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Sample records for feed composition affect

  1. Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles affects composition but not oxidative stability of milk.

    PubMed

    Testroet, E D; Li, G; Beitz, D C; Clark, S

    2015-05-01

    detected off-flavor scores were less than 1.5cm on a 15-cm line scale, indicating that the differences are not practically significant. Peroxide values support the findings by the sensory panel that both feeding DDGS at 10 and 25% and vitamin E and C fortification did not practically change the oxidative stability of milk. These results, taken together, indicate that feeding DDGS under our experimental conditions modified milk composition, but did not contribute to the development of off-flavors in milk.

  2. Feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid affects enteric methane production and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Klop, G; Hatew, B; Bannink, A; Dijkstra, J

    2016-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to study potential interaction between the effects of feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) on enteric CH4 production and performance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped into 7 blocks of 4 cows. Within blocks, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: control (CON; urea as alternative nonprotein N source to nitrate), NO3 [21 g of nitrate/kg of dry matter (DM)], DHA (3 g of DHA/kg of DM and urea as alternative nonprotein N source to nitrate), or NO3 + DHA (21 g of nitrate/kg of DM and 3 g of DHA/kg of DM, respectively). Cows were fed a total mixed ration consisting of 21% grass silage, 49% corn silage, and 30% concentrates on a DM basis. Feed additives were included in the concentrates. Cows assigned to a treatment including nitrate were gradually adapted to the treatment dose of nitrate over a period of 21 d during which no DHA was fed. The experimental period lasted 17 d, and CH4 production was measured during the last 5d in climate respiration chambers. Cows produced on average 363, 263, 369, and 298 g of CH4/d on CON, NO3, DHA, and NO3 + DHA treatments, respectively, and a tendency for a nitrate × DHA interaction effect was found where the CH4-mitigating effect of nitrate decreased when combined with DHA. This tendency was not obtained for CH4 production relative to dry matter intake (DMI) or to fat- and protein corrected milk (FPCM). The NO3 treatment decreased CH4 production irrespective of the unit in which it was expressed, whereas DHA did not affect CH4 production per kilogram of DMI, but resulted in a higher CH4 production per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) production. The FPCM production (27.9, 24.7, 24.2, and 23. 8 kg/d for CON, NO3, DHA, and NO3 + DHA, respectively) was lower for DHA-fed cows because of decreased milk fat concentration. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat was decreased by DHA, and the proportion of

  3. Growth of body components and carcass composition of Iberian pigs of 10 to 150 kg body weight as affected by the level of feeding and dietary protein concentration.

    PubMed

    Nieto, R; Lara, L; Barea, R; García-Valverde, R; Conde-Aguilera, J A; Aguilera, J F

    2013-09-01

    A total of 211 growing-finishing Iberian (IB) pigs from 4 separate and independent sets of trials were slaughtered at several stages of growth from 10 to 150 kg BW to determine growth and development of chemical and physical components of the cold eviscerated carcass (CC; without head, feet, and tail). Within each set of trials, a factorial arrangement of treatments, involving several concentrations of ideal protein in the diets as 1 factor and 2 or 3 levels of feed intake as the other, was used. The main objective of the present study was to provide information on the relative growth of physical and chemical components of the CC of IB pigs, which differed because of the dietary treatment imposed, involving a wide range of protein-to-energy ratios and feeding levels. Allometric relationships (P < 0.001) were established between the weight of a chemical component in the CC and empty BW or CC weight. Irrespective of the adequacy of the dietary protein-to-energy ratio, the growth coefficient for CC weight relative to empty BW was >1 (P < 0.001), whereas those for protein, water, and ash relative to empty BW or CC weight were <1 (P < 0.001). In contrast, relative growth coefficients >1 (P < 0.001) were obtained for fat mass and total energy, reflecting the increase in fat relative content that occurs with increasing weight. Multiple-regression equations (P < 0.001) were developed using a stepwise procedure, which estimates the chemical (g/kg) or energy (MJ/kg) composition of CC as a function of empty BW, dietary protein-to-energy ratio, and feeding level, expressed as a multiple of the ME required for maintenance. It is concluded that even if the pattern of developmental growth for the IB pig may show some similarities (increased fat content or decreased proportional weight of some primal cuts with BW or age) with that observed for pigs of different genetic background, relevant differences were detected. They are related to a much smaller relative size of the IB pig

  4. Milk composition of rats feeding restricted litters.

    PubMed Central

    Grigor, M R; Allan, J; Carne, A; Carrington, J M; Geursen, A

    1986-01-01

    Milk samples were taken from rats feeding ten pups and from both the suckled and non-suckled glands of rats feeding two pups. The lipid, protein and lactose concentrations were similar in the milks from the secreting glands, but the fluid from the non-suckled glands contained less lactose and lipid but significantly higher total protein and transferrin concentrations. The fatty acid compositions of the milk from the three sources were very similar. The mammary tissue from the rats feeding ten pups had a higher DNA content/g wet wt. than either the suckled or non-suckled mammary tissue of the rats feeding two pups. The specific activities of several lipogenic enzymes were significantly lower in the non-suckled mammary tissue. PMID:3707536

  5. Diet and feeding pattern affect the diurnal dynamics of the gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Zarrinpar, Amir; Chaix, Amandine; Yooseph, Shibu; Panda, Satchidananda

    2014-12-02

    The gut microbiome and daily feeding/fasting cycle influence host metabolism and contribute to obesity and metabolic diseases. However, fundamental characteristics of this relationship between the feeding/fasting cycle and the gut microbiome are unknown. Our studies show that the gut microbiome is highly dynamic, exhibiting daily cyclical fluctuations in composition. Diet-induced obesity dampens the daily feeding/fasting rhythm and diminishes many of these cyclical fluctuations. Time-restricted feeding (TRF), in which feeding is consolidated to the nocturnal phase, partially restores these cyclical fluctuations. Furthermore, TRF, which protects against obesity and metabolic diseases, affects bacteria shown to influence host metabolism. Cyclical changes in the gut microbiome from feeding/fasting rhythms contribute to the diversity of gut microflora and likely represent a mechanism by which the gut microbiome affects host metabolism. Thus, feeding pattern and time of harvest, in addition to diet, are important parameters when assessing the microbiome's contribution to host metabolism.

  6. Diet and Feeding Pattern Affect the Diurnal Dynamics of the Gut Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Zarrinpar, Amir; Chaix, Amandine; Yooseph, Shibu; Panda, Satchidananda

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The gut microbiome and daily feeding/fasting cycle influence host metabolism and contributes to obesity and metabolic diseases. However, fundamental characteristics of this relationship between the feeding/fasting cycle and the gut microbiome is unknown. Our studies show that the gut microbiome is highly dynamic, exhibiting daily cyclical fluctuations in composition. Diet-induced obesity dampens the daily feeding/fasting rhythm and diminishes many of these cyclical fluctuations. Time restricted feeding (TRF), in which feeding is consolidated to the nocturnal phase, partially restores these cyclical fluctuations. Furthermore, TRF, which protects against obesity and metabolic diseases, affects bacteria shown to influence host metabolism. Cyclical changes in the gut microbiome from feeding/fasting rhythms contribute to the diversity of gut microflora and likely represent a mechanism by which the gut microbiome affects host metabolism. Thus, feeding pattern and time of harvest, in addition to diet, are important parameters when assessing the microbiome’s contribution to host metabolism. PMID:25470548

  7. Mercury-contaminated sediments affect amphipod feeding.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Zubrod, Jochen P; Seitz, Frank; Newman, Michael C; Schulz, Ralf

    2011-04-01

    A 125-mile reach of the South River, Virginia, was contaminated with mercury during the first half of the 20th century. As increased concentrations of mercury have persisted, researchers have carefully studied its distribution in the river biota and estimated associated risks. The present study evaluated the influence of mercury on feeding rate and uptake by the amphipod Hyalella azteca. The test organisms were exposed for 7 days with leaf discs to reference and contaminated field sediment during the preliminary experiment and additionally to Sedimite (a commercial mercury-sequestering agent) amended sediments during the final experiment. The preliminary experiment demonstrated a decreased feeding rate (approximately 35%) of H. azteca in sediment from a contaminated site relative to sediment from a reference site. The test design of the final experiment took advantage of the knowledge gained in the preliminary experiment by increasing the number of replicates, which decreased the type II error rate. First, the results of the final experiment confirmed the results of the preliminary experiment by again demonstrating differences in the feeding rate of approximately 35% between reference and contaminated sediment. Second, the results indicated a lower feeding rate in reference sediment in the presence of Sedimite. Third, an opposite tendency, although not significant, was apparent for Sedimite-amended contaminated sediment. Thus, Sedimite appears to decrease sediment quality, whereas this conclusion is based on the feeding rate of H. azteca. However, Sedimite and its value as a mercury-sequestering agent requires further evaluation.

  8. Control of DWPF melter feed composition

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.G.; Edwards, R.E.; Postles, R.L.; Randall, C.T.

    1989-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility will be used to immobilize Savannah River Site high-level waste into a stable borosilicate glass for disposal in a geologic repository. Proper control of the melter feed composition in this facility is essential to the production of glass which meets product durability constraints dictated by repository regulations and facility processing constraints dictated by melter design. A technique has been developed which utilizes glass property models to determine acceptable processing regions based on the multiple constraints imposed on the glass product and to display these regions graphically. This system along with the batch simulation of the process is being used to form the basis for the statistical process control system for the facility.

  9. Control of DWPF melter feed composition

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.G.; Edwards, R.E.; Postles, R.L.; Randall, C.T.

    1989-12-31

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility will be used to immobilize Savannah River Site high-level waste into a stable borosilicate glass for disposal in a geologic repository. Proper control of the melter feed composition in this facility is essential to the production of glass which meets product durability constraints dictated by repository regulations and facility processing constraints dictated by melter design. A technique has been developed which utilizes glass property models to determine acceptable processing regions based on the multiple constraints imposed on the glass product and to display these regions graphically. This system along with the batch simulation of the process is being used to form the basis for the statistical process control system for the facility.

  10. Growth performance, feed digestibility, body composition, and feeding behavior of high- and low-residual feed intake fat-tailed lambs under moderate feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Rajaei Sharifabadi, H; Naserian, A A; Valizadeh, R; Nassiry, M R; Bottje, W G; Redden, R R

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of moderate feed restriction on productivity of lambs classified on the basis of phenotypic expression of residual feed intake (RFI). In Exp. 1, 58 fat-tailed Kurdi ram lambs (32.1 ± 4.2 kg BW) were individually fed, ad libitum, a pelleted diet (35% alfalfa hay and 65% concentrate). Feed intake and ADG were determined for a 6-wk period and 3 feed efficiency measures including RFI, G:F, and partial efficiency of maintenance (PEM) were calculated. The lambs were sorted based on RFI and the 16 highest RFI (RFI ≥ mean + 0.5 SD) and 16 lowest RFI (RFI ≤ mean - 0.5 SD) lambs were subjected to body composition (BC) and DM digestibility (DMD) analysis. Feeding behavior traits (FB) were also evaluated for 24 h using a regular 5-min interval observation method. The high- and low-RFI lambs (14 lambs/RFI group) so classified in Exp. 1 were used in Exp. 2. Half of the lambs in each RFI group were randomly selected to be fed ad libitum or 85% of ad libitum (restricted feeding), which resulted in 4 experimental groups: 1) ad libitum high-RFI, 2) feed restricted high-RFI, 3) ad libitum low-RFI, and 4) feed restricted low-RFI. The lambs were fed the same diet as Exp. 1, and growth efficiency during a 6-wk test period as well as BC, DMD, and FB were also determined in Exp. 2. In Exp. 1, the low-RFI lambs consumed 14% ( < 0.01) less feed than high-RFI lambs. Differences were also observed between high- and low-RFI groups for G:F ( = 0.01), RFI ( < 0.01), and PEM ( < 0.01) in Exp. 1, but no differences were detected between high- and low-RFI lambs for ADG ( = 0.79), DMD ( = 0.42), BC ( > 0.72), and FB ( > 0.24). In Exp.2, the restriction feeding regime negatively affected ADG ( < 0.01) and G:F ( = 0.02) in low-RFI lambs, whereas G:F ( = 0.02) and PEM ( < 0.01) were improved in high-RFI lambs under the feed restriction condition. No effects of feed restriction on DMD ( = 0.87) and BC ( > 0.05) were observed. The lambs fed at

  11. Feed delivery method affects the learning of feeding and competitive behavior in dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Greter, A M; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; McBride, B W; DeVries, T J

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how different feeding methods may affect the learning of feeding, sorting, and competitive behavior of growing dairy heifers. We hypothesized that heifers previously fed a total mixed ration (TMR) would distribute their feeding time more evenly throughout the day, sort the new ration less, compete less for feed, maintain a more solid fecal consistency, and continue to grow rapidly compared with heifers previously fed a top-dressed ration (TDR). Thirty-two Holstein heifers (237.2+/-21.9 d of age) were divided into 8 groups of 4 and exposed to 1 of 2 treatments for 13 wk: 1) TMR or 2) TDR, with each containing 65% grass/alfalfa haylage and 35% textured concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Following this feeding period, all heifers were switched to an unfamiliar TMR containing 56.1% grass/alfalfa haylage, 21.0% corn silage, 21.0% high-moisture corn, and 1.9% mineral supplement (DM basis) for 7 wk. Group DM intakes were recorded daily throughout the experiment. Feeding behavior, recorded using time-lapse video, and sorting behavior were measured for 7 d during wk 1, 4, and 7 after the dietary change. Feeding competition was measured on d 2, 4, and 6 of each recording week. Sorting activity was determined through particle size analysis of the fresh feed and orts. The particle size separator separated feed into 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting of each fraction was calculated as actual intake expressed as a percentage of predicted intake. Animals were scored for fecal consistency twice weekly, using a scale from 1 (liquid) to 4 (solid). Heifers were weighed every 2 wk. Neither DM intake (9.0 kg/d) nor average daily gain (1.2 kg/d) differed between treatments. Sorting also did not differ between treatments. Heifers tended to spend more time feeding if they had previously been fed a TDR (198.8 vs. 186.8 min/d). As they had done before the dietary change, heifers previously fed the TDR spent more time at the

  12. Stress Analysis and Permeability Testing of Cryogenic Composite Feed Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Tsuchin Philip

    1999-01-01

    For the next generation Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), the use of advanced composite materials is highly desirable and critical to the success of the mission. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been working with the aerospace industry for many years to develop and demonstrate the cryogenic composite propellant tanks and feed lines technologies. A 50.8-mm diameter composite feed line for the Clipper Graham (DCY.A) was developed and tested. The purpose of the program is to demonstrate the LH2 permeability, composite to composite and metal joints, as well as composite flange interface of the composite feed line. Stress analysis and permeability testing have been performed on this article. Recently, a larger composite feed line design is being investigated and developed at MSFC for potential use in future RLV. The diameter of the feed line is 203 mm and the overall length is approximately 2.2 meters. This one piece unlined feed line consists of three straight tubular sections joined by two 90 degree elbows. The material chosen is IM7/977-3 prepreg fabric. The lay-up pattern is [0/90, plus or minus 45]s and is built up to 18 plies to the flanges at both ends. A preliminary stress analysis has been conducted to identify potential critical stresses and to develop the finite element analysis (FEA) capability of composite feed lines. As expected, the critical stresses occurred at the rims of some flange holes and the onset of the tapered tubular sections. Further analysis is required to determine the loads, flange deflection, vibration, and combined maximum loads. Two permeability-testing apparatuses were also designed for both flat panel specimens and curved feed line sections after impact damage. A larger permeant gas exposed area is required to accurately determine the effect of impact damage on the permeability of the feed line materials. The flat panel tester was fabricated and assembled. Three test coupons were made of graphite

  13. Gasoline Composition Regulations Affecting LUST Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments in 1990 imposed requirements on gasoline composition in the United States. Impacts to ground water are affected by the provisions that required oxygenated additives and limited benzene concentration. Reformulated and oxygenated gasoline w...

  14. Factors affecting larval tick feeding success: host, density and time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Ectoparasites rely on blood feeding to sustain activity, support development and produce offspring. Blood feeding is also a route for transmission of diverse vector-borne pathogens. The likelihood of successfully feeding is thus an important aspect of ectoparasite population dynamics and...

  15. Energy composition of diet affects muscle fiber recruitment, body composition, and growth trajectory in rainbow trout (Oncorhnychus mykiss)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy composition of diet affects muscle fiber recruitment, body composition, and growth trajectory in rainbow trout (Oncorhnychus mykiss) The cost and scarcity of key ingredients for aquaculture feed formulation call for a wise use of resources, especially dietary proteins and energy. For years t...

  16. Gustatory reception of chemicals affecting feeding in aedine mosquitoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquitoes vector dangerous human diseases during blood feeding. Gustatory (taste) receptor neurons in the mosquito provide important chemical information including the nature and suitability of a potential host. Here we discuss the behavior, neurophysiology and molecular mechanisms associated wit...

  17. Does microbiota composition affect thyroid homeostasis?

    PubMed

    Virili, Camilla; Centanni, Marco

    2015-08-01

    The intestinal microbiota is essential for the host to ensure digestive and immunologic homeostasis. When microbiota homeostasis is impaired and dysbiosis occurs, the malfunction of epithelial barrier leads to intestinal and systemic disorders, chiefly immunologic and metabolic. The role of the intestinal tract is crucial in the metabolism of nutrients, drugs, and hormones, including exogenous and endogenous iodothyronines as well as micronutrients involved in thyroid homeostasis. However, the link between thyroid homeostasis and microbiota composition is not yet completely ascertained. A pathogenetic link with dysbiosis has been described in different autoimmune disorders but not yet fully elucidated in autoimmune thyroid disease which represents the most frequent of them. Anyway, it has been suggested that intestinal dysbiosis may trigger autoimmune thyroiditis. Furthermore, hypo- and hyper-thyroidism, often of autoimmune origin, were respectively associated to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and to changes in microbiota composition. Whether some steps of this thyroid network may be affected by intestinal microbiota composition is briefly discussed below.

  18. Child temperament, parent affect, and feeding in normal and overweight preschool children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite overwhelming evidence showing that parent emotional affect impacts parenting directives and child outcomes, little research has focused on the influence of parent affect on feeding as a mechanism in shaping children's eating patterns. Utilizing an instrument characterizing parent strategies ...

  19. Feeding type affects microplastic ingestion in a coastal invertebrate community.

    PubMed

    Setälä, Outi; Norkko, Joanna; Lehtiniemi, Maiju

    2016-01-15

    Marine litter is one of the problems marine ecosystems face at present, coastal habitats and food webs being the most vulnerable as they are closest to the sources of litter. A range of animals (bivalves, free swimming crustaceans and benthic, deposit-feeding animals), of a coastal community of the northern Baltic Sea were exposed to relatively low concentrations of 10 μm microbeads. The experiment was carried out as a small scale mesocosm study to mimic natural habitat. The beads were ingested by all animals in all experimental concentrations (5, 50 and 250 beads mL(-1)). Bivalves (Mytilus trossulus, Macoma balthica) contained significantly higher amounts of beads compared with the other groups. Free-swimming crustaceans ingested more beads compared with the benthic animals that were feeding only on the sediment surface. Ingestion of the beads was concluded to be the result of particle concentration, feeding mode and the encounter rate in a patchy environment.

  20. Child Feeding and Parenting Style Outcomes and Composite Score Measurement in the 'Feeding Healthy Food to Kids Randomised Controlled Trial'.

    PubMed

    Duncanson, Kerith; Burrows, Tracy L; Collins, Clare E

    2016-11-10

    Child feeding practices and parenting style each have an impact on child dietary intake, but it is unclear whether they influence each other or are amenable to change. The aims of this study were to measure child feeding and parenting styles in the Feeding Healthy Food to Kids (FHFK) Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) and test a composite child feeding score and a composite parenting style score. Child feeding and parenting style data from 146 parent-child dyads (76 boys, aged 2.0-5.9 years) in the FHFK study were collected over a 12-month intervention. Parenting style was measured using parenting questions from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children and the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) was used to measure child feeding practices. Data for both measures were collected at baseline, 3 and 12 months and then modelled to develop a composite child feeding score and a parenting score. Multivariate mixed effects linear regression was used to measure associations between variables over time. All child feeding domains from the CFQ were consistent between baseline and 12 months (p < 0.001), except for monitoring (0.12, p = 0.44). All parenting style domain scores were consistent over 12 months (p < 0.001), except for overprotection (0.22, p = 0.16). A significant correlation (r = 0.42, p < 0.0001) existed between child feeding score and parenting style score within the FHFK RCT. In conclusion, composite scores have potential applications in the analysis of relationships between child feeding and dietary or anthropometric data in intervention studies aimed at improving child feeding or parenting style. These applications have the potential to make a substantial contribution to the understanding of child feeding practices and parenting style, in relation to each other and to dietary intake and health outcomes amongst pre-school aged children.

  1. Development and validation of the modular Feed-code method for qualitative and quantitative determination of feed botanical composition.

    PubMed

    Braglia, Luca; Gianì, Silvia; Breviario, Diego; Gavazzi, Floriana; Mastromauro, Francesco; Morello, Laura

    2016-11-01

    The analysis of feed composition in terms of ingredients is addressed by Regulation (EC) 767/2009 and is important for detecting economic fraud and for monitoring feed safety. Within the framework of the EU project Feed-code, we developed and internally validated a modular assay, relying on intron polymorphism, for the complete qualitative analysis of the botanical composition of feed and the quantitative determination of six target plant species. Main performance parameters of each module, such as applicability, repeatability, specificity, and limit of detection, were evaluated. The whole assay was applied to a set of feed-like samples and results were in agreement with the expected composition. Application to a large set of compound feed and individual raw materials revealed the occurrence of botanical impurities. When compared with microscopic analysis, the proposed method gave more reliable results. We conclude that the Feed-code prototype, readily upgradable to include more plant species, is worthy of consideration for a full validation through a collaborative trial. Graphical Abstract The modular Feed-code method for the authentication of feed botanical composition.

  2. Does breast-feeding affect severity of familial Mediterranean fever?

    PubMed

    Makay, Balahan; Unsal, Erbil

    2009-12-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common inherited autoinflammatory disease, which is caused by an inborn error in innate immune system. It was shown that disease severity of patients of the same ethnic origin differed according to different country of residence, suggesting an influence of environment on phenotype of FMF. Different microbial milieus of the countries were accused. Breast-feeding has an important role on innate immunity and protects the infant from infections. The aim of this study is to investigate whether being breast-fed and duration of breast-feeding has an impact on disease severity of FMF. The mothers of patients were asked to fill a questionnaire about the feeding type in infancy. Mode of delivery, gestational age, and age at onset of FMF symptoms were also asked. The disease severity score of each patient was calculated according to the scoring system suggested by Pras et al. (Am J Med Genet 75:216-219, 1998). MEFV mutations were noted. The mothers of 81 FMF patients completed the questionnaire. Fifteen patients (18.5%) had mild, 49 (60.5%) had moderate, and 17 (21%) had severe disease. All the patients except four were breast-fed for some period. The duration of breast-feeding was similar between three severity groups. Time to introduce cow's milk and complementary foods also did not differ between groups. Longer duration of breast-feeding did not delay the onset of FMF symptoms. Mode of delivery and gestational age had no effect on disease severity. Patients homozygous for M694V had higher severity scores. This preliminary study suggests that breast-feeding is not an exogenous factor having an influence on phenotype of FMF. M694V genotype seems to cause more severe disease.

  3. Larval starvation reduces responsiveness to feeding stimuli and does not affect feeding preferences in a butterfly.

    PubMed

    Kehl, Tobias; Fischer, Klaus

    2012-07-01

    It is commonly assumed that holometabolic insects such as Lepidoptera rely primarily on larval storage reserves for reproduction. Recent studies though have documented a prominent role of adult-derived carbohydrates for butterfly reproduction. Moreover, a few studies have shown that adult butterflies may also benefit from adult-derived amino acids, at least when larval storage reserves are reduced. Given that in holometabolous insects larval deficiencies are carried over into the adult stage, reduced storage reserves have the potential to modulate adult feeding preferences and responses in order to allow for a successful compensation. We tested this hypothesis here in the fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana using larval food stress to manipulate storage reserves. Alcohols (methanol, ethanol, butanol, propanol), sugars (maltose, glucose, fructose, sucrose), and acetic acid acted as feeding stimuli, while butterflies did not respond to other substances such as amino acids, yeast, salts, or vitamins. Contrary to expectations, stressed butterflies showed a weaker response than controls to several feeding stimuli. In preference tests, butterflies preferred sugar solutions containing proline, arginine, glutamic acid, acetic acid, or ethanol over plain sugar solutions, but discriminated against salts. However, there were no general differences among starved and control butterflies. We conclude that larval food-stress does not elicit compensatory feeding behavior such as a stronger preference for amino acids or other essential nutrients in B. anynana. Instead, the stress imposed by a period of starvation yielded negative effects.

  4. Feeding Frequency Affects Cultured Rat Pituitary Cells in Low Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, W. C.; Grindeland, R. E.; Salada, T.; Cenci, R.; Krishnan, K.; Mukai, C.; Nagaoka, S.

    1996-01-01

    In this report, we describe the results of a rat pituitary cell culture experiment done on STS-65 in which the effect of cell feeding on the release of the six anterior pituitary hormones was studied. We found complex microgravity related interactions between the frequency of cell feeding and the quantity and quality (i.e. biological activity) of some of the six hormones released in flight. Analyses of growth hormone (GH) released from cells into culture media on different mission days using gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography yielded qualitatively similar results between ground and flight samples. Lack of cell feeding resulted in extensive cell clumping in flight (but not ground) cultures. Vigorous fibroblast growth occurred in both ground and flight cultures fed 4 times. These results are interpreted within the context of autocrine and or paracrine feedback interactions. Finally the payload specialist successfully prepared a fresh trypsin solution in microgravity, detached the cells from their surface and reinserted them back into the culture chamber. These cells reattached and continued to release hormone in microgravity. In summary, this experiment shows that pituitary cells are microgravity sensitive and that coupled operations routinely associated with laboratory cel1 culture can also be accomplished in low gravity.

  5. Sugar concentration and timing of feeding affect feeding characteristics and survival of a parasitic wasp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The availability of food sources is critical for parasitoid survival, especially for those that do not host-feed, or in agroecosystems where nectar and honeydew are sometimes spatially and temporally scarce. Therefore, the value of even a single meal can be crucial for survival. Psyttalia lounsbur...

  6. QTL with dominance effect affecting residual feed intake on BTA6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency and therefore an economically relevant trait. A genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting RFI in beef cattle was conducted. Approximately equally spaced microsatellite markers (n = 229) spanned the 29 bovine autosomes. Tw...

  7. Nutrients affecting brain composition and behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtman, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    This review examines the changes in brain composition and in various brain functions, including behavior, that can follow the ingestion of particular foods or nutrients. It details those that are best understood: the increases in serotonin, catecholamine, or acetylcholine synthesis that can occur subsequent to food-induced increases in brain levels of tryptophan, tyrosine, or choline; it also discusses the various processes that must intervene between the mouth and the synapse, so to speak, in order for a nutrient to affect neurotransmission, and it speculates as to additional brain chemicals that may ultimately be found to be affected by changes in the availability of their nutrient precursors. Because the brain chemicals best known to be nutrient dependent overlap with those thought to underlie the actions of most of the drugs used to treat psychiatric diseases, knowledge of this dependence may help the psychiatrist to understand some of the pathologic processes occurring in his/her patients, particularly those with appetitive symptoms. At the very least, such knowledge should provide the psychiatrist with objective criteria for judging when to take seriously assertions that particular foods or nutrients do indeed affect behavior (e.g., in hyperactive children). If the food can be shown to alter neurotransmitter release, it may be behaviorally-active; however, if it lacks a discernible neurochemical effect, the likelihood that it really alters behavior is small.

  8. Feed and feeding regime affect growth rate and gonadosomatic index of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Gonzales, John M; Law, Sheran Hiu Wan

    2013-12-01

    A 5-week study was conducted to evaluate commercially available Artemia, Ziegler zebrafish diet, and Calamac diet fed in five different feeding regimes on the growth and reproductive development of 7-month-old zebrafish. Zebrafish were fed to satiation three times daily during the normal work week and twice daily during the weekend and holidays. Zebrafish in dietary groups CCC (Calamac three times daily) and CCA (Calamac twice daily, Artemia once daily) had a significantly (p<0.05) greater weight gain and specific growth rate as compared to all other dietary groups. Male zebrafish in dietary group 5 had significantly larger gonadosomatic index (GSI) values than all other groups, while female zebrafish in dietary group CCC had significantly larger GSI values than all other groups. No differences in the fatty acid content of female gonads were detected. Zebrafish fed solely Artemia had the greatest weight loss and lowest GSI values. Preliminary evidence of protein sparing in zebrafish is reported. Collectively, this study sheds more light into the effects of the use of commercially available feeds and feeding regime on the rearing of zebrafish.

  9. Factors affecting feeding behavior and survival of juvenile lake trout in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Henry, Mary G.; Kincaid, Harold L.

    1993-01-01

    We explored the importance of experience with feeding on live prey, of cataracts, of strain, and of maternally transferred contaminants for the feeding rate and predator avoidance behavior of young lake trout Salvelinus namaycush. Hatchery-reared and feral juvenile lake trout were tested separately as predators on lake trout fry in tanks with artificial cobble reefs. Feral fish captured more prey per day and more prey per strike than did hatchery lake trout. The predatory performance of hatchery and feral fish did not improve significantly with experience. Feeding rates did not differ between lake trout with unilateral cataracts and normal-eyed fish, but significantly diminished for lake trout with bilateral cataracts. Neither strain nor contaminant background affected the ability of fry to feed or to avoid predators. Of the factors studied, previous experience with live food under natural conditions (i.e., the experience of feral fish) was the most important factor affecting feeding behavior of young lake trout.

  10. Feeding upon awakening in breastfeeding and bottlefeeding mothers does not affect the awakening cortisol response.

    PubMed

    Thanh Tu, Mai; Walker, Claire-Dominique; Lupien, Sonia J

    2005-09-01

    An acute breastfeeding stimulus is generally followed by a transient decrease in cortisol levels in mothers. It is currently not clear whether breastfeeding upon waking up would affect the awakening cortisol response (ACR), a significant increase in salivary cortisol levels occurring within 30-45 min after awakening. In the present study, we measured the amplitude and stability of the ACR in response to infant feeding in women who were exclusively bottle-feeding (n = 16), or breastfeeding (n = 13) or feeding their child solid food (n = 12). The results show that the type of infant feeding did not affect the amplitude and stability of the ACR. Given that the ACR has been reported to reflect physical and psychological well-being, our finding that infant feeding upon waking up might not be a confounding factor in ACR studies on the postpartum population represents valuable methodological information.

  11. Factors affecting Culicoides species composition and abundance in avian nests.

    PubMed

    Martínez-de la Puente, J; Merino, S; Tomás, G; Moreno, J; Morales, J; Lobato, E; Talavera, S; Sarto I Monteys, V

    2009-08-01

    Mechanisms affecting patterns of vector distribution among host individuals may influence the population and evolutionary dynamics of vectors, hosts and the parasites transmitted. We studied the role of different factors affecting the species composition and abundance of Culicoides found in nests of the blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus). We identified 1531 females and 2 males of 7 different Culicoides species in nests, with C. simulator being the most abundant species, followed by C. kibunensis, C. festivipennis, C. segnis, C. truncorum, C. pictipennis and C. circumscriptus. We conducted a medicationxfumigation experiment randomly assigning bird's nests to different treatments, thereby generating groups of medicated and control pairs breeding in fumigated and control nests. Medicated pairs were injected with the anti-malarial drug Primaquine diluted in saline solution while control pairs were injected with saline solution. The fumigation treatment was carried out using insecticide solution or water for fumigated and control nests respectively. Brood size was the main factor associated with the abundance of biting midges probably because more nestlings may produce higher quantities of vector attractants. In addition, birds medicated against haemoparasites breeding in non-fumigated nests supported a higher abundance of C. festivipennis than the rest of the groups. Also, we found that the fumigation treatment reduced the abundance of engorged Culicoides in both medicated and control nests, thus indicating a reduction of feeding success produced by the insecticide. These results represent the first evidence for the role of different factors in affecting the Culicoides infracommunity in wild avian nests.

  12. Desert gerbils affect bacterial composition of soil.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, Tatyana A; Kam, Michael; Khokhlova, Irina S; Kostina, Natalia V; Dobrovolskaya, Tatiana G; Umarov, Marat M; Degen, A Allan; Shenbrot, Georgy I; Krasnov, Boris R

    2013-11-01

    Rodents affect soil microbial communities by burrow architecture, diet composition, and foraging behavior. We examined the effect of desert rodents on nitrogen-fixing bacteria (NFB) communities by identifying bacteria colony-forming units (CFU) and measuring nitrogen fixation rates (ARA), denitrification (DA), and CO2 emission in soil from burrows of three gerbil species differing in diets. Psammomys obesus is folivorous, Meriones crassus is omnivorous, consuming green vegetation and seeds, and Dipodillus dasyurus is predominantly granivorous. We also identified NFB in the digestive tract of each rodent species and in Atriplex halimus and Anabasis articulata, dominant plants at the study site. ARA rates of soil from burrows of the rodent species were similar, and substantially lower than control soil, but rates of DA and CO2 emission differed significantly among burrows. Highest rates of DA and CO2 emission were measured in D. dasyurus burrows and lowest in P. obesus. CFU differed among bacteria isolates, which reflected dietary selection. Strains of cellulolytic representatives of the family Myxococcaceae and the genus Cytophaga dominated burrows of P. obesus, while enteric Bacteroides dominated burrows of D. dasyurus. Burrows of M. crassus contained both cellulolytic and enteric bacteria. Using discriminant function analysis, differences were revealed among burrow soils of all rodent species and control soil, and the two axes accounted for 91 % of the variance in bacterial occurrences. Differences in digestive tract bacterial occurrences were found among these rodent species. Bacterial colonies in P. obesus and M. crassus burrows were related to bacteria of A. articulata, the main plant consumed by both species. In contrast, bacteria colonies in the burrow soil of D. dasyurus were related to bacteria in its digestive tract. We concluded that gerbils play an important role as ecosystem engineers within their burrow environment and affect the microbial complex of

  13. Composition of amino acids in feed ingredients for animal diets.

    PubMed

    Li, Xilong; Rezaei, Reza; Li, Peng; Wu, Guoyao

    2011-04-01

    Dietary amino acids (AA) are crucial for animal growth, development, reproduction, lactation, and health. However, there is a scarcity of information regarding complete composition of "nutritionally nonessential AA" (NEAA; those AA which can be synthesized by animals) in diets. To provide a much-needed database, we quantified NEAA (including glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, and asparagine) in feed ingredients for comparison with "nutritionally essential AA" (EAA; those AA whose carbon skeletons cannot be formed by animals). Except for gelatin and feather meal, animal and plant ingredients contained high percentages of glutamate plus glutamine, branched-chain AA, and aspartate plus asparagine, which were 10-32, 15-25, and 8-14% of total protein, respectively. In particular, leucine and glutamine were most abundant in blood meal and casein (13% of total protein), respectively. Notably, gelatin, feather meal, fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct had high percentages of glycine, proline plus hydroxyproline, and arginine, which were 10-35, 9.6-35, and 7.2-7.9% of total protein, respectively. Among plant products, arginine was most abundant in peanut meal and cottonseed meal (14-16% of total protein), whereas corn and sorghum had low percentages of cysteine, lysine, methionine, and tryptophan (0.9-3% of total protein). Overall, feed ingredients of animal origin (except for gelatin) are excellent sources of NEAA and EAA for livestock, avian, and aquatic species, whereas gelatin provides highest amounts of arginine, glycine, and proline plus hydroxyproline. Because casein, corn, soybean, peanut, fish, and gelatin are consumed by children and adults, our findings also have important implications for human nutrition.

  14. How predictability of feeding patches affects home range and foraging habitat selection in avian social scavengers?

    PubMed

    Monsarrat, Sophie; Benhamou, Simon; Sarrazin, François; Bessa-Gomes, Carmen; Bouten, Willem; Duriez, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Feeding stations are commonly used to sustain conservation programs of scavengers but their impact on behaviour is still debated. They increase the temporal and spatial predictability of food resources while scavengers have supposedly evolved to search for unpredictable resources. In the Grands Causses (France), a reintroduced population of Griffon vultures Gyps fulvus can find carcasses at three types of sites: 1. "light feeding stations", where farmers can drop carcasses at their farm (spatially predictable), 2. "heavy feeding stations", where carcasses from nearby farms are concentrated (spatially and temporally predictable) and 3. open grasslands, where resources are randomly distributed (unpredictable). The impact of feeding stations on vulture's foraging behaviour was investigated using 28 GPS-tracked vultures. The average home range size was maximal in spring (1272 ± 752 km(2)) and minimal in winter (473 ± 237 km(2)) and was highly variable among individuals. Analyses of home range characteristics and feeding habitat selection via compositional analysis showed that feeding stations were always preferred compared to the rest of the habitat where vultures can find unpredictable resources. Feeding stations were particularly used when resources were scarce (summer) or when flight conditions were poor (winter), limiting long-ranging movements. However, when flight conditions were optimal, home ranges also encompassed large areas of grassland where vultures could find unpredictable resources, suggesting that vultures did not lose their natural ability to forage on unpredictable resources, even when feeding stations were available. However during seasons when food abundance and flight conditions were not limited, vultures seemed to favour light over heavy feeding stations, probably because of the reduced intraspecific competition and a pattern closer to the natural dispersion of resources in the landscape. Light feeding stations are interesting tools for managing

  15. How Predictability of Feeding Patches Affects Home Range and Foraging Habitat Selection in Avian Social Scavengers?

    PubMed Central

    Monsarrat, Sophie; Benhamou, Simon; Sarrazin, François; Bessa-Gomes, Carmen; Bouten, Willem; Duriez, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Feeding stations are commonly used to sustain conservation programs of scavengers but their impact on behaviour is still debated. They increase the temporal and spatial predictability of food resources while scavengers have supposedly evolved to search for unpredictable resources. In the Grands Causses (France), a reintroduced population of Griffon vultures Gyps fulvus can find carcasses at three types of sites: 1. “light feeding stations”, where farmers can drop carcasses at their farm (spatially predictable), 2. “heavy feeding stations”, where carcasses from nearby farms are concentrated (spatially and temporally predictable) and 3. open grasslands, where resources are randomly distributed (unpredictable). The impact of feeding stations on vulture’s foraging behaviour was investigated using 28 GPS-tracked vultures. The average home range size was maximal in spring (1272±752 km2) and minimal in winter (473±237 km2) and was highly variable among individuals. Analyses of home range characteristics and feeding habitat selection via compositional analysis showed that feeding stations were always preferred compared to the rest of the habitat where vultures can find unpredictable resources. Feeding stations were particularly used when resources were scarce (summer) or when flight conditions were poor (winter), limiting long-ranging movements. However, when flight conditions were optimal, home ranges also encompassed large areas of grassland where vultures could find unpredictable resources, suggesting that vultures did not lose their natural ability to forage on unpredictable resources, even when feeding stations were available. However during seasons when food abundance and flight conditions were not limited, vultures seemed to favour light over heavy feeding stations, probably because of the reduced intraspecific competition and a pattern closer to the natural dispersion of resources in the landscape. Light feeding stations are interesting tools for

  16. Effects of feeding camelina (seeds or meal) on milk fatty acid composition and butter spreadability.

    PubMed

    Hurtaud, C; Peyraud, J L

    2007-11-01

    The nutritional and rheological properties of butter depend on the fatty acid composition of milk. Therefore, feeding oilseeds rich in unsaturated fatty acids is likely to affect butter properties. The aim of this trial was to examine to what extent feeding the linolenic acid-rich cruciferous plant camelina can affect the fatty acid composition of dairy products and the properties of butter. A control diet composed of 60% corn silage-based ration and completed with high-energy and nitrogenous concentrates was compared with 2 experimental diets designed to provide the same amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids via either camelina seed (630 g/d, CS diet) or camelina meal (2 kg/d, CM diet). The diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. The trial followed a double 3 x 3 Latin-square design with 4-wk periods on 6 Holstein dairy cows. The camelina diets tended to decrease dry matter intake but did not have a significant effect on milk production. They generated a slight decrease in milk protein and a strong decrease in milk fat yield and content. The CM diet led to a stronger decrease in fat content. Camelina generated a greater proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids, notably C18:1 trans isomers, including trans-10 and trans-11 C18:1, which increased by 11.0- and 2.6-fold, respectively, with the CM diet. Camelina also led to an increase in conjugated linoleic acids, particularly rumenic acid, cis-9, trans-11 C18:2. Camelina did not affect parameters of buttermaking except churning time with milk from CM fed cows, which was longer. The butters of camelina diets were softer at all temperatures tested, especially with the CM diet. In conclusion, feeding camelina can modify milk fatty acid profile and butter spreadability.

  17. Posttreatment Feeding Affects Mortality of Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Exposed to Insecticides.

    PubMed

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Cooper, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Insecticide sprays and dusts are used for controlling bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. In natural environments, bed bugs have daily access to hosts after they are exposed to insecticides. The established laboratory insecticide bioassay protocols do not provide feeding after insecticide treatments, which can result in inflated mortality compared with what would be encountered in the field. We evaluated the effect of posttreatment feeding on mortality of bed bugs treated with different insecticides. None of the insecticides tested had a significant effect on the amount of blood consumed and percent feeding. The effect of posttreatment feeding on bed bug mortality varied among different insecticides. Feeding significantly reduced mortality in bed bugs exposed to deltamethrin spray, an essential oil mixture (Bed Bug Fix) spray, and diatomaceous earth dust. Feeding increased the mean survival time for bed bugs treated with chlorfenapyr spray and a spray containing an essential oil mixture (Ecoraider), but did not affect the final mortality. First instars hatched from eggs treated with chlorfenapyr liquid spray had reduced feeding compared with nymphs hatched from nontreated eggs. Those nymphs hatched from eggs treated with chlorfenapyr liquid spray and successfully fed had reduced mortality and a higher mean survival time than those without feeding. We conclude that the availability of a bloodmeal after insecticide exposure has a significant effect on bed bug mortality. Protocols for insecticide efficacy testing should consider offering a bloodmeal to the treated bed bugs within 1 to 3 d after treatment.

  18. Mesozooplankton community composition, feeding, and export production during SOIREE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeldis, John

    The community composition and feeding rates of mesozooplankton (>200 μm length) were determined using plankton hauls, bottle incubations and gut pigment determinations during Southern Ocean Iron RElease Experiment (SOIREE) in the Southern Ocean in February 1999. Upper-ocean (0-65 m) mesozooplankton biomass (4.2 and 3.2 g m -2, inside and outside the iron-fertilised patch, respectively) was dominated by large copepodites (>1.5 mm). Salps and euphausiids were absent and very rare, respectively. Incubations using large copepods showed no significant difference in clearance rates of nano- (2-20 μm) and net- (>20 μm) plankton. Mean clearance rates inside and outside the iron-fertilised patch also did not differ and were very low (ca. 50 ml mg DW -1 d -1). Mean ingestion rate, however, was significantly greater in the patch due to higher algal and heterotrophic nanoflagellate (HNAN) biomass there. Gut pigment analysis showed that most ingestion by large, medium and small copepods occurred at night, and that specific ingestion was greatest in small copepods. Daily integrated ingestion rates determined by the incubation and gut pigment methods were similar for comparable large copepods. Phytoplankton and HNAN ingestion met only 14% of the estimated daily respiratory carbon requirements of the large copepods inside the patch, and 4% outside. Little ciliate or detrital carbon was available in the system, which could have further supplemented the food supply. A number of other studies have found a similar disparity between ingestion and nutritional requirements in copepods. Reasons for this include the possibility that fine-scale aggregations of copepods and their food have not been adequately sampled, or that measured metabolic rates have been systematically overestimated. Ingestion of phytoplankton by the total copepod community was low, with <1% of standing stock removed per day (inside and outside the patch) and 4% and 8% of primary production removed (inside and

  19. "Who's been feeding in my bed?" Benthivorous fish affect fluvial sediment transport - fact or fairy tale?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Stephen; Pledger, Andrew; Smith, James; Toone, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Many species of fish are benthivorous - they forage for food in the river bed - and their foraging disturbs, displaces and sorts bed materials with implications for fluvial sediment transport. Flume experiments have confirmed that benthic foraging by Barbel (Barbus barbus (L.)) and Chub (Squalius cephalus (L.)) modifies the structure and topography of water-worked gravels, thereby increasing particle entrainment probabilities and the quantity of sediment mobilised during experimental high flows. Field experiments and observations have demonstrated the impact of foraging on patch-scale bed disturbance, gravel structure, grain displacements and grain-size sorting. Initial ex-situ experiments support the suggestion that in low gradient rivers, shoals of fish like Bream (Abramis brama (L.)) entrain fine bed sediments, adding a biotic surcharge to the suspended sediment flux and modifying bed topography. These results underpin a novel proposal: that there is an aggregate, cumulative effect of benthic foraging on fluvial sediment transport at larger scales, including at scales where the contribution to sediment movement and river channel behaviour generates management concerns. Evaluating this proposal is a long-term goal, which is based on two intermediate objectives: to develop deeper mechanistic understanding of foraging impacts and to establish the spatial and temporal extent of geomorphologically significant feeding behaviours in river systems. The latter is crucial because field data are currently limited to a single reach on one UK river. It is reasonable to hypothesise that foraging impacts are spatially and temporally widespread because obligate and opportunistic benthic feeding is common and fish feed throughout their life. However, the effectiveness of foraging as a geomorphological process is likely to vary with factors including substrate size, fish community composition, food availability, water temperature, river flows and seasonal changes in fish

  20. Feed Conversion, Survival and Development, and Composition of Four Insect Species on Diets Composed of Food By-Products

    PubMed Central

    Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B.; van Broekhoven, Sarah; van Huis, Arnold; van Loon, Joop J. A.

    2015-01-01

    A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from by-products of food manufacturing and formulated such as to vary in protein and fat content. These were offered to newly hatched Argentinean cockroaches, black soldier flies, yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two species are potentially interesting as a feed ingredient, while the latter two are considered edible for humans. Feed conversion efficiency, survival, development time, as well as chemical composition (nitrogen, phosphorus, and fatty acids), were determined. The Argentinean cockroaches and the black soldier flies converted feed more efficiently than yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two were also more efficient than conventional production animals. On three of the four diets yellow mealworms and house crickets had a feed conversion efficiency similar to pigs. Furthermore, on the most suitable diet, they converted their feed as efficiently as poultry, when corrected for edible portion. All four species had a higher nitrogen-efficiency than conventional production animals, when corrected for edible portion. Offering carrots to yellow mealworms increased dry matter- and nitrogen-efficiency and decreased development time. Diet affected survival in all species but black soldier flies, and development time was strongly influenced in all four species. The chemical composition of Argentinean cockroaches was highly variable between diets, for black soldier flies it remained similar. The investigated species can be considered efficient production animals when suitable diets are provided. Hence, they could form a sustainable alternative to conventional production animals as a source of feed or food. PMID:26699129

  1. Feed Conversion, Survival and Development, and Composition of Four Insect Species on Diets Composed of Food By-Products.

    PubMed

    Oonincx, Dennis G A B; van Broekhoven, Sarah; van Huis, Arnold; van Loon, Joop J A

    2015-01-01

    A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from by-products of food manufacturing and formulated such as to vary in protein and fat content. These were offered to newly hatched Argentinean cockroaches, black soldier flies, yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two species are potentially interesting as a feed ingredient, while the latter two are considered edible for humans. Feed conversion efficiency, survival, development time, as well as chemical composition (nitrogen, phosphorus, and fatty acids), were determined. The Argentinean cockroaches and the black soldier flies converted feed more efficiently than yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two were also more efficient than conventional production animals. On three of the four diets yellow mealworms and house crickets had a feed conversion efficiency similar to pigs. Furthermore, on the most suitable diet, they converted their feed as efficiently as poultry, when corrected for edible portion. All four species had a higher nitrogen-efficiency than conventional production animals, when corrected for edible portion. Offering carrots to yellow mealworms increased dry matter- and nitrogen-efficiency and decreased development time. Diet affected survival in all species but black soldier flies, and development time was strongly influenced in all four species. The chemical composition of Argentinean cockroaches was highly variable between diets, for black soldier flies it remained similar. The investigated species can be considered efficient production animals when suitable diets are provided. Hence, they could form a sustainable alternative to conventional production animals as a source of feed or food.

  2. Living where the flow is right: How flow affects feeding in bryozoans.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Marney C

    2008-12-01

    Bryozoans are suspension feeding colonial animals that remain attached to the substratum or other surfaces. How well a bryozoan can feed in a particular flow regime could help determine the distribution and abundance of that bryozoan. I tested how velocity of flow affects feeding rate in four species of bryozoans in the laboratory and how these species perform in different flow regimes in the field. I found that one species, Membranipora membranacea, had a higher ingestion rate than did the other three species at all velocities of flow tested. Membranipora also had a higher rate of ingestion at intermediate velocities, while velocity did not have as strong an effect on ingestion rate in the other three species. As predicted from the feeding experiments, all four species generally had greater abundance, attained a larger size, grew faster, and survived longer in flow regimes in which feeding is higher. Also as predicted, Membranipora had greater abundance, attained a larger size, grew faster, and survived longer than did the other three species both in slower and faster flow regimes in the field. Understanding how flow affects feeding can help predict the distribution and abundance of bryozoans in the field. Because especially efficient filterers like Membranipora can grow faster and have higher survival under a wide range of conditions of flow, this species may be able to outcompete many other species or take advantage of ephemeral habitats, thereby becoming a potentially effective invasive species as has been seen in the Gulf of Maine.

  3. Oil sands process-affected water impairs feeding by Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Lari, Ebrahim; Steinkey, Dylan; Morandi, Garrett; Rasmussen, Joseph B; Giesy, John P; Pyle, Greg G

    2017-05-01

    Growth in extraction of bitumen from oil sands has raised concerns about influences of this industry on surrounding environments. Water clearance rate (a surrogate of feeding rate by Daphnia magna) in water containing D. magna exposed to oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) and its principal components, dissolved component (DC) and suspended particulate matter (SPM), was reduced to 72, 29, and 59% of controls, respectively. This study also examined several possible mechanisms for the observed changes algal cell density (i.e., feeding rate). There was no change in the digestive enzymes trypsin or amylase when D. magna were exposed to DC or SPM; however, exposure to total OSPW reduced trypsin activity. Mandible rolling or post-abdominal rejections, which are indicators of feeding and palatability of food, were not affected by any exposures to OSPW. Beating of thoracic limbs, which provides water flow toward the feeding groove, was reduced by exposure to SPM or total OSPW. Peristaltic activity was reduced by exposure to DC, which then might result in reduced digestion time in D. magna exposed to DC, SPM or whole OSPW. All treatments caused an increase in numbers of intact algae cells in the hindgut and excreted material. These results suggest that both DC and SPM affect feeding of D. magna by impairing actions of the digestive system, but most probably not by reducing rates of ingestion.

  4. The Influence of Mixed Composition and Hole Mould on the Quality of Chicken Feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasyid, S.; Susanto, T. A.; Nur, R.

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to determine the effect of feed mixturecomposition and shape of mould hole on the quality pellets using a pellet moulding machine with the roller wheel system. Methods of testing were performed to obtain the composition of the feed mixture that was optimal. The method was following: 250 grams of feed ingredients are added to the adhesive (starch) of 50 grams and then mixed with warm water (± 90°C) in quantities of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 cc. Furthermore, the feed mixture materials printed on pellet machines with roller wheel system. Parameter testing is 400 rpm engine rev diameter mould hole 5 mm, and the shape of the hole to a second print. The test results on the optimal material composition testing the feed mixture will be used as a parameter to the next test is a variation form of holes. Measuring the quality of feed pellets based heavily shaped pellet intact and non-intact. A ratio of feed ingredients best to produce pellets occurred in the composition of the feed mixture of 250 grams of feed, 50 grams of adhesive, and 250 grams of warm water with percentage shaped feed pellets of 91%. While the best pellet quality resulting from pellet machine roller wheel system occurs in the form of mould 2nd hole with a percentage of 90% pellets.

  5. Chemical composition of cottonseed affected by cropping management practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cottonseed is a valuable raw material for a range of food, animal feed, and industrial (such as adhesives) products. Chemical composition is one of the critical parameters to evaluate cottonseed's quality and potential end use. However, the information on the impacts of cropping management practices...

  6. Circadian and feeding rhythms differentially affect rhythmic mRNA transcription and translation in mouse liver

    PubMed Central

    Atger, Florian; Gobet, Cédric; Marquis, Julien; Martin, Eva; Wang, Jingkui; Weger, Benjamin; Lefebvre, Grégory; Descombes, Patrick; Naef, Felix; Gachon, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal oscillations of gene expression are a hallmark of rhythmic physiology across most living organisms. Such oscillations are controlled by the interplay between the circadian clock and feeding rhythms. Although rhythmic mRNA accumulation has been extensively studied, comparatively less is known about their transcription and translation. Here, we quantified simultaneously temporal transcription, accumulation, and translation of mouse liver mRNAs under physiological light–dark conditions and ad libitum or night-restricted feeding in WT and brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (Bmal1)-deficient animals. We found that rhythmic transcription predominantly drives rhythmic mRNA accumulation and translation for a majority of genes. Comparison of wild-type and Bmal1 KO mice shows that circadian clock and feeding rhythms have broad impact on rhythmic gene expression, Bmal1 deletion affecting surprisingly both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Translation efficiency is differentially regulated during the diurnal cycle for genes with 5′-Terminal Oligo Pyrimidine tract (5′-TOP) sequences and for genes involved in mitochondrial activity, many harboring a Translation Initiator of Short 5′-UTR (TISU) motif. The increased translation efficiency of 5′-TOP and TISU genes is mainly driven by feeding rhythms but Bmal1 deletion also affects amplitude and phase of translation, including TISU genes. Together this study emphasizes the complex interconnections between circadian and feeding rhythms at several steps ultimately determining rhythmic gene expression and translation. PMID:26554015

  7. Circadian and feeding rhythms differentially affect rhythmic mRNA transcription and translation in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Atger, Florian; Gobet, Cédric; Marquis, Julien; Martin, Eva; Wang, Jingkui; Weger, Benjamin; Lefebvre, Grégory; Descombes, Patrick; Naef, Felix; Gachon, Frédéric

    2015-11-24

    Diurnal oscillations of gene expression are a hallmark of rhythmic physiology across most living organisms. Such oscillations are controlled by the interplay between the circadian clock and feeding rhythms. Although rhythmic mRNA accumulation has been extensively studied, comparatively less is known about their transcription and translation. Here, we quantified simultaneously temporal transcription, accumulation, and translation of mouse liver mRNAs under physiological light-dark conditions and ad libitum or night-restricted feeding in WT and brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (Bmal1)-deficient animals. We found that rhythmic transcription predominantly drives rhythmic mRNA accumulation and translation for a majority of genes. Comparison of wild-type and Bmal1 KO mice shows that circadian clock and feeding rhythms have broad impact on rhythmic gene expression, Bmal1 deletion affecting surprisingly both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Translation efficiency is differentially regulated during the diurnal cycle for genes with 5'-Terminal Oligo Pyrimidine tract (5'-TOP) sequences and for genes involved in mitochondrial activity, many harboring a Translation Initiator of Short 5'-UTR (TISU) motif. The increased translation efficiency of 5'-TOP and TISU genes is mainly driven by feeding rhythms but Bmal1 deletion also affects amplitude and phase of translation, including TISU genes. Together this study emphasizes the complex interconnections between circadian and feeding rhythms at several steps ultimately determining rhythmic gene expression and translation.

  8. Chronic loss of melanin-concentrating hormone affects motivational aspects of feeding in the rat.

    PubMed

    Mul, Joram D; la Fleur, Susanne E; Toonen, Pim W; Afrasiab-Middelman, Anthonieke; Binnekade, Rob; Schetters, Dustin; Verheij, Michel M M; Sears, Robert M; Homberg, Judith R; Schoffelmeer, Anton N M; Adan, Roger A H; DiLeone, Ralph J; De Vries, Taco J; Cuppen, Edwin

    2011-05-05

    Current epidemic obesity levels apply great medical and financial pressure to the strenuous economy of obesity-prone cultures, and neuropeptides involved in body weight regulation are regarded as attractive targets for a possible treatment of obesity in humans. The lateral hypothalamus and the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) form a hypothalamic-limbic neuropeptide feeding circuit mediated by Melanin-Concentrating Hormone (MCH). MCH promotes feeding behavior via MCH receptor-1 (MCH1R) in the AcbSh, although this relationship has not been fully characterized. Given the AcbSh mediates reinforcing properties of food, we hypothesized that MCH modulates motivational aspects of feeding.Here we show that chronic loss of the rat MCH-precursor Pmch decreased food intake predominantly via a reduction in meal size during rat development and reduced high-fat food-reinforced operant responding in adult rats. Moreover, acute AcbSh administration of Neuropeptide-GE and Neuropeptide-EI (NEI), both additional neuropeptides derived from Pmch, or chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of NEI, did not affect feeding behavior in adult pmch(+/+) or pmch(-/-) rats. However, acute administration of MCH to the AcbSh of adult pmch(-/-) rats elevated feeding behavior towards wild type levels. Finally, adult pmch(-/-) rats showed increased ex vivo electrically evoked dopamine release and increased limbic dopamine transporter levels, indicating that chronic loss of Pmch in the rat affects the limbic dopamine system.Our findings support the MCH-MCH1R system as an amplifier of consummatory behavior, confirming this system as a possible target for the treatment of obesity. We propose that MCH-mediated signaling in the AcbSh positively mediates motivational aspects of feeding behavior. Thereby it provides a crucial signal by which hypothalamic neural circuits control energy balance and guide limbic brain areas to enhance motivational or incentive-related aspects of food consumption.

  9. Chronic Loss of Melanin-Concentrating Hormone Affects Motivational Aspects of Feeding in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Mul, Joram D.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Toonen, Pim W.; Afrasiab-Middelman, Anthonieke; Binnekade, Rob; Schetters, Dustin; Verheij, Michel M. M.; Sears, Robert M.; Homberg, Judith R.; Schoffelmeer, Anton N. M.; Adan, Roger A. H.; DiLeone, Ralph J.; De Vries, Taco J.; Cuppen, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Current epidemic obesity levels apply great medical and financial pressure to the strenuous economy of obesity-prone cultures, and neuropeptides involved in body weight regulation are regarded as attractive targets for a possible treatment of obesity in humans. The lateral hypothalamus and the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) form a hypothalamic-limbic neuropeptide feeding circuit mediated by Melanin-Concentrating Hormone (MCH). MCH promotes feeding behavior via MCH receptor-1 (MCH1R) in the AcbSh, although this relationship has not been fully characterized. Given the AcbSh mediates reinforcing properties of food, we hypothesized that MCH modulates motivational aspects of feeding. Here we show that chronic loss of the rat MCH-precursor Pmch decreased food intake predominantly via a reduction in meal size during rat development and reduced high-fat food-reinforced operant responding in adult rats. Moreover, acute AcbSh administration of Neuropeptide-GE and Neuropeptide-EI (NEI), both additional neuropeptides derived from Pmch, or chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of NEI, did not affect feeding behavior in adult pmch+/+ or pmch−/− rats. However, acute administration of MCH to the AcbSh of adult pmch−/− rats elevated feeding behavior towards wild type levels. Finally, adult pmch−/− rats showed increased ex vivo electrically evoked dopamine release and increased limbic dopamine transporter levels, indicating that chronic loss of Pmch in the rat affects the limbic dopamine system. Our findings support the MCH-MCH1R system as an amplifier of consummatory behavior, confirming this system as a possible target for the treatment of obesity. We propose that MCH-mediated signaling in the AcbSh positively mediates motivational aspects of feeding behavior. Thereby it provides a crucial signal by which hypothalamic neural circuits control energy balance and guide limbic brain areas to enhance motivational or incentive-related aspects of food consumption. PMID

  10. Diet Composition and Feeding Strategies of the Stone Marten (Martes foina) in a Typical Mediterranean Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Bakaloudis, Dimitrios E.; Vlachos, Christos G.; Papakosta, Malamati A.; Bontzorlos, Vasileios A.; Chatzinikos, Evangelos N.

    2012-01-01

    Stone martens (Martes foina) are documented as generalist throughout their distributional range whose diet composition is affected by food availability. We tested if this occurs and what feeding strategies it follows in a typical Mediterranean ecosystem in Central Greece by analysing contents from 106 stomachs, seasonally collected from three different habitats during 2003–2006. Seasonal variation in diet and feeding strategies was evident and linked to seasonal nutritional requirements, but possibly imposed by strong interference competition and intraguild predation. Fleshy fruits and arthropods predominated in the diet, but also mammals and birds were frequently consumed. An overall low dietary niche breadth (BA = 0.128) indicated a fruit specialization tendency. A generalised diet occurred in spring with high individual specialisation, whereas more animal-type prey was consumed than fruits. A population specialization towards fruits was indicated during summer and autumn, whereas insects were consumed occasionally by males. In those seasons it switched to more clumped food types such as fruits and insects. In winter it selectively exploited both adult and larvae insects and partially fruits overwinter on plants. The tendency to consume particular prey items seasonally reflected both the population specialist behaviour and the individual flexibility preyed on different food resources. PMID:22619607

  11. Diet composition and feeding strategies of the stone marten (Martes foina) in a typical Mediterranean ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Bakaloudis, Dimitrios E; Vlachos, Christos G; Papakosta, Malamati A; Bontzorlos, Vasileios A; Chatzinikos, Evangelos N

    2012-01-01

    Stone martens (Martes foina) are documented as generalist throughout their distributional range whose diet composition is affected by food availability. We tested if this occurs and what feeding strategies it follows in a typical Mediterranean ecosystem in Central Greece by analysing contents from 106 stomachs, seasonally collected from three different habitats during 2003-2006. Seasonal variation in diet and feeding strategies was evident and linked to seasonal nutritional requirements, but possibly imposed by strong interference competition and intraguild predation. Fleshy fruits and arthropods predominated in the diet, but also mammals and birds were frequently consumed. An overall low dietary niche breadth (B(A) = 0.128) indicated a fruit specialization tendency. A generalised diet occurred in spring with high individual specialisation, whereas more animal-type prey was consumed than fruits. A population specialization towards fruits was indicated during summer and autumn, whereas insects were consumed occasionally by males. In those seasons it switched to more clumped food types such as fruits and insects. In winter it selectively exploited both adult and larvae insects and partially fruits overwinter on plants. The tendency to consume particular prey items seasonally reflected both the population specialist behaviour and the individual flexibility preyed on different food resources.

  12. The presence of root-feeding nematodes - Not AMF - Affects an herbivore dispersal strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Roissart, Annelies; Peña, Eduardo de la; Van Oyen, Lien; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Ballhorn, Daniel J.; Bonte, Dries

    2013-10-01

    Plant quality and aboveground herbivore performance are influenced either directly or indirectly by the soil community. As herbivore dispersal is a conditional strategy relative to plant quality, we examined whether belowground biotic interactions (the presence of root-feeding nematodes or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) affect aerial dispersal of a phytophagous mite (Tetranychus urticae) through changes in performance of their host plant (Phaseolus vulgaris). Aerial dispersal strategies of mites were analyzed in wind-tunnel experiments, in which a unique mite pre-dispersal behavior (rearing) was assessed in relation to the presence of belowground biota on the host plant on which mites developed. Spider mite pre-dispersal behavior significantly increased with the experienced mite density on the host during development. Additionally, plants infected with root-feeding nematodes induced an increase of spider mite aerial dispersal behavior. The results highlight that belowground herbivores can affect population dynamics of aboveground herbivores by altering dispersal strategies.

  13. Identification of nonviable genes affecting touch sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans using neuronally enhanced feeding RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyin; Cuadros, Margarete Diaz; Chalfie, Martin

    2015-01-09

    Caenorhabditis elegans senses gentle touch along the body via six touch receptor neurons. Although genetic screens and microarray analyses have identified several genes needed for touch sensitivity, these methods miss pleiotropic genes that are essential for the viability, movement, or fertility of the animals. We used neuronally enhanced feeding RNA interference to screen genes that cause lethality or paralysis when mutated, and we identified 61 such genes affecting touch sensitivity, including five positive controls. We confirmed 18 genes by using available alleles, and further studied one of them, tag-170, now renamed txdc-9. txdc-9 preferentially affects anterior touch response but is needed for tubulin acetylation and microtubule formation in both the anterior and posterior touch receptor neurons. Our results indicate that neuronally enhanced feeding RNA interference screens complement traditional mutageneses by identifying additional nonviable genes needed for specific neuronal functions.

  14. Effects of almond and pistachio consumption on gut microbiota composition in a randomised cross-over human feeding study.

    PubMed

    Ukhanova, Maria; Wang, Xiaoyu; Baer, David J; Novotny, Janet A; Fredborg, Marlene; Mai, Volker

    2014-06-28

    The modification of microbiota composition to a 'beneficial' one is a promising approach for improving intestinal as well as overall health. Natural fibres and phytochemicals that reach the proximal colon, such as those present in various nuts, provide substrates for the maintenance of healthy and diverse microbiota. The effects of increased consumption of specific nuts, which are rich in fibre as well as various phytonutrients, on human gut microbiota composition have not been investigated to date. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of almond and pistachio consumption on human gut microbiota composition. We characterised microbiota in faecal samples collected from volunteers in two separate randomised, controlled, cross-over feeding studies (n 18 for the almond feeding study and n 16 for the pistachio feeding study) with 0, 1·5 or 3 servings/d of the respective nuts for 18 d. Gut microbiota composition was analysed using a 16S rRNA-based approach for bacteria and an internal transcribed spacer region sequencing approach for fungi. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 528 028 sequence reads, retained after removing low-quality and short-length reads, revealed various operational taxonomic units that appeared to be affected by nut consumption. The effect of pistachio consumption on gut microbiota composition was much stronger than that of almond consumption and included an increase in the number of potentially beneficial butyrate-producing bacteria. Although the numbers of bifidobacteria were not affected by the consumption of either nut, pistachio consumption appeared to decrease the number of lactic acid bacteria (P< 0·05). Increasing the consumption of almonds or pistachios appears to be an effective means of modifying gut microbiota composition.

  15. Grain composition of Virginia winter barley and implications for use in feed, food, and biofuels production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain compositional components impacting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) use in food, feed and fuel products, must be combined with improved gronomic traits to produce a commercially viable barley cultivar. Little current information is available on grain composition and variability among winter barley ...

  16. Alfalfa containing the glyphosate-tolerant trait has no effect on feed intake, milk composition, or milk production of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Combs, D K; Hartnell, G F

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this experiment was to assess if feeding glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa affects feed intake, milk composition, or milk production of dairy cows. One alfalfa (Medicago sativa), variety expressing the CP4 EPSPS protein and grown in southeastern Washington State was harvested at the late vegetative stage as hay. Three commercial conventional varieties of alfalfa hay of similar nutrient composition and harvested in the same geographic region were fed to cows as controls. The commercial hays were selected to be similar in crude protein [18% of dry matter (DM)] and neutral detergent fiber (40% of DM) to the glyphosate-tolerant hay. Sixteen multiparous Holstein cows were fed diets containing alfalfa hay (39.7% of diet DM) from either the glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa, or 1 of the 3 conventional varieties. Diets contained at least 15.7% crude protein and 29% neutral detergent fiber. Experimental design was a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square. Periods were 28 d and feed intake, milk yield, and milk composition were summarized over the last 14 d of each period. Daily milk yield (38.0 kg) and 4% fat-corrected milk (34.7 kg) were not affected by treatment. Milk fat (3.44%) and milk true protein (2.98%) were also not affected by source of hay. Milk lactose (4.72%) and soldis-not-fat (8.5%) did not differ due to treatment. Dry matter intake was similar across treatments (24.4 kg/d). These results are consistent with data from feeding trials with other glyphosate-tolerant crops and previously reported compositional comparisons of glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa with controls. Milk production, milk composition, feed intake, and feed efficiency were not affected by feeding diets that contained nearly 40% glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa hay to lactating dairy cows.

  17. Group Composition Affecting Student Interaction and Achievement: Instructors' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Simon A.; Kuestermeyer, Bailey N.; Westmeyer, Kara A.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple research studies have been conducted that focus on various uses of collaborative learning in and out of the classroom in higher education institutions. The purpose of this article is to review previously published literature regarding group composition and how it affects student interaction and achievement. Group composition research has…

  18. Feed Composition for Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Process, Rev. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Charles Marshall

    2003-09-01

    Treatment of sodium-bearing waste (SBW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated by a Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One of the requirements of the Settlement Agreement is to complete treatment of SBW by December 31, 2012. To support both design and development studies for the SBW treatment process, detailed feed compositions are needed. This report contains the expected compositions of these feed streams and the sources and methods used in obtaining these compositions.

  19. Iron-restricted pair-feeding affects renal damage in rats with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Yoshiro; Senchi, Aya; Sawada, Hisashi; Oboshi, Makiko; Horimatsu, Tetsuo; Okuno, Keisuke; Yasumura, Seiki; Ishihara, Masaharu; Masuyama, Tohru

    2017-01-01

    Background We have previously shown that dietary iron restriction prevents the development of renal damage in a rat model of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, iron deficiency is associated with appetite loss. In addition, calorie restriction is reported to prevent the development of end-stage renal pathology in CKD rats. Thus, the beneficial effect of iron restriction on renal damage may depend on calorie restriction. Here, we investigate the effect of pair-feeding iron restriction on renal damage in a rat model of CKD. Methods First, to determine the amount of food intake, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly given an ad libitum normal diet or an iron-restricted diet, and the food intake was measured. Second, CKD was induced by a 5/6 nephrectomy in SD rats, and CKD rats were given either a pair-feeding normal or iron-restricted diet. Results Food intake was reduced in the iron-restricted diet group compared to the normal diet group of SD rats for 16 weeks (mean food intake; normal diet group and iron-restricted diet group: 25 and 20 g/day, respectively). Based on the initial experiments, CKD rats received either a pair-feeding normal or iron-restricted diet (20 g/day) for 16 weeks. Importantly, pair-feeding iron restriction prevented the development of proteinuria, glomerulosclerosis, and tubulointerstitial damage in CKD rats. Interestingly, pair-feeding iron restriction attenuated renal expression of nuclear mineralocorticoid receptor in CKD rats. Conclusions Pair-feeding iron restriction affected renal damage in a rat model of CKD. PMID:28196143

  20. Effects of feeding antibiotic-free creep feed supplemented with oligofructose, probiotics or synbiotics to suckling piglets increases the preweaning weight gain and composition of intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Shim, S B; Verstegen, M W A; Kim, I H; Kwon, O S; Verdonk, J M A J

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether feeding an antibiotic-free creep feed supplemented with either oligofructose, probiotics or synbiotics to suckling piglets influences growth performance, the gut microflora, gut morphology and hematological traits at weaning. Twenty sows with 10 piglets each were randomly assigned to one of four treatments. The treatments consisted of a control (antibiotic-free) diet, 0.2% oligofructose (OF), 0.3% probiotics or 0.5% synbiotics (mixture of 0.2% OF+0.3% probiotics). Piglets were offered the diet ad libitum from 7 d after birth until one day after weaning (21 d of age). At the day after weaning, blood samples were collected from the jugular vein to determine the immune response. Digesta samples of the ileum and colon were collected to determine the microbial composition. Tissue segments from the duodenum and ileum were collected for morphometric measurements of the small intestine. The average daily weight gain was significantly higher for piglets fed the OF or synbiotics diet compared with the pigs fed the control diet. The hematological traits (the concentration of lymphocytes and neutrophils in whole blood) were not affected by the diet. Piglets fed the OF, probiotics or synbiotics diet had a significantly decreased number of total coliform bacteria in the colon. Feeding OF, probiotics or synbiotics significantly increased the population of bifidobacteria in the ileum compared to the control. In the colon, the probiotics and synbiotics diet significantly increased the number of bifidobacteria compared with the control diet. The results of this experiment showed that supplementation of oligofructose or synbiotics to an antibiotic-free creep feed during the preweaning period affected gut microbial population and performance of piglets.

  1. Liquid-feed flame spray pyrolysis synthesis of oxide nanopowders for the processing of ceramic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Nathan John

    In the liquid-feed flame spray pyrolysis (LF-FSP) process, alcohol solutions of metalloorganic precursors are aerosolized by O2 and combusted. The metal oxide combustion products are rapidly quenched (< 10 ms) from flame temperatures of 1500°C to temperatures < 400° C, limiting particle growth. The resulting nanopowders are typically agglomerated but unaggregated. Here, we demonstrate two processing approaches to dense materials: nanopowders with the exact composition, and mixed single metal oxide nanopowders. The effect of the initial degree of phase separation on the final microstructures was determined by sintering studies. Our first studies included the production of yttrium aluminum garnet, Y3Al5O12 (YAG), tubes which we extruded from a thermoplastic/ceramic blend. At equivalent final densities, we found finer grain sizes in the from the mixed Y2O3 and Al2 O3 nanopowders, which was attributed to densification occurring before full transformation to the YAG phase. The enhanced densification in production of pure YAG from the reactive sintering process led us to produce composites in the YAG/alpha-Al 2O3 system. Finally, a third Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) phase was added to further refine grain sizes using the same two processing approaches. In a separate study, single-phase metastable Al2O3 rich spinels with the composition MO•3Al 2O3 where M = Mg, Ni, and Co were sintered to produce dense MAl2O4/alpha-Al2O3 composites. All of these studies provide a test of the bottom-up approach; that is, how the initial length scale of mixing affects the final composite microstructure. Overall, the length scale of mixing is highly dependent upon the specific oxide composites studied. This work provides a processing framework to be adopted by other researchers to further refine microstructural size. LF-FSP flame temperatures were mapped using different alcohols with different heats of combustion: methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and n-butanol. The effect of different

  2. Child Feeding and Parenting Style Outcomes and Composite Score Measurement in the ‘Feeding Healthy Food to Kids Randomised Controlled Trial’

    PubMed Central

    Duncanson, Kerith; Burrows, Tracy L.; Collins, Clare E.

