in the population to be above a threshold value. PMID:21296708

  11. Video time encoding machines.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Aurel A; Pnevmatikakis, Eftychios A

    2011-03-01

    We investigate architectures for time encoding and time decoding of visual stimuli such as natural and synthetic video streams (movies, animation). The architecture for time encoding is akin to models of the early visual system. It consists of a bank of filters in cascade with single-input multi-output neural circuits. Neuron firing is based on either a threshold-and-fire or an integrate-and-fire spiking mechanism with feedback. We show that analog information is represented by the neural circuits as projections on a set of band-limited functions determined by the spike sequence. Under Nyquist-type and frame conditions, the encoded signal can be recovered from these projections with arbitrary precision. For the video time encoding machine architecture, we demonstrate that band-limited video streams of finite energy can be faithfully recovered from the spike trains and provide a stable algorithm for perfect recovery. The key condition for recovery calls for the number of neurons in the population to be above a threshold value.

  12. Size reduction machine

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, V.

    1999-12-15

    The Size Reduction Machine (SRM) is a mobile platform capable of shearing various shapes and types of metal components at a variety of elevations. This shearing activity can be performed without direct physical movement and placement of the shear head by the operator. The base unit is manually moved and roughly aligned to each cut location. The base contains the electronics: hydraulic pumps, servos, and actuators needed to move the shear-positioning arm. The movable arm allows the shear head to have six axes of movement and to cut to within 4 inches of a wall surface. The unit has a slick electrostatic capture coating to assist in external decontamination. Internal contamination of the unit is controlled by a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter on the cooling inlet fan. The unit is compact enough to access areas through a 36-inch standard door opening. This paper is an Innovative Technology Summary Report designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They also are designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users.

  13. Lubrication of Machine Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    The understanding of hydrodynamic lubrication began with the classical experiments of Tower and Petrov. Reynolds used a reduced form of the Navier-Stokes equations and the continuity equation to generate a second order differential equation for the pressure in the narrow, converging gap of a bearing contact. Such a pressure enables a load to be transmitted between the surfaces with very low friction since the surfaces are completely separated by a film of fluid. In such a situation it is the physical properties of the lubricant, notably the dynamic viscosity, that dictate the behavior of the contact. The understanding of boundary lubrication is normally attributed to Hardy and Doubleday. In boundary lubrication it is the physical and chemical properties of thin films of molecular proportions and the surfaces to which they are attached that determine contact behavior. The lubricant viscosity is not an influential parameter. Research is devoted to a better understanding and more precise definition of other lubrication regimes between these extremes. One such regime, elastohydrodynamic lubrication, occurs in nonconformal contacts, where the pressures are high and the bearing surfaces deform elastically. In this situation the viscosity of the lubricant may raise considerably, and this further assists the formation of an effective fluid film. The science of these three lubrication regimes (hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic, and boundary) are described and the manner in which this science is used in the design of machine elements is examined.

  14. Teacher Induction in Catholic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatlain, Greg; Noonan, Brian

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the induction process for beginning teachers in Catholic schools. Data were collected from 100 teachers using a survey that addressed teachers' level of confidence in the pedagogical, religious, and managerial dimensions of teaching. The results of the study indicated that the induction experiences of…

  15. From Inductive Reasoning to Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical proof is an expression of deductive reasoning (drawing conclusions from previous assertions). However, it is often inductive reasoning (conclusions drawn on the basis of examples) that helps learners form their deductive arguments, or proof. In addition, not all inductive arguments generate more formal arguments. This article draws a…

  16. A Student Teamwork Induction Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamau, Caroline; Spong, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    Faulty group processes have harmful effects on performance but there is little research about intervention protocols to pre-empt them in higher education. This naturalistic experiment compared a control cohort with an inducted cohort. The inducted cohort attended a workshop, consultations, elected a leader and used tools (a group log and group…

  17. Sampling Assumptions in Inductive Generalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Daniel J.; Dry, Matthew J.; Lee, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Inductive generalization, where people go beyond the data provided, is a basic cognitive capability, and it underpins theoretical accounts of learning, categorization, and decision making. To complete the inductive leap needed for generalization, people must make a key "sampling" assumption about how the available data were generated. Previous…

  18. A Boltzmann machine for the organization of intelligent machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moed, Michael C.; Saridis, George N.

    1990-01-01

    A three-tier structure consisting of organization, coordination, and execution levels forms the architecture of an intelligent machine using the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence from a hierarchically intelligent control. This system has been formulated as a probabilistic model, where uncertainty and imprecision can be expressed in terms of entropies. The optimal strategy for decision planning and task execution can be found by minimizing the total entropy in the system. The focus is on the design of the organization level as a Boltzmann machine. Since this level is responsible for planning the actions of the machine, the Boltzmann machine is reformulated to use entropy as the cost function to be minimized. Simulated annealing, expanding subinterval random search, and the genetic algorithm are presented as search techniques to efficiently find the desired action sequence and illustrated with numerical examples.

  19. Slide system for machine tools

    DOEpatents

    Douglass, Spivey S.; Green, Walter L.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention relates to a machine tool which permits the machining of nonaxisymmetric surfaces on a workpiece while rotating the workpiece about a central axis of rotation. The machine tool comprises a conventional two-slide system (X-Y) with one of these slides being provided with a relatively short travel high-speed auxiliary slide which carries the material-removing tool. The auxiliary slide is synchronized with the spindle speed and the position of the other two slides and provides a high-speed reciprocating motion required for the displacement of the cutting tool for generating a nonaxisymmetric surface at a selected location on the workpiece.

  20. Slide system for machine tools

    DOEpatents

    Douglass, S.S.; Green, W.L.

    1980-06-12

    The present invention relates to a machine tool which permits the machining of nonaxisymmetric surfaces on a workpiece while rotating the workpiece about a central axis of rotation. The machine tool comprises a conventional two-slide system (X-Y) with one of these slides being provided with a relatively short travel high-speed auxiliary slide which carries the material-removing tool. The auxiliary slide is synchronized with the spindle speed and the position of the other two slides and provides a high-speed reciprocating motion required for the displacement of the cutting tool for generating a nonaxisymmetric surface at a selected location on the workpiece.

  1. Gloved Human-Machine Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard (Inventor); Olowin, Aaron (Inventor); Hannaford, Blake (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Certain exemplary embodiments can provide a system, machine, device, manufacture, circuit, composition of matter, and/or user interface adapted for and/or resulting from, and/or a method and/or machine-readable medium comprising machine-implementable instructions for, activities that can comprise and/or relate to: tracking movement of a gloved hand of a human; interpreting a gloved finger movement of the human; and/or in response to interpreting the gloved finger movement, providing feedback to the human.

  2. Gradient boosting machines, a tutorial

    PubMed Central

    Natekin, Alexey; Knoll, Alois

    2013-01-01

    Gradient boosting machines are a family of powerful machine-learning techniques that have shown considerable success in a wide range of practical applications. They are highly customizable to the particular needs of the application, like being learned with respect to different loss functions. This article gives a tutorial introduction into the methodology of gradient boosting methods with a strong focus on machine learning aspects of modeling. A theoretical information is complemented with descriptive examples and illustrations which cover all the stages of the gradient boosting model design. Considerations on handling the model complexity are discussed. Three practical examples of gradient boosting applications are presented and comprehensively analyzed. PMID:24409142

  3. Induction: The Early Years of Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyton, Edi; Davis, Douglas; Colarusso, Ron; Grainger, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the need for induction programs for beginning teachers and discusses the theoretical and research support for them. Develops the notion of induction as a community responsibility and describes a university-school induction consortium, a university induction program, an induction program at a middle school, and the role of the principal…

  4. Induction of models under uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, Peter

    1986-01-01

    This paper outlines a procedure for performing induction under uncertainty. This procedure uses a probabilistic representation and uses Bayes' theorem to decide between alternative hypotheses (theories). This procedure is illustrated by a robot with no prior world experience performing induction on data it has gathered about the world. The particular inductive problem is the formation of class descriptions both for the tutored and untutored cases. The resulting class definitions are inherently probabilistic and so do not have any sharply defined membership criterion. This robot example raises some fundamental problems about induction; particularly, it is shown that inductively formed theories are not the best way to make predictions. Another difficulty is the need to provide prior probabilities for the set of possible theories. The main criterion for such priors is a pragmatic one aimed at keeping the theory structure as simple as possible, while still reflecting any structure discovered in the data.

  5. Inductance due to spin current

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei

    2014-03-21

    The inductance of spintronic devices that transport charge neutral spin currents is discussed. It is known that in a media that contains charge neutral spins, a time-varying electric field induces a spin current. We show that since the spin current itself produces an electric field, this implies existence of inductance and electromotive force when the spin current changes with time. The relations between the electromotive force and the corresponding flux, which is a vector calculated by the cross product of electric field and the trajectory of the device, are clarified. The relativistic origin generally renders an extremely small inductance, which indicates the advantage of spin current in building low inductance devices. The same argument also explains the inductance due to electric dipole current and applies to physical dipoles consist of polarized bound charges.

