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Sample records for feed delivery operations

  1. THE HANFORD WASTE FEED DELIVERY OPERATIONS RESEARCH MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    BERRY J; GALLAHER BN

    2011-01-13

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), the Hanford tank farm contractor, is tasked with the long term planning of the cleanup mission. Cleanup plans do not explicitly reflect the mission effects associated with tank farm operating equipment failures. EnergySolutions, a subcontractor to WRPS has developed, in conjunction with WRPS tank farms staff, an Operations Research (OR) model to assess and identify areas to improve the performance of the Waste Feed Delivery Systems. This paper provides an example of how OR modeling can be used to help identify and mitigate operational risks at the Hanford tank farms.

  2. Waste Feed Delivery Planning at Hanford - 13232

    SciTech Connect

    Certa, Paul J.; Hohl, Ted M.; Kelly, James W.; Larsen, Douglas C.; West, Elizha B.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S.

    2013-07-01

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades. (authors)

  3. Waste feed delivery planning at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Certa, Paul J.; West, Elizha B.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S.; Hohl, Ted M.; Larsen, Douglas C.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Kelly, James W.

    2013-01-10

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades.

  4. Waste feed delivery test and evaluation plan

    SciTech Connect

    O'TOOLE, S.M.

    1999-09-30

    This plan documents the Waste Feed Delivery Program test and evaluation planning and implementation approach. The purpose of this document is to define and communicate the Waste Feed Delivery Program Test and Evaluation scope, objectives, planning and implementation approach.

  5. Animal Feeding Operations

    MedlinePlus

    ... dead animals, and production operations in one combined land space. According to EPA, AFOs create more than ... and death of fish populations. Nitrogen and phosphorus pollution can contribute to algal blooms which can potentially ...

  6. Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    JULYK, L.J.

    2000-05-05

    This document provides a documented basis for the required design pressure rating and pump pressure capacity of the Hanford Site waste-transfer system in support of the waste feed delivery to the privatization contractor for vitrification. The scope of the analysis includes the 200 East Area double-shell tank waste transfer pipeline system and the associated transfer system pumps for a11 Phase 1B and Phase 2 waste transfers from AN, AP, AW, AY, and A2 Tank Farms.

  7. Operative delivery: yesterday and today.

    PubMed

    Low, James A

    2009-02-01

    The normal mechanism of labour leads to spontaneous vaginal delivery in many patients. However, from the beginning of time there has been a requirement for operative intervention to achieve delivery in some women. For centuries, to save the mother in an obstructed labour, the only option was craniotomy to deliver a dead child. The requirement for craniotomy decreased with the introduction of obstetric forceps and Caesarean section, but it is still needed in some situations. The role of obstetric forceps in the management of the second stage of labour has evolved over the last 300 years, initially for failure of the mechanism of labour and subsequently to shorten the second stage of labour for the benefit of the mother and child. The use of obstetric forceps peaked in the first half of the 20th century and has been decreasing steadily since that time. Caesarean section became a reasonable option for operative delivery towards the end of the 19th century with the availability of anaesthesia and procedures to control hemorrhage and prevent infection. The use of Caesarean section has increased steadily but variably in different countries throughout the 20th century. The incidence of operative intervention has increased from less than 1% of deliveries historically, to 10% at the end of the 19th century and to 40% at the end of the 20th century. The continuing challenge for those responsible for the delivery of the obstetric patient is to continue to examine the indications and appropriate procedures for operative intervention.

  8. Evaluating Feed Delivery Performance in Scaled Double-Shell Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kearn P.; Thien, Michael G.

    2013-11-07

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capability using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This work represents one of the remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. The TOCs' ability to adequately mix and sample high-level waste feed to meet the WTP WAC Data Quality Objectives must be demonstrated. The tank mixing and feed delivery must support both TOC and WTP operations. The tank mixing method must be able to remove settled solids from the tank and provide consistent feed to the WTP to facilitate waste treatment operations. Two geometrically scaled tanks were used with a broad spectrum of tank waste simulants to demonstrate that mixing using two rotating mixer jet pumps yields consistent slurry compositions as the tank is emptied in a series of sequential batch transfers. Testing showed that the concentration of slow settling solids in each transfer batch was consistent over a wide range of tank operating conditions. Although testing demonstrated that the concentration of fast settling solids decreased by up to 25% as the tank was emptied, batch-to-batch consistency improved as mixer jet nozzle velocity in the scaled tanks increased.

  9. [Trends in operative delivery rates].