    2016-01-01

    Child feeding practices and parenting style each have an impact on child dietary intake, but it is unclear whether they influence each other or are amenable to change. The aims of this study were to measure child feeding and parenting styles in the Feeding Healthy Food to Kids (FHFK) Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) and test a composite child feeding score and a composite parenting style score. Child feeding and parenting style data from 146 parent-child dyads (76 boys, aged 2.0–5.9 years) in the FHFK study were collected over a 12-month intervention. Parenting style was measured using parenting questions from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children and the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) was used to measure child feeding practices. Data for both measures were collected at baseline, 3 and 12 months and then modelled to develop a composite child feeding score and a parenting score. Multivariate mixed effects linear regression was used to measure associations between variables over time. All child feeding domains from the CFQ were consistent between baseline and 12 months (p < 0.001), except for monitoring (0.12, p = 0.44). All parenting style domain scores were consistent over 12 months (p < 0.001), except for overprotection (0.22, p = 0.16). A significant correlation (r = 0.42, p < 0.0001) existed between child feeding score and parenting style score within the FHFK RCT. In conclusion, composite scores have potential applications in the analysis of relationships between child feeding and dietary or anthropometric data in intervention studies aimed at improving child feeding or parenting style. These applications have the potential to make a substantial contribution to the understanding of child feeding practices and parenting style, in relation to each other and to dietary intake and health outcomes amongst pre-school aged children. PMID:27834906

  3. Effects of feed intake on composition of sheep rumen contents and their microbial population size.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, C A; González, J; Alvir, M R; Redondo, R; Cajarville, C

    2003-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of feed intake on the composition of the rumen contents of sheep and on their bacterial densities. Whole rumen contents were sampled after a period of continuous inter-rumen infusion of 15NH3 from four rumen-cannulated wethers successively fed on a hay-concentrate diet (2:1, w/w on a DM basis) at two rates of feed intake: 40 and 80 g DM/kg body weight0.75. Total weight and chemical composition of rumen contents, as well as the distribution by size and chemical composition of particles, were determined. The populations of bacteria associated with the liquid (liquid-associated bacteria, LAB) and solid (solid-associated bacteria, SAB) fractions of rumen digesta and the distribution of SAB according to feed particle size were also examined. The greater feed intake caused an increase in the mass of the rumen contents, while its chemical composition did not change, except for a higher content of organic matter (P=0.023). The distribution of feed particles by size was similar at both levels of intake. The concentrations of neutral- and acid-detergent fibre in feed particles decreased and those of total, dietary, and microbial N increased, both with a quadratic response (P=0.001), as particle size decreased. The proportion of LAB in the microbial biomass of rumen digesta reached only 8.0 %. This proportion and the density of LAB were unaffected by the level of feed intake, whereas an apparent reduction (10.4 %) occurred with the SAB biomass in whole rumen contents. A systematic, but not significant, reduction (mean value 11.9 %) in the level of microbial colonisation in the different particle fractions with the increase of feed intake was also observed.

  4. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark

    1999-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  5. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark

    2001-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  6. Modeling total solar irradiance from PMOD composite using feed-forward neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tebabal, A.; Damtie, B.; Nigussie, M.; Bires, A.; Yizengaw, E.

    2015-12-01

    The variability of the solar activity dominates the variability of the earth's atmosphere, which affects human life and technology on earth. To understand the effects of solar activity on earth's atmosphere different efforts are underway to model the variations of total solar irradiance (TSI) associated to the variations of photometric sunspot index (PSI) and core to wing ratio of Mg II index, for example, linear regression approach. In this study, feed-forward neural networks (NNs) algorithm, which takes the non-linear relationship between the dependent and independent variables, has been implemented to model daily TSI using PSI and Mg II index. First, data between 1978 and 2008 have been used to train and validate NNs, through which the parameters such as weights and biases are estimated. Therefore, NNs has been used to predict TSI between the years 2008 and 2013 from test data. The output of NNs have been compared with PMOD composite TSI and result has shown good agreement. Linear correlation between NNs predicted TSI and PMOD composite is found to be about 0.9307 for the years between 1978 and 2013. This means that NNs predicted TSI from solar proxies explains about 86.6% of the variance of TSI for solar cycles 21-24, and over 90% during solar cycle 23. Predicting TSI using NNs further strengthens the view that surface magnetism indeed plays a dominant role in modulating solar irradiance.

  7. The impact of feeding growing-finishing pigs with daily tailored diets using precision feeding techniques on animal performance, nutrient utilization, and body and carcass composition.

    PubMed

    Andretta, I; Pomar, C; Rivest, J; Pomar, J; Lovatto, P A; Radünz Neto, J

    2014-09-01

    The impact of moving from conventional to precision feeding systems in growing-finishing pig operations on animal performance, nutrient utilization, and body and carcass composition was studied. Fifteen animals per treatment for a total of 60 pigs of 41.2 (SE = 0.5) kg of BW were used in a performance trial (84 d) with 4 treatments: a 3-phase (3P) feeding program obtained by blending fixed proportions of feeds A (high nutrient density) and B (low nutrient density); a 3-phase commercial (COM) feeding program; and 2 daily-phase feeding programs in which the blended proportions of feeds A and B were adjusted daily to meet the estimated nutritional requirements of the group (multiphase-group feeding, MPG) or of each pig individually (multiphase-individual feeding, MPI). Daily feed intake was recorded each day and pigs were weighed weekly during the trial. Body composition was assessed at the beginning of the trial and every 28 d by dual-energy X-ray densitometry. Nitrogen and phosphorus excretion was estimated as the difference between retention and intake. Organ, carcass, and primal cut measurements were taken after slaughter. The COM feeding program reduced (P < 0.05) ADFI and improved G:F rate in relation to other treatments. The MPG and MPI programs showed values for ADFI, ADG, G:F, final BW, and nitrogen and phosphorus retention that were similar to those obtained for the 3P feeding program. However, compared with the 3P treatment, the MPI feeding program reduced the standardized ileal digestible lysine intake by 27%, the estimated nitrogen excretion by 22%, and the estimated phosphorus excretion by 27% (P < 0.05). Organs, carcass, and primal cut weights did not differ among treatments. Feeding growing-finishing pigs with daily tailored diets using precision feeding techniques is an effective approach to reduce nutrient excretion without compromising pig performance or carcass composition.

  8. Variability in the contents of pork meat nutrients and how it may affect food composition databases.

    PubMed

    Reig, Milagro; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Toldrá, Fidel

    2013-10-01

    Pork meat is generally recognised as a food with relevant nutritional properties because of its content in high biological value proteins, group B vitamins, minerals especially heme iron, trace elements and other bioactive compounds. But pork meat also contributes to the intake of fat, saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and other substances that, in inappropriate amounts, may result in negative physiologically effects. However, there are relevant factors affecting the content of many of these substances and somehow such variability should be taken into consideration. So, genetics, age and even type of muscle have a relevant influence on the amount of fat and the contents in heme iron. Also the composition in fatty acids of triacylglycerols is very sensitive to the contents of cereals in the feed; for instance, polyunsaturated fatty acids may range from 10% to 22% in pork meat. The content of other nutrients, like vitamins E and A, are also depending on the type of feed. Some bioactive substances like coenzyme Q10, taurine, glutamine, creatine, creatinine, carnosine and anserine show a large dependence on the type of muscle. This manuscript describes the main factors affecting the composition of pork meat nutrients and how these changes may affect the general food composition databases.

  9. Subtherapeutic tylosin phosphate in broiler feed affects Campylobacter on carcasses during processing.

    PubMed

    Berrang, M E; Ladely, S R; Meinersmann, R J; Fedorka-Cray, P J

    2007-06-01

    Tylosin phosphate is an antimicrobial drug approved for use in broiler feed at subtherapeutic levels for growth promotion. Erythromycin is often the drug of choice for treating humans with campylobacteriosis. Both tylosin and erythromycin are classified as macrolide drugs and cross-resistance between these antimicrobials occurs. Commercial broiler chicks were placed in isolation grow-out chambers and colonized with Campylobacter jejuni. From 14 d of age through grow-out, broilers were fed ad libitim a diet that included 22 ppm of tylosin phosphate (20 g/ton). Control broilers received the same diet without tylosin phosphate. At 42 d of age, broilers were processed in a pilot plant with equipment that closely modeled commercial conditions. Carcass rinses were collected after feather removal, after inside and outside washing, and after immersion chilling. Campylobacter numbers recovered from carcasses after feather removal did not differ according to feed type (3.53 log cfu/mL of rinse for control carcasses, and 3.60 log cfu/mL of rinse for those fed medicated feed). Likewise, medicated feed did not affect Campylobacter numbers on carcasses after inside-outside washing (3.11 and 3.07 log cfu/mL of rinse). However, carcasses of broilers fed tylosin phosphate had lower numbers of Campylobacter after chilling (1.45 log cfu/mL of rinse) than control carcasses (2.31 log cfu/mL of rinse). No Campylobacter isolated from control carcasses were resistant to erythromycin; all Campylobacter recovered from carcasses fed tylosin phosphate were resistant to erythromycin. Application of tylosin phosphate in feed results in lower numbers of Campylobacter on chilled carcasses; however, the Campylobacter that do remain are resistant to erythromycin.

  10. Association between breed composition, phenotypic residual feed intake, temperament, ELISA scores for paratuberculosis, and ultrasound carcass traits in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ultrasound carcass measurements are an important tool for preliminary assessment of carcass worth in beef cattle. Breed composition, phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI), temperament, and subclinical paratuberculosis in dams may affect calf ultrasound traits. The objective was to evaluate the assoc...

  11. Controlling parental feeding practices and child body composition in ethnically and economically diverse preschool children.

    PubMed

    Wehrly, Sarah E; Bonilla, Chantal; Perez, Marisol; Liew, Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    Controlling parental feeding practices may be associated with childhood overweight, because coercive or intrusive feeding practices may negatively impact children's development of self-regulation of eating. This study examined pressuring or forcing a child (healthy or unhealthy foods) and restricting child from unhealthy or snack foods as two types of controlling feeding practices that explain unique variances in measures of child body composition (BMI, percent body fat, and parental perception of child weight). In an ethnically and economically diverse sample of 243 children aged 4-6years old and their biological parents (89% biological mothers, 8% biological fathers, and 3% step or grand-parent), descriptive statistics indicate ethnic and family income differences in measures of feeding practices and child body composition. Additionally, the two "objective" indices of body composition (BMI and percent body fat) were related to low pressure to eat, whereas the "subjective" index (perceived child weight) was related to restriction. Regression analyses accounting for ethnic and family income influences indicate that pressure to eat and restriction both explained unique variances in the two "objective" indices of body composition, whereas only restriction explained variance in perceived child weight. Findings have implications for helping parents learn about feeding practices that promote children's self-regulation of eating that simultaneously serves as an obesity prevention strategy.

  12. Relationships between postweaning residual feed intake in heifers and forage use, body composition, feeding behavior, physical activity, and heart rate of pregnant beef females.

    PubMed

    Hafla, A N; Carstens, G E; Forbes, T D A; Tedeschi, L O; Bailey, J C; Walter, J T; Johnson, J R

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if residual feed intake (RFI) classification of beef heifers affected efficiency of forage utilization, body composition, feeding behavior, heart rate, and physical activity of pregnant females. Residual feed intake was measured in growing Bonsmara heifers for 2 yr (n=62 and 53/yr), and heifers with the lowest (n=12/yr) and highest (n=12/yr) RFI were retained for breeding. Of the 48 heifers identified as having divergent RFI, 19 second-parity and 23 first-parity females were used in the subsequent pregnant-female trial. Pregnant females were fed a chopped hay diet (ME=2.11 Mcal kg(-1) DM) in separate pens equipped with GrowSafe bunks to measure individual intake and feeding behavior. Body weights were measured at 7-d intervals and BCS and ultrasound measurements of 12th-rib fat depth, rump fat depth, and LM area obtained on d 0 and 77. Heart rate and physical activity were measured for 7 consecutive d. First-parity females had lower (P<0.05) initial BW, BW gain, and initial hip height and tended (P=0.07) to have lower DMI compared to second-parity females. Females with low RFI as heifers consumed 17% less (P<0.01) forage compared to females with high RFI as heifers but maintained the same BW, BW gain, and body composition. Likewise, RFI classification did not affect calving date. An interaction (P=0.04) between heifer RFI classification and parity was found for calf birth weight. Calves from first-parity low-RFI females were lighter at birth (P<0.01) than calves from high-RFI females, but RFI classification did not affect BW of calves born to second-parity females. Residual feed intake classification did not affect bunk visit frequency, but low-RFI females spent 26% less time (P<0.01) at the bunk compared to high-RFI females. First-parity females had more (P<0.05) daily step counts and greater lying-bout frequencies compared to second-parity females, but physical activity was not affected by RFI classification. Heart

  13. Waste feed from coastal fish farms: A trophic subsidy with compositional side-effects for wild gadoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Jover, Damian; Martinez-Rubio, Laura; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Bayle-Sempere, Just T.; Lopez Jimenez, Jose Angel; Martínez Lopez, Francisco Javier; Bjørn, Pål-Arne; Uglem, Ingebrigt; Dempster, Tim

    2011-03-01

    Aquaculture of carnivorous fish species in sea-cages typically uses artificial feeds, with a proportion of these feeds lost to the surrounding environment. This lost resource may provide a trophic subsidy to wild fish in the vicinity of fish farms, yet the physiological consequences of the consumption of waste feed by wild fish remain unclear. In two regions in Norway with intensive aquaculture, we tested whether wild saithe ( Pollachius virens) and Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) associated with fish farms (F assoc), where waste feed is readily available, had modified diets, condition and fatty acid (FA) compositions in their muscle and liver tissues compared to fish unassociated (UA) with farms. Stomach content analyses revealed that both cod and saithe consumed waste feed in the vicinity of farms (6-96% of their diet was composed of food pellets). This translated into elevated body and liver condition compared to fish caught distant from farms for cod at both locations and elevated body condition for saithe at one of the locations. As a consequence of a modified diet, we detected significantly increased concentrations of terrestrial-derived fatty acids (FAs) such as linoleic (18:2ω6) and oleic (18:1ω9) acids and decreased concentrations of DHA (22:6ω3) in the muscle and/or liver of F assoc cod and saithe when compared with UA fish. In addition, the ω3:ω6 ratio clearly differed between F assoc and UA fish. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) correctly classified 97% of fish into F assoc or UA origin for both cod and saithe based on the FA composition of liver tissues, and 89% of cod and 86% of saithe into F assoc or UA origin based on the FA composition of muscle. Thus, LDA appears a useful tool for detecting the influence of fish farms on the FA composition of wild fish. Ready availability of waste feed with high protein and fat content provides a clear trophic subsidy to wild fish in coastal waters, yet whether the accompanying side-effect of altered fatty

  14. Breeder age affects small intestine development of broiler chicks with immediate or delayed access to feed.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, K Z; Edens, F W

    2012-01-01

    1. The relationship between breeder age and chick gastrointestinal tract development to 21 days of age, as influenced by immediate or delayed access to feed, was examined in three consecutive trials. 2. Ross 708 chicks, derived from breeder flocks at 31 (young), 40 (middle) and 63 (old) weeks of age were placed randomly into either a control group with immediate access to feed and water, or a 48 h feed delayed (FD) group with free access to water. 3. FD negatively affected body weight (BW) of chicks derived from young and old flocks through the first and second weeks of age, respectively. Chicks from the older flock absorbed more yolk in the first 48 h with no FD effect. When feed was made available, chicks from the FD group showed a large increase in small intestine weight relative to BW, surpassing (P < 0·05) the control groups across all breeder flock ages. 4. Morphological measurements in all intestinal sections had higher values in chicks derived from the middle age breeder flock. FD to newly hatched chicks from the young breeder flock shortened villi (P < 0·01), decreased crypt depth and villus surface area (P < 0·001) in the duodenum through the first week post hatch. 5. Crypt depths were maximised between 7 and 14 d post-hatch in chicks from young and old breeder flocks, but crypt depths in chicks from the middle aged flocks continued to deepen. 6. The increased crypt depth may augment the number of enterocytes available for villus growth, and facilitate longer villi and greater villus surface area, in chicks from the middle age flocks. Intestinal morphological variation was associated with breeder flock age, which accounted for differential growth in chicks derived from young, middle, and old aged breeder flocks.

  15. Sitona lineatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Larval Feeding on Pisum sativum L. Affects Soil and Plant Nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Cárcamo, Héctor A; Herle, Carolyn E; Lupwayi, Newton Z

    2015-01-01

    Adults of Sitona lineatus (pea leaf weevil, PLW) feed on foliage of several Fabaceae species but larvae prefer to feed on nodules of Pisum sativum L. and Vicia faba L. Indirectly, through their feeding on rhizobia, weevils can reduce soil and plant available nitrogen (N). However, initial soil N can reduce nodulation and damage by the weevil and reduce control requirements. Understanding these interactions is necessary to make integrated pest management recommendations for PLW. We conducted a greenhouse study to quantify nodulation, soil and plant N content, and nodule damage by weevil larvae in relation to soil N amendment with urea, thiamethoxam insecticide seed coating and crop stage. PLWs reduced the number of older tumescent (multilobed) nodules and thiamethoxam addition increased them regardless of other factors. Nitrogen amendment significantly increased soil available N (>99% nitrate) as expected and PLW presence was associated with significantly lower levels of soil N. PLW decreased plant N content at early flower and thiamethoxam increased it, particularly at late flower. The study illustrated the complexity of interactions that determine insect herbivory effects on plant and soil nutrition for invertebrates that feed on N-fixing root nodules. We conclude that effects of PLW on nodulation and subsequent effects on plant nitrogen are more pronounced during the early growth stages of the plant. This suggests the importance of timing of PLW infestation and may explain the lack of yield depression in relation to this pest observed in many field studies. Also, pea crops in soils with high levels of soil N are unlikely to be affected by this herbivore and should not require insecticide inputs.

  16. Sitona lineatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Larval Feeding on Pisum sativum L. Affects Soil and Plant Nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Cárcamo, Héctor A.; Herle, Carolyn E.; Lupwayi, Newton Z.

    2015-01-01

    Adults of Sitona lineatus (pea leaf weevil, PLW) feed on foliage of several Fabaceae species but larvae prefer to feed on nodules of Pisum sativum L. and Vicia faba L. Indirectly, through their feeding on rhizobia, weevils can reduce soil and plant available nitrogen (N). However, initial soil N can reduce nodulation and damage by the weevil and reduce control requirements. Understanding these interactions is necessary to make integrated pest management recommendations for PLW. We conducted a greenhouse study to quantify nodulation, soil and plant N content, and nodule damage by weevil larvae in relation to soil N amendment with urea, thiamethoxam insecticide seed coating and crop stage. PLWs reduced the number of older tumescent (multilobed) nodules and thiamethoxam addition increased them regardless of other factors. Nitrogen amendment significantly increased soil available N (>99% nitrate) as expected and PLW presence was associated with significantly lower levels of soil N. PLW decreased plant N content at early flower and thiamethoxam increased it, particularly at late flower. The study illustrated the complexity of interactions that determine insect herbivory effects on plant and soil nutrition for invertebrates that feed on N-fixing root nodules. We conclude that effects of PLW on nodulation and subsequent effects on plant nitrogen are more pronounced during the early growth stages of the plant. This suggests the importance of timing of PLW infestation and may explain the lack of yield depression in relation to this pest observed in many field studies. Also, pea crops in soils with high levels of soil N are unlikely to be affected by this herbivore and should not require insecticide inputs. PMID:26106086

  17. Population dynamics of anaerobic microbial consortia in thermophilic granular sludge in response to feed composition change.

    PubMed

    Syutsubo, K; Sinthurat, N; Ohashi, A; Harada, H

    2001-01-01

    A thermophilic UASB reactor was operated at 55 degrees C for greater than 470 days in order to investigate the effects of feed composition on the changes in microbial community structure where thermophilic granular sludge was used as the inoculum source. The feed compositions were changed with cultivation days; phase 1 (1-70 days), alcohol distillery wastewater; phase 2 (71-281 days), artificial acetate wastewater; phase 3 (282-474 days), artificial sucrose wastewater. During the first one month of each phase, the methanogenic activity and cell density of methanogens quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) drastically changed as a result of shift in feed composition. When artificial acetate wastewater was used as feed, retained granular sludge was partially disintegrated due to a decrease in the number of symbiotic bacterial community members: acetogens (acidogens) and hydrogenotrophic methanogens. In contrast, when the feed was shifted to sucrose (phase 3), granulation of biomass was promoted by a remarkable proliferation of the symbiotic community. The presence of hydrogen-utilizing methanogens and acetogens (acidogens) are shown to be effective for the enhancement of thermophilic granulation. The cell density of methanogens determined by FISH was strongly correlated with the methane-producing potential of the retained thermophilic granular sludge.

  18. Herbivore-induced maize leaf volatiles affect attraction and feeding behavior of Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars.

    PubMed

    von Mérey, Georg E; Veyrat, Nathalie; D'Alessandro, Marco; Turlings, Ted C J

    2013-01-01

    Plants under herbivore attack emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can serve as foraging cues for natural enemies. Adult females of Lepidoptera, when foraging for host plants to deposit eggs, are commonly repelled by herbivore-induced VOCs, probably to avoid competition and natural enemies. Their larval stages, on the other hand, have been shown to be attracted to inducible VOCs. We speculate that this contradicting behavior of lepidopteran larvae is due to a need to quickly find a new suitable host plant if they have fallen to the ground. However, once they are on a plant they might avoid the sites with fresh damage to limit competition and risk of cannibalism by conspecifics, as well as exposure to natural enemies. To test this we studied the effect of herbivore-induced VOCs on the attraction of larvae of the moth Spodoptera littoralis and on their feeding behavior. The experiments further considered the importance of previous feeding experience on the responses of the larvae. It was confirmed that herbivore-induced VOCs emitted by maize plants are attractive to the larvae, but exposure to the volatiles decreased the growth rate of caterpillars at early developmental stages. Larvae that had fed on maize previously were more attracted by VOCs of induced maize than larvae that had fed on artificial diet. At relatively high concentrations synthetic green leaf volatiles, indicative of fresh damage, also negatively affected the growth rate of caterpillars, but not at low concentrations. In all cases, feeding by the later stages of the larvae was not affected by the VOCs. The results are discussed in the context of larval foraging behavior under natural conditions, where there may be a trade-off between using available host plant signals and avoiding competitors and natural enemies.

  19. Quantitative trait loci with effects on feed efficiency traits in Hereford x composite double backcross populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two half-sib families of backcross progeny were produced by mating F1 Line 1 Hereford (L1) x composite gene combination (CGC) bulls with L1 and CGC cows. Feed intake and periodic weights were measured for 218 backcross progeny. These progeny were genotyped using 232 microsatellite markers that spann...

  20. An Analysis of Team Composition as It Affects Simulation Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnakumar, Parameswar; Chisholm, Thomas Alexander

    This study investigated the extent to which sex composition and average team academic achievement of student simulation teams affect team effectiveness. Seventy-four students in two sections of a marketing principles class were divided into 20 teams to test their decision-making skills. For 10 weeks, each team operated a simulated supermarket…

  1. Effects of concentration and composition of wet corn gluten feed in steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Macken, C N; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Stock, R A

    2004-09-01

    Two finishing experiments were conducted to determine the effects of concentration (Exp. 1) and composition of wet corn gluten feed (Exp. 2) in steam-flaked corn-based diets on feedlot steer performance. In Exp. 1, 192 English x Continental crossbred steer calves (299 +/- 0.6 kg) were used in a completely randomized design with six dietary treatments (four pens per treatment). Treatments were six concentrations of wet corn gluten feed (Sweet Bran, Cargill Inc., Blair, NE; 0, 10, 20, 25, 30, and 35%) replacing steam-flaked corn (DM basis). All diets contained 10% corn silage, 5% supplement, and 3.5% tallow (DM basis). Gain efficiency and ADG were similar (P > 0.25) among treatments. Dry matter intake was lower (P < 0.10) with 0% wet corn gluten feed than with concentrations of 20, 25, and 35% WCGF. Dry matter intake did not differ among treatments containing wet corn gluten feed. In Exp. 2, 160 English x Continental crossbred steer calves (315 +/- 0.6 kg) were used in a completely randomized design with five dietary treatments (four pens/treatment). Treatments were assigned based on four ratios of steep to corn bran/germ meal mix in wet corn gluten feed plus a negative control (CON). Wet corn gluten feed was fed at 25% of the dietary DM and was made by mixing steep and corn bran/germ meal into the diet. The four concentrations of steep in wet corn gluten feed that comprised the ratios were 37.5, 41.7, 45.8, and 50% (DM basis), with the remaining proportion being the bran/germ meal mix. Bran/germ meal mix was comprised of 60% dry corn bran, 24% germ meal, and 16% fine-cracked corn (DM basis). All diets contained 10% corn silage, 5% supplement, and 3.5% tallow (DM basis). Daily gain did not differ (P = 0.18) among treatments. Gain efficiency did not differ between CON and 50% steep; however, G:F was decreased (P < 0.05) for concentrations of 37.5, 41.7, and 45.8% steep compared with CON. A linear improvement (P < 0.05) was observed for G:F as concentration of steep

  2. Phyllostomid bat microbiome composition is associated to host phylogeny and feeding strategies.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Araujo, Mario; Taş, Neslihan; Alcántara-Hernández, Rocio J; Gaona, Osiris; Schondube, Jorge E; Medellín, Rodrigo A; Jansson, Janet K; Falcón, Luisa I

    2015-01-01

    The members of the Phyllostomidae, the New-World leaf-nosed family of bats, show a remarkable evolutionary diversification of dietary strategies including insectivory, as the ancestral trait, followed by appearance of carnivory and plant-based diets such as nectarivory and frugivory. Here we explore the microbiome composition of different feeding specialists: insectivore Macrotus waterhousii, sanguivore Desmodus rotundus, nectarivores Leptonycteris yerbabuenae and Glossophaga soricina, and frugivores Carollia perspicillata and Artibeus jamaicensis. The V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene from three intestinal regions of three individuals per species was amplified and community composition and structure was analyzed with α and β diversity metrics. Bats with plant-based diets had low diversity microbiomes, whereas the sanguivore D. rotundus and insectivore M. waterhousii had the most diverse microbiomes. There were no significant differences in microbiome composition between different intestine regions within each individual. Plant-based feeders showed less specificity in their microbiome compositions, whereas animal-based specialists, although more diverse overall, showed a more clustered arrangement of their intestinal bacterial components. The main characteristics defining microbiome composition in phyllostomids were species and feeding strategy. This study shows how differences in feeding strategies contributed to the development of different intestinal microbiomes in Phyllostomidae.

  3. Phyllostomid bat microbiome composition is associated to host phylogeny and feeding strategies

    DOE PAGES

    Carrillo-Araujo, Mario; Taş, Neslihan; Alcántara-Hernández, Rocio J.; ...

    2015-05-19

    The members of the Phyllostomidae, the New-World leaf-nosed family of bats, show a remarkable evolutionary diversification of dietary strategies including insectivory, as the ancestral trait, followed by appearance of carnivory and plant-based diets such as nectarivory and frugivory. Here we explore the microbiome composition of different feeding specialists: insectivore Macrotus waterhousii, sanguivore Desmodus rotundus, nectarivores Leptonycteris yerbabuenae and Glossophaga soricina, and frugivores Carollia perspicillata and Artibeus jamaicensis. The V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene from three intestinal regions of three individuals per species was amplified and community composition and structure was analyzed with α and β diversity metrics. Batsmore » with plant-based diets had low diversity microbiomes, whereas the sanguivore D. rotundus and insectivore M. waterhousii had the most diverse microbiomes. There were no significant differences in microbiome composition between different intestine regions within each individual. Plant-based feeders showed less specificity in their microbiome compositions, whereas animal-based specialists, although more diverse overall, showed a more clustered arrangement of their intestinal bacterial components. The main characteristics defining microbiome composition in phyllostomids were species and feeding strategy. This study shows how differences in feeding strategies contributed to the development of different intestinal microbiomes in Phyllostomidae.« less

  4. Phyllostomid bat microbiome composition is associated to host phylogeny and feeding strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Carrillo-Araujo, Mario; Taş, Neslihan; Alcántara-Hernández, Rocio J.; Gaona, Osiris; Schondube, Jorge E.; Medellín, Rodrigo A.; Jansson, Janet K.; Falcón, Luisa I.

    2015-05-19

    The members of the Phyllostomidae, the New-World leaf-nosed family of bats, show a remarkable evolutionary diversification of dietary strategies including insectivory, as the ancestral trait, followed by appearance of carnivory and plant-based diets such as nectarivory and frugivory. Here we explore the microbiome composition of different feeding specialists: insectivore Macrotus waterhousii, sanguivore Desmodus rotundus, nectarivores Leptonycteris yerbabuenae and Glossophaga soricina, and frugivores Carollia perspicillata and Artibeus jamaicensis. The V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene from three intestinal regions of three individuals per species was amplified and community composition and structure was analyzed with α and β diversity metrics. Bats with plant-based diets had low diversity microbiomes, whereas the sanguivore D. rotundus and insectivore M. waterhousii had the most diverse microbiomes. There were no significant differences in microbiome composition between different intestine regions within each individual. Plant-based feeders showed less specificity in their microbiome compositions, whereas animal-based specialists, although more diverse overall, showed a more clustered arrangement of their intestinal bacterial components. The main characteristics defining microbiome composition in phyllostomids were species and feeding strategy. This study shows how differences in feeding strategies contributed to the development of different intestinal microbiomes in Phyllostomidae.

  5. Phyllostomid bat microbiome composition is associated to host phylogeny and feeding strategies

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo-Araujo, Mario; Taş, Neslihan; Alcántara-Hernández, Rocio J.; Gaona, Osiris; Schondube, Jorge E.; Medellín, Rodrigo A.; Jansson, Janet K.; Falcón, Luisa I.

    2015-01-01

    The members of the Phyllostomidae, the New-World leaf-nosed family of bats, show a remarkable evolutionary diversification of dietary strategies including insectivory, as the ancestral trait, followed by appearance of carnivory and plant-based diets such as nectarivory and frugivory. Here we explore the microbiome composition of different feeding specialists: insectivore Macrotus waterhousii, sanguivore Desmodus rotundus, nectarivores Leptonycteris yerbabuenae and Glossophaga soricina, and frugivores Carollia perspicillata and Artibeus jamaicensis. The V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene from three intestinal regions of three individuals per species was amplified and community composition and structure was analyzed with α and β diversity metrics. Bats with plant-based diets had low diversity microbiomes, whereas the sanguivore D. rotundus and insectivore M. waterhousii had the most diverse microbiomes. There were no significant differences in microbiome composition between different intestine regions within each individual. Plant-based feeders showed less specificity in their microbiome compositions, whereas animal-based specialists, although more diverse overall, showed a more clustered arrangement of their intestinal bacterial components. The main characteristics defining microbiome composition in phyllostomids were species and feeding strategy. This study shows how differences in feeding strategies contributed to the development of different intestinal microbiomes in Phyllostomidae. PMID:26042099

  6. Fungal composition on leaves explains pollutant-mediated indirect effects on amphipod feeding.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Zubrod, Jochen P; Kosol, Sujitra; Maltby, Lorraine; Stang, Christoph; Duester, Lars; Schulz, Ralf

    2011-07-01

    The energy stored in coarse particulate organic matter, e.g. leaf litter, is released to aquatic ecosystems by breakdown processes involving microorganisms and leaf shredding invertebrates. The palatability of leaves and thus the feeding of shredders on leaf material are highly influenced by microorganisms. However, implications in the colonization of leaves by microorganisms (=conditioning) caused by chemical stressors are rarely studied. Our laboratory experiments, therefore, investigated for the first time effects of a fungicide on the conditioning process of leaf material by means of food-choice experiments using Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Additionally, microbial analyses were conducted to facilitate the mechanistic understanding of the observed behavior. Gammarids significantly preferred control leaf discs over those conditioned in presence of the fungicide tebuconazole at concentrations of 50 and 500 μg/L. Besides the decrease of fungal biomass with increasing fungicide concentration, also the leaf associated fungal community composition showed that species preferred by gammarids, such as Alatospora acumunata, Clavariopsis aquatica, or Flagellospora curvula, were more frequent in the control. Tetracladium marchalianum, however, which is rejected by gammarids, was abundant in all treatments suggesting an increasing importance of this species for the lower leaf palatability--as other more palatable fungal species were almost absent--in the fungicide treatments. Hence, the food-choice behavior of G. fossarum seems to be a suitable indicator for alterations in leaf associated microbial communities, especially fungal species composition, caused by chemical stressors. Finally, this or similar test systems may be a reasonable supplement to the environmental risk assessment of chemicals in order to achieve its protection goals, as on the one hand, indirect effects may occur far below concentrations known to affect gammarids directly, and on the other

  7. Body composition and compensatory growth in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus under different feeding intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yang; Wang, Ziwei; Hur, Jun-wook; Lee, Jeong-Yeol

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the growth and body composition of Nile tilapia under five different feeding regimes. A control group was fed to satiation twice daily for 185 days; four treatment groups were fed at intervals of 2, 3, 4 or 7 days (dietary `restricted' period, days 0-80) and then fed to satiation (`refeeding' period, days 80-185). Compensatory growth in weight and length of the feed-restricted groups was observed during the refeeding period. However, the growth of none of the restricted groups caught up with that of the control group over the experimental period. Feed intake upon refeeding increased with the duration of deprivation. There were no significant differences in feed efficiency between the restricted and control groups during the refeeding stage, suggesting that hyperphagia was the mechanism responsible for the increased growth rates during this period. Tilapia preferentially used n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and nonessential amino acids during the restricted-feeding period. Higher production was achieved by higher feed consumption. We suggest that if attainment of market size in minimum time is required, fish should be consistently fed to satiation, while taking care to avoid the possible negative consequences of overfeeding.

  8. Is rumen development in newborn calves affected by different liquid feeds and small intestine development?

    PubMed

    Górka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Pietrzak, P; Kotunia, A; Jagusiak, W; Zabielski, R

    2011-06-01

    fed MR. Significant positive Pearson correlations were found between small intestine and reticulorumen weights as well as between activity of brush border lactase, maltase, aminopeptidase A, and aminopeptidase N and reticulorumen weight. Different liquid feeds affect small intestine development, animal growth, solid feed intake and metabolic status of calves and this effect can indirectly influence the development of forestomachs.

  9. Early feeding affects resistance against cold exposure in young broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, H; Molenaar, R; van der Star, I; Meijerhof, R

    2010-04-01

    In field conditions, a fasting period of 24 to 72 h after hatch is common, which is associated with delayed gastrointestinal development and yolk utilization and retarded subsequent performance. Hardly any information is available about the influence of diet composition in the first days on later life and additionally, effects of early feeding on thermoregulatory development are also not known. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of diet composition in early fed broiler chickens on their (thermoregulatory) development. Shortly after hatch, 200 Hybro chickens (initial BW of 43.6 g) were assigned to 1 of 5 feed treatments: control, dextrose, albumen, prestarter, or prestarter plus fat. Water was available ad libitum. Measurements were done in 10 replicates of 4 chickens per treatment. At d 2 or 3, half of the chickens were exposed to 20 degrees C for 30 min to determine resistance against cold exposure and rectal temperature was determined just before, immediately after, and 30 min after the end of this cold exposure. Thereafter, all chickens were killed to investigate body development. Chickens in both prestarter groups developed faster than in the other 3 groups, expressed by a higher BW, yolk-free body mass, heart and liver weight, and higher chick and intestine length. Between d 2 and 3, differences in these variables among chickens from both prestarter groups and other groups increased. Rectal temperature before cold exposure was higher in chickens from both prestarter groups (40.6 and 40.7 degrees C, respectively) and decreased less (0.6 and 0.7 degrees C, respectively) during cold exposure than in chickens from the control (39.5 and 1.2 degrees C, respectively) and albumen group (39.8 and 2.1 degrees C, respectively), whereas chickens from the dextrose group were in between (40.4 and 1.2 degrees C, respectively). We conclude that early fed diet composition in broiler chickens is (besides general development) important for development of both body

  10. Feeding behaviour of an intertidal snail: Does past environmental stress affect predator choices and prey vulnerability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gestoso, Ignacio; Arenas, Francisco; Olabarria, Celia

    2015-03-01

    Predation is one of the most important factors in determining structure and dynamics of communities on intertidal rocky shores. Such regulatory role may be of special relevance in novel communities resulting from biological invasions. Non-indigenous species frequently escape natural predators that limit their distribution and abundance in the native range. However, biological interactions also can limit the establishment and spread of non-native populations. There is a growing concern that climate change might affect predator-prey interactions exacerbating the ecological impacts of non-indigenous species. However, mechanisms underlying such interactions are poorly understood in marine ecosystems. Here, we explored if past environmental stress, i.e., increasing temperature and decreasing pH, could affect the vulnerability of two mussel prey, the native Mytilus galloprovincialis and the non-indigenous Xenostrobus securis, to predation by the native dogwhelk Nucella lapillus. In addition, we evaluated the consequences on the feeding behaviour of N. lapillus. First, we exposed monospecific assemblages of each mussel species to combined experimental conditions of increasing temperature and decreasing pH in mesocosms for 3 weeks. Then assemblages were placed on a rocky shore and were enclosed in cages with dogwhelks where they remained for 3 weeks. Despite the lack of preference, consumption was much greater on the native than on the invasive mussels, which barely were consumed by dogwhelks. However, this trend was diverted when temperature increased. Thus, under a coastal warming scenario shifts in dogwhelks feeding behaviour may help to contain invader's populations, especially in estuarine areas where these predators are abundant.

  11. Does a mother singing to her premature baby affect feeding in the neonatal intensive care unit?

    PubMed

    Blumenfeld, Hugh; Eisenfeld, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that premature neonates exposed to music have reduced symptoms of stress, faster weight gain, and shorter neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stays. This pilot study attempted to measure contingent effects of mothers' singing during feedings. Mothers sang to their babies during 2 of 4 feedings on 2 consecutive days, logging songs they sang, and subjectively evaluating each feeding. Infants' heart and respiration rates were recorded as well as duration of feeding and volume of fluid taken orally; feeding velocity and percent of feeding goal were calculated. In paired t tests, no significant benefits or deterrents assignable to the singing were observed.

  12. Does Mutual Interference Affect the Feeding Rate of Aphidophagous Coccinellids? A Modeling Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Papanikolaou, Nikos E.; Demiris, Nikos; Milonas, Panagiotis G.; Preston, Simon; Kypraios, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    Mutual interference involves direct interactions between individuals of the same species that may alter their foraging success. Larvae of aphidophagous coccinellids typically stay within a patch during their lifetime, displaying remarkable aggregation to their prey. Thus, as larvae are exposed to each other, frequent encounters may affect their foraging success. A study was initiated in order to determine the effect of mutual interference in the coccinellids’ feeding rate. One to four 4th larval instars of the fourteen-spotted ladybird beetle Propylea quatuordecimpunctata were exposed for 6 hours into plastic containers with different densities of the black bean aphid, Aphis fabae, on potted Vicia faba plants. The data were used to fit a purely prey-dependent Holling type II model and its alternatives which account for interference competition and have thus far been underutilized, i.e. the Beddington-DeAngelis, the Crowley-Martin and a modified Hassell-Varley model. The Crowley-Martin mechanistic model appeared to be slightly better among the competing models. The results showed that although the feeding rate became approximately independent of predator density at high prey density, some predator dependence in the coccinellid’s functional response was observed at the low prey—high predator density combination. It appears that at low prey densities, digestion breaks are negligible so that the predators do waste time interfering with each other, whereas at high prey densities time loss during digestion breaks may fully accommodate the cost of interference, so that the time cost may be negligible. PMID:26756980

  13. The impact of daily multiphase feeding on animal performance, body composition, nitrogen and phosphorus excretions, and feed costs in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Pomar, C; Pomar, J; Dubeau, F; Joannopoulos, E; Dussault, J-P

    2014-05-01

    The effect of feeding pigs in a three-phase feeding (3PF) system or a daily-phase feeding (DPF) system on growth performance, body composition, and N and P excretions was studied on 8 pens of 10 pigs each. Feeds for the 3PF and DPF treatments were obtained by mixing two feeds, one with a high nutrient concentration and the other with a low nutrient concentration. The DPF pigs tended (P=0.08) to consume more feed (+3.7%) than the 3PF pigs, but only during the first feeding phase. The DPF pigs consumed 7.3% less protein (P<0.01) but a similar amount of total P. For the whole growing period, the DPF pigs tended (P=0.08) to gain more weight (+2.4%) than the 3PF pigs, mainly because of faster growth (P=0.02) during the first feeding period. At the end of the experiment, total body protein mass was similar in the two treatment groups, but the DPF pigs had 8% more body lipids (P=0.04) than the 3PF pigs. Daily multiphase feeding reduced N excretion by 12% (P<0.01) but did not significantly reduce P excretion. In addition, feed costs, nutrient intake and nutrient excretion under the two feeding strategies were simulated and compared after different approaches were used to formulate complete feeds for each phase of the 3PF system, as well as the two feeds used in the DPF program. Simulated feed intake and growth was similar to those observed in the animal experiment. In comparison with the simulated 3PF system, the feed cost for the DPF pigs was reduced by 1.0%, the simulated N and P intakes were reduced by 7.3% and 4.4%, respectively, and the expected N and P excretions were reduced by 12.6% and 6.6%, respectively. The concomitant adjustment of the dietary concentration of nutrients to match the evaluated requirements of pig populations can be an efficient approach to significantly reduce feeding costs and N and P excretions in pig production systems.

  14. Partitioning variation in nutrient composition data of common feeds and mixed diets on commercial dairy farms.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, N R; Weiss, W P

    2015-07-01

    A large project involving commercial dairy farms was undertaken to identify important sources of variation in composition data of common feeds and mixed diets. This information is needed to develop appropriate sampling schedules for feeds and should reduce the uncertainty associated with the nutrient composition of delivered diets. The first subproject quantified sources of variation in the composition of corn and haycrop silages over a 2-wk period. Silages from 11 commercial dairy farms in Ohio and Vermont were sampled daily over a 14-d period. Most silages were sampled in duplicate each day, and all samples were assayed in duplicate. Total variance was partitioned into analytical, sampling, farm, and true day-to-day components. Farm was the largest source of variation, but within-farm variance was our primary interest. Sampling variance comprised 30 to 81% of within-farm variance depending on nutrient and type of silage. For dry matter, true day-to-day variation was the greatest source of variance, but for most other nutrients, sampling was the largest source of within-farm variation. The second subproject consisted of sampling feeds and total mixed rations (TMR) from 47 commercial dairy farms across the United States. Feeds and TMR were sampled monthly. Because samples were not assayed in duplicate, source of variation included farm, month, and residual (sampling plus analytical). For corn and alfalfa silages, month-to-month variation over a 12-mo period comprised about twice as much of the total within-farm variation as did day-to-day variation over a 14-d period in the first subproject. Although month-to-month variation was greater than sampling variation, sampling still accounted for 9 to 37% of the total within-farm variance for those 2 feeds. For TMR, sampling plus analytical variance accounted for approximately 40 to 70% of the total within-farm variance (depending on the nutrient). Variance components were estimated for several nutrients and for several

  15. Body composition and feed intake of reproducing and growing mice divergently selected for heat loss.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, A S; Nielsen, M K

    2014-05-01

    Changes in maintenance energy requirements and in feed efficiency have been achieved by divergent selection for heat loss in mice in 3 replicates, creating high heat loss, high maintenance (MH) and low heat loss, low maintenance (ML) lines and an unselected control (MC). However, feed intake has mainly been measured in mature animals and not during growth or reproduction. Additionally, there is evidence that reducing maintenance energy will increase fat content, an undesirable result. To evaluate if selection has altered body composition and lifecycle feed intake, mating pairs were continuously mated and maintained for up to 1 yr unless culled. Offspring pairs were sampled from each line at each parity and maintained from 21 to 49 d of age. Feed intake was recorded for mating pairs throughout the year and on offspring pairs. Body weight was recorded on all animals at culling as well as percent fat, total fat, and total lean, measured by dual X-ray densitometry. Average daily gain was also recorded for offspring. Energy partitioning was achieved using 2 approaches: Approach I regressed energy intake of the pair on sum of daily metabolic weight and total gain to obtain maintenance (bm) and growth (bg) coefficients for each line, replicate, feeding period, and sex (offspring pairs only); Approach II calculated bm for each pair assuming constant energy values for lean and fat gain. Energy coefficients and body composition traits were evaluated for effect of selection (MH vs. ML) and asymmetry of selection ([MH + ML]/2 vs. MC). Both MC mating and offspring pairs tended to have greater BW than the average of the selection lines (P < 0.08). Males of offspring pairs weighed more than females (P < 0.01), while females of mating pairs weighed more than males (P < 0.01). Line was insignificant (P > 0.15) for body composition traits. Using Approach I, MH mice had a greater bm than ML mice for mating pairs (P = 0.03) but not offspring pairs (P = 0.50). For Approach II, MH had a

  16. Intramammary infusion of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide negatively affects feed intake, chewing, and clinical variables, but some effects are stronger in cows experiencing subacute rumen acidosis.

    PubMed

    Aditya, S; Humer, E; Pourazad, P; Khiaosa-Ard, R; Huber, J; Zebeli, Q

    2017-02-01

    somatic cell counts, protein, and fat contents in milk as well as decreased lactose contents and pH following the LPS infusion, whereby the changes in milk constituents were more pronounced in SARA-LPS than CON-LPS cows. Rectal temperature and pulse rate were highest 6 h after LPS infusion, but rumen contractions were not affected by the LPS infusion. The data suggest that a single intramammary LPS infusion induced fever and negatively affected feed intake, chewing activity, rectal temperature, and milk yield and composition, whereby these effects were more pronounced in SARA cows.

  17. Effects of Dietary Garlic Powder on Growth, Feed Utilization and Whole Body Composition Changes in Fingerling Sterlet Sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lim, Seong-Ryul; Han, Jung-Jo; Lee, Sang-Woo; Ra, Chang-Six; Kim, Jeong-Dae

    2014-01-01

    A 12 week growth study was carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic powder (GP) on growth, feed utilization and whole body composition changes of fingerling sterlet sturgeon Acipenser ruthenus (averaging weight, 5.5 g). Following a 24-h fasting, 540 fish were randomly distributed to each of 18 tanks (30 fish/tank) under a semi-recirculation freshwater system. The GP of 0.5% (GP0.5), 1% (GP1), 1.5% (GP1.5), 2% (GP2) and 3% (GP3) was added to the control diet (GP0) containing 43% protein and 16% lipid. After the feeding trial, weight gain (WG) of fish fed GP1.5, GP2 and GP3 were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of fish fed GP0, GP0.5 and GP1. Feed efficiency and specific growth rate (SGR) showed a similar trend to WG. Protein efficiency ratio of fish fed GP1.5, GP2, and GP3 were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of fish groups fed the other diets. A significant difference (p<0.05) was found in whole body composition (moisture, crude protein, crude lipid, ash, and fiber) of fish at the end of the experiment. Significantly higher (p<0.05) protein and lipid retention efficiencies (PRE and LRE) were also found in GP1.5, GP2, and GP3 groups. Broken-line regression model analysis and second order polynomial regression model analysis relation on the basis of SGR and WG indicated that the dietary optimal GP level could be greater than 1.77% and 1.79%, but less than 2.95% and 3.18% in fingerling sterlet sturgeon. The present study suggested that dietary GP for fingerling sterlet sturgeon could positively affect growth performance and protein retention. PMID:25178374

  18. Milk composition and flavor under different feeding systems: a survey of dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Yayota, M; Tsukamoto, M; Yamada, Y; Ohtani, S

    2013-08-01

    Understanding the influence of regional dietary factors on the flavors of milk and dairy products will provide consumers with more options and promote the conservation of regional resources and the original terroir. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of regional differences in feeding systems on the composition, fatty acid content, and flavor of pasteurized milk at the farm level. Nine dairy farms using grass silage (GS), 6 farms using maize silage (MS), and 4 farms using by-products (BP) as the characteristic feed components were chosen for this survey. Fresh milk was sampled once per month from September 2008 to February 2009 at each dairy farm. The percentages of GS, MS, and BP (soybean curd residue or brewer's grain) in the feed were 32.4, 22.1, and 15.1%, respectively. The milk fat, protein, and lactose contents did not differ among the milks from farms with different feeding systems. Fatty acids with chain lengths of less than C16 and saturated fatty acids were present at higher concentrations in the milks from the GS and MS farms than in the milk from the BP farms; conversely, fatty acids with chain lengths greater than C18 and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), including mono- (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), were present at higher concentrations in the milks from the BP farms than in the milks from the GS farms. No significant differences were detected in milk flavor, evaluated as sweetness, body, texture, aftertaste, and palatability, between the milks from the farms with different feeding systems. The proportion of BP in the cow's diet was positively correlated with the concentrations of fatty acids with chain lengths greater than C18 and with UFA, MUFA, and PUFA. In contrast, the proportion of GS in the diet was positively associated with the levels of milk fat, protein, fatty acids with chain lengths less than C16, and SFA. The MUFA, PUFA, UFA, and fatty acids with chain lengths greater than C18 were not associated with

  19. Effect of feeding fresh forage and marine algae on the fatty acid composition and oxidation of milk and butter.

    PubMed

    Glover, K E; Budge, S; Rose, M; Rupasinghe, H P V; Maclaren, L; Green-Johnson, J; Fredeen, A H

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of feeding fresh forage either as pasture plus a concentrate (PAS) or as a silage-based total mixed ration (TMR), combined with either a ruminally inert lipid supplement high in saturated fatty acids (-) or a ruminally protected microalgae containing 22 g of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/100 g of fatty acids (+) on the fatty acid (FA) composition and oxidation of milk and butter. For the 8 mid-lactation Holstein cows in this study, milk yield was not significantly affected by treatment, averaging 32.3 ± 1.28 kg/d. Milk fat content was higher for PAS⁻, averaging 5.05 compared with 4.10 ± 0.17% for the mean of other treatments, and was significantly depressed with microalgae supplementation (3.97 vs. 4.69 ± 0.17%). The saturated fatty acid level in the milk of cows fed TMR⁻ was significantly higher than that of the other treatments (66.9 vs. 61.2 g/100 g of FA). The level of monounsaturated FA was lowered by feeding TMR⁻ (27.4 vs. 32.0 g/100 g of FA), whereas levels of polyunsaturated FA were elevated by feeding PAS+ compared with the mean of the other treatments (6.54 vs. 5.07 g/100 g of FA). Feeding the rumen-protected microalgae increased the DHA content of milk more than 4-fold (0.06 to 0.26 g/100g of FA) with the PAS treatment. The conjugated linoleic acid content of milk was highest for PAS+ compared with the other treatments (4.18 vs. 3.41 g/100g of FA). In general, the fatty acid composition of butter followed that of milk. Overall, feeding the TMR supplemented with the rumen-protected microalgae increased the levels of volatile products of oxidation in milk and butter. No effect of forage type or microalgae supplementation was observed on the oxidative stability or antioxidant capacity of milk, although the oxidative stability of butter exposed to UV was reduced with microalgae supplementation, particularly with TMR, as assessed by using the ferric reducing ability of plasma assay.

  20. Body chemical composition of Nellore bulls with different residual feed intakes.

    PubMed

    Bonilha, E F M; Branco, R H; Bonilha, S F M; Araujo, F L; Magnani, E; Mercadante, M E Z

    2013-07-01

    Empty body and carcass chemical compositions, expressed as content of water, ether extract, protein, minerals, and energy, were evaluated in Nellore bulls with different residual feed intakes (RFI). Forty-nine not castrated males, with 343 kg of average initial BW and 398 kg of average slaughter BW, were studied. Animals were divided in two subgroups: reference group (RG) and ad libitum feeding group. At the end of the adaptation period, animals of subgroup RG were slaughtered and the other animals were finished in individual pens for approximately 100 d, until they reached a subcutaneous fat thickness over the LM of 4 mm, and were slaughtered at an average age of 540 d. Body composition was obtained after grinding, homogenizing, sampling, analyzing, and combining blood, hide, head + feet, viscera, and carcass. Tissue deposition rates and chemical composition of gain were also measured based on gains estimated by comparative slaughter technique. No significant differences in slaughter BW (P = 0.8639), empty BW (P = 0.7288), HCW (P = 0.6563), or empty body and carcass rates of gain were observed between RFI groups, demonstrating that the low (-0.331 kg DM/d) and high (+0.325 kg DM/d) RFI animals presented similar body sizes and growth rates. No significant differences in empty body or carcass content of water, ether extract, protein, minerals, and energy were observed between the low and high RFI animals. And also there were no significant differences in empty BW or carcass gain, demonstrating that low and high RFI animals had a similar growth potential. More efficient animals (low RFI) consumed less feed than less efficient animals (high RFI) but presented similar body sizes, growth rates, and empty body and carcass chemical composition.

  1. Effects of breast-feeding compared with formula-feeding on preterm infant body composition: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pan; Zhou, Jianghua; Yin, Yanan; Jing, Wenjuan; Luo, Biru; Wang, Jiang

    2016-07-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effect of breast-feeding and formula-feeding on body composition of preterm infants. We searched the literature using PubMed, Cochrane Central Library Issue, Ovid (Medline), Embase and other resources such as Google Scholar, electronic databases and bibliographies of relevant articles; two reviewers collected and extracted data independently. All the authors assessed risk of bias independently using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). A fixed-effects meta-analysis was undertaken with RevMan 5 software (The Cochrane Collaboration) using the inverse variance method (P≥0·05; χ 2 test). In contrast, a random-effects meta-analysis was carried out. Altogether, 630 articles were identified using search strategy, and the references within retrieved articles were also assessed. A total of six studies were included in this systematic review. In formula-fed infants, fat mass was higher at term (mean difference 0·24 (95 % CI 0·17, 0·31) kg), fat-free mass was higher at 36 weeks of gestational (mean difference 0·12 (95 % CI 0·04, 0·21) kg) and the percentage of fat mass was higher at 36 weeks of gestation (mean difference 3·70 (95 % CI 1·81, 5·59) kg) compared with breast-fed infants. Compared with breast-feeding, formula-feeding is associated with altered body composition from birth to term in preterm infants. The effects of formula-feeding on preterm infant body composition from term to 12-month corrected age are inconclusive in our study. Well-designed studies are required in the future to explore the effects of formula-feeding compared with breast-feeding.

  2. Pyridine-type alkaloid composition affects bacterial community composition of floral nectar

    PubMed Central

    Aizenberg-Gershtein, Yana; Izhaki, Ido; Santhanam, Rakesh; Kumar, Pavan; Baldwin, Ian T.; Halpern, Malka

    2015-01-01

    Pyridine-type alkaloids are most common in Nicotiana species. To study the effect of alkaloid composition on bacterial community composition in floral nectar, we compared the nicotine-rich wild type (WT) N. attenuata, the nicotine biosynthesis-silenced N. attenuata that was rich in anatabine and the anabasine-rich WT N. glauca plants. We found that the composition of these secondary metabolites in the floral nectar drastically affected the bacterial community richness, diversity and composition. Significant differences were found between the bacterial community compositions in the nectar of the three plants with a much greater species richness and diversity in the nectar from the transgenic plant. The highest community composition similarity index was detected between the two wild type plants. The different microbiome composition and diversity, caused by the different pyridine-type alkaloid composition, could modify the nutritional content of the nectar and consequently, may contribute to the change in the nectar consumption and visitation. These may indirectly have an effect on plant fitness. PMID:26122961

  3. Feeding modality affects muscle protein deposition by influencing protein synthesis, but not degradation in muscle of neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neonatal pigs can serve as dual-use models for nutrition research in animal agriculture and biomedical fields. To determine how feeding modality by either intermittent bolus or continuous schedule affects protein anabolism and catabolism, neonatal pigs (n = 6/group, 9-d-old) were overnight fasted (F...

  4. Nematode community composition and feeding shaped by contrasting productivity regimes in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lins, Lidia; da Silva, Maria Cristina; Hauquier, Freija; Esteves, André Morgado; Vanreusel, Ann

    2015-05-01

    In the Southern Ocean, during the ANT-XXVIII expedition (RV Polarstern), four stations contrasting in terms of surface primary productivity were studied along the Polar Front from 39°W to 10°E. We investigated to what extent differences in surface primary productivity, together with benthic environmental parameters (concentration of Chlorophyll a and its derivatives, and sediment fatty acid composition) mirrored in nematode standing stocks (i.e. density and biomass) and differences in community composition. Moreover, nematode fatty acid (FA) analyses were performed to unravel feeding selectivity patterns on "bulk" nematodes and particular nematode taxa (Desmodora and Desmoscolecidae). South Georgia station, located NW of South Georgia island, possessed not only highest surface primary productivity, but also highest Chlorophyll a (and its derivatives) and total sediment FA concentrations, also reflected in up to 10-fold higher nematode standing stocks. FA composition from "bulk" nematodes, Desmodora and desmoscolecids revealed a planktonic-based diet, as revealed by diatom biomarkers (16:1 ω 7/16:0 > 1) for "bulk" nematodes and Desmodora from South Georgia. Nematodes at the other stations situated more to the east showed non-selectivity for fresh diatom material based on the FA composition, associated with low surface primary productivity and low labile carbon concentrations (low Chlorophyll a values) in these areas. Uncommonly found in typical deep-sea environments, the nematode genus Desmodora exhibited high numbers at South Georgia station, probably as a response to the high primary productivity at the surface, confirming the strong benthic-pelagic coupling even at great depths. This study suggests that alterations in nematode standing stocks and community composition, together with selective feeding reflected by distinct FA composition, can be positively associated and shaped by surface productivity regimes.

  5. Meal frequency changes the basal and time-course profiles of plasma nutrient concentrations and affects feed efficiency in young growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Le Naou, T; Le Floc'h, N; Louveau, I; van Milgen, J; Gondret, F

    2014-05-01

    Ingested dietary nutrients and feed energy are partitioned among tissues to sustain body growth. Based on the respective costs of the various metabolic pathways allowing use and storage of feed energy into cells, it may be theorized that daily meal frequency could affect growth, body composition or feed efficiency. This study aimed to determine the effects of daily meal frequency on nutrient partitioning, tissue metabolism and composition, and performance. Young growing pigs (30 kg BW) were offered a same amount of feed either in 2 (M2, n = 15) or 12 (M12, n = 16) meals per day during a 3-wk interventional period. Animals fed twice a day had an accelerated weight gain (+6.4%, P < 0.05) and exhibited a greater G:F (+4%, P = 0.03) than animals fed 12 meals per day during this period. Basal plasma concentrations of glucose, lactate, triglyceride, urea, and leptin were lower (P < 0.001) in M2 pigs than in M12 pigs. Meal frequency also changed (P < 0.001) the time-course profiles of plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and lactate in response to meal ingestion. A greater rise and a sharper fall in plasma glucose and insulin levels were observed in M2 pigs compared with M12 pigs. In both groups, similarities were observed in the postprandial time courses of plasma concentrations of insulin and of α-amino nitrogen (used as a measure of total AA). Despite these metabolic responses, tissue lipids, glycogen content, and enzyme activities participating in energy metabolism in muscle and liver were similar (P > 0.10) in both groups at the end of the trial. Percentage of perirenal fat in the body and depth of dorsal subcutaneous fat tissue were not affected by meal frequency, but kidney weight was lower (-18%, P < 0.001) in M2 pigs than in M12 pigs. Altogether, the less frequent daily meal intake improves the conversion of feed into weight gain, without marked modifications of tissue composition in young pigs.

  6. Effect of feed consumption levels on growth performance and carcass composition during the force-feeding period in foie gras production of male Mule ducks.

    PubMed

    Wen, Z G; Jiang, Y; Tang, J; Xie, M; Yang, P L; Hou, S S

    2016-09-01

    In order to avoid excess feed consumption during the force-feeding period in foie gras production, a dose-response experiment with seven feed consumption levels (450, 540, 630, 720, 810, 900, 990 g/day per bird) was conducted to evaluate the effects of feed consumption levels on growth performance and carcass composition of male Mule ducks from 91 to 102 days of age. One-day-old Mule ducklings (sterile and artificial hybrid of male Albatre Muscovy duck and female Pekin duck were fed a two-phase commercial diets for ad libitum intake from hatching to 91 days of age, followed by graded feeding levels of a corn diet by force-feeding from 91 to 102 days of age. Fifty-six 91-day-old male Mule ducks with similar BW were randomly assigned to seven treatments, with eight birds per treatment. Birds were housed in individual pens. At 102 days of age, final BW was measured and BW gain and feed conversion ratio of ducks from each treatment were calculated from day 91 to 102, and then all ducks were slaughtered to evaluate the yields of skin with subcutaneous fat, abdominal fat, breast meat (including pectoralis major and pectoralis minor), leg meat (including thigh and drum stick), and liver. Significant differences in BW gain, total liver weight and liver relative weight were observed among the treatments (P<0.001). According to the broken-line regression analysis, the optimal feed consumption levels of male Mule ducks from 91 to 102 days of age for maximum BW gain, total liver weight and liver relative weight were 217, 227 and 216 g feed/kg BW0.75·per day, respectively.

  7. Nano-sized polystyrene affects feeding, behavior and physiology of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae.

    PubMed

    Bergami, Elisa; Bocci, Elena; Vannuccini, Maria Luisa; Monopoli, Marco; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Nano-sized polymers as polystyrene (PS) constitute one of the main challenges for marine ecosystems, since they can distribute along the whole water column affecting planktonic species and consequently disrupting the energy flow of marine ecosystems. Nowadays very little knowledge is available on the impact of nano-sized plastics on marine organisms. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of 40nm anionic carboxylated (PS-COOH) and 50nm cationic amino (PS-NH2) polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) on brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae. No signs of mortality were observed at 48h of exposure for both PS NPs at naplius stage but several sub-lethal effects were evident. PS-COOH (5-100μg/ml) resulted massively sequestered inside the gut lumen of larvae (48h) probably limiting food intake. Some of them were lately excreted as fecal pellets but not a full release was observed. Likewise, PS-NH2 (5-100µg/ml) accumulated in larvae (48h) but also adsorbed at the surface of sensorial antennules and appendages probably hampering larvae motility. In addition, larvae exposed to PS-NH2 undergo multiple molting events during 48h of exposure compared to controls. The activation of a defense mechanism based on a physiological process able to release toxic cationic NPs (PS-NH2) from the body can be hypothesized. The general observed accumulation of PS NPs within the gut during the 48h of exposure indicates a continuous bioavailability of nano-sized PS for planktonic species as well as a potential transfer along the trophic web. Therefore, nano-sized PS might be able to impair food uptake (feeding), behavior (motility) and physiology (multiple molting) of brine shrimp larvae with consequences not only at organism and population level but on the overall ecosystem based on the key role of zooplankton on marine food webs.

  8. Honeydew feeding in the solitary bee Osmia bicornis as affected by aphid species and nectar availability.

    PubMed

    Konrad, Roger; Wäckers, Felix L; Romeis, Jörg; Babendreier, Dirk

    2009-12-01

    Like honey bees (Apis mellifera), non-Apis bees could exploit honeydew as a carbohydrate source. In addition to providing carbohydrates, this may expose them to potentially harmful plant products secreted in honeydew. However, knowledge on honeydew feeding by solitary bees is very scarce. Here we determine whether the polylectic solitary bee Osmia bicornis (=O. rufa) collects honeydew under semi-field conditions, and whether this is affected by aphid species and presence of floral nectar. Bees were provided with oilseed rape plants containing flowers and/or colonies of either Myzus persicae or Brevicoryne brassicae. We used the total sugar level of the bee crop as a measure of the individual's nutritional state and the oligosaccharide erlose as indicator for honeydew consumption. Erlose was present in honeydews from both aphid species, while absent in oilseed rape nectar, nor being synthesized by O. bicornis. When bees were confined to a single honeydew type as the only carbohydrate source, consumption of M. persicae honeydew was confirmed for 47% of the bees and consumption of B. brassicae honeydew for only 3%. Increased mortality in the latter treatment provided further evidence that B. brassicae honeydew is an unsuitable food source for O. bicornis. All bees that were given the choice between honeydew and floral nectar showed significantly increased total sugar levels. However, the fact that no erlose was detected in these bees indicates that honeydew was not consumed when suitable floral nectar was available. This study demonstrates that honeydew exploitation by O. bicornis is dependent on honeydew type and the presence of floral nectar.

  9. Male inbreeding status affects female fitness in a seed-feeding beetle.

    PubMed

    Fox, Charles W; Xu, J; Wallin, W G; Curtis, C L

    2012-01-01

    Inbreeding generally reduces male mating activity such that inbred males are less successful in male-male competition. Inbred males can also have smaller accessory glands, transfer less sperm and produce sperm that are less motile, less viable or have a greater frequency of abnormalities, all of which can reduce the fertilization success and fitness of inbred males relative to outbred males. However, few studies have examined how male inbreeding status affects the fitness of females with whom they mate. In this study, we examine the effect of male inbreeding status (inbreeding coefficient f = 0.25 vs. f = 0) on the fecundity, adult longevity and the fate of eggs produced by outbred females in the seed-feeding beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. Females mated to inbred males were less likely to lay eggs. Of those that laid eggs, females mated to inbred males laid 6-12% fewer eggs. Females mated to inbred males lived on average 5.4% longer than did females mated to outbred males, but this effect disappeared when lifetime fecundity was used as a covariate in the analysis. There was no effect of male inbreeding status on the proportion of a female's eggs that developed or hatched, and no evidence that inbred males produced smaller nuptial gifts. However, ejaculates of inbred males contained 17-33% fewer sperm, on average, than did ejaculates of outbred males. Our study demonstrates that mating with inbred males has significant direct consequences for the fitness of female C. maculatus, likely mediated by effects of inbreeding status on the number of sperm in male ejaculates. Direct effects of male inbreeding status on female fitness should be more widely considered in theoretical models and empirical studies of mate choice.

  10. Characterisation of the gastrointestinal bacterial community in pigs fed fermented liquid feed and dry feed: composition and fermentation capacity (phenotypic fingerprint).

    PubMed

    Højberg, O; Knudsen, B; Canibe, N; Jensen, B B

    2001-01-01

    Feeding pigs with fermented liquid feed (FLF) has been shown to reduce the number of enteropathogens such as Salmonella and Brachyospira hyodysenteriae as well as coliform bacteria in general in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Also the commensal bacterial populations have been shown to respond to the use of FLF, e.g. the total counts of anaerobes, including lactic acid bacteria are reduced. In the present work we demonstrate that the capacity to ferment a series of substrates (mainly low-molecular weight carbohydrates) is reduced in caecum, colon and faeces of pigs fed FLF compared to pigs fed dry feed. This reduction could be due to the fact that these substrates are partially depleted by fermentation in the liquid feed prior to entering the animal. Therefore nutrient availability may be limited in the large intestine of pigs fed FLF, which may again affect bacterial enzyme synthesis and growth and thus the possibility for pathogenic and zoonotic bacteria to establish.

  11. Mandibular gnathobases of marine planktonic copepods - feeding tools with complex micro- and nanoscale composite architectures.

    PubMed

    Michels, Jan; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2015-01-01

    Copepods are dominant members of the marine zooplankton. Their diets often comprise large proportions of diatom taxa whose silicified frustules are mechanically stable and offer protection against grazers. Despite of this protection, many copepod species are able to efficiently break even the most stable frustule types. This ability requires specific feeding tools with mechanically adapted architectures, compositions and properties. When ingesting food, the copepods use the gnathobases of their mandibles to grab and, if necessary, crush and mince the food items. The morphology of these gnathobases is related to the diets of the copepods. Gnathobases of copepod species that mainly feed on phytoplankton feature compact and stable tooth-like structures, so-called teeth. In several copepod species these gnathobase teeth have been found to contain silica. Recent studies revealed that the siliceous teeth are complex microscale composites with silica-containing cap-like structures located on chitinous exoskeleton sockets that are connected with rubber-like bearings formed by structures with high proportions of the soft and elastic protein resilin. In addition, the silica-containing cap-like structures exhibit a nanoscale composite architecture. They contain some amorphous silica and large proportions of the crystalline silica type α-cristobalite and are pervaded by a fine chitinous fibre network that very likely serves as a scaffold during the silicification process. All these intricate composite structures are assumed to be the result of a coevolution between the copepod gnathobases and diatom frustules in an evolutionary arms race. The composites very likely increase both the performance of the siliceous teeth and their resistance to mechanical damage, and it is conceivable that their development has favoured the copepods' dominance of the marine zooplankton observed today.

  12. Plant-fungus mutualism affects spider composition in successional fields.

    PubMed

    Finkes, Laura K; Cady, Alan B; Mulroy, Juliana C; Clay, Keith; Rudgers, Jennifer A

    2006-03-01

    Mutualistic symbionts are widespread in plants and may have strong, bottom-up influences on community structure. Here we show that a grass-endophyte mutualism shifts the composition of a generalist predator assemblage. In replicated, successional fields we manipulated endophyte infection by Neotyphodium coenophialum in a dominant, non-native plant (Lolium arundinaceum). We compared the magnitude of the endophyte effect with manipulations of thatch biomass, a habitat feature of known importance to spiders. The richness of both spider families and morphospecies was greater in the absence of the endophyte, although total spider abundance was not affected. Thatch removal reduced both spider abundance and richness, and endophyte and thatch effects were largely additive. Spider families differed in responses, with declines in Linyphiidae and Thomisidae due to the endophyte and declines in Lycosidae due to thatch removal. Results demonstrate that the community impacts of non-native plants can depend on plants' mutualistic associates, such as fungal endophytes.

  13. First feed affects the expressions of microRNA and their targets in Atlantic cod.

    PubMed

    Bizuayehu, Teshome Tilahun; Furmanek, Tomasz; Karlsen, Ørjan; van der Meeren, Terje; Edvardsen, Rolf Brudvik; Rønnestad, Ivar; Hamre, Kristin; Johansen, Steinar D; Babiak, Igor

    2016-04-14

    To our knowledge, there is no report on microRNA (miRNA) expression and their target analysis in relation to the type of the first feed and its effect on the further growth of fish. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae have better growth and development performance when fed natural zooplankton as a start-feed, as compared with those fed typical aquaculture start-feeds. In our experiment, two groups of Atlantic cod larvae were fed reference feed (zooplankton, mostly copepods, filtered from a seawater pond) v. aquaculture feeds: enriched rotifers (Brachionus sp.) and later brine shrimp (Artemia salina). We examined the miRNA expressions of six defined developmental stages as determined and standardised by body length from first feeding for both diet groups. We found eight miRNA (miR-9, miR-19a, miR-130b, miR-146, miR-181a, miR-192, miR-206 and miR-11240) differentially expressed between the two feeding groups in at least one developmental stage. We verified the next-generation sequencing data using real-time RT-PCR. We found 397 putative targets (mRNA) to the differentially expressed miRNA; eighteen of these mRNA showed differential expression in at least one stage. The patterns of differentially expressed miRNA and their putative target mRNA were mostly inverse, but sometimes also concurrent. The predicted miRNA targets were involved in different pathways, including metabolic, phototransduction and signalling pathways. The results of this study provide new nutrigenomic information on the potential role of miRNA in mediating nutritional effects on growth during the start-feeding period in fish larvae.