  6. Thermoneutrality decreases thermogenic program and promotes adiposity in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xin; Nguyen, Ngoc Ly T; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Cao, Qiang; Li, Fenfen; Zha, Lin; Bartness, Timothy; Shi, Hang; Xue, Bingzhong

    2016-05-01

    Brown/beige adipocytes are therapeutic targets to combat obesity due to their abilities to dissipate energy through adaptive thermogenesis. Most studies investigating induction of brown/beige adipocytes were conducted in cold condition (e.g., 4°C); much is unknown about how the thermogenic program of brown/beige adipocytes is regulated in thermoneutral condition (e.g., 30°C), which is within the thermal comfort zone of human dwellings in daily life. Therefore, this study aims to characterize the thermogenic program of brown/beige adipocytes in mice housed under ambient (22°C) versus thermoneutral condition (30°C). Male mice raised at 22°C or 30°C were fed either chow diet or high-fat (HF) diet for 20 weeks. Despite less food intake, chow-fed mice housed at 30°C remained the same body weight compared to mice at 22°C. However, these thermoneutrally housed mice displayed a decrease in the expression of thermogenic program in both brown and white fat depots with larger adipocytes. When pair-fed with chow diet, thermoneutrally housed mice showed an increase in body weight. Moreover, thermoneutrality increased body weight of mice fed with HF diet. This was associated with decreased expression of the thermogenic program in both brown and white fat depots of the thermoneutrally housed mice. The downregulation of the thermogenic program might have resulted from decreased sympathetic drive in the thermoneutrally housed mice evident by decreased expression of tyrosine hydroxylase expression and norepinephrine turnover in both brown and white fat depots. Our data demonstrate that thermoneutrality may negatively regulate the thermogenic program and sympathetic drive, leading to increased adiposity in mice. PMID:27230905

  7. Thermoneutrality decreases thermogenic program and promotes adiposity in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xin; Nguyen, Ngoc Ly T; Zarebidaki, Eleen; Cao, Qiang; Li, Fenfen; Zha, Lin; Bartness, Timothy; Shi, Hang; Xue, Bingzhong

    2016-05-01

    Brown/beige adipocytes are therapeutic targets to combat obesity due to their abilities to dissipate energy through adaptive thermogenesis. Most studies investigating induction of brown/beige adipocytes were conducted in cold condition (e.g., 4°C); much is unknown about how the thermogenic program of brown/beige adipocytes is regulated in thermoneutral condition (e.g., 30°C), which is within the thermal comfort zone of human dwellings in daily life. Therefore, this study aims to characterize the thermogenic program of brown/beige adipocytes in mice housed under ambient (22°C) versus thermoneutral condition (30°C). Male mice raised at 22°C or 30°C were fed either chow diet or high-fat (HF) diet for 20 weeks. Despite less food intake, chow-fed mice housed at 30°C remained the same body weight compared to mice at 22°C. However, these thermoneutrally housed mice displayed a decrease in the expression of thermogenic program in both brown and white fat depots with larger adipocytes. When pair-fed with chow diet, thermoneutrally housed mice showed an increase in body weight. Moreover, thermoneutrality increased body weight of mice fed with HF diet. This was associated with decreased expression of the thermogenic program in both brown and white fat depots of the thermoneutrally housed mice. The downregulation of the thermogenic program might have resulted from decreased sympathetic drive in the thermoneutrally housed mice evident by decreased expression of tyrosine hydroxylase expression and norepinephrine turnover in both brown and white fat depots. Our data demonstrate that thermoneutrality may negatively regulate the thermogenic program and sympathetic drive, leading to increased adiposity in mice.

  8. Magnetic Field Analysis of a Permanent-Magnet Induction Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, Toshihiro; Fukami, Tadashi; Kanamaru, Yasunori; Miyamoto, Toshio

    The permanent-magnet induction generator (PMIG) is a new type of induction machine that has a permanent-magnet rotor inside a squirrel-cage rotor. In this paper, a new technique for the magnetic field analysis of the PMIG is proposed. The proposed technique is based on the PMIG's equivalent circuit and the two-dimensional finite-element analysis (2D-FEA). To execute the 2D-FEA, the phasors of primary and secondary currents are calculated from the equivalent circuit, and the input data for the 2D-FEA is found by converting these phasors into the space vectors. As a result, the internal magnetic fields of the PMIG can be easily analyzed without complicated calculations.

  9. Lens-fed multiple beam arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, D. H.

    1984-09-01

    The lens-fed type of phased array, wherein an entire set of contiguous beams is formed simultaneously, with each beam processing the full gain of the projected array aperture, is described. In this type of phased array, true time delay is used in the beam formation, so the beam-pointing directions in space remain invariant with frequency. Lens-fed multiple beam arrays provide continuous spatial surveillance with high antenna gain and good angular resolution, which makes them attractive for ESM receive applications. When these arrays are not used for ECM transmit applications, relatively low power amplifiers are placed in each of the array element feed lines. Such a distributed amplifier array can be sized to generate any desired level of effective radiated power from a few kilowatts to tens of megawatts. These radiated power levels are available at 100 percent duty cycle over operating bandwidths of 3:1 and can be controlled by direct optimized ECM techniques discretely at multiple threat emitters.

  10. From human-machine interaction to human-machine cooperation.

    PubMed

    Hoc, J M

    2000-07-01

    Since the 1960s, the rapid growth of information systems has led to the wide development of research on human-computer interaction (HCI) that aims at the designing of human-computer interfaces presenting ergonomic properties, such as friendliness, usability, transparency, etc. Various work situations have been covered--clerical work, computer programming, design, etc. However, they were mainly static in the sense that the user fully controls the computer. More recently, public and private organizations have engaged themselves in the enterprise of managing more and more complex and coupled systems by the means of automation. Modern machines not only process information, but also act on dynamic situations as humans have done in the past, managing stock exchange, industrial plants, aircraft, etc. These dynamic situations are not fully controlled and are affected by uncertain factors. Hence, degrees of freedom must be maintained to allow the humans and the machine to adapt to unforeseen contingencies. A human-machine cooperation (HMC) approach is necessary to address the new stakes introduced by this trend. This paper describes the possible improvement of HCI by HMC, the need for a new conception of function allocation between humans and machines, and the main problems encountered within the new forms of human-machine relationship. It proposes a conceptual framework to study HMC from a cognitive point of view in highly dynamic situations like aircraft piloting or air-traffic control, and concludes on the design of 'cooperative' machines.

  11. Acceleration units for the Induction Linac Systems Experiment (ILSE)

    SciTech Connect

    Faltens, A.; Brady, V.; Brodzik, D.; Hansen, L.; Laslett, L.J.; Mukherjee, S.; Bubp, D.; Ravenscroft, D.; Reginato, L.

    1989-03-01

    The design of a high current heavy ion induction linac driver for inertial confinement fusion is optimized by adjusting the acceleration units along the length of the accelerator to match the beam current, energy, and pulse duration at any location. At the low energy end of the machine the optimum is a large number of electrostatically focused parallel beamlets, whereas at higher energies the optimum is a smaller number of magnetically focused beams. ILSE parallels this strategy by using 16 electrostatically focused beamlets at the low end followed by 4 magnetically focused beams after beam combining. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Bridge Inductance of Induction Motor with Closed Rotor Slots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Makoto; Ishibashi, Fuminori; Suzuki, Takao; Noda, Shinichi

    Closed rotor slots are widely employed in low-power squirrel-cage induction motors with die-cast aluminum cage rotors. Die-cast aluminum cages with closed rotor slots can be manufactured commercially. They help reduce flux pulsation in air gaps, attenuate acoustic noises, and achieve high efficiency. However, it is difficult to calculate bridge inductance of a closed rotor slot accurately because the main flux passes through the bridge and iron saturation can be achieved depending upon the bar current. In this study, bridge inductance was investigated by using a search coil and by FEM analysis and conventional equations. The bridge flux density and the bridge linkage flux were measured by using 4P-0.75kW motor with closed rotor slots, and the bridge inductance was calculated as a function of rotor bar current. The bridge inductance was also analyzed by FEM, and the results were analytically checked by using the calculated conventional equations. From these analyses, it is seen that the measured values of the bridge inductance are in good agreement with the values calculated by FEM and conventional methods. It is verified that the bridge inductance shows a trend similar to that of the μ-H curve of the rotor steel sheet.

  13. Breast-fed infants process speech differently from bottle-fed infants: evidence from neuroelectrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Melissa; Molfese, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies report positive effects of breast-feeding on infant development. Such effects are apparent early in development as well as in later years. Recently, elements in breast milk, polyunsaturatred fatty acids (PUFAs), have been identified as having great potential for increasing nutritional benefits. PUFAs are long-chain fatty acids containing two or more double bonds. While some scientists are enthusiastic about the long-term benefits of PUFAs on brain and cognitive development, many of the positive pharmacological effects attributed to PUFAs remain unsubstantiated. The present study investigated the differential impact of breast-feeding vs. PUFA-enriched formula in a small but well-matched population of 12 infants tested at 6 months of age. Event-related potential (ERP) and a range of behavior measures were recorded. ERP waveforms identified marked differences between the breast-fed and PUFA-fed infants by 6 months of age. When a range of biological, perinatal, and cognitive factors were equated between the two groups, only the ERPs recorded from breast-fed infants changed throughout their recorded period (700 msec), differentiated between all speech sounds, and generated differences in scalp recordings across all regions recorded across both hemispheres. Such differences in the range of their brain responses could signal an advantage for the breast-fed infants for later linguistic and cognitive development.

  14. Higher lipid accumulation in broilers fed on saturated fats than in those fed on unsaturated fats.

    PubMed

    Sanz, M; Flores, A; De Ayala, P P; Lopez-Bote, C J

    1999-03-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of fat sources differing in degree of saturation on the performance of and fat deposition in broiler chickens fed on isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. 2. There were no differences in initial body weight between sexes but female broilers had lower daily gains (P<0.0001), final weights (P<0.0001) and food intakes (P<0.0001) than males. Abdominal fat pad weight was lower in male broilers than in female (P<0.001). 3. There were no significant differences in intake, weight gain, final body weight or food-to-gain ratios between birds fed on diets differing solely in the degree of fat saturation. Broilers fed on diets containing an animal fat blend or tallow had higher abdominal fat pad weight (P<0.001) and intramuscular lipid content (P=0.0085) than those fed on diets containing sunflower oil. 4. It was concluded that dietary fat saturation affects fat accumulation in broiler chickens.

  15. Transcriptomic Profiling of Spleen in Grass-Fed and Grain-Fed Angus Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yaokun; Carrillo, José A.; Ding, Yi; He, Yanghua; Zhao, Chunping; Liu, Jianan; Liu, George E.; Zan, Linsen; Song, Jiuzhou

    2015-01-01

    The grass-fed cattle obtain nutrients directly from pastures containing limited assimilable energy but abundant amount of fiber; by contrast, grain-fed steers receive a diet that is comprised mainly of grains and serves as an efficient source of high-digestible energy. Besides energy, these two types of diet differ in a large number of nutritional components. Additionally, animals maintained on rich-energy regimen are more likely to develop metabolic disorders and infectious diseases than pasture raised individuals. Thus, we hypothesize that spleen–a relevant immune organ–may function differently under disparate regimes. The objective of this study was to find the differentially expressed genes in the spleen of grass-fed and grain-fed steers, and furtherly explore the potential involved biopathways. Through RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), we detected 123 differentially expressed genes. Based on these genes, we performed an Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) and identified 9 significant molecular networks and 13 enriched biological pathways. Two of the pathways, Nur77 signaling in T lymphocytes and calcium-induced T lymphocyte apoptosis which are immune related, contain a pair of genes HLA-DRA and NR4A1 with dramatically altered expression level. Collectively, our results provided valuable insights into understanding the molecular mechanism of spleen under varied feeding regimens. PMID:26367387

  16. Estimated Exposure to Arsenic in Breastfed and Formula-Fed Infants in a United States Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Carignan, Courtney C.; Jackson, Brian P.; Farzan, Shohreh F.; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Punshon, Tracy; Folt, Carol L.; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies indicate that concentrations of arsenic in breast milk are relatively low even in areas with high drinking-water arsenic. However, it is uncertain whether breastfeeding leads to reduced infant exposure to arsenic in regions with lower arsenic concentrations. Objective: We estimated the relative contributions of breast milk and formula to arsenic exposure during early infancy in a U.S. population. Methods: We measured arsenic in home tap water (n = 874), urine from 6-week-old infants (n = 72), and breast milk from mothers (n = 9) enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study (NHBCS) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Using data from a 3-day food diary, we compared urinary arsenic across infant feeding types and developed predictive exposure models to estimate daily arsenic intake from breast milk and formula. Results: Urinary arsenic concentrations were generally low (median, 0.17 μg/L; maximum, 2.9 μg/L) but 7.5 times higher for infants fed exclusively with formula than for infants fed exclusively with breast milk (β = 2.02; 95% CI: 1.21, 2.83; p < 0.0001, adjusted for specific gravity). Similarly, the median estimated daily arsenic intake by NHBCS infants was 5.5 times higher for formula-fed infants (0.22 μg/kg/day) than for breastfed infants (0.04 μg/kg/day). Given median arsenic concentrations measured in NHBCS tap water and previously published for formula powder, formula powder was estimated to account for ~ 70% of median exposure among formula-fed NHBCS infants. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that breastfed infants have lower arsenic exposure than formula-fed infants, and that both formula powder and drinking water can be sources of exposure for U.S. infants. Citation: Carignan CC, Cottingham KL, Jackson BP, Farzan SF, Gandolfi AJ, Punshon T, Folt CL, Karagas MR. 2015. Estimated exposure to arsenic in breastfed and formula-fed infants in a United States cohort. Environ Health Perspect 123:500–506;

  17. Diamond turning machine controller implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Garrard, K.P.; Taylor, L.W.; Knight, B.F.; Fornaro, R.J.

    1988-12-01

    The standard controller for a Pnuemo ASG 2500 Diamond Turning Machine, an Allen Bradley 8200, has been replaced with a custom high-performance design. This controller consists of four major components. Axis position feedback information is provided by a Zygo Axiom 2/20 laser interferometer with 0.1 micro-inch resolution. Hardware interface logic couples the computers digital and analog I/O channels to the diamond turning machine`s analog motor controllers, the laser interferometer, and other machine status and control information. It also provides front panel switches for operator override of the computer controller and implement the emergency stop sequence. The remaining two components, the control computer hardware and software, are discussed in detail below.

  18. Z Machine at Sandia Labs

    SciTech Connect

    2007-10-17

    Sandia Labs' Z machine is the largest laboratory source of x-rays in the world. For the few nanoseconds of a Z Machine test, its electrical output equals the output of 50x the electrical generating stations of all the power plants on earth. The Z Machine complex encompasses an area roughly the size of a major college basketball arena. Originally created to validate nuclear weapons models, the Z Machine is also considered a "dark horse" in the race for viable fusion energy production. After the famous "arcs and sparks" photo of Z (a photo no longer possible after its refurbishment), this is a fast-motion video of workers completing Z's recent refurbishment.

  19. Quantum-Enhanced Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Taylor, Jacob M.; Briegel, Hans J.

    2016-09-01

    The emerging field of quantum machine learning has the potential to substantially aid in the problems and scope of artificial intelligence. This is only enhanced by recent successes in the field of classical machine learning. In this work we propose an approach for the systematic treatment of machine learning, from the perspective of quantum information. Our approach is general and covers all three main branches of machine learning: supervised, unsupervised, and reinforcement learning. While quantum improvements in supervised and unsupervised learning have been reported, reinforcement learning has received much less attention. Within our approach, we tackle the problem of quantum enhancements in reinforcement learning as well, and propose a systematic scheme for providing improvements. As an example, we show that quadratic improvements in learning efficiency, and exponential improvements in performance over limited time periods, can be obtained for a broad class of learning problems.

  20. Building and simulating protein machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katebi, Ataur Rahim

    Glycolysis is a central metabolic pathway, present in almost all organisms, that produces energy. The pathway has been extensively investigated by biochemists. There is a significant body of structural and biochemical information about this pathway. The complete pathway is a ten step process. At each step, a specific chemical reaction is catalyzed by a specific enzyme. Fructose bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) and triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) catalyze the fourth and the fifth steps on the pathway. This thesis investigates the possible substrate transfer mechanism between FBA and TIM. FBA cleaves its substrate, the six-carbon fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), into two three-carbon products -- glyceraldehydes 3-phosphate (GAP) and dihydroxy acetone phosphate (DHAP). One component of these two products, DHAP, is the substrate for TIM and the other component GAP goes directly to GAPDH, the subsequent enzyme on the pathway. TIM converts DHAP to GAP and delivers the product to GAPDH. I employ Elastic Network Models (ENM) to investigate the mechanistic and dynamic aspects of the functionality of FBA and TIM enzymes -- (1) the effects of the oligomerization of these two enzymes on their functional dynamics and the coordination of the individual protein's structural components along the functional region; and (2) the mechanistic synchrony of these two protein machines that may enable them to operate in a coordinated fashion as a conjugate machine -- transferring the product from FBA as substrate to TIM. A macromolecular machine comprised of FBA and TIM will facilitate the substrate catalysis mechanism and the product flow between FBA and TIM. Such a machine could be used as a functional unit in building a larger a machine for the structural modeling of the whole glycolysis pathway. Building such machines for the glycolysis pathway may reveal the interplay of the enzymes as a complete machine. Also the methods and insights developed from the efforts to build such large machines

  1. Wax Reinforces Honeycomb During Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towell, Timothy W.; Fahringer, David T.; Vasquez, Peter; Scheidegger, Alan P.

    1995-01-01

    Method of machining on conventional metal lathe devised for precise cutting of axisymmetric contours on honeycomb cores made of composite (matrix/fiber) materials. Wax filling reinforces honeycomb walls against bending and tearing while honeycomb being contoured on lathe. Innovative method of machining on lathe involves preparation in which honeycomb is placed in appropriate fixture and the fixture is then filled with molten water-soluble wax. Number of different commercial waxes have been tried.

  2. Biosleeve Human-Machine Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assad, Christopher (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for sensing human muscle action and gestures in order to control machines or robotic devices are disclosed. One exemplary system employs a tight fitting sleeve worn on a user arm and including a plurality of electromyography (EMG) sensors and at least one inertial measurement unit (IMU). Power, signal processing, and communications electronics may be built into the sleeve and control data may be transmitted wirelessly to the controlled machine or robotic device.

  3. Ferulic acid, a natural polyphenol, alleviates insulin resistance and hypertension in fructose fed rats: Effect on endothelial-dependent relaxation.

    PubMed

    El-Bassossy, Hany; Badawy, Dina; Neamatallah, Thikryat; Fahmy, Ahmed

    2016-07-25

    Ferulic acid (FER) is a polyphenolic compound contained in various types of fruits. It has a substantial therapeutic effect inhibitory activity against aldose reductase (AR) inhibition. In this study, we examined the effect of FER on fructose-fed rats in comparison to a standard AR inhibitor, zopolrestat (ZOP). We determined the protective role of FER against metabolic syndrome by examining serum insulin/Glucose levels, triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol and advanced glycation end product (AGE) in rats supplied with 10% fructose drinking water. In addition, blood pressure, vascular reactivity of isolated thoracic aortas and acetylcholine-induced NO were all evaluated to estimate the cardiovascular complications of metabolic syndrome (MetS) associated with fructose feeding. Animals were randomly divided into four groups: control, (+10% fructose, Fru), zopolrestat-treated fructose fed (Fru-zop) and ferulic acid-treated fructose fed rats (Fru-Fer). After 12 weeks of FER treatment, we found significant reduction in both hyperinsulinemia and elevated diastolic blood pressure associated with fructose-fed to levels comparable to those achieved with ZOP. Both FER and ZOP significantly augmented the impaired relaxation associated with fructose-fed, whereas neither showed any significant effect on the developed vasoconstriction. Isolated aortas from fructose-fed rats incubated with either FER or ZOP, reinstated normal relaxation response to acetylcholine (ACh). Furthermore, isolated aortas showed attenuated nitric oxide (NO) production following the addition of (ACh), while both FER and ZOP restored normal induction of NO. Taken together, the current study shows that, FER alleviated insulin resistance and hypertension associated with metabolic syndrome compared to the standard AR inhibitor (ZOP). This potential protective effect is at least mediated by restoring endothelial relaxation. PMID:27287418

  4. Ferulic acid, a natural polyphenol, alleviates insulin resistance and hypertension in fructose fed rats: Effect on endothelial-dependent relaxation.

    PubMed

    El-Bassossy, Hany; Badawy, Dina; Neamatallah, Thikryat; Fahmy, Ahmed

    2016-07-25

    Ferulic acid (FER) is a polyphenolic compound contained in various types of fruits. It has a substantial therapeutic effect inhibitory activity against aldose reductase (AR) inhibition. In this study, we examined the effect of FER on fructose-fed rats in comparison to a standard AR inhibitor, zopolrestat (ZOP). We determined the protective role of FER against metabolic syndrome by examining serum insulin/Glucose levels, triglycerides (TGs), cholesterol and advanced glycation end product (AGE) in rats supplied with 10% fructose drinking water. In addition, blood pressure, vascular reactivity of isolated thoracic aortas and acetylcholine-induced NO were all evaluated to estimate the cardiovascular complications of metabolic syndrome (MetS) associated with fructose feeding. Animals were randomly divided into four groups: control, (+10% fructose, Fru), zopolrestat-treated fructose fed (Fru-zop) and ferulic acid-treated fructose fed rats (Fru-Fer). After 12 weeks of FER treatment, we found significant reduction in both hyperinsulinemia and elevated diastolic blood pressure associated with fructose-fed to levels comparable to those achieved with ZOP. Both FER and ZOP significantly augmented the impaired relaxation associated with fructose-fed, whereas neither showed any significant effect on the developed vasoconstriction. Isolated aortas from fructose-fed rats incubated with either FER or ZOP, reinstated normal relaxation response to acetylcholine (ACh). Furthermore, isolated aortas showed attenuated nitric oxide (NO) production following the addition of (ACh), while both FER and ZOP restored normal induction of NO. Taken together, the current study shows that, FER alleviated insulin resistance and hypertension associated with metabolic syndrome compared to the standard AR inhibitor (ZOP). This potential protective effect is at least mediated by restoring endothelial relaxation.