  14. Effect of peripartal feeding strategy on colostrum yield and composition in sows.

    PubMed

    Decaluwé, R; Maes, D; Cools, A; Wuyts, B; De Smet, S; Marescau, B; De Deyn, P P; Janssens, G P J

    2014-08-01

    Research showed a positive association between back fat (BF) change the week before farrowing and colostrum yield (CY). This study tested the causality of this association, hence to optimize CY by altering the sows' peripartal feeding strategy. Sows were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups at d 108 of gestation. The first group (L, n = 28) received 1.5 kg feed·d(-1), the second group (H, n = 22) received 3 times 1.5 kg feed·d(-1) until farrowing. Daily feed intake and CY were measured. Colostrum was analyzed for nutrient composition, AA and fatty acids, IgG and IgA. Sow serum was obtained at d 108 of gestation and d 1 of lactation after overnight fasting and analyzed for NEFA, (iso)butyrylcarnitine (C4), creatinine, urea, 3-OH-butyrylcarnitine (3-OH-C4), IgG, and IgA. Based on BF at d 108, sows were divided into body condition (BC) groups: skinny (<17 mm, n = 15), moderate (17 to 23 mm, n = 21), fat (>23 mm, n = 14). We performed ANOVA with treatment and BC as fixed factors and Scheffé post-hoc test. The week before farrowing, the L group had the lowest daily feed intake (DFI; 1.5 kg), and within the H group, fat sows (3.8 kg) had a lower DFI than skinny sows (4.3 kg; p = 0.006). The H group tended to have a greater total CY (P = 0.074) and had a greater CY/kg liveborn piglet (P = 0.018) than the L group. Compared with sows in moderate BC, fat sows had a lower total CY (P = 0.044) and a lower CY/kg liveborn piglet (P = 0.005). The H group had a greater concentration of lactose (p = 0.009) and n-3 PUFA (p < 0.001) but a lower concentration of protein (p = 0.040) in colostrum than the L group. The concentration of IgG and IgA did not differ between treatment and BC groups. Serum parameters at d 108 were similar between the treatment groups and BC groups. At d 1, the H group mobilized less body fat (NEFA: p = 0.002) and protein (creatinine: p < 0.001, C4: p = 0.016) reserves but had a greater ratio urea:NEFA (p < 0.001) and less ketone bodies (3-OH-C4: p < 0

  15. Endocannabinoids concentrations in plasma associated with feed efficiency and carcass composition of beef steers.

    PubMed

    Artegoitia, V M; Foote, A P; Lewis, R M; King, D A; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Freetly, H C

    2016-12-01

    Endocannabinoids, including anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are a class of endogenous lipid mediators that activate cannabinoids receptors and may be involved in the control of feed intake and energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to quantify AEA and 2-AG in plasma and identify possible associations with production traits and carcass composition in finishing beef steers. Individual DMI and BW gain were measured on 140 Angus-sired steers for 105 d on a finishing ration. Blood samples were collected on d 84 of the experiment, which was 40 d before slaughter. Variables were analyzed using Pearson CORR procedure of SAS. Mean endocannabinoid concentrations in plasma were 4.48 ± 1.82 ng/mL and 0.44 ± 0.24 ng/mL for AEA and 2-AG, respectively. The AEA concentration was positively correlated with G:F ratio ( = 0.20; = 0.02), indicating that more efficient animals had greater AEA plasma concentrations. In addition, AEA concentration tended to be negatively correlated with the 12th rib fat thickness ( = -0.17; = 0.07); but no correlation was found with USDA-calculated yield grade ( = -0.14; = 0.11), or marbling score ( = 0.05; = 0.54). The concentration of 2-AG was positively correlated with AEA ( = 0.21; = 0.01); however, 2-AG concentration was not correlated with parameters of feed efficiency or carcass composition. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report plasma concentration of endocannabinoids in steers. These results provide evidence that plasma concentration of a key endocannabinoid, AEA, was favorably correlated with feed efficiency and fat thickness in finishing steers.

  16. Sire and liveweight affect feed intake and methane emissions of sheep confined in respiration chambers.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D L; Goopy, J P; Donaldson, A J; Woodgate, R T; Oddy, V H; Hegarty, R S

    2014-12-01

    Daily methane production and feed intake were measured on 160 adult ewes, which were the progeny of 20 sires and 3 sire types (Merino, dual-purpose and terminal) from a genetically diverse flock. All animals were housed in individual pens and fed a 50/50 mix of chaffed lucerne and oaten hays at 20 g/kg liveweight (LW), with feed refusals measured for at least 10 days before the first of three 22-h measurements in respiration chambers (RC). Feed was withdrawn at 1600 h on the day before each RC test to encourage the ewes to eat the entire ration provided for them in the RC. After the first 1-day RC test, the sheep were returned to their pens for a day, then given a second 1-day RC test, followed by another day in their pens, then a third RC test. After all animals had been tested, they were ranked according to methane emissions adjusted for feed intake in the RC and on the previous day, enabling 10 low and 10 high methane animals to be chosen for repeat measurement. No variation between sires nor consistent effects of LW on feed eaten (%FE, expressed as per cent of feed offered) was evident in the 10 days before the first RC measurement. However, significant differences between sires (equivalent to an estimated heritability of 41%) were identified for %FE during the 2(nd) and 3(rd) days of RC testing (2 and 4 days after the initial RC test). The analysis of all data showed that methane emissions in the RC were related to feed intake on the day of testing and the two previous days (all P<0.0005). Before correcting for feed intake on previous days, there was some variation between sires in methane yield, equivalent to an estimated heritability of 9%. Correction for feed intake on the 2 previous days halved the residual variation, allowing other effects to be detected, including effects of LW, twins reared as singles, test batch, RC and test-day effects, but estimated sire variation fell to zero. In order to avoid potential biases, statistical models of methane

  17. Supplementary feeding of wild birds indirectly affects ground beetle populations in suburban gardens.

    PubMed

    Orros, Melanie E; Thomas, Rebecca L; Holloway, Graham J; Fellowes, Mark D E

    Supplementary feeding of wild birds by domestic garden-holders is a globally widespread and popular form of human-wildlife interaction, particularly in urban areas. Vast amounts of energy are thus being added to garden ecosystems. However, the potential indirect effects of this activity on non-avian species have been little studied to date, with the only two previous studies taking place under experimentally manipulated conditions. Here we present the first evidence of a localised depletive effect of wild bird feeding on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in suburban gardens under the usual feeding patterns of the garden-holders. We trapped significantly fewer ground beetles directly under bird-feeding stations than in matched areas of habitat away from feeders. Video analysis also revealed significantly higher activity by ground-foraging birds under the feeding stations than in the control areas. Small mammal trapping revealed no evidence that these species differ in abundance between gardens with and without bird feeders. We therefore suggest that local increases in ground-foraging activity by bird species whose diets encompass arthropods as well as seed material are responsible for the reduction in ground beetle numbers. Our work therefore illustrates that providing food for wild birds can have indirect negative effects on palatable prey species under typical conditions.

  18. Feeding rate may affect dispersal in the orb-web spider Nephila clavata.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Tadashi

    1992-12-01

    Population parameters of the orb-web spider Nephila clavata were estimated at two sites with different spider densities (for 2 successive years at the high density site and 1 year at the low density site), and the relationship between survival rate and feeding conditions was examined. The rate of decrease of population density was almost constant over time and nearly the same at the two sites. Daily survival rate (sum of the effects of mortality and emigration) was low during August to early September and increased markedly thereafter. Daily immigration rate (number of immigrants/number of residents) was high during August to early September. Since there were strong negative correlations between survival and immigration rates, low survival rate seems to be caused by a high rate of emigration. Strong positive correlations were found between survival rate and feeding frequency (mean percent observed feeding). Analysis of covariance revealed that the parameters of the regression between survival rate and feeding frequency did not differ significantly among three occasions. These results suggest that feeding condition has a significant influence on dispersal activity of populations in this spider.

  19. Group compositional changes impact the social and feeding behaviors of captive hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas).

    PubMed

    Ryan, Amy M; Hauber, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    The formation and modification of social groups in captivity are delicate management tasks. The ability for personnel to anticipate changes in group dynamics following compositional changes can increase the likelihood of successful management with minimized injury or social instability. Hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas hamadryas) have a distinctive multi-level social system comprising of one-male units (OMUs) that can make it difficult to apply knowledge from other primates' multi-female/multi-male social structure to changes imposed onto captive hamadryas baboon groups. We conducted an observational study of the behavioral impacts following the introduction of two females into the group of hamadryas baboons at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Prospect Park Zoo in NY to test hypotheses about the relationships between changes in group composition and social and feeding behavior. Generalized linear mixed models demonstrated that social interactions significantly increased following the compositional changes, even in groups that only experienced member removals. The increase in affiliative social behavior observed suggests that during times of social stress or uncertainty, hamadryas baboons may employ social behavior as a tension-reducing mechanism to negotiate relationships as opposed to using aggression to engage in competitions for ranks and resources. The observed response to compositional changes implies that hamadryas baboons may respond with less aggression than do other Old World monkey species and that levels of affiliative behavior may be a more accurate metric for evaluating introduction success in hamadryas baboons.

  20. Effect of Feed Composition on Cold-Cap Formation in Laboratory-Scale Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Derek R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Lee, Seung Min; Heilman-Moore, Jayven S.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2016-06-06

    The development of advanced glass formulations are a part of the plan for reducing the cost and time for treatment and vitrification of the 210,000 m3 of nuclear waste at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. One property of interest in this development is melt viscosity, which has a decisive influence on the rate of glass production. In an electric melter, the conversion process from feed-to-glass above the melt pool occurs in the cold cap. At the final stage of conversion when the glass-forming melt becomes connected, gas evolving reactions cause foaming. The melt viscosity affects foam stability. Three glasses were formulated with viscosities of 1.5, 3.5, and 9.5 Pa s at 1150°C by varying the SiO2 content at the expense of B2O3, Li2O, and Na2O kept at constant proportions. Cold caps were produced by charging simulated high-alumina, high-level waste feeds in a laboratory-scale melter (LSM). The spread of the feed on the cold cap during charging and the cross-sectional structure of the final cold caps were compared. The amount of the foam and the size of the bubbles increased as the viscosity increased.

  1. Capsaicin treatment differentially affects feeding suppression by bombesin-like peptides.

    PubMed

    Ladenheim, Ellen E; Knipp, Susan

    2007-05-16

    Peripheral administration of bombesin (BN) and the related mammalian peptides, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and neuromedin B (NMB), suppress food intake in rats. To examine whether all BN-like peptides utilize the same neural pathways to reduce feeding, rats were treated on postnatal day 2 with the injection vehicle or capsaicin, a neurotoxin that damages a subset of visceral afferent fibers. When rats reached adulthood, we compared the ability of a dose range of systemically administered BN, GRP18-27 and NMB to reduce intake of a 0.5 kcal/ml glucose solution in a short-term feeding test. Our results demonstrate that capsaicin treatment abolished or attenuated the suppression of glucose intake produced by BN and NMB but had no effect on the ability of GRP to reduce feeding. These results suggest that different neural substrates underlie the anorexic effects of peripherally administered BN-like peptides.

  2. Bisorbicillinoids produced by the fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride affect feeding preference of the aphid Schizaphis graminum.

    PubMed

    Evidente, Antonio; Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio; Ganassi, Sonia; Altomare, Claudio; Favilla, Mara; De Cristofaro, Antonio; Vitagliano, Silvia; Agnese Sabatini, Maria

    2009-05-01

    We report the effects of some bisorbicillinoids isolated from biomass of the fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride on settling and feeding preference of the aphid Schizaphis graminum. Purification of the fungal metabolites was carried out by a combination of column chromatography and thin-layer chromatography using direct and reverse phases. Chemical identification was performed by spectroscopic methods including nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The identified bisorbicillinoids appeared to be bislongiquinolide, its 16,17-dihydro derivative, trichodimerol, and dihydrotrichodimerol. A feeding preference test with alate morphs of S. graminum was used to identify the active fractions. Among the four bisorbicillinoids, dihydrotrichodimerol and bislongiquinolide influenced aphid feeding preference, restraining specimens from settling on leaves treated with metabolites. Taste neurons sensitive to these compounds, particularly to bislongiquinolide, were located on tarsi of the S. graminum alate morphs.

  3. Function of the corpus luteum in beef heifers is affected by acute submaintenance feeding but is not correlated with residual feed intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy-four Angus and Angus x Hereford heifers were used in two successive years (yr 1, n = 43; yr 2, n = 31) to determine if ovarian function of heifers during acute submaintenance feeding is related to variation in utilization of feed as determined by residual feed intake (RFI). Residual feed in...

  4. Potential use of green macroalgae Ulva lactuca as a feed supplement in diets on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Warith, Abdel-Wahab A.; Younis, El-Sayed M.I.; Al-Asgah, Nasser A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of diet containing the green macroalgae, Ulva lactuca, on the growth performance, feed utilization and body composition of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Four experimental diets were formulated: D1 as a control group and D2, D3 and D4 which included 10%, 20% and 30% U. lactuca meal, respectively. 180 African catfish, weighing 9.59 ± 0.43 g, and with an average length of 11.26 ± 0.21, (mean ± SE) were divided into four groups corresponding to the different feeding regimes. The final body weight of the fish showed insignificant differences (P > 0.05) between the control and fish fed D2, whereas, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between these two diets compared with D3 and D4, with weights of 70.52, 60.92, 40.57 and 35.66 g recorded for D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively. In the same trend significant differences were also evident in weight gain, specific growth rate and feed utilization. Fish fed with a diet containing 20% or 30% U. lactuca meal had poorer growth performance and feed utilization. Protein productive value, protein efficiency ratio, daily dry feed intake and total feed intake were also significantly lower in fish fed with D3 and D4 than in the control D1 and D2. Overall, the results of the experiment revealed that African catfish fed a diet with U. lactuca included at 20% and 30% levels showed poorer growth and feed utilization than the control group and fish fed diets containing 10% of U. lactuca. PMID:27081367

  5. [Dry matter intake of South American camelids and its effects on the composition of feed rations].

    PubMed

    Stölzl, Anna Maria; Lambertz, Christian; Moors, Eva; Stiehl, Jennifer; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The number of South American camelids (SAC) is increasing in Germany since decades. Due to a lack of scientifically based publications the knowledge about feeding SACs is still poor. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the dry matter intake (DMI) of SACs as a basis for calculations of feed rations. Previous studies proposed a DMI of up to 3% of the body weight (BW) (Vaughan und Gauly, 2011). In the present study, eight llamas (Llama glama) were allocated to two groups of four animals each. The two groups were fed with hay of different qualities over a total period often weeks, which was divided into two runs of five weeks each. During the first run, group 1 was fed with hay 1 (15.1% crude protein; 8.5% crude ash; 3.1% crude fat; 52.6% NDF per kg DM) and group 2 with hay 2 (6.6% crude protein; 6.2% crude ash; 2.1% crude fat; 64.3% NDF per kg DM). After five weeks the groups were changed and group 1 received hay 2 and group 2 received hay 1. BW was measured at the start and end of each run (week zero, five and ten). The hay quality affected the DMI, but the animals did not compensate a lower feed quality with an increased DMI. The total DMI was 1.26% and 0.89% of the BW for hay 1 and hay 2, respectively, which was lower than expected in both groups. In conclusion, calculations of feed rations for SACs should be adjusted to the present findings of a lower DMI capability.

  6. Feeding frequency, but not dietary water content, affects voluntary physical activity in young lean adult female cats.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, M R C; Ochi, K; de Oliveira Mateus, L F; de Justino, A C C; Swanson, K S

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether increased dietary water content and feeding frequency increased voluntary physical activity of young, lean adult female cats. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement (feeding frequency and water content) was used. The 4 treatments consisted of 1 meal daily dry pet food without added water (1D; 12% moisture as is), 1 meal daily dry pet food with added water (1W; 70% total water content), 4 meals daily dry pet food without added water (4D; 12% moisture as is), and 4 meals daily dry pet food with added water (4W; 70% total water content). Eight healthy adult, lean, intact, young, female domestic shorthair cats were used in this experiment. Voluntary physical activity was evaluated using Actical activity monitors placed on collars and worn around the cats' necks for the last 7 d of each experimental period of 14 d. Food anticipatory activity (FAA) was calculated based on 2 h prior to feeding periods and expressed as a percentage of total daily voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency (4 vs. 1 meal daily) resulted in greater average daily activity (P = 0.0147), activity during the light period (P = 0.0023), and light:dark activity ratio (P = 0.0002). In contrast, physical activity during the dark period was not altered by feeding frequency (P > 0.05). Cats fed 4 meals daily had increased afternoon FAA (P= 0.0029) compared with cats fed once daily. Dietary water content did not affect any measure of voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency is an effective strategy to increase the voluntary physical activity of cats. Thus, it may assist in the prevention and management of obesity.

  7. Genetic markers that influence feed efficiency phenotypes also affect cattle temperament as measured by flight speed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The measure of flight speed for cattle has been shown to be a predictive indicator of temperament and has also been associated with feed efficiency phenotypes, thus, genetic markers associated with both traits may assist with the selection of animals with calmer disposition and economic value. Chrom...

  8. Short-term feeding cessation prior to harvest does not affect fillet yield in rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current practice in commercial, freshwater rainbow trout operations in the USA is to feed until the day prior to harvest. However, from what is known about fish growth and metabolism during periods of starvation, this may not be the best economic practice, since growth and macronutrient deposition a...

  9. Double Shell Tanks (DST) and Waste Feed Delivery Project Management Quality Affecting Procedures Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    LUND, D.P.

    2000-09-25

    The purpose of the Double Shell Tanks (DST) and Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) Management Assessment Plan is to define how management assessments within DST h WFD will be conducted. The plan as written currently includes only WFD Project assessment topics. Other DST and WFD group assessment topics will be added in future revisions.

  10. Changes in feeding level during early pregnancy affect fertility in gilts.

    PubMed

    Virolainen, J V; Tast, A; Sorsa, A; Love, R J; Peltoniemi, O A T

    2004-02-01

    Modified feeding combining the benefits of restricted feeding after ovulation and abundant feeding during implantation in autumn was tested. Three groups of eight gilts were housed with individual feeding stalls and fed 40 MJ per day of a commercial ration. Following insemination gilts were fed 27 MJ per day (LLL) or 54 MJ per day (HHH) for 34 days or 27 MJ per day for 10 days, 54 MJ per day for 7 days followed by 27 MJ per day until day 34 (LHL). Blood for progesterone analysis was collected daily during the week of ovulation and then twice a week until the end of the study. For LH assay, blood was collected from five gilts from each group at 15 min interval for 10 h on the day 15 of pregnancy. Gilts were weighed three times at intervals of 4 weeks. The effect of dietary treatment was significant (P<0.05) on body weight gain from days 0 to 30 of pregnancy, 1201, 287 and 438 g per day for groups HHH, LLL and LHL respectively. The pregnancy rate at day 34 was significantly higher (P<0.005) in HHH-group (100%) compared with LLL (25%) and LHL (38%) although HHH group had significantly lower (P<0.05) progesterone concentration on days 9 and 12. The basal LH level was significantly higher (P<0.01) in HHH group compared to LHL group (mean +/- S.D.) (0.98 +/- 0.22 and 0.60 +/- 0.08, respectively). Gilts in HHH group had a significantly higher mean LH concentration (1.18 +/- 0.24) than those in group LHL (0.7 +/- 0.07) (P<0.05), but not in group LLL (0.93 +/- 0.15) (P=0.09). There was a tendency (P=0.058) for amplitude to be higher for gilts in HHH group. The LHL feeding strategy did not provide the benefits anticipated. Instead, it was the HHH feeding strategy that provided a distinct advantage in pregnancy rate. The mechanism mediating supportive effect of high feeding level on the maintenance of early pregnancy is yet to be determined.

  11. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and feeding level on dairy performance, milk fatty acid composition, and body fat changes in mid-lactation goats.

    PubMed

    Ghazal, S; Berthelot, V; Friggens, N C; Schmidely, P

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to study the interaction between the supplementation of lipid-encapsulated conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 4.5 g of cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and 4.5 g of trans-10,cis-12 C18:2) and feeding level to test if milk performance or milk fatty acid (FA) profile are affected by the interaction between CLA and feeding level. Twenty-four dairy goats were used in an 8-wk trial with a 3-wk adaptation to the experimental ration that contained corn silage, beet pulp, barley, and a commercial concentrate. During the third week, goats were assigned into blocks of 2 goats according to their dry matter intake (DMI), raw milk yield, and fat yield. Each block was randomly allocated to control (45 g of Ca salt of palm oil/d) or CLA treatment. Within each block, one goat was fed to cover 100% (FL100) of the calculated energy requirements and the other was fed 85% of the DMI of the first goat (FL85). Individual milk production and composition were recorded weekly, and milk FA composition was analyzed in wk 3, 5, and 7. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reduced milk fat content and fat yield by 17 and 19%, respectively, independent of the feeding level. It reduced both the secretion of milk FA synthesized de novo, and those taken up from the blood. No interaction between CLA and feeding level was observed on milk secretion of any group of FA. The CLA supplementation had no effect on DMI, milk yield, protein, and lactose yields but it improved calculated net energy for lactation balance. Goats fed the FL100 × CLA diet tended to have the highest DMI and protein yield. The interaction between CLA and feeding level was not significant for any other variables. Compared with the goats fed FL100, those fed FL85 had lower DMI, lower net energy for lactation balance, and lower digestible protein in the intestine balance. The body weight; milk yield; milk fat, protein, and lactose yields; and fat, protein, lactose, and urea contents in milk were not affected by

  12. Factors affecting Archaeal Lipid Compositions of the Sulfolobus Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, L.; Han, J.; Wei, Y.; Lin, L.; Wei, Y.; Zhang, C.

    2010-12-01

    Temperature is the best known variable affecting the distribution of the archaeal glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in marine and freshwater systems. Other variables such as pH, ionic strength, or bicarbonate concentration may also affect archaeal GDGTs in terrestrial systems. Studies of pure cultures can help us pinpoint the specific effects these variables may have on archaeal lipid distribution in natural environments. In this study, three Sulfolobus species (HG4, HB5-2, HB9-6) isolated from Tengchong hot springs (pH 2-3, temperature 73-90°C) in China were used to investigate the effects of temperature, pH, substrate, and type of strain on the composition of GDGTs. Results showed that increase in temperature had negative effects on the relative contents of GDGT-0 (no cyclopentyl rings), GDGT-1 (one cyclopentyl ring), GDGT-2 and GDGT-3 but positive effects on GDGT-4, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5'. Increase in pH, on the other hand, had negative effects on GDGT-0, GDGT-1, GDGT-4', GDGT-5 and GDGT-5', and positive effects on GDGT-3 and GDGT-4. GDGT-2 remained relatively constant with changing pH. When the HG4 was grown on different substrates, GDGT-5 was five time more abundant in sucrose-grown cultures than in yeast extract- or sulfur- grown cultures, suggesting that carbohydrates may stimulate the production of GDGT-5. For all three species, the ring index (average number of rings) of GDGTs correlated positively with incubation temperature. In HG4, ring index was much lower at optimal pH (3.5) than at other pH values. Ring index of HB5-2 or HB9-6 is higher than that of HG4, suggesting that speciation may affect the degree of cyclization of GDGT of the Sulfolobus. These results indicate that individual archaeal lipids respond differently to changes in environmental variables, which may be also species specific.

  13. Infant feeding practices in St. Vincent and factors which affect them.

    PubMed

    Greiner, T; Latham, M C

    1981-03-01

    A survey was conducted in the summer of 1975 in 2 towns in St. Vincent--Layou and Georgetown--in the effort to obtain information regarding infant feeding practices and some of the factors which may influence them. Mothers of children from 1-2 years of age were interviewed in their homes. Complete data sets were obtained on 192 of the 216 eligible children in the 2 towns. For most children the period of exclusive breastfeeding (no other milk product given) was very short. About 1/2 of the children had received milk by 2 weeks of age, and 75% by 1 month. This was followed by a much longer period of "mixed" feeding--both breast and bottle--until breastfeeding was stopped at a median age of 6.8 months. Many types of milk were used for infant feeding. For 73% of the infants, infant formula was the 1st type of milk given. This was commonly replaced by a "heavier" full cream powdered milk at a few months of age. Prelacteal feeds were very common, predominantly glucose water. "Tonics," often consisting of vitamin preparations, were another common supplement during the early months of life. Among solid foods, arrowroot, "custard," and commercial infant cereals were the first to be introduced. Relatively inexpensive locally bagged staple foods and milk powders were available in both towns, but most mothers relied heavily on packaged brand name products for infant feeding even though the cost was 2-10 times higher. It was not possible to pinpoint the exact causes for the high levels of bottle feeding, nor for the possible recent decline in breastfeeding, but several important factors were identified. Part of the problem appeared to be due to poor health and nutritional status of the mothers. In addition, in several cases the mothers reported that they had wanted to continue breastfeeding but had received no support from health professionals, and in a few instances had been ordered to stop for seemingly trivial medical reasons.

  14. Effect of Feeding Date Pits on Milk Production, Composition and Blood Parameters of Lactating Ardi Goats.

    PubMed

    Al-Suwaiegh, S B

    2016-04-01

    Twenty Ardi lactating goats were used to investigate the effect of substituting 10%, 15%, and 20% of concentrate feed with date pits on milk production, composition, and blood parameters. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous dietary treatments were used. Four levels (0% [control], 10%, 15%, and 20%) of date pits were used to replace concentrate feed. The forages to concentrate ratio used was 60 to 40. Dry matter intake (DMI) of goats fed diets containing 10% and 15% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those fed diets containing 0% and 20%. However, goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits were significantly (p<0.05) lower in DMI compared to those fed control diet. The protein percent was significantly higher for goats fed control diet compared to the other dietary treatments. Total solids percent was significantly the lowest for goats fed diet supplemented with 10% date pits. Goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the total protein compared to those fed a diet containing 10%. In addition, goats fed a diet containing 15% date pits exhibited no significant differences in the total protein percent compared to those fed a diet containing 20% date pits. Triglyceride was significantly higher for goats fed diets containing 10% and 20% date pits compared to those fed 15% date pits. Results obtained in the present study suggest that date pits can be added up to 20% of the concentrate feeds into lactating Ardi goat diets without negative effects on their productive performance.

  15. Home-made feeding bottles have inadequacies in their nutritional composition regardless of socioeconomic class.

    PubMed

    Penna de Carvalho, Maria-Florinda; Morais, Tania Beninga; Batista de Morais, Mauro

    2013-08-01

    Fifty-four and fifty samples of home-prepared feeding bottles for infants from a public health unit (low socioeconomic group, LSG) and from a private pediatric clinic (high socioeconomic group, HSG), respectively, were chemically analyzed, and their energy, macronutrient and iron contents were compared with the standard composition recommended for follow-up formulas. Cow's milk and sucrose and cereals added to the bottles were largely used in the study. Energy, protein and carbohydrate contents were higher than the recommended level in 75.9, 27.7 and 81.5% of LSG samples and 62.0, 48.0 and 34.0% of HSG samples, respectively. Fat content was lower than the recommended level in 83.3% of LSG and 58.0% of HSG samples. Excessive values of energy, carbohydrates and protein, low fat content and macronutrient imbalance were found regardless of the socioeconomic class, thus indicating the need to improve the domestic feeding bottles' preparation practices and discourage the use of cow's milk and the addition of other ingredients.

  16. Supplementary feeding affects the breeding behaviour of male European treefrogs (Hyla arborea)

    PubMed Central

    Meuche, Ivonne; Grafe, T Ulmar

    2009-01-01

    Background We investigated the effects of energetic constraints on the breeding behaviour of male European treefrogs Hyla arborea and how calling males allocated additional energy supplied by feeding experiments. Results Presence in the chorus was energetically costly indicated by both fed and unfed males losing weight. Males that were supplied with additional energy did not show longer chorus tenure. Instead, fed males returned sooner to the chorus. Additionally, fed males called more often than control males, a novel response for anurans. A significantly higher calling rate was noted from males even 31 nights after supplementary feeding. Conclusion This strategy of allocating additional energy reserves to increasing calling rate is beneficial given the preference of female hylids for males calling at high rates and a female's ability to detect small incremental increases in calling rate. PMID:19128468

  17. Factors affecting the human-feeding behavior of anopheline mosquitoes in Egyptian oases.

    PubMed

    Kenawy, M A; Beier, J C; Asiago, C M; el Said, S

    1990-09-01

    Blood meals were tested by a direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for 424 Anopheles sergentii and for 63 An. multicolor collected in Siwa, Farafra and Bahariya oases in the Western Desert of Egypt. Both species were highly zoophilic. Human blood-feeding by An. sergentii was less common in Bahariya (2.3%) and Farafra (1.3%) than in Siwa (15.3%). A likely explanation is that large domestic animals are held at night inside houses in Bahariya and in Farafra whereas in Siwa, animals are usually housed outdoors in sheds. These patterns of An. sergentii human-feeding behavior may contribute to the persistence of low-level Plasmodium vivax transmission in Siwa in contrast to negligible or no transmission in Bahariya and Farafra.

  18. Diel diet composition and feeding activity of round goby in the nearshore region of Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.; Nack, Christopher C.; Chalupnicki, Marc A.

    2008-01-01

    Expansion of the invasive round goby Apollonia melanostoma (=Neogobius melanostomus) throughout the Great Lakes drainage has created considerable concern among fisheries management agencies. These concerns have led to several studies on the biology and impact of the goby in the basin. However, little information exists on diel patterns in food consumption of the round goby. We examined the diets of 300 round gobies collected during crepuscular, diurnal, and nocturnal periods in Lake Ontario. There was little variation in the diel diet composition of the goby, as chironomid larvae were the major prey consumed during each period. Feeding intensity of the round goby was significantly (P<0.05) greater at night than during crepuscular or diurnal periods.

  19. Dietary forage concentration affects the feed sorting behavior of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Devries, T J; Beauchemin, K A; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the amount of forage in a total mixed ration influences feed sorting by cows and whether the extent of this sorting changes as they adapt to a new diet. Six lactating Holstein cows, individually fed once per day, were provided each of 2 diets in a crossover design (dry matter basis): 1) a higher forage diet (HF; 62.3% forage), and 2) a lower forage diet (LF; 50.7% forage). Dry matter intake, feeding behavior, and sorting activity were monitored for each cow on each diet for 7 d. Fresh feed and orts were sampled daily for each cow and subjected to neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and particle size analysis. The particle size separator contained 2 screens (18 and 9 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 3 fractions (long, medium, and short). Sorting activity [for each fraction, NDF and physically effective NDF (peNDF)] was calculated as the actual intake expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake. Overall, sorting activity was greatest on the LF diet, with cows sorting for short particles but against long particles, medium particles, NDF, and peNDF. On the HF diet, cows sorted against long particles, NDF, and peNDF and sorted for short particles. Treatment x day interactions occurred for sorting for short particles and against peNDF, indicating that it took cows 1 d to adjust their sorting behavior to the LF diet. Cows on the LF diet consumed more dry matter but spent less time feeding, which resulted in a greater intake rate compared with cows on the HF diet. These results indicate that cows rapidly adjust their sorting behavior when subjected to a dietary change, and they exhibit more sorting for short particles and against long particles, NDF, and peNDF when fed an LF diet.

  20. Changes in feed intake, growth, feed efficiency, and body composition of beef cattle fed forage then concentrate diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine changes in production traits and body composition of beef steers and heifers when fed a forage-based ration followed by a concentrate-based ration. Cattle were progeny of composite breed cows bred to Charolais, Simmental, and Red Angus bulls. Appro...

  1. Prawn Shell Chitosan Exhibits Anti-Obesogenic Potential through Alterations to Appetite, Affecting Feeding Behaviour and Satiety Signals In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Áine M.; O’Doherty, John V.; Vigors, Stafford; Sweeney, Torres

    2016-01-01

    The crustacean shells-derived polysaccharide chitosan has received much attention for its anti-obesity potential. Dietary supplementation of chitosan has been linked with reductions in feed intake, suggesting a potential link between chitosan and appetite control. Hence the objective of this experiment was to investigate the appetite suppressing potential of prawn shell derived chitosan in a pig model. Pigs (70 ± 0.90 kg, 125 days of age, SD 2.0) were fed either T1) basal diet or T2) basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group) for 63 days. The parameter categories which were assessed included performance, feeding behaviour, serum leptin concentrations and expression of genes influencing feeding behaviour in the small intestine, hypothalamus and adipose tissue. Pigs offered chitosan visited the feeder less times per day (P<0.001), had lower intake per visit (P<0.001), spent less time eating per day (P<0.001), had a lower eating rate (P<0.01) and had reduced feed intake and final body weight (P< 0.001) compared to animals offered the basal diet. There was a treatment (P<0.05) and time effect (P<0.05) on serum leptin concentrations in animals offered the chitosan diet compared to animals offered the basal diet. Pigs receiving dietary chitosan had an up-regulation in gene expression of growth hormone receptor (P<0.05), Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (P<0.01), neuromedin B (P<0.05), neuropeptide Y receptor 5 (P<0.05) in hypothalamic nuclei and neuropeptide Y (P<0.05) in the jejunum. Animals consuming chitosan had increased leptin expression in adipose tissue compared to pigs offered the basal diet (P<0.05). In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that dietary prawn shell chitosan exhibits anti-obesogenic potential through alterations to appetite, and feeding behaviour affecting satiety signals in vivo. PMID:26901760

  2. Prawn Shell Chitosan Exhibits Anti-Obesogenic Potential through Alterations to Appetite, Affecting Feeding Behaviour and Satiety Signals In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Egan, Áine M; O'Doherty, John V; Vigors, Stafford; Sweeney, Torres

    2016-01-01

    The crustacean shells-derived polysaccharide chitosan has received much attention for its anti-obesity potential. Dietary supplementation of chitosan has been linked with reductions in feed intake, suggesting a potential link between chitosan and appetite control. Hence the objective of this experiment was to investigate the appetite suppressing potential of prawn shell derived chitosan in a pig model. Pigs (70 ± 0.90 kg, 125 days of age, SD 2.0) were fed either T1) basal diet or T2) basal diet plus 1000 ppm chitosan (n = 20 gilts per group) for 63 days. The parameter categories which were assessed included performance, feeding behaviour, serum leptin concentrations and expression of genes influencing feeding behaviour in the small intestine, hypothalamus and adipose tissue. Pigs offered chitosan visited the feeder less times per day (P<0.001), had lower intake per visit (P<0.001), spent less time eating per day (P<0.001), had a lower eating rate (P<0.01) and had reduced feed intake and final body weight (P< 0.001) compared to animals offered the basal diet. There was a treatment (P<0.05) and time effect (P<0.05) on serum leptin concentrations in animals offered the chitosan diet compared to animals offered the basal diet. Pigs receiving dietary chitosan had an up-regulation in gene expression of growth hormone receptor (P<0.05), Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (P<0.01), neuromedin B (P<0.05), neuropeptide Y receptor 5 (P<0.05) in hypothalamic nuclei and neuropeptide Y (P<0.05) in the jejunum. Animals consuming chitosan had increased leptin expression in adipose tissue compared to pigs offered the basal diet (P<0.05). In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that dietary prawn shell chitosan exhibits anti-obesogenic potential through alterations to appetite, and feeding behaviour affecting satiety signals in vivo.

  3. Protein feeding pattern, casein feeding, or milk-soluble protein feeding did not change the evolution of body composition during a short-term weight loss program.

    PubMed

    Adechian, Solange; Balage, Michèle; Remond, Didier; Migné, Carole; Quignard-Boulangé, Annie; Marset-Baglieri, Agnès; Rousset, Sylvie; Boirie, Yves; Gaudichon, Claire; Dardevet, Dominique; Mosoni, Laurent

    2012-10-15

    Studies have shown that timing of protein intake, leucine content, and speed of digestion significantly affect postprandial protein utilization. Our aim was to determine if one can spare lean body mass during energy restriction by varying the quality and the timing of protein intake. Obese volunteers followed a 6-wk restricted energy diet. Four groups were compared: casein pulse, casein spread, milk-soluble protein (MSP, = whey) pulse, and MSP spread (n = 10-11 per group). In casein groups, caseins were the only protein source; it was MSP in MSP groups. Proteins were distributed in four meals per day in the proportion 8:80:4:8% in the pulse groups; it was 25:25:25:25% in the spread groups. We measured weight, body composition, nitrogen balance, 3-methylhistidine excretion, perception of hunger, plasma parameters, adipose tissue metabolism, and whole body protein metabolism. Volunteers lost 7.5 ± 0.4 kg of weight, 5.1 ± 0.2 kg of fat, and 2.2 ± 0.2 kg of lean mass, with no difference between groups. In adipose tissue, cell size and mRNA expression of various genes were reduced with no difference between groups. Hunger perception was also never different between groups. In the last week, due to a higher inhibition of protein degradation and despite a lower stimulation of protein synthesis, postprandial balance between whole body protein synthesis and degradation was better with caseins than with MSP. It seems likely that the positive effect of caseins on protein balance occurred only at the end of the experiment.

  4. Barley cultivar, kernel composition, and processing affect the glycemic index.

    PubMed

    Aldughpassi, Ahmed; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Wolever, Thomas M S

    2012-09-01

    Barley has a low glycemic index (GI), but it is unknown whether its GI is affected by variation in carbohydrate composition in different cultivars and by food processing and food form. To examine the effect of these factors on GI, 9 barley cultivars varying in amylose and β-glucan content were studied in 3 experiments in separate groups of 10 healthy participants. In Expt. 1, 3 barley cultivars underwent 2 levels of processing: hull removal [whole-grain (WG)] and bran, germ, and crease removal [white pearled (WP)]. GI varied by cultivar (CDC Fibar vs. AC Parkhill, [mean ± SEM]: 26 ± 3 vs. 53 ± 4, respectively; P < 0.05) and pearling (WG vs. WP: 26 ± 4 vs. 35 ± 3, respectively; P < 0.05) with no cultivar × pearling interaction. In Expt. 2, the GI of 7 WG cultivars ranged from 21 ± 4 to 36 ± 8 (P = 0.09). In Expt. 3, WG and WP AC Parkhill and Celebrity cultivars were ground and made into wet pasta. The GI of AC Parkhill pasta (69 ± 3) was similar to that of Celebrity pasta (64 ± 4) but, unlike in Expt. 1, the GI of WP pasta (61 ± 3) was less than that of WG pasta (72 ± 4) (P < 0.05). Pooled data from Expts. 1 and 2 showed that GI was correlated with total fiber (r = -0.75, P = 0.002) but not with measures of starch characteristics. We conclude that the GI of barley is influenced by cultivar, processing, and food form but is not predicted by its content of amylose or other starch characteristics.

  5. Choice feeding of selenium-deficient laying hens affects diet selection, selenium intake and body weight.

    PubMed

    Zuberbuehler, Christine A; Messikommer, Ruth E; Wenk, Caspar

    2002-11-01

    Inadequate selenium (Se) supply often in combination with low vitamin E status causes deficiency symptoms in many species. It is likely that a vague discomfort or sickness is perceived before clear deficiency signs become apparent. We investigated whether Se-deficient hens reduce their Se deficit by selecting a diet containing more selenium when offered two diets with different Se concentrations. A Low-Se diet (0.07 mg Se/kg) was supplemented with Se-enriched yeast (Sel-Plex 50) to produce Medium-Se (0.20 mg Se/kg) and High-Se (1.50 mg Se/kg) diets. Each of two consecutive study parts (I and II) with the same hens and treatments began with a 6-wk baseline period (Medium-Se diet), subsequently followed a 9-wk depletion period (Low-Se diet or Medium-Se diet), then a 6-wk choice feeding period in which two diets with different Se concentrations (Low-Se and Medium-Se, Medium-Se and High-Se, or Low-Se and High-Se) were offered. A control group received the Medium-Se diet throughout the study. Daily Se intake, calculated from daily feed intake, followed similar patterns in both parts of the study, but Se-deficient hens preferred (P < 0.05) the High-Se diet to the Low-Se diet during the first 3 wk of choice feeding only in part I. We conclude that young Se-deficient laying hens reduce their Se deficit if they have a choice between a Low-Se and a High-Se diet by preferentially selecting the High-Se diet, possibly based on learned place preference and/or learned taste aversion to the Low-Se diet, presumably in response to discomfort due to Se-deficiency.

  6. Adult diet affects lifespan and reproduction of the fruit-feeding butterfly Charaxes fulvescens.

    PubMed

    Molleman, Freerk; Ding, Jimin; Wang, Jane-Ling; Zwaan, Bas J; Carey, James R; Brakefield, Paul M

    2008-10-01

    Fruit-feeding butterflies are among the longest lived Lepidoptera. While the use of pollen-derived amino acids by Heliconius butterflies has been interpreted as important for the evolution of extended lifespans, very little is known about the life-history consequences of frugivory. This issue is addressed by investigating effects of four adult diets (sugar, sugar with amino acids, banana, and moistened banana) on lifespan and reproduction in the fruit-feeding butterfly Charaxes fulvescens Aurivillius (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Female butterflies were collected from Kibale National Park, Uganda, and kept individually in cages near their natural habitat and data were collected on lifespan, oviposition, and hatching of eggs. Lifespan in captivity was longer for the sugar and the amino acid cohort, than for the banana cohorts. The longitudinal pattern of oviposition was erratic, with many days without oviposition and few periods with high numbers of eggs laid. Butterflies typically did not lay eggs during their 1st week in captivity and the length of the period between capture and first reproduction was significantly shorter for butterflies fed moistened banana. The length of the reproduction period (first reproduction-last reproduction in captivity) and the reproduction rate (total number of eggs/length of the reproduction period) did not differ significantly between the diet treatments. Those fed with amino acid and moistened banana had significantly higher egg hatchability than those fed with sugar and banana. We found no evidence for a lifespan cost of reproduction. Our results show that (1) female C. fulvescens can use amino acids in their diet for laying fertile eggs, (2) more wing-wear does correlate with lower survival in captivity (indicating aging in the wild), but not with intensity of reproduction (providing no evidence for reproductive aging), and (3) fruit-feeding butterflies may be dietary restricted in the field.

  7. Environmental factors affecting feed intake of steers in different housing systems in the summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koknaroglu, H.; Otles, Z.; Mader, T.; Hoffman, M. P.

    2008-07-01

    A total of 188 yearling steers of predominantly Angus and Hereford breeds, with mean body weight of 299 kg, were used in this study, which started on 8 April and finished on 3 October, to assess the effects of environmental factors on feed intake of steers in various housing systems. Housing consisted of outside lots with access to overhead shelter, outside lots with no overhead shelter and a cold confinement building. Ad libitum corn, 2.27 kg of 35% dry matter whole plant sorghum silage and 0.68 kg of a 61% protein-vitamin-mineral supplement was offered. Feed that was not consumed was measured to determine feed intake. The temperature data were recorded by hygro-thermographs. Hourly temperatures and humidity were used to develop weather variables. Regression analysis was used and weather variables were regressed on dry matter intake (DMI). When addition of a new variable did not improve R 2 more than one unit, then the number of variables in the model was truncated. Cattle in confinement had lower DMI than those in open lots and those in open lots with access to an overhead shelter ( P < 0.05). Cattle in outside lots with access to overhead shelter had similar DMI compared to those in open lots ( P = 0.065). Effect of heat was predominantly displayed in August in the three housing systems. In terms of explaining variation in DMI, in outside lots with access to overhead shelter, average and daytime temperatures were important factors, whereas in open lots, nocturnal, peak and average temperatures were important factors. In confinement buildings, the previous day’s temperature and humidity index were the most important factors explaining variation in DMI. Results show the effect of housing and weather variables on DMI in summer and when considering these results, cattle producers wishing to improve cattle feedlot performance should consider housing conditions providing less stress or more comfort.

  8. Environmental factors affecting feed intake of steers in different housing systems in the summer.

    PubMed

    Koknaroglu, H; Otles, Z; Mader, T; Hoffman, M P

    2008-07-01

    A total of 188 yearling steers of predominantly Angus and Hereford breeds, with mean body weight of 299 kg, were used in this study, which started on 8 April and finished on 3 October, to assess the effects of environmental factors on feed intake of steers in various housing systems. Housing consisted of outside lots with access to overhead shelter, outside lots with no overhead shelter and a cold confinement building. Ad libitum corn, 2.27 kg of 35% dry matter whole plant sorghum silage and 0.68 kg of a 61% protein-vitamin-mineral supplement was offered. Feed that was not consumed was measured to determine feed intake. The temperature data were recorded by hygro-thermographs. Hourly temperatures and humidity were used to develop weather variables. Regression analysis was used and weather variables were regressed on dry matter intake (DMI). When addition of a new variable did not improve R (2) more than one unit, then the number of variables in the model was truncated. Cattle in confinement had lower DMI than those in open lots and those in open lots with access to an overhead shelter (P < 0.05). Cattle in outside lots with access to overhead shelter had similar DMI compared to those in open lots (P = 0.065). Effect of heat was predominantly displayed in August in the three housing systems. In terms of explaining variation in DMI, in outside lots with access to overhead shelter, average and daytime temperatures were important factors, whereas in open lots, nocturnal, peak and average temperatures were important factors. In confinement buildings, the previous day's temperature and humidity index were the most important factors explaining variation in DMI. Results show the effect of housing and weather variables on DMI in summer and when considering these results, cattle producers wishing to improve cattle feedlot performance should consider housing conditions providing less stress or more comfort.

  9. Aboveground Feeding by Soybean Aphid, Aphis glycines, Affects Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera glycines, Reproduction Belowground

    PubMed Central

    McCarville, Michael T.; Soh, David H.; Tylka, Gregory L.; O’Neal, Matthew E.

    2014-01-01

    Heterodera glycines is a cyst nematode that causes significant lost soybean yield in the U.S. Recent studies observed the aphid Aphis glycines and H. glycines interacting via their shared host, soybean, Glycine max. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to discern the effect of A. glycines feeding on H. glycines reproduction. An H. glycines-susceptible cultivar, Kenwood 94, and a resistant cultivar, Dekalb 27–52, were grown in H. glycines-infested soil for 30 and 60 d. Ten days after planting, plants were infested with either zero, five, or ten aphids. At 30 and 60 d, the number of H. glycines females and cysts (dead females) and the number of eggs within were counted. In general, H. glycines were less abundant on the resistant than the susceptible cultivar, and H. glycines abundance increased from 30 to 60 d. At 30 d, 33% more H. glycines females and eggs were produced on the resistant cultivar in the ten-aphid treatment compared to the zero-aphid treatment. However, at 30 d the susceptible cultivar had 50% fewer H. glycines females and eggs when infested with ten aphids. At 60 d, numbers of H. glycines females and cysts and numbers of eggs on the resistant cultivar were unaffected by A. glycines feeding, while numbers of both were decreased by A. glycines on the susceptible cultivar. These results indicate that A. glycines feeding improves the quality of soybean as a host for H. glycines, but at higher herbivore population densities, this effect is offset by a decrease in resource quantity. PMID:24466080

  10. Adult diet affects lifespan and reproduction of the fruit-feeding butterfly Charaxes fulvescens

    PubMed Central

    Molleman, Freerk; Ding, Jimin; Wang, Jane-Ling; Zwaan, Bas J.; Carey, James R.; Brakefield, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Fruit-feeding butterflies are among the longest lived Lepidoptera. While the use of pollen-derived amino acids by Heliconius butterflies has been interpreted as important for the evolution of extended lifespans, very little is known about the life-history consequences of frugivory. This issue is addressed by investigating effects of four adult diets (sugar, sugar with amino acids, banana, and moistened banana) on lifespan and reproduction in the fruit-feeding butterfly Charaxes fulvescens Aurivillius (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Female butterflies were collected from Kibale National Park, Uganda, and kept individually in cages near their natural habitat and data were collected on lifespan, oviposition, and hatching of eggs. Lifespan in captivity was longer for the sugar and the amino acid cohort, than for the banana cohorts. The longitudinal pattern of oviposition was erratic, with many days without oviposition and few periods with high numbers of eggs laid. Butterflies typically did not lay eggs during their 1st week in captivity and the length of the period between capture and first reproduction was significantly shorter for butterflies fed moistened banana. The length of the reproduction period (first reproduction–last reproduction in captivity) and the reproduction rate (total number of eggs/length of the reproduction period) did not differ significantly between the diet treatments. Those fed with amino acid and moistened banana had significantly higher egg hatchability than those fed with sugar and banana. We found no evidence for a lifespan cost of reproduction. Our results show that (1) female C. fulvescens can use amino acids in their diet for laying fertile eggs, (2) more wing-wear does correlate with lower survival in captivity (indicating aging in the wild), but not with intensity of reproduction (providing no evidence for reproductive aging), and (3) fruit-feeding butterflies may be dietary restricted in the field. PMID:19774093

  11. Feeding-Related Traits Are Affected by Dosage of the foraging Gene in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Allen, Aaron M; Anreiter, Ina; Neville, Megan C; Sokolowski, Marla B

    2017-02-01

    Nutrient acquisition and energy storage are critical parts of achieving metabolic homeostasis. The foraging gene in Drosophila melanogaster has previously been implicated in multiple feeding-related and metabolic traits. Before foraging's functions can be further dissected, we need a precise genetic null mutant to definitively map its amorphic phenotypes. We used homologous recombination to precisely delete foraging, generating the for(0) null allele, and used recombineering to reintegrate a full copy of the gene, generating the {for(BAC)} rescue allele. We show that a total loss of foraging expression in larvae results in reduced larval path length and food intake behavior, while conversely showing an increase in triglyceride levels. Furthermore, varying foraging gene dosage demonstrates a linear dose-response on these phenotypes in relation to foraging gene expression levels. These experiments have unequivocally proven a causal, dose-dependent relationship between the foraging gene and its pleiotropic influence on these feeding-related traits. Our analysis of foraging's transcription start sites, termination sites, and splicing patterns using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and full-length cDNA sequencing, revealed four independent promoters, pr1-4, that produce 21 transcripts with nine distinct open reading frames (ORFs). The use of alternative promoters and alternative splicing at the foraging locus creates diversity and flexibility in the regulation of gene expression, and ultimately function. Future studies will exploit these genetic tools to precisely dissect the isoform- and tissue-specific requirements of foraging's functions and shed light on the genetic control of feeding-related traits involved in energy homeostasis.

  12. Effects of Feeding Garlic and Juniper Berry Essential Oils on Milk Fatty Acid Composition of Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen Zhu; He, Mao Long

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) from plant extracts have been reported to have an antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Several of the gram-positive bacteria are involved in ruminal biohydrogenation of fatty acids (FAs), thus suggesting that feeding EOs could lower biohydrogenation of FA because of a decrease in the number of bacteria involved in that process. As a result, milk FA profiles are expected to be modified. In addition, monensin was approved as an antibiotic to be fed in dairy cattle, and it was reported that dairy cows supplemented with monensin produced milk containing higher concentration of 18:1 t10 and 18:1 t11. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two EOs (garlic and juniper berry oils) and monensin on FA profiles of milk fat. Four ruminally fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. Cows were fed for ad libitum intake a total mixed ration without supplementation (control), or supplemented with monensin (330 mg/head per day), garlic oil (5 g/head per day), or juniper berry oil (2 g/head per day). The FA composition of saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated was not affected by supplementation of EO and monensin. However, proportion of conjugated linoleic acid trans 10, cis 12 (CLA t10, c12) was higher (P < 0.05) for cows fed EO or monensin than for control cows. Supplementation of monensin increased (P < 0.05) the proportion of total trans FA compared with the control. These results indicate that supplementation of the dairy cow diet with garlic or juniper berry EO or monensin had the potential to increase the proportion of CLA t10, c12 in milk fat with minimal overall effects on FA of milk fat. The results also confirm the increase of 18:1 t10 in milk fat by feeding monensin to dairy cows. PMID:27127411

  13. Use of recovered frying oils in chicken and rabbit feeds: effect on the fatty acid and tocol composition and on the oxidation levels of meat, liver and plasma.

    PubMed

    Tres, A; Bou, R; Guardiola, F; Nuchi, C D; Magrinyà, N; Codony, R

    2013-03-01

    The addition of some fat co- and by-products to feeds is usual nowadays; however, the regulations of their use are not always clear and vary between countries. For instance, the use of recycled cooking oils is not allowed in the European Union, but they are used in other countries. However, oils recovered from industrial frying processes could show satisfactory quality for this purpose. Here we studied the effects of including oils recovered from the frying industry in rabbit and chicken feeds (at 30 and 60 g/kg, respectively) on the fatty acid (FA) and tocol (tocopherol + tocotrienol) compositon of meat, liver and plasma, and on their oxidative stability. Three dietary treatments (replicated eight times) were compared: fresh non-used oil (LOX); oil discarded from the frying industry, having a high content of secondary oxidation compounds (HOX); and an intermediate level (MOX) obtained by mixing 50 : 50 of LOX and HOX. The FA composition of oil diets and tissues was assessed by GC, their tocol content by HPLC, the thiobarbituric acid value was used to assess tissue oxidation status, and the ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange method was used to assess the susceptibility of tissues to oxidation. Our results indicate that FA composition of rabbit and chicken meat, liver and plasma was scarcely altered by the addition of recovered frying oils to feed. Differences were encountered in the FA composition between species, which might be attributed mainly to differences in the FA digestion, absorption and metabolism between species, and to some physiological dietary factors (i.e. coprophagy in rabbits that involves fermentation with FA structure modification). The α-tocopherol (αT) content of tissues was reduced in response to the lower αT content in the recovered frying oil. Differences in the content of other tocols were encountered between chickens and rabbits, which might be attributable to the different tocol composition of their feeds, as well as to species

  14. Chemical composition, digestibility, and voluntary feed intake of mango residues by sheep.

    PubMed

    Sanon, Hadja Oumou; Kanwe, Augustin B; Millogo, Alain; Ledin, Inger

    2013-02-01

    The chemical composition, digestibility, and voluntary feed intake by sheep of mango by-products were studied in an experiment with five dietary treatments consisting of mango peels and seed kernels, offered individually or together with urea block and a control. The mango residues were offered with rice straw and the control diet was straw only. Five groups of five male sheep of Djallonké type, 12-18 months old and weighing on average 18.6 kg were allocated randomly to the diets to assess the voluntary feed intake. Apparent digestibility of the same diets was measured using four sheep per diet. The mango residues were low in crude protein, 67 and 70 g/kg dry matter for the peels and the seed kernels, respectively. The content of neutral detergent fiber varied from 306 to 388 g/kg dry matter (DM) for the kernel and the peels, respectively. The kernel had relatively high level of fat (105 g/kg DM) and tannins (29 and 40 g/kg DM of hydrolysable and total tannins, respectively). The highest intake was observed with the diet containing both residues and urea block (741 g/day). The intake of kernels was lower in all diets when offered with the peels than when offered with rice straw alone. Apparent digestibility of the diets containing mango residues was 0.60-0.65. The peels and kernels had high digestibility coefficients (0.74 and 0.70, respectively). Based on the results above, it can be concluded that it would be interesting to test the residues in a growth experiment.

  15. Neonatal immune challenge affects the regulation of estrus cyclicity and feeding behavior in female rats.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Murakami, Masahiro; Kinouchi, Riyo; Shimizu, Fumi; Kuwahara, Akira; Yasui, Toshiyuki; Irahara, Minoru

    2009-02-01

    A single immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the neonatal period has a long-lasting influence on immune response. Using female Sprague-Dawley rats, we examined whether neonatal LPS challenge influences the life-long neuroendocrine sensitivity of reproductive function and feeding behavior to LPS, and whether stress-related neuropeptides and their receptors are involved in neonatal LPS-induced physiological change. On day 10 after birth, all pups were injected with LPS (100 microg/kg, i.p.) or saline. Then, in Experiment 1, LPS (100 microg/kg, i.p.) or saline was injected at diestrous in adulthood, and the length of the estrous cycle, 24h food intake and body weight change were recorded. In Experiment 2, the mRNA expression levels of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), urocortin (UCN), urocortin 2 (UCN2), CRH receptor type 1 (CRH-R1) and CRH receptor type 2 (CRH-R2) in the hypothalamus were measured using real-time PCR. LPS injection in adulthood prolonged the estrous cycle in neonatal LPS-injected rats. LPS injection in adulthood decreased food intake and body weight in both neonatal LPS- and saline-injected rats, more so in the latter. Basal expressions of UCN2 and CRH-R2 mRNA were higher in neonatal LPS-injected rats than in saline-injected rats. These findings indicate that neonatal immune challenge influences the anti-stress regulation of the estrous cycle and feeding behavior in adulthood. Increased expression of UCN2 and CRH-R2 might enhance the sensitivity of the estrous cycle in suppressing the effects of LPS.

  16. Prepartum feeding level and body condition score affect immunological performance in grazing dairy cows during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Lange, Joshua; McCarthy, Allison; Kay, Jane; Meier, Susanne; Walker, Caroline; Crookenden, Mallory A; Mitchell, Murray D; Loor, Juan J; Roche, John R; Heiser, Axel

    2016-03-01

    Precalving feeding level affects dry matter intake, postcalving energy balance, the risk of hepatic lipidosis and metabolic disease, and gene expression in liver and adipose tissue. These coincide with a higher risk of disease postpartum and, very likely, a failure to reach optimum production as well as reproductive targets. Current interpretation of the available evidence suggest that metabolic stressors affect the immune system of transition dairy cows and lead to reduced immunocompetence. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of precalving body condition score (BCS) and level of feeding on immunocompetence during the peripartum period. Twenty-three weeks before calving, 78 cows were allocated randomly to 1 of 6 treatment groups (n=13) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement: 2 precalving BCS categories (4.0 and 5.0, based on a 10-point scale) and 3 levels of energy intake during the 3 wk preceding calving (75, 100, and 125% of estimated requirements). Blood was sampled precalving and at 1, 2 and 4 wk after calving. Cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR. The numbers of T helper lymphocytes (CD4+), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8+), natural killer cells (CD335+), and γδ T lymphocytes (WC1+) as well as their activation status [IL-2 receptor (CD25)+ cells] were highly variable between animals, but there was no evident effect of BCS, feeding level, or time. All groups presented with an increase in expression of cytokines in unstimulated blood cells in the week after calving, although this was significant only for IFNG in the BCS 4.0 group. Analysis of in vitro-stimulated cells allowed 2 general observations: (1) cows with high energy intake precalving (125%) had increased cytokine expression precalving, and (2) all cows had increased cytokine expression in the week after calving. The present study provides evidence that prepartum feed management can affect immunocompetence during the transition period. Considering

  17. Re-feeding food-deprived male meadow voles affects the sperm allocation of their rival males.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Ashlee A; Delbarco-Trillo, Javier; Ferkin, Michael H

    2012-12-01

    An individual's nutritional status affects the manner in which same- and opposite-sex conspecifics respond to that individual, which may affect their fitness. Male meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, increase their sperm allocation if they encounter the scent mark of an unfamiliar male that is not nutritionally challenged. If, however, the scent mark comes from a male that has been food deprived for 24 hours, stud male voles do not increase their sperm allocation. Food deprived males may be viewed as being lower quality and a reduced risk of sperm competition by rival males. We hypothesized that stud males in promiscuous mating systems tailor their sperm allocations depending on whether rival males have been food deprived and then re-fed. We predicted that newly re-fed males will be considered a strong risk of sperm competition because of the potentially high fitness and survival costs associated with food deprivation in males, and that they will cause stud males to increase their sperm allocation. Our results, however, showed that the recovery period from 24 hours of food deprivation was a relatively slow process. It took between 96 hours and 336 hours of re-feeding male scent donors that were food deprived for 24 hours to induce stud males to increase their sperm allocation to levels comparable to when scent donors were not food deprived. Stud male voles may be conserving the amount of sperm allocated until the male scent donors have recovered from food deprivation and subsequent re-feeding.

  18. Does the light source affect the repairability of composite resins?

    PubMed

    Karaman, Emel; Gönülol, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the light source on the microshear bond strength of different composite resins repaired with the same substrate. Thirty cylindrical specimens of each composite resin--Filtek Silorane, Filtek Z550 (3M ESPE), Gradia Direct Anterior (GC), and Aelite Posterior (BISCO)--were prepared and light-cured with a QTH light curing unit (LCU). The specimens were aged by thermal cycling and divided into three subgroups according to the light source used--QTH, LED, or PAC (n = 10). They were repaired with the same substrate and a Clearfil Repair Kit (Kuraray). The specimens were light-cured and aged for 1 week in distilled water at 37 °C. The microshear bond strength and failure modes were assessed. There was no significant difference in the microshear bond strength values among the composite resins, except for the Filtek Silorane group that showed significantly lower bond strength values when polymerized with the PAC unit compared to the QTH or LED unit. In conclusion, previously placed dimethacrylate-based composites can be repaired with different light sources; however, if the composite to be repaired is silorane-based, then using a QTH or LED device may be the best option.

  19. Water Stress and Aphid Feeding Differentially Influence Metabolite Composition in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mewis, Inga; Khan, Mohammed A. M.; Glawischnig, Erich; Schreiner, Monika; Ulrichs, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how drought stress influences plant secondary metabolite accumulation and how this affects plant defense against different aphids. We therefore cultivated Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) plants under well-watered, drought, and water-logged conditions. Two aphid species were selected for this study: the generalist Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and the crucifer specialist Brevicoryne brassicae (L.). Metabolite concentrations in the phloem sap, which influence aphid growth, changed particularly under drought stress. Levels of sucrose and several amino acids, such as glutamic acid, proline, isoleucine, and lysine increased, while concentrations of 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate decreased. M. persicae population growth was highest on plants under drought stress conditions. However, B. brassicae did not profit from improved phloem sap quality under drought stress and performed equally in all water treatments. Water stress and aphids generally had an opposite effect on the accumulation of secondary metabolites in the plant rosettes. Drought stress and water-logging led to increased aliphatic glucosinolate and flavonoid levels. Conversely, aphid feeding, especially of M. persicae, reduced levels of flavonoids and glucosinolates in the plants. Correspondingly, transcript levels of aliphatic biosynthetic genes decreased after feeding of both aphid species. Contrary to M. persicae, drought stress did not promote population growth of B. brassicae on these plants. The specialist aphid induced expression of CYP79B2, CYP79B3, and PAD3 with corresponding accumulation of indolyl glucosinolates and camalexin. This was distinct from M. persicae, which did not elicit similarly strong camalexin accumulation, which led to the hypothesis of a specific defense adaptations against the specialist aphid. PMID:23144921

  20. Factors affecting soil fauna feeding activity in a fragmented lowland temperate deciduous woodland.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Jake E; Slade, Eleanor; Riutta, Terhi; Taylor, Michele E

    2012-01-01

    British temperate broadleaf woodlands have been widely fragmented since the advent of modern agriculture and development. As a result, a higher proportion of woodland area is now subject to edge effects which can alter the efficiency of ecosystem functions. These areas are particularly sensitive to drought. Decomposition of detritus and nutrient cycling are driven by soil microbe and fauna coactivity. The bait lamina assay was used to assess soil fauna trophic activity in the upper soil horizons at five sites in Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire: two edge, two intermediate and one core site. Faunal trophic activity was highest in the core of the woodland, and lowest at the edge, which was correlated with a decreasing soil moisture gradient. The efficiency of the assay was tested using four different bait flavours: standardised, ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), oak (Quercus robur L.), and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.). The standardised bait proved the most efficient flavour in terms of feeding activity. This study suggests that decomposition and nutrient cycling may be compromised in many of the UK's small, fragmented woodlands in the event of drought or climate change.

  1. Factors Affecting Soil Fauna Feeding Activity in a Fragmented Lowland Temperate Deciduous Woodland

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Jake E.; Slade, Eleanor; Riutta, Terhi; Taylor, Michele E.

    2012-01-01

    British temperate broadleaf woodlands have been widely fragmented since the advent of modern agriculture and development. As a result, a higher proportion of woodland area is now subject to edge effects which can alter the efficiency of ecosystem functions. These areas are particularly sensitive to drought. Decomposition of detritus and nutrient cycling are driven by soil microbe and fauna coactivity. The bait lamina assay was used to assess soil fauna trophic activity in the upper soil horizons at five sites in Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire: two edge, two intermediate and one core site. Faunal trophic activity was highest in the core of the woodland, and lowest at the edge, which was correlated with a decreasing soil moisture gradient. The efficiency of the assay was tested using four different bait flavours: standardised, ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), oak (Quercus robur L.), and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.). The standardised bait proved the most efficient flavour in terms of feeding activity. This study suggests that decomposition and nutrient cycling may be compromised in many of the UK's small, fragmented woodlands in the event of drought or climate change. PMID:22235311

  2. Atmospheric composition affects heat- and mass-transfer processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakely, R. L.; Nelson, W. G.

    1970-01-01

    For environmental control system functions sensitive to atmospheric composition, components are test-operated in helium-oxygen and nitrogen-oxygen mixtures, pure oxygen, and air. Transient heat- and mass-transfer tests are conducted for carbon dioxide adsorption on molecular sieve and for water vapor adsorption on silica gel.

  3. Effects of time on feed and post-mortem aging on palatability and lipid composition of crossbred Wagyu beef.

    PubMed

    Xie, Y R; Busboom, J R; Cornforth, D P; Shenton, H T; Gaskins, C T; Johnson, K A; Reeves, J J; Wright, R W; Cronrath, J D

    1996-06-01

    Twenty-seven Wagyu-sired steers were fed for 90 (14 steers) or 170 (13 steers) days to study the effects of time on feed on palatability and fatty acid composition, and the effects of post-mortem aging time (2, 4 or 10 days) on palatability. Hot carcass weight, fat thickness, longissimus dorsi muscle area, yield grade, estimated kidney, pelvic and heart fat and maturity score were increased (p < 0.05) by an additional 80 days on the high concentrate feed, but marbling was not changed (p > 0.05). Feeding the high concentrate diet for 170 days increased Warner-Bratzler shear force values (p < 0.05) and tended to decrease tenderness (p > 0.05), flavor intensity and connective tissue scores. For the 90 day feeding group, 4 days of aging improved connective tissue score (p < 0.05) and tended to increase (p > 0.05) tenderness scores and decrease shear force, compared with 2 days of aging. For the 170 day feeding group, 10 days of aging improved (p < 0.05) shear force and all sensory attributes except flavor intensity, compared to 2 days of aging. An additional 80 days on feed decreased (p < 0.05) stearic acid and total saturated fatty acids (SFA) and generally increased (p < 0.05) monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), MUFA:SFA, and PUFA:SFA in subcutaneous fat and longissimus dorsi muscle. The cholesterol content of fat and muscle increased (p < 0.05) as time on feed increased. Ninety days on a high concentrate diet was adequate for yearling crossbred Wagyu steers to produce highly acceptable carcasses. The additional 80 days on feed produced little or no overall benefit and the steers became overfinished and less tender. Ten days post-mortem aging improved (p < 0.05) all palatability attributes except flavor intensity.

  4. Divergence for residual feed intake of Holstein-Friesian cattle during growth did not affect production and reproduction during lactation.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, K A; Thomson, B P; Waghorn, G C

    2016-11-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between actual and predicted dry matter intake (DMI) of individual animals. Recent studies with Holstein-Friesian calves have identified an ~20% difference in RFI during growth (calf RFI) and these groups remained divergent in RFI during lactation. The objective of the experiment described here was to determine if cows selected for divergent RFI as calves differed in milk production, reproduction or in the profiles of BW and body condition score (BCS) change during lactation, when grazing pasture. The cows used in the experiment (n=126) had an RFI of -0.88 and +0.75 kg DM intake/day for growth as calves (efficient and inefficient calf RFI groups, respectively) and were intensively grazed at four stocking rates (SR) of 2.2, 2.6, 3.1 and 3.6 cows/ha on self-contained farmlets, over 3 years. Each SR treatment had equal number of cows identified as low and high calf RFI, with 24, 28, 34 and 40/11 ha farmlet. The cows divergent for calf RFI were randomly allocated to each SR. Although SR affected production, calf RFI group (low or high) did not affect milk production, reproduction, BW, BCS or changes in these parameters throughout lactation. The most efficient animals (low calf RFI) lost similar BW and BCS as the least efficient (high calf RFI) immediately post-calving, and regained similar BW and BCS before their next calving. These results indicate that selection for RFI as calves to increase efficiency of feed utilisation did not negatively affect farm productivity variables (milk production, BCS, BW and reproduction) as adults when managed under an intensive pastoral grazing system.

  5. Feeding into old age: long-term effects of dietary fatty acid supplementation on tissue composition and life span in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ruf, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Smaller mammals, such as mice, possess tissues containing more polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) than larger mammals, while at the same time live shorter lives. These relationships have been combined in the ‘membrane pacemaker hypothesis of aging’. It suggests that membrane PUFA content might determine an animal’s life span. PUFAs in general and certain long-chain PUFAs in particular, are highly prone to lipid peroxidation which brings about a high rate of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We hypothesized that dietary supplementation of either n-3 or n-6 PUFAs might affect (1) membrane phospholipid composition of heart and liver tissues and (2) life span of the animals due to the altered membrane composition, and subsequent effects on lipid peroxidation. Therefore, we kept female laboratory mice from the C57BL/6 strain on three diets (n-3 PUFA rich, n-6 PUFA rich, control) and assessed body weights, life span, heart, and liver phospholipid composition after the animals had died. We found that while membrane phospholipid composition clearly differed between feeding groups, life span was not directly affected. However, we were able to observe a positive correlation between monounsaturated fatty acids in cardiac muscle and life span. PMID:20981551

  6. Gut microbiota affects lens and retinal lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Oresic, Matej; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Yetukuri, Laxman; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Hänninen, Virve

    2009-11-01

    The gut microbiota affects host lipid metabolism and is considered an environmental factor that contributes to development of obesity. To investigate whether the gut microbiota affects the eye lipidome, we performed comprehensive lipidomic profiling of lens and retina from conventionally raised and germ-free mice. Conventionally raised mice had diminished phosphatidylcholines in the lens and elevated ethanolamine plasmalogens in the retina. Diminishment of lens phosphatidylcholines in the presence of gut microbiota suggests that the conventionally raised mice are exposed over time to more oxidative stress than germ-free mice. Consistent with this, their lifespan is also shorter. Our findings may open a new area of investigation how modulation of gut microbiota affects the eye health.

  7. Cortisol affects metabolic and ionoregulatory responses to a different extent depending on feeding ration in common carp, Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Liew, Hon Jung; Fazio, Angela; Faggio, Caterina; Blust, Ronny; De Boeck, Gudrun

    2015-11-01

    Interacting effects of feeding and stress on corticoid responses in fish were investigated in common carp fed 3.0% or 0.5% body mass (BM) which received no implant, a sham or a cortisol implant (250 mg/kg BM) throughout a 168 hour post-implant period (168 h-PI). At 12h-PI, cortisol implants elevated plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate. Plasma osmolality and ions remained stable, but cortisol increased gill and kidney Na(+)/K(+) ATPase (NKA) and H(+) ATPase activities. Gill NKA activities were higher at 3%-BM, whereas kidney H(+) ATPase activity was greater at 0.5%-BM. Cortisol induced liver protein mobilization and repartitioned liver and muscle glycogen. At 3%-BM, this did not increase plasma ammonia, reflecting improved excretion efficiency concomitant with upregulation of Rhesus glycoprotein Rhcg-1 in gill. Responses in glucocorticoid receptors (GR1/GR2) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) to cortisol elevation were most prominent in kidney with increased expression of all receptors at 24 h-PI at 0.5%-BM, but only GR2 and MR at 0.5%-BM. In the liver, upregulation of all receptors occurred at 24 h-PI at 3%-BM, whilst only GR2 and MR were upregulated at 0.5%-BM. In the gill, there was a limited upregulation: GR2 and MR at 72 h-PI and GR1 at 168 h-PI at 3%-BM but only GR2 at 72 h-PI at 0.5%-BM. Thus cortisol elevation led to similar expression patterns of cortisol receptors in both feeding regimes, while feeding affected the type of receptor that was induced. Induction of corticoid receptors occurred simultaneously with increases in Rhcg-1 mRNA expression (gill) but well after NKA and H(+) ATPase activities increased (gill/kidney).

  8. How does parents' visual perception of their child's weight status affect their feeding style?

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Resul; Erkorkmaz, Ünal; Ozcetin, Mustafa; Karaaslan, Erhan

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El estilo de alimentación es uno de los factores prominentes que determina la ingesta de energía. Uno de los factores que influyen en el estilo de alimentación paterna es la percepción de los padres del estado de peso del niño. Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar la relación entre la percepción visual de la madre del estado de peso de su hijo y su estilo de alimentación. Método: Se realizó un estudio transversal con madres de 380 niños preescolares de 5 a 7 (6,14 años). Las puntuaciones de la percepción visual se midieron mediante unos dibujos y el estilo de alimentación materna se medió con el cuestionario validado “Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire”. Resultados: Las puntuaciones de las subescalas de las dimensiones de alimentación parental “alimentación emocional” y “animar a comer” eran bajas en niños con sobrepeso de acuerdo con la clasificación de la percepción visual. Las puntuaciones de las subescalas “alimentación emocional” y “control permisivo” eran estadísticamente distintas en los niños clasificados como correctamente percibidos e incorrectamente percibidos bajos por una mala percepción materna. Conclusión: Diversos estilos de alimentación se relacionaban con la percepción visual materna. El mejor abordaje para evitar la obesidad y el peso bajo podría estar en centrarse en conseguir una correcta percepción parental del estado de peso de sus hijos, mejorando así las habilidades paternas y conllevando la implantación de unos estilos de alimentación adecuados.

  9. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND APPLICABILITY AS FOOD AND FEED OF MASS-CULTURED UNICELLULAR ALGAE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ALGAE, * LACTOBACILLUS , CULTURE MEDIA, FOOD, FEED PELLETS, ACCEPTABILITY, GROWTH(PHYSIOLOGY), HYDROCHLORIC ACID, PEPTONES, CHLOROPHYLLS, SOLVENT EXTRACTION, CELLS(BIOLOGY), COLORS, NUTRITION, SWINE, VITAMINS

  10. The cyanogenic glucoside composition of Zygaena filipendulae (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae) as effected by feeding on wild-type and transgenic lotus populations with variable cyanogenic glucoside profiles.

    PubMed

    Zagrobelny, Mika; Bak, Søren; Ekstrøm, Claus Thorn; Olsen, Carl Erik; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2007-01-01

    Zygaena larvae sequester the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin from their food plants (Fabaceae) as well as carry out de novo biosynthesis of these compounds. In this study, Zygaena filipendulae were reared on wild-type Lotus corniculatus and wild-type and transgenic L. japonicus plants with differing content and ratios of the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin and of the cyanoalkenyl glucosides rhodiocyanoside A and D. LC-MS analyses, free choice feeding experiments and developmental studies were used to examine the effect of varying content and ratios of these secondary metabolites on the feeding preferences, growth and development of Z. filipendulae. Larvae reared on cyanogenic L. corniculatus developed faster compared to larvae reared on L. japonicus although free choice feeding trials demonstrated that the latter plant source was the preferred food plant. Larvae reared on acyanogenic L. corniculatus showed decelerated development. Analysis of different life stages and tissues demonstrate that Z. filipendulae strive to maintain certain threshold content and ratios of cyanogenic glucosides regardless of the composition of the food plants. Despite this, the ratios of cyanogenic glucosides in Z. filipendulae remain partly affected by the ratio of the food plant due to the high proportion of sequestering that takes place.