  5. Linear induction pump

    DOEpatents

    Meisner, John W.; Moore, Robert M.; Bienvenue, Louis L.

    1985-03-19

    Electromagnetic linear induction pump for liquid metal which includes a unitary pump duct. The duct comprises two substantially flat parallel spaced-apart wall members, one being located above the other and two parallel opposing side members interconnecting the wall members. Located within the duct are a plurality of web members interconnecting the wall members and extending parallel to the side members whereby the wall members, side members and web members define a plurality of fluid passageways, each of the fluid passageways having substantially the same cross-sectional flow area. Attached to an outer surface of each side member is an electrically conductive end bar for the passage of an induced current therethrough. A multi-phase, electrical stator is located adjacent each of the wall members. The duct, stators, and end bars are enclosed in a housing which is provided with an inlet and outlet in fluid communication with opposite ends of the fluid passageways in the pump duct. In accordance with a preferred embodiment, the inlet and outlet includes a transition means which provides for a transition from a round cross-sectional flow path to a substantially rectangular cross-sectional flow path defined by the pump duct.

  6. Model-based machine learning.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Christopher M

    2013-02-13

    Several decades of research in the field of machine learning have resulted in a multitude of different algorithms for solving a broad range of problems. To tackle a new application, a researcher typically tries to map their problem onto one of these existing methods, often influenced by their familiarity with specific algorithms and by the availability of corresponding software implementations. In this study, we describe an alternative methodology for applying machine learning, in which a bespoke solution is formulated for each new application. The solution is expressed through a compact modelling language, and the corresponding custom machine learning code is then generated automatically. This model-based approach offers several major advantages, including the opportunity to create highly tailored models for specific scenarios, as well as rapid prototyping and comparison of a range of alternative models. Furthermore, newcomers to the field of machine learning do not have to learn about the huge range of traditional methods, but instead can focus their attention on understanding a single modelling environment. In this study, we show how probabilistic graphical models, coupled with efficient inference algorithms, provide a very flexible foundation for model-based machine learning, and we outline a large-scale commercial application of this framework involving tens of millions of users. We also describe the concept of probabilistic programming as a powerful software environment for model-based machine learning, and we discuss a specific probabilistic programming language called Infer.NET, which has been widely used in practical applications. PMID:23277612

  7. Model-based machine learning.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Christopher M

    2013-02-13

    Several decades of research in the field of machine learning have resulted in a multitude of different algorithms for solving a broad range of problems. To tackle a new application, a researcher typically tries to map their problem onto one of these existing methods, often influenced by their familiarity with specific algorithms and by the availability of corresponding software implementations. In this study, we describe an alternative methodology for applying machine learning, in which a bespoke solution is formulated for each new application. The solution is expressed through a compact modelling language, and the corresponding custom machine learning code is then generated automatically. This model-based approach offers several major advantages, including the opportunity to create highly tailored models for specific scenarios, as well as rapid prototyping and comparison of a range of alternative models. Furthermore, newcomers to the field of machine learning do not have to learn about the huge range of traditional methods, but instead can focus their attention on understanding a single modelling environment. In this study, we show how probabilistic graphical models, coupled with efficient inference algorithms, provide a very flexible foundation for model-based machine learning, and we outline a large-scale commercial application of this framework involving tens of millions of users. We also describe the concept of probabilistic programming as a powerful software environment for model-based machine learning, and we discuss a specific probabilistic programming language called Infer.NET, which has been widely used in practical applications.

  8. Induction heat treatment of steel

    SciTech Connect

    Semiatin, S.L.; Stutz, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses the induction heating. After reviewing heat treating operations for steel and the principles of the heat treatment of steel, an overview of induction heat treating is provided. Next, consideration is given to equipment and equipment selection, coil design, power requirements and temperature control. A discussion of surface and through hardening of steel is provided, including information on frequency and power selection and quenching apparatus. Tempering is considered, followed by information on control of residual stresses, cracking, temper brittleness and the important metallurgical and hardness differences between induction and furnace treated steel.

  9. Converter fed sub sea motor drives

    SciTech Connect

    Raad, R.O.; Henriksen, T.; Raphael, H.

    1995-12-31

    A sub sea adjustable speed motor fed via a long cable in range of several tenths of kilometers between the cable and the motor are analyzed by simulations. Due to resonance one critical frequency range occurs where significant generation of harmonics from the inverter should be avoided. A voltage source inverter is more feasible than a current source inverter since it is easier to modify the output waveform in order to avoid resonance problems. The resistive voltage drop in the long cable reduces the air gap torque of the motor particular at low frequencies. This causes a problem for the start-up of the motor due to stiction torque. A start-up strategy is envisaged which is a compromise between voltage boost, inverter current and transformer core dimensions. In normal operation mode the inverter voltage is proportional to the frequency. An open speed loop is used which keeps the system stable for potential load variations.

  10. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Metalworking machines. 700.31 Section... Metalworking machines. (a) “Metalworking machines” include power driven, manual or automatic, metal cutting and metal forming machines and complete machines not supported in the hands of an operator when in...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.218 - Forging machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Forging machines. 1910.218 Section 1910.218 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.218 Forging machines. (a... other identifier, for the forging machine which was inspected. (ii) Scheduling and recording...

  12. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  13. 29 CFR 1910.218 - Forging machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Forging machines. 1910.218 Section 1910.218 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.218 Forging machines. (a... other identifier, for the forging machine which was inspected. (ii) Scheduling and recording...

  14. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.218 - Forging machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Forging machines. 1910.218 Section 1910.218 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.218 Forging machines. (a... other identifier, for the forging machine which was inspected. (ii) Scheduling and recording...

  16. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  17. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Metalworking machines. 700.31 Section... Metalworking machines. (a) “Metalworking machines” include power driven, manual or automatic, metal cutting and metal forming machines and complete machines not supported in the hands of an operator when in...

  18. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Metalworking machines. 700.31 Section... Metalworking machines. (a) “Metalworking machines” include power driven, manual or automatic, metal cutting and metal forming machines and complete machines not supported in the hands of an operator when in...

  19. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  20. Web Mining: Machine Learning for Web Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsinchun; Chau, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Presents an overview of machine learning research and reviews methods used for evaluating machine learning systems. Ways that machine-learning algorithms were used in traditional information retrieval systems in the "pre-Web" era are described, and the field of Web mining and how machine learning has been used in different Web mining applications…

  1. 15 CFR 5.5 - Vending machines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vending machines. 5.5 Section 5.5... machines. (a) The income from any vending machines which are located within reasonable proximity to and are... shall be assigned to the operator of such stand. (b) If a vending machine vends articles of a...

  2. Compensating for Shrinkage in Machined Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilar, L.; Fitchett, B. T.

    1986-01-01

    Technique insures machined ceramics shrink to correct dimensions after baked in kiln. New method automatically compensates during machining for shrinkage later, when part baked. Applicable to numerically controlled machines that include provision to adjust for variations in cuttingtool size, but do not provide for automatic verification of dimensions of machined parts.

  3. Inductional Effects in a Halbach Magnet Motion Above Distributed Inductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchatchoua, Yves; Conrow, Ary; Kim, Dong; Morgan, Daniel; Majewski, Walerian; Zafar, Zaeema

    2013-03-01

    We experimented with attempts to levitate a linear (bar) Halbach array of five 1'' Nd magnets above a linear inductive track. Next, in order to achieve a control over the relative velocity, we designed a different experiment. In it a large wheel with circumferentially positioned along its rim inducting coils rotates, while the magnet is suspended directly above the rim of the wheel on a force sensor. Faraday's Law with the Lenz's Rule is responsible for the lifting and drag forces on the magnet; the horizontal drag force is measured by another force sensor. Approximating the magnet's linear relative motion over inductors with a motion along a large circle, we may use formulas derived earlier in the literature for linear inductive levitation. We measured lift and drag forces as functions of relative velocity of the Halbach magnet and the inductive ``track,'' in an approximate agreement with the existing theory. We then vary the inductance and shape of the inductive elements to find the most beneficial choice for the lift/drag ratio at the lowest relative speed.

  4. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey (Fed.) Stanley P. Mixon, Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey (Fed.) Stanley P. Mixon, Photographer Sept. 6, 1940 (A) EXTERIOR GENERAL VIEW - North Congregational Church, Town Square Vicinity, Woodbury, Litchfield County, CT

  5. Test plan pressure fed thrust chamber technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Glenn

    1990-01-01

    Aerojet is developing the technology for the design of a reliable, low cost, efficient, and lightweight LOX/RP-1 pressure fed engine. This technology program is a direct result of Aerojet's liquid rocket booster (LRB) study and previous NASA studies that identified liquid engines using high bulk density hydrocarbon fuels as very attractive for a space transportation system (STS). Previous large thrust LOX/RP-1 engine development programs were characterized by costly development problems due to combustion instability damage. The combustion stability solution was typically obtained through trial and error methods of minimizing instability damage by degrading engine performance. The approach to this program was to utilize existing and newly developed combustion analysis models and design methodology to create a thrust chamber design with features having the potential of producing reliable and efficient operation. This process resulted in an engine design with a unique high thrust-per-element OFO triplet injector utilizing a low cost modular approach. Cost efficient ablative materials are baselined for the injector face and chamber. Technology demonstration will be accomplished through a hot fire test program using appropriately sized subscale hardware. This subscale testing will provide a data base to supplement the current industry data bank and to anchor and validate the applied analysis models and design methodology. Once anchored and validated, these analysis models and design methodology can be applied with greatly increased confidence to design and characterize a large scale pressure fed LOX/RP-1 thrust chamber. The objective of this test program is to generate a data base that can be used to anchor and validate existing analysis models and design methodologies and to provide early concept demonstration of a low cost, efficient LOX/RP-1 thrust chamber. Test conditions and hardware instrumentation were defined to provide data sufficient to characterize combustion

  6. Machine vision systems using machine learning for industrial product inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yi; Chen, Tie Q.; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Jian; Tisler, Anthony

    2002-02-01

    Machine vision inspection requires efficient processing time and accurate results. In this paper, we present a machine vision inspection architecture, SMV (Smart Machine Vision). SMV decomposes a machine vision inspection problem into two stages, Learning Inspection Features (LIF), and On-Line Inspection (OLI). The LIF is designed to learn visual inspection features from design data and/or from inspection products. During the OLI stage, the inspection system uses the knowledge learnt by the LIF component to inspect the visual features of products. In this paper we will present two machine vision inspection systems developed under the SMV architecture for two different types of products, Printed Circuit Board (PCB) and Vacuum Florescent Displaying (VFD) boards. In the VFD board inspection system, the LIF component learns inspection features from a VFD board and its displaying patterns. In the PCB board inspection system, the LIF learns the inspection features from the CAD file of a PCB board. In both systems, the LIF component also incorporates interactive learning to make the inspection system more powerful and efficient. The VFD system has been deployed successfully in three different manufacturing companies and the PCB inspection system is the process of being deployed in a manufacturing plant.

  7. Dry Machining Process of Milling Machine using Axiomatic Green Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puspita Andriani, Gita; Akbar, Muhammad; Irianto, Dradjad

    2016-02-01

    Most of companies know that there are strategies to become green industry, and they realize that green efforts have impacts on product quality and cost. Axiomatic Green Methodology models the relationship between green, quality, and cost. This methodology starts with determining the green improvement objective and then continues with mapping the functional, economic, and green requirements. From the mapping, variables which affect the requirements are identified. Afterwards, the effect of each variable is determined by performing experiments and regression modelling. In this research, axiomatic green methodology was implemented to dry machining of milling machine in order to reduce the amount of coolant. Dry machining will be feasible if it is not worse than the minimum required quality. As a result, dry machining is feasible without producing any defect. The proposed machining parameter is to reduce the coolant flow rate from 6.882 ml/minute to 0 ml/minute, set the depth of cut at 1.2 mm, spindle rotation speed at 500 rpm, and feed rate at 128 mm/minute. This solution is also resulted in reduction of cost for 200.48 rupiahs for each process.

  8. Induction heating coupler and annealer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Johnson, Samuel D. (Inventor); Copeland, Carl E. (Inventor); Coultrip, Robert H. (Inventor); Phillips, W. Morris (Inventor); Johnston, David F. (Inventor); Swaim, Robert J. (Inventor); Dinkins, James R. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An induction heating device includes a handle having a hollow interior and two opposite ends, a wrist connected to one end of the handle, a U-shaped pole piece having- two spaced apart ends, a tank circuit including an induction coil wrapped around the pole piece and a capacitor connected to the induction coil, a head connected to the wrist and including a housing for receiving the U-shaped pole piece, the two spaced apart ends of the pole piece extending outwardly beyond the housing, and a power source connected to the tank circuit. When the tank circuit is energized and a susceptor is placed in juxtaposition to the ends of the U-shaped pole piece, the susceptor is heated by induction heating due to a magnetic flux passing between the two ends of the pole piece.

  9. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  10. Operating an induction melter apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Roach, Jay A.; Richardson, John G.; Raivo, Brian D.; Soelberg, Nicholas R.

    2006-01-31

    Apparatus and methods of operation are provided for a cold-crucible-induction melter for vitrifying waste wherein a single induction power supply may be used to effect a selected thermal distribution by independently energizing at least two inductors. Also, a bottom drain assembly may be heated by an inductor and may include an electrically resistive heater. The bottom drain assembly may be cooled to solidify molten material passing therethrough to prevent discharge of molten material therefrom. Configurations are provided wherein the induction flux skin depth substantially corresponds with the central longitudinal axis of the crucible. Further, the drain tube may be positioned within the induction flux skin depth in relation to material within the crucible or may be substantially aligned with a direction of flow of molten material within the crucible. An improved head design including four shells forming thermal radiation shields and at least two gas-cooled plenums is also disclosed.

  11. Dietary CLA-induced lipolysis is delayed in soy oil-fed mice compared to coconut oil-fed mice.

    PubMed

    Ippagunta, S; Angius, Z; Sanda, M; Barnes, K M

    2013-11-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to cause a reduction in obesity in several species. CLA-induced body fat loss is enhanced when mice are fed coconut oil (CO) and involves increased lipolysis. The objective of this paper was to determine if the CLA-induced lipolysis in mice fed with different oil sources was time-dependent. Mice were fed 7 % soybean oil (SO) or CO diets for 6 week and then supplemented with 0 or 0.5 % CLA for 3, 7, 10 or 14 days. Body fat and ex-vivo lipolysis was determined. Body fat was reduced by CO on day 7 (P < 0.01) and in both CO and SO-fed mice (P < 0.05) in response to CLA on d14. Lipolysis was increased by CLA in CO-fed mice (P < 0.01) but not in SO-fed mice on day 7 and 10, but on day 14 CLA increased lipolysis in both CO- and SO-fed mice (P < 0.001). Expression and activation level of proteins involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis was determined by western blotting and real-time PCR, respectively. No significant differences were detected in protein expression. CO-fed mice had greater fatty acid synthase and stearyl CoA desaturase 1 mRNA expression and less acetyl CoA carboxylase mRNA expression (P < 0.01). Sterol regulatory binding protein 1c was decreased by CLA in CO-fed mice and increased in SO-fed mice (P < 0.05). Malic enzyme expression was increased by CLA (P < 0.001) and CO (P < 0.01). Therefore, CLA-induced lipolysis occurs more rapidly in CO vs SO-fed mice and lipogenesis is decreased in CO-fed mice with CLA supplementation.

  12. Adaptive Machining Of Large, Somewhat Flexible Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutow, David; Wagner, Garrett; Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Deily, David

    1996-01-01

    Adaptive machining is method of machining large, somewhat flexible workpieces to close tolerances. Devised for machining precise weld lands on aft skirts of rocket nozzles, but underlying concept generally applicable to precise machining of any of large variety of workpieces deformed by thermal, gravitational, and/or machining forces. For example, in principle, method used to bore precise hole on unanchored end of long cantilever beam.

  13. Timing of induction of labor.

    PubMed

    Bacak, Stephen J; Olson-Chen, Courtney; Pressman, Eva

    2015-10-01

    Determining the optimal timing for induction of labor is critical in minimizing the risks to maternal and fetal health. While data are available to guide us in some clinical situations, such as hypertension and diabetes, many gaps in knowledge still exist in others, including cholestasis of pregnancy, fetal anomalies, and placental abruption. This review of the currently available literature assesses the risks and benefits of preterm and early term induction in a wide variety of maternal and fetal conditions.

  14. High Velocity Linear Induction Launcher with Exit-Edge Compensation for Testing of Aerospace Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetsov, Stephen; Marriott, Darin

    2008-01-01

    Advances in ultra high speed linear induction electromagnetic launchers over the past decade have focused on magnetic compensation of the exit and entry-edge transient flux wave to produce efficient and compact linear electric machinery. The paper discusses two approaches to edge compensation in long-stator induction catapults with typical end speeds of 150 to 1,500 m/s. In classical linear induction machines, the exit-edge effect is manifest as two auxiliary traveling waves that produce a magnetic drag on the projectile and a loss of magnetic flux over the main surface of the machine. In the new design for the Stator Compensated Induction Machine (SCIM) high velocity launcher, the exit-edge effect is nulled by a dual wavelength machine or alternately the airgap flux is peaked at a location prior to the exit edge. A four (4) stage LIM catapult is presently being constructed for 180 m/s end speed operation using double-sided longitudinal flux machines. Advanced exit and entry edge compensation is being used to maximize system efficiency, and minimize stray heating of the reaction armature. Each stage will output approximately 60 kN of force and produce over 500 G s of acceleration on the armature. The advantage of this design is there is no ablation to the projectile and no sliding contacts, allowing repeated firing of the launcher without maintenance of any sort. The paper shows results of a parametric study for 500 m/s and 1,500 m/s linear induction launchers incorporating two of the latest compensation techniques for an air-core stator primary and an iron-core primary winding. Typical thrust densities for these machines are in the range of 150 kN/sq.m. to 225 kN/sq.m. and these compete favorably with permanent magnet linear synchronous machines. The operational advantages of the high speed SCIM launcher are shown by eliminating the need for pole-angle position sensors as would be required by synchronous systems. The stator power factor is also improved.

  15. Multipurpose Vacuum Induction Processing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindaraju, M.; Kulkarni, Deepak; Balasubramanian, K.

    2012-11-01

    Multipurpose vacuum processing systems are cost effective; occupy less space, multiple functional under one roof and user friendly. A multipurpose vacuum induction system was designed, fabricated and installed in a record time of 6 months time at NFTDC Hyderabad. It was designed to function as a) vacuum induction melting/refining of oxygen free electronic copper/pure metals, b) vacuum induction melting furnace for ferrous materials c) vacuum induction melting for non ferrous materials d) large vacuum heat treatment chamber by resistance heating (by detachable coil and hot zone) e) bottom discharge vacuum induction melting system for non ferrous materials f) Induction heat treatment system and g) directional solidification /investment casting. It contains provision for future capacity addition. The attachments require to manufacture multiple shaped castings and continuous rod casting can be added whenever need arises. Present capacity is decided on the requirement for 10years of development path; presently it has 1.2 ton liquid copper handling capacity. It is equipped with provision for capacity addition up to 2 ton liquid copper handling capacity in future. Provision is made to carry out the capacity addition in easy steps quickly. For easy operational maintenance and troubleshooting, design was made in easily detachable sections. High vacuum system is also is detachable, independent and easily movable which is first of its kind in the country. Detailed design parameters, advantages and development history are presented in this paper.