  11. Effect of different feeds on meat quality and fatty acid composition of lambs fattened at pasture.

    PubMed

    Velasco, S; Cañeque, V; Lauzurica, S; Pérez, C; Huidobro, F

    2004-02-01

    Two kinds of feed (commercial concentrate vs whole supplemented barley) were compared in unweaned lambs and lambs weaned at 40 days of age, fattened at pasture and slaughtered at 28 kg live weight, in order to observe their effects on meat quality and fatty acid composition. The weaning status influenced fatness; unweaned lambs displayed a greater carcass fatness score and more kidney knob and channel fat than weaned lambs. Compared with the unweaned animals, weaned lambs exhibited higher pH values at 0 h and 45 min in the m. longissimus thoracis (LT) and at 45 min and 24 h in the m. semitendinosus. The redness index (a*) of the m. LT of weaned lambs was higher than that of unweaned lambs, and lambs fed concentrate displayed a higher yellowness index (b*) and a higher Hue value than those given whole barley. Water-holding capacity did not vary with the treatments studied. The proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in intramuscular fat was higher (P⩾0.001) in unweaned lambs than in weaned ones while, on the other hand, the latter displayed a higher proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and a higher n-6/n-3 ratio in the same tissue. As was the case with intramuscular fat, the subcutaneous fat of unweaned lambs exhibited higher proportions of medium-chain fatty acids (C12:0, C14:0 y C16:0) and lower ones of stearic (C18:0) and oleic (C18:1) fatty acids than that of weaned lambs. Higher levels of heptadecenoic acid (C17:1) were found in the subcutaneous fat of lambs fed whole barley than in that of lambs given concentrate. PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios were lower in the m. LT than in the m. quadriceps femoris.

  12. Effect of feed restriction and initial body weight on growth performance, body composition, and hormones in male pigs immunized against gonadotropin-releasing factor.

    PubMed

    Moore, K L; Mullan, B P; Kim, J C; Payne, H G; Dunshea, F R

    2016-09-01

    Pigs immunized against gonadotropin-releasing factor (GnRF) have increased carcass fatness compared to entire males; however, the timing of this increase in fatness after the second immunization against GnRF has not been determined. An experiment was conducted to identify and compare the growth performance, body composition, and physiological changes in immunocastrated males (IC males) at different BW and feeding levels. A total of 64 pigs were used in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment with the treatments being 1) sex (entire males or IC males), 2) initial BW (45.9 kg [light] or 78.3 kg [heavy]), and 3) feeding regime (2.5 times maintenance [restricted] or ad libitum). The pigs were individually housed, and the diets were fed for 4 wk after the second immunization against GnRF until slaughter at either 68.4 kg BW (light) or 105.8 kg BW (heavy). Immunocastrated males on a restricted feed intake had a lower ADG compared to entire males from d 15 to 28 and d 0 to 28 ( 0.011 and 0.011, respectively). Fat deposition was not affected by sex from d 0 to 14, but from d 15 to 28 IC males deposited 45 g/d more fat than entire males ( = 0.025). Immunocastrated male pigs fed ad libitum deposited 87 g/d more fat from d 15 to 28 than entire males fed ad libitum ( = 0.036). However, there was no difference in fat deposition between IC males and entire males when feed intake was restricted from d 15 to 28. Plasma urea nitrogen levels were greater in IC males compared to entire males from d 7 after the second immunization against GnRF ( 0.05 for d 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28). Plasma concentrations of IGF-1 were lower for IC males compared to entire males on d 3, 7, 10, and 28 ( 0.05 for all days). The following conclusions were made: 1) when pigs are immunized at a light BW (50 kg) and/or are on a restricted feed intake, they have a reduced propensity to deposit fat; however, the restriction in feed intake adversely affects growth rate. 2) The majority of fat deposition for males

  13. Minor milk constituents are affected by protein concentration and forage digestibility in the feed ration.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Torben; Alstrup, Lene; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted in order to investigate if selected minor milk components would be indicative for the nutritional situation of the cow. Forty-eight dairy cows were offered a high digestible ration vs. a lower digestible ration combined with 2 protein levels in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAG), uric acid and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were measured and correlated mutually and towards other milking parameters (yield, h since last milking, days in milk (DIM), urea, etc). The variation range of the suggested variables were broad, a fact that may support their utilisation as predictive parameters. The content of milk metabolites was significantly affected by the change in rations as milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, uric acid, and the ratio cholesterol: triacylglycerides increased with higher energy intake while BHBA and TAG decreased. The content of some of the milk metabolites changed during 24 h day/night periods: BHBA, cholesterol, uric acid and TAG increased whereas free glucose decreased in the night period. Certain associations between milk metabolites and calculated energy parameters like ECM, body condition score (BCS), and body weight gain were found, however, these associations were to some extent explained by an interaction with DIM, just as changes in milk metabolites during a 24 h period seems to interfere. It is concluded that the practical use of the suggested milk variables should be based on more than one metabolite and that stage of lactation and possibly time of the day where the milk is collected should be incorporated in predictive models.

  14. Dietary fatty acids affect mitochondrial phospholipid compositions and mitochondrial gene expression of rainbow trout liver at different ages.

    PubMed

    Almaida-Pagán, P F; De Santis, C; Rubio-Mejía, O L; Tocher, D R

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are among the first responders to various stressors that challenge the homeostasis of cells and organisms. Mitochondrial decay is generally associated with impairment in the organelle bioenergetics function and increased oxidative stress, and it appears that deterioration of mitochondrial inner membrane phospholipids (PL), particularly cardiolipin (CL), and accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are among the main mechanisms involved in this process. In the present study, liver mitochondrial membrane PL compositions, lipid peroxidation, and mtDNA gene expression were analyzed in rainbow trout fed three diets with the same base formulation but with lipid supplied either by fish oil (FO), rapeseed oil (RO), or high DHA oil (DHA) during 6 weeks. Specifically, two feeding trials were performed using fish from the same population of two ages (1 and 3 years), and PL class compositions of liver mitochondria, fatty acid composition of individual PL classes, TBARS content, and mtDNA expression were determined. Dietary fatty acid composition strongly affected mitochondrial membrane composition from trout liver but observed changes did not fully reflect the diet, particularly when it contained high DHA. The changes were PL specific, CL being particularly resistant to changes in DHA. Some significant differences observed in expression of mtDNA with diet may suggest long-term dietary effects in mitochondrial gene expression which could affect electron transport chain function. All the changes were influenced by fish age, which could be related to the different growth rates observed between 1- and 3-year-old trout but that could also indicate age-related changes in the ability to maintain structural homeostasis of mitochondrial membranes.

  15. Multitrophic Interaction in the Rhizosphere of Maize: Root Feeding of Western Corn Rootworm Larvae Alters the Microbial Community Composition

    PubMed Central

    Dematheis, Flavia; Zimmerling, Ute; Flocco, Cecilia; Kurtz, Benedikt; Vidal, Stefan; Kropf, Siegfried; Smalla, Kornelia

    2012-01-01

    Background Larvae of the Western Corn Rootworm (WCR) feeding on maize roots cause heavy economical losses in the US and in Europe. New or adapted pest management strategies urgently require a better understanding of the multitrophic interaction in the rhizosphere. This study aimed to investigate the effect of WCR root feeding on the microbial communities colonizing the maize rhizosphere. Methodology/Principal Findings In a greenhouse experiment, maize lines KWS13, KWS14, KWS15 and MON88017 were grown in three different soil types in presence and in absence of WCR larvae. Bacterial and fungal community structures were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the16S rRNA gene and ITS fragments, PCR amplified from the total rhizosphere community DNA. DGGE bands with increased intensity were excised from the gel, cloned and sequenced in order to identify specific bacteria responding to WCR larval feeding. DGGE fingerprints showed that the soil type and the maize line influenced the fungal and bacterial communities inhabiting the maize rhizosphere. WCR larval feeding affected the rhiyosphere microbial populations in a soil type and maize line dependent manner. DGGE band sequencing revealed an increased abundance of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus in the rhizosphere of several maize lines in all soil types upon WCR larval feeding. Conclusion/Significance The effects of both rhizosphere and WCR larval feeding seemed to be stronger on bacterial communities than on fungi. Bacterial and fungal community shifts in response to larval feeding were most likely due to changes of root exudation patterns. The increased abundance of A. calcoaceticus suggested that phenolic compounds were released upon WCR wounding. PMID:22629377

  16. Zinc deficiency affects the composition of the rat adrenal gland

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, R.J.; Leure-DuPree, A.E.; Fosmire, G.J.

    1986-07-01

    The response of the adrenal gland to zinc deficiency was examined in male weanling rats. In comparison with decapsulated adrenals from ad libitum fed controls, glands from zinc deficient rats had greater relative weight (mg/g body wt), DNA concentration, and total lipid and cholesterol concentrations as well as a smaller protein/DNA ratio. Several of these differences (protein/DNA and cholesterol concentration) could be attributed to the inanition accompanying zinc deficient values were similar to those of pair fed controls. Values for total DNA and protein concentration were similar for all groups. Electron micrographs of the zona fasciculata showed a small number of lipid droplets in the adrenals from ad libitum fed controls, an increase in lipid droplets from pair fed controls, and an even more striking increase in lipid droplets from the zinc deficient adrenals. The increased adrenal lipid composition in the zinc deficient group may be secondary to enhanced steroidogenesis or a zinc deficiency-induced defect of lipid metabolism.

  17. Glyphosate affects seed composition in glyphosate-resistant soybean.

    PubMed

    Zobiole, Luiz H S; Oliveira, Rubem S; Visentainer, Jesui V; Kremer, Robert J; Bellaloui, Nacer; Yamada, Tsuioshi

    2010-04-14

    The cultivation of glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybeans has continuously increased worldwide in recent years mainly due to the importance of glyphosate in current weed management systems. However, not much has been done to understand eventual effects of glyphosate application on GR soybean physiology, especially those related to seed composition with potential effects on human health. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of glyphosate application on GR soybeans compared with its near-isogenic non-GR parental lines. Results of the first experiment showed that glyphosate application resulted in significant decreases in shoot nutrient concentrations, photosynthetic parameters, and biomass production. Similar trends were observed for the second experiment, although glyphosate application significantly altered seed nutrient concentrations and polyunsaturated fatty acid percentages. Glyphosate resulted in significant decreases in polyunsaturated linoleic acid (18:2n-6) (2.3% decrease) and linolenic acid (18:3n-3) (9.6% decrease) and a significant increase in monounsaturated fatty acids 17:1n-7 (30.3% increase) and 18:1n-7 (25% increase). The combined observations of decreased photosynthetic parameters and low nutrient availability in glyphosate-treated plants may explain potential adverse effects of glyphosate in GR soybeans.

  18. Leg tissue mass composition affects tibial acceleration response following impact.

    PubMed

    Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Burkhart, Timothy A; Andrews, David M

    2012-02-01

    To date, there has not been a direct examination of the effect that tissue composition (lean mass/muscle, fat mass, bone mineral content) differences between males and females has on how the tibia responds to impacts similar to those seen during running. To evaluate this, controlled heel impacts were imparted to 36 participants (6 M and 6 F in each of low, medium and high percent body fat [BF] groups) using a human pendulum. A skin-mounted accelerometer medial to the tibial tuberosity was used to determine the tibial response parameters (peak acceleration, acceleration slope and time to peak acceleration). There were no consistent effects of BF or specific tissue masses on the un-normalized tibial response parameters. However, females experienced 25% greater peak acceleration than males. When normalized to lean mass, wobbling mass, and bone mineral content, females experienced 50%, 62% and 70% greater peak acceleration, respectively, per gram of tissue than males. Higher magnitudes of lean mass and bone mass significantly contributed to decreased acceleration responses in general.

  19. Serum heat inactivation affects protein corona composition and nanoparticle uptake.

    PubMed

    Lesniak, Anna; Campbell, Abigail; Monopoli, Marco P; Lynch, Iseult; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A

    2010-12-01

    Nanoparticles are of an appropriate size to interact with cells, and are likely to use a range of cellular machinery for internalisation and trafficking to various sub-cellular compartments. It is now understood that once in contact with biological fluids, the nanoparticle surface gets covered by a highly specific layer of proteins, forming the nanoparticle protein corona. This protein layer is stable for times longer than the typical time scale of nanoparticle import, and thus can impact on particle uptake and trafficking inside the cells. In this work, the effect of the corona composition on nanoparticle uptake has been investigated, by studying the impact of serum heat inactivation and complement depletion on the load of nanoparticles accumulated inside the cell. For the same material and nanoparticle size, cellular uptake was found to be significantly different when the nanoparticles were dispersed in medium where the serum was heat inactivated or not heat inactivated, even for non-specialized cells, suggesting that different sera can lead to different nanoparticle doses. The fact that uptake was correlated with the amount of protein bound into the nanoparticle corona suggests the need for commonly agreed dispersion protocols for in vitro nanoparticle-cell studies.

  20. Feed allowance and maternal backfat levels during gestation influence maternal cortisol levels, milk fat composition and offspring growth.

    PubMed

    Amdi, Charlotte; Giblin, Linda; Hennessy, Alan A; Ryan, Tomás; Stanton, Catherine; Stickland, Neil C; Lawlor, Peadar G

    2013-01-01

    The fetal and early postnatal environment can have a long-term influence on offspring growth. Using a pig model, we investigated the effects of maternal body condition (thin or fat) and maternal gestation feeding level (restricted, control or high) on maternal stress, milk composition, litter size, piglet birth weight and pre-weaning growth. A total of sixty-eight thin (backfat depth about 8 mm) and seventy-two fat (backfat depth about 12 mm) gilts were selected at about 22 weeks. This backfat difference was then accentuated nutritionally up to service at about 32 weeks. During gestation, individual gilts from within each group were randomly allocated to a gestation diet at the following feed allowances: 1·8 kg/d (restricted); 2·5 kg/d (control) and 3·5 kg/d (high) until day 90 of gestation. During gestation restricted gilts had higher levels of cortisol than high and control fed animals. Piglets born to fat gilts had higher average daily gain during the lactation period and higher weaning weights at day 28 than piglets born to thin gilts. Gilts on a high feed level had heavier piglets than those provided with restricted and control allocations. Fat gilts had less saturated fat in their milk at day 21 of lactation and higher unsaturated fat levels. No differences were found in the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio in the milk between thin and fat gilts. In conclusion, maternal body condition influenced the daily weight gain of offspring up to weaning (day 28) and milk fat composition. Furthermore, maternal feed level during gestation alters maternal cortisol levels and milk fat composition.

  1. Dry period plane of energy: Effects on feed intake, energy balance, milk production, and composition in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mann, S; Yepes, F A Leal; Overton, T R; Wakshlag, J J; Lock, A L; Ryan, C M; Nydam, D V

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on the degree of ketonemia postpartum. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence of an association between elevated β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations in postpartum dairy cows and a decreased risk for reproductive success as well as increased risk for several diseases in early lactation, such as displacement of the abomasum and metritis. The plane of energy fed to cows in the prepartum period has been shown to influence ketogenesis and the degree of negative energy balance postpartum. Our hypothesis was that a high-fiber, controlled-energy diet (C) fed during the dry period would lead to a lower degree of hyperketonemia in the first weeks postpartum compared with either a high-energy diet (H), or a diet where an intermediate level of energy would only be fed in the close-up period (starting at 28d before expected parturition), following the same controlled-energy diet in the far-off period. Hyperketonemia in this study was defined as a blood BHBA concentration of ≥1.2mmol/L. Holstein cows (n=84) entering parity 2 or greater were enrolled using a randomized block design and housed in individual tiestalls. All treatment diets were fed for ad libitum intake and contained monensin. Cows received the same fresh cow ration after calving. Blood samples were obtained 3 times weekly before and after calving and analyzed for BHBA and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Milk components, production, and dry matter intake were recorded and energy balance was calculated. Repeated measures ANOVA was conducted for the outcomes dry matter intake, energy balance, BHBA and NEFA concentrations, milk and energy-corrected milk yield, as well as milk composition. Predicted energy balance tended to be less negative postpartum in group C and cows in this group had fewer episodes of hyperketonemia compared with both the intermediate group and group H in the first 3 wk after calving. Postpartum BHBA and

  2. Assessment of a phytogenic feed additive (Digestarom P.E.P. MGE) on growth performance, processing yield, fillet composition, and survival of channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of feed additives to improve production has been identified as an important area for development in aquaculture. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of a phytogenic feed additive (Digestarom® P.E.P. MGE) on growth performance, processing yield, fillet composition, and survival ...

  3. Digestive constraints on an aquatic carnivore: effects of feeding frequency and prey composition on harbor seals.

    PubMed

    Trumble, S J; Barboza, P S; Castellini, M A

    2003-08-01

    We hypothesized that increased feeding frequency in captive harbor seals would increase nutrient loads and thus reduce retention time and the digestive efficiency of natural prey. We measured daily feed intake and excretion during 6 feeding trials and fed herring (49% lipid), pollock (22% lipid) or an equal mix of each diet over 24 months. Animals were accustomed to feeding at either high or low frequency. Body mass and intake did not vary with season. Although mean retention times were similar between diets and feeding frequencies, solute and particulate digesta markers separated at high feeding frequency. Consistent dry matter digestibility resulted in greater gut fill from pollock than from herring. Digestible energy intakes from pollock were approximately 25% greater than from either herring or the mixed diet. Lipid digestibility of herring declined from 90% to 50% when lipid intake exceeded 60 g kg(-0.75) day(-1). Our hypothesis of a trade-off between intake and digestion was not supported for protein but was supported for lipid. Results of this study imply that a flexible digestive system for harbor seals can compensate for ingesting prey of lower energy density by increasing gut fill and enhancing protein and lipid assimilation, to sustain digestible energy intake.

  4. Diet composition and feeding patterns of adult shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) in the lower Platte River, Nebraska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapp, T.; Shuman, D.A.; Graeb, B.D.S.; Chipps, Steven R.; Peters, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Two-hundred and seven adult shovelnose sturgeon ranging from 450 to 718 mm in length were sampled from June to October 2001 and May to July 2002 to determine diet composition and feeding patterns in the lower Platte River. Shovelnose sturgeon fed primarily upon aquatic insect larvae and nymphs (>99% composition by number). Diptera of the family Chironomidae were the dominant prey items in both years and composed 98.1% of the shovelnose sturgeon diet in 2001 and 96.8% in 2002. Chironomidae were primarily represented by the four genera Paracladopelma, Chernovskiia, Saetheria and Robackia accounting for 90.2% of the ingested prey items in 2001 and 83.6% in 2002. In addition, shovelnose sturgeon showed in both years a generalized feeding pattern towards Ephemeroptera of the families Isonychiidae and Caenidae, as well as Trichoptera of the family Hydropsychidae. Other aquatic insects, terrestrial invertebrates and fishes were found infrequently and in low numbers in shovelnose sturgeon diets. The four most abundant Chironomidae genera are often found on sand and the high abundance of these taxa in the diet suggests that shovelnose sturgeon feed primarily near or on this substrate type. This highlights the importance of habitats that provide sand substrate for shovelnose sturgeon foraging in the lower Platte River.

  5. Optimal dietary energy and amino acids for gilt development: Growth, body composition, feed intake, and carcass composition traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to manipulate the lean to fat ratio by feeding diets differing in lysine and metabolizable energy (ME) content to replacement gilts from 100 d to 260 d of age. A secondary objective was to evaluate lysine and caloric efficiency between dietary treatments fed to develo...

  6. Does feed restriction and re-alimentation differently affect lipid content and metabolism according to muscle type in pigs (Sus scrofa)?

    PubMed

    Gondret, Florence; Lebret, Bénédicte

    2007-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether feed restriction and re-alimentation differently affect lipid content and activities of lipogenic or catabolic enzymes according to muscle types in pigs. At around 28 kg body mass (BW), sixty pigs (n=30 per group) were allocated to either ad libitum (AL) or restricted/re-feeding (RA) regimens. After feed restriction (80 kg BW), lipid content was reduced (P<0.01) in the oxidative rhomboideus (RH) as in the glycolytic biceps femoris (BF) muscles of RA pigs compared with AL pigs. Lower activities (P<0.05) of the lipogenic enzymes fatty acid synthase (FAS) and malic enzyme (ME) were observed in the RH but not in the BF of RA vs. AL pigs. After re-feeding (110 kg BW), lipid content was restored in the RH, but was still 12% lower (P<0.05) in the BF of RA compared with AL pigs. In the RH, the trend for an enhanced FAS activity and for a smaller weight-related decrease of ME activity in RA pigs than AL pigs during re-feeding, may have contributed to the muscle fat recovery observed in the RA pigs. In the BF, higher oxidative enzyme activities (P<0.10) in RA pigs compared to AL pigs might explain the incomplete lipid recovery observed after re-feeding in the former animals. In conclusion, metabolic activities in response to restriction and re-feeding differed according to muscle metabolic type.

  7. Feeding periodicity, diet composition, and food consumption of subyearling rainbow trout in winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James H.; Chalupnicki, Marc; Abbett, Ross

    2016-01-01

    Although winter is a critically important period for stream salmonids, aspects of the ecology of several species are poorly understood. Consequently, we examined the diel feeding ecology of subyearling rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during winter in a central New York stream. Rainbow trout diet was significantly different during each 4-h interval and also differed from the drift and benthos. Feeding was significantly greater during darkness (i.e. 20:00 h – 04:00 h) than during daylight hours (i.e. 08:00 h – 16:00 h), peaking at 20:00 h. Daily food consumption (1.9 mg) and daily ration (3.4 %) during winter were substantially lower than previously reported for subyearling rainbow trout in the same stream during summer. These findings provide important new insights into the winter feeding ecology of juvenile rainbow trout in streams.

  8. Composition of bacteria harvested from the liquid and solid fractions of the rumen of sheep as influenced by feed intake.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, C A; González, J; Alvir, M R; Repetto, J L; Centeno, C; Lamrani, F

    2000-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of the feed intake on the chemical composition of bacteria associated with the solid (solid-associated bacteria; SAB) and liquid (liquid-associated bacteria; LAB) fractions of rumen digesta, the digestive passage kinetics and their relationships. Whole rumen contents were sampled after a period of continuous infusion of 15NH3 from four ruminally-cannulated wethers provided successively with a hay-concentrate diet (2 : 1 w/w on a DM basis) at two rates of feed intake: 40 and 80 g DM/kg body weight 0.75. SAB had a higher content of organic matter and total lipids (P < 0.001) and a similar N content as compared with LAB. The concentration of purines and 15N was lower (P = 0.011 and P < 0.001 respectively) in SAB than LAB, whereas the opposite was observed for the concentration of amino acids (mg/g DM; P = 0.031). An increase in feed intake produced an increase in the N (P = 0.034) and purine (P = 0.066) concentrations in bacteria and a decrease (P = 0.033) in their amino acid concentrations. Significant increases of rumen outflow rates of liquid and particles were also observed with increased feed intake. Rates of rumen outflow showed positive and negative linear relationships (P < 0.001) with the purine : N ratio and the proportion of amino acid on total N of bacteria respectively. SAB contained significantly higher proportions of leucine, isoleucine, lysine and phenylalanine and lower proportions of alanine, methionine and valine than LAB. The increase in feed intake also induced significant changes in the amino acid profile of bacteria, increasing arginine and methionine and decreasing alanine and glycine proportions. Results show that the outflow rate of rumen contents is a major factor in determining the proportion of nucleic acids and protein in rumen bacteria and explains some of the differences observed between LAB and SAB.

  9. Delineation of surf scoter habitat in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland: macrobenthic and sediment composition of surf scoter feeding sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kidwell, D.M.; Perry, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Surveys of surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) along the Atlantic coast of the United States have shown population declines in recent decades. The Chesapeake Bay has traditionally been a key wintering area for surf scoters. Past and present research has shown that bivalves constitute a major food item for seaducks in the Chesapeake Bay, with surf scoters feeding primarily on hooked mussel (Ischadium recurvum) and dwarf surf clam (Mulinia lateralis). Degraded water quality conditions in the Chesapeake Bay have been well documented and have been shown to greatly influence the composition of benthic communities. Large concentrations of feeding surf scoters (>500 individuals) in the Bay were determined through monthly boat surveys. Locations consistently lacking surf scoters were also determined. Macrobenthos were seasonally sampled at 3 locations containing scoters and 3 locations without scoters. A 1 kilometer square grid was superimposed over each location using GIS and sampling sites within the square were randomly chosen. Benthos were sampled at each site using SCUBA and a meter square quadrat. Biomass and size class estimates were determined for all bivalves within each kilometer square. Results indicated that scoter feeding sites contained significantly greater biomass of M. lateralis, I. recurvum, and Gemma gemma than locations where no scoters were present. Substrate differences were also detected, with scoter feeding sites being composed of a sand/shell mix while non-scoter sites consisted primarily of mud. This data indicates that surf scoters in the Chesapeake Bay are selecting areas with high densities of preferred food items, potentially maximizing there foraging energetics. In addition, two scoter feeding sites also contained a patchwork of eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) and oyster shell, on which much of the I. recurvum was attached. This suggests the possibility that surf scoters utilize eastern oyster habitat and the dramatic depletion of

  10. Impact of surface structure and feed gas composition on Bacillus subtilis endospore inactivation during direct plasma treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hertwig, Christian; Steins, Veronika; Reineke, Kai; Rademacher, Antje; Klocke, Michael; Rauh, Cornelia; Schlüter, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the inactivation efficiency of cold atmospheric pressure plasma treatment on Bacillus subtilis endospores dependent on the used feed gas composition and on the surface, the endospores were attached on. Glass petri-dishes, glass beads, and peppercorns were inoculated with the same endospore density and treated with a radio frequency plasma jet. Generated reactive species were detected using optical emission spectroscopy. A quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) based ratio detection system was established to monitor the DNA damage during the plasma treatment. Argon + 0.135% vol. oxygen + 0.2% vol. nitrogen as feed gas emitted the highest amounts of UV-C photons and considerable amount of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Plasma generated with argon + 0.135% vol. oxygen was characterized by the highest emission of reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas the UV-C emission was negligible. The use of pure argon showed a negligible emission of UV photons and atomic oxygen, however, the emission of vacuum (V)UV photons was assumed. Similar maximum inactivation results were achieved for the three feed gas compositions. The surface structure had a significant impact on the inactivation efficiency of the plasma treatment. The maximum inactivation achieved was between 2.4 and 2.8 log10 on glass petri-dishes and 3.9 to 4.6 log10 on glass beads. The treatment of peppercorns resulted in an inactivation lower than 1.0 log10. qPCR results showed a significant DNA damage for all gas compositions. Pure argon showed the highest results for the DNA damage ratio values, followed by argon + 0.135% vol. oxygen + 0.2% vol. nitrogen. In case of argon + 0.135% vol. oxygen the inactivation seems to be dominated by the action of ROS. These findings indicate the significant role of VUV and UV photons in the inactivation process of B. subtilis endospores. PMID:26300855

  11. Endocannabinoid concentrations in plasma associated with feed efficiency and carcass composition on crossbreed steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endocannabinoids, including anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are a class of endogenous lipid mediators that activate cannabinoids receptors and may be involved in the control of feed intake and energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to quantify AEA and 2-AG in plasma a...

  12. Endocannabinoids concentrations in plasma associated with feed efficiency and carcass composition of beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endocannabinoids, including anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are a class of endogenous lipid mediators that activate cannabinoids receptors and may be involved in the control of feed intake and energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to quantify AEA and 2-AG in plasma a...

  13. Low phytate corn feed reduces swine slurry P content without affecting crop P availability in slurry applied soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional corn feed contains phosphorus (P) in a form that monogastric animals such as swine and poultry can not use efficiently. Poor use efficiency of feed P requires P supplements be added to the diet and results in manure having a high P content. Land application of this manure, at rates to me...

  14. Spread of hatch and delayed feed access affect post hatch performance of female broiler chicks up to day 5.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Li, Y; Willems, E; Willemsen, H; Franssens, L; Koppenol, A; Guo, X; Tona, K; Decuypere, E; Buyse, J; Everaert, N

    2014-04-01

    It is not rare that newly hatched chicks remain without feed for about 24 to 48 h before they are placed on farms due to a series of logistic operations. Furthermore, the spread in hatching time can also mount up to 30 to 48 h for late v. early hatchers. In other words, the practice is a complex combination of spread of hatch and delayed feed access. The present study was aimed to investigate the combined effects of hatching time with a delay in feed access of 48 h, starting from their hatch-time (biological age). When chicks had access to feed immediately after hatch, late hatchers had a higher feed intake and relative growth rate up to day 5 compared with their early hatched counterparts. Feed deprivation during the first 48 h resulted in retarded early growth rate, which was further aggravated by an impaired feed intake after refeeding. In addition, the differential effects of hatching time on relative growth rate and feed intake observed in immediately fed chicks were eliminated by the 48 h feed delay. The yolk utilization after hatch was faster for the late hatchers up to biological day 2 regardless of the feeding treatments. Hatching muscle glycogen content was higher in the late hatchers compared with that of their early counterparts at hatch and at biological day 2 independent of feeding treatment. Moreover, the liver glycogen content of the late hatchers was also higher at hatch. For the immediately fed chicks, the proportional breast muscle weight of the late hatchers was higher at biological day 2 and 5. For the starved chicks, on the other hand, this effect was only observed after they had access to feed (biological day 5). The different plasma T3 levels at hatch may have contributed to the different post hatch performance. It is concluded that the spread of hatch influenced post hatch performance, especially appetite and growth at least until day 5. Moreover, the delay in feed access interacted with the hatching time and caused adverse effects on the

  15. Does broodstock nutritional history affect the response of progeny to different first-feeding diets? A whole-body transcriptomic study of rainbow trout alevins.

    PubMed

    Lazzarotto, Viviana; Corraze, Geneviève; Larroquet, Laurence; Mazurais, David; Médale, Françoise

    2016-06-01

    The whole-body transcriptome of trout alevins was characterised to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of rainbow trout broodstock females a diet free of fishmeal and fish oil on the metabolic capacities of progeny. Effects were studied before first feeding and after 3 weeks of feeding diets containing different proportions of marine and plant ingredients. Feeding alevins plant-based diets resulted in lower fish body weight, irrespective of maternal nutritional history. No differences in whole-body lipids were found between treatments, and the tissue fatty acid profile strongly reflected that of the respective broodstock or first-feeding diets. We showed that the maternal diet history did not significantly affect expressions of any genes before the first feeding. Interestingly, we found an effect of maternal nutritional history on gene expression in alevins after 3 weeks of feeding. The major differences in the transcriptome of alevins from plant-based diet-fed females compared with those from commercial-fed females were as follows: (i) down-regulation of genes involved in muscle growth/contraction and (ii) up-regulation of genes involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism related to the delay in growth/development observed with plant-based diets. Our findings also showed an effect of the first-feeding diets, irrespective of maternal nutritional history. Specifically, the introduction of plant ingredients resulted in the up-regulation of genes involved in amino acid/protein and cholesterol metabolism and in differences in the expressions of genes related to carbohydrate metabolism. Information gained through this study opens up avenues for further reduction of marine ingredients in trout diets, including the whole rearing cycle.

  16. Technical note: Methodological and feed factors affecting prediction of ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of essential amino acids.

    PubMed

    White, Robin R; Kononoff, Paul J; Firkins, Jeffrey L

    2017-03-01

    We hypothesized that ruminal degradability of essential AA (EAA) and the intestinal digestibility of the ruminally undegraded EAA residue in feeds could be evaluated in a meta-analysis. The objective was to characterize methodological factors for ruminal incubation (time of incubation of feed in situ) and method of simulating digestion of the ruminally undegraded AA (incubation of residue in digestive enzymes in vitro or in mobile bags inserted into the duodenum). To increase numbers of observations, feeds were categorized before ANOVA. An approach is described to predict differential ruminal degradability (or undegradability) of individual EAA by normalizing them as a proportion of total AA (TAA) degradability (undegradability) and similarly to normalize the intestinal digestibility of EAA using TAA. Interaction of feed category with individual EAA justifies future studies with a broader range of feeds and more replication within feed to bolster this approach. With broader data, the approach to normalize EAA as a proportion of TAA should allow a better defined EAA library to be integrated with more robust CP databases (that can be updated with specific feed information from more routine laboratory analyses) in dairy supply-requirement models.

  17. Type C Botulism Due to Toxic Feed Affecting 52,000 Farmed Foxes and Minks in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Miia; Nevas, Mari; Kurki, Joanna; Sauna-aho, Raija; Latvala-Kiesilä, Annikki; Pölönen, Ilpo; Korkeala, Hannu

    2004-01-01

    The largest reported outbreak of type C botulism in fur production animals is described. Epidemiological investigation of 117 out of 157 (response rate, 74.5%) farms revealed that 44,130 animals died or were euthanized, while 8,033 animals with milder symptoms recovered. The overall death rate in all animals at risk was 21.7%. The death rates were significantly higher in blue and shadow foxes (24.2 and 27.8%, respectively) than in silver and blue silver foxes and minks (below 4%). All minks had been immunized against botulinum toxin type C. Deaths were associated with feed manufactured by a local processor, 83 of whose customer farms (70.9%) reported dead or sick animals. Five feedlots out of 19 delivered to the farms on the day preceding the onset of the outbreak (day 2) were associated with a death rate higher than 40%. These feedlots consisted of fresh feed processed on day 2 and feed processed 1 day earlier (day 1). In laboratory analysis, the day 2 feed contained botulinum toxin type C (>600 minimum lethal doses/g), while the day 1 feed did not contain toxin. Toxin was not detected in feed raw-material samples. Clostridium botulinum type C was detected by PCR in some feed components and in feed. However, as the feed temperature was continuously 8°C or below and the pH was continuously 5.6 or below according to the manufacturer, it seems unlikely that spore germination and toxin formation occurred during overnight storage. Hence, the events leading to toxin formation were not determined. PMID:15472332

  18. Type C botulism due to toxic feed affecting 52,000 farmed foxes and minks in Finland.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Miia; Nevas, Mari; Kurki, Joanna; Sauna-aho, Raija; Latvala-Kiesilä, Annikki; Pölönen, Ilpo; Korkeala, Hannu

    2004-10-01

    The largest reported outbreak of type C botulism in fur production animals is described. Epidemiological investigation of 117 out of 157 (response rate, 74.5%) farms revealed that 44,130 animals died or were euthanized, while 8,033 animals with milder symptoms recovered. The overall death rate in all animals at risk was 21.7%. The death rates were significantly higher in blue and shadow foxes (24.2 and 27.8%, respectively) than in silver and blue silver foxes and minks (below 4%). All minks had been immunized against botulinum toxin type C. Deaths were associated with feed manufactured by a local processor, 83 of whose customer farms (70.9%) reported dead or sick animals. Five feedlots out of 19 delivered to the farms on the day preceding the onset of the outbreak (day 2) were associated with a death rate higher than 40%. These feedlots consisted of fresh feed processed on day 2 and feed processed 1 day earlier (day 1). In laboratory analysis, the day 2 feed contained botulinum toxin type C (>600 minimum lethal doses/g), while the day 1 feed did not contain toxin. Toxin was not detected in feed raw-material samples. Clostridium botulinum type C was detected by PCR in some feed components and in feed. However, as the feed temperature was continuously 8 degrees C or below and the pH was continuously 5.6 or below according to the manufacturer, it seems unlikely that spore germination and toxin formation occurred during overnight storage. Hence, the events leading to toxin formation were not determined.

  19. Effects of feeding omega-3-fatty acids on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm and on antioxidative capacity of bovine seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Gürler, Hakan; Calisici, Oguz; Calisici, Duygu; Bollwein, Heinrich

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of feeding alpha-linolenic (ALA) acid on fatty acid composition and quality of bovine sperm and on antioxidative capacity of seminal plasma. Nine bulls (ALA bulls) were fed with 800 g rumen-resistant linseed oil with a content of 50% linolenic acid and eight bulls with 400 g palmitic acid (PA bulls). Sperm quality was evaluated for plasma membrane and acrosome intact sperm (PMAI), the amount of membrane lipid peroxidation (LPO), and the percentage of sperm with a high DNA fragmentation index (DFI). Fatty acid content of sperm was determined using gas chromatography. Total antioxidant capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activity were determined in seminal plasma. Feeding ALA increased (P < 0.05) the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content in bulls whereas in PA bulls did not change. PMAI increased after cryopreservation in ALA bulls as well as in PA bulls during the experiment period (P < 0.005). LPO of sperm directly after thawing did not change during the study period in ALA group, but decreased in PA group (P < 0.006). After 3h of incubation LPO increased in the ALA group (P < 0.02), while LPO did not differ between phases within groups. In conclusion, feeding of neither saturated nor polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the antioxidant levels in seminal plasma. Both saturated as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids had positive effects on quality of cryopreserved bovine sperm, although the content of docosahexaenoic acid in sperm membranes increased only in ALA bulls.

  20. Oil droplets do not affect assimilation and survival probability of first feeding larvae of North-East Arctic cod.

    PubMed

    Nordtug, Trond; Olsen, Anders Johny; Altin, Dag; Overrein, Ingrid; Storøy, Werner; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; De Laender, Frederik

    2011-12-15

    Oil exploration and production in the Atlantic moves northwards towards spawning and nursery areas of fish species that sustain some of the world's largest fisheries. Models are therefore needed that can simulate the effects of accidental oil spills on early life stages of these fish. In this study, we combined an individual based model and a microcosm approach to infer effects of the water soluble fraction (WSF) and of an oil dispersion (WSF and droplets) on two key endpoints of North East Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) larvae: food assimilation rate and survival probability. Both exposure types (WSF and dispersion) decreased assimilation rate (control: 0.4 d(-1)) and survival probability (control: 0.96) in a concentration-dependent fashion, with EC(50)s of about 2 (feeding) and 40 μg/L ∑PAH in the WSF (survival probability). No consistent differences were found between the ECs from the two exposure types indicating no additional oil droplet effects in the oil dispersion. During post exposure, effects on the two endpoints disappeared, which was confirmed by an image analyses we performed of gut content fluorescence. Our results also show that the larvae model fitted the experimental data from the two exposure types equally well, indicating that the presence of oil droplets did not affect model performance. More complex models that explicitly consider possible mechanisms of oil droplet toxicity - in addition to the toxicity of the WSF - on the two examined endpoints during a 17 day time frame do therefore not have a higher accuracy than simpler models that neglect oil droplet toxicity.

  1. Factors affecting the isotopic composition of organic matter. (1) Carbon isotopic composition of terrestrial plant materials.

    PubMed

    Yeh, H W; Wang, W M

    2001-07-01

    The stable isotope composition of the light elements (i.e., H, C, N, O and S) of organic samples varies significantly and, for C, is also unique and distinct from that of inorganic carbon. This is the result of (1) the isotope composition of reactants, (2) the nature of the reactions leading to formation and post-formational modification of the samples, (3) the environmental conditions under which the reactions took place, and (4) the relative concentration of the reactants compared to that of the products (i.e., [products]/[reactants] ratio). This article will examine the carbon isotope composition of terrestrial plant materials and its relationship with the above factors. delta13C(PDB) values of terrestrial plants range approximately from -8 to -38%, inclusive of C3-plants (-22 to -38%), C4-plants (-8 to -15%) and CAM-plants (-13 to -30%). Thus, the delta13C(PDB) values largely reflect the photosynthesis pathways of a plant as well as the genetics (i.e., species difference), delta13C(PDB) values of source CO2, relevant humidity, CO2/O2 ratios, wind and light intensity etc. Significant variations in these values also exist among different tissues, different portions of a tissue and different compounds. This is mainly a consequence of metabolic reactions. Animals mainly inherit the delta13C(PDB) values of the foods they consume; therefore, their delta13C(PDB) values are similar. The delta13C(PDB) values of plant materials, thus, contain information regarding the inner workings of the plants, the environmental conditions under which they grow, the delta13C(PDB) values of CO2 sources etc., and are unique. Furthermore, this uniqueness is passed on to their derivative matter, such as animals, humus etc. Hence, they are very powerful tools in many areas of research, including the ecological and environmental sciences.

  2. Calcium montmorillonite clay in dairy feed reduces aflatoxin concentrations in milk without interfering with milk quality, composition or yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine if a calcium montmorillonite clay (Novasil Plus, NSP), can significantly reduce aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) concentrations in milk without affecting dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk composition, vitamin A, or riboflavin concentrations. The study was designed us...

  3. Effects of direct-fed Bacillus pumilus 8G-134 on feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, feed conversion, and health condition of pre- and postpartum Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Luan, S; Duersteler, M; Galbraith, E A; Cardoso, F C

    2015-09-01

    The usage of direct-fed microbials (DFM) has become common in the dairy industry, but questions regarding choice of strain, mode of action, and efficacy remain prevalent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a DFM (Bacillus pumilus 8G-134) on pre- and postpartum performance and incidence of subclinical ketosis in early lactation. Forty-three multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 2 treatments in a randomized complete block design; cows in the direct-fed microbial treatment (DFMt, n=21) received 5.0×10(9) cfu/cow of B. pumilus in 28 g of a maltodextrin carrier, whereas cows in the control treatment (CON, n=22) received 28 g of maltodextrin carrier alone. Treatments were top-dressed on the total mixed ration daily. Treatments were applied from 21 d before expected calving date to 154 d after calving. Cows on treatment DFMt tended to have lower serum haptoglobin concentration than CON cows on d 14. Cows on treatment DFMt had higher IgA concentrations in milk than CON cows during the first week after calving. Cows fed DFMt had higher yields of milk, fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, milk fat, and milk protein during the second week of lactation than CON; however, we found no differences between treatments on milk yield and milk components overall. Cows on DFMt tended to have higher feed conversion and to have lower prevalence of subclinical ketosis (beta-hydroxybutyrate >1.2 mmol/L) on d 5 than cows fed CON. Dry matter intake, body weight, and body condition score were not affected by DFMt supplementation. Milk production efficiencies (calculated based on fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk) were higher by 0.1 kg of milk per kilogram of dry matter intake in cows that received DFMt compared with cows that received CON. In conclusion, cows receiving DFMt tended to have lower incidence of subclinical ketosis than cows receiving CON. Cows fed DFMt tended to have higher feed conversion and evidence for greater immunity than CON

  4. Supplementary feeding restructures urban bird communities.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, Josie A; Beggs, Jacqueline R; Jones, Darryl N; Stanley, Margaret C

    2015-05-19

    Food availability is a primary driver of avian population regulation. However, few studies have considered the effects of what is essentially a massive supplementary feeding experiment: the practice of wild bird feeding. Bird feeding has been posited as an important factor influencing the structure of bird communities, especially in urban areas, although experimental evidence to support this is almost entirely lacking. We carried out an 18-mo experimental feeding study at 23 residential properties to investigate the effects of bird feeding on local urban avian assemblages. Our feeding regime was based on predominant urban feeding practices in our region. We used monthly bird surveys to compare avian community composition, species richness, and the densities of local species at feeding and nonfeeding properties. Avian community structure diverged at feeding properties and five of the commonest garden bird species were affected by the experimental feeding regime. Introduced birds particularly benefitted, with dramatic increases observed in the abundances of house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and spotted dove (Streptopelia chinensis) in particular. We also found evidence of a negative effect on the abundance of a native insectivore, the grey warbler (Gerygone igata). Almost all of the observed changes did not persist once feeding had ceased. Our study directly demonstrates that the human pastime of bird feeding substantially contributes to the structure of avian community in urban areas, potentially altering the balance between native and introduced species.

  5. Intermittent feeding in a migratory omnivore: Digestion and body composition of American Black Duck during autumn

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barboza, P.S.; Jorde, D.G.

    2001-01-01

    Birds fast intermittently during weather disturbances and migration. We tested responses of black duck to lost feeding days during autumn mass gain. Nine adult males were fed a pelleted diet (1.5% fat, 15.8% protein, and 18.3% neutral detergent fiber) and caged indoors during September and October (12 h light; 17? -24? C) to measure balances over 14 d when fed ad lib. each day and fasted intermittently for 2 d wk-1 (short fast) or 4 d wk-1 (long fast). Body mass (1,081 g), body water content, and metabolizable intakes of energy and protein were maintained as daily intakes of dry matter increased to 1.65 (short fast) and 2.35 (long fast) times the unfasted level. Intermittent feeding reduced metabolizability of dry matter, energy, protein, and acid detergent fiber. Concentrations of Mn provided similar estimates of metabolizability to direct measures in unfasted birds but underestimated measures of birds on long fasts. Fasting regimes continued outdoors for 9 wk when temperatures declined to -9? C. Birds on short fasts were heavier (1,373 vs. 1,241 g) and fatter (159 vs. 58 g) than those on long fasts, while body water (894 g) and protein (316 g) were similar between groups after 5 wk. Birds on long fasts subsequently gained mass when fed daily, but those on short fasts lost mass when fed each day. Omnivorous waterfowl combine ingestive and digestive flexibility with plasticity of body lipid to contend with uncertain food availability.

  6. Local feeding strategies and milk composition in small-scale dairy production systems during the rainy season in the highlands of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alfonso-Ávila, Ángel René; Wattiaux, Michel A; Espinoza-Ortega, Angélica; Sánchez-Vera, Ernesto; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos M

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the work was to identify local feeding strategies in small-scale dairy production systems during the rainy season in the highlands of Mexico, and to determine their effects on milk yields (MY), milk composition and economic viability. Twenty-two dairy farms were monitored by monthly visits, recording and sampling milk from between two and six cows in each farm, live-weight was also recorded. Samples from feeds used in that month were taken and feeds given to the dairy herd were weighed. Economic data was also recorded. Milk composition and milk urea nitrogen were determined, as well as chemical composition of feeds. Eighteen feedstuffs were identified, grouped in: HNH feeds-high in neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and in DM matter; HNL feeds-high in NDF but low in DM; HCh feeds-high in non-fibrous carbohydrates; and HCP feeds-high in crude protein. Four feeding strategies were identified: strategy 1 uses HND, HNL and HCP; strategy 2-HND, HNL, HCh and HCP; strategy 3 HNH and HCP; and strategy 4 HNL and HCP. Of participating farms, 73.4% followed strategy 1, 11.3% strategy 2, 11.3% strategy 4 and 3.8% strategy 3. There were no statistical differences (P > 0.05) between strategies for MY and milk composition, but there were differences (P < 0.05) for ration costs. Multiple regression analysis showed no significative (P > 0.05) model relating intake of feed groups and milk fat content, but milk protein and SNF contents were significantly explained by intake of HCP. When expressed as MY and milk components yield, milk fat yield was significantly explained by intake of all four feed groups, but milk protein and SNF yields were explained only by intake of HCP and LW. MUN excretion was explained also by HCP intake. All feeding strategies produced positive economic returns, on average generating the equivalent of 3.45 minimum wages of the area.

  7. Evaluation of impact-affected areas of glass fibre thermoplastic composites from thermographic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccardi, S.; Carlomagno, G. M.; Simeoli, G.; Russo, P.; Meola, C.

    2016-07-01

    The usefulness of an infrared imaging device, in terms of both acting as a mechanism for surface thermal monitoring when a specimen is being impacted and as a non-destructive evaluation technique, has already been proved. Nevertheless, past investigation has focused on mainly thermoset-matrix composites with little attention towards thermoplastic ones. Conversely, these thermoplastic composites are becoming ever more attractive to the aeronautical sector. Their main advantage lies in the possibility of modifying their interface strength by adjusting the composition of the matrix. However, for a proper exploitation of new materials it is necessary to detail their characterization. The purpose of the present paper is to focus on the use of infrared thermography (IRT) to gain information on the behaviour of thermoplastic composites under impact. In addition, attention is given to image processing algorithms with the aim of more effectively measuring the extension of the impact-affected area.4

  8. Ruminal Bacterial Community Composition in Dairy Cows Is Dynamic over the Course of Two Lactations and Correlates with Feed Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Kelsea A.; McCormick, Caroline A.; Odt, Christine L.; Weimer, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen Holstein cows of similar ages were monitored through their first two lactation cycles, during which ruminal solids and liquids, milk samples, production data, and feed consumption data were collected for each cow during early (76 to 82 days in milk [DIM]), middle (151 to 157 DIM), and late (251 to 257 DIM) lactation periods. The bacterial community of each ruminal sample was determined by sequencing the region from V6 to V8 of the 16S rRNA gene using 454 pyrosequencing. Gross feed efficiency (GFE) for each cow was calculated by dividing her energy-corrected milk by dry matter intake (ECM/DMI) for each period of both lactation cycles. Four pairs of cows were identified that differed in milk production efficiency, as defined by residual feed intake (RFI), at the same level of ECM production. The most abundant phyla detected for all cows were Bacteroidetes (49.42%), Firmicutes (39.32%), Proteobacteria (5.67%), and Tenericutes (2.17%), and the most abundant genera included Prevotella (40.15%), Butyrivibrio (2.38%), Ruminococcus (2.35%), Coprococcus (2.29%), and Succiniclasticum (2.28%). The bacterial microbiota between the first and second lactation cycles were highly similar, but with a significant correlation between total community composition by ruminal phase and specific bacteria whose relative sequence abundances displayed significant positive or negative correlation with GFE or RFI. These data suggest that the ruminal bacterial community is dynamic in terms of membership and diversity and that specific members are associated with high and low milk production efficiency over two lactation cycles. PMID:25934629

  9. Ruminal Bacterial Community Composition in Dairy Cows Is Dynamic over the Course of Two Lactations and Correlates with Feed Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Kelsea A; McCormick, Caroline A; Odt, Christine L; Weimer, Paul J; Suen, Garret

    2015-07-01

    Fourteen Holstein cows of similar ages were monitored through their first two lactation cycles, during which ruminal solids and liquids, milk samples, production data, and feed consumption data were collected for each cow during early (76 to 82 days in milk [DIM]), middle (151 to 157 DIM), and late (251 to 257 DIM) lactation periods. The bacterial community of each ruminal sample was determined by sequencing the region from V6 to V8 of the 16S rRNA gene using 454 pyrosequencing. Gross feed efficiency (GFE) for each cow was calculated by dividing her energy-corrected milk by dry matter intake (ECM/DMI) for each period of both lactation cycles. Four pairs of cows were identified that differed in milk production efficiency, as defined by residual feed intake (RFI), at the same level of ECM production. The most abundant phyla detected for all cows were Bacteroidetes (49.42%), Firmicutes (39.32%), Proteobacteria (5.67%), and Tenericutes (2.17%), and the most abundant genera included Prevotella (40.15%), Butyrivibrio (2.38%), Ruminococcus (2.35%), Coprococcus (2.29%), and Succiniclasticum (2.28%). The bacterial microbiota between the first and second lactation cycles were highly similar, but with a significant correlation between total community composition by ruminal phase and specific bacteria whose relative sequence abundances displayed significant positive or negative correlation with GFE or RFI. These data suggest that the ruminal bacterial community is dynamic in terms of membership and diversity and that specific members are associated with high and low milk production efficiency over two lactation cycles.

  10. Glyphosate-tolerant corn: the composition and feeding value of grain from glyphosate-tolerant corn is equivalent to that of conventional corn (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    Sidhu, R S; Hammond, B G; Fuchs, R L; Mutz, J N; Holden, L R; George, B; Olson, T

    2000-06-01

    Glyphosate-tolerant (Roundup Ready) corn line GA21 has been developed by genetic modification to tolerate glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup herbicide. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the compositional and nutritional safety of corn line GA21 compared to that of conventional corn. Compositional analyses were conducted to measure proximate, fiber, amino acid, fatty acid, and mineral contents of grain and proximate, fiber, and mineral contents of forage collected from 16 field sites over two growing seasons. The nutritional safety of corn line GA21 was evaluated in a poultry feeding study conducted with 2-day old, rapidly growing broiler chickens, at a dietary concentration of 50-60% w/w. Compositional analysis results showed that, except for a few minor differences that are unlikely to be of biological significance, the grain and forage of GA21 corn were comparable in their composition to that of the control corn line and to conventional corn. Results from the poultry feeding study showed that there were no differences in growth, feed efficiency, adjusted feed efficiency, and fat pad weights between chickens fed with GA21 grain or with parental control grain. These data taken together demonstrate that Roundup Ready corn is as safe and nutritious as conventional corn for food and feed use.

  11. Species composition, monitoring, and feeding injury of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in blackberry.

    PubMed

    Brennan, S A; Liburd, O E; Eger, J E; Rhodes, E M

    2013-04-01

    Blackberry (Rubus spp.) production in Florida has increased > 100% within the past two decades. and several insect pests, including stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), have been observed feeding on this crop. The objectives for this study were to determine the stink bug species present in blackberry; to develop monitoring tools for stink bugs in blackberry; and to describe feeding injury to blackberries by Euschistus quadrator Rolston, a relatively new stink bug pest to Florida, that has spread throughout the state. In a field survey, E. quadrator was the most abundant stink bug species, followed by Euschistus servus Say, Euschistus obscurus (Palisot de Beauvois), Thyanta custator (F.), Proxys punctulatus (Palisot de Beauvois), and Podisus maculiventris Say. Yellow pyramid traps caught more stink bugs than tube traps with or without the addition of Euschistus spp. pheromone lures. There were no statistical differences between traps baited with a Trécé Pherocon Centrum lure, a Suterra Scenturion lure, and an unbaited trap. These results were supported by Y-tube olfactometer assays with E. quadrator where there were no differences between pheromone baited lures and a control. Injury to berries caused by E. quadrator adults and third instars was similar, and both adults and third instars fed more on green berries compared with turning berries. In addition, adults fed more on green berries compared with ripe fruit. The most common injury to green berries was discoloration. In contrast, misshapen drupelets were commonly seen on turning and ripe berries. The potential for managing stink bugs in blackberries to prevent them from reaching damaging levels is discussed.

  12. Diet composition and feeding ecology of the naked goby Gobiosoma bosc (Gobiidae) from four western Atlantic estuaries.

    PubMed

    D'Aguillo, M C; Harold, A S; Darden, T L

    2014-08-01

    The feeding ecology of the small-bodied benthic naked goby Gobiosoma bosc, a western Atlantic species that occurs in estuaries and other inshore habitats from Connecticut to Texas U.S.A., was investigated in a total of four estuaries spanning South Carolina, North Carolina, Maryland and New Jersey. Gut content analysis of 391 individuals revealed that G. bosc is a benthic microcarnivore that feeds primarily on polychaetes, gammarid amphipods and harpacticoid copepods. Diet composition varied with body size, tidal creek within an estuary and geographic region. Analyses of gut fullness suggest that G. bosc is a daytime visual predator and that nest and egg guarding during the reproductive season reduce foraging activity in mature males. Additionally, G. bosc infected with adult digenean parasites of the gut foraged more intensely than uninfected individuals, a relationship that was strongest for reproductively mature males. Regionally, significant variation in dietary breadth was documented and may reflect a foraging response to a decrease in prey diversity moving from estuaries of higher salinity and lower latitude to estuaries of lower salinity and higher latitude. These results contribute to an understanding of the life history of G. bosc and the role played by this common species in estuarine food webs.

  13. Fermented feed for laying hens: effects on egg production, egg quality, plumage condition and composition and activity of the intestinal microflora.

    PubMed

    Engberg, R M; Hammershøj, M; Johansen, N F; Abousekken, M S; Steenfeldt, S; Jensen, B B

    2009-03-01

    1. An experiment with a total of 480 hens (Babcock) was carried out from 16 to 38 weeks of age to evaluate the suitability of wet fermented feed (feed water ratio, 1:1.2-1:1.4) for layers, taking aspects of nutrition and gastrointestinal health into consideration. The production performance, egg shell quality, plumage condition, litter dry matter (DM) content, as well as the composition and activity of the intestinal microbial flora were analysed. 2. Fermented feed was characterised by a high concentration of lactic acid (160-250 mmol/kg feed) and a moderate level of acetic acid (20-30 mmol/kg feed), high numbers of lactic acid bacteria (log 9-10 CFU/g feed) and a pH of approximately 4.5. Feed fermentation reduced the concentration of dietary sugar from 32.1 to 7.3 g/kg DM and the phytate bound phosphorus from 2.7 to 1.9 g/kg DM. 3. Fermented feed seemed to loose attractiveness for the birds quite rapidly, resulting in a more aggressive behaviour and a poorer plumage condition than in birds given dry feed. The use of fermented feed reduced the litter DM content. 4. During the experimental period, the body weight gain of hens receiving fermented feed was 80 g higher than of hens fed the dry mash. Presumably because of an extended adaptation time to the feed, the onset of lay occurred later when hens were fed on fermented feed, resulting in non-significantly reduced total egg production (75 vs. 82%). 5. There was no significant difference between groups with respect to the total egg mass production (g/d/hen, 42 and 45 for fermented feed and dry mash, respectively). Throughout the experimental period, the feed DM intake of hens fed with fermented feed was lower than that of hens receiving the dry mash (110 vs. 125 g). From week 26 to 37, fermented feed improved the feed conversion as compared with the dry mash (g feed DM/g egg mass, 2.28 vs. 2.53). 6. The use of fermented feed increased egg weight in the period from 34 to 37 weeks (61.4 vs. 60.0) and increased shell

  14. Feed form and energy concentration of the diet affect growth performance and digestive tract traits of brown-egg laying pullets from hatching to 17 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, B; Guzmán, P; Cámara, L; García, J; Mateos, G G

    2015-08-01

    The influence of feed form and energy concentration of the diet on growth performance and the development of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) was studied in brown-egg laying pullets. Diets formed a 2 x 5 factorial with 2 feed forms (mash vs. crumbles) and 5 levels of energy differing in 50 kcal AMEn/kg. For the entire study (0 to 17 wk of age) feeding crumbles increased ADFI (52.9 vs. 49.7 g; P < 0.001) and ADG (12.7 vs. 11.6 g; P < 0.001) and improved feed conversion ratio (FCR; 4.18 vs. 4.27; P < 0.001). An increase in the energy content of the diet decreased ADFI linearly (P < 0.001) and improved FCR quadratically (P < 0.01) but energy intake (kcal AMEn/d) was not affected. BW uniformity was higher (P < 0.05) in pullets fed crumbles than in those fed mash but was not affected (P > 0.05) by energy content of the diet. At 5, 10, and 17 wk of age, the relative weight (RW, % BW) of the GIT and the gizzard, and gizzard digesta content were lower (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001) and gizzard pH was higher (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001) in pullets fed crumbles than in pullets fed mash. Energy concentration of the diet did not affect any of the GIT variables studied. In summary, feeding crumbles improved pullet performance and reduced the RW of the GIT and gizzard, and increased gizzard pH at all ages. An increase in the energy content of the diet improved FCR from 0 to 17 wk of age. The use of crumbles and the increase in the AMEn content of the diet might be used adventageously when the objetive is to increase the BW of the pullets. However, crumbles affected the development and weight of the organs of the GIT, which might have negative effects on feed intake and egg production at the beginning of the egg laying cycle.

  15. Rumen development process in goats as affected by supplemental feeding v. grazing: age-related anatomic development, functional achievement and microbial colonisation.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jinzhen; Li, Xiaopeng; Beauchemin, Karen A; Tan, Zhiliang; Tang, Shaoxun; Zhou, Chuanshe

    2015-03-28

    The aim of the present study was to describe age-related changes in anatomic, functional and microbial variables during the rumen development process, as affected by the feeding system (supplemental feeding v. grazing), in goats. Goats were slaughtered at seven time points that were selected to reflect the non-rumination (0, 7 and 14 d), transition (28 and 42 d) and rumination (56 and 70 d) phases of rumen development. Total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) concentration (P= 0·002), liquid-associated bacterial and archaeal copy numbers (P< 0·01) were greater for supplemental feeding v. grazing, while rumen pH (P< 0·001), acetate molar proportion (P= 0·003) and solid-associated microbial copy numbers (P< 0·05) were less. Rumen papillae length (P= 0·097) and extracellular (P= 0·093) and total (P= 0·073) protease activity potentials in supplemented goats tended to be greater than those in grazing goats. Furthermore, from 0 to 70 d, irrespective of the feeding system, rumen weight, rumen wall thickness, rumen papillae length and area, TVFA concentration, xylanase, carboxymethylcellulase activity potentials, and microbial copy numbers increased (P< 0·01) with age, while the greatest amylase and protease activity potentials occurred at 28 d. Most anatomic and functional variables evolved progressively from 14 to 42 d, while microbial colonisation was fastest from birth to 28 d. These outcomes suggest that the supplemental feeding system is more effective in promoting rumen development than the grazing system; in addition, for both the feeding systems, microbial colonisation in the rumen is achieved at 1 month, functional achievement at 2 months, and anatomic development after 2 months.

  16. High hydrogen peroxide concentration in the feed-zone affects bioreactor cell productivity with liquid phase oxygen supply strategy.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Pritish; Ghosh, Kaushik; Suraishkumar, G K

    2008-06-01

    Liquid phase oxygen supply strategy (LPOS), in which hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is used to supply oxygen to the bioreactor, leads to low cell productivity despite high specific productivities of relevant metabolites. We hypothesized that high H(2)O(2) concentrations in the feed-zone led to local cell death, which in turn, lead to lower cell productivity. To test the hypothesis, a mathematical model was developed. Bacillus subtilis 168 was used as the model system in this study. The model simulations of cell concentrations in the bioreactor-zone were verified with the experimental results. The feed-zone H(2)O(2) concentrations remained 12-14 times higher than bulk bioreactor concentrations. The high local concentrations are expected to cause local cell killing, which explains the decrease in overall cell production by 50% at 300 rpm compared to conventional cultivation. Further, among the four different feed strategies studied using the model, dissolved oxygen (DO) controlled H(2)O(2) feed strategy caused least local cell killing and improved overall cell production by 34%.

  17. Feeding and maturation by soybean looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on soybean affected by weed, fungus, and nematode pests.

    PubMed

    Carter-Wientjes, Carol H; Russin, John S; Boethel, David J; Griffin, James L; McGawley, Eduward C

    2004-02-01

    Feeding and maturation by the soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), were investigated in a 2-yr study on 'Davis' soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., grown alone and combined with the weed hemp sesbania, Sesbania exaltata (Raf.) Rybd. ex. A. W. Hill, the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood, and the charcoal rot fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. Of the three pests, hemp sesbania had the greatest effects on plant growth and insect feeding and maturation. When fed foliage from soybean stressed by hemp sesbania, soybean looper larvae remained longer in feeding stages, consumed more foliage, and showed altered weight gain compared with larvae fed control foliage. Results suggest that nutrient (s) critical for proper development of larvae may have been limited in weed-stressed soybean foliage. Less dramatic results were observed when larvae fed on foliage from soybean with roots colonized by the charcoal rot fungus. Such larvae consumed more foliage, weighed more, and showed a slight increase in larval feeding period, but only in 1 yr of the study. Colonization of soybean roots by the root-knot nematode had no consistent effects on either the soybean host or insect.

  18. Responses of feeding prebiotics on nutrient digestibility, faecal microbiota composition and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in dogs: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Patra, A K

    2011-09-01

    The effects of prebiotics on digestibility, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations and bacterial populations in the faeces and immunity in dogs were evaluated by meta-analyses. Overall, data from 15 published studies containing 65 different treatment means of 418 observations from different breeds of dogs were included in the data set. Feeding of prebiotics to dogs did not affect the nutrient intake (P > 0.10), nor did prebiotics change (P > 0.10) the digestibility of dry matter (DM) and fat. However, crude protein (CP) digestibility tended to decrease quadratically (P = 0.06) with increasing dosages of prebiotics, although the degree of prediction was low (R(2) = 0.33). The concentration of total SCFA (P = 0.08; R(2) = 0.90) tended to increase linearly, whereas concentration of acetate (R(2) = 0.25), propionate (R(2) = 0.88) and butyrate (R(2) = 0.85) increased quadratically with increasing dosage of prebiotics in the faeces of dogs. The numbers of beneficial bifidobacteria (P < 0.01; R(2) = 0.62) increased quadratically, but lactobacilli (P < 0.01; R(2) = 0.66) increased linearly with increasing supplementation of prebiotics. The changes in healthy bacterial numbers were affected by the interaction of initial bacterial numbers and dose of prebiotics; bacterial numbers increased relatively more when initial bacterial numbers were low. Dietary composition did not influence the response of prebiotics on lactobacilli and bifidobacterial numbers in this study. The numbers of pathogenic Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli were not affected by prebiotics. Prebiotics did not affect the serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations such as IgG, IgA and IgM in dogs. Although prebiotics may tend to have an adverse effect on CP digestibility, prebiotics at doses up to 1.40% food intake (DM basis) might increase the beneficial bacterial populations and SCFA concentrations in the faeces of dogs. Thus, the feeding of prebiotics has a great prospective to improve the

  19. Quality characteristics, chemical composition, and sensory properties of butter from cows on pasture versus indoor feeding systems.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Tom F; Faulkner, Hope; McAuliffe, Stephen; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Hennessy, Deirdre; Dillon, Pat; Kilcawley, Kieran N; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of 3 widely practiced cow feeding systems in the United States, Europe, and Southern Hemisphere regions on the characteristics, quality, and consumer perception of sweet cream butter. Fifty-four multiparous and primiparous Friesian cows were divided into 3 groups (n=18) for an entire lactation. Group 1 was housed indoors and fed a total mixed ration diet (TMR) of grass silage, maize silage, and concentrates; group 2 was maintained outdoors on perennial ryegrass-only pasture (GRS); and group 3 was maintained outdoors on a perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture (CLV). Mid-lactation butter was manufactured in triplicate with milk from each group in June 2015 (137±7d in milk) and was analyzed over a 6-mo storage period at 5°C for textural and thermal properties, fatty acid composition, sensory properties, and volatile compounds. The nutritional value of butters was improved by pasture feeding, and butter from pasture-fed cows had significantly lower thrombogenicity index scores compared with butters from TMR-fed cows. In line with these results, pasture-derived milks (GRS and CLV) produced butter with significantly higher concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9,trans-11) and trans-β-carotene than TMR butter. Alterations in the fatty acid composition of butter contributed to significant differences in textural and thermal properties of the butters. Total mixed ration-derived butters had significantly higher hardness scores at room temperature than those of GRS and CLV. Onset of crystallization for TMR butters also occurred at significantly higher temperatures compared with pasture butters. Volatile analysis of butter by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified 25 compounds present in each of the butters, 5 of which differed significantly based on feeding system, including acetone, 2-butanone, 1-pentenol, toluene, and β-pinene. Toluene was very significantly correlated with pasture-derived butter. Sensory analysis

  20. Feeding on microbiomes: effects of detritivory on the taxonomic and phylogenetic bacterial composition of animal manures.

    PubMed

    Aira, Manuel; Bybee, Seth; Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Domínguez, Jorge

    2015-11-01

    Earthworms play a key role in nutrient cycling by interacting with microorganisms thus accelerating organic matter turnover in soil systems. As detritivores, some earthworm types ingest and digest a mixture of dead organic matter and microorganisms, like animal manures (i.e. animal gut microbiomes). Here we described the earthworm cast microbiome and the role ingested bacteria play on its composition. We fed Eisenia andrei with cow, horse and pig manures and determined the taxonomic and phylogenetic composition of the these manures before and after passage through the earthworm gut. Earthworm cast microbiomes showed a smaller diversity than the manure they fed on. Manures strongly differed in their taxonomic and phylogenetic composition, but these differences were markedly reduced once transformed into earthworm cast microbiomes after passage through the earthworm gut. The core earthworm cast microbiome comprised 30 OTUs (2.6% of OTUs from cast samples), of which 10 are possibly native to the earthworm gut. Most of the core cast microbiome OTUs belonged to phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, as opposed to already described animal core gut microbiomes, which are composed mainly of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Our results suggest that earthworms build up their cast microbiome by selecting from the pool of ingested bacteria.

  1. Phytoplankton succession affects the composition of Polynucleobacter subtypes in humic lakes.

    PubMed

    Paver, Sara F; Youngblut, Nicholas D; Whitaker, Rachel J; Kent, Angela D

    2015-03-01

    Phytoplankton influence the composition of bacterial communities, but the taxonomic specificity of algal-bacterial interactions is unclear due to the aggregation of ecologically distinct bacterial populations by community characterization methods. Here we examine whether phytoplankton seasonal succession affects the composition of subtypes within the cosmopolitan freshwater bacterial genus Polynucleobacter. Changes in the composition of Polynucleobacter subtypes were characterized in samples collected weekly from May to August in 2003 and 2008 from three humic lakes using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting of the protein-encoding cytochrome c oxidase ccoN gene. Changes in phytoplankton population abundances explained, on average, 30% of temporal variation in the composition of Polynucleobacter subtypes and the interaction between phytoplankton and the environment explained an additional 18% of temporal variation. The effect of phytoplankton on specific Polynucleobacter subtypes was experimentally confirmed by changes in Polynucleobacter subtype composition following incubation with different phytoplankton assemblages or a no-phytoplankton control. Phytoplankton-associated subtypes and differentiation in substrate use among subtypes likely contribute to the effects of phytoplankton on Polynucleobacter subtype composition. Interactions between unique Polynucleobacter populations and phytoplankton highlight the ecological significance and specificity of species interactions in freshwater communities.

  2. Feed intake, milk production and composition of crossbred cows fed with insect-protected Bollgard II® cottonseed containing Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins.

    PubMed

    Singhal, K K; Tyagi, A K; Rajput, Y S; Singh, M; Kaur, H; Perez, T; Hartnell, G F

    2011-09-01

    Twenty crossbred lactating multiparous cows were used in a 28-day study to compare dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk composition and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protein concentrations in plasma when fed diets containing Bollgard II(®) cottonseed (BGII) or a control non-genetically modified isogenic cottonseed (CON). Bollgard II cottonseed contains the Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab insecticidal proteins that protect cotton plants from feeding damage caused by certain lepidopteran insects. Cows were assigned randomly to the BGII or CON treatments after a 2-week adjustment period. Cows consumed a concentrate containing 40% crushed cottonseed according to milk yield and green maize forage ad libitum. All cows received the same diet but with different crushed cottonseed sources. Cottonseed was included to provide approximately 2.9 kg per cow daily (dry matter basis). The ingredient composition of the concentrate was 40% crushed cottonseed, 15% groundnut cake, 20% corn, 22% wheat bran, 1% salt and 2% mineral mixture. Milk and blood plasma were analyzed for Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab proteins. DMI, BW, milk yield and milk components did not differ between cows on the BGII and CON treatments. Although milk yield and milk fat percentage were not affected by treatment, 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) production and FCM/kg DMI for cows on the BGII treatment (14.0 kg/cow per day, 1.12 kg/kg) were significantly improved compared with cows on the CON treatment (12.1 kg/cow per day, 0.97 kg/kg). Gossypol contents in BGII cottonseed and conventional cottonseed were similar. Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab2 proteins in Bollgard II cottonseed were 5.53 and 150.8 μg/g, respectively, and were not detected in the milk or plasma samples. The findings suggested that Bollgard II cottonseed can replace conventional cottonseed in dairy cattle diets with no adverse effects on performance and milk composition.

  3. In-feed administered sub-therapeutic chlortetracycline alters community composition and structure but not the abundance of community resistance determinants in the fecal flora of the rat.

    PubMed

    Brooks, S P J; Kheradpir, E; McAllister, M; Kwan, J; Burgher-McLellan, K; Kalmokoff, M

    2009-08-01

    The impact of continuous sub-therapeutic chlortetracycline on community structure, composition and abundance of tetracycline resistance genes in the rat fecal community was investigated. Rats were fed a standard diet containing chlortetracycline at 15 microg g(-1) diet for 28 days, followed by 30 microg g(-1) diet to completion of the study on day-56. These levels are similar to those administered to swine during the grow-out phase. Sub-therapeutic chlortetracycline affected the fecal community as determined through change in the cultivable anaerobic community and through molecular-based analyses including denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of the variable 2-3 region community 16S rRNA genes over time and through comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene community libraries. Significant decreases in fecal phylotype diversity occurred in response to sub-therapeutic chlortetracycline, although total bacterial output remained constant over the entire feeding trial. Chlortetracycline at 15 microg g(-1) diet resulted in significant change in community composition, but only modest change to the fecal community structure in terms of the distribution of individual phylotypes among the major fecal lineages. Chlortetracycline at 30 microg g(-1) diet significantly altered the distribution of phylotypes among the major fecal lineages shifting the overall community such that Gram-negative phylotypes aligning within the phylum Bacteroidetes became the dominant lineage (>60% of total community). While chlortetracycline impacted both fecal community structure and composition, there was no significant effect on the abundance of community tetracycline resistance genes [tet(Q), tet(W), tet(O)] or on the emergence of a new putative tetracycline resistance gene identified within the fecal community. While sub-therapeutic chlortetracycline provides sufficient selective pressure to significantly alter the fecal community, the primary outcome appears to be the

  4. The nutritional status of young children and feeding practices two years after the Wenchuan Earthquake in the worst-affected areas in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Huo, Junsheng; Zhao, Liyun; Fu, Ping; Wang, Jie; Huang, Jian; Wang, Lijuan; Song, Pengkun; Fang, Zheng; Chang, Suying; Yin, Shian; Zhang, Jian; Ma, Guansheng

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the nutritional status and feeding practices of young children in the worst-affected areas of China two years after the Wenchuan Earthquake. The sample consisted of 1,254 children 6-23 months of age living in four selected counties from the disaster-affected provinces of Sichuan, Shaanxi and Gansu. Length-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, and hemoglobin concentration were used to evaluate nutritional status. Interviews with selected children's caretakers collected basic demographic information, children's medical history, and child feeding practices. Stunting, underweight, and wasting prevalence rates in children 6-23 months of age were 10.8%, 4.9% and 2.8% respectively, and anemia prevalence was 52.2%. Only 12.3% of children had initiated breastfeeding within the first hour after birth. Overall, 90.9% of children had ever been breastfed, and 87% children 6-8 months of age had received solid, semi-solid or soft foods the day before the interview. The diets of 45% of children 6-23 months of age met the definition of minimum dietary diversity, and the diets of 39% of breastfed and 7.6% non- breastfed children 6-23 months of age met the criteria for minimum meal frequency. The results highlight that a substantial proportion of young children in the earthquake affected disaster areas continue to have various forms of malnutrition, with an especially high prevalence of anemia, and that most feeding practices are suboptimal. Further efforts should be made to enhance the nutritional status of these children. As part of this intervention, it may be necessary to improve child feeding practices.