  16. Game-powered machine learning

    PubMed Central

    Barrington, Luke; Turnbull, Douglas; Lanckriet, Gert

    2012-01-01

    Searching for relevant content in a massive amount of multimedia information is facilitated by accurately annotating each image, video, or song with a large number of relevant semantic keywords, or tags. We introduce game-powered machine learning, an integrated approach to annotating multimedia content that combines the effectiveness of human computation, through online games, with the scalability of machine learning. We investigate this framework for labeling music. First, a socially-oriented music annotation game called Herd It collects reliable music annotations based on the “wisdom of the crowds.” Second, these annotated examples are used to train a supervised machine learning system. Third, the machine learning system actively directs the annotation games to collect new data that will most benefit future model iterations. Once trained, the system can automatically annotate a corpus of music much larger than what could be labeled using human computation alone. Automatically annotated songs can be retrieved based on their semantic relevance to text-based queries (e.g., “funky jazz with saxophone,” “spooky electronica,” etc.). Based on the results presented in this paper, we find that actively coupling annotation games with machine learning provides a reliable and scalable approach to making searchable massive amounts of multimedia data. PMID:22460786

  17. Game-powered machine learning.

    PubMed

    Barrington, Luke; Turnbull, Douglas; Lanckriet, Gert

    2012-04-24

    Searching for relevant content in a massive amount of multimedia information is facilitated by accurately annotating each image, video, or song with a large number of relevant semantic keywords, or tags. We introduce game-powered machine learning, an integrated approach to annotating multimedia content that combines the effectiveness of human computation, through online games, with the scalability of machine learning. We investigate this framework for labeling music. First, a socially-oriented music annotation game called Herd It collects reliable music annotations based on the "wisdom of the crowds." Second, these annotated examples are used to train a supervised machine learning system. Third, the machine learning system actively directs the annotation games to collect new data that will most benefit future model iterations. Once trained, the system can automatically annotate a corpus of music much larger than what could be labeled using human computation alone. Automatically annotated songs can be retrieved based on their semantic relevance to text-based queries (e.g., "funky jazz with saxophone," "spooky electronica," etc.). Based on the results presented in this paper, we find that actively coupling annotation games with machine learning provides a reliable and scalable approach to making searchable massive amounts of multimedia data.

  18. In vitro fermentation of carbohydrate by breast fed and formula fed infants.

    PubMed

    Parrett, A M; Edwards, C A

    1997-03-01

    Unabsorbed carbohydrates are fermented by colonic bacteria to short chain fatty acids (SCFA) which are rapidly absorbed, salvaging energy and reducing stool output. There are marked differences between the faecal flora and SCFA of breast fed (BF) and formula fed (FF) infants which may be related to the higher incidence of diarrhoea in FF infants. Part of this effect may be caused by a difference in the ability of the microflora to ferment carbohydrate. To test the hypothesis that BF and FF have different fermentation capacities for simple and complex carbohydrates, in vitro cultures of faeces from healthy infants (2-10 weeks; 11 BF, 11 FF) containing glucose, lactose, raftilose (a fructo-oligosaccharide), or soybean polysaccharide were incubated anaerobically. Results were compared with those of adult faecal cultures using the same carbohydrates. Cultures of faeces from BF and FF infants produced comparable amounts of total SCFA in all cultures. These cultures produced less SCFA than those from adult faeces and produced very little SCFA from complex carbohydrate. BF cultures produced more acetic acid than FF in all cultures, whereas FF cultures produced more propionate with sugars and more butyrate with raftilose. Both groups of infants produced less butyrate than adults in all cultures. Thus it is unlikely that a lower ability to ferment carbohydrate is a major cause of increased risk of diarrhoea in FF fed infants but individual SCFA production may be important.

  19. In vitro fermentation of carbohydrate by breast fed and formula fed infants

    PubMed Central

    Parrett, A; Edwards, C

    1997-01-01

    Accepted 4 November 1996
 Unabsorbed carbohydrates are fermented by colonic bacteria to short chain fatty acids (SCFA) which are rapidly absorbed, salvaging energy and reducing stool output. There are marked differences between the faecal flora and SCFA of breast fed (BF) and formula fed (FF) infants which may be related to the higher incidence of diarrhoea in FF infants. Part of this effect may be caused by a difference in the ability of the microflora to ferment carbohydrate. To test the hypothesis that BF and FF have different fermentation capacities for simple and complex carbohydrates, in vitro cultures of faeces from healthy infants (2-10 weeks; 11 BF, 11 FF) containing glucose, lactose, raftilose (a fructo-oligosaccharide), or soybean polysaccharide were incubated anaerobically. Results were compared with those of adult faecal cultures using the same carbohydrates. Cultures of faeces from BF and FF infants produced comparable amounts of total SCFA in all cultures. These cultures produced less SCFA than those from adult faeces and produced very little SCFA from complex carbohydrate. BF cultures produced more acetic acid than FF in all cultures, whereas FF cultures produced more propionate with sugars and more butyrate with raftilose. Both groups of infants produced less butyrate than adults in all cultures. Thus it is unlikely that a lower ability to ferment carbohydrate is a major cause of increased risk of diarrhoea in FF fed infants but individual SCFA production may be important.

 PMID:9135267

  20. Inductive System Monitors Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) software developed at Ames Research Center uses artificial intelligence and data mining techniques to build system-monitoring knowledge bases from archived or simulated sensor data. This information is then used to detect unusual or anomalous behavior that may indicate an impending system failure. Currently helping analyze data from systems that help fly and maintain the space shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS), the IMS has also been employed by data classes are then used to build a monitoring knowledge base. In real time, IMS performs monitoring functions: determining and displaying the degree of deviation from nominal performance. IMS trend analyses can detect conditions that may indicate a failure or required system maintenance. The development of IMS was motivated by the difficulty of producing detailed diagnostic models of some system components due to complexity or unavailability of design information. Successful applications have ranged from real-time monitoring of aircraft engine and control systems to anomaly detection in space shuttle and ISS data. IMS was used on shuttle missions STS-121, STS-115, and STS-116 to search the Wing Leading Edge Impact Detection System (WLEIDS) data for signs of possible damaging impacts during launch. It independently verified findings of the WLEIDS Mission Evaluation Room (MER) analysts and indicated additional points of interest that were subsequently investigated by the MER team. In support of the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate, IMS is being deployed as an anomaly detection tool on ISS mission control consoles in the Johnson Space Center Mission Operations Directorate. IMS has been trained to detect faults in the ISS Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) systems. In laboratory tests, it has already detected several minor anomalies in real-time CMG data. When tested on archived data, IMS was able to detect precursors of the CMG1 failure nearly 15 hours in advance of

  1. Sliding mode pulse-width modulation technique for direct torque controlled induction motor drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounadja, M.; Belarbi, A. W.; Belmadani, B.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a novel pulse-width modulation technique based sliding mode approach for direct torque control of an induction machine drive. Methodology begins with a sliding mode control of machine's torque and stator flux to generate the reference voltage vector and to reduce parameters sensitivity. Then, the switching control of the three-phase inverter is developed using sliding mode concept to make the system tracking reference voltage inputs. The main features of the proposed methodologies are the high tracking accuracy and the much easier implementation compared to the space vector modulation. Simulations are carried out to confirm the effectiveness of proposed control algorithms.

  2. SLIM, Short-pulse Technology for High Gradient Induction Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Arntz, Floyd; Kardo-Sysoev, A.; Krasnykh, A.; /SLAC

    2008-12-16

    A novel short-pulse concept (SLIM) suited to a new generation of a high gradient induction particle accelerators is described herein. It applies advanced solid state semiconductor technology and modern microfabrication techniques to a coreless induction method of charged particle acceleration first proven on a macro scale in the 1960's. Because this approach avoids use of magnetic materials there is the prospect of such an accelerator working efficiently with accelerating pulses in the nanosecond range and, potentially, at megahertz pulse rates. The principal accelerator section is envisioned as a stack of coreless induction cells, the only active element within each being a single, extremely fast (subnanosecond) solid state opening switch: a Drift Step Recovery Diode (DSRD). Each coreless induction cell incorporates an electromagnetic pulse compressor in which inductive energy developed within a transmission-line feed structure over a period of tens of nanoseconds is diverted to the acceleration of the passing charge packet for a few nanoseconds by the abrupt opening of the DSRD switch. The duration of this accelerating output pulse--typically two-to-four nanoseconds--is precisely determined by a microfabricated pulse forming line connected to the cell. Because the accelerating pulse is only nanoseconds in duration, longitudinal accelerating gradients approaching 100 MeV per meter are believed to be achievable without inciting breakdown. Further benefits of this approach are that, (1) only a low voltage power supply is required to produce the high accelerating gradient, and, (2) since the DSRD switch is normally closed, voltage stress is limited to a few nanoseconds per period, hence the susceptibility to hostile environment conditions such as ionizing radiation, mismatch (e.g. in medical applications the peak beam current may be low), strong electromagnetic noise levels, etc is expected to be minimal. Finally, we observe the SLIM concept is not limited to linac

  3. Analysis of mutations and bone marrow micronuclei in Big Blue rats fed leucomalachite green.

    PubMed

    Manjanatha, M G; Shelton, S D; Bishop, M; Shaddock, J G; Dobrovolsky, V N; Heflich, R H; Webb, P J; Blankenship, L R; Beland, F A; Greenlees, K J; Culp, S J

    2004-03-22

    Leucomalachite green (LMG) is the major metabolite of malachite green (MG), a triphenylmethane dye that has been used widely as an antifungal agent in the fish industry. Concern over MG and LMG is due to the potential for consumer exposure, suggestive evidence of tumor promotion in rodent liver, and suspicion of carcinogenicity based on structure-activity relationships. In order to evaluate the risks associated with exposure to LMG, female Big Blue rats were fed up to 543 ppm LMG; groups of these rats were killed after 4, 16, or 32 weeks of exposure and evaluated for genotoxicity. We previously reported that this treatment resulted in a dose-dependent induction of liver DNA adducts, and that the liver lacI mutant frequency (MF) was increased, but only in rats fed 543 ppm LMG for 16 weeks. In the present study, we report the results from lymphocyte Hprt mutant assays and bone marrow micronucleus assays performed on these same rats. In addition, we have determined the types of lacI mutations induced in the rats fed 543 ppm LMG for 16 weeks and the rats fed control diet. No significant increases in the frequency of micronuclei or Hprt mutants were observed for any of the doses or time points assayed. Molecular analysis of 80 liver lacI mutants from rats fed 543 ppm LMG for 16 weeks revealed that 21% (17/80) were clonal in origin and that most (55/63) of the independent mutations were base pair substitutions. The predominant type of mutation was G:C --> A:T transition (31/63) and the majority (68%) of these involved CpG sites. When corrected for clonality, the 16-week lacI mutation frequency (36 +/- 10) x 10(-6) in treated rats was not significantly different from the clonally corrected control frequency (17 +/- 9 x 10(-6); P = 0.06). Furthermore, the lacI mutational spectrum in treated rats was not significantly different from that found for control rats (P = 0.09). Taken together, these data indicate that the DNA adducts produced by LMG in female rats do not result

  4. Catalysts Encapsulated in Molecular Machines.

    PubMed

    Pan, Tiezheng; Liu, Junqiu

    2016-06-17

    Smart catalysts offer the control of chemical processes and sequences of transformations, and catalysts with unique catalytic behavior can afford chiral products or promote successive polymerization. To meet advanced demands, the key to constructing smart catalysts is to incorporate traditional catalytic functional groups with trigger-induced factors. Molecular machines with dynamic properties and particular topological structures have typical stimulus-responsive features. In recent years, scientists have made efforts to utilize molecular machines (molecular switches, rotaxanes, motors, etc.) as scaffolds to develop smart catalysts. This Minireview focuses on the achievements of developing catalysts encapsulated in molecular machines and their remarkable specialties. This strategy is believed to provide more potential applications in switchable reactions, asymmetric synthesis, and processive catalysis.

  5. Single Bacteria as Turing Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Julia; Zang, Qiucen; Vyawahare, Saurabh; Austin, Robert

    2014-03-01

    In Allan Turing's famous 1950 paper on Computing Machinery and Intelligence, he started with the provocative statement: ``I propose to consider the question, `Can machines think?' This should begin with definitions of the meaning of the terms `machine' and `think'.'' In our own work on exploring the way that organisms respond to stress and evolve, it seems at times as if they come to remarkably fast solutions to problems, indicating some sort of very clever computational machinery. I'll discuss how it would appear that bacteria can indeed create a form of a Turing Machine, the first example of a computer, and how they might use this algorithm to do rapid evolution to solve a genomics problem.

  6. Alpha Channeling in Mirror Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch N.J.

    2005-10-19

    Because of their engineering simplicity, high-β, and steady-state operation, mirror machines and related open-trap machines such as gas dynamic traps, are an attractive concept for achieving controlled nuclear fusion. In these open-trap machines, the confinement occurs by means of magnetic mirroring, without the magnetic field lines closing upon themselves within the region of particle confinement. Unfortunately, these concepts have not achieved to date very spectacular laboratory results, and their reactor prospects are dimmed by the prospect of a low Q-factor, the ratio of fusion power produced to auxiliary power. Nonetheless, because of its engineering promise, over the years numerous improvements have been proposed to enhance the reactor prospects of mirror fusion, such as tandem designs, end-plugging, and electric potential barriers.

  7. Aerosols generated during beryllium machining.

    PubMed

    Martyny, J W; Hoover, M D; Mroz, M M; Ellis, K; Maier, L A; Sheff, K L; Newman, L S

    2000-01-01

    Some beryllium processes, especially machining, are associated with an increased risk of beryllium sensitization and disease. Little is known about exposure characteristics contributing to risk, such as particle size. This study examined the characteristics of beryllium machining exposures under actual working conditions. Stationary samples, using eight-stage Lovelace Multijet Cascade Impactors, were taken at the process point of operation and at the closest point that the worker would routinely approach. Paired samples were collected at the operator's breathing zone by using a Marple Personal Cascade Impactor and a 35-mm closed-faced cassette. More than 50% of the beryllium machining particles in the breathing zone were less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter. This small particle size may result in beryllium deposition into the deepest portion of the lung and may explain elevated rates of sensitization among beryllium machinists.

  8. Dry machinability of aluminum alloys.

    SciTech Connect

    Shareef, I.; Natarajan, M.; Ajayi, O. O.; Energy Technology; Department of IMET

    2005-01-01

    Adverse effects of the use of cutting fluids and environmental concerns with regard to cutting fluid disposability is compelling industry to adopt Dry or near Dry Machining, with the aim of eliminating or significantly reducing the use of metal working fluids. Pending EPA regulations on metal cutting, dry machining is becoming a hot topic of research and investigation both in industry and federal research labs. Although the need for dry machining may be apparent, most of the manufacturers still consider dry machining to be impractical and even if possible, very expensive. This perception is mainly due to lack of appropriate cutting tools that can withstand intense heat and Built-up-Edge (BUE) formation during dry machining. The challenge of heat dissipation without coolant requires a completely different approach to tooling. Special tooling utilizing high-performance multi-layer, multi-component, heat resisting, low friction coatings could be a plausible answer to the challenge of dry machining. In pursuit of this goal Argonne National Labs has introduced Nano-crystalline near frictionless carbon (NFC) diamond like coatings (DLC), while industrial efforts have led to the introduction of composite coatings such as titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN), tungsten carbide/carbon (WC/C) and others. Although, these coatings are considered to be very promising, they have not been tested either from tribological or from dry machining applications point of view. As such a research program in partnership with federal labs and industrial sponsors has started with the goal of exploring the feasibility of dry machining using the newly developed coatings such as Near Frictionless Carbon Coatings (NFC), Titanium Aluminum Nitride (TiAlN), and multi-layer multicomponent nano coatings such as TiAlCrYN and TiAlN/YN. Although various coatings are under investigation as part of the overall dry machinability program, this extended abstract deals with a systematic investigation of dry

  9. Machine learning methods in chemoinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, John B O

    2014-01-01

    Machine learning algorithms are generally developed in computer science or adjacent disciplines and find their way into chemical modeling by a process of diffusion. Though particular machine learning methods are popular in chemoinformatics and quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSAR), many others exist in the technical literature. This discussion is methods-based and focused on some algorithms that chemoinformatics researchers frequently use. It makes no claim to be exhaustive. We concentrate on methods for supervised learning, predicting the unknown property values of a test set of instances, usually molecules, based on the known values for a training set. Particularly relevant approaches include Artificial Neural Networks, Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, k-Nearest Neighbors and naïve Bayes classifiers. WIREs Comput Mol Sci 2014, 4:468–481. How to cite this article: WIREs Comput Mol Sci 2014, 4:468–481. doi:10.1002/wcms.1183 PMID:25285160

  10. Minimal universal quantum heat machine.

    PubMed

    Gelbwaser-Klimovsky, D; Alicki, R; Kurizki, G

    2013-01-01

    In traditional thermodynamics the Carnot cycle yields the ideal performance bound of heat engines and refrigerators. We propose and analyze a minimal model of a heat machine that can play a similar role in quantum regimes. The minimal model consists of a single two-level system with periodically modulated energy splitting that is permanently, weakly, coupled to two spectrally separated heat baths at different temperatures. The equation of motion allows us to compute the stationary power and heat currents in the machine consistent with the second law of thermodynamics. This dual-purpose machine can act as either an engine or a refrigerator (heat pump) depending on the modulation rate. In both modes of operation, the maximal Carnot efficiency is reached at zero power. We study the conditions for finite-time optimal performance for several variants of the model. Possible realizations of the model are discussed.

  11. Performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs fed crude glycerol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Performance and carcass characteristics of growing pigs fed crude glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production, were determined in a 138-d feeding trial conducted at the Iowa State University Swine Nutrition Research Farm, Ames, IA. Pigs were weaned at 21d of age and were fed a commercial starter-...

  12. Bonding machine for forming a solar array strip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costogue, E. N.; Downing, R. G.; Middleton, O.; Mueller, R. L.; Yasui, R. K.; Cairo, F. J.; Person, J. K. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A machine is described for attaching solar cells to a flexable substrate on which printed circuitry has been deposited. The strip is fed through: (1) a station in which solar cells are elevated into engagement with solder pads for the printed circuitry and thereafter heated by an infrared lamp; (2) a station at which flux and solder residue is removed; (3) a station at which electrical performance of the soldered cells is determined; (4) a station at which an encapsulating resin is deposited on the cells; (5) a station at which the encapsulated solar cells are examined for electrical performance; and (6) a final station at which the resulting array is wound on a takeup drum.

  13. Protein secondary structure prediction using logic-based machine learning.

    PubMed

    Muggleton, S; King, R D; Sternberg, M J

    1992-10-01

    Many attempts have been made to solve the problem of predicting protein secondary structure from the primary sequence but the best performance results are still disappointing. In this paper, the use of a machine learning algorithm which allows relational descriptions is shown to lead to improved performance. The Inductive Logic Programming computer program, Golem, was applied to learning secondary structure prediction rules for alpha/alpha domain type proteins. The input to the program consisted of 12 non-homologous proteins (1612 residues) of known structure, together with a background knowledge describing the chemical and physical properties of the residues. Golem learned a small set of rules that predict which residues are part of the alpha-helices--based on their positional relationships and chemical and physical properties. The rules were tested on four independent non-homologous proteins (416 residues) giving an accuracy of 81% (+/- 2%). This is an improvement, on identical data, over the previously reported result of 73% by King and Sternberg (1990, J. Mol. Biol., 216, 441-457) using the machine learning program PROMIS, and of 72% using the standard Garnier-Osguthorpe-Robson method. The best previously reported result in the literature for the alpha/alpha domain type is 76%, achieved using a neural net approach. Machine learning also has the advantage over neural network and statistical methods in producing more understandable results. PMID:1480619

  14. Dynamic response characteristics analysis of the doubly-fed wind power system under grid voltage drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Wang, J.; Wang, H. H.; Yang, L.; Chen, W.; Xu, Y. T.

    2016-08-01

    Double-fed induction generator (DFIG) is sensitive to the disturbances of grid, so the security and stability of the grid and the DFIG itself are under threat with the rapid increase of DFIG. Therefore, it is important to study dynamic response of the DFIG when voltage drop failure is happened in power system. In this paper, firstly, mathematical models and the control strategy about mechanical and electrical response processes is respectively introduced. Then through the analysis of response process, it is concluded that the dynamic response characteristics are related to voltage drop level, operating status of DFIG and control strategy adapted to rotor side. Last, the correctness of conclusion is validated by the simulation about mechanical and electrical response processes in different voltage levels drop and different DFIG output levels under DIgSILENT/PowerFactory software platform.

  15. 14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section 25.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply— (1) The air required by that...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section 25.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply— (1) The air required by that...

  18. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section 25.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply— (1) The air required by that...

  20. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  1. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  2. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  3. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  4. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  5. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  6. Kinetic inductance measured in a superconducting wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meservey, R. H.; Tedrow, P. M.

    1970-01-01

    Ultrasensitive technique to measure kinetic inductance has test specimen included as part of the inductance of a tank circuit of a tunnel diode oscillator. Frequency counter measures shift in frequency of oscillator, caused by changes in inductance. Frequency shift in tank circuit is proportional to change in kinetic inductance

  7. 14 CFR 27.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 27.1091 Section 27.1091... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 27.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine must supply the air required by that engine under the operating...