  5. Productive performance of brown-egg laying pullets from hatching to 5 weeks of age as affected by fiber inclusion, feed form, and energy concentration of the diet.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, P; Saldaña, B; Mandalawi, H A; Pérez-Bonilla, A; Lázaro, R; Mateos, G G

    2015-02-01

    The effects of fiber inclusion, feed form, and energy concentration of the diet on the growth performance of pullets from hatching to 5 wk age were studied in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, there was a control diet based on cereals and soybean meal, and 6 extra diets that included 2 or 4% of cereal straw, sugar beet pulp (SBP), or sunflower hulls (SFHs) at the expense (wt/wt) of the whole control diet. From hatching to 5 wk age fiber inclusion increased (P<0.05) ADG and ADFI, and improved (P<0.05) energy efficiency (EnE; kcal AMEn/g ADG), but body weight (BW) uniformity was not affected. Pullets fed SFH tended to have higher ADG than pullets fed SBP (P=0.072) with pullets fed straw being intermediate. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was better (P<0.05) with 2% than with 4% fiber inclusion. In Experiment 2, 10 diets were arranged as a 2×5 factorial with 2 feed forms (mash vs. crumbles) and 5 levels of AMEn (2,850, 2,900, 2,950, 3,000, and 3,050 kcal/kg). Pullets fed crumbles were heavier and had better FCR than pullets fed mash (P<0.001). An increase in the energy content of the crumble diets reduced ADFI and improved FCR linearly, but no effects were detected with the mash diets (P<0.01 and P<0.05 for the interactions). Feeding crumbles tended to improve BW uniformity at 5 wk age (P=0.077) but no effects were detected with increases in energy concentration of the diet. In summary, the inclusion of moderate amounts of fiber in the diet improves pullet performance from hatching to 5 wk age. The response of pullets to increases in energy content of the diet depends on feed form with a decrease in feed intake when fed crumbles but no changes when fed mash. Feeding crumbles might be preferred to feeding mash in pullets from hatching to 5 wk age.

  6. Mothers Secretor Status Affects Development of Childrens Microbiota Composition and Function: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Brown, Paula; Morrison, Mark; Krause, Lutz; Davies, Peter S. W.

    2016-01-01

    Background One mechanism by which early life environment may influence long term health is through modulation of the gut microbiota. It is widely accepted that the optimal source of nutrition in early life is breast milk, with Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs) thought to play an important role in nourishing the developing microbiota. However, mothers with inactive secretor genes have altered HMO composition and quantities in their breast milk. In this pilot study we examine the influence of secretor status and breast-feeding on microbiota composition at 2 to 3 years of age. Methods 37 children and 17 eligible mothers were recruited. Secretor status was determined from blood and saliva samples using hemagglutination inhibition technique and faecal microbiota composition was examined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results Secretor status was determined for 28 eligible children with 20 being secretors (S, 71.4%). Eleven of the 17 mothers were secretors (S, 64.7%). Unweighted UniFrac distances were significantly associated with child secretor status (R2 = 0.069, p = 0.030) and with mother secretor status in children exclusively breastfed for at least 4 months (R2 = 0.167, p = 0.028), suggesting an influence on the presence/absence of microbes, with Prevotella not detected in samples from secretor children and children of secretor mothers. In children who were exclusively breast-fed for at least 4 months of life the abundance of the known HMO consumers Bifidobacterium were increased in the children of secretor mothers compared to non-secretor mothers. The relative abundance of an OTU related to Bacteroides plebeius, a bacterium noted for its capacity to utilise sulphated polysaccharides for growth, was decreased in these children. Conclusions Child and mothers’ secretor status have an impact on childrens’ microbiota composition at 2 to 3 years of age. PMID:27644050

  7. Effects of Milk Yield, Feed Composition, and Feed Contamination with Aflatoxin B1 on the Aflatoxin M1 Concentration in Dairy Cows’ Milk Investigated Using Monte Carlo Simulation Modelling

    PubMed Central

    van der Fels-Klerx, H. J.; Camenzuli, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AfM1) in dairy cows’ milk, given predefined scenarios for milk production, compound feed (CF) contamination with aflatoxin B1 (AfB1), and inclusion rates of ingredients, using Monte Carlo simulation modelling. The model simulated a typical dairy farm in the Netherlands. Six different scenarios were considered, based on two lactation and three CF composition scenarios. AfB1 contamination of the CF was based on results from the Dutch national monitoring programme for AfB1 in feed materials from 2000 until 2010. Monitoring data from feed materials used in CF production for dairy cattle in the Netherlands were used. Additionally, AfB1 contamination data from an incident in maize in 2013 were used. In each scenario, five different transfer equations of AfB1 from feed to AfM1 in the milk were used, and 1000 iterations were run for each scenario. The results showed that under these six scenarios, the weekly farm concentration of AfM1 in milk was above the EC threshold in less than 1% of the iterations, with all five transfer equations considered. However, this increased substantially in weeks when concentrations from the contaminated maize batch were included, and up to 28.5% of the iterations exceeded the EC threshold. It was also observed that an increase in the milk production had a minimal effect on the exceedance of the AfM1 threshold due to an apparent dilution effect. Feeding regimes, including the composition of CF and feeding roughages of dairy cows, should be carefully considered based on the potential AfM1 contamination of the farm’s milk. PMID:27735836

  8. Tree species composition affects the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) in urban forests in Finland.

    PubMed

    Hamberg, Leena; Lehvävirta, Susanna; Kotze, D Johan; Heikkinen, Juha

    2015-03-15

    Recent studies have shown a considerable increase in the abundance of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) saplings in urban forests in Finland, yet the reasons for this increase are not well understood. Here we investigated whether canopy cover or tree species composition, i.e., the basal areas of different tree species in Norway spruce dominated urban forests, affects the abundances of rowan seedlings, saplings and trees. Altogether 24 urban forest patches were investigated. We sampled the number of rowan and other saplings, and calculated the basal areas of trees. We showed that rowan abundance was affected by tree species composition. The basal area of rowan trees (≥ 5 cm in diameter at breast height, dbh) decreased with increasing basal area of Norway spruce, while the cover of rowan seedlings increased with an increase in Norway spruce basal area. However, a decrease in the abundance of birch (Betula pendula) and an increase in the broad-leaved tree group (Acer platanoides, Alnus glutinosa, Alnus incana, Amelanchier spicata, Prunus padus, Quercus robur, Rhamnus frangula and Salix caprea) coincided with a decreasing number of rowans. Furthermore, rowan saplings were scarce in the vicinity of mature rowan trees. Although it seems that tree species composition has an effect on rowan, the relationship between rowan saplings and mature trees is complex, and therefore we conclude that regulating tree species composition is not an easy way to keep rowan thickets under control in urban forests in Finland.

  9. Dietary vitamin A restriction affects adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid composition of intramuscular fat in Iberian pigs.

    PubMed

    Ayuso, M; Óvilo, C; Rodríguez-Bertos, A; Rey, A I; Daza, A; Fenández, A; González-Bulnes, A; López-Bote, C J; Isabel, B

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary vitamin A level is associated with differences in adipocyte differentiation or lipid accumulation in Iberian pigs at early growing (35.8kg live weight) and at finishing (158kg live weight). Iberian pigs of 16.3kg live weight were allocated to two feeding groups, one group received 10,000IU of vitamin A/kg diet (control); the other group received a diet with 0IU of vitamin A (var) for the whole experimental period. The dietary vitamin A level had no effect on growth performance and carcass traits. The early suppression of vitamin A increased the preadipocyte number in Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle in the early growth period (P<0.001) and the neutral lipid content and composition (higher MUFA and lower SFA content) at the end of the finishing period (P<0.05). Vitamin A restriction in young pigs increases their lipogenic potential without affecting carcass traits.

  10. Colonization by Phloem-Feeding Herbivore Overrides Effects of Plant Virus on Amino Acid Composition in Phloem of Chili Plants.

    PubMed

    Ángeles-López, Yesenia Ithaí; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F; Heil, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The 'adaptive host manipulation' hypothesis predicts that parasites can enhance their transmission rates via manipulation of their host's phenotype. For example, many plant pathogens alter the nutritional quality of their host for herbivores that serve as their vectors. However, herbivores, including non-vectors, might cause additional alterations in the plant phenotype. Here, we studied changes in the amino acid (AA) content in the phloem of chilli (Capsicum annuum) plants infected with Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV) upon subsequent colonization with a non-vector, the phloem-feeding whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum). Virus infection alone caused an almost 30-fold increase in overall phloem AAs, but colonization by T. vaporariorum completely reversed this effect. At the level of individual AAs, contents of proline, tyrosine, and valine increased, and histidine and alanine decreased in PepGMV -infected as compared to control plants, whereas colonization by T. vaporariorum caused decreased contents of proline, tyrosine, and valine, and increased contents of histidine and alanine. Overall, the colonization by the whitefly had much stronger effects on phloem AA composition than virus infection. We conclude that the phloem composition of a virus-infected host plant can rapidly change upon arrival of an herbivore and that these changes need to be monitored to predict the nutritional quality of the plant in the long run.

  11. Does lignin modification affect feeding preference or growth performance of insect herbivores in transgenic silver birch (Betula pendula Roth)?

    PubMed

    Tiimonen, Heidi; Aronen, Tuija; Laakso, Tapio; Saranpää, Pekka; Chiang, Vincent; Ylioja, Tiina; Roininen, Heikki; Häggman, Hely

    2005-11-01

    Transgenic silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) lines were produced in order to modify lignin biosynthesis. These lines carry COMT (caffeate/5-hydroxyferulate O-methyltransferase) gene from Populus tremuloides driven by constitutive promoter 35S CaMV (cauliflower mosaic virus) or UbB1 (ubiquitin promoter from sunflower). The decreased syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) ratio was found in stem and leaf lignin of 35S CaMV-PtCOMT transgenic silver birch lines when compared to non-transformed control or UbB1-PtCOMT lines. In controlled feeding experiments the leaves of transgenic birch lines as well as controls were fed to insect herbivores common in boreal environment, i.e., larvae of Aethalura punctulata, Cleora cinctaria and Trichopteryx carpinata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) as well as the adults of birch leaf-feeding beetles Agelastica alni (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Phyllobius spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The feeding preferences of these herbivores differed in some cases among the tested birch lines, but these differences could not be directly associated to lignin modification. They could as well be explained by other characteristics of leaves, either natural or caused by transgene site effects. Growth performance of lepidopteran larvae fed on transgenic or control leaves did not differ significantly.

  12. Folivory affects composition of nectar, floral odor and modifies pollinator behavior.

    PubMed

    Bruinsma, Maaike; Lucas-Barbosa, Dani; ten Broeke, Cindy J M; van Dam, Nicole M; van Beek, Teris A; Dicke, Marcel; van Loon, Joop J A

    2014-01-01

    Herbivory induces changes in plants that influence the associated insect community. The present study addresses the potential trade-off between plant phytochemical responses to insect herbivory and interactions with pollinators. We used a multidisciplinary approach and have combined field and greenhouse experiments to investigate effects of herbivory in plant volatile emission, nectar production, and pollinator behavior, when Pieris brassicae caterpillars were allowed to feed only on the leaves of Brassica nigra plants. Interestingly, volatile emission by flowers changed upon feeding by herbivores on the leaves, whereas, remarkably, volatile emission by leaves did not significantly differ between infested and non-infested flowering plants. The frequency of flower visits by pollinators was generally not influenced by herbivory, but the duration of visits by honeybees and butterflies was negatively affected by herbivore damage to leaves. Shorter duration of pollinator visits could be beneficial for a plant, because it sustains pollen transfer between flowers while reducing nectar consumption per visit. Thus, no trade-off between herbivore-induced plant responses and pollination was evident. The effects of herbivore-induced plant responses on pollinator behavior underpin the importance of including ecological factors, such as herbivore infestation, in studies of the ecology of plant pollination.

  13. Co-localisation of host plant resistance QTLs affecting the performance and feeding behaviour of the aphid Myzus persicae in the peach tree

    PubMed Central

    Sauge, M-H; Lambert, P; Pascal, T

    2012-01-01

    The architecture and action of quantitative trait loci (QTL) contributing to plant resistance mechanisms against aphids, the largest group of phloem-feeding insects, are not well understood. Comparative mapping of several components of resistance to the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) was undertaken in Prunus davidiana, a wild species related to peach. An interspecific F1 population of Prunus persica var. Summergrand × P. davidiana clone P1908 was scored for resistance (aphid colony development and foliar damage) and 17 aphid feeding behaviour traits monitored by means of the electrical penetration graph technique. Seven resistance QTLs were detected, individually explaining 6.1–43.1% of the phenotypic variation. Consistency was shown over several trials. Nine QTLs affecting aphid feeding behaviour were identified. All resistance QTLs except one co-located with QTLs underlying aphid feeding behaviour. A P. davidiana resistance allele at the major QTL was associated with drastic reductions in phloem sap ingestion by aphids, suggesting a phloem-based resistance mechanism. Resistance was also positively correlated with aphid salivation into sieve elements, suggesting an insect response to restore the appropriate conditions for ingestion after phloem occlusion. No significant QTL was found for traits characterising aphid mouthpart activity in plant tissues other than phloem vessels. Two QTLs with effects on aphid feeding behaviour but without effect on resistance were identified. SSR markers linked to the main QTLs involved in resistance are of potential use in marker-assisted selection for aphid resistance. Linking our results with the recent sequencing of the peach genome may help clarify the physiological resistance mechanisms. PMID:21897441

  14. The Zinc Concentration in the Diet and the Length of the Feeding Period Affect the Methylation Status of the ZIP4 Zinc Transporter Gene in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Karweina, Diana; Kreuzer-Redmer, Susanne; Müller, Uwe; Franken, Tobias; Pieper, Robert; Baron, Udo; Olek, Sven; Zentek, Jürgen; Brockmann, Gudrun A.

    2015-01-01

    High doses of zinc oxide are commonly used in weaned pig diets to improve performance and health. Recent reports show that this may also lead to an imbalanced zinc homeostasis in the animal. For a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of different zinc intakes, we performed a feeding experiment to assess potential epigenetic regulation of the ZIP4 gene expression via DNA methylation in the small intestine of piglets. Fifty-four piglets were fed diets with 57 (LZn), 164 (NZn) or 2,425 (HZn) mg Zn/kg feed for one or four weeks. The ZIP4 expression data provided significant evidence for counter-regulation of zinc absorption with higher dietary zinc concentrations. The CpG +735 in the second exon had a 56% higher methylation in the HZn group compared to the others after one week of feeding (8.0·10-4 < p < 0.035); the methylation of this CpG was strongly negatively associated with the expression of the long ZIP4 transcripts (p < 0.007). In the LZn and NZn diets, the expression of the long ZIP4 transcripts were lower after four vs. one week of feeding (2.9·10-4 < p < 0.017). The strongest switch leading to high DNA methylation in nearly all analysed regions was dependent on feeding duration or age in all diet groups (3.7·10-10 < p < 0.099). The data suggest that DNA methylation serves as a fine-tuning mechanism of ZIP4 gene regulation to maintain zinc homeostasis. Methylation of the ZIP4 gene may play a minor role in the response to very high dietary zinc concentration, but may affect binding of alternate zinc-responsive transcription factors. PMID:26599865

  15. Salinity affects compositional traits of epibacterial communities on the brown macroalga Fucus vesiculosus.

    PubMed

    Stratil, Stephanie B; Neulinger, Sven C; Knecht, Henrik; Friedrichs, Anette K; Wahl, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Epibiotic biofilms have the potential to control major aspects of the biology and ecology of their hosts. Their composition and function may thus be essential for the health of the host. We tested the influence of salinity on the composition of epibacterial communities associated with the brown macroalga Fucus vesiculosus. Algal individuals were incubated at three salinities (5, 19, and 25) for 14 days and nonliving reference substrata (stones) were included in the experiment. Subsequently, the composition of their surface-associated bacterial communities was analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Redundancy analysis revealed that the composition of epiphytic and epilithic communities significantly differed and were both affected by salinity. We found that 5% of 2494 epiphytic operational taxonomic units at 97% sequence similarity were responsible for the observed shifts. Epibacterial α-diversity was significantly lower at salinity 5 but did not differ between substrata. Our results indicate that salinity is an important factor in structuring alga-associated epibacterial communities with respect to composition and/or diversity. Whether direct or indirect mechanisms (via altered biotic interactions) may have been responsible for the observed shifts is discussed.

  16. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Gerrits, Walter J. J.; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS) on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation) and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning) exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age), piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment) and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age), all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age), response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT). During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06), but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05) than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05), and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p < 0.10). Several behavioural effects of the postnatal HFS diet depended on the prenatal diet, with piglets subjected to a switch of diet at birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by the

  17. Perinatal Exposure to a Diet High in Saturated Fat, Refined Sugar and Cholesterol Affects Behaviour, Growth, and Feed Intake in Weaned Piglets.

    PubMed

    Clouard, Caroline; Gerrits, Walter J J; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to a high-fat high-sugar diet (HFS) on behavioural development and production performance of piglets. Thirty-two non-obese sows and their piglets were allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 8-week prenatal (gestation) and 8-week postnatal (lactation and post-weaning) exposure to a HFS diet (12% saturated fat, 18.5% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) or control low-fat low-sugar high-starch diets as factors. From weaning onwards (4 weeks of age), piglets were housed in group of 3 littermates (n = 8 groups/treatment) and fed ad libitum. After the end of the dietary intervention (8 weeks of age), all the piglets were fed a standard commercial diet. Piglet behaviours in the home pens were scored, and skin lesions, growth, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured up to 8 weeks after the end of the dietary treatment, i.e. until 16 weeks of age. At the end of the dietary treatment (8 weeks of age), response to novelty was assessed in a combined open field and novel object test (OFT/NOT). During the weeks following weaning, piglets fed the postnatal HFS diet tended to be less aggressive (p = 0.06), but exhibited more oral manipulation of pen mates (p = 0.05) than controls. Compared to controls, piglets fed the prenatal or postnatal HFS diet walked more in the home pen (p ≤ 0.05), and tended to have fewer skin lesions (p < 0.10). Several behavioural effects of the postnatal HFS diet depended on the prenatal diet, with piglets subjected to a switch of diet at birth being more active, and exploring feeding materials, pen mates, and the environment more than piglets that remained on the same diet. Behaviours during the OFT/NOT were not affected by the

  18. The relationships between body fatness, leptin, testosterone, and reproductive performance in ram lambs as affected by level and frequency of feeding.

    PubMed

    Swelum, Ayman Abdel-Aziz; Ayadi, Moez; Alhidary, Ibrahim; Alowaimer, Abdullah; Abouheif, Mohamed

    2017-02-01

    This study was carried out using 24 Najdi ram lambs of approximately 6.5 months old to evaluate the effects of feed restriction and frequency of feeding on hormone concentrations of leptin and testosterone, sexual behavior, and semen traits. Ram lambs were allotted equally into three feeding groups. The first group was used as a control and fed ad libitum. The second and third groups were restricted fed at 0.85 ad libitum and fed either once (R1M) or twice daily (R2M). Sexual behavior and semen evaluation were assessed during the sixth, seventh, and eighth weeks of the study. Blood samples were drawn at 1-hour pre-feeding on days 41, 48, and 55 of the study for the determination of serum leptin and testosterone concentrations. All lambs were slaughtered after 8 weeks of experimentation. Results showed that the restricted-fed groups had lower (P < 0.01) values for slaughter body weight, average daily gain, dry matter intake, internal fat, tail fat, body fat thickness, body wall thickness, and testes weight than the ad libitum group; these corresponding traits did not differ between both restricted-fed treatments. Leptin and testosterone concentrations in restricted-fed rams were (P < 0.01) lower and higher, respectively, than in the ad libitum rams; there were no differences between R1M and R2M groups. The restricted-fed rams had lower (P < 0.01) ejaculation latency time compared with control, whereas the percentage of sexually active rams and sexual desire score were not affected by feeding restriction or frequency of feeding. Sperm motility, progressive motility, and percentage of sperm moving at rapid speed were higher (P < 0.01) in feed-restricted rams than in the ad libitum rams. R1M rams had higher (P < 0.01) value for straightness and lower (P < 0.01) value for curvilinear velocity in comparison with the ad libitum group. Testosterone was correlated positively (P < 0.05) with sperm motility and progressive motility and negatively (P < 0

  19. Dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and the hierarchy of energy metabolic pathways in growing pigs differing in feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Gondret, F; Louveau, I; Mourot, J; Duclos, M J; Lagarrigue, S; Gilbert, H; van Milgen, J

    2014-11-01

    The use and partition of feed energy are key elements in productive efficiency of pigs. This study aimed to determine whether dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and tissue biochemical pathways of energy use between pigs differing in feed efficiency. Forty-eight barrows (pure Large White) from two divergent lines selected for residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, were compared. From 74 d to 132 ± 0.5 d of age, pigs (n = 12 by line and by diet) were offered diets with equal protein and ME contents. A low fat, low fiber diet (LF) based on cereals and a high fat, high fiber diet (HF) where vegetal oils and wheat straw were used to partially substitute cereals, were compared. Irrespective of diet, gain to feed was 10% better (P < 0.001), and carcass yield was greater (+2.3%; P < 0.001) in the low RFI compared with the high RFI line; the most-efficient line was also leaner (+3.2% for loin proportion in the carcass, P < 0.001). In both lines, ADFI and ADG were lower when pigs were fed the HF diet (-12.3% and -15%, respectively, relatively to LF diet; P < 0.001). Feeding the HF diet reduced the perirenal fat weight and backfat proportion in the carcass to the same extent in both lines (-27% on average; P < 0.05). Lipid contents in backfat and LM also declined (-5% and -19%, respectively; P < 0.05) in pigs offered the HF diet. The proportion of saturated fatty acids (FA) was lower, but the percentage of PUFA, especially the EFA C18:2 and C18:3, was greater (P < 0.001) in backfat of HF-fed pigs. In both lines, these changes were associated with a marked decrease (P < 0.001) in the activities of two lipogenic enzymes, the fatty acid synthase (FASN) and the malic enzyme, in backfat. For the high RFI line, the hepatic lipid content was greater (P < 0.05) in pigs fed the HF diet than in pigs fed the LF diet, despite a reduced FASN activity (-32%; P < 0.001). In both lines, the HF diet also led to lower glycogen content (-70%) and

  20. Amino acid sources in the adult diet do not affect life span and fecundity in the fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana.

    PubMed

    Molleman, Freerk; Ding, Jimin; Wang, Jane-Ling; Brakefield, Paul M; Carey, James R; Zwaan, Bas J

    2008-08-01

    1. In tropical forests, the adults of many butterfly species feed on fruits rather than nectar from flowers and have long life spans. Rotting fruit and nectar differ from each other in many respects, including sources of amino acids and microbial life. If amino acids in the adult diet can be used for reproduction, this may have facilitated the evolution of extended life spans in this guild.2. This issue was addressed by investigating effects of banana, yeast, and amino acids in the adult diet of the fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana (Lepidoptera) on longevity and female reproductive output in two experiments.3. Results showed that in the fruit-feeding butterfly B. anynana: (i) banana juice, but not sliced banana or added amino acids extend life span compared with a sugar solution of similar composition; (ii) compared with this sugar solution, other cohorts (banana juice-amino acid enriched) did not have significantly higher reproductive outputs; (iii) yeast does not represent a valuable source of nutrients; (iv) caloric restriction may cause decreased life span and rate of reproduction; and (v) increased rates of reproduction have a life span cost.

  1. Effect of Liquid Feed-Stock Composition on the Morphology of Titanium Dioxide Films Deposited by Thermal Plasma Spray.

    PubMed

    Adán, C; Marugán, J; van Grieken, R; Chien, K; Pershin, L; Coyle, T; Mostaghimi, J

    2015-09-01

    Titanium dioxide coatings were deposited on the surface of titanium foils by Thermal Plasma Spray (TPS) process. Three different TiO2 coatings were prepared using the commercial TiO2-P25 nanopowder and titanium isopropoxide precursor solution as feed-stocks. Structure and morphology of the TiO2-P25 powder and the plasma sprayed coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, UV-visible spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). XRD and Raman results indicate that the TiO2 coatings were composed of an anatase/rutile mixture that is conditioned by the suspension composition used to be sprayed. Coatings prepared from TiO2-P25 nanoparticles in water suspension (NW-P25) and titanium isopropoxide solution suspension (NSP-P25) are incorporated into the coatings without phase transformation and their anatase/rutile ratio percentage remains very similar to the starting TiO2-P25 powder. On the contrary, when titanium isopropoxide solution is used for spraying (SP), the amount of rutile increases in the final TiO2 coating. SEM analysis also reveals different microstructure morphology, coating thickness, density and porosity of the three TiO2 films that depend significantly on the type of feed-stock employed. Interestingly, we have observed the role of titanium isopropoxide in the formation of more porous and cohesive layers of TiO2. The NSP-P25 coating, prepared with a mix of titanium isopropoxide solution based on TiO2 nanoparticles, presents higher deposition efficiencies and higher coating thickness than the film prepared with nanoparticles suspended in water (NW-P25) or with titanium isopropoxide solutions (SP). This is due to the precursor solution is acting as the cement between TiO2 nanoparticles, improving the cohesive strength of the coating. In sum, NSP-P25 and NW-P25 coatings display a good photocatalytic potential, based on their light absorption properties and mechanical stability. Band gap of

  2. Deletion of supplemental minerals and vitamins during the late finishing period does not affect pig weight gain and feed intake.

    PubMed

    McGlone, J J

    2000-11-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of eliminating the supplemental vitamin and minerals during the last 30 d of finishing on pig performance. The first study was conducted in a controlled university environment and the second under field conditions. Deletion of vitamin and mineral supplements for the last 30 d of finishing had no effects on pig performance or general health of pigs in either the university or the field trial. Besides lowering feed costs, deletion of dietary supplements may reduce the environmental impact of late finishing diets.

  3. Effect of dietary taurine supplementation on growth, feed efficiency, and nutrient composition of juvenile sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juvenile sablefish were fed a low taurine, basal feed with seven graded levels of supplemental taurine to determine taurine requirements for growth and feed efficiency. The basal feed was plant based, formulated primarily with soy and corn proteins with a minimal (9%) amount of fishmeal. The unsuppl...

  4. Composition and physicochemical characteristics of restructured beef steaks containing walnuts as affected by cooking method.

    PubMed

    Serrano, A; Librelotto, J; Cofrades, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2007-11-01

    The study was conducted to determine the influence of various cooking methods - conventional oven, microwave oven, electric grill and pan-frying on the composition and physicochemical characteristics of restructured beef steaks formulated as low fat (L, 2.0% fat), medium fat (M, 13.0% fat) and 20% added walnut (W, 12.6% fat). Composition, retention coefficients for different compounds, cooking loss (CL) and texture were affected by both formulation and cooking. There was considerable retention of moisture, fat and minerals (as ash) in W samples after cooking. CL was highest (P<0.05) in M sample and lowest (P<0.05) in W samples. Microwaved restructured steaks had higher (P<0.05) kramer shear force (KSF) and bind strength (BS), while pan-fried and conventionally oven-cooked steaks had lower (P<0.05) KSF. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) content was low in all restructured steaks but was affected by both cooking and formulation. Although cooking can change the proximal composition of steaks, lipid retention (>90%) was greatest in the case of the W sample, thus assuring that the ultimate objective of these restructured meats, namely to provide a source of walnut and walnut fat, would be successful.

  5. Two Different Virulence-Related Regulatory Pathways in Borrelia burgdorferi Are Directly Affected by Osmotic Fluxes in the Blood Meal of Feeding Ixodes Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Bontemps-Gallo, Sébastien; Lawrence, Kevin; Gherardini, Frank C.

    2016-01-01

    Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is a vector-borne illness that requires the bacteria to adapt to distinctly different environments in its tick vector and various mammalian hosts. Effective colonization (acquisition phase) of a tick requires the bacteria to adapt to tick midgut physiology. Successful transmission (transmission phase) to a mammal requires the bacteria to sense and respond to the midgut environmental cues and up-regulate key virulence factors before transmission to a new host. Data presented here suggest that one environmental signal that appears to affect both phases of the infective cycle is osmolarity. While constant in the blood, interstitial fluid and tissue of a mammalian host (300 mOsm), osmolarity fluctuates in the midgut of feeding Ixodes scapularis. Measured osmolarity of the blood meal isolated from the midgut of a feeding tick fluctuates from an initial osmolarity of 600 mOsm to blood-like osmolarity of 300 mOsm. After feeding, the midgut osmolarity rebounded to 600 mOsm. Remarkably, these changes affect the two independent regulatory networks that promote acquisition (Hk1-Rrp1) and transmission (Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS) of B. burgdorferi. Increased osmolarity affected morphology and motility of wild-type strains, and lysed Hk1 and Rrp1 mutant strains. At low osmolarity, Borrelia cells express increased levels of RpoN-RpoS-dependent virulence factors (OspC, DbpA) required for the mammalian infection. Our results strongly suggest that osmolarity is an important part of the recognized signals that allow the bacteria to adjust gene expression during the acquisition and transmission phases of the infective cycle of B. burgdorferi. PMID:27525653

  6. Ecosystem structure, function, and composition in rangelands are negatively affected by livestock grazing.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, David J; Poore, Alistair G B; Ruiz-Colmenero, Marta; Letnic, Mike; Soliveres, Santiago

    2016-06-01

    Reports of positive or neutral effects of grazing on plant species richness have prompted calls for livestock grazing to be used as a tool for managing land for conservation. Grazing effects, however, are likely to vary among different response variables, types, and intensity of grazing, and across abiotic conditions. We aimed to examine how grazing affects ecosystem structure, function, and composition. We compiled a database of 7615 records reporting an effect of grazing by sheep and cattle on 278 biotic and abiotic response variables for published studies across Australia. Using these data, we derived three ecosystem measures based on structure, function, and composition, which were compared against six contrasts of grazing pressure, ranging from low to heavy, two different herbivores (sheep, cattle), and across three different climatic zones. Grazing reduced structure (by 35%), function (24%), and composition (10%). Structure and function (but not composition) declined more when grazed by sheep and cattle together than sheep alone. Grazing reduced plant biomass (40%), animal richness (15%), and plant and animal abundance, and plant and litter cover (25%), but had no effect on plant richness nor soil function. The negative effects of grazing on plant biomass, plant cover, and soil function were more pronounced in drier environments. Grazing effects on plant and animal richness and composition were constant, or even declined, with increasing aridity. Our study represents a comprehensive continental assessment of the implications of grazing for managing Australian rangelands. Grazing effects were largely negative, even at very low levels of grazing. Overall, our results suggest that livestock grazing in Australia is unlikely to produce positive outcomes for ecosystem structure, function, and composition or even as a blanket conservation tool unless reduction in specific response variables is an explicit management objective.

  7. Effects of Feed Supplementation on Mineral Composition, Mechanical Properties and Structure in Femurs of Iberian Red Deer Hinds (Cervus elaphus hispanicus)

    PubMed Central

    Olguin, Cesar A.; Landete-Castillejos, Tomas; Ceacero, Francisco; García, Andrés J.; Gallego, Laureano

    2013-01-01

    Few studies in wild animals have assessed changes in mineral profile in long bones and their implications for mechanical properties. We examined the effect of two diets differing in mineral content on the composition and mechanical properties of femora from two groups each with 13 free-ranging red deer hinds. Contents of Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Zn, B and Sr, Young’s modulus of elasticity (E), bending strength and work of fracture were assessed in the proximal part of the diaphysis (PD) and the mid-diaphysis (MD). Whole body measures were also recorded on the hinds. Compared to animals on control diets, those on supplemented diets increased live weight by 6.5 kg and their kidney fat index (KFI), but not carcass weight, body or organ size, femur size or cortical thickness. Supplemental feeding increased Mn content of bone by 23%, Cu by 9% and Zn by 6%. These differences showed a mean fourfold greater content of these minerals in supplemental diet, whereas femora did not reflect a 5.4 times greater content of major minerals (Na and P) in the diet. Lower content of B and Sr in supplemented diet also reduced femur B by 14% and Sr by 5%. There was a subtle effect of diet only on E and none on other mechanical properties. Thus, greater availability of microminerals but not major minerals in the diet is reflected in bone composition even before marked body effects, bone macro-structure or its mechanical properties are affected. PMID:23750262

  8. Effects of feed supplementation on mineral composition, mechanical properties and structure in femurs of Iberian red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus hispanicus).

    PubMed

    Olguin, Cesar A; Landete-Castillejos, Tomas; Ceacero, Francisco; García, Andrés J; Gallego, Laureano

    2013-01-01

    Few studies in wild animals have assessed changes in mineral profile in long bones and their implications for mechanical properties. We examined the effect of two diets differing in mineral content on the composition and mechanical properties of femora from two groups each with 13 free-ranging red deer hinds. Contents of Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Zn, B and Sr, Young's modulus of elasticity (E), bending strength and work of fracture were assessed in the proximal part of the diaphysis (PD) and the mid-diaphysis (MD). Whole body measures were also recorded on the hinds. Compared to animals on control diets, those on supplemented diets increased live weight by 6.5 kg and their kidney fat index (KFI), but not carcass weight, body or organ size, femur size or cortical thickness. Supplemental feeding increased Mn content of bone by 23%, Cu by 9% and Zn by 6%. These differences showed a mean fourfold greater content of these minerals in supplemental diet, whereas femora did not reflect a 5.4 times greater content of major minerals (Na and P) in the diet. Lower content of B and Sr in supplemented diet also reduced femur B by 14% and Sr by 5%. There was a subtle effect of diet only on E and none on other mechanical properties. Thus, greater availability of microminerals but not major minerals in the diet is reflected in bone composition even before marked body effects, bone macro-structure or its mechanical properties are affected.

  9. Acclimation to elevated CO2 increases constitutive glucosinolate levels of Brassica plants and affects the performance of specialized herbivores from contrasting feeding guilds.

    PubMed

    Klaiber, J; Dorn, S; Najar-Rodriguez, A J

    2013-05-01

    Plants growing under elevated CO2 concentration may acclimate by modifying chemical traits. Most studies have focused on the effects of environmental change on plant growth and productivity. Potential effects on chemical traits involved in resistance, and the consequences of such effects on plant-insect interactions, have been largely neglected. Here, we evaluated the performance of two Brassica specialist herbivores from contrasting feeding guilds, the leaf-feeding Pieris brassicae and the phloem-feeding Brevicoryne brassicae, in response to potential CO2-mediated changes in primary and major secondary metabolites (glucosinolates) in Brassica oleracea. Plants were exposed to either ambient (400 ppm) or elevated (800 ppm) CO2 concentrations for 2, 6, or 10 weeks. Elevated CO2 did not affect primary metabolites, but significantly increased glucosinolate content. The performance of both herbivores was significantly reduced under elevated CO2 suggesting that CO2-mediated increases in constitutive defense chemistry could benefit plants. However, plants with up-regulated defenses could also be subjected to intensified herbivory by some specialized herbivores, due to a chemically-mediated phagostimulatory effect, as documented here for P. brassicae larvae. Our results highlight the importance of understanding acclimation and responses of plants to the predicted increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations and the concomitant effects of these responses on the chemically-mediated interactions between plants and specialized herbivores.

  10. Head and neck cancer patients’ perceptions of quality of life and how it is affected by the disease and enteral tube feeding during treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sundberg, Kay; Laurell, Göran; Langius-Eklöf, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To explore individual quality of life in patients with head and neck cancer from diagnosis up to 3 months after termination of radiotherapy. Research questions: 1) Which areas in life are important to quality of life, and which are influenced by the disease and by having oral or enteral nutrition; and 2) Which areas in life are influenced by having a nasogastric feeding tube (NGT) or a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube? Material and methods. Data were collected in 36 patients. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using an extended version of the Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life (SEIQoL) and analysed with content analysis. Results. Negative and positive experiences of quality of life in general were about relation to family, own health, and leisure activities. Negative impacts on physical, psychological, existential and social problems, but also positive experiences are described by the patients related to the disease. More than half expressed eating-related problems. Enteral nutrition entailed negative and positive experiences, and no greater variations were described by the patients with NGT or PEG tube. Overall, there were interindividual variations. Conclusions. The patients’ perception of general or disease-related quality of life was not affected by whether they had enteral nutrition or not. From the patients’ perspective neither of the two feeding tubes (NGT or PEG) was clearly in favour. We suggest that more studies are needed on how the choice of enteral feeding tube can be evidence-based, and incorporating the patients’ perspective. PMID:26482657

  11. Dietary forage concentration and particle size affect sorting, feeding behaviour, intake and growth of Chinese Holstein male calves.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, A U R; Xia, C Q; Cao, B H

    2016-04-01

    The objective of study was to evaluate the effect of forage concentration (F:C) and forage particle length (FPL) on sorting, feeding behaviour, intake, growth and body measurements of growing calves. Twenty-eight weaned calves of body weight 156.79 ± 33.44 (mean ± SD) were used in 2 × 2 factorial arrangements with the factors FPL of hay grass (full and short) and hay grass concentrations (low, 50% and high, 65%). The treatments were as follows: full length (FL) with low F:C (50:50), FL with high F:C(65:35), short length (SL) with low F:C (50:50) and SL with high F:C (65:35). Increasing F:C and decreasing FPL enhanced sorting for short and fine particle and sorting against long particle (p < 0.05). Dry matter intake (DMI) was decreased by decreasing the FPL (p < 0.05). Increasing F:C (65:35) increased the DMI (p < 0.05). A positive interaction between FPL and F:C was found for (daily weight gain) DWG, weight gain (WG) and feed conversation ratio (FCR) (p < 0.05). In case of feeding behaviour, interaction for eating time and eating time per kilogram DM was present. Increasing the F:C increased the eating time in both FL and SL (p < 0.05). Chopping of hay had decreased the chewing time (p < 0.05). Increasing F:C increased chewing time per kilogram DMI. High F:C decreased the lying time (p < 0.05) in FL and SL treatments (p < 0.05). Increasing F:C reduced the overall abnormal behaviour (p < 0.05). These results suggested that animals performed better at higher F:C at SL diet. Intensity of sorting for short and fine particle and against long particle increased at higher F:C and SL diets. Eating time and eating time per kilogram DMI increased by increasing F:C level in both FL and SL treatments. Chewing time increased by increasing the FPL, while increasing the F:C enhanced the chewing time per kilogram DMI and reduced animal's abnormal behaviour.

  12. The effect of phenol composition on the sensory profile of smoke affected wines.

    PubMed

    Kelly, David; Zerihun, Ayalsew

    2015-05-26

    Vineyards exposed to wildfire generated smoke can produce wines with elevated levels of lignin derived phenols that have acrid, metallic and smoky aromas and flavour attributes. While a large number of phenols are present in smoke affected wines, the effect of smoke vegetation source on the sensory descriptors has not been reported. Here we report on a descriptive sensory analysis of wines made from grapes exposed to different vegetation sources of smoke to examine: (1) the effect vegetation source has on wine sensory attribute ratings and; (2) associations between volatile and glycoconjugated phenol composition and sensory attributes. Sensory attribute ratings were determined by a trained sensory panel and phenol concentrations determined by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Analysis of variance, principal component analysis and partial least squares regressions were used to evaluate the interrelationships between the phenol composition and sensory attributes. The results showed that vegetation source of smoke significantly affected sensory attribute intensity, especially the taste descriptors. Differences in aroma and taste from smoke exposure were not limited to an elevation in a range of detractive descriptors but also a masking of positive fruit descriptors. Sensory differences due to vegetation type were driven by phenol composition and concentration. In particular, the glycoconjugates of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanillin), 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanone (acetovanillone), 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde (syringaldehyde) and 1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanone (acetosyringone) concentrations were influential in separating the vegetation sources of smoke. It is concluded that the detractive aroma attributes of smoke affected wine, especially of smoke and ash, were associated with volatile phenols while the detractive flavour descriptors were correlated with glycoconjugated phenols.

  13. Evaluation of Columbia, USMARC-Composite, Suffolk, and Texel rams as terminal sires in an extensive rangeland production system: IV. Postweaning growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to quantify differences in postweaning performance among 4 sire breeds using records from 1,109 crossbred lambs over 3 yr. Lambs were sired by Columbia, USMARC-Composite (Composite), Suffolk, and Texel rams mated with adult Rambouillet ewes. After weaning, lambs were finishe...

  14. Effects of feeding hull-less barley on production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient digestibility of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Ferreira, G; Teets, C L; Corl, B A; Thomason, W E; Griffey, C A

    2017-03-16

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate production performance, milk fatty acid composition, and nutrient digestibility in high-producing dairy cows consuming diets containing corn and hull-less barley (cultivar Amaze 10) in different proportions as the grain source. Eight primiparous and 16 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to 1 of 4 diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were fed once daily (1200 h) by means of a Calan gate system (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH). All diets contained ∼20% grain (dry matter basis). Treatments consisted of 100% corn (0B), 67% corn and 33% hull-less barley (33B), 33% corn and 67% hull-less barley (67B), and 100% hull-less barley (100B) as the grain sources. Total-tract nutrient digestibility was estimated using lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) as an external marker. Dry matter intake differed quadratically among treatments, being lowest for 67B and highest for 0B and 100B. Feeding hull-less barley did not affect milk yield, and milk fat concentration differed cubically among treatments. The cubic response was attributed to the higher milk fat concentration observed for the diet containing 67B. Neither the concentrations in milk of protein and lactose nor the yields of protein and lactose differed among treatments. The proportion of de novo synthesized fatty acids in milk did not differ among treatments. The apparent total-tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber did not differ among treatments. Although a quadratic effect was observed, starch digestibility was minimally affected by treatments. In conclusion, this study indicates that hull-less barley grain is as good as corn grain as an energy source when formulating diets for high-producing dairy cows.

  15. Chemical composition and microstructure of uroliths associated with the feeding of high-level cottonseed meal diet to sheep.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiao-Liang; Wen, Zheng-Shun; Zou, Xiao-Ting; Zhou, En-Ku; Kou, Huan-Qi; Xu, Zi-Rong; Zhang, Wen-Ju

    2011-12-01

    The chemical composition and microstructure of five urolith samples (4 bladder stones and one kidney stone) associated with the feeding of high level of cottonseed meal (CSM) diet to Chinese merino fine wool sheep (Junken breed, Xinjiang) were examined by optical microscope, X-ray diffraction, X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and infrared spectroscopy analysis. The bladder stone samples appeared yellow or white, small powder and loose mass, and as finely granular under the optical microscope. However, the kidney stone samples from a experimental sheep were found as small brown mass, higher hardness, and as a cracklike structure. Oxygen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium were found as four major elements in these uroliths by X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Potassium magnesium phosphate (MgKPO(4)) and potassium magnesium phosphate hexahydrate (MgKPO(4)·6H(2)O) were major components in the bladder stones, while less magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (MgNH(4)PO(4)·6H(2)O) examined by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy analysis. However, the newly found prismatic crystals, which were rich in magnesium and pyrophosphate, were identified as magnesium pyrophosphate (Mg(2)P(2)O(7)) in the kidney stone. The bladder stone samples appeared irregular mass and balls, cracked under SEM with low magnification, while appeared cracked, irregular layer-like, honeycomb-like or tiny balls under high magnification. The kidney stone samples were observed as cone, irregular block or layered crystal structures.

  16. Effects of feeding practices on milk yield and composition in peri-urban and rural smallholder dairy cow and pastoral camel herds in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kashongwe, O B; Bebe, B O; Matofari, J W; Huelsebusch, C G

    2017-03-29

    Associations between feeding practices, milk yield, and composition were assessed in smallholder rural and peri-urban dairy cow (n = 97) and pastoral camel (n = 15) herds. A cross-sectional survey supplemented by follow-up collection of feed and milk samples for laboratory analyses was conducted. Data was analyzed using descriptive, correlation, and analysis of variance statistics. Feeding practices in rural smallholder dairy cows' herds were pastured based (87.7%) with napier grass (89.4%) and concentrates (93.9%) as forage and concentrate supplements. In smallholder peri-urban dairy cows' herds, it was napier grass based (68.4%) with concentrates (100%), oat forages (42.9%), and crop residues (28.6%). Pastoral camel herds were shrub browsing (53%), rangeland pasture grazing (20%), or Euphorbia tirucalli feeding (27%). Smallholder rural farmers offered more feeds (16.1 vs 15.3 kg/day) than peri-urban farmers, hence net energy for lactation (1.4 vs 1.3 Mcal/kg), crude protein (CP) (10 vs 12%), and milk yields (12 vs 9 kg/herd/day) was higher. Milk fat was higher in smallholder peri-urban (4.3%) than that of rural (3.9%). In pastoral camels, E. tirucalli feeding had higher daily milk yield/herd, fat, and CP (63 kg, 4.5 and 3.6%) than shrub browsing (35 kg, 4.2 and 3.0%) and grazing (23 kg yield, 2.6 and 2.7%). Five feeding practices out of 14 in smallholder dairy cattle herds resulted in more than 10 kg milk/cow/day because of low forage-to-concentrate ratio (2.5), inclusion of legume crop residue, or processing forages. They present opportunities for improved production in smallholder herds. In pastoral camel, E. tirucalli feeding showed the highest potential.

  17. Post-Weaning Diet Affects Faecal Microbial Composition but Not Selected Adipose Gene Expression in the Cat (Felis catus)

    PubMed Central

    Bermingham, Emma N.; Kittelmann, Sandra; Young, Wayne; Kerr, Katherine R.; Swanson, Kelly S.; Roy, Nicole C.; Thomas, David G.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of pre- (i.e., gestation and during lactation) and post-weaning diet on the composition of faecal bacterial communities and adipose expression of key genes in the glucose and insulin pathways were investigated in the cat. Queens were maintained on a moderate protein:fat:carbohydrate kibbled (“Diet A”; 35:20:28% DM; n  =  4) or high protein:fat:carbohydrate canned (“Diet B”; 45:37:2% DM; n = 3) diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were weaned onto these diets in a nested design (n  =  5 per treatment). Faecal samples were collected at wk 8 and 17 of age. DNA was isolated from faeces and bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons were analysed by pyrosequencing. RNA was extracted from blood (wk 18) and adipose tissue and ovarian/testicular tissues (wk 24) and gene expression levels determined using RT-qPCR. Differences (P<0.05) in composition of faecal bacteria were observed between pregnant queens fed Diet A or B. However, pre-weaning diet had little effect on faecal bacterial composition in weaned kittens. In contrast, post-weaning diet altered bacterial population profiles in the kittens. Increased (P<0.05) abundance of Firmicutes (77% vs 52% of total reads) and Actinobacteria (0.8% vs 0.2% of total reads), and decreased (P<0.05) abundance of Fusobacteria (1.6% vs 18.4% of total reads) were observed for kittens fed the Diet A compared to those fed Diet B post-weaning. Feeding Diet B pre-weaning increased (P<0.05) the expression levels of INRS, LEPT, PAI-1 and tended to increase GLUT1, while the expression levels of IRS-1 in blood increased in kittens fed Diet A pre-weaning. Post-weaning diet had no effect on expression levels of target genes. Correlations between the expression levels of genes involved in glucose and insulin pathways and faecal Bacteriodetes and Firmicutes phyla were identified. The reasons for why post-weaning diet affects microbial populations and not gene expression levels are of interest. PMID:24312255

  18. Chemical Composition, but Not Specific Surface Area, Affects Calcium Retention of Nanostructured Calcium Compounds in Growing Rats.

    PubMed

    Posavec, Lidija; Hilty, Florentine M; Baumgartner, Jeannine; Buntting, Hylton; Hilbe, Monika; Kruger, Marlena; Krumeich, Frank; Grobler, Anne F; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2017-03-01

    Background: Low dietary calcium intake and bioavailability may adversely affect bone health. Reducing the size of calcium compounds increases their specific surface area (SSA, expressed as m(2)/g) and may increase calcium dissolution and bioavailability.Objective: We investigated the influence of SSA and chemical composition on the bioavailability of calcium and compared in vitro calcium dissolution with in vivo absorption.Methods: Calcium dissolution was measured in 0.1 M phosphoric acid, whereas color and pH changes of foods were assessed as indicators for potential sensory performance. Calcium absorption, retention, and fractional retention were measured over a 5-d balance study in growing Sprague-Dawley male rats after 21 d of feeding. Femoral and vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) and extensive tissue histology were assessed at study end. The influence of SSA on calcium bioavailability was assessed by comparing the groups fed pure calcium carbonate (CaCO3) with increasing SSAs of 3, 36, and 64 m(2)/g (CaCO3_3, CaCO3_36 and CaCO3_64), whereas chemical composition was assessed by comparing the smallest CaCO3_64, a 50:50 wt:wt percent solution mixture of CaCO3 and hydroxyapatite_94, and pure hydroxyapatite_100.Results: In vivo, fractional calcium retention from hydroxyapatite_100 (mean ± SEM: 54.86% ± 0.95%/5 d) was significantly greater than from CaCO3_64 (49.66% ± 1.15%/5 d) (P = 0.044). Increasing SSA of the pure CaCO3 did not significantly improve calcium retention. Across all 5 groups, there were no significant differences in BMD or tissue calcification by histology. In vitro calcium dissolution did not correlate with SSA or calcium absorption. In selected food matrixes, hydroxyapatite_100 caused less color change and/or smaller pH increase than did the other calcium compounds.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that chemical composition rather than SSA is a predictor of nanostructured calcium bioavailability and that in vitro dissolution of

  19. Remnant Trees Affect Species Composition but Not Structure of Tropical Second-Growth Forest

    PubMed Central

    Sandor, Manette E.; Chazdon, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Remnant trees, spared from cutting when tropical forests are cleared for agriculture or grazing, act as nuclei of forest regeneration following field abandonment. Previous studies on remnant trees were primarily conducted in active pasture or old fields abandoned in the previous 2–3 years, and focused on structure and species richness of regenerating forest, but not species composition. Our study is among the first to investigate the effects of remnant trees on neighborhood forest structure, biodiversity, and species composition 20 years post-abandonment. We compared the woody vegetation around individual remnant trees to nearby plots without remnant trees in the same second-growth forests (“control plots”). Forest structure beneath remnant trees did not differ significantly from control plots. Species richness and species diversity were significantly higher around remnant trees. The species composition around remnant trees differed significantly from control plots and more closely resembled the species composition of nearby old-growth forest. The proportion of old-growth specialists and generalists around remnant trees was significantly greater than in control plots. Although previous studies show that remnant trees may initially accelerate secondary forest growth, we found no evidence that they locally affect stem density, basal area, and seedling density at later stages of regrowth. Remnant trees do, however, have a clear effect on the species diversity, composition, and ecological groups of the surrounding woody vegetation, even after 20 years of forest regeneration. To accelerate the return of diversity and old-growth forest species into regrowing forest on abandoned land, landowners should be encouraged to retain remnant trees in agricultural or pastoral fields. PMID:24454700

  20. Remnant trees affect species composition but not structure of tropical second-growth forest.

    PubMed

    Sandor, Manette E; Chazdon, Robin L

    2014-01-01

    Remnant trees, spared from cutting when tropical forests are cleared for agriculture or grazing, act as nuclei of forest regeneration following field abandonment. Previous studies on remnant trees were primarily conducted in active pasture or old fields abandoned in the previous 2-3 years, and focused on structure and species richness of regenerating forest, but not species composition. Our study is among the first to investigate the effects of remnant trees on neighborhood forest structure, biodiversity, and species composition 20 years post-abandonment. We compared the woody vegetation around individual remnant trees to nearby plots without remnant trees in the same second-growth forests ("control plots"). Forest structure beneath remnant trees did not differ significantly from control plots. Species richness and species diversity were significantly higher around remnant trees. The species composition around remnant trees differed significantly from control plots and more closely resembled the species composition of nearby old-growth forest. The proportion of old-growth specialists and generalists around remnant trees was significantly greater than in control plots. Although previous studies show that remnant trees may initially accelerate secondary forest growth, we found no evidence that they locally affect stem density, basal area, and seedling density at later stages of regrowth. Remnant trees do, however, have a clear effect on the species diversity, composition, and ecological groups of the surrounding woody vegetation, even after 20 years of forest regeneration. To accelerate the return of diversity and old-growth forest species into regrowing forest on abandoned land, landowners should be encouraged to retain remnant trees in agricultural or pastoral fields.

  1. Effect of feeding wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) to growing-finishing cattle on ammonia concentration in air and manure nutrient composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air quality is a difficult and pressing problem for feedlot producers. This is compounded by feeding practices that influence the excretion of starch, fiber, crude protein, and sulfur (S) by cattle that significantly affect the production of odorous compounds. Wet distillers grains with solubles (...

  2. Factors affecting carcass value and profitability in early-weaned Simmental steers: II. Days on feed endpoints and sorting strategies.

    PubMed

    Pyatt, N A; Berger, L L; Faulkner, D B; Walker, P M; Rodriguez-Zas, S L

    2005-12-01

    In a 4-yr study, early-weaned Simmental steers (n = 192) of known genetics were individually fed to determine EPD, performance, and carcass measurements explaining variation in carcass value and profitability across incremental days on feed (DOF) when sorted by HCW, calculated yield grade (YG), or at their highest profit endpoint (BEST). Steers were weaned at 88.0 +/- 1.1 d of age, pen-fed a high-concentrate diet for 84.5 +/- 0.4 d, individually fed for 249.7 +/- 0.7 d, and slaughtered at 423.3 +/- 1.4 d of age. Carcass weight, YG, and marbling score (MS) were predicted using real-time ultrasound throughout the finishing period to calculate carcass value and profitability at 90, 60, 30 d preslaughter and under three individual sorting strategies. Sorting strategies included marketing the 25 and 50% heaviest HCW, the highest YG at d 60 and 30, or the remaining 25% at 0-d endpoints. Independent variables were year, weaning weight EPD, yearling weight EPD, marbling EPD, DMI, ADG, HCW, YG, and MS. Profit was quadratic in response to increased DOF; the greatest economic return was noted on d 30 (pre-slaughter). Final weight, DMI, HCW, MS, and YG increased (linear; P < 0.001) with additional DOF, and ADG and G:F decreased (linear; P < 0.001). Total cost of gain was quadratic (P < 0.001), and incremental cost of gain rose at an increasing rate (quadratic; P < 0.001) with increased DOF. With increasing DOF, HCW importance decreased from 58 to 21%; MS was variable, ranging from 18 to 23%; and YG and DMI were minor contributors to profit variation. Among sorting strategies, final BW and HCW were greater for BEST, whereas other measurements were similar. Sorting individuals by HCW, YG, or at BEST increased profitability 3.70 dollars, 2.52 dollars, or 30.65 dollars over the optimal group DOF endpoint (d 30). Retrospective analyses illustrated that sorting does not need to pinpoint each animal's profit optimum to result in economic gains; rather, increasing HCW and decreasing

  3. Influence of feeding graded levels of canned sardines on the inflammatory markers and tissue fatty acid composition of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Pedro O; Martins, Susana V; Lopes, Paula A; Ramos, Cristina; Miguéis, Samuel; Alfaia, Cristina M; Pinto, Rui M A; Rolo, Eva A; Bispo, Paulo; Batista, Irineu; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Prates, José A M

    2014-08-14

    Canned sardines are a ready-to-use fish product with excellent nutritional properties owing to its high n-3 long-chain PUFA content, mainly EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3). The present study aimed to assess the effect of two dosages of canned sardines, recommended for the primary and secondary prevention of human CVD, on the inflammatory marker concentrations and fatty acid composition of erythrocytes and key metabolic tissues (liver, muscle, adipose tissue and brain) in the rat model. Wistar rats were fed a diet containing 11 % (w/w) of canned sardines (low-sardine (LS) diet) and a diet containing 22 % (w/w) of canned sardines (high-sardine (HS) diet) for 10 weeks. Daily food intake, weight gain, and organ and final body weights were not affected by the dietary treatments. The concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol decreased in both the LS and HS groups, while those of alanine aminotransferase and adiponectin increased. The concentrations of IL-1β increased only with the highest dosage of sardine. The dose-dependent influence of the graded levels of EPA+DHA was tissue specific. Compared with that of other tissues and erythrocytes, the fatty acid composition of the brain was less affected by the canned sardine-supplemented diets. In contrast, the retroperitoneal adipose tissue was highly responsive. The deposition ratios of EPA and DHA indicated that the LS diet was optimal for DHA deposition across the tissues, except in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue. Taken together, our findings indicate that a LS diet positively affects plasma lipid profiles and inflammatory mediators, whereas a HS diet has contradictory effects on IL-1β, which, in turn, is not associated with variations in the concentrations of other pro-inflammatory cytokines. This finding requires further investigation and pathophysiological understanding.

  4. Antibiotic Treatment Affects Intestinal Permeability and Gut Microbial Composition in Wistar Rats Dependent on Antibiotic Class.

    PubMed

    Tulstrup, Monica Vera-Lise; Christensen, Ellen Gerd; Carvalho, Vera; Linninge, Caroline; Ahrné, Siv; Højberg, Ole; Licht, Tine Rask; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotics are frequently administered orally to treat bacterial infections not necessarily related to the gastrointestinal system. This has adverse effects on the commensal gut microbial community, as it disrupts the intricate balance between specific bacterial groups within this ecosystem, potentially leading to dysbiosis. We hypothesized that modulation of community composition and function induced by antibiotics affects intestinal integrity depending on the antibiotic administered. To address this a total of 60 Wistar rats (housed in pairs with 6 cages per group) were dosed by oral gavage with either amoxicillin (AMX), cefotaxime (CTX), vancomycin (VAN), metronidazole (MTZ), or water (CON) daily for 10-11 days. Bacterial composition, alpha diversity and caecum short chain fatty acid levels were significantly affected by AMX, CTX and VAN, and varied among antibiotic treatments. A general decrease in diversity and an increase in the relative abundance of Proteobacteria was observed for all three antibiotics. Additionally, the relative abundance of Bifidobacteriaceae was increased in the CTX group and both Lactobacillaceae and Verrucomicrobiaceae were increased in the VAN group compared to the CON group. No changes in microbiota composition or function were observed following MTZ treatment. Intestinal permeability to 4 kDa FITC-dextran decreased after CTX and VAN treatment and increased following MTZ treatment. Plasma haptoglobin levels were increased by both AMX and CTX but no changes in expression of host tight junction genes were found in any treatment group. A strong correlation between the level of caecal succinate, the relative abundance of Clostridiaceae 1 family in the caecum, and the level of acute phase protein haptoglobin in blood plasma was observed. In conclusion, antibiotic-induced changes in microbiota may be linked to alterations in intestinal permeability, although the specific interactions remain to be elucidated as changes in permeability did

  5. Use of palm-oil by-products in chicken and rabbit feeds: effect on the fatty acid and tocol composition of meat, liver and plasma.

    PubMed

    Tres, A; Nuchi, C D; Magrinyà, N; Guardiola, F; Bou, R; Codony, R

    2012-06-01

    This study was undertaken in the framework of a larger European project dealing with the characterization of fat co- and by-products from the food chain, available for feed uses. In this study, we compare the effects, on the fatty acid (FA) and tocol composition of chicken and rabbit tissues, of the addition to feeds of a palm fatty acid distillate, very low in trans fatty acids (TFA), and two levels of the corresponding hydrogenated by-product, containing intermediate and high levels of TFA. Thus, the experimental design included three treatments, formulated for each species, containing the three levels of TFA defined above. Obviously, due to the use of hydrogenated fats, the levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA) show clear differences between the three dietary treatments. The results show that diets high in TFA (76 g/kg fat) compared with those low in TFA (4.4 g/kg fat) led to a lower content of tocopherols and tocotrienols in tissues, although these differences were not always statistically significant, and show a different pattern for rabbit and chicken. The TFA content in meat, liver and plasma increased from low-to-high TFA feeds in both chicken and rabbit. However, the transfer ratios from feed were not proportional to the TFA levels in feeds, reflecting certain differences according to the animal species. Moreover, feeds containing fats higher in TFA induced significant changes in tissue SFA, monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids composition, but different patterns can be described for chicken and rabbit and for each type of tissue.

  6. Metals other than uranium affected microbial community composition in a historical uranium-mining site.

    PubMed

    Sitte, Jana; Löffler, Sylvia; Burkhardt, Eva-Maria; Goldfarb, Katherine C; Büchel, Georg; Hazen, Terry C; Küsel, Kirsten

    2015-12-01

    To understand the links between the long-term impact of uranium and other metals on microbial community composition, ground- and surface water-influenced soils varying greatly in uranium and metal concentrations were investigated at the former uranium-mining district in Ronneburg, Germany. A soil-based 16S PhyloChip approach revealed 2358 bacterial and 35 archaeal operational taxonomic units (OTU) within diverse phylogenetic groups with higher OTU numbers than at other uranium-contaminated sites, e.g., at Oak Ridge. Iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria (FeRB and SRB), which have the potential to attenuate uranium and other metals by the enzymatic and/or abiotic reduction of metal ions, were found at all sites. Although soil concentrations of solid-phase uranium were high, ranging from 5 to 1569 μg·g (dry weight) soil(-1), redundancy analysis (RDA) and forward selection indicated that neither total nor bio-available uranium concentrations contributed significantly to the observed OTU distribution. Instead, microbial community composition appeared to be influenced more by redox potential. Bacterial communities were also influenced by bio-available manganese and total cobalt and cadmium concentrations. Bio-available cadmium impacted FeRB distribution while bio-available manganese and copper as well as solid-phase zinc concentrations in the soil affected SRB composition. Archaeal communities were influenced by the bio-available lead as well as total zinc and cobalt concentrations. These results suggest that (i) microbial richness was not impacted by heavy metals and radionuclides and that (ii) redox potential and secondary metal contaminants had the strongest effect on microbial community composition, as opposed to uranium, the primary source of contamination.

  7. Application of laws, policies, and guidance from the United States and Canada to the regulation of food and feed derived from genetically modified crops: interpretation of composition data.

    PubMed

    Price, William D; Underhill, Lynne

    2013-09-04

    With the development of recombinant DNA techniques for genetically modifying plants to exhibit beneficial traits, laws and regulations were adopted to ensure the safety of food and feed derived from such plants. This paper focuses on the regulation of genetically modified (GM) plants in Canada and the United States, with emphasis on the results of the compositional analysis routinely utilized as an indicator of possible unintended effects resulting from genetic modification. This work discusses the mandate of Health Canada and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency as well as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's approach to regulating food and feed derived from GM plants. This work also addresses how publications by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and Codex Alimentarius fit, particularly with defining the importance and purpose of compositional analysis. The importance of study design, selection of comparators, use of literature, and commercial variety reference values is also discussed.

  8. High fat feeding affects the number of GPR120 cells and enteroendocrine cells in the mouse stomach

    PubMed Central

    Widmayer, Patricia; Goldschmid, Hannah; Henkel, Helena; Küper, Markus; Königsrainer, Alfred; Breer, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Long-term intake of dietary fat is supposed to be associated with adaptive reactions of the organism and it is assumptive that this is particularly true for fat responsive epithelial cells in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies suggest that epithelial cells expressing the receptor for medium and long chain fatty acids, GPR120 (FFAR4), may operate as fat sensors. Changes in expression level and/or cell density are supposed to be accompanied with a consumption of high fat (HF) diet. To assess whether feeding a HF diet might impact on the expression of fatty acid receptors or the number of lipid sensing cells as well as enteroendocrine cell populations, gastric tissue samples of non-obese and obese mice were compared using a real time PCR and immunohistochemical approach. In this study, we have identified GPR120 cells in the corpus region of the mouse stomach which appeared to be brush cells. Monitoring the effect of HF diet on the expression of GPR120 revealed that after 3 weeks and 6 months the level of mRNA for GPR120 in the tissue was significantly increased which coincided with and probably reflected a significant increase in the number of GPR120 positive cells in the corpus region; in contrast, within the antrum region, the number of GPR120 cells decreased. Furthermore, dietary fat intake also led to changes in the number of enteroendocrine cells producing either ghrelin or gastrin. After 3 weeks and even more pronounced after 6 months the number of ghrelin cells and gastrin cells was significantly increased. These results imply that a HF diet leads to significant changes in the cellular repertoire of the stomach mucosa. Whether these changes are a consequence of the direct exposure to HF in the luminal content or a physiological response to the high level of fat in the body remains elusive. PMID:25774135

  9. Feeding Experience Affects the Behavioral Response of Polyphagous Gypsy Moth Caterpillars to Herbivore-induced Poplar Volatiles.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Andrea C; Reinecke, Andreas; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Unsicker, Sybille B

    2016-05-01

    Plant volatiles influence host selection of herbivorous insects. Since volatiles often vary in space and time, herbivores (especially polyphagous ones) may be able to use these compounds as cues to track variation in host plant quality based on their innate abilities and previous experience. We investigated the behavioral response of naïve (fed on artificial diet) and experienced (fed on poplar) gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillars, a polyphagous species, towards constitutive and herbivore-induced black poplar (Populus nigra) volatiles at different stages of herbivore attack. In Y-tube olfactometer assays, both naïve and experienced caterpillars were attracted to constitutive volatiles and volatiles released after short-term herbivory (up to 6 hr). Naïve caterpillars also were attracted to volatiles released after longer-term herbivory (24-30 hr), but experienced caterpillars preferred the odor of undamaged foliage. A multivariate statistical analysis comparing the volatile emission of undamaged plants vs. plants after short and longer-term herbivory, suggested various compounds as being responsible for distinguishing between the odors of these plants. Ten compounds were selected for individual testing of caterpillar behavioral responses in a four-arm olfactometer. Naïve caterpillars spent more time in arms containing (Z)-3-hexenol and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate than in solvent permeated arms, while avoiding benzyl cyanide and salicyl aldehyde. Experienced caterpillars avoided benzyl cyanide and preferred (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and the homoterpene (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) over solvent. Only responses to DMNT were significantly different when comparing experienced and naïve caterpillars. The results show that gypsy moth caterpillars display an innate behavioral response towards constitutive and herbivore-induced plant volatiles, but also that larval behavior is plastic and can be modulated by previous feeding experience.

  10. Performance and energy metabolism in restrictively fed weanling pigs are not affected by feeding either fermented cereals or their end-products.

    PubMed

    Bruininx, E M A M; Binnendijk, G P; Zandstra, T; Heetkamp, M J W; Van Der Peet-Schwering, C M C; Gerrits, W J J

    2010-12-01

    To study the effects of feeding fermented cereals or just fermentation end-products on performance and energy metabolism, 18 restrictedly fed groups of eight pigs each were assigned to one of three dietary treatments: (i) a liquid control diet (C) containing 40% of a mixture of barley and wheat; or (ii) a liquid diet (F) containing 40% fermented barley and wheat; or (iii) a liquid diet as C with the addition of some important fermentation end-products (FP; organic acids and ethanol) in concentrations similar to those in the fermented F-diet. Energy and nitrogen balances, heat production, and performance traits were measured during two consecutive periods (days 1-5 and days 6-14). There was a considerable increase in average dry matter intake that tended (p = 0.06) to be higher in the FP-group than in the other groups. Apparent fecal digestibility of dry matter, ash, nitrogen and energy during period 2 were not affected (p > 0.1). Averaged over both periods, none of the energy metabolism parameters were affected by the diets (p > 0.1). However, there were diet × period interactions for metabolizable energy-intake (p = 0.07), energy retention (p < 0.05), the respiratory quotient (RQ; p < 0.01) and activity-related heat production (H(ACT,) p = 0.05). Additionally, there were some differences between the diets in the average hourly patterns in RQ and H(ACT). In conclusion, restricted feeding of either 40% fermented cereals nor their fermentation end-products affected performance and energy metabolism traits in weanling pigs. Nevertheless, lower postprandial activity-related heat production by pigs given the fermented cereals suggest a stimulating effect of fermented cereals on short term satiety that was not seen in pigs given fermentation end-products only.

  11. Breakfast Macronutrient Composition Influences Thermic Effect of Feeding and Fat Oxidation in Young Women Who Habitually Skip Breakfast

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Brianna L.; Dunn, Amy; Johnson, Dallas; Adams, J. D.; Baum, Jamie I.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if breakfast macronutrient composition improved thermic effect of feeding (TEF) and appetite after a one-week adaptation in young women who habitually skip breakfast. A randomized, controlled study was conducted in females (24.1 ± 2 years), who skip breakfast (≥5 times/week). Participants were placed into one of three groups for eight days (n = 8 per group): breakfast skipping (SKP; no breakfast), carbohydrate (CHO; 351 kcal; 59 g CHO, 10 g PRO, 8 g fat) or protein (PRO; 350 kcal; 39 g CHO, 30 g PRO, 8 g fat). On days 1 (D1) and 8 (D8), TEF, substrate oxidation, appetite and blood glucose were measured. PRO had higher (p < 0.05) TEF compared to SKP and CHO on D1 and D8, with PRO having 29% higher TEF than CHO on D8. On D1, PRO had 30.6% higher fat oxidation than CHO and on D8, PRO had 40.6% higher fat oxidation than CHO. SKP had higher (p < 0.05) fat oxidation on D1 and D8 compared to PRO and CHO. There was an interaction (p < 0.0001) of time and breakfast on appetite response. In addition, CHO had a significant increase (p < 0.05) in PP hunger response on D8 vs. D1. CHO and PRO had similar PP (postprandial) glucose responses on D1 and D8. Consumption of PRO breakfast for 8 days increased TEF compared to CHO and SKP, while consumption of CHO for one week increased PP hunger response. PMID:27517958

  12. Progress in promoting breast-feeding, combating malnutrition, and composition and use of infant formula, 1981-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than 90% of women in developing countries and 50 to 90% of women in industrialized countries now initiate breast-feeding, a marked improvement from 25 y ago. The duration of breast-feeding has lengthened, but fewer than 35% of infants worldwide are still exclusively breast-fed at 4 mo of age. C...

  13. Long-term feeding a plant-based diet devoid of marine ingredients strongly affects certain key metabolic enzymes in the rainbow trout liver.

    PubMed

    Véron, Vincent; Panserat, Stéphane; Le Boucher, Richard; Labbé, Laurent; Quillet, Edwige; Dupont-Nivet, Mathilde; Médale, Françoise

    2016-04-01

    Incorporation of a plant blend in the diet can affect growth parameters and metabolism in carnivorous fish. We studied for the first time the long-term (1 year) metabolic response of rainbow trout fed from first feeding with a plant-based diet totally devoid of marine ingredients. Hepatic enzymes were analyzed at enzymatic and molecular levels, at 3, 8 and 24 h after the last meal to study both the short-term effects of the last meal and long-term effects of the diet. The results were compared with those of fish fed a control diet of fish meal and fish oil. Growth, feed intake, feed efficiency and protein retention were lower in the group fed the plant-based diet. Glucokinase and pyruvate kinase activity were lower in the livers of trout fed the plant-based diet which the proportion of starch was lower than in the control diet. Glutamate dehydrogenase was induced by the plant-based diet, suggesting an imbalance of amino acids and a possible link with the lower protein retention observed. Gene expression of delta 6 desaturase was higher in fish fed the plant-based diet, probably linked to a high dietary level of linolenic acid and the absence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in vegetable oils. Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase expression was also induced by plant-based diet because of the low rate of cholesterol in the diet. Changes in regulation mechanisms already identified through short-term nutritional experiments (<12 weeks) suggest that metabolic responses are implemented at short term and remain in the long term.

  14. Extended negative dietary cation-anion difference feeding does not negatively affect postpartum performance of multiparous dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Weich, W; Block, E; Litherland, N B

    2013-09-01

    Low postpartum blood calcium remains one of the largest constraints to postpartum feed intake, milk yield, and energy balance in transitioning dairy cows. Supplemental dietary anions decrease the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) and reduce the risk for postpartum hypocalcemia. Prepartum management strategies aiming to minimize social stress and diet changes have resulted in a need to explore the effects of extended exposure to a negative DCAD (>21 d) diet. Holstein and Holstein-cross dairy cows (n=60) were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments 42 d before expected calving to evaluate effects of supplying anions for 21 or 42 d during the dry period on energy status, postpartum production, and Ca homeostasis. Treatments included (1) a control diet (CON; DCAD=12 mEq/100 g of DM), (2) a 21-d negative DCAD diet (21-ND; DCAD=12 and -16 mEq/100 g of DM), and (3) a 42-d negative DCAD diet (42-ND; DCAD=-16 mEq/100 g of DM). Cows fed CON were fed positive DCAD prepartum for 42 d. Cows fed 21-ND received the positive DCAD (12 mEq/100 g of DM) diet for the first 21 d of the dry period and the anionic diet (-16 mEq/100 g of DM) from d 22 until calving. Cows fed 42-ND received the anionic diet for the entire dry period. Control and anionic diets were formulated by using 2 isonitrogenous protein mixes: (1) 97.5% soybean meal and (2) 52.8% BioChlor (Church & Dwight Co. Inc.), 45.8% soybean meal. Supplementing anions induced a mild metabolic acidosis, reducing urine pH for 21-ND and 42-ND compared with CON. Prepartum DMI was not different among treatments. Postpartum DMI was higher for 21-ND compared with CON (20.8 vs. 18.1±1.1 kg/d), and 42-ND had similar DMI compared with 21-ND. During the first 56 d of lactation 21-ND had greater average milk production compared with CON (44.8 vs. 39.2±2.1 kg/d). Average milk production by 42-ND was similar to 21-ND. Postpartum total blood Ca concentration was greater for 42-ND. Cows fed anionic diets prepartum tended to have lower lipid

  15. Chemical composition of alfalfa silage with waste date and its feeding effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and microbial protein synthesis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Rajabi, R; Tahmasbi, R; Dayani, O; Khezri, A

    2016-09-07

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding ensiled alfalfa with waste date on ruminal fermentation characteristics, microbial protein synthesis, protozoa population and blood parameters in sheep. Eight rams were used in a 2 × 2 change over design. Each experimental period consisted of 21 days including 16 days for adaptation and 5 days for sampling. For ensiling, fresh alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) with different levels of waste date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) were mixed together and ensiled in 100-l containers for 45 days. Chemical composition of silages such as dry matter (DM), crude protein, NH3 -N, organic matter, NDF, ADF and pH were determined. Then, it was used as 30% (DM basis) in diets. The experimental diets were as follows: (i) control (diet containing alfalfa silage without waste date), (ii) diet containing alfalfa silage with 5 g waste date/95 g DM, (iii) diet containing alfalfa silage with 10 g waste date/90 g DM, and (iv) diet containing alfalfa silage with 15 g waste date/85 g DM. The results of this experiment showed that adding waste date to alfalfa during ensiling, improved silage quality, DM and energy level. Total protozoa population and all of holotrich, cellulolytic and entodinia in rumen fluid were increased linearly by increasing the level of waste date. Nitrogen (N) intake, urinary N excretion and nitrogen retention were affected by dietary treatments. Also, allantoin, uric acid, total purine derivatives, microbial protein synthesis, cholesterol level and blood urea nitrogen were significantly different. In conclusion, direct ensilage of alfalfa can be attained by mixing 15 g waste date/85 g DM and positive associative effects such as increased metabolizable energy (ME) and silage quality occurred.

  16. Food-web composition affects cross-ecosystem interactions and subsidies.

    PubMed

    Romero, Gustavo Q; Srivastava, Diane S

    2010-09-01

    1. Ecosystems may affect each other through trophic interactions that cross ecosystem boundaries as well as via the transfer of subsidies, but these effects can vary depending on the identity of species involved in the interaction. 2. In this study, we manipulated two terrestrial bromeliad-living spider species (Aglaoctenus castaneus, Corinna gr. rubripes) that have variable hunting modes, to test their individual and combined effects on aquatic invertebrate community structure and ecosystem processes (i.e. decomposition rate and nitrogen cycling). We predicted that these terrestrial predators can affect aquatic invertebrates and nutrient dynamics within water-filled bromeliads. 3. Aglaoctenus spiders reduced the richness, abundance and biomass of aquatic insect larvae via consumptive or non-consumptive effects on ovipositing terrestrial adults, but effects of the two spider species in combination were usually the linear average of their monoculture effects. In contrast, invertebrates with entirely aquatic life cycles were unaffected or facilitated by spiders. Spiders did not affect either net detritivore biomass or the flux of detrital nitrogen to the bromeliad. Instead, Corinna spiders contributed allochthonous nitrogen to bromeliads. 4. Our results provide the novel observations that predators in one ecosystem not only directly reduce taxa whose life cycles cross-ecosystem boundaries, but also indirectly facilitate taxa whose life cycles are entirely within the second ecosystem. This compensatory response between cross-ecosystem and within-ecosystem taxa may have led to an attenuation of top-down effects across ecosystem boundaries. In addition, our results add to a growing consensus that species identity is an important determinant of community structure and ecosystem functioning. Thus, the composition of both terrestrial and aquatic food webs may affect the strength of cross-ecosystem interactions.

  17. Diet Complexity and Estrogen Receptor β Status Affect the Composition of the Murine Intestinal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Rani; Watson, Sara E.; Thomas, Laura N.; Allred, Clinton D.; Dabney, Alan; Azcarate-Peril, M. Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal microbial dysbiosis contributes to the dysmetabolism of luminal factors, including steroid hormones (sterones) that affect the development of chronic gastrointestinal inflammation and the incidence of sterone-responsive cancers of the breast, prostate, and colon. Little is known, however, about the role of specific host sterone nucleoreceptors, including estrogen receptor β (ERβ), in microbiota maintenance. Herein, we test the hypothesis that ERβ status affects microbiota composition and determine if such compositionally distinct microbiota respond differently to changes in diet complexity that favor Proteobacteria enrichment. To this end, conventionally raised female ERβ+/+ and ERβ−/− C57BL/6J mice (mean age of 27 weeks) were initially reared on 8604, a complex diet containing estrogenic isoflavones, and then fed AIN-76, an isoflavone-free semisynthetic diet, for 2 weeks. 16S rRNA gene surveys revealed that the fecal microbiota of 8604-fed mice and AIN-76-fed mice differed, as expected. The relative diversity of Proteobacteria, especially the Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, increased significantly following the transition to AIN-76. Distinct patterns for beneficial Lactobacillales were exclusive to and highly abundant among 8604-fed mice, whereas several Proteobacteria were exclusive to AIN-76-fed mice. Interestingly, representative orders of the phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Firmicutes, including the Lactobacillales, also differed as a function of murine ERβ status. Overall, these interactions suggest that sterone nucleoreceptor status and diet complexity may play important roles in microbiota maintenance. Furthermore, we envision that this model for gastrointestinal dysbiosis may be used to identify novel probiotics, prebiotics, nutritional strategies, and pharmaceuticals for the prevention and resolution of Proteobacteria-rich dysbiosis. PMID:23872567

  18. Sediment size distribution and composition in a reservoir affected by severe water level fluctuations.

    PubMed

    López, Pilar; López-Tarazón, José A; Casas-Ruiz, Joan P; Pompeo, Marcelo; Ordoñez, Jaime; Muñoz, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The reservoir sediments are important sinks for organic carbon (OC), the OC burial being dependent on two opposite processes, deposition and mineralization. Hence factors such as severe water level fluctuations are expected to influence the rate of OC accumulation as they may affect both deposition and mineralization. The Barasona Reservoir has been historically threatened by siltation, whilst the use of water for irrigation involves a drastic decrease of the water level. In this context, we have studied the physical and chemical characteristics (grain size, major and minor elemental compositions, organic and inorganic carbon, and nitrogen) of the recent sediments of the Barasona Reservoir and the relationships among them in order to: a) elucidate the main processes governing OC accumulation, b) evaluate the rate of OC mineralization and c) approach the effect of drought on the sediment characteristics in this system. Our results indicated that Barasona sediments were dominated by fine silts (>60%) and clays (>20%), the mean particle size decreasing from tail to dam. Desiccation increased particle sorting and size distribution became bimodal, but no effect on average size was observed. Attending to the composition, Barasona sediments were very homogeneous with low concentrations of nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (<1.2 g kg(-1) dw and <0.6 g kg(-1) dw, respectively) and high concentration of OC (≈36 g kg(-1) dw). TN was negatively related to dry weight. Sediment mixing due to drastic changes in water level may have favoured the observed homogeneity of Barasona sediments affecting carbon, major ions and grain size. The high amount of OC deposited in Barasona sediment suggested that the adsorption of OC onto fine particles was more important than in boreal lakes. The rate of oxygen consumption by wet sediment ranged from 2.26 to 3.15 mg O2 m(-2) day(-1), values close to those compiled for Mediterranean running waters.

  19. Management type affects composition and facilitative processes in altoandine dry grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catorci, Andrea; Cesaretti, Sabrina; Velasquez, Jose Luis; Burrascano, Sabina; Zeballos, Horacio

    2013-10-01

    We performed our study in the Dry Puna of the southern Peruvian Andes. Through a comparative approach we aimed to assess the effects of the two management systems, low grazing pressure by wild camelids vs. high grazing pressure by domestic livestock and periodic burning. Our general hypothesis was that the traditional high disturbance regime affects the dry Puna species diversity and composition through modifications of the magnitude of plant-plant-interactions and changes of the community structure due to shifts in species dominance. In 40 plots of 10 × 10 m, the cover value of each species was recorded and the species richness, floristic diversity, and community similarity of each treatment were compared. For each disturbance regime, differences of soil features (organic matter, carbon/nitrogen ratio, and potassium content) were tested. To evaluate plant-plant interactions, 4 linear transect divided into 500 plots of 10 × 10 cm were laid out and co-occurrence analysis was performed. We found that different disturbance regimes were associated with differences in the floristic composition, and that the high disturbance condition had lower species diversity and evenness. A decrease of tall species such as Festuca orthophylla and increase of dwarf and spiny Tetraglochin cristatum shrubs was observed as well. In addition, different disturbance intensities caused differences in the functional composition of the plant communities, since species with avoidance strategies are selected by high grazing pressure. High disturbance intensity was also associated to differences of soil features and to different clumped spatial structure of the dry Puna. Our results indicate also that: positive interactions are often species-specific mainly depending on the features of nurse and beneficiary species; the importance of positive interaction is higher at low grazing pressure than at high disturbance intensity; the magnitude and direction of the herbivory-mediated facilitation

  20. Macrofauna assemblage composition and soil moisture interact to affect soil ecosystem functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collison, E. J.; Riutta, T.; Slade, E. M.

    2013-02-01

    Changing climatic conditions and habitat fragmentation are predicted to alter the soil moisture conditions of temperate forests. It is not well understood how the soil macrofauna community will respond to changes in soil moisture, and how changes to species diversity and community composition may affect ecosystem functions, such as litter decomposition and soil fluxes. Moreover, few studies have considered the interactions between the abiotic and biotic factors that regulate soil processes. Here we attempt to disentangle the interactive effects of two of the main factors that regulate soil processes at small scales - moisture and macrofauna assemblage composition. The response of assemblages of three common temperate soil invertebrates (Glomeris marginata Villers, Porcellio scaber Latreille and Philoscia muscorum Scopoli) to two contrasting soil moisture levels was examined in a series of laboratory mesocosm experiments. The contribution of the invertebrates to the leaf litter mass loss of two common temperate tree species of contrasting litter quality (easily decomposing Fraxinus excelsior L. and recalcitrant Quercus robur L.) and to soil CO2 fluxes were measured. Both moisture conditions and litter type influenced the functioning of the invertebrate assemblages, which was greater in high moisture conditions compared with low moisture conditions and on good quality vs. recalcitrant litter. In high moisture conditions, all macrofauna assemblages functioned at equal rates, whereas in low moisture conditions there were pronounced differences in litter mass loss among the assemblages. This indicates that species identity and assemblage composition are more important when moisture is limited. We suggest that complementarity between macrofauna species may mitigate the reduced functioning of some species, highlighting the importance of maintaining macrofauna species richness.

  1. Hydrocarbon and fatty acid composition of cheese as affected by the pasture vegetation type.

    PubMed

    Povolo, Milena; Pelizzola, Valeria; Lombardi, Giampiero; Tava, Aldo; Contarini, Giovanna

    2012-01-11

    The determination of the geographical origin of dairy products is an ongoing issue. In this paper the effects of botanical diversity of two pastures on the hydrocarbon and fatty acid composition of cheese fat were studied, over 2 years of experimentation. Two areas in the Italian southwestern Alpine region, dominated by Trifolium alpinum (T) and Festuca nigrescens (F) vegetation, respectively, were chosen, and milk obtained from cows grazing on these pastures was used to produce a semihard traditional cheese. Cheese samples showed a significantly different composition of most linear hydrocarbons, odd-chain (C15, C17, and C17:1) and unsaturated (trans-11,cis-15-C18:2, C18:3, C20:4n-6, C20:4n-3, and 20:5n-3) fatty acids, according to pasture type. The ratio between C(29) and C(27) linear hydrocarbons, unlike the absolute content of the single molecules, showed a good discriminating ability between the two pastures and was little affected by the natural variability due to the climatic and environmental factors.

  2. Alterations in welding process voltage affect the generation of ultrafine particles, fume composition, and pulmonary toxicity.

    PubMed

    Antonini, James M; Keane, Michael; Chen, Bean T; Stone, Samuel; Roberts, Jenny R; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Andrews, Ronnee N; Frazer, David G; Sriram, Krishnan

    2011-12-01

    The goal was to determine if increasing welding voltage changes the physico-chemical properties of the fume and influences lung responses. Rats inhaled 40 mg/m³ (3 h/day × 3 days) of stainless steel (SS) welding fume generated at a standard voltage setting of 25 V (regular SS) or at a higher voltage (high voltage SS) of 30 V. Particle morphology, size and composition were characterized. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed at different times after exposures to assess lung injury. Fumes collected from either of the welding conditions appeared as chain-like agglomerates of nanometer-sized primary particles. High voltage SS welding produced a greater number of ultrafine-sized particles. Fume generated by high voltage SS welding was higher in manganese. Pulmonary toxicity was more substantial and persisted longer after exposure to the regular SS fume. In summary, a modest raise in welding voltage affected fume size and elemental composition and altered the temporal lung toxicity profile.

  3. Genetically modified crops in a 10-generation feeding trial on Japanese quails--Evaluation of its influence on birds' performance and body composition.

    PubMed

    Sartowska, K E; Korwin-Kossakowska, A; Sender, G

    2015-12-01

    The effect of genetically modified (GM) feed components comprising soya bean meal and maize on the performance indices (reproduction, survival rate, growth, egg production, relative weight of chosen internal organs, and basic chemical composition of breast muscle and egg yolk) of Japanese quails was investigated during a 10-generation trial. A total number of 8,438 healthy quail chicks were used in the course of the trial. In each generation, birds were maintained in 3 experimental groups differing in the main feed components, i.e. 1) GM soya (Roundup Ready) and non-GM maize, 2) GM maize (MON810) and non-GM soya, and 3) non-GM soya and maize. The different feeds used did not influence any of the biological hatch indices, survival rate, or BW of young or adult quails. With regard to egg-laying performance, the GM maize group showed a better laying percentage and a higher egg mass production compared to the other groups; the GM soya group showed reduced average egg mass compared to the other groups, whereas the overall egg production level was the same as in the control group. Results showed a higher relative weight of breast muscle and gizzard in birds fed GM maize compared to the control group, whereas live BW and the relative weights of liver and heart were not different among groups. Meat from the GM soya group showed higher protein and lower fat levels compared to the control group. In the case of egg yolk, its chemical composition in the experimental groups did not differ from the control group. Even though some differences were found among the feeding groups, none could be judged as a negative influence of GM maize or GM soya in feed on the birds or final consumer products over 10 generations of Japanese quails.

  4. Altered precipitation regime affects the function and composition of soil microbial communities on multiple time scales.

    PubMed

    Zeglin, L H; Bottomley, P J; Jumpponen, A; Rice, C W; Arango, M; Lindsley, A; McGowan, A; Mfombep, P; Myrold, D D

    2013-10-01

    Climate change models predict that future precipitation patterns will entail lower-frequency but larger rainfall events, increasing the duration of dry soil conditions. Resulting shifts in microbial C cycling activity could affect soil C storage. Further, microbial response to rainfall events may be constrained by the physiological or nutrient limitation stress of extended drought periods; thus seasonal or multiannual precipitation regimes may influence microbial activity following soil wet-up. We quantified rainfall-driven dynamics of microbial processes that affect soil C loss and retention, and microbial community composition, in soils from a long-term (14-year) field experiment contrasting "Ambient" and "Altered" (extended intervals between rainfalls) precipitation regimes. We collected soil before, the day following, and five days following 2.5-cm rainfall events during both moist and dry periods (June and September 2011; soil water potential = -0.01 and -0.83 MPa, respectively), and measured microbial respiration, microbial biomass, organic matter decomposition potential (extracellular enzyme activities), and microbial community composition (phospholipid fatty acids). The equivalent rainfall events caused equivalent microbial respiration responses in both treatments. In contrast, microbial biomass was higher and increased after rainfall in the Altered treatment soils only, thus microbial C use efficiency (CUE) was higher in Altered than Ambient treatments (0.70 +/- 0.03 > 0.46 +/- 0.10). CUE was also higher in dry (September) soils. C-acquiring enzyme activities (beta-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, and phenol oxidase) increased after rainfall in moist (June), but not dry (September) soils. Both microbial biomass C:N ratios and fungal:bacterial ratios were higher at lower soil water contents, suggesting a functional and/or population-level shift in the microbiota at low soil water contents, and microbial community composition also differed following wet

  5. Manipulating cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) expression in flax affects fibre composition and properties

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent decades cultivation of flax and its application have dramatically decreased. One of the reasons for this is unpredictable quality and properties of flax fibre, because they depend on environmental factors, retting duration and growing conditions. These factors have contribution to the fibre composition, which consists of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin and pectin. By far, it is largely established that in flax, lignin reduces an accessibility of enzymes either to pectin, hemicelluloses or cellulose (during retting or in biofuel synthesis and paper production). Therefore, in this study we evaluated composition and properties of flax fibre from plants with silenced CAD (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase) gene, which is key in the lignin biosynthesis. There is evidence that CAD is a useful tool to improve lignin digestibility and/or to lower the lignin levels in plants. Results Two studied lines responded differentially to the introduced modification due to the efficiency of the CAD silencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that flax CAD belongs to the “bona-fide” CAD family. CAD down-regulation had an effect in the reduced lignin amount in the flax fibre cell wall and as FT-IR results suggests, disturbed lignin composition and structure. Moreover introduced modification activated a compensatory mechanism which was manifested in the accumulation of cellulose and/or pectin. These changes had putative correlation with observed improved fiber’s tensile strength. Moreover, CAD down-regulation did not disturb at all or has only slight effect on flax plants’ development in vivo, however, the resistance against flax major pathogen Fusarium oxysporum decreased slightly. The modification positively affected fibre possessing; it resulted in more uniform retting. Conclusion The major finding of our paper is that the modification targeted directly to block lignin synthesis caused not only reduced lignin level in fibre, but also affected amount and

  6. Brucella abortus Choloylglycine Hydrolase Affects Cell Envelope Composition and Host Cell Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Marchesini, María Inés; Connolly, Joseph; Delpino, María Victoria; Baldi, Pablo C.; Mujer, Cesar V.; DelVecchio, Vito G.; Comerci, Diego J.

    2011-01-01

    Choloylglycine hydrolase (CGH, E.C. 3.5.1.24) is a conjugated bile salt hydrolase that catalyses the hydrolysis of the amide bond in conjugated bile acids. Bile salt hydrolases are expressed by gastrointestinal bacteria, and they presumably decrease the toxicity of host's conjugated bile salts. Brucella species are the causative agents of brucellosis, a disease affecting livestock and humans. CGH confers Brucella the ability to deconjugate and resist the antimicrobial action of bile salts, contributing to the establishment of a successful infection through the oral route in mice. Additionally, cgh-deletion mutant was also attenuated in intraperitoneally inoculated mice, which suggests that CGH may play a role during systemic infection other than hydrolyzing conjugated bile acids. To understand the role CGH plays in B. abortus virulence, we infected phagocytic and epithelial cells with a cgh-deletion mutant (Δcgh) and found that it is defective in the internalization process. This defect along with the increased resistance of Δcgh to the antimicrobial action of polymyxin B, prompted an analysis of the cell envelope of this mutant. Two-dimensional electrophoretic profiles of Δcgh cell envelope-associated proteins showed an altered expression of Omp2b and different members of the Omp25/31 family. These results were confirmed by Western blot analysis with monoclonal antibodies. Altogether, the results indicate that Brucella CGH not only participates in deconjugation of bile salts but also affects overall membrane composition and host cell internalization. PMID:22174816

  7. Brucella abortus choloylglycine hydrolase affects cell envelope composition and host cell internalization.

    PubMed

    Marchesini, María Inés; Connolly, Joseph; Delpino, María Victoria; Baldi, Pablo C; Mujer, Cesar V; DelVecchio, Vito G; Comerci, Diego J

    2011-01-01

    Choloylglycine hydrolase (CGH, E.C. 3.5.1.24) is a conjugated bile salt hydrolase that catalyses the hydrolysis of the amide bond in conjugated bile acids. Bile salt hydrolases are expressed by gastrointestinal bacteria, and they presumably decrease the toxicity of host's conjugated bile salts. Brucella species are the causative agents of brucellosis, a disease affecting livestock and humans. CGH confers Brucella the ability to deconjugate and resist the antimicrobial action of bile salts, contributing to the establishment of a successful infection through the oral route in mice. Additionally, cgh-deletion mutant was also attenuated in intraperitoneally inoculated mice, which suggests that CGH may play a role during systemic infection other than hydrolyzing conjugated bile acids. To understand the role CGH plays in B. abortus virulence, we infected phagocytic and epithelial cells with a cgh-deletion mutant (Δcgh) and found that it is defective in the internalization process. This defect along with the increased resistance of Δcgh to the antimicrobial action of polymyxin B, prompted an analysis of the cell envelope of this mutant. Two-dimensional electrophoretic profiles of Δcgh cell envelope-associated proteins showed an altered expression of Omp2b and different members of the Omp25/31 family. These results were confirmed by Western blot analysis with monoclonal antibodies. Altogether, the results indicate that Brucella CGH not only participates in deconjugation of bile salts but also affects overall membrane composition and host cell internalization.

  8. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING DL

    2008-03-19

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions.

  9. Effects of corn silage derived from a genetically modified variety containing two transgenes on feed intake, milk production, and composition, and the absence of detectable transgenic deoxyribonucleic acid in milk in Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Calsamiglia, S; Hernandez, B; Hartnell, G F; Phipps, R

    2007-10-01

    The objectives were to compare the chemical composition, nutritive value, feed intake, milk production and composition, and presence in milk of transgenic DNA and the encoded protein Cry1Ab when corn silages containing 2 transgenes (2GM: herbicide tolerance: mepsps and insect resistance: cry1Ab) were fed as part of a standard total mixed ration (TMR) compared with a near isogenic corn silage (C) to 8 multiparous lactating Holstein dairy cows in a single reversal design study. Cows were fed a TMR ration ad libitum and milked twice daily. Diets contained [dry matter (DM) basis] 45% corn silage, 10% alfalfa hay, and 45% concentrate (1.66 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg of DM, 15.8% crude protein, 35% neutral detergent fiber, and 4.1% fat). Each period was 28-d long. During the last 4 d of each period, feed intake and milk production data were recorded and milk samples taken for compositional analysis, including the presence of transgenic DNA and Cry1Ab protein. There was no significant difference in the chemical composition between C and 2GM silages, and both were within the expected range (37.6% DM, 1.51 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg, 8.6% crude protein, 40% neutral detergent fiber, 19.6% acid detergent fiber, pH 3.76, and 62% in vitro DM digestibility). Cows fed the 2GM silage produced milk with slightly higher protein (3.09 vs. 3.00%), lactose (4.83 vs. 4.72%) and solids-not-fat (8.60 vs. 8.40%) compared with C. However, the yield (kg/d) of milk (36.5), 3.5% fat-corrected milk (34.4), fat (1.151), protein (1.106), lactose (1.738), and solids-not-fat (3.094), somatic cell count (log10: 2.11), change in body weight (+7.8 kg), and condition score (+0.09) were not affected by type of silage, indicating no overall production difference. All milk samples were negative for the presence of transgenic DNA from either trait or the Cry1Ab protein. Results indicate that the 2GM silage modified with 2 transgenes did not affect nutrient composition of the silages and

  10. Changes in terpenoid composition of milk and cheese from commercial sheep flocks associated with seasonal feeding regimens throughout lactation.

    PubMed

    Valdivielso, Izaskun; de Renobales, Mertxe; Aldai, Noelia; Barron, Luis Javier R

    2017-01-01

    Changes in the terpenoid content of milk and cheese from commercial sheep flocks monitored throughout lactation in the Cantabrian area of northern Spain were investigated. The flocks followed the same seasonal feeding strategy during lactation: indoor feeding in winter (early lactation) based on concentrate and forage; part-time grazing in the valley in early spring (mid lactation); and from mid spring on (late lactation), flocks were managed under extensive mountain grazing. In the present study design, seasonal feeding and lactation stage were intrinsically linked and could not be considered in isolation, and a holistic approach was necessary to consider the whole production management of the commercial flocks studied. Furthermore, the study focused on the identification of sesquiterpenoid ratios to differentiate milks and cheeses produced under extensive mountain grazing from those produced under other seasonal feeding regimens. Total abundance of mono- and sesquiterpenoids and that of individual compounds such as α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, α-amorphene, and γ-cadinene significantly increased in milk and cheese from indoor feeding to mountain extensive grazing. Sesquiterpenoid ratios such as γ-cadinene/α-muurolene, γ-cadinene/δ-cadinene, β-caryophyllene/α-muurolene, and (β-caryophyllene + γ-cadinene)/α-muurolene were used to differentiate mountain milks and cheeses from those from indoor feeding and part-time grazing in the valley. Multivariate discriminant analysis applied to individual terpenoids and sesquiterpenoid ratios showed milk and cheese samples classified into 2 groups: samples from indoor feeding and part-time grazing in the valley were classified together, and clearly separated from mountain milks and cheeses. The results of the present study showed that the sesquiterpenoid ratios approach could help to differentiate mountain dairy products from others obtained under other specific feeding regimens in a local environment.

  11. Effects of partial replacement of concentrate with feed blocks on nutrient utilization, microbial N flow, and milk yield and composition in goats.

    PubMed

    Molina-Alcaide, E; Morales-García, E Y; Martín-García, A I; Ben Salem, H; Nefzaoui, A; Sanz-Sampelayo, M R

    2010-05-01

    affected by diet. Milk yield was higher in goats fed the AC diet than in those receiving the FB diets. Conjugated linoleic acid content was higher in milk from FB than in milk from AC goats. Our study suggests that FB type II based on local ingredients could be used advantageously to reduce half of the amount of concentrate without detrimental effects on nutrient utilization, N value of the diet, and milk composition. The decrease of milk yield with ACBII compared with that obtained with the AC diet could be compensated by better quality of milk, decreased cost of feeding, and environmental advantage derived of including by-products in FB.

  12. Compositional and toxicological analysis of a GM potato line with reduced α-solanine content--a 90-day feeding study in the Syrian Golden hamster.

    PubMed

    Langkilde, Søren; Schrøder, Malene; Frank, Thomas; Shepherd, Louise V T; Conner, Sean; Davies, Howard V; Meyer, Otto; Danier, Jürgen; Rychlik, Michael; Belknap, William R; McCue, Kent F; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Stewart, Derek; Knudsen, Ib; Poulsen, Morten

    2012-10-01

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (GAs) are toxins, produced by plants of the Solanaceae family. The potato plant (Solanum tuberosum L.) and its tubers predominantly contain the two GAs α-chaconine and α-solanine. These compounds are believed to act in synergy, and the degree of toxicity may therefore depend on their ratio in the potato. To determine the influence of α-solanine: α-chaconine ratio in potatoes on toxicity, a GM potato line (SGT 9-2) with reduced α-solanine content, and the parental control line (Desirée wild-type) having a traditional α-solanine: α-chaconine ratio were (1) studied for compositional similarity by analysing for a range of potato constituents, and (2) used in a 90-day feeding trial with the Syrian Golden hamster to study differential toxicity. The animal feeding study used diets with up to 60% freeze-dried potato powder from either line. Whilst data indicated some compositional differences between the GM line and its wildtype control these did not raise concerns related to nutritional value or safety. Results of the feeding trials showed a low number of significant differences between potato lines with different α-solanine: α-chaconine ratio but none were considered to raise safety concerns with regard to human (or animal) consumption.

  13. Effect of feeding Bacillus subtilis natto fermentation product on milk production and composition, blood metabolites and rumen fermentation in early lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Peng, H; Wang, J Q; Kang, H Y; Dong, S H; Sun, P; Bu, D P; Zhou, L Y

    2012-06-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of Bacillus subtilis natto fermentation product supplementation on blood metabolites, rumen fermentation and milk production and composition in early lactation dairy cows. Thirty-six multiparous Holstein cows (DIM = 29 ± 6 days, parity = 2.8 ± 1.1) were blocked by DIM and parity and then randomly assigned to three treatments (12 per treatment) in a 9-week trial. Cows in control, DFM1 and DFM2 were fed TMR diets supplemented with 0, 6 and 12 g of B. subtilis natto solid-state fermentation product per day per cow respectively. Plasma non-esterified fatty acids were lower (p = 0.03) in DFM1 and DFM2 compared with control cows (633 and 639 vs. 685 μm). Ruminal propionate increased (23.9 vs. 26.3 and 26.9/100 mol, control vs. DFM1 and DFM2 respectively) and acetate decreased (64.2 vs. 62.7 and 62.1/100 mol, control vs. DFM1 and DFM2 respectively) with increasing B. subtilis natto fermentation product supplementation. DMI of the cows in three treatments was not affected by B. subtilis natto fermentation product supplementation, but milk yield was 3.1 and 3.2 kg/day higher for DFM1 and DFM2 than that for control cows on average across the 9-week trial, and significant differences were observed during weeks 5-9 of the trial, which resulted in 9.5% and 11.7% increase in feed efficiency. B. subtilis natto fermentation product supplementation did not affect milk fat percentage and protein yield but increased (p < 0.05) milk fat yield and lactose percentage (p < 0.01) and tended to decrease protein percentage (p = 0.06). The findings show that B. subtilis natto fermentation product was effective in increasing lactation performance of early lactation dairy cows possibly by altering the rumen fermentation pattern without any negative effects on blood metabolites.

  14. The duration of time that beef cattle are fed a high-grain diet affects feed sorting behavior both before and after acute ruminal acidosis1,2.

    PubMed

    DeVries, T J; Schwaiger, T; Beauchemin, K A; Penner, G B

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how duration of time that cattle are fed a high-grain diet affects feed sorting, both before and after an episode of acute ruminal acidosis. Sixteen Angus heifers (261 ± 6.1 kg; BW ± SEM) were assigned to 1 of 4 blocks and fed a backgrounding (BG) diet (60% forage, DM basis). Within block, heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments differing in days fed a high-grain (HG; 9% forage, DM basis, fed ad libitum) diet before a ruminal acidosis challenge: 34 d for long adapted (LA) and 8 d for short adapted (SA). Ruminal acidosis was induced by restricting feed to 50% of DMI as a proportion of BW (determined individually for each heifer) for 24 h followed by an intraruminal infusion of ground barley at 10% of DMI as a proportion of BW measured before feed restriction. Feed and orts were sampled during the BG period, the first 26 d on the HG diet (only for LA cattle), the 8-d baseline (BASE) period, on the day of the ruminal acidosis challenge (CH), and during 2 consecutive 8-d recovery periods (REC1 and REC2) for each heifer and subjected to particle size analysis: 19-mm (long), 8-mm (medium), and 1.18-mm (short) screens and a pan (fine). On the BG diet, sorting for medium particles tended to be greater (104.2 vs. 102.1%; P = 0.07) for LA heifers than SA heifers, while sorting against short particles was greater (98.2 vs. 100.0%; P = 0.05) for LA heifers. During the first 26 d on the HG diet, LA cattle sorted for (P < 0.001) long (118.8%), medium (117.8%), and short (104.1%) particles and sorted against (P < 0.001) fine particles (45.3%). This sorting pattern was consistent for LA heifers during BASE period, CH day, and recovery periods, across which SA heifers exhibited less sorting (P ≤ 0.1). Greater duration of pH < 5.5 during the BASE period was associated with greater sorting for long particles (R(2) = 0.75, P = 0.01) in LA heifers and for long (R(2) = 0.49, P = 0.05) and medium (R(2) = 0.88, P < 0

  15. The Lipid Composition and Physical Properties of the Yeast Vacuole Affect the Hemifusion-Fusion Transition

    PubMed Central

    Karunakaran, Surya; Fratti, Rutilio A.

    2013-01-01

    Yeast vacuole fusion requires the formation of SNARE bundles between membranes. Although the function of vacuolar SNAREs is controlled in part by regulatory lipids, the exact role of the membrane in regulating fusion remains unclear. Because SNAREs are membrane-anchored and transmit the force required for fusion to the bilayer, we hypothesized that the lipid composition and curvature of the membrane aid in controlling fusion. Here, we examined the effect of altering membrane fluidity and curvature on the functionality of fusion-incompetent SNARE mutants that are thought to generate insufficient force to trigger the hemifusion-fusion transition. The hemifusion-fusion transition was inhibited by disrupting the 3Q:1R stoichiometry of SNARE bundles with the mutant SNARE Vam7pQ283R. Similarly, replacing the transmembrane domain of the syntaxin homolog Vam3p with a lipid anchor allowed hemifusion, but not content mixing. Hemifusion-stalled reactions containing either of the SNARE mutants were stimulated to fuse with chlorpromazine, an amphipathic molecule that alters membrane fluidity and curvature. The activity of mutant SNAREs was also rescued by the overexpression of SNAREs, thus multiplying the force transferred to the membrane. Thus, we conclude that either increasing membrane fluidity, or multiplying SNARE-generated energy restored the fusogenicity of mutant SNAREs that are stalled at hemifusion. We also found that regulatory lipids differentially modulated the complex formation of wild-type SNAREs. Together, these data indicate that the physical properties and the lipid composition of the membrane affect the function of SNAREs in promoting the hemifusion-fusion transition. PMID:23438067

  16. Roasting affects phenolic composition and antioxidative activity of hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.).

    PubMed

    Schmitzer, Valentina; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Solar, Anita

    2011-01-01

    The potential effect of skin removal and roasting on individual and total phenolic content, and on antioxidative potential of 6 hazelnut cultivars were investigated. HPLC-MS identification of individual phenolics confirmed the presence of 7 flavan-3-ols (catechin, epicatechin, 2 procyanidin dimers, and 3 procyanidin trimers), 3 flavonols (quercetin pentoside, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, and myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside), 2 hydrobenzoic acids (gallic acid, protocatechulic acid), and 1 dihydrochalcone (phloretin-2'-O-glucoside). Flavonols were only detected in whole hazelnut kernels. The content of individual phenolics, with the exception of gallic acid, was always highest in whole unroasted hazelnuts and was significantly reduced after skin removal. Similarly, total phenolic content and antioxidative potential decreased when skin was removed. Roasting had a significant negative effect on individual phenolics but not on the total phenolic content and antioxidative potential of kernels. From a health promoting phytochemical composition of hazelnuts the consumption of whole unroasted kernels with skins should be preferential to peeled kernels either roasted or unroasted. Practical Application: A significant reduction in the antioxidative potential and total phenolic content is detected after hazelnut skin removal but not after roasting, suggesting that hazelnut kernels should be consumed whole. In hazelnut skin, many phenolic compounds are located, which are not present in flesh and, therefore, the health properties of hazelnuts are strongly affected by skin removal. Thermal processing and roasting conditions used in this study had a lesser effect on the individual phenolic composition of the kernel and thus roasted and unroasted hazelnuts without skin contain comparable amounts of health promoting compounds.

  17. Histology, composition, and quality traits of chicken Pectoralis major muscle affected by wooden breast abnormality.

    PubMed

    Soglia, F; Mudalal, S; Babini, E; Di Nunzio, M; Mazzoni, M; Sirri, F; Cavani, C; Petracci, M

    2016-03-01

    Only a few years ago, the poultry industry began to face a recent abnormality in breast meat, known as wooden breast, which frequently overlaps with white striping. This study aimed to assess the impact of wooden breast abnormality on quality traits of meat. For this purpose, 32 normal (NRM), 32 wooden (WB), and 32 wooden and white-striped (WB/WS) Pectoralis major muscles were selected from the same flock of heavy broilers (males, Ross 708, weighing around 3.7 kg) in the deboning area of a commercial processing plant at 3 h postmortem and used to assess histology, proximate (moisture, protein, fat, ash, and collagen) and mineral composition (Mg, K, P, Na and Ca), sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein patterns, and technological traits of breast meat. Compared to the normal group, WB/WS fillets showed more severe histological lesions characterized by fiber degeneration, fibrosis, and lipidosis, coupled with a significantly harder texture. With regard to proximate and mineral composition, abnormal samples exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher moisture, fat, and collagen contents coupled with lower (P < 0.001) amounts of protein and ash. Furthermore, increased calcium (131 vs. 84 mg kg(-1); P < 0.05) and sodium (741 vs. 393 mg kg(-1); P < 0.001) levels were found in WB/WS meat samples. The SDS-PAGE analysis revealed a significantly lower amount of calcium-ATPase (SERCA, 114 kDa), responsible for the translocation of Ca ions across the membrane, in normal breasts compared to abnormal ones. As for meat quality traits, fillets affected by wooden abnormality exhibited significantly (P < 0.001) higher ultimate pH and lower water-holding/water-binding capacity. In particular, compared to normal, abnormal samples showed reduced marinade uptake coupled with increased drip loss and cooking losses as well. In conclusion, this study revealed that meat affected by wooden breast or both wooden breast and white striping abnormalities exhibit poorer nutritional value, harder

  18. Effect of feeding growing-fattening rabbits a diet supplemented with whole white lupin (Lupinus albus cv. Amiga) seeds on fatty acid composition and indexes related to human health in hind leg meat and perirenal fat.

    PubMed

    Volek, Zdeněk; Marounek, Milan

    2011-01-01

    A total of 20 weaned rabbits (33 days old) (10 per treatment) were fed one of two diets that included 150 g of sunflower meal (SF)/kg of diet or 120 g of whole white lupin (WL)/kg of diet for 42 days. The WL diet contained less saturated fatty acids (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) but more monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) than the SF diet. The WL diet significantly decreased SFA and PUFA content, as well as the PUFA n-6/PUFA n-3 ratio and saturation, atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes in hind leg meat. The fatty acid composition in perirenal fat was similar to that of hind leg meat; however, significantly higher MUFA levels were observed in rabbits fed the WL diet. Thus, feeding rabbits the WL diet affected the fatty acid profile of hind leg meat and perirenal fat in a favourable manner.

  19. Composition, indigenous proteolytic enzymes and coagulating behaviour of ewe milk as affected by somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, Marzia; Santillo, Antonella; Caroprese, Mariangela; Schena, Laura; Russo, Donatella Esterina; Sevi, Agostino

    2011-11-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effect of somatic cell count in ewe milk on i) composition and hygienic traits; ii) plasmin, cathepsin and elastase activities; iii) leukocyte differential count; iv) renneting parameters. Individual ewe milk samples were grouped according to somatic cell count (SCC) into five classes: SC300 (<300 000 cells/ml), SC500 (from 301 000 to 500 000 cells/ml), SC1000 (from 501 000 to 1 000 000 cells/ml), SC2000 (from 1 001 000 to 2 000 000 cells/ml) and SC>2000 (>2 001 000 cells/ml). Individual milk samples were analysed for pH, chemical composition, microbial features, indigenous proteolytic enzymes, differential leukocyte population, and renneting parameters. Milk yield, lactose, protein, non casein nitrogen, microbial features were affected by SCC level. Plasmin and elastase activities were the highest in samples with more than 1 000 000 cells/ml; plasmin had intermediate values in samples with 300 000 to 1 000 000 cells/ml and the lowest in samples with less than 300 000 cells/ml of milk. Cathepsin D showed significantly lower values in SC300 and SC1000 classes than in SC500, SC2000 and SC>2000 classes. The highest percentages of lymphocyte were found in samples with less than 1 000 000 cells/ml, while the highest levels of polymorphonuclear leukocyte were found in samples with more than 1 000 000 cells/ml of milk. Longer clotting time was found in SC>2000 samples, while reduced clot firmness was observed in SC500 and SC>2000 samples. Results on milk yield and on compositional parameters evidenced an impairment of udder efficiency in ewe milk samples starting from 300 000 cells/ml. Plasmin activity in milk can be considered as a marker of the synthetic and secreting ability of the mammary gland; furthermore plasmin and elastase were consistent with the health status of the udder. Finally cathepsin D played a role in the worsening of renneting properties of ewe milk.

  20. Survey of retail milk composition as affected by label claims regarding farm-management practices.

    PubMed

    Vicini, John; Etherton, Terry; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Ballam, Joan; Denham, Steven; Staub, Robin; Goldstein, Daniel; Cady, Roger; McGrath, Michael; Lucy, Matthew

    2008-07-01

    A trend in food labeling is to make claims related to agricultural management, and this is occurring with dairy labels. A survey study was conducted to compare retail milk for quality (antibiotics and bacterial counts), nutritional value (fat, protein, and solids-not-fat), and hormonal composition (somatotropin, insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], estradiol, and progesterone) as affected by three label claims related to dairy-cow management: conventional, recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST)-free (processor-certified not from cows supplemented with rbST), or organic (follows US Department of Agriculture organic practices). Retail milk samples (n=334) from 48 states were collected. Based on a statistical analysis that reflected the sampling schema and distributions appropriate to the various response variables, minor differences were observed for conventional, rbST-free, and organic milk labels. Conventionally labeled milk had the lowest (P<0.05) bacterial counts compared to either milk labeled rbST-free or organic; however, these differences were not biologically meaningful. In addition, conventionally labeled milk had significantly less (P<0.05) estradiol and progesterone than organic milk (4.97 vs 6.40 pg/mL and 12.0 vs 13.9 ng/mL, respectively). Milk labeled rbST-free had similar concentrations of progesterone vs conventional milk and similar concentrations of estradiol vs organic milk. Concentrations of IGF-1 in milk were similar between conventional milk and milk labeled rbST-free. Organic milk had less (P<0.05) IGF-1 than either conventional or rbST-free milk (2.73 ng/mL vs 3.12 and 3.04 ng/mL, respectively). The macronutrient profiles of the different milks were similar, except for a slight increase in protein in organic milk (about 0.1% greater for organic compared to other milks). Label claims were not related to any meaningful differences in the milk compositional variables measured. It is important for food and nutrition professionals to know that

  1. Landscape composition, patch size, and distance to edges: Interactions affecting duck reproductive success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horn, David Joseph; Phillips, Michael L.; Koford, Rolf R.; Clark, William R.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Greenwood, Raymond J.

    2005-01-01

    Prairies and other North American grasslands, although highly fragmented, provide breeding habitat for a diverse array of species, including species of tremendous economic and ecological importance. Conservation and management of these species requires some understanding of how reproductive success is affected by edge effects, patch size, and characteristics of the landscape. We examined how differences in the percentage of grassland in the landscape influenced the relationships between the success of nests of upland-nesting ducks and (1) field size and (2) distance to nearest field and wetland edges. We collected data on study areas composed of 15–20% grassland and areas composed of 45–55% grassland in central North Dakota, USA during the 1996 and 1997 nesting seasons. Daily survival rates (DSRs) of duck nests were greater in study areas with 45–55% grassland than with 15–20% grassland. Within study areas, we detected a curvilinear relationship between DSR and field size: DSRs were highest in small and large fields and lowest in moderately sized fields. In study areas with 15–20% grassland, there was no relationship between probability of hatching and distance to nearest field edge, whereas in study areas with 45–55% grassland, there was a positive relationship between these two variables. Results of this study support the conclusion that both landscape composition and configuration affect reproductive success of ground-nesting birds. We are prompted to question conservation strategies that favor clustering moderately sized patches of nesting habitat within agricultural landscapes because our results show that such patches would have low nest success, most likely caused by predation. Understanding the pattern of nest success, and the predator–prey mechanisms that produce the pattern, will enable design of patch configurations that are most conducive to meeting conservation goals.

  2. Leptin concentrations in finishing beef steers and heifers and their association with dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and body composition.

    PubMed

    Foote, A P; Tait, R G; Keisler, D H; Hales, K E; Freetly, H C

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of circulating plasma leptin concentrations with production and body composition measures of finishing beef steers and heifers and to determine if multiple sampling time points improve the associations of plasma leptin concentrations with production and body composition traits. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) and ADG were determined for 84 d using steers and heifers (n = 127 steers and n = 109 heifers). Blood was collected on day 0, day 42, and day 83 for determination of plasma leptin concentrations. Leptin concentrations were greater in heifers than those in steers on day 0 (P < 0.001 for sex by day interaction), and leptin concentrations increased in both sexes but were not different from each other on day 83. Leptin concentrations at all 3 time points and the mean were shown to be positively associated with DMI (P ≤ 0.006), whereas the mean leptin concentration explaining 8.3% of the variance of DMI. Concentrations of leptin at day 42, day 83, and the mean of all 3 time points were positively associated with ADG (P ≤ 0.011). Mean leptin concentration was negatively associated with gain:feed ratio and positively associated with residual feed intake (RFI), indicating that more efficient cattle had lower leptin concentrations. However, leptin concentrations explained very little of the variation in residual feed intake (≤ 3.2% of the variance). Leptin concentrations were positively associated with body fat measured by ultrasonography at the 12th rib and over the rump (P < 0.001), with the mean leptin concentration explaining 21.9% and 12.7% of the variance in 12th rib and rump fat thickness, respectively. The same trend was observed with carcass composition where leptin concentrations were positively associated with 12th rib fat thickness, USDA-calculated yield grade (YG), and marbling score (P ≤ 0.006) and mean leptin concentration explained 16.8, 18.2, and 4.6% of the variance for 12th

  3. Water level changes affect carbon turnover and microbial community composition in lake sediments.

    PubMed

    Weise, Lukas; Ulrich, Andreas; Moreano, Matilde; Gessler, Arthur; Kayler, Zachary E; Steger, Kristin; Zeller, Bernd; Rudolph, Kristin; Knezevic-Jaric, Jelena; Premke, Katrin

    2016-05-01

    Due to climate change, many lakes in Europe will be subject to higher variability of hydrological characteristics in their littoral zones. These different hydrological regimes might affect the use of allochthonous and autochthonous carbon sources. We used sandy sediment microcosms to examine the effects of different hydrological regimes (wet, desiccating, and wet-desiccation cycles) on carbon turnover. (13)C-labelled particulate organic carbon was used to trace and estimate carbon uptake into bacterial biomass (via phospholipid fatty acids) and respiration. Microbial community changes were monitored by combining DNA- and RNA-based real-time PCR quantification and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA. The shifting hydrological regimes in the sediment primarily caused two linked microbial effects: changes in the use of available organic carbon and community composition changes. Drying sediments yielded the highest CO2 emission rates, whereas hydrological shifts increased the uptake of allochthonous organic carbon for respiration. T-RFLP patterns demonstrated that only the most extreme hydrological changes induced a significant shift in the active and total bacterial communities. As current scenarios of climate change predict an increase of drought events, frequent variations of the hydrological regimes of many lake littoral zones in central Europe are anticipated. Based on the results of our study, this phenomenon may increase the intensity and amplitude in rates of allochthonous organic carbon uptake and CO2 emissions.

  4. The association between the body composition and lifestyle affecting pulmonary function in Japanese workers.

    PubMed

    Inomoto, Atsushi; Fukuda, Rika; Deguchi Phn, Junko; Kato, Gohei; Kanzaki Rpt, Ryoko; Hiroshige Rpt, Keiichi; Nakamura, Kouichi; Rpt; Nakano Rpt, Keisuke; Toyonaga, Toshihiro

    2016-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify factors related to physical characteristics and lifestyle that affect pulmonary function. [Subjects and Methods] Ninety seven healthy male workers were recruited for this study, and basic information and details about lifestyle were collected. Body composition analyzer and visceral fat measuring device were conducted as measurements. Pulmonary function was measured using spirometer. A multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was performed with pulmonary function as the dependent variable. Variables with a significant association with pulmonary function on univariate analysis were imputed as independent variables. [Results] Height, fat free mass, upper extremity muscle mass, lower extremity muscle mass, and trunk muscle mass had significant positive correlations with FEV1 and FVC. Age, percentage of body fat, and visceral fat area were negatively correlated with FEV1 and FVC. Regarding the association between pulmonary function and lifestyle, a significant difference was found between the smoking index and the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome risk factors and both FEV1 and FVC. The multiple stepwise linear regression analysis with FEV1 as the dependent variable, adjusted for age and height, revealed that visceral fat area and fat free mass were significantly associated with FEV1. A similar analysis, FVC as the dependent variable identified visceral fat area. [Conclusion] FEV1 was independently associated with visceral fat area and fat free mass. FVC was independently associated with visceral fat area. These results may be valuable in preventing the decrease in respiratory function and, hence, in further preventing the onset of COPD.

  5. Water level changes affect carbon turnover and microbial community composition in lake sediments

    PubMed Central

    Weise, Lukas; Ulrich, Andreas; Moreano, Matilde; Gessler, Arthur; E. Kayler, Zachary; Steger, Kristin; Zeller, Bernd; Rudolph, Kristin; Knezevic-Jaric, Jelena; Premke, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Due to climate change, many lakes in Europe will be subject to higher variability of hydrological characteristics in their littoral zones. These different hydrological regimes might affect the use of allochthonous and autochthonous carbon sources. We used sandy sediment microcosms to examine the effects of different hydrological regimes (wet, desiccating, and wet-desiccation cycles) on carbon turnover. 13C-labelled particulate organic carbon was used to trace and estimate carbon uptake into bacterial biomass (via phospholipid fatty acids) and respiration. Microbial community changes were monitored by combining DNA- and RNA-based real-time PCR quantification and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA. The shifting hydrological regimes in the sediment primarily caused two linked microbial effects: changes in the use of available organic carbon and community composition changes. Drying sediments yielded the highest CO2 emission rates, whereas hydrological shifts increased the uptake of allochthonous organic carbon for respiration. T-RFLP patterns demonstrated that only the most extreme hydrological changes induced a significant shift in the active and total bacterial communities. As current scenarios of climate change predict an increase of drought events, frequent variations of the hydrological regimes of many lake littoral zones in central Europe are anticipated. Based on the results of our study, this phenomenon may increase the intensity and amplitude in rates of allochthonous organic carbon uptake and CO2 emissions. PMID:26902802

  6. [Bleaching of Baikalian Sponge Affects The Taxonomic Composition of Symbiotic Microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Kaluzhnaya, O V; Itskovich, V B

    2015-11-01

    The diversity of 16S rRNA genes in the microbial community of endemic sponge Lubomirskia baicalensis with bleached patches of tissue was studied. Eight bacterial phyla were identified in the sponge microbiome: Cyanobacteria (27.3%; n = 36; 2 OTU, operational taxonomic unit), Proteobacteria (22.7%; n = 30; 5 OTU), Actinobacteria (16.7%; n = 22; 7 OTU, operation taxonomic unit), Verrucomicrobia (15.2%; n = 20; 4 OTU), Plactomycetes (9%; n = 12; 3 OTU), Bacteroidetes (4.5%; n = 6; 3 OTU), WS5 (3%; n = 4; 1 OTU), and TM7 (1.5%; n = 2; 1 OTU). The basic phyla typical of freshwater sponge microbiomes are present in the community. However, in contrast to previously studied L. baicalensis bacterial associations, a dominance of Cyanobacteria and a low number of representatives of the Bacteroidetes and Betaproteobacteria were observed in the bleached sponge community. Phylotypes exhibiting a high percentage of similarity with the microorganisms inhabiting substrates rich in organic matter were also found. Clearly, the bleaching processes of Baikal sponges affect the composition and the ratio of the major taxonomic groups of sponge-associated bacteria.

  7. Light availability affects stream biofilm bacterial community composition and function, but not diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karoline; Besemer, Katharina; Burns, Nancy R.; Battin, Tom J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Changes in riparian vegetation or water turbidity and browning in streams alter the local light regime with potential implications for stream biofilms and ecosystem functioning. We experimented with biofilms in microcosms grown under a gradient of light intensities (range: 5–152 μmole photons s−1 m−2) and combined 454‐pyrosequencing and enzymatic activity assays to evaluate the effects of light on biofilm structure and function. We observed a shift in bacterial community composition along the light gradient, whereas there was no apparent change in alpha diversity. Multifunctionality, based on extracellular enzymes, was highest under high light conditions and decoupled from bacterial diversity. Phenol oxidase activity, involved in the degradation of polyphenolic compounds, was twice as high on average under the lowest compared with the highest light condition. This suggests a shift in reliance of microbial heterotrophs on biofilm phototroph‐derived organic matter under high light availability to more complex organic matter under low light. Furthermore, extracellular enzyme activities correlated with nutrient cycling and community respiration, supporting the link between biofilm structure–function and biogeochemical fluxes in streams. Our findings demonstrate that changes in light availability are likely to have significant impacts on biofilm structure and function, potentially affecting stream ecosystem processes. PMID:26013911

  8. Factors affecting the thermal shock resistance of several hafnia based composites containing graphite or tungsten. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lineback, L. D.

    1974-01-01

    The thermal shock resistance of hafnia based composites containing graphite powder or tungsten fibers was investigated in terms of material properties which include thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, compressive fracture stress, modulus of elasticity, and phase stability in terms of the processing parameters of hot pressing pressure and/or density, degree of stabilization of the hafnia, and composition. All other parameters were held constant or assumed constant. The thermal shock resistance was directly proportional to the compressive fracture stress to modulus of elasticity ratio and was not affected appreciably by the small thermal expansion or thermal conductivity changes. This ratio was found to vary strongly with the composition and density such that the composites containing graphite had relatively poor thermal shock resistance, while the composites containing tungsten had superior thermal shock resistance.

  9. OPERATIONAL AND COMPOSITIONAL FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF ARP/MCU SALTSTONE GROUT

    SciTech Connect

    Reigel, M.; Edwards, T.; Pickenheim, B.

    2012-02-15

    that of the sample cured at room temperature. The hydration reactions initiated during the mixing of the premix and salt solution continue during the curing period in the vaults to produce the hardened waste form product. The heat generated from exothermic hydration reactions results in a temperature increase in the vaults that depends on the composition of the decontaminated salt solution being dispositioned, the grout formulation (mix design) and the pour frequency and volume. This heat generation is a contributing factor to the temperature increase in the vaults that leads to an increased cure temperature for the grout. This report will further investigate the impact of curing temperature on saltstone performance properties (hydraulic conductivity, Young's modulus, porosity, etc.) over a range of aluminate concentration, water to premix (w/p) ratio and weight percent fly ash in the premix processed at the SPF. The three curing temperatures selected for this study were chosen to provide data at fixed cure temperatures that represent measured temperatures in the SDF vaults. This does not represent the conditions in the vault where the temperature of the saltstone is continually changing with time. For example, it may take several days for the saltstone to reach 60 C at a given elevation. Previous results demonstrated that the rates at which a selected curing temperature is reached affect the performance properties. The approach taken in this task, a rapid increase to the curing temperature, may be conservative with respect to decreased performance. Nevertheless, the data will provide a basis from which to determine the impact of curing temperature on saltstone performance as a function of key variables. A statistical evaluation of the results for these mixes will be performed to provide the range, and associated uncertainties, of hydraulic conductivity and other properties over this factor space.

  10. Ruminal bacterial community composition in dairy cows is dynamic over the course of two lactations and correlates with feed efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A group of 14 Holstein cows of similar age were followed through the course of their first two lactation cycles. During each lactation cycle, ruminal solids and liquids, milk samples and production data, and feed consumption data were collected for each cow during Early (76-82 days in milk, DIM), Mi...

  11. Effects feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride on growth performance, fillet yeild, and body composition of rainbow trout, nile, tilapia, and channel catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) is a potent ß-adrenergic agonist (BAA) that has been used in feedlot cattle to increase average daily gain, feed efficiency, yield of trimmed cuts, and dress out percent. While positive effects of ZH have been observed in cattle, there have been no reports of this prod...

  12. Polyphenolic composition of grape stem extracts affects antioxidant activity in endothelial and muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Goutzourelas, Nikolaos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Spanidis, Ypatios; Liosi, Maria; Apostolou, Anna; Priftis, Alexandros; Haroutounian, Serko; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Kouretas, Demetrios

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was the assessment of the antioxidant effects of polyphenolic extracts derived from the stems of three Greek grape varieties (Moshomayro, Mavrotragano and Mandilaria) in endothelial (EA.hy926) and muscle (C2C12) cells. We also investigated the effects of the polyphenolic composition on the antioxidant effects of the grape stem extracts. For this purpose, the endothelial and muscle cells were treated with low non-cytotoxic concentrations of the extracts for 24 h in order to assess the effects of the extracts on cellular redox status using oxidative stress biomarkers. The oxidative stress markers were thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyl (CARB) levels, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and glutathione (GSH) levels. The results revealed that treatment of the EA.hy926 cells with Mandilaria extract significantly decreased the TBARS levels by 14.8% and the CARB levels by 25.9 %, while it increased the GSH levels by 15.8% compared to the controls. Moreover, treatment of the EA.hy926 cells with Mavrotragano extract significantly increased the GSH levels by 20.2%, while it significantly decreased the TBARS and CARB levels by 12.5% and 16.6%, respectively. Treatment of the C2C12 cells with Mandilaria extract significantly decreased the TBARS levels by 47.3 %, the CARB levels by 39.0 % and the ROS levels by 21.8%, while it increased the GSH levels by 22.6% compared to the controls. Moreover, treatment of the C2C12 cells with Mavrotragano significantly decreased the TBARS, CARB and ROS levels by 36.2%, 35.9% and 16.5%, respectively. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledgel, our results demonstrate for the first time that treatment with grape stem extracts at low concentrations improves the redox status of endothelial and muscle cells. Thus, grape stem extracts may be used for developing antioxidant food supplements or biofunctional foods. However, it was also found that the polyphenolic composition of grape stem

  13. Growth and body composition, feed intake, and carcass composition traits of developing gilts fed different dietary lysine and metabolizable energy levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to manipulate the lean:fat ratio by feeding diets differing in lysine and ME content to replacement gilts housed in groups from 100 d of age until slaughter (approximately 260 d of age) to evaluate lysine and caloric efficiency between dietary treatments. Crossbred ...

  14. ER type I signal peptidase subunit (LmSPC1) is essential for the survival of Locusta migratoria manilensis and affects moulting, feeding, reproduction and embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Xia, Y

    2014-06-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum type I signal peptidase complex (ER SPC) is a conserved enzyme that cleaves the signal peptides of secretory or membrane preproteins. The deletion of this enzyme leads to the accumulation of uncleaved proteins in biomembranes and cell death. However, the physiological functions of ER SPC in insects are not fully understood. Here, a catalytic subunit gene of ER SPC, LmSPC1, was cloned from Locusta migratoria manilensis and its physiological functions were analysed by RNA interference (RNAi). The LmSPC1 open reading frame encoded a protein of 178 amino acids with all five conserved regions of signal peptidases. RNAi-mediated knockdown of LmSPC1 resulted in high mortality. Sixty-nine per cent of dead nymphs died of abnormal moulting, corresponding to decreased activity of moulting fluid protease. Moreover, insects in the RNAi group experienced a decline in food intake, and a decrease in the secretion of total protein and digestive enzymes from midgut tissues to the midgut lumen. Furthermore, the females produced fewer eggs and eggs with disrupted embryogenesis. These results indicate that LmSPC1 is required for the secretion of secretory proteins, affects physiological functions, including moulting, feeding, reproduction and embryonic development, and is essential for survival. Therefore, LmSPC1 may be a potential target for locust control.

  15. Germination conditions affect selected quality of composite wheat-germinated brown rice flour and bread formulations.

    PubMed

    Charoenthaikij, Phantipha; Jangchud, Kamolwan; Jangchud, Anuvat; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Tungtrakul, Patcharee

    2010-08-01

    Brown rice has been reported to be more nutritious after germination. Germinated brown rice flours (GBRFs) from different steeping conditions (in distilled water [DI, pH 6.8] or in a buffer solution [pH 3] for either 24 or 48 h at 35 degrees C) were evaluated in this study. GBRF obtained from brown rice steeped at pH 3 for 48 h contained the highest amount of free gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA; 67 mg/100 g flour). The composite flour (wheat-GBRF) at a ratio of 70 : 30 exhibited significantly lower peak viscosity (PV) (56.99 - 132.45 RVU) with higher alpha-amylase activity (SN = 696 - 1826) compared with those of wheat flour (control) (PV = 136.46 RVU and SN = 1976). Bread formulations, containing 30% GBRF, had lower loaf volume and greater hardness (P < 0.05) than the wheat bread. However, the hardness of bread containing 30% GBRF (except at pH 6.8 and 24 h) was significantly lower than that of bread containing 30% nongerminated brown rice flour (BRF). Acceptability scores for aroma, taste, and flavor of breads prepared with or without GBRFs (30% substitution) were not significantly different, with the mean score ranging from 6.1 (like slightly) to 7 (like moderately). Among the bread formulations containing GBRF, the one with GBRF prepared after 24 h steeping at pH 3 had a slightly higher (though not significant) overall liking score (6.8). This study demonstrated that it is feasible to substitute wheat flour with up to 30% GBRF in bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance. Practical Application: Our previous study revealed that flours from germinated brown rice have better nutritional properties, particularly gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), than the nongerminated one. This study demonstrated feasibility of incorporating up to 30% germinated brown rice flour in a wheat bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance. In the current United States market, this type of bread may be sold as frozen bread which would have a

  16. Bacterial diversity and composition in major fresh produce growing soils affected by physiochemical properties and geographic locations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial diversity of agricultural soils is well documented, but information on leafy green producing soils is limited. Our goal was to assess bacterial composition and diversity in leafy green producing soils using pyrosequencing, and to identify factors affecting bacterial community structures. C...

  17. Intermittent fasting during winter and spring affects body composition and reproduction of a migratory duck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barboza, P.S.; Jorde, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    We compared food intake, body mass and body composition of male and female black ducks (Anas rubripes) during winter (January-March). Birds were fed the same complete diet ad libitum on consecutive days each week without fasting (control; nine male; nine female) or with either short fasts (2 day.week-1; nine male; nine female), or long fasts (4 day.week-1; eleven male; twelve female). We continued treatments through spring (March-May) to measure the effect of intermittent fasts on body mass and egg production. Daily food intake of fasted birds was up to four times that of unfasted birds. Weekly food intake of males was similar among treatments (364 g.kg-1.week-1) but fasted females consumed more than unfasted females in January (363 g.kg-1.week-1 vs. 225 g.kg-1.week-1). Although both sexes lost 10-14% body mass, fasted females lost less mass and lipid than unfasted females during winter. Total body nitrogen was conserved over winter in both sexes even though the heart and spleen lost mass while the reproductive tract and liver gained mass. Intermittent fasting increased liver, intestinal tissue and digesta mass of females but not of males. Fasting delayed egg production in spring but did not affect size, fertility or hatching of the clutch. Females on long fasts were still heavier than controls after laying eggs. Thus black ducks combine flexibility of food intake with plasticity of digestive tract, liver and adipose tissue when food supply is interrupted during winter. Females modulate body mass for survival and defer reproduction when food supply is interrupted in spring.

  18. The association between the body composition and lifestyle affecting pulmonary function in Japanese workers

    PubMed Central

    Inomoto, Atsushi; Fukuda, Rika; Deguchi, Junko; Kato, Gohei; Kanzaki, Ryoko; Hiroshige, Keiichi; Nakamura, Kouichi; Nakano, Keisuke; Toyonaga, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify factors related to physical characteristics and lifestyle that affect pulmonary function. [Subjects and Methods] Ninety seven healthy male workers were recruited for this study, and basic information and details about lifestyle were collected. Body composition analyzer and visceral fat measuring device were conducted as measurements. Pulmonary function was measured using spirometer. A multiple stepwise linear regression analysis was performed with pulmonary function as the dependent variable. Variables with a significant association with pulmonary function on univariate analysis were imputed as independent variables. [Results] Height, fat free mass, upper extremity muscle mass, lower extremity muscle mass, and trunk muscle mass had significant positive correlations with FEV1 and FVC. Age, percentage of body fat, and visceral fat area were negatively correlated with FEV1 and FVC. Regarding the association between pulmonary function and lifestyle, a significant difference was found between the smoking index and the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome risk factors and both FEV1 and FVC. The multiple stepwise linear regression analysis with FEV1 as the dependent variable, adjusted for age and height, revealed that visceral fat area and fat free mass were significantly associated with FEV1. A similar analysis, FVC as the dependent variable identified visceral fat area. [Conclusion] FEV1 was independently associated with visceral fat area and fat free mass. FVC was independently associated with visceral fat area. These results may be valuable in preventing the decrease in respiratory function and, hence, in further preventing the onset of COPD. PMID:27821955

  19. Potato Snakin-1 Gene Silencing Affects Cell Division, Primary Metabolism, and Cell Wall Composition1[W

    PubMed Central

    Nahirñak, Vanesa; Almasia, Natalia Inés; Fernandez, Paula Virginia; Hopp, Horacio Esteban; Estevez, José Manuel; Carrari, Fernando; Vazquez-Rovere, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Snakin-1 (SN1) is an antimicrobial cysteine-rich peptide isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum) that was classified as a member of the Snakin/Gibberellic Acid Stimulated in Arabidopsis protein family. In this work, a transgenic approach was used to study the role of SN1 in planta. Even when overexpressing SN1, potato lines did not show remarkable morphological differences from the wild type; SN1 silencing resulted in reduced height, which was accompanied by an overall reduction in leaf size and severe alterations of leaf shape. Analysis of the adaxial epidermis of mature leaves revealed that silenced lines had 70% to 90% increases in mean cell size with respect to wild-type leaves. Consequently, the number of epidermal cells was significantly reduced in these lines. Confocal microscopy analysis after agroinfiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves showed that SN1-green fluorescent protein fusion protein was localized in plasma membrane, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays revealed that SN1 self-interacted in vivo. We further focused our study on leaf metabolism by applying a combination of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and spectrophotometric techniques. These targeted analyses allowed a detailed examination of the changes occurring in 46 intermediate compounds from primary metabolic pathways and in seven cell wall constituents. We demonstrated that SN1 silencing affects cell division, leaf primary metabolism, and cell wall composition in potato plants, suggesting that SN1 has additional roles in growth and development beyond its previously assigned role in plant defense. PMID:22080603

  20. Survival of Enterobacter sakazakii in infant cereal as affected by composition, water activity, and temperature.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Chun; Beuchat, Larry R

    2007-01-01

    Enterobacter sakazakii infections in preterm neonates and infants have been epidemiologically associated with consumption of reconstituted powdered infant formula. The bacterium has been isolated from grain, infant cereals, and cereal factory environments. A study was done to determine the survival characteristics of E. sakazakii initially at populations of 0.31 and 5.03 logCFU/g of infant rice cereal (a(w) 0.30, 0.45-0.46, and 0.68-0.69). Cereal was stored at 4, 21, and 30 degrees C and populations were monitored for up to 12 months. Survival of the pathogen in infant rice, barley, oatmeal, and mixed grain cereals (a(w) 0.63-0.66, 0.76, or 0.82-0.83) initially containing a population of 4.93-5.64 logCFU/g and held at 4, 21, and 30 degrees C up to 24 weeks was determined. Populations decreased significantly (p < or = 0.05) in all cereals stored at 21 and 30 degrees C regardless of a(w). Increases in a(w) or storage temperature accelerated the rate of death of E. sakazakii in dry infant cereals. However, at an initial population of 0.31 logCFU/g, E. sakazakii survived in rice cereal (a(w) 0.30-0.69) for up to 12 months at all storage temperatures. Survival of E. sakazakii was not affected by the composition of dry infant rice, barley, mixed grain, and oatmeal cereals (initial a(w) 0.63-0.83) stored for up to 24 weeks at 4, 21, or 30 degrees C. This study demonstrated that E. sakazakii can survive for up to 12 months in infant cereals having a wide range of a(w) when storage is at temperatures simulating those to which they may be exposed during distribution, at retail, and in the home.

  1. Inflammasome signaling affects anxiety- and depressive-like behavior and gut microbiome composition.

    PubMed

    Wong, M-L; Inserra, A; Lewis, M D; Mastronardi, C A; Leong, L; Choo, J; Kentish, S; Xie, P; Morrison, M; Wesselingh, S L; Rogers, G B; Licinio, J

    2016-06-01

    The inflammasome is hypothesized to be a key mediator of the response to physiological and psychological stressors, and its dysregulation may be implicated in major depressive disorder. Inflammasome activation causes the maturation of caspase-1 and activation of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, two proinflammatory cytokines involved in neuroimmunomodulation, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In this study, C57BL/6 mice with genetic deficiency or pharmacological inhibition of caspase-1 were screened for anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, and locomotion at baseline and after chronic stress. We found that genetic deficiency of caspase-1 decreased depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, and conversely increased locomotor activity and skills. Caspase-1 deficiency also prevented the exacerbation of depressive-like behaviors following chronic stress. Furthermore, pharmacological caspase-1 antagonism with minocycline ameliorated stress-induced depressive-like behavior in wild-type mice. Interestingly, chronic stress or pharmacological inhibition of caspase-1 per se altered the fecal microbiome in a very similar manner. When stressed mice were treated with minocycline, the observed gut microbiota changes included increase in relative abundance of Akkermansia spp. and Blautia spp., which are compatible with beneficial effects of attenuated inflammation and rebalance of gut microbiota, respectively, and the increment in Lachnospiracea abundance was consistent with microbiota changes of caspase-1 deficiency. Our results suggest that the protective effect of caspase-1 inhibition involves the modulation of the relationship between stress and gut microbiota composition, and establishes the basis for a gut microbiota-inflammasome-brain axis, whereby the gut microbiota via inflammasome signaling modulate pathways that will alter brain function, and affect depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. Our data also suggest that further elucidation of the gut microbiota

  2. Biofilm Matrix Composition Affects the Susceptibility of Food Associated Staphylococci to Cleaning and Disinfection Agents

    PubMed Central

    Fagerlund, Annette; Langsrud, Solveig; Heir, Even; Mikkelsen, Maria I.; Møretrø, Trond

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococci are frequently isolated from food processing environments, and it has been speculated whether survival after cleaning and disinfection with benzalkonium chloride (BC)-containing disinfectants is due to biofilm formation, matrix composition, or BC efflux mechanisms. Out of 35 food associated staphylococci, eight produced biofilm in a microtiter plate assay and were identified as Staphylococcus capitis (2), S. cohnii, S. epidermidis, S. lentus (2), and S. saprophyticus (2). The eight biofilm producing strains were characterized using whole genome sequencing. Three of these strains contained the ica operon responsible for production of a polysaccharide matrix, and formed a biofilm which was detached upon exposure to the polysaccharide degrading enzyme Dispersin B, but not Proteinase K or trypsin. These strains were more tolerant to the lethal effect of BC both in suspension and biofilm than the remaining five biofilm producing strains. The five BC susceptible strains were characterized by lack of the ica operon, and their biofilms were detached by Proteinase K or trypsin, but not Dispersin B, indicating that proteins were major structural components of their biofilm matrix. Several novel cell wall anchored repeat domain proteins with domain structures similar to that of MSCRAMM adhesins were identified in the genomes of these strains, potentially representing novel mechanisms of ica-independent biofilm accumulation. Biofilms from all strains showed similar levels of detachment after exposure to alkaline chlorine, which is used for cleaning in the food industry. Strains with qac genes encoding BC efflux pumps could grow at higher concentrations of BC than strains without these genes, but no differences were observed at biocidal concentrations. In conclusion, the biofilm matrix of food associated staphylococci varies with respect to protein or polysaccharide nature, and this may affect the sensitivity toward a commonly used disinfectant. PMID:27375578

  3. Lipid composition affects the rate of photosensitized dissipation of cross-membrane diffusion potential on liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Ytzhak, Shany; Wuskell, Joseph P.; Loew, Leslie M.; Ehrenberg, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Hydrophobic or amphiphilic tetrapyrrole sensitizers are taken up by cells and are usually located in cellular lipid membranes. Singlet oxygen is photogenerated by the sensitizer and it diffuses in the membrane and causes oxidative damage to membrane components. This damage can occur to membrane lipids and to membrane-localized proteins. Depolarization of the Nernst electric potential on cells’ membranes has been observed in cellular photosensitization, but it was not established whether lipid oxidation is a relevant factor leading to abolishing the resting potential of cells’ membranes and to their death. In this work we studied the effect of liposomes’ lipid composition on the kinetics of hematoporphyrin-photosensitized dissipation of K+-diffusion electric potential that was generated across the membranes. We employed an electrochromic voltage-sensitive spectroscopic probe that possesses a high fluorescence signal response to the potential. We found a correlation between the structure and unsaturation of lipids and the leakage of the membrane, following photosensitization. As the extent of non-conjugated unsaturation of the lipids is increased from 1 to 6 double bonds, the kinetics of depolarization become faster. We also found that the kinetics of depolarization is affected by the percentage of the unsaturated lipids in the liposome: as the fraction of the unsaturated lipids increases the leakage trough the membrane is enhanced. When liposomes are composed of a lipid mixture similar to that of natural membranes and photosensitization is being carried out under usual photodynamic therapy (PDT) conditions, photodamage to the lipids is not likely to cause enhanced permeability of ions through the membrane, which would have been a mechanism that leads to cell death. PMID:20536150

  4. Inflammasome signaling affects anxiety- and depressive-like behavior and gut microbiome composition

    PubMed Central

    Wong, M-L; Inserra, A; Lewis, M D; Mastronardi, C A; Leong, L; Choo, J; Kentish, S; Xie, P; Morrison, M; Wesselingh, S L; Rogers, G B; Licinio, J

    2016-01-01

    The inflammasome is hypothesized to be a key mediator of the response to physiological and psychological stressors, and its dysregulation may be implicated in major depressive disorder. Inflammasome activation causes the maturation of caspase-1 and activation of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, two proinflammatory cytokines involved in neuroimmunomodulation, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In this study, C57BL/6 mice with genetic deficiency or pharmacological inhibition of caspase-1 were screened for anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, and locomotion at baseline and after chronic stress. We found that genetic deficiency of caspase-1 decreased depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, and conversely increased locomotor activity and skills. Caspase-1 deficiency also prevented the exacerbation of depressive-like behaviors following chronic stress. Furthermore, pharmacological caspase-1 antagonism with minocycline ameliorated stress-induced depressive-like behavior in wild-type mice. Interestingly, chronic stress or pharmacological inhibition of caspase-1 per se altered the fecal microbiome in a very similar manner. When stressed mice were treated with minocycline, the observed gut microbiota changes included increase in relative abundance of Akkermansia spp. and Blautia spp., which are compatible with beneficial effects of attenuated inflammation and rebalance of gut microbiota, respectively, and the increment in Lachnospiracea abundance was consistent with microbiota changes of caspase-1 deficiency. Our results suggest that the protective effect of caspase-1 inhibition involves the modulation of the relationship between stress and gut microbiota composition, and establishes the basis for a gut microbiota–inflammasome–brain axis, whereby the gut microbiota via inflammasome signaling modulate pathways that will alter brain function, and affect depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. Our data also suggest that further elucidation of the gut microbiota

  5. Profile of Hanwoo Steer Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality and Fatty Acid Composition after Feeding Italian Ryegrass Silage

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Suk-Nam; Chu, Gyo-Moon; Kim, Da Hye; Park, Jae-Hong; Oh, Young Kyoon

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth performance, feed intake, slaughter characteristics, meat quantity and quality characteristics of Hanwoo steers fed with Italian ryegrass (IRG) silage (TRT). IRG silage consisted 11.70% protein, 2.84% ether extract, 53.50% dry matter digestibility and 63.34% total digestible nutrients. The daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio of TRT were significantly (p<0.01) higher than that of control diet (CON; fed rice straw) in the whole periods. However, the slaughter weight, dressing percentage, quantity grade and quantity traits (marbling score, meat color, fat color, and quality grade) of either TRT or CON were similar. Meat fed TRT diet showed higher crude fat and lightness (L*) value and lower moisture content and pH value compared with the CON diet (p<0.05). Overall the carcass yield was 12.5% higher than CON diet. PMID:26761843

  6. Characteristics of lipids and their feeding value in swine diets.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Brian J; Kellner, Trey A; Shurson, Gerald C

    2015-01-01

    In livestock diets, energy is one of the most expensive nutritional components of feed formulation. Because lipids are a concentrated energy source, inclusion of lipids are known to affect growth rate and feed efficiency, but are also known to affect diet palatability, feed dustiness, and pellet quality. In reviewing the literature, the majority of research studies conducted on the subject of lipids have focused mainly on the effects of feeding presumably high quality lipids on growth performance, digestion, and metabolism in young animals. There is, however, the wide array of composition and quality differences among lipid sources available to the animal industry making it essential to understand differences in lipid composition and quality factors affecting their digestion and metabolism more fully. In addition there is often confusion in lipid nomenclature, measuring lipid content and composition, and evaluating quality factors necessary to understand the true feeding value to animals. Lastly, advances in understanding lipid digestion, post-absorption metabolism, and physiological processes (e.g., cell division and differentiation, immune function and inflammation); and in metabolic oxidative stress in the animal and lipid peroxidation, necessitates a more compressive assessment of factors affecting the value of lipid supplementation to livestock diets. The following review provides insight into lipid classification, digestion and absorption, lipid peroxidation indices, lipid quality and nutritional value, and antioxidants in growing pigs.