  8. 14 CFR 25.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 25.1091 Section 25.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply— (1) The air required by that...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1091 - Air induction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air induction. 29.1091 Section 29.1091... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Induction System § 29.1091 Air induction. (a) The air induction system for each engine and auxiliary power unit must supply the air required by that engine...

  10. The Perfect Science Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-05-01

    ESO celebrates 10 years since First Light of the VLT Today marks the 10th anniversary since First Light with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), the most advanced optical telescope in the world. Since then, the VLT has evolved into a unique suite of four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes (UTs) equipped with no fewer than 13 state-of-the-art instruments, and four 1.8-m moveable Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs). The telescopes can work individually, and they can also be linked together in groups of two or three to form a giant 'interferometer' (VLTI), allowing astronomers to see details corresponding to those from a much larger telescope. Green Flash at Paranal ESO PR Photo 16a/08 The VLT 10th anniversary poster "The Very Large Telescope array is a flagship facility for astronomy, a perfect science machine of which Europe can be very proud," says Tim de Zeeuw, ESO's Director General. "We have built the most advanced ground-based optical observatory in the world, thanks to the combination of a long-term adequately-funded instrument and technology development plan with an approach where most of the instruments were built in collaboration with institutions in the member states, with in-kind contributions in labour compensated by guaranteed observing time." Sitting atop the 2600m high Paranal Mountain in the Chilean Atacama Desert, the VLT's design, suite of instruments, and operating principles set the standard for ground-based astronomy. It provides the European scientific community with a telescope array with collecting power significantly greater than any other facilities available at present, offering imaging and spectroscopy capabilities at visible and infrared wavelengths. Blue Flash at Paranal ESO PR Photo 16b/08 A Universe of Discoveries The first scientifically useful images, marking the official 'First Light' of the VLT, were obtained on the night of 25 to 26 May 1998, with a test camera attached to "Antu", Unit Telescope number 1. They were officially presented to the press on

  11. Cooling system for rotating machine

    DOEpatents

    Gerstler, William Dwight; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Lokhandwalla, Murtuza; Alexander, James Pellegrino; Quirion, Owen Scott; Palafox, Pepe; Shen, Xiaochun; Salasoo, Lembit

    2011-08-09

    An electrical machine comprising a rotor is presented. The electrical machine includes the rotor disposed on a rotatable shaft and defining a plurality of radial protrusions extending from the shaft up to a periphery of the rotor. The radial protrusions having cavities define a fluid path. A stationary shaft is disposed concentrically within the rotatable shaft wherein an annular space is formed between the stationary and rotatable shaft. A plurality of magnetic segments is disposed on the radial protrusions and the fluid path from within the stationary shaft into the annular space and extending through the cavities within the radial protrusions.

  12. Axial gap rotating electrical machine

    DOEpatents

    None

    2016-02-23

    Direct drive rotating electrical machines with axial air gaps are disclosed. In these machines, a rotor ring and stator ring define an axial air gap between them. Sets of gap-maintaining rolling supports bear between the rotor ring and the stator ring at their peripheries to maintain the axial air gap. Also disclosed are wind turbines using these generators, and structures and methods for mounting direct drive rotating electrical generators to the hubs of wind turbines. In particular, the rotor ring of the generator may be carried directly by the hub of a wind turbine to rotate relative to a shaft without being mounted directly to the shaft.

  13. Machine translation project alternatives analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajis, Catherine J.; Bedford, Denise A. D.

    1993-01-01

    The Machine Translation Project consists of several components, two of which, the Project Plan and the Requirements Analysis, have already been delivered. The Project Plan details the overall rationale, objectives and time-table for the project as a whole. The Requirements Analysis compares a number of available machine translation systems, their capabilities, possible configurations, and costs. The Alternatives Analysis has resulted in a number of conclusions and recommendations to the NASA STI program concerning the acquisition of specific MT systems and related hardware and software.

  14. Towards predictive simulations of machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Lars-Erik; Svoboda, Ales; Wedberg, Dan; Lundblad, Mikael

    2016-04-01

    Machining simulations are challenging with respect to both numerical issues and physical phenomena occurring during machining. The latter are mainly related to the description of the bulk material behaviour (plasticity) and surface properties (friction and wear). The aim of this paper is to present what is required for predictive models, depending on their scopes, as well as the needed developments for the future. The paper includes a short review of selected works that are relevant for this purpose as well as conclusions based on our own experience.

  15. Orientation to Machine Shop. Safety, Machine Identification, Metal Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Nancy; And Others

    These instructional materials provide an orientation to the machine shop for use at the postsecondary level. The first of three sections discusses four important areas of safety: (1) personal safety; (2) safety procedures; (3) safe work practices; and (4) fire prevention. The second section identifies and describes the general purposes of 12…

  16. Liquid-Metal-Fed Pulsed Plasma Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markusic, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    A short document proposes liquid-metal-fed pulsed plasma thrusters for small spacecraft. The propellant liquid for such a thruster would be a low-melting-temperature metal that would be stored molten in an unpressurized, heated reservoir and would be pumped to the thruster by a magnetohydrodynamic coupler. The liquid would enter the thruster via a metal tube inside an electrically insulating ceramic tube. A capacitor would be connected between the outlet of the metal tube and the outer electrode of the thruster. The pumping would cause a drop of liquid to form at the outlet, eventually growing large enough to make contact with the outer electrode. Contact would close the circuit through the capacitor, causing the capacitor to discharge through the drop. The capacitor would have been charged with enough energy that the discharge would vaporize, ionize, and electromagnetically accelerate the contents of the metal drop. The resulting plasma would be ejected at a speed of about 50 km/s. The vaporization of the drop would reopen the circuit through the capacitor, enabling recharging of the capacitor. As pumping continued, a new drop would grow and the process would repeat.

  17. Turbo Pump Fed Micro-Rocket Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miotti, P.; Tajmar, M.; Seco, F.; Guraya, C.; Perennes, F.; Soldati, A.; Lang, M.

    2004-10-01

    Micro-satellites (from 10kg up to 100kg) have mass, volume, and electrical power constraints due to their low dimensions. These limitations lead to the lack in currently available active orbit control systems in micro-satellites. Therefore, a micro-propulsion system with a high thrust to mass ratio is required to increase the potential functionality of small satellites. Mechatronic is presently working on a liquid bipropellant micro-rocket engine under contract with ESA (Contract No.16914/NL/Sfe - Micro-turbo-machinery Based Bipropellant System Using MNT). The advances in Mechatronic's project are to realise a micro-rocket engine with propellants pressurised by micro-pumps. The energy for driving the pumps would be extracted from a micro-turbine. Cooling channels around the nozzle would be also used in order to maintain the wall material below its maximum operating temperature. A mass budget comparison with more traditional pressure-fed micro-rockets shows a real benefit from this system in terms of mass reduction. In the paper, an overview of the project status in Mechatronic is presented.

  18. FET commutated current-FED inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor); Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A shunt switch comprised of a field-effect transistor (Q.sub.1) is employed to commutate a current-fed inverter (10) using thyristors (SCR1, SCR2) or bijunction transistors (Q.sub.2, Q.sub.3) in a full bridge (1, 2, 3, 4) or half bridge (5, 6) and transformer (T.sub.1) configuration. In the case of thyristors, a tapped inverter (12) is employed to couple the inverter to a dc source to back bias the thyristors during commutation. Alternatively, a commutation power supply (20) may be employed for that purpse. Diodes (D.sub.1, D.sub.2) in series with some voltage dropping element (resistor R.sub.12 or resistors R.sub.1, R.sub.2 or Zener diodes D.sub.4, D.sub.5) are connected in parallel with the thyristors in the half bridge and transformer configuration to assure sharing the back bias voltage. A clamp circuit comprised of a winding (18) negatively coupled to the inductor and a diode (D.sub.3) return stored energy from the inductor to the power supply for efficient operation with buck or boost mode.

  19. Vapor-fed microfluidic hydrogen generator.

    PubMed

    Modestino, M A; Dumortier, M; Hosseini Hashemi, S M; Haussener, S; Moser, C; Psaltis, D

    2015-05-21

    Water-splitting devices that operate with humid air feeds are an attractive alternative for hydrogen production as the required water input can be obtained directly from ambient air. This article presents a novel proof-of-concept microfluidic platform that makes use of polymeric ion conductor (Nafion®) thin films to absorb water from air and performs the electrochemical water-splitting process. Modelling and experimental tools are used to demonstrate that these microstructured devices can achieve the delicate balance between water, gas, and ionic transport processes required for vapor-fed devices to operate continuously and at steady state, at current densities above 3 mA cm(-2). The results presented here show that factors such as the thickness of the Nafion films covering the electrodes, convection of air streams, and water content of the ionomer can significantly affect the device performance. The insights presented in this work provide important guidelines for the material requirements and device designs that can be used to create practical electrochemical hydrogen generators that work directly under ambient air.

  20. Neurotransmitters in rats fed fumonisin B1.

    PubMed

    Porter, J K; Voss, K A; Chamberlain, W J; Bacon, C W; Norred, W P

    1993-03-01

    Fumonisin B1, a toxin produced by Fusarium moniliforme, has been associated with a neurotoxic syndrome in horses known as equine leukoencephlomalacia. Previous investigations showed that F. moniliforme cultured on corn and incorporated into rat chow increased brain 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) and 5HIAA: serotonin (5HT) ratios in these animals. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine whether fumonisin B1 would produce related neurochemical effects in the brain and pineal gland of male and female rats. Rats were fed fumonisin B1 at 15, 50, and 150 ppm for 4 weeks. No differences occurred in brain concentrations of norepinephrine, dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-methoxytyramine, homovanillic acid, 5HT, 5HIAA, and the 5HIAA to 5HT ratios in either male or female rats, nor where there differences between the sexes. When compared across sexes, the norepinephrine to dopamine ratios were decreased (P < 0.05) in the 150-ppm-treated animals. This may suggest a fumonisin B1-induced imbalance in brain norepinephrine and/or dopamine. No differences were observed in pineal norepinephrine, 5HT, 5HIAA, and the 5HIAA to 5HT ratios. Since fumonisin B1 failed to duplicate the effects of the F. moniliforme-induced imbalances in 5HT and 5HIAA metabolism in the brains of rats, other mycotoxins from F. moniliforme may be responsible for these effects.