  7. Body composition and circulating high-molecular-weight adiponectin and IGF-I in infants born small for gestational age: breast- versus formula-feeding.

    PubMed

    de Zegher, Francis; Sebastiani, Giorgia; Diaz, Marta; Sánchez-Infantes, David; Lopez-Bermejo, Abel; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2012-08-01

    Prenatal growth restraint, if followed by postnatal overweight, confers risk for adult disease including diabetes. The mechanisms whereby neonatal nutrition may modulate such risk are poorly understood. We studied the effects of nutrition (breast-feeding [BRF] vs. formula-feeding [FOF]) on weight partitioning and endocrine state (as judged by high-molecular-weight [HMW] adiponectin and IGF-I) of infants born small for gestational age (SGA). Body composition (by absorptiometry), HMW adiponectin, and IGF-I were assessed at birth and 4 months in BRF infants born appropriate for gestational age (AGA; n = 72) and SGA infants receiving BRF (n = 46) or FOF (n = 56), the latter being randomized to receive a standard (FOF1) or protein-rich formula (FOF2). Compared with AGA-BRF infants, the catchup growth of SGA infants was confined to lean mass, independently of nutrition. Compared with AGA-BRF infants, SGA-BRF infants had normal HMW adiponectin and IGF-I levels at 4 months, whereas SGA-FOF infants had elevated levels of HMW adiponectin (particularly SGA-FOF1) and IGF-I (particularly SGA-FOF2). In conclusion, neonatal nutrition seems to influence endocrinology more readily than body composition of SGA infants. Follow-up will disclose whether the endocrine abnormalities in SGA-FOF infants can serve as early markers of an unfavorable metabolic course and whether they may contribute to design early interventions that prevent subsequent disease, including diabetes.

  8. Feed gas humidity: a vital parameter affecting a cold atmospheric-pressure plasma jet and plasma-treated human skin cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, J.; Wende, K.; Masur, K.; Iseni, S.; Dünnbier, M.; Hammer, M. U.; Tresp, H.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Reuter, S.

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the effect of feed gas humidity on the reactive component generation of an atmospheric-pressure argon plasma jet and its effect on human skin cells are investigated. Feed gas humidity is identified as one key parameter that strongly influences stability and reproducibility of plasma medical studies. The plasma jet is investigated by absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and infrared spectral region for its ozone production depending on the humidity concentration in the feed gas. By optical emission spectroscopy the dependence of present excited plasma species such as hydroxyl radicals, molecular nitrogen, argon and atomic oxygen on the feed gas humidity is investigated. As an interface layer between the plasma jet effluent and the biological cell, a buffer solution is treated and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production is studied with two independent colorimetric assays as a function of humidity admixture to the feed gas. Ultimately, the effect of varying feed gas humidity on the cell viability of indirect plasma treated adherent HaCAT cells is investigated. The highest viability is found for the driest feed gas condition. Furthermore, this work shows answers for the relevance of unwanted—or intended—feed gas humidity in plasma medical experiments and their comparatively large relevance with respect to ambient humidity. The findings will lead to more reproducible experiments in the field of plasma medicine.

  9. Effect of feeding lambs with a tanniferous shrub (rockrose) and a vegetable oil blend on fatty acid composition of meat lipids.

    PubMed

    Francisco, A; Alves, S P; Portugal, P V; Pires, V M R; Dentinho, M T; Alfaia, C M; Jerónimo, E; Prates, J A M; Santos-Silva, J; Bessa, R J B

    2016-12-01

    The effects of feeding Cistus ladanifer (Cistus) and a blend of soybean and linseed oil (1 : 2 vol/vol) on fatty acid (FA) composition of lamb meat lipids and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of desaturase enzymes was assessed. In total, 54 male lambs were randomly assigned to 18 pens and to nine diets, resulting from the combination of three inclusion levels of Cistus (50 v. 100 v. 200 g/kg of dry matter (DM)) and three inclusion levels of oil (0 v. 40 v. 80 g/kg of DM). The forage-to-concentrate ratio of the diets was 1 : 1. Longissimus muscle lipids were extracted, fractionated into neutral (NL) and polar lipid (PL) and FA methyl esters obtained and analyzed by GLC. The expression of genes encoding Δ5, Δ6 and Δ9 desaturases (fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1), fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) and stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD)) was determined. Intramuscular fat, NL and PL contents were not affected by oil or Cistus. Oil supplementation reduced (P<0.05) 16:0, c9-16:1, 17:0, c9-17:1 and c9-18:1 FA and increased (P<0.05) 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3 and the majority of biohydrogenation intermediates in NL. Cistus alone had few effects on FA of NL but interacted with oil (P<0.05) by increasing t10-18:1,t10,t12-18:2,t10,c12-18:2 and t7,c9-18:2. The t10-/t11-18:1 ratio increased with both Cistus and oil levels. The c9, t11-18:2 did not increase (P<0.05) with both oil and Cistus dietary inclusion. Oil reduced c9-16:1, 17:0, c9-17:1,c9-18:1, 20:4n-6, 22:4n-6 and 20:3n-9 proportions in PL, and increased 18:2n-6, 18:3n-3, 20:3n-3 and of most of the biohydrogenation intermediates. The Cistus had only minor effects on FA composition of PL. Cistus resulted in a reduction (P<0.05) of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in the meat PL. The expression level of SCD mRNA increased (P=0.015) with Cistus level, although a linear relationship with condensed tannins intake (P=0.11) could not be established. FADS1 mRNA expressed levels increased linearly (P=0.019) with condensed tannins intake. In summary, the

  10. Diet quality and food limitation affect the dynamics of body composition and digestive organs in a migratory songbird (Zonotrichia albicollis).

    PubMed

    Pierce, Barbara J; McWilliams, Scott R

    2004-01-01

    Migrating songbirds interrupt their feeding to fly between stopover sites that may vary appreciably in diet quality. We studied the effects of fasting and food restriction on body composition and digestive organs in a migratory songbird and how these effects interacted with diet quality to influence the rate of recovery of nutrient reserves. Food limitation caused white-throated sparrows to reduce both lean and fat reserves, with about 20% of the decline in lean mass represented by a decline in stomach, small intestine, and liver. During refeeding on diets similar in nutrient composition to either grain or fruit, food-limited grain-fed birds ate 40% more than did control birds, and they regained body mass, with on average 60% of the increase in body mass composed of lean mass including digestive organs. In contrast, food-limited fruit-fed birds did not eat more than did control birds and did not regain body mass, suggesting that a digestive constraint limited their food intake. The interacting effects of food limitation and diet quality on the dynamics of body composition and digestive organs in sparrows suggest that the adequacy of the diet at stopover sites can directly influence the rate of recovery of body reserves in migrating songbirds and hence the pace of their migration.

  11. The levels and composition of persistent organic pollutants in alluvial agriculture soils affected by flooding.

    PubMed

    Maliszewska-Kordybach, Barbara; Smreczak, Bozena; Klimkowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka

    2013-12-01

    The concentrations and composition of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in alluvial soils subjected to heavy flooding in a rural region of Poland. Soil samples (n = 30) were collected from the upper soil layer from a 70-km(2) area. Chemical determinations included basic physicochemical properties and the contents of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 16 compounds). The median concentrations of Σ7PCB (PCB28 + PCB52 + PCB101 + PCB118 + PCB138 + PCB153 + PCB180), Σ3HCH (α-HCH + β-HCH + γ-HCH) and Σ3pp'(DDT + DDE + DDD) were 1.60 ± 1.03, 0.22 ± 0.13 and 25.18 ± 82.70 μg kg(-1), respectively. The median concentrations of the most abundant PAHs, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene were 50 ± 37, 38 ± 27, 29 ± 30, 45 ± 36 and 24 ± 22 μg kg(-1), respectively. Compared with elsewhere in the world, the overall level of contamination with POPs was low and similar to the levels in agricultural soils from neighbouring countries, except for benzo[a]pyrene and DDT. There was no evidence that flooding affected the levels of POPs in the studied soils. The patterns observed for PAHs and PCBs indicate that atmospheric deposition is the most important long-term source of these contaminants. DDTs were the dominant organochlorine pesticides (up to 99%), and the contribution of the parent pp' isomer was up to 50 % of the ΣDDT, which indicates the advantage of aged contamination. A high pp'DDE/pp'DDD ratio suggests the prevalence of aerobic transformations of parent DDT. Dominance of the γ isomer in the HCHs implies historical use of lindane in the area. The effect of soil properties on the POP concentrations was rather weak, although statistically significant links with the content of the <0.02-mm fraction, Ctotal or Ntotal were observed for some individual compounds in the PCB group.

  12. The effects of additives in napier grass silages on chemical composition, feed intake, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-09-01

    The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using 4×4 Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the others. In the feeding trial, the intake of silage increased (p<0.05) in the cow fed with the treated silage. Among the treatments, dry matter intake was the lowest in the silage treated with cassava meal. The organic matter, crude protein and NDF digestibility of the silage treated with molasses was higher than the silage without additive and the silage treated with FJLB. The rumen parameters: ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acid (VFA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bacterial populations were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, these studies confirmed that the applying of molasses improved fermentative quality, feed intake and digestibility of Napier grass.

  13. Effects of Dietary Garlic Extract on Growth, Feed Utilization and Whole Body Composition of Juvenile Sterlet Sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Ra, Chang-Six; Song, Young-Han; Sung, Kyung-Il; Kim, Jeong-Dae

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic extract (GE) on growth performance of juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus). The first experiment was designed to determine the optimum levels of garlic extract as growth promoter during 10 weeks. Three groups (two replicates/group) of 240 fish with mean body weight of 85 g were fed with diets containing 0 (control), 0.5 and 1.0% of GE. The highest weight gain (%) and feed efficiency (%) were found in fish groups fed with diet containing 0.5% GE. Subsequently, the supplemental effects of dietary GE was studied on growth of juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus) with an average body weight of 59.6 g. Fish cultured in freshwater were randomly allotted to each of 10 tanks (two groups of five replicates, 20 fish/tank) and fed diets with 0.5% GE or without GE (control), respectively, at the level of 2.0% of fish body weight per day for 5 weeks. Weight gain (51.1%), feed efficiency (79.1%), specific growth rate (1.18%) and protein efficiency ratio (1.50) of fish fed 0.5% GE were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those fish fed the control diet. Significantly higher protein (PRE 20.4%) and lipid retention efficiencies (LRE, 74.5%) were also found in 0.5% GE group (p<0.05). The present results suggested that dietary GE could improve growth and feed utilization of juvenile sterlet sturgeons. PMID:25049599

  14. Dietary available phosphorus affected growth performance, body composition, and hepatic antioxidant property of juvenile yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qin; Wang, Chunfang; Xie, Congxin; Jin, Jiali; Huang, Yanqing

    2012-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was carried out with juvenile yellow catfish to study the effects of dietary available phosphorus (P) on growth performance, body composition, and hepatic antioxidant property. Six pellet diets were formulated to contain graded available P levels at 0.33, 0.56, 0.81, 1.15, 1.31, and 1.57% of dry matter, respectively. Triplicate tanks with each tank containing 60 juveniles (3.09 ± 0.03 g) were fed one of the six experimental diets for 8 weeks. Specific growth rate, feeding rate, and protein efficiency ratio were significantly higher at 0.81% dietary available P. Efficiency of P utilization distinctly decreased with increasing P level. Body lipid content significantly decreased while body ash and feces P content significantly increased with increasing P level. Quadratic regression analysis indicated that vertebrae P content was maximized at 1.21% dietary available P. Fish fed 1.57% dietary available P had highest activity of hepatic superoxide dismutase and catalase and malonaldehyde content. In conclusion, decreasing dietary available P increased P utilization efficiency and body lipid content while decreased vertebrae P content. Juvenile yellow catfish were subjected to oxidative damage under the condition of high dietary P content (1.57%), and the damage could not be eradicated by their own antioxidant defense system.

  15. A comparative study on industrial waste fillers affecting mechanical properties of polymer-matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkliğ, Ahmet; Alsaadi, Mohamad; Bulut, Mehmet

    2016-10-01

    This paper investigates the mechanical properties of the various inorganic filler-filled polymer composites. Sewage sludge ash (SSA), fly ash (FA) and silicon carbide (SiC) micro-particles were used as filler in the polyester resin. Composite samples were prepared with various filler content of 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%. The results indicated that the tensile and flexural strength increased at the particle content of 5 wt% and then followed a decreasing trend with further particle inclusion. The tensile and flexural modulus values of the particulate polyester composites were significantly enhanced compared with the unfilled polyester composite. SEM micrograph results showed good indication for dispersion of FA, SSA and SiC particles within the polymer matrix.

  16. Effect of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on muscle fatty acid composition in goats.

    PubMed

    Abubakr, Abdelrahim; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Yaakub, Halimatun; Abdullah, Norhani; Ivan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the effects of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on different muscle fatty acid profiles in goats. Thirty-two Cacang × Boer goats were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: (1) control diet (CD), (2) 80% decanter cake diet (DCD), (3) 80% palm kernel cake diet (PKCD) and (4) CD plus 5% palm oil (PO) supplemented diet (CPOD). After 100 days of feeding, four goats from each group were slaughtered and longissimus dorsi (LD), infraspinatus (IS) and biceps femoris (BF) were sampled for analysis of fatty acids. Goats fed the PKCD had higher (P<0.05) concentration of lauric acid (C12:0) than those fed the other diets in all the muscles tested. Compared to the other diets, the concentrations of palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) were lower (P<0.05) and that of linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) was higher (P<0.05) in the muscles from goats fed the CD. It was concluded that palm kernel cake and decanter cake can be included in the diet of goats up to 80% with more beneficial than detrimental effects on the fatty acid profile of their meat.

  17. The distribution of carotenoids in hens fed on biofortified maize is influenced by feed composition, absorption, resource allocation and storage

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Jose Antonio; Díaz-Gómez, Joana; Nogareda, Carmina; Angulo, Eduardo; Sandmann, Gerhard; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Serrano, José C. E.; Twyman, Richard M.; Capell, Teresa; Zhu, Changfu; Christou, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are important dietary nutrients with health-promoting effects. The biofortification of staple foods with carotenoids provides an efficient delivery strategy but little is known about the fate and distribution of carotenoids supplied in this manner. The chicken provides a good model of human carotenoid metabolism so we supplemented the diets of laying hens using two biofortified maize varieties with distinct carotenoid profiles and compared the fate of the different carotenoids in terms of distribution in the feed, the hen’s livers and the eggs. We found that after a period of depletion, pro-vitamin A (PVA) carotenoids were preferentially diverted to the liver and relatively depleted in the eggs, whereas other carotenoids were transported to the eggs even when the liver remained depleted. When retinol was included in the diet, it accumulated more in the eggs than the livers, whereas PVA carotenoids showed the opposite profile. Our data suggest that a transport nexus from the intestinal lumen to the eggs introduces bottlenecks that cause chemically-distinct classes of carotenoids to be partitioned in different ways. This nexus model will allow us to optimize animal feed and human diets to ensure that the health benefits of carotenoids are delivered in the most effective manner. PMID:27739479

  18. Effect of Feeding Palm Oil By-Products Based Diets on Muscle Fatty Acid Composition in Goats

    PubMed Central

    Abubakr, Abdelrahim; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Yaakub, Halimatun; Abdullah, Norhani; Ivan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the effects of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on different muscle fatty acid profiles in goats. Thirty-two Cacang × Boer goats were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments: (1) control diet (CD), (2) 80% decanter cake diet (DCD), (3) 80% palm kernel cake diet (PKCD) and (4) CD plus 5% palm oil (PO) supplemented diet (CPOD). After 100 days of feeding, four goats from each group were slaughtered and longissimus dorsi (LD), infraspinatus (IS) and biceps femoris (BF) were sampled for analysis of fatty acids. Goats fed the PKCD had higher (P<0.05) concentration of lauric acid (C12:0) than those fed the other diets in all the muscles tested. Compared to the other diets, the concentrations of palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0) were lower (P<0.05) and that of linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) was higher (P<0.05) in the muscles from goats fed the CD. It was concluded that palm kernel cake and decanter cake can be included in the diet of goats up to 80% with more beneficial than detrimental effects on the fatty acid profile of their meat. PMID:25789610

  19. Quality and safety evaluation of genetically modified potatoes spunta with Cry V gene: compositional analysis, determination of some toxins, antinutrients compounds and feeding study in rats.

    PubMed

    El Sanhoty, Rafaat; El-Rahman, Ahamed Ali Abd; Bögl, Klaus Werner

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the composition, nutritional and toxicology safety of GM potato Spunta lines compared to that of conventional potato Spunta. Compositional analyses were conducted to measure the proximate chemical composition with references to 14 components, total solid, protein, lipid, crude fibre, ash, carbohydrate, starch, reducing sugar, nonreducing sugar, sodium, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, and ascorbic acid. Some toxins and anti-nutrients compounds were determined. Feeding study of GM potatoes line (G2 and G3) in rats were done for 30 days. Four groups of albino rats were used for studying the effect and the safety assessment of GM potatoes Spunta G2 and G3. Group (I) was fed on control basal diet, group (II) was fed on control diet plus 30% freeze-dried nongenetically modified potato Spunta, group (III) was fed on control diet plus 30% freeze-dried genetically modified potato Spunta, and group (IV) was fed on control diet plus 30% freeze-dried genetically modified potato Spunta GMO G3. There were no significant differences between GM potatoes G2, G3, and Spunta control potato line in the proximate chemical composition. The levels of glycoalkaloids in transgenic potato tubers and nontransgenic were determined and there were also no significant differences between the GM potatoes and conventional potato line, the levels were in agreement with a safety level recommended by FAO/WHO (200 mg/ kg) for acute toxicity. Protease inhibitor activity and total phenol were estimated and no significant differences between the GM potatoes line and conventional potato Spunta line were found. During the period tested, rats in each group (I, II, III, IV) grew well without marked differences in appearance. No statistical difference were found in food intake, daily body weight gain and feed efficiency. But there is a slightly significant difference in finally body weight between the control group and experimental groups. No significant difference were

  20. Ultradian feeding in mice not only affects the peripheral clock in the liver, but also the master clock in the brain.

    PubMed

    Sen, Satish; Raingard, Hélène; Dumont, Stéphanie; Kalsbeek, Andries; Vuillez, Patrick; Challet, Etienne

    2017-01-01

    Restricted feeding during the resting period causes pronounced shifts in a number of peripheral clocks, but not the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). By contrast, daily caloric restriction impacts also the light-entrained SCN clock, as indicated by shifted oscillations of clock (PER1) and clock-controlled (vasopressin) proteins. To determine if these SCN changes are due to the metabolic or timing cues of the restricted feeding, mice were challenged with an ultradian 6-meals schedule (1 food access every 4 h) to abolish the daily periodicity of feeding. Mice fed with ultradian feeding that lost <10% body mass (i.e. isocaloric) displayed 1.5-h phase-advance of body temperature rhythm, but remained mostly nocturnal, together with up-regulated vasopressin and down-regulated PER1 and PER2 levels in the SCN. Hepatic expression of clock genes (Per2, Rev-erbα, and Clock) and Fgf21 was, respectively, phase-advanced and up-regulated by ultradian feeding. Mice fed with ultradian feeding that lost >10% body mass (i.e. hypocaloric) became more diurnal, hypothermic in late night, and displayed larger (3.5 h) advance of body temperature rhythm, more reduced PER1 expression in the SCN, and further modified gene expression in the liver (e.g. larger phase-advance of Per2 and up-regulated levels of Pgc-1α). While glucose rhythmicity was lost under ultradian feeding, the phase of daily rhythms in liver glycogen and plasma corticosterone (albeit increased in amplitude) remained unchanged. In conclusion, the additional impact of hypocaloric conditions on the SCN are mainly due to the metabolic and not the timing effects of restricted daytime feeding.

  1. Does composition medium affect the psychometric properties of scores on an exercise designed to assess written medical communication skills?

    PubMed

    Boulet, John R; McKinley, Danette W; Rebbecchi, Thomas; Whelan, Gerald P

    2007-05-01

    The ECFMG Clinical Skills Assessment (CSA) was developed to evaluate whether graduates of international medical schools are ready to enter graduate training programs in the United States. The performance-based patient note exercise is specifically used to assess an examinee's ability to summarize, synthesize and interpret the data collected in a patient interview. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether choice of composition method (typing or writing) affected the psychometric properties of the scores. Using data for a 1-year period, the validity and reliability of typed and written notes was contrasted. Although the characteristics of individuals who chose whether or not to type were different, the statistical analyses indicated that, controlling for examinee ability, physician examiner ratings of the written summaries were not influenced by composition method. The results of this study suggest that the psychometric properties of the patient note scores are invariant with respect to composition method.

  2. Characterization of rumen ciliate community composition in domestic sheep, deer, and cattle, feeding on varying diets, by means of PCR-DGGE and clone libraries.

    PubMed

    Kittelmann, Sandra; Janssen, Peter H

    2011-03-01

    The structure and variability of ciliate protozoal communities in the rumens of domestic New Zealand ruminants feeding on different diets was investigated. The relative abundance of ciliates compared with bacteria was similar across all samples. However, molecular fingerprinting of communities showed ruminant-specific differences in species composition. Community compositions of cattle were significantly influenced by diet. In contrast, diet effects in deer and sheep were weaker than the animal-to-animal variation. Cloning and sequencing of almost-full-length 18S rRNA genes from representative samples revealed that New Zealand ruminants were colonized by at least nine genera of ciliates and allowed the assignment of samples to two distinct community types. Cattle contained A-type communities, with most sequences closely related to those of the genera Polyplastron and Ostracodinium. Deer and sheep (with one exception) harboured B-type communities, with the majority of sequences belonging to the genera Epidinium and Eudiplodinium. It has been suggested that species composition of ciliate communities may impact methane formation in ruminants, with the B-type producing more methane. Therefore, manipulation of ciliate communities may be a means of mitigating methane emissions from grazing sheep and deer in New Zealand.

  3. Confocal Raman microspectroscopy reveals a convergence of the chemical composition in methanogenic archaea from a Siberian permafrost-affected soil.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Paloma; Hermelink, Antje; Lasch, Peter; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; König, Nicole; Burckhardt, Oliver; Wagner, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    Methanogenic archaea are widespread anaerobic microorganisms responsible for the production of biogenic methane. Several new species of psychrotolerant methanogenic archaea were recently isolated from a permafrost-affected soil in the Lena Delta (Siberia, Russia), showing an exceptional resistance against desiccation, osmotic stress, low temperatures, starvation, UV and ionizing radiation when compared to methanogens from non-permafrost environments. To gain a deeper insight into the differences observed in their resistance, we described the chemical composition of methanogenic strains from permafrost and non-permafrost environments using confocal Raman microspectroscopy (CRM). CRM is a powerful tool for microbial identification and provides fingerprint-like information about the chemical composition of the cells. Our results show that the chemical composition of methanogens from permafrost-affected soils presents a high homology and is remarkably different from strains inhabiting non-permafrost environments. In addition, we performed a phylogenetic reconstruction of the studied strains based on the functional gene mcrA to prove the different evolutionary relationship of the permafrost strains. We conclude that the permafrost methanogenic strains show a convergent chemical composition regardless of their genotype. This fact is likely to be the consequence of a complex adaptive process to the Siberian permafrost environment and might be the reason underlying their resistant nature.

  4. Effects of feed restriction to enhance the profitable farming of blackhead seabream Acanthopagrus schlegelii schlegelii in sea cages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sung-Yong; Kim, Min-Suk; Kwon, Joon Yeong; Maran, B. A. Venmathi

    2013-09-01

    The feed intake, growth and body composition of juvenile blackhead seabream Acanthopagrus schlegelii schlegelii (Sparidae) (5.6 g fish-1) were investigated for 16 weeks in sea cages under seven repetitive feeding cycles: every day feeding (control), 6-day feeding and 1-day fasting (F6.1), 5-day feeding and 1-day fasting (F5.1), 4-day feeding and 1-day fasting (F4.1), 3-day feeding and 1-day fasting (F3.1), 2-day feeding and 1-day fasting (F2.1), and 1-day feeding and 1-day fasting (F1.1). The survival of the fish during the experimental period was not different among the feeding cycles. The greatest weight gain of fish was observed in the control, but not significantly different from that of the F6.1 and F5.1 groups (p > 0.05). Total feed intake and daily feed intake decreased with the increase of fasting frequency, however, actual feed intake, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio increased with the increase of the fasting frequency. Proximate composition of the whole body of fish was not affected by different feeding cycles. These results suggest that juvenile blackhead seabreams subjected to repetitive feeding cycles of 6- or 5-days feeding and 1 day fasting for 16 weeks could achieve compensatory growth, and that such mild feeding deprivation could save significant amounts of feed without causing any profit reduction that might result from a decrease in fish size or quality.

  5. Effect of crop protection and fertilization regimes used in organic and conventional production systems on feed composition and physiological parameters in rats.

    PubMed

    Srednicka-Tober, Dominika; Barański, Marcin; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna; Skwarło-Sońta, Krystyna; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Hajslova, Jana; Schulzova, Vera; Cakmak, Ismail; Öztürk, Levent; Królikowski, Tomasz; Wiśniewska, Katarzyna; Hallmann, Ewelina; Baca, Elżbieta; Eyre, Mick; Steinshamn, Håvard; Jordon, Teresa; Leifert, Carlo

    2013-02-06

    Very little is known about the effects of an organic or conventional diet on animal physiology and health. Here, we report the effect of contrasting crop protection (with or without chemosynthetic pesticides) and fertilization (manure or mineral fertilizers) regimes on feed composition and growth and the physiological parameters of rats. The use of manure instead of mineral fertilizers in feed production resulted in lower concentrations of protein (18.8 vs 20.6%) and cadmium (3.33 vs 4.92 μg/100 g) but higher concentrations of polyphenols (1.46 vs 0.89 g/100 g) in feeds and higher body protein (22.0 vs 21.5%), body ash (3.59 vs 3.51%), white blood cell count (10.86 vs 8.19 × 10³/mm³), plasma glucose (7.23 vs 6.22 mmol/L), leptin (3.56 vs 2.78 ng/mL), insulin-like growth factor 1 (1.87 vs 1.28 μg/mL), corticosterone (247 vs 209 ng/mL), and spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation (11.14 vs 5.03 × 10³ cpm) but lower plasma testosterone (1.07 vs 1.97 ng/mL) and mitogen stimulated proliferation of lymphocytes (182 vs 278 × 10³ cpm) in rats. There were no main effects of crop protection, but a range of significant interactions between fertilization and crop protection occurred.

  6. Neighboring trees affect ectomycorrhizal fungal community composition in a woodland-forest ecotone.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Nathaniel A; Gehring, Catherine A

    2008-09-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) are frequently species rich and functionally diverse; yet, our knowledge of the environmental factors that influence local EMF diversity and species composition remains poor. In particular, little is known about the influence of neighboring plants on EMF community structure. We tested the hypothesis that the EMF of plants with heterospecific neighbors would differ in species richness and community composition from the EMF of plants with conspecific neighbors. We conducted our study at the ecotone between pinyon (Pinus edulis)-juniper (Juniperus monosperma) woodland and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest in northern Arizona, USA where the dominant trees formed associations with either EMF (P. edulis and P. ponderosa) or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF; J. monosperma). We also compared the EMF communities of pinyon and ponderosa pines where their rhizospheres overlapped. The EMF community composition, but not species richness of pinyon pines was significantly influenced by neighboring AM juniper, but not by neighboring EM ponderosa pine. Ponderosa pine EMF communities were different in species composition when growing in association with pinyon pine than when growing in association with a conspecific. The EMF communities of pinyon and ponderosa pines were similar where their rhizospheres overlapped consisting of primarily the same species in similar relative abundance. Our findings suggest that neighboring tree species identity shaped EMF community structure, but that these effects were specific to host-neighbor combinations. The overlap in community composition between pinyon pine and ponderosa pine suggests that these tree species may serve as reservoirs of EMF inoculum for one another.

  7. Conservation Tillage Affects Species Composition But Not Species Diversity: A Comparative Study in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscutti, Francesco; Sigura, Maurizia; Gambon, Nadia; Lagazio, Corrado; Krüsi, Bertil O.; Bonfanti, Pierluigi

    2015-02-01

    Conservation tillage (CT) is widely considered to be a practice aimed at preserving several ecosystem functions. In the literature, however, there seems to be no clear pattern with regard to its benefits on species diversity and species composition. In Northern Italy, we compared species composition and diversity of both vascular plants and Carabids under two contrasting tillage systems, i.e., CT and conventional tillage, respectively. We hypothesized a significant positive impact of CT on both species diversity and composition. We also considered the potential influence of crop type. The tillage systems were studied under open field conditions with three types of annual crops (i.e., maize, soybean, and winter cereals), using a split-plot design on pairs of adjacent fields. Linear mixed models were applied to test tillage system, crop, and interaction effects on diversity indices. Plant and Carabids communities were analyzed by multivariate methods (CCA). On the whole, 136 plant and 51 carabid taxa were recorded. The two tillage systems studied did not differ in floristic or carabid diversity. Species composition, by contrast, proved to be characteristic for each combination of tillage system and crop type. In particular, CT fields were characterized by nutrient demanding weeds and the associated Carabids. The differences were especially pronounced in fields with winter cereals. The same was true for the flora and Carabids along the field boundaries. For studying the effects of CT practices on the sustainability of agro-ecosystems, therefore, the focus should be on species composition rather than on diversity measures.

  8. Absence of fibromodulin affects matrix composition, collagen deposition and cell turnover in healthy and fibrotic lung parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Rydell-Törmänen, Kristina; Andréasson, Kristofer; Hesselstrand, Roger; Westergren-Thorsson, Gunilla

    2014-01-01

    The ECM exerts great effects on cells, and changed composition may therefore have profound impact. Small leucine-rich proteoglycans, e.g. fibromodulin, are essential in collagen assembly. Our aim was to investigate the role of fibromodulin in healthy and fibrotic lung parenchyma, theorizing that fibromodulin-deficient animals would be protected against fibrosis. Repeated subcutaneous bleomycin-injections were given to wild type and fibromodulin-deficient mice, inducing pulmonary fibrosis. Development of fibrosis, ECM composition, cell turnover and inflammatory responses were investigated. Fibromodulin-deficient animals were not protected from fibrosis, but the composition of the matrix was affected, with decreased Collagen I in fibromodulin-deficient animals, both in controls (0.07 ± 0.04% vs. 0.18 ± 0.07% tissue area) and after bleomycin (0.37 ± 0.16% vs. 0.61 ± 0.21% tissue area). Biglycan was increased in fibromodulin-deficient animals, whereas decorin was decreased. Furthermore, bleomycin increased cell turnover in wild type, but only proliferation in fibromodulin-deficient animals, resulting in hyperplasia. In addition, the bleomycin-induced immune response was affected in fibromodulin-deficient animals. We thus conclude that fibromodulin has a profound effect on ECM, both in healthy and fibrotic lung parenchyma, and may be providing a permissive microenvironment affecting cell turnover. Furthermore, this study highlights the need to acknowledge specific ECM components, when assessing tissue properties and ultimately cell behaviour. PMID:25230586

  9. The compositional mosaic of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in unprocessed cereals, food and feed products in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vanheule, Adriaan; Audenaert, Kris; De Boevre, Marthe; Landschoot, Sofie; Bekaert, Boris; Munaut, Françoise; Eeckhout, Mia; Höfte, Monica; De Saeger, Sarah; Haesaert, Geert

    2014-07-02

    Global food safety depends on continuous monitoring of food contaminants such as mycotoxins in cereals and cereal-derived products. Here, we combine this type of investigation with quantitative occurrence data on Fusarium infestation of these products in extensive correlation studies. Finally, this contributes to a thorough understanding of the presence, origin and physiology of Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) related mycotoxins and the correlations within their ranks. Two hundred and thirty-seven samples were analyzed from diverse cereal matrices, representing the most important stages of the cereal food and feed chain in Belgium. Food, feed and non-processed field samples were investigated, with a strong emphasis on whole-grain food products. Two approaches were pursued to estimate the full scope of FHB and its repercussions: UPLC-MS/MS was applied to detect twelve different mycotoxins, and Q-PCR was used to measure the presence of ten Fusarium species. We found that different matrices have different characteristic contamination profiles, and extensive correlation studies identified certain mycotoxins for future assessment (e.g. moniliformin produced by the Fusarium avenaceum/Fusarium tricinctum species group). The investigated harvest year of 2012 yielded many non-processed field materials containing elevated levels of deoxynivalenol (DON), while even in a so-called DON-year less prevalent toxins such as T-2 and HT-2 might be considered problematic due to their consistent co-occurrence with related mycotoxins. Our data illustrate complex interactions between the many Fusarium species that are responsible for FHB and their mycotoxins. Correlation studies demonstrate that consistent co-occurrence of mycotoxins is not to be neglected, and pinpoint issues for future surveillance and legislation.

  10. Effects of almond and pistachio consumption on gut microbiota composition in a randomised cross-over human feeding study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modifying microbiota towards a 'beneficial' composition is a promising approach for improving intestinal as well as overall health. Natural fibers and phytochemicals that reach the proximal colon, such as those present in various nuts, provide substrates for maintaining a healthy and diverse microbi...

  11. Feeding a High Concentrate Diet Down-Regulates Expression of ACACA, LPL and SCD and Modifies Milk Composition in Lactating Goats.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hui; Chang, Guangjun; Xu, Tianle; Zhao, Huajian; Zhang, Kai; Shen, Xiangzhen

    2015-01-01

    High concentrate diets are fed to early and mid-lactation stages dairy ruminants to meet the energy demands for high milk production in modern milk industry. The present study evaluated the effects of a high concentrate diet on milk fat and milk composition, especially, cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk and gene expression of lactating goats. Eight mid-lactating goats with rumen fistula were randomly assigned into a high concentrate diet (HCD) group and low concentrate diet (LCD) group. High concentrate diet feeding significantly increased lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in plasma and decreased milk fat content, vaccenic acid (VA) and cis-9, trans-11 CLA in milk of the lactating goats. The mRNA expression levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein B 1c (SREBP1c), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthetase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACACA, ACCα) involving in lipid metabolism were analyzed, and ACACA and LPL all decreased in their expression level in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. DNA methylation rate of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) was elevated and decreased, and SCD mRNA and protein expression was reduced significantly in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. In conclusion, feeding a high concentrate diet to lactating goats decreases milk fat and reduced expression of SCD in the mammary gland, which finally induced cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk.

  12. Feeding a High Concentration Diet Induces Unhealthy Alterations in the Composition and Metabolism of Ruminal Microbiota and Host Response in a Goat Model

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Canfeng; Tian, Jing; Tian, Ping; Cong, Rihua; Luo, Yanwen; Geng, Yali; Tao, Shiyu; Ni, Yingdong; Zhao, Ruqian

    2017-01-01

    There is limited knowledge about the impact of long-term feeding a high-concentrate (HC) diet on rumen microbiota, metabolome, and host cell functions. In this study, a combination of mass spectrometry-based metabolomics techniques, 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA genes, and RT-PCR was applied to evaluate the changes of ruminal microbiota composition, ruminal metabolites, and related genes expression in rumen epithelial cells of lactating goats received either a 35% concentrate diet or a 65% concentrate diet for 4 or 19 weeks, respectively. Results show that feeding a HC diet reduced the microbiota diversity and led to the disorders of metabolism in the rumen. The concentrations of lactate, phosphorus, NH3-N and endotoxin Lipopolysaccharide in ruminal fluids, and plasma histamine, lactate and urine N (UN) were increased significantly in goats fed with a HC diet. A significant increase of genes expression related to volatile fatty acids transport, cell apoptosis, and inflammatory responses were also observed in goats fed with a HC diet. Correlation analysis revealed some potential relationships between bacteria abundance and metabolites concentrations. Our findings indicate that a HC diet can induce ruminal microbiota dysbiosis and metabolic disorders, thus increasing risks to host health and potential harm to the environment. PMID:28210249

  13. Feeding a High Concentration Diet Induces Unhealthy Alterations in the Composition and Metabolism of Ruminal Microbiota and Host Response in a Goat Model.

    PubMed

    Hua, Canfeng; Tian, Jing; Tian, Ping; Cong, Rihua; Luo, Yanwen; Geng, Yali; Tao, Shiyu; Ni, Yingdong; Zhao, Ruqian

    2017-01-01

    There is limited knowledge about the impact of long-term feeding a high-concentrate (HC) diet on rumen microbiota, metabolome, and host cell functions. In this study, a combination of mass spectrometry-based metabolomics techniques, 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA genes, and RT-PCR was applied to evaluate the changes of ruminal microbiota composition, ruminal metabolites, and related genes expression in rumen epithelial cells of lactating goats received either a 35% concentrate diet or a 65% concentrate diet for 4 or 19 weeks, respectively. Results show that feeding a HC diet reduced the microbiota diversity and led to the disorders of metabolism in the rumen. The concentrations of lactate, phosphorus, NH3-N and endotoxin Lipopolysaccharide in ruminal fluids, and plasma histamine, lactate and urine N (UN) were increased significantly in goats fed with a HC diet. A significant increase of genes expression related to volatile fatty acids transport, cell apoptosis, and inflammatory responses were also observed in goats fed with a HC diet. Correlation analysis revealed some potential relationships between bacteria abundance and metabolites concentrations. Our findings indicate that a HC diet can induce ruminal microbiota dysbiosis and metabolic disorders, thus increasing risks to host health and potential harm to the environment.

  14. Survey of SSC12 Regions Affecting Fatty Acid Composition of Intramuscular Fat Using High-Density SNP Data

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, María; Alves, Estefânia; Corominas, Jordi; Folch, Josep María; Casellas, Joaquim; Noguera, Jose Luis; Silió, Luis; Fernández, Ana Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid composition is a critical aspect of pork because it affects sensorial and technological aspects of meat quality and it is relevant for human health. Previous studies identified significant QTLs in porcine chromosome 12 for fatty acid profile of back fat (BF) and intramuscular fat (IMF). In the present study, 374 SNPs mapped in SSC12 from the 60K Porcine SNP Beadchip were used. We have combined linkage and association analyses with expression data analysis in order to identify regions of SSC12 that could affect fatty acid composition of IMF in longissimus muscle. The QTL scan showed a region around the 60-cM position that significantly affects palmitic fatty acid and two related fatty acid indexes. The Iberian QTL allele increased the palmitic content (+2.6% of mean trait). This QTL does not match any of those reported in the previous study on fatty acid composition of BF, suggesting different genetic control acting at both tissues. The SNP association analyses showed significant associations with linolenic and palmitic acids besides several indexes. Among the polymorphisms that affect palmitic fatty acid and match the QTL region at 60 cM, there were three that mapped in the Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PCTP) gene and one in the Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase ∝ gene (ACACA). Interestingly one of the PCTP SNPs also affected significantly unsaturated and double bound indexes and the ratio between polyunsaturated/monounsaturated fatty acids. Differential expression was assessed on longissimus muscle conditional on the genotype of the QTL and on the most significant SNPs, according to the results obtained in the former analyses. Results from the microarray expression analyses, validated by RT-qPCR, showed that PCTP expression levels significantly vary depending on the QTL as well as on the own PCTP genotype. The results obtained with the different approaches point out the PCTP gene as a powerful candidate underlying the QTL for palmitic content. PMID

  15. How fuel composition affects on-board reforming for fuel cell vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Kopasz, J. P.; Miller, L. E.; Applegate, D. V.; Chemical Engineering

    2003-01-01

    Different blends of gasoline range hydrocarbons were investigated to determine the effect of aromatic, naphthenic, and paraffinic content on performance in an autothermal reformer. In addition, we investigated the effects of detergent, antioxidant, and oxygenate additives. These tests indicate that composition effects are minimal at temperatures of 800C and above, but at lower temperatures or at high gas hourly space velocities (GHSV approaching 100,000 h{sup -1} ) composition can have a large effect on catalyst performance. Fuels high in aromatic and naphthenic components were more difficult to reform. In addition, additives, such as detergents and oxygenates were shown to decrease reformer performance at lower temperatures.

  16. Effect of Feeding On The Carbon and Oxygen Isotopic Composition In The Tissues and Skeleton of The Zooxanthellate Coral Stylophora Pistillata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynaud-Vaganay, S.; Ferrier-Pagès, C.; Sambrotto, R.; Juillet-Leclerc, A.; Jaubert, J.

    and J.-P. Gattuso4 1Centre Scientifique de Monaco, Avenue Saint Martin, MC-98000, Principality of Monaco 2Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, 61 Rt. 9W/ P.O. Box 1000, Palisades, NY 10964 U.S.A 3Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, Laboratoire mixte CNRS- CEA, F-91180 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France 4Observatoire Océanologique, Laboratoire d'Océanographie, CNRS-UPMC, BP 28, F- 06234 Villefranche-sur-mer Cedex, France The effect of feeding on the carbon isotopic composition of zooxanthellae, animal tissue and skeleton was investigated in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Two sets of corals were grown with filtered seawater under controlled conditions. One group of colonies was fed with Artemia nauplii and compared to a control group that was starved. Fed corals exhibited higher concentrations of chlorophyll protein calcification rates than starved colonies. The net photosynthetic rate was higher in starved than in fed corals, whereas dark respiration was not significantly different. The average ? C value of Artemia nauplii used for feeding was -12. ? C was 13 13 significantly heavier in zooxanthellae than in animal tissues, for both fed (-10.1vs. -11.7) and starved colonies (-10.9vs. -13.2). Isotopic data reflected the incorporation of Artemia carbon into the coral tissue in that the ? C was 13 significantly heavier in fed than in starved colonies (-11.7 to -13.2 respectively), although there was no difference in the ? C of the zooxanthellae fraction. Skeletal 13 ? C was similar in fed and starved colonies (mean = -4.6). Skeletal ? O 13 18 composition was, however, significantly different between the two treatments (-4.24 to -4.05 for fed and starved colonies respectively). These data are used to establish a conceptual model of the carbon flow between the various compartments of a symbiotic coral.

  17. Feed supplementation of Lactobacillus plantarum PCA 236 modulates gut microbiota and milk fatty acid composition in dairy goats--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Maragkoudakis, Petros A; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Rosu, Craita; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Dalaka, Eleni; Hadjipetrou, Andreas; Theofanous, Giorgos; Strozzi, Gian Paolo; Carlini, Nancy; Zervas, George; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2010-07-31

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential of a promising Lactobacillus plantarum isolate (PCA 236) from cheese as a probiotic feed supplement in lactating goats. The ability of L. plantarum to survive transit through the goat gastrointestinal tract and to modulate selected constituents of the gut microbiota composition, monitored at faecal level was assessed. In addition, L. plantarum effects on plasma immunoglobulins and antioxidant capacity of the animals as well as on the milk fatty acid composition were determined. For the purpose of the experiment a field study was designed, involving 24 dairy goats of the Damascus breed, kept in a sheep and goat dairy farm. The goats were divided in terms of body weight in two treatments of 12 goats each, namely: control (CON) without addition of L. plantarum and probiotic (PRO) treatment with in feed administration of L. plantarum so that the goats would intake 12 log CFU/day. The experiment lasted 5 weeks and at weekly time intervals individual faecal, blood and milk samples were collected and analysed. All faecal samples were examined for the presence of L. plantarum PCA 236. In addition, the culturable population levels of mesophilic aerobes, coliforms lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Streptococcus, Enterococcus, mesophilic anaerobes, Clostridium and Bacteroides in faeces were also determined by enumeration on specific culture media. In parallel, plasma IgA, IgM and IgG and antioxidant capacity of plasma and milk were determined. No adverse effects were observed in the animals receiving the lactobacillus during the experiment. Lactobacillus plantarum PCA 236 was recovered in the faeces of all animals in the PRO treatment. In addition, PRO treatment resulted in a significant (P

  18. Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Tubes Health Information Sheet Q & A with Experts Patient Stories Social Security Disability Application Process For Kids ... Feeding Tubes Health Information Sheet Q & A with Experts Patient Stories Social Security Disability Application Process For Kids ...

  19. Early-age feed restriction affects viability and gene expression of satellite cells isolated from the gastrocnemius muscle of broiler chicks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Muscle growth depends on the fusion of proliferate satellite cells to existing myofibers. We reported previously that 0–14 day intermittent feeding led to persistent retardation in myofiber hypertrophy. However, how satellite cells respond to such nutritional insult has not been adequately elucidated. Results One-day-old broiler chicks were allocated to control (Con, ad libitum feeding), intermittent feeding (IF, feed provided on alternate days) and re-feeding (RF, 2 days ad libitum feeding after 12 days of intermittent feeding) groups. Chickens were killed on Day 15 and satellite cells were isolated. When cultured, satellite cells from the IF group demonstrated significant retardation in proliferation and differentiation potential, while RF partly restored the proliferation rate and differentiation potential of the satellite cells. Significant up-regulation of insulin like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) (P<0.05) and thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα) (P<0.05), and down-regulation of growth hormone receptor (GHR) (P<0.01) and IGF-I (P<0.01) mRNA expression was observed in freshly isolated IF satellite cells when compared with Con cells. In RF cells, the mRNA expression of IGF-I was higher (P<0.05) and of TRα was lower (P<0.01) than in IF cells, suggesting that RF restored the mRNA expression of TRα and IGF-I, but not of GHR and IGF-IR. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio tended to increase in the IF group, which was reversed in the RF group (P<0.05), indicating that RF reduced the pro-apoptotic influence of IF. Moreover, no significant effect of T3 was detected on cell survival in IF cells compared with Con (P<0.001) or RF (P<0.05) cells. Conclusions These data suggest that early-age feed restriction inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells, induces changes in mRNA expression of the GH/IGF-I and thyroid hormone receptors in satellite cells, as well as blunted sensitivity of satellite cells to T3, and that RF partially reverses these

  20. Aural Dictation Affects High Achievement in Sight Singing, Performance and Composition Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    The nature of skill acquisition has long been of interest to music educators. This study considers the research context for relationships between aural dictation, sight singing, performance and composition skills. Then, relationships between these skill areas are quantitatively investigated using data from the Australian New South Wales Music 2…

  1. Factors Affecting Composition Evaluation in an EFL Context: Cultural Rhetorical Pattern and Readers' Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Hiroe; Rinnert, Carol

    1996-01-01

    Investigated how readers of different backgrounds evaluated 16 versions of Japanese university English as a foreign language (EFL) students' English compositions containing different culturally influenced rhetorical patterns. Results suggest that a flexible approach to permissible rhetorical patterns and a greater emphasis on coherence may be…

  2. Hydrodistillation time affects dill seed essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oil is widely used by the food and pharmaceutical industries. We hypothesized that the chemical constituents of dill seed essential oil are eluted at different times during the hydrodistillation process, resulting in oils with different composition and bioactiv...

  3. Internal and external factors affecting photosynthetic pigment composition in plants: a meta-analytical approach.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Raquel; Barrutia, Oihana; Artetxe, Unai; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Hernández, Antonio; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

    2015-04-01

    Photosynthetic pigment composition has been a major study target in plant ecophysiology during the last three decades. Although more than 2000 papers have been published, a comprehensive evaluation of the responses of photosynthetic pigment composition to environmental conditions is not yet available. After an extensive survey, we compiled data from 525 papers including 809 species (subkingdom Viridiplantae) in which pigment composition was described. A meta-analysis was then conducted to assess the ranges of photosynthetic pigment content. Calculated frequency distributions of pigments were compared with those expected from the theoretical pigment composition. Responses to environmental factors were also analysed. The results revealed that lutein and xanthophyll cycle pigments (VAZ) were highly responsive to the environment, emphasizing the high phenotypic plasticity of VAZ, whereas neoxanthin was very stable. The present meta-analysis supports the existence of relatively narrow limits for pigment ratios and also supports the presence of a pool of free 'unbound' VAZ. Results from this study provide highly reliable ranges of photosynthetic pigment contents as a framework for future research on plant pigments.

  4. A Polymorphism in the 5′-Untranslated Region of the Porcine Cholecystokinin Type A Receptor Gene Affects Feed Intake and Growth

    PubMed Central

    Houston, R. D.; Haley, C. S.; Archibald, A. L.; Cameron, N. D.; Plastow, G. S.; Rance, K. A.

    2006-01-01

    The location and utilization of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and candidate genes with significant effects on economically important traits are becoming increasingly important in livestock breeding programs. The porcine cholecystokinin type A receptor (CCKAR) is a candidate gene for performance traits, due to its known role in the physiological control of feed intake, satiety, and obesity. We investigated the association of CCKAR polymorphisms with feeding, growth, and efficiency traits in an F2 population derived from a cross between Meishan and Large White founder animals and in lines of Large White pigs that had been divergently selected on the basis of lean growth efficiency traits. In the F2 population, CCKAR genotype was significantly associated with daily feed intake and average daily gain. The effects of the polymorphisms were then assessed in a larger-scale analysis of segregating commercial lines. A newly discovered single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) within the 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) had highly significant effects on feed intake, average daily gain, and days to 110 kg, which were not seen for a previously reported SNP within the CCKAR gene. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the novel SNP disrupts the binding of the YY1 transcription factor, which raises the possibility that it is the causal variant. The 5′-UTR SNP could be utilized as a molecular genetic test for increased feed intake, faster lean growth, and reduced days to market weight in segregating commercial lines. PMID:16951077

  5. Factors affecting yield and composition of camel milk kept under desert conditions of central Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sibtain; Yaqoob, Muhammad; Bilal, Muhammad Qamar; Khan, Muhammad Kasib; Muhammad, Ghulam; Yang, Li-Guo; Tariq, Muhammad

    2012-10-01

    This study was planned to study the herd composition, farming system, and reproductive traits and to evaluate the effect of season, stage of lactation and parity on milk production, and composition of camels kept under pastoral environment of central Punjab, Pakistan. Based on purposive sampling method, 50 herds belonging to small, medium, and large-sized herds were selected. From these herds, 1,137 she-camels were entered in this study and their composite milk samples were collected and analyzed through standard procedures to determine the milk yield and percentages of milk contents. The results showed that the male camels constituted a lesser percentage (p < 0.05: 43.08; 380/882) in the total herd composition compared to that of she-camels (56.92; 502/882). The mean daily milk yield was 8.17 ± 0.09 L and mean percentage of fat was 3.79 ± 0.13%, protein was 3.66 ± 0.07%, lactose was 5.15 ± 0.09%, ash was 0.81 ± 0.02%, acidity was 0.20 ± 0.01%, solids not fat (SNF) was 9.63 ± 0.15%, total solids was 13.42 ± 0.21, and moisture was 86.58 ± 0.43. Mean daily milk yield was significantly higher (p < 0.01) during rainy season followed by winter season, warm dry summer, and hot summer season. Milk fat and protein contents were the highest in hot dry summer, while lactose contents were higher during rainy season. The stage of lactation and parity confirmed to impinge significantly (p < 0.01) on protein, lactose, and SNF. The present study will be helpful to design measures for the eradication of reproductive constraints and for the improvement of milk yield and composition in order to make camel rearing an economical proposition.

  6. Winter-feeding systems for gestating sheep II. Effects on feedlot performance, glucose tolerance, and carcass composition of lamb progeny.

    PubMed

    Radunz, A E; Fluharty, F L; Susin, I; Felix, T L; Zerby, H N; Loerch, S C

    2011-02-01

    Mature pregnant crossbred ewes (n = 90) were used in a randomized complete block design experiment and were assigned to 1 of 3 winter-feeding systems differing in primary feed source: haylage (HL), limit-fed corn (CN), or limit-fed dried distillers grains (DDGS). Effects of these winter-feeding strategies on postweaning progeny performance were determined. Lamb progeny (n = 96) were weaned at 61 ± 4 d of age and fed a common high-concentrate diet. Lambs were assigned to feedlot pen (n = 18) based on dam mid-gestation pen. Growth rate, DMI, and ADG were determined for the first 40 d of the finishing period. At 96 ± 4 d of age, 1 wether lamb was randomly selected from each pen (n = 18) for a glucose tolerance test. The experiment was terminated, and lambs were slaughtered individually when they were determined to have achieved 0.6-cm 12th-rib fat thickness. After a 24-h chill, carcass data were collected and a 2.54-cm chop was removed from each lamb from the LM posterior to the 12th rib for ether extract analysis. Additional carcass measurements of bone, muscle, and fat from the shoulder, rack, loin, and leg were collected on 35 carcasses. At weaning, lamb BW was not different among treatments, whereas final BW tended to be greater (P = 0.09) for lambs from ewes fed DDGS and CN during gestation than from those fed HL. Overall lamb growth rate from birth to slaughter was not different among treatments. Lambs from ewes fed DDGS vs. CN or HL tended to have a greater initial insulin response (P = 0.09). Dressing percent was less (P = 0.04) in lambs from ewes fed DDGS, but no difference (P = 0.16) was detected in HCW among treatments. As expected, 12th rib fat thickness was similar among treatments, whereas LM area was largest to smallest (P = 0.05) in lambs from ewes fed CN, HL, and DDGS, respectively. Proportion of internal fat tended to be greatest to smallest (P = 0.06) in lambs from ewes fed DDGS, CN, and HL, respectively. Calculated boneless trimmed retail cuts

  7. Amino acid composition of the bushcricket spermatophore and the function of courtship feeding: Variable composition suggests a dynamic role of the nuptial gift.

    PubMed

    Jarrige, Alicia; Body, Mélanie; Giron, David; Greenfield, Michael D; Goubault, Marlène

    2015-11-01

    Nuptial gifts are packages of non-gametic material transferred by males to females at mating. These gifts are common in bushcrickets, where males produce a complex spermatophore consisting in a sperm-containing ampulla and an edible sperm-free spermatophylax. Two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses have been suggested to explain the function of the spermatophylax: the paternal investment hypothesis proposes that it represents a male nutritional investment in offspring; the mating effort hypothesis proposes that the spermatophylax maximizes the male's sperm transfer. Because gift production may represent significant energy expenditure, males are expected to adjust their investment relative to the perceived quality of the female. In this study, we first examined the free amino acid composition and protein-bound amino acid composition of the nuptial gift in the bushcricket, Ephippiger diurnus (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Second, we investigated whether this composition was altered according to female age and body weight. Our study represents the first investigation of both free and protein-bound amino acid fractions of a bushcricket spermatophylax. We found that composition of the nuptial gift varied both qualitatively and quantitatively with respect to traits of the receiving female: older females received larger amounts of protein-bound amino acids (both essential and non-essential), less water and less free glycine. This result suggests that gift composition is highly labile in E. diurnus, and we propose that gift allocation might represent a form of cryptic male mate choice, allowing males to maximize their chances of paternity according to the risk of sperm competition that is associated with mate quality.

  8. Effect of corn silage and quantitative feed restriction on growth performance, body measurements, and carcass tissue composition in White Kołuda W31 geese.

    PubMed

    Kokoszyński, D; Bernacki, Z; Grabowicz, M; Stańczak, K

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of corn silage and quantitative feed restriction on BW, ADG, feed conversion, and carcass composition of White Kołuda W31 geese. Two diets were fed during the rearing period from 22 to 98 d of age: 1) a commercial diet ad libitum, and 2) restricted amounts of a commercial diet and corn silage ad libitum. Each treatment had 2 replicates of 16 birds each. From 99 to 119 d of age, all birds were fattened with whole oat grain alone. Incorporation of corn silage reduced weight gains and caused statistically significant differences in BW at the end of the rearing period (14 wk, 6,625.0 vs. 6,050.0 g; P < 0.05). Experimental geese showed compensatory growth during the oat fattening period and the BW of geese from both groups was similar at the end of the study (17 wk, 7,675.1 vs. 7,467.9 g; P > 0.05). Daily weight gains varied with week of growth, being lowest at 12 wk of age. Birds fed the commercial diet and corn silage had a significantly longer trunk (29.2 vs. 31.0 cm, P < 0.05) and shorter shanks (10.0 vs. 9.4 cm, P < 0.05) at 8 wk, and significantly smaller chest circumference (54.7 vs. 51.9 cm, P < 0.05) at the end of 14 wk. At the end of oat feeding (17 wk), geese receiving silage had significantly longer trunk and drumstick compared with geese fed commercial diets alone. The carcasses of 17-wk-old experimental geese contained more breast and leg muscles (%), and less skin with subcutaneous fat from breast and legs compared with control birds. Significant differences were only noted between the groups in dressing percentage (65.0 vs. 74.7%, P < 0.05) and proportion of skin with subcutaneous fat from breast (8.9 vs. 7.8%, P < 0.05). Dilution of the diet for young fattening geese with whole-crop corn silage had a positive effect on production economics and carcass composition.

  9. Effect of the levels of N fertilizer, grass and supplementary feeds on nitrogen composition and renneting properties of milk from cows at pasture.

    PubMed

    Hermansen, J E; Ostersen, S; Aaes, O

    1994-05-01

    In a 2 x 2 x 3 factorial design grazing experiment we investigated the effect of fertilizer (none or 240 kg N/ha), amounts of clover grass available (low or high) and type and level of daily supplementary feed for each cow (3.5 kg barley, 3.5 kg concentrate mixture rich in protein and fat, or both, 7 kg) on the protein composition and renneting properties of their milk. The experiment was carried out in two successive grazing seasons (years) and included a total of 79 Danish Holstein cows. The effect on milk protein composition was determined in both years whereas the effect on renneting properties was determined only in the second year. Fertilization of the clover grass significantly decreased total milk protein concentration (-1.4 g/kg; P < 0.01) and tended also to decrease the relative proportion of whey protein N. Fertilization had no effect on renneting properties. Increased availability of clover grass significantly increased milk protein concentration (1 g/kg; P < 0.05) and resulted in significantly poorer renneting properties, that is increased clotting time (P < 0.01) and decreased coagulum development. These effects seemed to be mediated through an effect on the pH of the milk (+0.05; P < 0.05) as the effect was markedly reduced when statistical correction was made for the actual pH. Use of the protein- and fat-rich concentrate mix (3.5 kg) significantly reduced the total protein content of the milk (P < 0.05) and increased the proportion of non-protein N (NPN) in total N compared with use of the other supplementary feeds (P < 0.05). We found no effect on renneting properties of the different supplementary feeds. Throughout the grazing season and independent of the main treatments, the NPN proportion of milk N increased at the expense of casein N. At the same time, renneting properties became poorer, especially with high clover grass availability.

  10. Factors affecting spermatozoa morphology in beef bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate factors affecting sperm morphology of bulls (n=908) collected at 320 days of age. Bulls were a composite breed (50% Red Angus, 25% Charolais, and 25% Tarentaise) born from 2002 to 2008 to dams fed levels of feed during mid and late gestation that were expe...

  11. Coconut oil and beef tallow, but not tricaprylin, can replace menhaden oil in the diet of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) without adversely affecting growth or fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Craig, S R; Gatlin, D M

    1995-12-01

    The ability of juvenile red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) to utilize medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) and other saturated dietary lipids was investigated in two 6-wk feeding experiments. Diets contained solvent-extracted menhaden fish meal to which menhaden fish oil (control), coconut oil, corn oil, beef tallow or various levels of MCT as tricaprylin (30, 46, 65 and 80% of total lipid) were added. Diets were fed to triplicate groups of juvenile red drum in aquaria containing brackish (6%) water. In the first feeding experiment, red drum fed the control diet had the greatest weight gains and feed efficiencies. Weight gain, but not feed was slightly, of fish fed corn oil and fish fed coconut oil was slightly (P < 0.05) lower. In the second feeding experiment, fish fed coconut oil and those fed beef tallow had significantly higher weight gains and feed efficiencies than did fish fed the control diet. Fish fed the diets containing tricaprylin at all inclusion levels in both feeding experiments had significantly lower weight gains and feed efficiencies and higher levels of beta-hydroxybutyric acid in plasma. Fish fed diets with high levels of MCT also had lower (n-3) and greater (n-6) fatty acid levels in the neutral lipid fraction of muscle tissue compared with fish fed the control diet. Coconut oil and beef tallow consistently resulted in greater liver lipid deposition but had variable effects on other tissue indices. Saturated dietary lipids had variable effects on fatty acid composition of muscle polar and neutral lipid fractions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Postharvest treatments with ethylene on Vitis vinifera (cv Sangiovese) grapes affect berry metabolism and wine composition.

    PubMed

    Becatti, Elisa; Genova, Giuseppe; Ranieri, Annamaria; Tonutti, Pietro

    2014-09-15

    Grapes (Vitis vinifera, cv Sangiovese), harvested at standard commercial maturity, were treated for 36 h with ethylene (ET, 1000 ppm) or air (control, CT) before vinification. The composition of the grapes, must and wine was different in the CT and ET samples. In the ET wine, higher concentrations of specific phenol compounds, belonging to the classes of flavonols, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and stilbenes, were detected. ET induced a significant change in the wine aroma profile by increasing free volatile categories such as phenols and fatty acids, and reducing the content of carbonyl compounds and, in particular, of esters. Less pronounced differences between CT and ET wines were observed in terms of glycosidically-bound volatile compounds. The activity of pectin methyl esterase and β-glucosidase was enhanced in ET-treated berry skins, suggesting that cell wall properties and changes in the hydrolytic activity are effective in modulating the composition of CT and ET wines.

  13. Quantitative protein composition and baking quality of winter wheat as affected by late sulfur fertilization.

    PubMed

    Zörb, Christian; Steinfurth, Dorothee; Seling, Simone; Langenkämper, Georg; Koehler, Peter; Wieser, Herbert; Lindhauer, Meinolf G; Mühling, Karl H

    2009-05-13

    Increasing prices for wheat products and fertilizers, as well as reduced sulfur (S) contributions from the atmosphere, call for an improvement of product quality and agricultural management. To detect the impact of a time-dependent S fertilization, the quantitative protein composition and the baking quality of two different wheat cultivars, Batis and Turkis, were evaluated. The glutathione concentration in grains serves as a reliable marker of the need for added S fertilizer. The quantitation of gliadins and glutenin subunits by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography confirmed that S-rich proteins significantly increased with S fertilization, whereas the S-poor proteins significantly decreased. Proteome analysis by means of high-resolution protein profiles detected 55 and 37 proteins from Batis and Turkis changed by late S fertilization. A microscale baking test using wholemeal flour was implemented for the evaluation of baking quality, and late S fertilization was found to improve the composition of gluten proteins and baking quality.

  14. How Trace Element Levels of Public Drinking Water Affect Body Composition in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Ihsan; Nalbantcilar, Mahmut Tahir; Tosun, Kezban; Nazik, Aydan

    2017-02-01

    Since waterborne minerals appear in ionic form and are readily absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, drinking water could be a crucial source of mineral intake. However, no comprehensive research has yet determined how trace elements in drinking water relate to body composition. We aimed to assess the relationship between clinically important trace elements in public drinking water and body composition in average, overweight and obese individuals in Turkey. The study's population consisted of 423 participants: 143 overweight, 138 obese and 142 healthy control individuals, grouped according to clinical cutoff points of body mass index (BMI). We measured levels of lithium (Li), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), silicon (Si), tin (Sn), strontium (Sr), boron (B), aluminium (Al), barium (Ba) and rubidium (Rb) in samples from wells of municipal water by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We gauged all the participants' body composition measurements with a BC-418 body composition analyser. In all the participants, body weight values showed significant positive correlations with Ni levels in drinking water, as did BMI values with Al levels and percentage of obesity with Ni, Si and B levels. In particular, Ni levels showed significant positive correlations with the basal metabolic rate, activity calories, and total activity of participants. Giving findings showing correlations between obesity-related parameters and Al, Si, B and Ni content in drinking water, we hope that these associations will be clarified with further studies including cellular, experimental and clinical studies. Hence, medical practitioners must be aware of trace element levels in drinking water for overweight and obese patients.

  15. Metabolomic profiling in tomato reveals diel compositional changes in fruit affected by source–sink relationships

    PubMed Central

    Bénard, Camille; Bernillon, Stéphane; Biais, Benoît; Osorio, Sonia; Maucourt, Mickaël; Ballias, Patricia; Deborde, Catherine; Colombié, Sophie; Cabasson, Cécile; Jacob, Daniel; Vercambre, Gilles; Gautier, Hélène; Rolin, Dominique; Génard, Michel; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Gibon, Yves; Moing, Annick

    2015-01-01

    A detailed study of the diurnal compositional changes was performed in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Moneymaker) leaves and fruits. Plants were cultivated in a commercial greenhouse under two growth conditions: control and shaded. Expanding fruits and the closest mature leaves were harvested during two different day/night cycles (cloudy or sunny day). High-throughput robotized biochemical phenotyping of major compounds, as well as proton nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry metabolomic profiling, were used to measure the contents of about 70 metabolites in the leaves and 60 metabolites in the fruits, in parallel with ecophysiological measurements. Metabolite data were processed using multivariate, univariate, or clustering analyses and correlation networks. The shaded carbon-limited plants adjusted their leaf area, decreased their sink carbon demand and showed subtle compositional modifications. For source leaves, several metabolites varied along a diel cycle, including those directly linked to photosynthesis and photorespiration. These metabolites peaked at midday in both conditions and diel cycles as expected. However, transitory carbon storage was limited in tomato leaves. In fruits, fewer metabolites showed diel fluctuations, which were also of lower amplitude. Several organic acids were among the fluctuating metabolites. Diel patterns observed in leaves and especially in fruits differed between the cloudy and sunny days, and between the two conditions. Relationships between compositional changes in leaves and fruits are in agreement with the fact that several metabolic processes of the fruit appeared linked to its momentary supply of sucrose. PMID:25873655

  16. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy as a method to predict chemical composition of breast meat and discriminate between different n-3 feeding sources.

    PubMed

    Berzaghi, P; Dalle Zotte, A; Jansson, L M; Andrighetto, I

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) as a tool to predict the physicochemical composition of breast meat samples of laying hens fed 4 different diets, a control and 3 diets enriched with different sources of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: marine origin, extruded linseed, and ground linseed. Furthermore, NIRS was used as a tool to classify meat samples according to feeding regimen. Samples were analyzed chemically for DM, ash, protein, lipids, and fatty acid profile. Absorption spectra were collected in diffuse reflectance mode between 1,100 and 2,498 nm every 2 nm. The calibration results for the 72 meat samples were accurate in predicting DM, protein, lipids, and major fatty acids. Poor results were obtained for the calibration equations for ash, pH, color, and lipid oxidation parameters. Partial least squares discriminant analysis was developed to differentiate the breast meat samples that originated from hens fed the different diets. The performance of the discriminant models showed 100% correct classification between the control and the enriched diets. It was concluded that NIRS could be used for quality control predicting chemical composition of poultry meat and possibly some dietary treatments applied to the chickens.

  17. Evaluation of the proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition of representative green, brown and red seaweeds from the Persian Gulf of Iran as potential food and feed resources.

    PubMed

    Rohani-Ghadikolaei, Kiuomars; Abdulalian, Eessa; Ng, Wing-Keong

    2012-12-01

    The proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition were determined for green (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis), brown (Sargassum ilicifolium and Colpomenia sinuosa) and red (Hypnea valentiae and Gracilaria corticata) seaweeds collected from the Persian Gulf of Iran. Results showed that the seaweeds were high in carbohydrate (31.8-59.1%, dry weight) and ash (12.4-29.9%) but low in lipid content (1.5-3.6%). The protein content of red or green seaweeds was significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to brown seaweeds. The fatty acid composition of various seaweed lipids varied considerably with 51.9-67.4% of saturates, 22.0-32.9% of monoenes and 9.2-19.1% of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). E. intestinalis contained the highest total n-3 PUFA content with the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio. Persian Gulf seaweeds contained higher concentrations of all the minerals examined (K, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Co) compared to terrestrial vegetables. Seaweeds could potentially be used as a food or feed additive in Iran.

  18. Composition of whole and water extractable organic matter of cattle manure affected by management practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic matter (OM) is a major component of animal manure. In this chapter, we present two case studies on the multiple spectral features of whole and water extractable organic matter (WEOM) of cattle (beef and dairy) manure affected by differing management practices. Using wet chemistry and Fourie...

  19. Does the temperature of beverages affect the surface roughness, hardness, and color stability of a composite resin?

    PubMed Central

    Tuncer, Duygu; Karaman, Emel; Firat, Esra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of beverages’ temperature on the surface roughness, hardness, and color stability of a composite resin. Materials and Methods: Fifty specimens of the Filtek Z250 composite (3M ESPE, Dental Products, St.Paul, MN, USA) were prepared and initial roughness, microhardness, and color were measured. Then the specimens were randomly divided into five groups of 10 specimens each: Coffee at 70°C, coffee at 37°C, cola at 10°C, cola at 37°C, and artificial saliva (control). After the samples were subjected to 15 min × 3 cycles per day of exposure to the solutions for 30 days, the final measurements were recorded. Results: After immersion in beverages, the artificial saliva group showed hardness values higher than those of the other groups (P < 0.001) and the microhardness values were significantly different from the initial values in all groups except for the control group. Both cola groups showed roughness values higher than the baseline values (P < 0.05), while the other groups showed values similar to the baseline measurements. When ΔE measurements were examined, the 70°C coffee group showed the highest color change among all the groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: High-temperature solutions caused alterations in certain properties of composites, such as increased color change, although they did not affect the hardness or roughness of the composite resin material tested. PMID:24883021

  20. Response Element Composition Governs Correlations between Binding Site Affinity and Transcription in Glucocorticoid Receptor Feed-forward Loops.

    PubMed

    Sasse, Sarah K; Zuo, Zheng; Kadiyala, Vineela; Zhang, Liyang; Pufall, Miles A; Jain, Mukesh K; Phang, Tzu L; Stormo, Gary D; Gerber, Anthony N

    2015-08-07

    Combinatorial gene regulation through feed-forward loops (FFLs) can bestow specificity and temporal control to client gene expression; however, characteristics of binding sites that mediate these effects are not established. We previously showed that the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and KLF15 form coherent FFLs that cooperatively induce targets such as the amino acid-metabolizing enzymes AASS and PRODH and incoherent FFLs exemplified by repression of MT2A by KLF15. Here, we demonstrate that GR and KLF15 physically interact and identify low affinity GR binding sites within glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) for PRODH and AASS that contribute to combinatorial regulation with KLF15. We used deep sequencing and electrophoretic mobility shift assays to derive in vitro GR binding affinities across sequence space. We applied these data to show that AASS GRE activity correlated (r(2) = 0.73) with predicted GR binding affinities across a 50-fold affinity range in transfection assays; however, the slope of the linear relationship more than doubled when KLF15 was expressed. Whereas activity of the MT2A GRE was even more strongly (r(2) = 0.89) correlated with GR binding site affinity, the slope of the linear relationship was sharply reduced by KLF15, consistent with incoherent FFL logic. Thus, GRE architecture and co-regulator expression together determine the functional parameters that relate GR binding site affinity to hormone-induced transcriptional responses. Utilization of specific affinity response functions and GR binding sites by FFLs may contribute to the diversity of gene expression patterns within GR-regulated transcriptomes.

  1. Effect of feeding CLA on plasma and granules fatty acid composition of eggs and prepared mayonnaise quality.

    PubMed

    Shinn, Sara Elizabeth; Proctor, Andrew; Gilley, Alex D; Cho, Sungeun; Martin, Elizabeth; Anthony, Nicholas B

    2016-04-15

    Eggs rich in trans, trans conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are significantly more viscous, have more phospholipids containing linoleic acid (LA), and more saturated triacylglycerol species than control eggs. However, the fatty acid (FA) composition of yolk plasma and granule fractions are unreported. Furthermore, there are no reports of mayonnaise rheological properties or emulsion stability by using CLA-rich eggs. Therefore, the objectives were (1) compare the FA composition of CLA-rich yolk granules and plasma, relative to standard control and LA-rich control yolks, (2) compare the rheological properties of mayonnaise prepared with CLA-rich eggs to control eggs and (3) compare the emulsion stability of CLA-yolk mayonnaise. CLA-rich eggs and soy control eggs were produced by adding 10% CLA-rich soy oil or 10% of control unmodified soy oil to the hen's diet. The eggs were used in subsequent mayonnaise preparation. CLA-yolk mayonnaise was more viscous, had greater storage modulus, resisted thinning, and was a more stable emulsion, relative to mayonnaise prepared with control yolks or soy control yolks.

  2. Accelerated, microwave-assisted, and conventional solvent extraction methods affect anthocyanin composition from colored grains.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Akhtar, Humayoun; Rabalski, Iwona; Bryan, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Anthocyanins are important dietary components with diverse positive functions in human health. This study investigates effects of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) on anthocyanin composition and extraction efficiency from blue wheat, purple corn, and black rice in comparison with the commonly used solvent extraction (CSE). Factorial experimental design was employed to study effects of ASE and MAE variables, and anthocyanin extracts were analyzed by spectrophotometry, high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (DAD), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry chromatography. The extraction efficiency of ASE and MAE was comparable with CSE at the optimal conditions. The greatest extraction by ASE was achieved at 50 °C, 2500 psi, 10 min using 5 cycles, and 100% flush. For MAE, a combination of 70 °C, 300 W, and 10 min in MAE was the most effective in extracting anthocyanins from blue wheat and purple corn compared with 50 °C, 1200 W, and 20 min for black rice. The anthocyanin composition of grain extracts was influenced by the extraction method. The ASE extraction method seems to be more appropriate in extracting anthocyanins from the colored grains as being comparable with the CSE method based on changes in anthocyanin composition. The method caused lower structural changes in anthocaynins compared with the MAE method. Changes in blue wheat anthocyanins were lower in comparison with purple corn or black rice perhaps due to the absence of acylated anthocyanin compounds in blue wheat. The results show significant differences in anthocyanins among the 3 extraction methods, which indicate a need to standardize a method for valid comparisons among studies and for quality assurance purposes.

  3. Factors affecting the thermal shock behavior of yttria stabilized hafnia based graphite and tungsten composites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lineback, L. D.; Manning, C. R.

    1971-01-01

    Hafnia-based composites containing either graphite or tungsten were investigated as rocket nozzle throat inserts in solid propellant rocket engines. The thermal shock resistance of these materials is considered in terms of macroscopic thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, modulus of elasticity, and compressive fracture stress. The effect of degree of hafnia stabilization, density, and graphite or tungsten content upon these parameters is discussed. The variation of the ratio of elastic modulus to compressive fracture stress with density and its effect upon thermal shock resistance of these materials are discussed in detail.

  4. Tree Species Composition and Harvest Intensity Affect Herbivore Density and Leaf Damage on Beech, Fagus sylvatica, in Different Landscape Contexts.

    PubMed

    Mangels, Jule; Blüthgen, Nico; Frank, Kevin; Grassein, Fabrice; Hilpert, Andrea; Mody, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Most forests are exposed to anthropogenic management activities that affect tree species composition and natural ecosystem processes. Changes in ecosystem processes such as herbivory depend on management intensity, and on regional environmental conditions and species pools. Whereas influences of specific forest management measures have already been addressed for different herbivore taxa on a local scale, studies considering effects of different aspects of forest management across different regions are rare. We assessed the influence of tree species composition and intensity of harvesting activities on arthropod herbivores and herbivore-related damage to beech trees, Fagus sylvatica, in 48 forest plots in three regions of Germany. We found that herbivore abundance and damage to beech trees differed between regions and that - despite the regional differences - density of tree-associated arthropod taxa and herbivore damage were consistently affected by tree species composition and harvest intensity. Specifically, overall herbivore damage to beech trees increased with increasing dominance of beech trees - suggesting the action of associational resistance processes - and decreased with harvest intensity. The density of leaf chewers and mines was positively related to leaf damage, and several arthropod groups responded to beech dominance and harvest intensity. The distribution of damage patterns was consistent with a vertical shift of herbivores to higher crown layers during the season and with higher beech dominance. By linking quantitative data on arthropod herbivore abundance and herbivory with tree species composition and harvesting activity in a wide variety of beech forests, our study helps to better understand the influence of forest management on interactions between a naturally dominant deciduous forest tree and arthropod herbivores.

  5. Tree Species Composition and Harvest Intensity Affect Herbivore Density and Leaf Damage on Beech, Fagus sylvatica, in Different Landscape Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Mangels, Jule; Blüthgen, Nico; Frank, Kevin; Grassein, Fabrice; Hilpert, Andrea; Mody, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Most forests are exposed to anthropogenic management activities that affect tree species composition and natural ecosystem processes. Changes in ecosystem processes such as herbivory depend on management intensity, and on regional environmental conditions and species pools. Whereas influences of specific forest management measures have already been addressed for different herbivore taxa on a local scale, studies considering effects of different aspects of forest management across different regions are rare. We assessed the influence of tree species composition and intensity of harvesting activities on arthropod herbivores and herbivore-related damage to beech trees, Fagus sylvatica, in 48 forest plots in three regions of Germany. We found that herbivore abundance and damage to beech trees differed between regions and that – despite the regional differences - density of tree-associated arthropod taxa and herbivore damage were consistently affected by tree species composition and harvest intensity. Specifically, overall herbivore damage to beech trees increased with increasing dominance of beech trees – suggesting the action of associational resistance processes – and decreased with harvest intensity. The density of leaf chewers and mines was positively related to leaf damage, and several arthropod groups responded to beech dominance and harvest intensity. The distribution of damage patterns was consistent with a vertical shift of herbivores to higher crown layers during the season and with higher beech dominance. By linking quantitative data on arthropod herbivore abundance and herbivory with tree species composition and harvesting activity in a wide variety of beech forests, our study helps to better understand the influence of forest management on interactions between a naturally dominant deciduous forest tree and arthropod herbivores. PMID:25938417

  6. Intracellular composition of fatty acid affects the processing and function of tyrosinase through the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Hideya; Wen, Zhi-Ming; Kim, Hee-Yong; Valencia, Julio C.; Costin, Gertrude-E.; Watabe, Hidenori; Yasumoto, Ken-ichi; Niki, Yoko; Kondoh, Hirofumi; Ichihashi, Masamitsu; Hearing, Vincent J.

    2005-01-01

    Proteasomes are multicatalytic proteinase complexes within cells that selectively degrade ubiquitinated proteins. We have recently demonstrated that fatty acids, major components of cell membranes, are able to regulate the proteasomal degradation of tyrosinase, a critical enzyme required for melanin biosynthesis, in contrasting manners by relative increases or decreases in the ubiquitinated tyrosinase. In the present study, we show that altering the intracellular composition of fatty acids affects the post-Golgi degradation of tyrosinase. Incubation with linoleic acid (C18:2) dramatically changed the fatty acid composition of cultured B16 melanoma cells, i.e. the remarkable increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid and arachidonic acid (C20:4) was compensated by the decrease in monounsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1), with little effect on the proportion of saturated to unsaturated fatty acid. When the composition of intracellular fatty acids was altered, tyrosinase was rapidly processed to the Golgi apparatus from the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) and the degradation of tyrosinase was increased after its maturation in the Golgi. Retention of tyrosinase in the ER was observed when cells were treated with linoleic acid in the presence of proteasome inhibitors, explaining why melanin synthesis was decreased in cells treated with linoleic acid and a proteasome inhibitor despite the abrogation of tyrosinase degradation. These results suggest that the intracellular composition of fatty acid affects the processing and function of tyrosinase in connection with the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway and suggest that this might be a common physiological approach to regulate protein degradation. PMID:16232122

  7. Recovery of Heat Treated Bacillus cereus Spores Is Affected by Matrix Composition and Factors with Putative Functions in Damage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Warda, Alicja K.; Tempelaars, Marcel H.; Abee, Tjakko; Nierop Groot, Masja N.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of spores to recover and grow out after food processing is affected by cellular factors and by the outgrowth conditions. In the current communication we studied the recovery and outgrowth of individually sorted spores in BHI and rice broth media and on agar plates using flow cytometry. We show that recovery of wet heat treated Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 spores is affected by matrix composition with highest recovery in BHI broth or on rice agar plates, compared to BHI agar plates and rice broth. Data show that not only media composition but also its liquid or solid state affect the recovery of heat treated spores. To determine the impact of factors with putative roles in recovery of heat treated spores, specific genes previously shown to be highly expressed in outgrowing heat-treated spores were selected for mutant construction. Spores of nine B. cereus ATCC 14579 deletion mutants were obtained and their recovery from wet heat treatment was evaluated using BHI and rice broth and agar plates. Deletion mutant spores showed different capacity to recover from heat treatment compared to wild type with the most pronounced effect for a mutant lacking BC5242, a gene encoding a membrane protein with C2C2 zinc finger which resulted in over 95% reduction in recovery compared to the wild type in BHI broth. Notably, similar relative performance of wild type and mutants was observed using the other recovery conditions. We obtained insights on the impact of matrix composition and state on recovery of individually sorted heat treated spores and identified cellular factors with putative roles in this process. These results may provide leads for future developments in design of more efficient combined preservation treatments. PMID:27486443

  8. Black carbon absorption at the global scale is affected by particle-scale diversity in composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fierce, Laura; Bond, Tami C.; Bauer, Susanne E.; Mena, Francisco; Riemer, Nicole

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric black carbon (BC) exerts a strong, but uncertain, warming effect on the climate. BC that is coated with non-absorbing material absorbs more strongly than the same amount of BC in an uncoated particle, but the magnitude of this absorption enhancement (Eabs) is not well constrained. Modelling studies and laboratory measurements have found stronger absorption enhancement than has been observed in the atmosphere. Here, using a particle-resolved aerosol model to simulate diverse BC populations, we show that absorption is overestimated by as much as a factor of two if diversity is neglected and population-averaged composition is assumed across all BC-containing particles. If, instead, composition diversity is resolved, we find Eabs=1-1.5 at low relative humidity, consistent with ambient observations. This study offers not only an explanation for the discrepancy between modelled and observed absorption enhancement, but also demonstrates how particle-scale simulations can be used to develop relationships for global-scale models.

  9. Black Carbon Absorption at the Global Scale Is Affected by Particle-Scale Diversity in Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fierce, Laura; Bond, Tami C.; Bauer, Susanne E.; Mena, Francisco; Riemer, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric black carbon (BC) exerts a strong, but uncertain, warming effect on the climate. BC that is coated with non-absorbing material absorbs more strongly than the same amount of BC in an uncoated particle, but the magnitude of this absorption enhancement (E(sub abs)) is not well constrained. Modelling studies and laboratory measurements have found stronger absorption enhancement than has been observed in the atmosphere. Here, using a particle-resolved aerosol model to simulate diverse BC populations, we show that absorption is overestimated by as much as a factor of two if diversity is neglected and population-averaged composition is assumed across all BC-containing particles. If, instead, composition diversity is resolved, we find E(sub abs) = 1 - 1.5 at low relative humidity, consistent with ambient observations. This study offers not only an explanation for the discrepancy between modelled and observed absorption enhancement, but also demonstrates how particle-scale simulations can be used to develop relationships for global-scale models.

  10. Black carbon absorption at the global scale is affected by particle-scale diversity in composition

    PubMed Central

    Fierce, Laura; Bond, Tami C.; Bauer, Susanne E.; Mena, Francisco; Riemer, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric black carbon (BC) exerts a strong, but uncertain, warming effect on the climate. BC that is coated with non-absorbing material absorbs more strongly than the same amount of BC in an uncoated particle, but the magnitude of this absorption enhancement (Eabs) is not well constrained. Modelling studies and laboratory measurements have found stronger absorption enhancement than has been observed in the atmosphere. Here, using a particle-resolved aerosol model to simulate diverse BC populations, we show that absorption is overestimated by as much as a factor of two if diversity is neglected and population-averaged composition is assumed across all BC-containing particles. If, instead, composition diversity is resolved, we find Eabs=1−1.5 at low relative humidity, consistent with ambient observations. This study offers not only an explanation for the discrepancy between modelled and observed absorption enhancement, but also demonstrates how particle-scale simulations can be used to develop relationships for global-scale models. PMID:27580627

  11. Dietary supplements and physical exercise affecting bone and body composition in frail elderly persons.

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, N; Chin A Paw, M J; de Groot, L C; Hiddink, G J; van Staveren, W A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined the effect of enriched foods and all-around physical exercise on bone and body composition in frail elderly persons. METHODS: A 17-week randomized, controlled intervention trial, following a 2 x 2 factorial design--(1) enriched foods, (2) exercise, (3) both, or (4) neither--was performed in 143 frail elderly persons (aged 78.6 +/- 5.6 years). Foods were enriched with multiple micronutrients; exercises focused on skill training, including strength, endurance, coordination, and flexibility. Main outcome parameters were bone and body composition. RESULTS: Exercise preserved lean mass (mean difference between exercisers and non-exercisers: 0.5 kg +/- 1.2 kg; P < .02). Groups receiving enriched food had slightly increased bone mineral density (+0.4%), bone mass (+0.6%), and bone calcium (+0.6%) compared with groups receiving non-enriched foods, in whom small decreases of 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4%, respectively, were found. These groups differed in bone mineral density (0.006 +/- 0.020 g/cm2; P = .08), total bone mass (19 +/- g; P = .04), and bone calcium (8 +/- 21 g; P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Foods containing a physiologic dose of micronutrients slightly increased bone density, mass, and calcium, whereas moderately intense exercise preserved lean body mass in frail elderly persons. PMID:10846514

  12. Plant compartment and biogeography affect microbiome composition in cultivated and native Agave species.

    PubMed

    Coleman-Derr, Devin; Desgarennes, Damaris; Fonseca-Garcia, Citlali; Gross, Stephen; Clingenpeel, Scott; Woyke, Tanja; North, Gretchen; Visel, Axel; Partida-Martinez, Laila P; Tringe, Susannah G

    2016-01-01

    Desert plants are hypothesized to survive the environmental stress inherent to these regions in part thanks to symbioses with microorganisms, and yet these microbial species, the communities they form, and the forces that influence them are poorly understood. Here we report the first comprehensive investigation of the microbial communities associated with species of Agave, which are native to semiarid and arid regions of Central and North America and are emerging as biofuel feedstocks. We examined prokaryotic and fungal communities in the rhizosphere, phyllosphere, leaf and root endosphere, as well as proximal and distal soil samples from cultivated and native agaves, through Illumina amplicon sequencing. Phylogenetic profiling revealed that the composition of prokaryotic communities was primarily determined by the plant compartment, whereas the composition of fungal communities was mainly influenced by the biogeography of the host species. Cultivated A. tequilana exhibited lower levels of prokaryotic diversity compared with native agaves, although no differences in microbial diversity were found in the endosphere. Agaves shared core prokaryotic and fungal taxa known to promote plant growth and confer tolerance to abiotic stress, which suggests common principles underpinning Agave-microbe interactions.

  13. mim3 and nam3 omnipotent suppressor genes similarly affect the polypeptide composition of yeast mitoribosomes.

    PubMed

    Mieszczak, M; Zagórski, W

    1987-05-01

    Yeast informational suppressors of mit- mutations coded for by nuclear (nam3-1, nam3-2) or by mitochondrial DNA (mim3-1) affect the mitoribosome. Nuclear mutations result in the appearance of an additional polypeptide called SI in the small mitoribosomal subunit. An identical polypeptide, not detected in the wild type 37S subunit, is present in crude preparations of mitoribosomes isolated from a mim3-1 suppressor carrying strain. Traces of the SI polypeptide may be found in highly purified small subunits from the mim3-1 strain. Therefore, mutations affecting either mitochondrial rRNA (mim3-1) or mitochondrial r-proteins (nam3-1, nam3-2) could be followed by similar changes in overall mitoribosome structure. This may explain the functional similarity of nuclear and mitochondrially coded suppressors.

  14. Sediment composition for the assessment of water erosion and nonpoint source pollution in natural and fire-affected landscapes.

    PubMed

    Carkovic, Athena B; Pastén, Pablo A; Bonilla, Carlos A

    2015-04-15

    Water erosion is a leading cause of soil degradation and a major nonpoint source pollution problem. Many efforts have been undertaken to estimate the amount and size distribution of the sediment leaving the field. Multi-size class water erosion models subdivide eroded soil into different sizes and estimate the aggregate's composition based on empirical equations derived from agricultural soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate these equations on soil samples collected from natural landscapes (uncultivated) and fire-affected soils. Chemical, physical, and soil fractions and aggregate composition analyses were performed on samples collected in the Chilean Patagonia and later compared with the equations' estimates. The results showed that the empirical equations were not suitable for predicting the sediment fractions. Fine particles, including primary clay, primary silt, and small aggregates (<53 μm) were over-estimated, and large aggregates (>53 μm) and primary sand were under-estimated. The uncultivated and fire-affected soils showed a reduced fraction of fine particles in the sediment, as clay and silt were mostly in the form of large aggregates. Thus, a new set of equations was developed for these soils, where small aggregates were defined as particles with sizes between 53 μm and 250 μm and large aggregates as particles>250 μm. With r(2) values between 0.47 and 0.98, the new equations provided better estimates for primary sand and large aggregates. The aggregate's composition was also well predicted, especially the silt and clay fractions in the large aggregates from uncultivated soils (r(2)=0.63 and 0.83, respectively) and the fractions of silt in the small aggregates (r(2)=0.84) and clay in the large aggregates (r(2)=0.78) from fire-affected soils. Overall, these new equations proved to be better predictors for the sediment and aggregate's composition in uncultivated and fire-affected soils, and they reduce the error when estimating soil loss in

  15. Sensory suppression during feeding

    PubMed Central

    Foo, H.; Mason, Peggy

    2005-01-01

    Feeding is essential for survival, whereas withdrawal and escape reactions are fundamentally protective. These critical behaviors can compete for an animal's resources when an acutely painful stimulus affects the animal during feeding. One solution to the feeding-withdrawal conflict is to optimize feeding by suppressing pain. We examined whether rats continue to feed when challenged with a painful stimulus. During feeding, motor withdrawal responses to noxious paw heat either did not occur or were greatly delayed. To investigate the neural basis of sensory suppression accompanying feeding, we recorded from brainstem pain-modulatory neurons involved in the descending control of pain transmission. During feeding, pain-facilitatory ON cells were inhibited and pain-inhibitory OFF cells were excited. When a nonpainful somatosensory stimulus preactivated ON cells and preinhibited OFF cells, rats interrupted eating to react to painful stimuli. Inactivation of the brainstem region containing ON and OFF cells also blocked pain suppression during eating, demonstrating that brainstem pain-modulatory neurons suppress motor reactions to external stimulation during homeostatic behaviors. PMID:16275919

  16. Flavour compounds in tomato fruits: identification of loci and potential pathways affecting volatile composition.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Sandrine; Cin, Valeriano Dal; Fei, Zhangjun; Li, Hua; Bliss, Peter; Taylor, Mark G; Klee, Harry J; Tieman, Denise M

    2009-01-01

    The unique flavour of a tomato fruit is the sum of a complex interaction among sugars, acids, and a large set of volatile compounds. While it is generally acknowledged that the flavour of commercially produced tomatoes is inferior, the biochemical and genetic complexity of the trait has made breeding for improved flavour extremely difficult. The volatiles, in particular, present a major challenge for flavour improvement, being generated from a diverse set of lipid, amino acid, and carotenoid precursors. Very few genes controlling their biosynthesis have been identified. New quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that affect the volatile emissions of red-ripe fruits are described here. A population of introgression lines derived from a cross between the cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicum and its wild relative, S. habrochaites, was characterized over multiple seasons and locations. A total of 30 QTLs affecting the emission of one or more volatiles were mapped. The data from this mapping project, combined with previously collected data on an IL population derived from a cross between S. lycopersicum and S. pennellii populations, were used to construct a correlational database. A metabolite tree derived from these data provides new insights into the pathways for the synthesis of several of these volatiles. One QTL is a novel locus affecting fruit carotenoid content on chromosome 2. Volatile emissions from this and other lines indicate that the linear and cyclic apocarotenoid volatiles are probably derived from separate carotenoid pools.

  17. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi affect glucosinolate and mineral element composition in leaves of Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Cosme, Marco; Franken, Philipp; Mewis, Inga; Baldermann, Susanne; Wurst, Susanne

    2014-10-01

    Moringa is a mycorrhizal crop cultivated in the tropics and subtropics and appreciated for its nutritive and health-promoting value. As well as improving plant mineral nutrition, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can affect plant synthesis of compounds bioactive against chronic diseases in humans. Rhizophagus intraradices and Funneliformis mosseae were used in a full factorial experiment to investigate the impact of AMF on the accumulation of glucosinolates, flavonoids, phenolic acids, carotenoids, and mineral elements in moringa leaves. Levels of glucosinolates were enhanced, flavonoids and phenolic acids were not affected, levels of carotenoids (including provitamin A) were species-specifically reduced, and mineral elements were affected differently, with only Cu and Zn being increased by the AMF. This study presents novel results on AMF effects on glucosinolates in leaves and supports conclusions that the impacts of these fungi on microelement concentrations in edible plants are species dependent. The nonspecific positive effects on glucosinolates and the species-specific negative effects on carotenoids encourage research on other AMF species to achieve general benefits on bioactive compounds in moringa.

  18. Soil drying procedure affects the DNA quantification of Lactarius vinosus but does not change the fungal community composition.

    PubMed

    Castaño, Carles; Parladé, Javier; Pera, Joan; Martínez de Aragón, Juan; Alday, Josu G; Bonet, José Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Drying soil samples before DNA extraction is commonly used for specific fungal DNA quantification and metabarcoding studies, but the impact of different drying procedures on both the specific fungal DNA quantity and the fungal community composition has not been analyzed. We tested three different drying procedures (freeze-drying, oven-drying, and room temperature) on 12 different soil samples to determine (a) the soil mycelium biomass of the ectomycorrhizal species Lactarius vinosus using qPCR with a specifically designed TaqMan® probe and (b) the fungal community composition and diversity using the PacBio® RS II sequencing platform. Mycelium biomass of L. vinosus was significantly greater in the freeze-dried soil samples than in samples dried at oven and room temperature. However, drying procedures had no effect on fungal community composition or on fungal diversity. In addition, there were no significant differences in the proportions of fungi according to their functional roles (moulds vs. mycorrhizal species) in response to drying procedures. Only six out of 1139 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) had increased their relative proportions after soil drying at room temperature, with five of these OTUs classified as mould or yeast species. However, the magnitude of these changes was small, with an overall increase in relative abundance of these OTUs of approximately 2 %. These results suggest that DNA degradation may occur especially after drying soil samples at room temperature, but affecting equally nearly all fungi and therefore causing no significant differences in diversity and community composition. Despite the minimal effects caused by the drying procedures at the fungal community composition, freeze-drying resulted in higher concentrations of L. vinosus DNA and prevented potential colonization from opportunistic species.

  19. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    PubMed

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration.

  20. Key factor affecting the structural and textural properties of ZSM-5/MCM-41 composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukoussa, Bouhadjar; Aouad, Nafissa; Hamacha, Rachida; Bengueddach, Abdelkader

    2015-03-01

    ZSM-5/MCM-41 micro/mesoporous composite materials were synthesized by the hydrothermal technique with alkali-treated ZSM-5 zeolite as source of silica and aluminum and characterized by various physico-chemical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen sorption at 77 K, transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), FTIR spectroscopy and NH3 temperature programmed desorption (TPD) techniques. The effect of concentration of CTAB in the synthesis of these solids has been investigated, the mesopore volume, surface area and surface acidity decrease with increasing the concentration of CTAB. Increasing the CTAB concentration causes the recrystallization of zeolite ZSM-5 and it disadvantage the formation of mesoporous materials MCM-41. The catalytic activity of ZSM-5/MCM-41 materials has been evaluated in the Friedel-Crafts acylation of anisole with benzoyl chloride as alkylating agent. The results revealed the reaction to be influenced by surface area, pore volume and surface acidity.

  1. Factors, origin and sources affecting PM1 concentrations and composition at an urban background site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squizzato, Stefania; Masiol, Mauro; Agostini, Chiara; Visin, Flavia; Formenton, Gianni; Harrison, Roy M.; Rampazzo, Giancarlo

    2016-11-01

    PM1 is widely believed to provide better information on the anthropogenic fraction of particulate matter pollution than PM2.5. However, data on PM1 are still limited in Europe as well as comprehensive information about its chemical composition and source apportionment and this gap is more evident in the pollution hot-spots still remaining in Europe, such as the Po Valley (Northern Italy). Elemental and organic carbon, 7 water soluble inorganic ions and 17 elements were quantified in 117 PM1 samples collected at an urban background site in Venice-Mestre, a large city located in the eastern Po Valley, during winter (December 2013-February 2014) and summer (May-July 2014) periods. Results show a strong seasonality for PM1 mass concentration (averages ranging from 6 ± 2 in summer to 34 ± 24 μg m- 3 in winter) and for most of the analysed species. Components mainly related to road traffic, residential heating, biomass burning and secondary inorganic aerosol (ammonium nitrate) reached their highest levels in winter, while mineral dust and marine components were elevated in summer. PMF analysis revealed 7 potential sources. Secondary inorganic aerosol (33%) and biomass burning (33%) are the major contributor in winter followed by EC-primary emissions (16%), aged sulphate (6%), road traffic (7%), fossil fuel combustion (%) and marine aerosol (3%). During summer, these sources account for 12%, 14%, 20%, 22%, 8%, 14% and 10%, respectively. Some PM1 sources are located near the sampling site (residential area, traffic road, industrial area) but a major contribution of long range transport is observed when high pollution events occur. The results give useful insights into PM1 composition in an urban area and chemical profiles of sources helpful in the interpretation of receptor model results.

  2. Rye Affects Bacterial Translocation, Intestinal Viscosity, Microbiota Composition and Bone Mineralization in Turkey Poults

    PubMed Central

    Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Hargis, Billy M.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we have reported that rye significantly increased both viscosity and Clostridium perfringens proliferation when compared with corn in an in vitro digestive model. Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of rye as a source of energy on bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with corn in turkey poults. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, turkey poults were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 0 /group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 birds/group were given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood and liver samples were collected to evaluate the passage of FITC-d and bacterial translocation (BT) respectively. Duodenum, ileum and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with a rye diet showed increased (p<0.05) intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that turkey poults fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to turkey poults fed with corn. Turkey poults fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum but not in the ceca, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in turkey poults fed with rye when compared with corn fed turkey poults. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in turkey poults that increased intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition and bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected Direct-Fed Microbial (DFM) candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed turkey poults are

  3. Compositional changes in 'Bartlett' pear ( Pyrus communis L.) cell wall polysaccharides as affected by sunlight conditions.

    PubMed

    Raffo, María D; Ponce, Nora M A; Sozzi, Gabriel O; Vicente, Ariel R; Stortz, Carlos A

    2011-11-23

    Preharvest conditions can have a great impact on fruit quality attributes and postharvest responses. Firmness is an important quality attribute in pear, and excessive softening increases susceptibility to bruising and decay, thus limiting fruit postharvest life. Textural characteristics of fruits are determined at least in part by cell wall structure and disassembly. Few studies have analyzed the influence of fruit preharvest environment in softening, cell wall composition, and degradation. In the current work 'Bartlett' pears grown either facing the sun (S) or in the shade (H) were harvested and stored for 13 days at 20 °C. An evaluation of fruit soluble solids, acidity, color, starch degradation, firmness, cell wall yield, pectin and matrix glycan solubilization, depolymerization, and monosaccharide composition was carried out. Sun-exposed pears showed more advanced color development and similar levels of starch degradation, sugars, and acids than shaded fruit. Sunlight-grown pears were at harvest firmer than shade-grown pears. Both fruit groups softened during storage at 20 °C, but even after ripening, sun-exposed pears remained firmer. Sunlight exposure did not have a great impact on pectin molecular weight. Instead, at harvest a higher proportion of water-solubilized uronic acids and alkali-solubilized neutral sugars and a larger mean molecular size of tightly bound glycans was found in sun-exposed pears. During ripening cell wall catabolism took place in both sun- and shade-grown pears, but pectin solubilization was clearly delayed in sun-exposed fruit. This was associated with decreased removal of RG I-arabinan side chains rather than with reduced depolymerization.

  4. Rye affects bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, microbiota composition and bone mineralization in Turkey poults.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Guillermo; Latorre, Juan D; Kuttappan, Vivek A; Hargis, Billy M; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we have reported that rye significantly increased both viscosity and Clostridium perfringens proliferation when compared with corn in an in vitro digestive model. Two independent trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of rye as a source of energy on bacterial translocation, intestinal viscosity, gut microbiota composition, and bone mineralization, when compared with corn in turkey poults. In each experiment, day-of-hatch, turkey poults were randomly assigned to either a corn or a rye diet (n = 0 /group). At 10 d of age, in both experiments, 12 birds/group were given an oral gavage dose of fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d). After 2.5 h of oral gavage, blood and liver samples were collected to evaluate the passage of FITC-d and bacterial translocation (BT) respectively. Duodenum, ileum and cecum gut sections were collected to evaluate intestinal viscosity and to enumerate gut microbiota. Tibias were collected for observation of bone parameters. Broilers fed with a rye diet showed increased (p<0.05) intestinal viscosity, BT, and serum FITC-d. Bacterial enumeration revealed that turkey poults fed with rye had increased the number of total lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in all three sections of the gastrointestinal tract evaluated when compared to turkey poults fed with corn. Turkey poults fed with rye also had significantly higher coliforms in duodenum and ileum but not in the ceca, whereas the total number of anaerobes increased only in duodenum. A significant reduction in bone strength and bone mineralization was observed in turkey poults fed with rye when compared with corn fed turkey poults. In conclusion, rye evoked mucosal damage in turkey poults that increased intestinal viscosity, increased leakage through the intestinal tract, and altered the microbiota composition and bone mineralization. Studies to evaluate dietary inclusion of selected Direct-Fed Microbial (DFM) candidates that produce exogenous enzymes in rye fed turkey poults are

  5. Predicting nitrogen loading with land-cover composition: how can watershed size affect model performance?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Yang, Xiaojun

    2013-01-01

    Watershed-wide land-cover proportions can be used to predict the in-stream non-point source pollutant loadings through regression modeling. However, the model performance can vary greatly across different study sites and among various watersheds. Existing literature has shown that this type of regression modeling tends to perform better for large watersheds than for small ones, and that such a performance variation has been largely linked with different interwatershed landscape heterogeneity levels. The purpose of this study is to further examine the previously mentioned empirical observation based on a set of watersheds in the northern part of Georgia (USA) to explore the underlying causes of the variation in model performance. Through the combined use of the neutral landscape modeling approach and a spatially explicit nutrient loading model, we tested whether the regression model performance variation over the watershed groups ranging in size is due to the different watershed landscape heterogeneity levels. We adopted three neutral landscape modeling criteria that were tied with different similarity levels in watershed landscape properties and used the nutrient loading model to estimate the nitrogen loads for these neutral watersheds. Then we compared the regression model performance for the real and neutral landscape scenarios, respectively. We found that watershed size can affect the regression model performance both directly and indirectly. Along with the indirect effect through interwatershed heterogeneity, watershed size can directly affect the model performance over the watersheds varying in size. We also found that the regression model performance can be more significantly affected by other physiographic properties shaping nitrogen delivery effectiveness than the watershed land-cover heterogeneity. This study contrasts with many existing studies because it goes beyond hypothesis formulation based on empirical observations and into hypothesis testing to

  6. Feeding habits of marmosets: A case study of bark anatomy and chemical composition of Anadenanthera peregrina gum.

    PubMed

    Francisco, Talitha Mayumi; Lopes-Mattos, Karina Lucas Barbosa; Picoli, Edgard Augusto de Toledo; Couto, Dayvid Rodrigues; Oliveira, Juraci Alves; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo; de Oliveira Silva, Ita; Boere, Vanner

    2017-03-01

    Primates of the genus Callithrix often obtain exudates from plants of the family Fabaceae. This study characterizes the chemical composition of exudates, and the anatomy and hystochemistry of the secretory ducts in the bark of Anadenanthera peregrina (L.) Speg. var. peregrina (Fabaceae). Exudates from this tree species represent an important component of the diet of hybrid marmosets, Callithrix spp. (Primates: Cebidae). A. peregrina was selected as the focal study tree because it is the only gum tree species exploited by Callithrix groups present within five urban forest fragments in the municipality of Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Gum samples were obtained directly from gouges made by the marmosets, while bark samples were obtained from A. peregrina plants, whether or not they were damaged by the marmosets. Constitutive secretory ducts were present in the bark of ungouged A. peregrina, whereas, marmoset damage caused induced secretory duct formation and an increase in the size of these ducts. The gum produced in the gouges made by the marmosets and in ungouged plants reacted positively to tests for polysaccharides, pectin, mucilage, and proteins. The gum from the gouges exhibited high water (41.0%), carbohydrate (38.2%), protein (19.0%), and mineral (Ca 0.4% and K 0.3%) content. We argue that the relatively high calcium content of A. peregrina gum plays an important nutritional role in, balancing a diet that is otherwise rich in phosphorous and poor in calcium.

  7. Influence of feeding mixture composition in batch anaerobic co-digestion of stabilized municipal sludge and waste from dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Trulli, Ettore; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Waste anaerobic co-digestion applications are particularly useful in Southern Mediterranean areas where large quantities of agricultural waste materials and waste from agro-industries are produced. This waste can be added to urban waste together with the sludge produced by wastewater treatment processes, which, when combined, guarantee the supply of organic matrixes for treatment throughout the year. The implementation of facilities to service vast areas of the agricultural economy and which are heterogeneous in terms of production can provide a good solution. We present an experimental investigation into the anaerobic co-digestion of municipal sludge and bio-waste produced in the Mediterranean area. We conducted anaerobic treatability tests, with measures of biogas production and pH of the mixture in digestion. Our main aims were to identify an optimal mix of substrates for the production of biogas, and to analyse the influence on the composition of biogas and the variation in pH values of the substrates. This analysis was conducted considering the variation of the input, in particular due to the addition of waste acids, such as biological sewage sludge.

  8. Dietary administration of Pontogammarus maeoticus extract affects immune responses, stress resistance, feed intake and growth performance of caspian roach (Rutilus caspicus) fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Rufchaei, Rudabeh; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Mirzajani, Alireza; Van Doan, Hien

    2017-04-01

    Dietary administration of immunostimulants showed promising results for elevation of immune responses and disease resistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary Pontogammarus (Pontogammarus maeoticus) extract on innate immune response, stress resistance, feed intake and growth performance of the Caspian roach fingerling. Two levels of P. maeoticus extract dilution with distilled water 1:25 [T1] and 1:50 [T2] were prepared. Experimental diets were prepared by top-spraying the basal diet with equal amount (2%) of diluted extracts. One hundred and eighty Caspian roach fingerlings (4.30 ± 0.10 g) were supplied, stocked in nine 100-L tanks (three treatment repeated in triplicates) and fed on experimental diets for 8 weeks. At the end of the trial, serum innate immune parameters (Total Ig, ACH50, and lysozyme activity), resistance against salinity stress, feed intake and growth parameters were measured. The results revealed remarkable increase of innate immune parameters and resistance against salinity stress in roach fed P. maeoticus extracts (P < 0.05). Also, growth performance and food intake were notably improved in P. maeoticus extracts fed fish (P < 0.05). These results revealed beneficial effects of P. maeoticus extract on innate immune response, resistance, feed intake as well as growth performance of the Caspian roach.

  9. The effect of dietary carbohydrate composition on apparent total tract digestibility, feed mean retention time, nitrogen and water balance in horses.

    PubMed

    Jensen, R B; Austbø, D; Bach Knudsen, K E; Tauson, A-H

    2014-11-01

    A total of four diets with different carbohydrate composition were investigated in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with four Norwegian Coldblooded trotter horses. The objective of the present study was to increase the fermentable fibre content and reduce the starch intake of the total ration obtained by partly substituting mature hay and barley with sugar beet pulp (SBP), a soluble fibre source. The diets investigated were hay only (HAY), hay (85% of dry matter intake (DMI)) and molassed SBP (15% of DMI) (SBP), hay (68% of DMI) and barley (32% of DMI) (BAR), and hay (68% of DMI), barley (26% of DMI) and SBP (6% of DMI) (BAR+SBP). The feeding level was 18.5, 17.3, 15.7 and 15.7 g DM/kg BW per day for the HAY, SBP, BAR and BAR+SBP diets, respectively. Each diet was fed for 18 days followed by 10 days of data collection, where apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), total mean retention time (TMRT) of ytterbium-labelled hay, water balance, digestible energy (DE) intake and nitrogen balance were measured. An enzymatic chemical dietary fibre (DF) method was used to get detailed information on the composition and ATTD of the fibre fraction. Inclusion of SBP in the diet increased the ATTD of the constituent sugars galactose and arabinose (P<0.01). Feeding the HAY and SBP diets resulted in a lower TMRT owing to a higher DF intake than the BAR and BAR+SBP diets (P<0.01). There was no difference in water intake between HAY and SBP, but faecal dry matter was lower for HAY than the other diets (P=0.017), indicating that water was more tightly bound to fibre in the HAY diet. The diets were iso-energetic and provided enough DE and protein for light to moderate exercise for a 550 kg horse. In conclusion, this study showed that the DF intake had a larger effect on TMRT than partly substituting hay or barley with SBP, and that highly fermentable pectin-rich soluble DF from SBP maintains high nutrient utilization in horses.

  10. Feeding of waste milk to Holstein calves affects antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli and Pasteurella multocida isolated from fecal and nasal swabs.

    PubMed

    Maynou, G; Bach, A; Terré, M

    2017-04-01

    The use of milk containing antimicrobial residues in calf feeding programs has been shown to select for resistant fecal Escherichia coli in dairy calves. However, information is scarce about the effects of feeding calves waste milk (WM) on the prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of fecal E. coli and nasal Pasteurella multocida isolates from calves fed either milk replacer (MR) or WM in 8 commercial dairy farms (4 farms per feeding program). Fecal and nasal swabs were collected from 20 ± 5 dairy calves at 42 ± 3.2 d of age, and from 10 of these at approximately 1 yr of age in each study farm to isolate the targeted bacteria. Furthermore, resistance of E. coli isolates from calf-environment and from 5 calves at birth and their dams was also evaluated in each study farm. Resistances were tested against the following antimicrobial agents: amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, colistin, doxycycline (DO), enrofloxacin (ENR), erythromycin, florfenicol, imipenem, and streptomycin. A greater number of fecal E. coli resistant to ENR, florfenicol, and streptomycin and more multidrug-resistant E. coli phenotypes were isolated in feces of calves fed WM than in those fed MR. However, the prevalence of fecal-resistant E. coli was also influenced by calf age, as it increased from birth to 6 wk of age for ENR and DO and decreased from 6 wk to 1 yr of age for DO regardless of the feeding program. From nasal samples, an increase in the prevalence of colistin-resistant P. multocida was observed in calves fed WM compared with those fed MR. The resistance patterns of E. coli isolates from calves and their dams tended to differ, whereas similar resistance profiles among E. coli isolates from farm environment and calves were observed. The findings of this study suggest that feeding calves WM fosters the presence of resistant bacteria in the lower gut and respiratory tracts of dairy calves.

  11. [Effect of rapeseed in beef cattle feeding on fatty acid composition, vitamin E content and oxidative stability of body fat].

    PubMed

    Flachowsky, G; Richter, G H; Wendemuth, M; Möckel, P; Graf, H; Jahreis, G; Lübbe, F

    1994-12-01

    Four groups of five fattening bulls each consumed a concentrate--wheat straw-diet (2.5:1) supplemented with either 0, 7, 14 or 21% ground rape seed for 350 days. Rape seed contained 427 g crude fat (ether extract) and 127 mg vitamin E per kg dry matter. The supplementation with rapeseed increased the fat concentrations in the rations from 25 to 50, 75 and 100 g, and of vitamin E from 11 to 19, 26 and 34 mg per kg dry matter. All bulls were slaughtered with about 560 kg body weight. Fatty acid composition of depot fat and of the fat of musc. long. dorsi were determined by gas liquid chromatography. Vitamin E concentrations in blood, depot fat and muscle were determined by HPLC. Oxidative stability of depot fat was measured as induction time by means of rancimat-test. Rape seed supplementation decreased C16-fatty acids and increased C18-fatty acids in depot and muscle fat. Muscle fat contained significantly more mono and poly unsaturated fatty acids (40.2 and 7.4%) than depot fat (33.5 and 2.0%, respectively). Rape seed supplementation enhanced significantly the vitamin E-concentrations in all body samples. In depot fat vit. E increased from 4.5 to 7.3, 8.5 and 14.9 micrograms/g. Induction time increased from 10.9 to 18.5, 16.1 and 19.5 h, when 0, 7, 14 or 21% rapeseed were added.

  12. The presence of inositol phosphates in gastric pig digesta is affected by time after feeding a nonfermented or fermented liquid wheat- and barley-based diet.

    PubMed

    Blaabjerg, K; Jørgensen, H; Tauson, A-H; Poulsen, H D

    2011-10-01

    The objective was to quantify the retention of digesta and evaluate the degradation of phytate or inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6)) and lower inositol phosphates (InsP₅, InsP₄, InsP₃, and InsP₂) in the stomach at different times after feeding pigs a fermented liquid diet with microbial phytase or a nonfermented diet with or without microbial phytase. Six barrows fitted with gastric cannulas were used. The experiment was a 3 × 3 Latin square with 3 pigs fed 3 diets during 3 wk in 2 replicates. Each experimental period lasted for 7 d, comprising 3 d of adaptation and 4 d of total collection of gastric digesta. For each pig, the digesta was collected once daily at 1, 2, 3, or 5 h after feeding the morning meal. A basal wheat- and barley-based diet was steam-pelleted at 90°C. The dietary treatments were a nonfermented basal diet (NF-BD), the NF-BD with microbial phytase (750 phytase units of phytase/kg, as-fed basis; NF-BD + phytase), and the NF-BD + phytase fermented for 17.5 h (F-BD + phytase). Gastric InsP₆-P was not detected at all in pigs fed F-BD + phytase because of complete InsP₆ degradation during fermentation of the feed before feeding. Gastric InsP₆-P decreased over time (P < 0.05) in pigs fed NF-BD and NF-BD + phytase. The decreases were 45, 54, 56, and 61 percentage points greater at 1, 2, 3, and 5 h, respectively, in pigs fed NF-BD + phytase compared with NF-BD. However, substantial amounts of InsP₆ still passed into the small intestine in pigs fed NF-BD + phytase, especially within the first hour (estimated to 17% of InsP₆-P intake). The accumulation of lower inositol phosphates in gastric digesta was very small for all treatments and at all times because of a rapid and almost complete degradation. In conclusion, phytase addition to the nonfermented diet increased the degradation of gastric InsP₆. However, considerable amounts of intact InsP₆ still passed into the small intestine because of a shortage of time for Ins

  13. Prey dispersal rate affects prey species composition and trait diversity in response to multiple predators in metacommunities.

    PubMed

    Howeth, Jennifer G; Leibold, Mathew A

    2010-09-01

    1. Recent studies indicate that large-scale spatial processes can alter local community structuring mechanisms to determine local and regional assemblages of predators and their prey. In metacommunities, this may occur when the functional diversity represented in the regional predator species pool interacts with the rate of prey dispersal among local communities to affect prey species diversity and trait composition at multiple scales. 2. Here, we test for effects of prey dispersal rate and spatially and temporally heterogeneous predation from functionally dissimilar predators on prey structure in pond mesocosm metacommunities. An experimental metacommunity consisted of three pond mesocosm communities supporting two differentially size-selective invertebrate predators and their zooplankton prey. In each metacommunity, two communities maintained constant predation and supported either Gyrinus sp. (Coleoptera) or Notonecta ungulata (Hemiptera) predators generating a spatial prey refuge while the third community supported alternating predation from Gyrinus sp. and N. ungulata generating a temporal prey refuge. Mesocosm metacommunities were connected at either low (0.7% day(-1)) or high (10% day(-1)) planktonic prey dispersal. The diversity, composition and body size of zooplankton prey were measured at local and regional (metacommunity) scales. 3. Metacommunities experiencing the low prey dispersal rate supported the greatest regional prey species diversity (H') and evenness (J'). Neither dispersal rate nor predation regime affected local prey diversity or evenness. The spatial prey refuge at low dispersal maintained the largest difference in species composition and body size diversity between communities under Gyrinus and Notonecta predation, suggesting that species sorting was operating at the low dispersal rate. There was no effect of dispersal rate on species diversity or body size distribution in the temporal prey refuge. 4. The frequency distribution, but not

  14. Altered membrane lipid composition and functional parameters of circulating cells in cockles (Cerastoderma edule) affected by disseminated neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Le Grand, Fabienne; Soudant, Philippe; Marty, Yanic; Le Goïc, Nelly; Kraffe, Edouard

    2013-01-01

    Membrane lipid composition and morpho-functional parameters were investigated in circulating cells of the edible cockle (Cerastoderma edule) affected by disseminated neoplasia (neoplastic cells) and compared to those from healthy cockles (hemocytes). Membrane sterol levels, phospholipid (PL) class and subclass proportions and their respective fatty acid (FA) compositions were determined. Morpho-functional parameters were evaluated through total hemocyte count (THC), mortality rate, phagocytosis ability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Both morpho-functional parameters and lipid composition were profoundly affected in neoplastic cells. These dedifferentiated cells displayed higher THC (5×), mortality rate (3×) and ROS production with addition of carbonyl cyanide m-chloro phenylhydrazone (1.7×) but lower phagocytosis ability (½×), than unaffected hemocytes. Total PL amounts were higher in neoplastic cells than in hemocytes (12.3 and 5.1 nmol×10(-6) cells, respectively). However, sterols and a particular subclass of PL (plasmalogens; 1-alkenyl-2-acyl PL) were present in similar amounts in both cell type membranes. This led to a two times lower proportion of these membrane lipid constituents in neoplastic cells when compared to hemocytes (20.5% vs. 42.1% of sterols in total membrane lipids and 21.7% vs. 44.2% of plasmalogens among total PL, respectively). Proportions of non-methylene interrupted FA- and 20:1n-11-plasmalogen molecular species were the most impacted in neoplastic cells when compared to hemocytes (⅓× and ¼×, respectively). These changes in response to this leukemia-like disease in bivalves highlight the specific imbalance of plasmalogens and sterols in neoplastic cells, in comparison to the greater stability of other membrane lipid components.

  15. Methyl fluoride affects methanogenesis rather than community composition of methanogenic archaea in a rice field soil.

    PubMed

    Daebeler, Anne; Gansen, Martina; Frenzel, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The metabolic pathways of methane formation vary with environmental conditions, but whether this can also be linked to changes in the active archaeal community structure remains uncertain. Here, we show that the suppression of aceticlastic methanogenesis by methyl fluoride (CH(3)F) caused surprisingly little differences in community composition of active methanogenic archaea from a rice field soil. By measuring the natural abundances of carbon isotopes we found that the effective dose for a 90% inhibition of aceticlastic methanogenesis in anoxic paddy soil incubations was <0.75% CH(3)F (v/v). The construction of clone libraries as well as t-RFLP analysis revealed that the active community, as indicated by mcrA transcripts (encoding the α subunit of methyl-coenzyme M reductase, a key enzyme for methanogenesis), remained stable over a wide range of CH(3)F concentrations and represented only a subset of the methanogenic community. More precisely, Methanocellaceae were of minor importance, but Methanosarcinaceae dominated the active population, even when CH(3)F inhibition only allowed for aceticlastic methanogenesis. In addition, we detected mcrA gene fragments of a so far unrecognised phylogenetic cluster. Transcription of this phylotype at methyl fluoride concentrations suppressing aceticlastic methanogenesis suggests that the respective organisms perform hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Hence, the application of CH(3)F combined with transcript analysis is not only a useful tool to measure and assign in situ acetate usage, but also to explore substrate usage by as yet uncultivated methanogens.

  16. Procyanidin composition of selected fruits and fruit byproducts is affected by extraction method and variety.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Ramesh C; Howard, Luke R; Prior, Ronald L

    2009-10-14

    Fruits and fruit byproducts are rich sources of polyphenols, including procyanidins, which are known to have numerous potential health benefits. This study investigated if varietal differences existed in the procyanidin composition of grape seed and if soaking in extraction solvent overnight prior to extraction improved the recovery of procyanidins from grape seed, grape pomace, and blueberry and cranberry powders. Riesling contained the highest amount of procyanidins, including the lower molecular weight monomers and dimers, followed by Chardonnay (60%), whereas Merlot contained much lower levels (14%) of individual and total procyanidins. A modified method of extraction whereby selected fruits and fruit byproducts were soaked in the extraction solvent overnight before the extraction process was begun increased procyanidins extracted by 24-100% from grape seeds and by 0-30% with berry procyanidin sources. The results indicate a wide variation in the procyanidin contents among different varieties of grape seeds that could have implications in the selection of procyanidin-rich germplasm. Soaking samples in the extraction solvent for 16 h resulted in increased procyanidins extracted and thus higher calculated concentrations in the food samples tested.

  17. pH affects bacterial community composition in soils across the Huashan Watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rui; Zhao, Dayong; Zeng, Jin; Shen, Feng; Cao, Xinyi; Jiang, Cuiling; Huang, Feng; Feng, Jingwei; Yu, Zhongbo; Wu, Qinglong L

    2016-09-01

    To investigate soil bacterial richness and diversity and to determine the correlations between bacterial communities and soil properties, 8 soil samples were collected from the Huashan watershed in Anhui, China. Subsequently, 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing and bioinformatics analyses were performed to examine the soil bacterial community compositions. The operational taxonomic unit richness of the bacterial community ranged from 3664 to 5899, and the diversity indices, including Chao1, Shannon-Wiener, and Faith's phylogenetic diversity ranged from 7751 to 15 204, 7.386 to 8.327, and 415.77 to 679.11, respectively. The 2 most dominant phyla in the soil samples were Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. The richness and diversity of the bacterial community were positively correlated with soil pH. The Mantel test revealed that the soil pH was the dominant factor influencing the bacterial community. The positive modular structure of co-occurrence patterns at the genus level was discovered by network analysis. The results obtained in this study provide useful information that enhances our understanding of the effects of soil properties on the bacterial communities.

  18. Factors affecting the physical properties of edible composite film prepared from zein and wheat gluten.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xingfeng; Lu, Yanan; Cui, Heping; Jia, Xiangxing; Bai, Hongchao; Ma, Yuxiang

    2012-03-27

    The effects of zein ratio, concentration of glycerol, liquid-solid ratio, ethanol concentration, pH and heat-treatment temperature on the properties of zein/wheat gluten composite films were researched. The results showed that elongation (E) increased with an increase in glycerol or ethanol concentrations, but it first increased and then decreased with increasing zein/wheat gluten ratio, heat-treatment temperature, pH and the ratio of liquid to solid; Tensile strength (TS) increased with the increase in heat-treatment temperature and pH, and decreased with the increase in glycerol or ethanol concentrations, and it reached a maximum value when the ratio of zein/wheat gluten was 20%, but had a minimum value when the ratio of liquid to solid was 8:1; Water Vapor Permeability (WVP) increased with an increase of glycerol concentration and the ratio of liquid to solid and ethanol concentration, but it decreased with increasing zein/wheat gluten ratio, heat treatment temperature, and pH of the film forming solution.

  19. Biogas digestates affect crop P uptake and soil microbial community composition.

    PubMed

    Hupfauf, Sebastian; Bachmann, Silvia; Fernández-Delgado Juárez, Marina; Insam, Heribert; Eichler-Löbermann, Bettina

    2016-01-15

    Fermentation residues from biogas production are known as valuable organic fertilisers. This study deals with the effect of cattle slurry, co-digested cattle slurry, co-digested energy crops and mineral fertilisers on the activity and composition of soil microbiota. Furthermore, the effect of solid-liquid separation as a common pre-treatment of digestate was tested. The fertilising effects were analysed in an 8-week pot experiment on loamy sand using two crops, Amaranthus cruentus and Sorghum bicolor. Amaranth, as a crop with significantly higher P uptake, triggered stress for occurring soil microbes and thereby caused a reduction of microbial biomass C in the soil. Irrespective of the crop, microbial basal respiration and metabolic quotient were higher with the digestates than with the untreated slurry or the mineral treatments. Community level physiological profiles with MicroResp showed considerable differences among the treatments, with particularly strong effects of solid-liquid separation. Similar results were also found on a structural level (PCR-DGGE). Alkaline phosphatase gene analyses revealed high sensitivity to different fertilisation regimes.

  20. Big plants — Do they affect neighbourhood species richness and composition in herbaceous vegetation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarssen, Lonnie W.; Schamp, Brandon S.; Wight, Stephanie

    2014-02-01

    According to traditional theory, success in competition between plant species generally involves a 'size-advantage'. We predicted therefore that plants with larger body size should impose greater limits on the number of species — especially relatively small ones — that can reside within their immediate neighbourhoods. Species composition was compared within local neighbourhoods surrounding target plants of different sizes belonging to one of the largest herbaceous species found within old-field vegetation in eastern Ontario Canada — Centaurea jacea. Resident species density was generally greater within immediate 'inner' target neighbourhoods than within adjacent circular 'outer' neighbourhoods, and mean body size of resident neighbour species was unrelated to increases in target plant size. As target plant size increased, the proportion of resident neighbour species that were reproductive increased. Relatively big plants of C. jacea do not limit the number or the proportion of reproductive species that can coexist within their immediate neighbourhoods, nor do they cause local exclusion of relatively small species from these neighbourhoods. These results fail to support the 'size-advantage' hypothesis and are more consistent with the 'reproductive economy advantage' hypothesis: success under intense competition is promoted by capacity to recruit offspring that — despite severe suppression — are able to reach their minimum body size needed for reproduction, and hence produce grand-offspring for the next generation. The latter is facilitated by a relatively small minimum reproductive threshold size, which is generally negatively correlated with a relatively large maximum potential body size.

  1. Interspecific interactions between primates, birds, bats, and squirrels may affect community composition on Borneo.

    PubMed

    Beaudrot, Lydia; Struebig, Matthew J; Meijaard, Erik; van Balen, Sebastianus; Husson, Simon; Young, Carson F; Marshall, Andrew J

    2013-02-01

    For several decades, primatologists have been interested in understanding how sympatric primate species are able to coexist. Most of our understanding of primate community ecology derives from the assumption that these animals interact predominantly with other primates. In this study, we investigate to what extent multiple community assembly hypotheses consistent with this assumption are supported when tested with communities of primates in isolation versus with communities of primates, birds, bats, and squirrels together. We focus on vertebrate communities on the island of Borneo, where we examine the determinants of presence or absence of species, and how these communities are structured. We test for checkerboard distributions, guild proportionality, and Fox's assembly rule for favored states, and predict that statistical signals reflecting interactions between ecologically similar species will be stronger when nonprimate taxa are included in analyses. We found strong support for checkerboard distributions in several communities, particularly when taxonomic groups were combined, and after controlling for habitat effects. We found evidence of guild proportionality in some communities, but did not find significant support for Fox's assembly rule in any of the communities examined. These results demonstrate the presence of vertebrate community structure that is ecologically determined rather than randomly generated, which is a finding consistent with the interpretation that interactions within and between these taxonomic groups may have shaped species composition in these communities. This research highlights the importance of considering the broader vertebrate communities with which primates co-occur, and so we urge primatologists to explicitly consider nonprimate taxa in the study of primate ecology.

  2. Richness and species composition of arboreal arthropods affected by nutrients and predators: a press experiment.

    PubMed

    Gruner, Daniel S; Taylor, Andrew D

    2006-04-01

    A longstanding goal for ecologists is to understand the processes that maintain biological diversity in communities, yet few studies have investigated the combined effects of predators and resources on biodiversity in natural ecosystems. We fertilized nutrient limited plots and excluded insectivorous birds in a randomized block design, and examined the impacts on arthropods associated with the dominant tree in the Hawaiian Islands, Metrosideros polymorpha (Myrtaceae). After 33 months, the species load (per foliage mass) of herbivores and carnivores increased with fertilization, but rarified richness (standardized to abundance) did not change. Fertilization depressed species richness of arboreal detritivores, and carnivore richness dropped in caged, unfertilized plots, both because of the increased dominance of common, introduced species with treatments. Herbivore species abundance distributions were more equitable than other trophic levels following treatments, and fertilization added specialized native species without changing relativized species richness. Overall, bird removal and nutrient addition treatments on arthropod richness acted largely independently, but with countervailing influences that obscured distinct top-down and bottom-up effects on different trophic levels. This study demonstrates that species composition, biological invasions, and the individuality of species traits may complicate efforts to predict the interactive effects of resources and predation on species diversity in food webs.

  3. Study on parameters affecting the mechanical properties of dry fiber bundles during continuous composite manufacturing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, A.; Schledjewski, R.

    2016-07-01

    For continuous manufacturing processes mechanical preloading of the fibers occurs during the delivery of the fibers from the spool creel to the actual manufacturing process step. Moreover preloading of the dry roving bundles might be mandatory, e.g. during winding, to be able to produce high quality components. On the one hand too high tensile loads within dry roving bundles might result in a catastrophic failure and on the other hand the part produced under too low pre-tension might have low quality and mechanical properties. In this work, load conditions influencing mechanical properties of dry glass fiber bundles during continuous composite manufacturing processes were analyzed. Load conditions, i.e. fiber delivery speed, necessary pre-tension and other effects of the delivery system during continuous fiber winding, were chosen in process typical ranges. First, the strain rate dependency under static tensile load conditions was investigated. Furthermore different free gauge lengths up to 1.2 m, interactions between fiber points of contact regarding influence of sizing as well as impregnation were tested and the effect of twisting on the mechanical behavior of dry glass fiber bundles during the fiber delivery was studied.

  4. Bioinformatic Amplicon Read Processing Strategies Strongly Affect Eukaryotic Diversity and the Taxonomic Composition of Communities

    PubMed Central

    Majaneva, Markus; Hyytiäinen, Kirsi; Varvio, Sirkka Liisa; Nagai, Satoshi; Blomster, Jaanika

    2015-01-01

    Amplicon read sequencing has revolutionized the field of microbial diversity studies. The technique has been developed for bacterial assemblages and has undergone rigorous testing with mock communities. However, due to the great complexity of eukaryotes and the numbers of different rDNA copies, analyzing eukaryotic diversity is more demanding than analyzing bacterial or mock communities, so studies are needed that test the methods of analyses on taxonomically diverse natural communities. In this study, we used 20 samples collected from the Baltic Sea ice, slush and under-ice water to investigate three program packages (UPARSE, mothur and QIIME) and 18 different bioinformatic strategies implemented in them. Our aim was to assess the impact of the initial steps of bioinformatic strategies on the results when analyzing natural eukaryotic communities. We found significant differences among the strategies in resulting read length, number of OTUs and estimates of diversity as well as clear differences in the taxonomic composition of communities. The differences arose mainly because of the variable number of chimeric reads that passed the pre-processing steps. Singleton removal and denoising substantially lowered the number of errors. Our study showed that the initial steps of the bioinformatic amplicon read processing strategies require careful consideration before applying them to eukaryotic communities. PMID:26047335

  5. Amino acid composition and chemical evaluation of protein quality of cereals as affected by insect infestation.

    PubMed

    Jood, S; Kapoor, A C; Singh, R

    1995-09-01

    A significant decrease in essential amino acids of wheat, maize and sorghum was observed due to grain infestation caused by mixed populations of Trogoderma granarium Everts and Rhizopertha dominica Fabricius (50:50). Non-essential amino acids were also adversely affected. Among the essential amino acids, maximum reduction was found in methionine, isoleucine and lysine in infested wheat, maize and sorghum grains, respectively. Lysine, with lowest chemical score in uninfested and infested grains of three cereals, is the first limiting amino acid. Insect infestation caused significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the chemical score of all the essential amino acids, yet did not change the position of first and second limiting amino acids in wheat and sorghum. However, in case of maize, isoleucine became the second limiting amino acid. Infested grains also showed substantial reduction in essential amino acid index, calculated biological value and requirement index.

  6. Body composition and reproductive performance at entry into lay of anno 1980 versus anno 2000 broiler breeder females under fast and slow release from feed restriction.

    PubMed

    Eitan, Y; Lipkin, Ehud; Soller, M

    2014-05-01

    During the 1990s, various disturbances arose affecting broiler breeder females at entry into lay. These disturbances were associated with even slight overfeeding during release of feed restriction in this critical maturation period. The present experiment was carried out to gain some insight into the causes of these disturbances by comparing the effect of fast (FF) and slow (SF) release from feed restriction at entry into lay in 2 broiler breeder populations: B1980, representing the genetic level of 1980, and B2000, the genetic level of 2000. Under the FF treatment, B1980 entered lay 19.2 d earlier than B2000; this increased to 37.4 d earlier under SF. The B1980 population entered lay at virtually the same mean age for SF and FF, whereas B2000 entered lay 15.7 d earlier under the FF. Body weight at first egg were 2,621 g for the B1980 and 3,591 g for B2000. Differences in BW at first egg between feeding treatments within lines were minor. As a percentage of BW, ovary, oviduct, and follicle weights were the same for B1980 and B2000; breast weight was 14.9% for B1980 and 21.2% for B2000; abdominal fat pad weight was 5.37% for B1980 and 2.67% for B2000. Follicle weight and absolute difference in weight between successive follicles was greater in B2000 than in B1980. It is concluded that body fat content does not limit entry into lay, and that threshold BW for onset of sexual maturity of broiler breeder hens increased by about 1,000 g between 1980 and 2000, indicating a tight association between juvenile growth rate and threshold BW for onset of sexual maturity. It is also concluded that disturbances at entry into lay due to overfeeding are not due to smaller differences between successive follicles in B2000 compared with B1980. There are hints, however, that overfeeding may contribute to these disturbances by decreasing differences between successive follicles.

  7. Feed analyses and their interpretation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compositional analysis is central to determining the nutritional value of feedstuffs. The utility of the values and how they should be used depends on how representative the feed subsample is, the nutritional relevance of the assays, analytical variability of the analyses, and whether a feed is suit...

  8. Age and Gender Affect the Composition of Fungal Population of the Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Strati, Francesco; Di Paola, Monica; Stefanini, Irene; Albanese, Davide; Rizzetto, Lisa; Lionetti, Paolo; Calabrò, Antonio; Jousson, Olivier; Donati, Claudio; Cavalieri, Duccio; De Filippo, Carlotta

    2016-01-01

    The fungal component of the human gut microbiota has been neglected for long time due to the low relative abundance of fungi with respect to bacteria, and only recently few reports have explored its composition and dynamics in health or disease. The application of metagenomics methods to the full understanding of fungal communities is currently limited by the under representation of fungal DNA with respect to the bacterial one, as well as by the limited ability to discriminate passengers from colonizers. Here, we investigated the gut mycobiota of a cohort of healthy subjects in order to reduce the gap of knowledge concerning fungal intestinal communities in the healthy status further screening for phenotypical traits that could reflect fungi adaptation to the host. We studied the fecal fungal populations of 111 healthy subjects by means of cultivation on fungal selective media and by amplicon-based ITS1 metagenomics analysis on a subset of 57 individuals. We then characterized the isolated fungi for their tolerance to gastrointestinal (GI) tract-like challenges and their susceptibility to antifungals. A total of 34 different fungal species were isolated showing several phenotypic characteristics associated with intestinal environment such as tolerance to body temperature (37°C), to acidic and oxidative stress, and to bile salts exposure. We found a high frequency of azoles resistance in fungal isolates, with potential and significant clinical impact. Analyses of fungal communities revealed that the human gut mycobiota differs in function of individuals' life stage in a gender-related fashion. The combination of metagenomics and fungal cultivation allowed an in-depth understanding of the fungal intestinal community structure associated to the healthy status and the commensalism-related traits of isolated fungi. We further discussed comparatively the results of sequencing and cultivation to critically evaluate the application of metagenomics-based approaches to

  9. Micellar lipid composition affects micelle interaction with class B scavenger receptor extracellular loops.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Gontero, Brigitte; Nowicki, Marion; Margier, Marielle; Masset, Gabriel; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2015-06-01

    Scavenger receptors (SRs) like cluster determinant 36 (CD36) and SR class B type I (SR-BI) play a debated role in lipid transport across the intestinal brush border membrane. We used surface plasmon resonance to analyze real-time interactions between the extracellular protein loops and various ligands ranging from single lipid molecules to mixed micelles. Micelles mimicking physiological structures were necessary for optimal binding to both the extracellular loop of CD36 (lCD36) and the extracellular loop of SR-BI (lSR-BI). Cholesterol, phospholipid, and fatty acid micellar content significantly modulated micelle binding to and dissociation from the transporters. In particular, high phospholipid micellar concentrations inhibited micelle binding to both receptors (-53.8 and -74.4% binding at 0.32 mM compared with 0.04 mM for lCD36 and lSR-BI, respectively, P < 0.05). The presence of fatty acids was crucial for micelle interactions with both proteins (94.4 and 81.3% binding with oleic acid for lCD36 and lSR-BI, respectively, P < 0.05) and fatty acid type substitution within the micelles was the component that most impacted micelle binding to the transporters. These effects were partly due to subsequent modifications in micellar size and surface electric charge, and could be correlated to micellar vitamin D uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our findings show for the first time that micellar lipid composition and micellar properties are key factors governing micelle interactions with SRs.

  10. Pest management systems affect composition but not abundance of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Árpád; Pénzes, Béla; Sipos, Péter; Hegyi, Tamás; Hajdú, Zsuzsanna; Markó, Viktor

    2014-04-01

    We examined the faunal composition and abundance of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in apple orchards under different pest management systems in Hungary. A total of 30 apple orchards were surveyed, including abandoned and organic orchards and orchards where integrated pest management (IPM) or broad spectrum insecticides (conventional pest management) were applied. A total of 18 phytoseiid species were found in the canopy of apple trees. Species richness was greatest in the organic orchards (mean: 3.3 species/400 leaves) and the least in the conventional orchards (1.4), with IPM (2.1) and abandoned (2.7) orchards showing intermediate values. The phytoseiid community's Rényi diversity displayed a similar pattern. However, the total phytoseiid abundance in the orchards with different pest management systems did not differ, with abundance varying between 1.8 and 2.6 phytoseiids/10 leaves. Amblyseius andersoni, Euseius finlandicus, and Typhlodromus pyri were the three most common species. The relative abundance of A. andersoni increased with the pesticide load of the orchards whereas the relative abundance of E. finlandicus decreased. The abundance of T. pyri did not change in the apple orchards under different pest management strategies; regardless of the type of applied treatment, they only displayed greater abundance in five of the orchards. The remaining 15 phytoseiid species only occurred in small numbers, mostly from the abandoned and organic orchards. We identified a negative correlation between the abundance of T. pyri and the other phytoseiids in the abandoned and organic orchards. However, we did not find any similar link between the abundance of A. andersoni and E. finlandicus.

  11. Altered sleep composition after traumatic brain injury does not affect declarative sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Mantua, Janna; Mahan, Keenan M; Henry, Owen S; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) often report sleep disturbances, which may be caused by changes in sleep architecture or reduced sleep quality (greater time awake after sleep onset, poorer sleep efficiency, and sleep stage proportion alterations). Sleep is beneficial for memory formation, and herein we examine whether altered sleep physiology following TBI has deleterious effects on sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation. Participants learned a list of word pairs in the morning or evening, and recall was assessed 12-h later, following an interval awake or with overnight sleep. Young adult participants (18-22 years) were assigned to one of four experimental groups: TBI Sleep (n = 14), TBI Wake (n = 12), non-TBI Sleep (n = 15), non-TBI Wake (n = 15). Each TBI participant was >1 year post-injury. Sleep physiology was measured with polysomnography. Memory consolidation was assessed by comparing change in word-pair recall over 12-h intersession intervals. The TBI group spent a significantly greater proportion of the night in SWS than the non-TBI group at the expense of NREM1. The TBI group also had marginally lower EEG delta power during SWS in the central region. Intersession changes in recall were greater for intervals with sleep than without sleep in both groups. However, despite abnormal sleep stage proportions for individuals with a TBI history, there was no difference in the intersession change in recall following sleep for the TBI and non-TBI groups. In both Sleep groups combined, there was a positive correlation between Intersession Change and the proportion of the night in NREM2 + SWS. Overall, sleep composition is altered following TBI but such deficits do not yield insufficiencies in sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

  12. Micellar lipid composition affects micelle interaction with class B scavenger receptor extracellular loops

    PubMed Central

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Gontero, Brigitte; Nowicki, Marion; Margier, Marielle; Masset, Gabriel; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2015-01-01

    Scavenger receptors (SRs) like cluster determinant 36 (CD36) and SR class B type I (SR-BI) play a debated role in lipid transport across the intestinal brush border membrane. We used surface plasmon resonance to analyze real-time interactions between the extracellular protein loops and various ligands ranging from single lipid molecules to mixed micelles. Micelles mimicking physiological structures were necessary for optimal binding to both the extracellular loop of CD36 (lCD36) and the extracellular loop of SR-BI (lSR-BI). Cholesterol, phospholipid, and fatty acid micellar content significantly modulated micelle binding to and dissociation from the transporters. In particular, high phospholipid micellar concentrations inhibited micelle binding to both receptors (−53.8 and −74.4% binding at 0.32 mM compared with 0.04 mM for lCD36 and lSR-BI, respectively, P < 0.05). The presence of fatty acids was crucial for micelle interactions with both proteins (94.4 and 81.3% binding with oleic acid for lCD36 and lSR-BI, respectively, P < 0.05) and fatty acid type substitution within the micelles was the component that most impacted micelle binding to the transporters. These effects were partly due to subsequent modifications in micellar size and surface electric charge, and could be correlated to micellar vitamin D uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our findings show for the first time that micellar lipid composition and micellar properties are key factors governing micelle interactions with SRs. PMID:25833688

  13. Composition and quality characteristics of carcasses from pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake on high- or low-energy diets.

    PubMed

    Arkfeld, E K; Young, J M; Johnson, R C; Fedler, C A; Prusa, K; Patience, J F; Dekkers, J C M; Gabler, N K; Lonergan, S M; Huff-Lonergan, E

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to determine the extent to which feeding low-energy, high-fiber (LEHF) and high-energy, low-fiber (HELF) diets impacts meat quality and carcass composition of pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI). Two experiments were conducted in the divergently selected Iowa State University RFI lines: Exp. 1 evaluated carcasses of generation (G) 8 pigs fed on commercial feeders; Exp. 2 evaluated composition, pork quality, sensory, and postmortem proteolysis of pigs fed on electronic single-space feeders in G 8 and 9. Pigs (N = 177) in Exp. 1 were randomly assigned a pen (mixed sex and line; N = 8). Groups (n = 3) of pigs were slaughtered at a mean BW of 121.5 kg. Pigs in Exp. 2 (G8: n = 158; G9: n = 157) were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 pens of each diet per G. Pigs from G8 were slaughtered at a mean BW of 122.5 kg and G9 at a mean of 128.4 kg. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedure of SAS. Fixed effects were line, diet, sex, and all appropriate interactions. Random effects were group, pen, litter, and sire and covariate of off-test BW. For Exp. 2, G was added as a fixed effect and sensory day was added as a random effect when applicable. In Exp. 1, carcasses from low RFI (LRFI) pigs were leaner and had less fat depth (P < 0.01). Carcasses from pigs fed the LEHF diet had a lighter HCW and greater estimated percent lean than pigs fed HELF diet (P < 0.01). In Exp. 2, LRFI pigs on the HELF diet had the greatest loin depth (P < 0.01). Chops from HRFI pigs had greater drip loss, color scores, lean tissue a*, and percent lipid and lesser percent moisture than LRFI ( P< 0.05). Chops from pigs on the LEHF diet had lesser muscle L* values and greater percent moisture than chops from pigs fed the HELF diet (P < 0.05). Chop