    PubMed

    Vetr, M

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify trends in operative vaginal delivery rates and caesarean sections at Faculty Hospital in Olomouc and comparing with mean results of the Czech Republic. Retrospective epidemiological study. Gynaecology and Obstetrics Clinic Medical Faculty Palacky University and Faculty Hospital in Olomouc. Analysis of data drawn from obstetric medical records from 1. 1. 1993 to 31. 12. 2008--rating the frequency, evolutionary trends and associated risk factors. In this time period 26,679 children born, by caesarean section 5,916 (22.2%), ventouse 759 (2.8%) and forceps 526 (2.0%). The frequency of vaginal operations is higher than the average of the Czech Republic and from second half 90s of the 20th century no more increased. For caesarean section, however, is an upward trend (P for trend = 0.035, Cox-Stuart test). The increasing proportion of complex of 4 risk factors on the frequency of caesareans: 1 low birth weight below 2.5 kg (32.2%), 2 multiple pregnancy (18%), 3 caesareans in history (15.5%), 4 mothers over the age of 35 years (11.2%). Cumulative share of all four factors in the total number of abdominal delivery has reached a mean of 52.91% (95% CI 49.58-56.24), median = 53.75 (97.9% CI 48.64-57.32). Analysis of the development of operational termination of pregnancy confirms the significantly higher frequency of operational interventions in Olomouc compared to an average of the Czech Republic. Changes in risk profile of patients (often referred to the demographic factors) is not enough to explain the causes of the rising frequency of caesareans. The increase of invasive obstetrics undoubtedly contributes to changes in obstetric practice.

  10. Waste feed delivery program systems engineering implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    O`Toole, S.M.

    1998-09-24

    This document defines the systems engineering processes and products planned by the Waste Feed Delivery Program to develop the necessary and sufficient systems to provide waste feed to the Privatization Contractor for Phase 1. It defines roles and responsibilities for the performance of the systems engineering processes and generation of products.

  11. Waste feed delivery environmental permits and approvals plan

    SciTech Connect

    Papp, I.G.

    1998-07-06

    This document describes the range of environmental actions, including required permits and other agency approvals, that may affect waste feed delivery (WFD) activities in the Hanford Site`s Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). This plan expands on the summary level information in the Tank Waste Remediation System Environmental Program Plan (HNF 1773) to address requirements that are most pertinent to WFD. This plan outlines alternative approaches to satisfying applicable environmental standards, and describes selected strategies for acquiring permits and other approvals needed for WFD to proceed. Appendices at the end of this plan provide preliminary cost and schedule estimates for implementing the selected strategies. The rest of this section summarizes the scope of WFD activities, including important TWRS operating information, and describes in more detail the objectives, structure, and content of this plan.

  12. Tank Farms and Waste Feed Delivery - 12507

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, Thomas; Charboneau, Stacy; Olds, Erik

    2012-07-01

    The mission of the Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is to safely retrieve and treat the 56 million gallons of Hanford's tank waste and close the Tank Farms to protect the Columbia River. Our discussion of the Tank Farms and Waste Feed Delivery will cover progress made to date with Base and Recovery Act funding in reducing the risk posed by tank waste and in preparing for the initiation of waste treatment at Hanford. The millions of gallons of waste are a by-product of decades of plutonium production. After irradiated fuel rods were taken from the nuclear reactors to the processing facilities at Hanford they were exposed to a series of chemicals designed to dissolve away the rod, which enabled workers to retrieve the plutonium. Once those chemicals were exposed to the fuel rods they became radioactive and extremely hot. They also couldn't be used in this process more than once. Because the chemicals are caustic and extremely hazardous to humans and the environment, underground storage tanks were built to hold these chemicals until a more permanent solution could be found. The underground storage tanks range in capacity from 55,000 gallons to more than 1 million gallons. The tanks were constructed with carbon steel and reinforced concrete. There are eighteen groups of tanks, called 'tank farms', some having as few as two tanks and others up to sixteen tanks. Between 1943 and 1964, 149 single-shell tanks were built at Hanford in the 200 West and East Areas. Heat generated by the waste and the composition of the waste caused an estimated 67 of these single-shell tanks to leak into the ground. Washington River Protection Solutions is the prime contractor responsible for the safe management of this waste. WRPS' mission is to reduce the risk to the environment that is posed by the waste. All of the pumpable liquids have been removed from the single-shell tanks and transferred to the double-shell tanks. What remains in the single-shell tanks are

  13. Reformer operation improved by feed sulfur removal

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Clung, R.G. )

    1990-10-08

    This paper reports how reduction of sulfur in catalytic reforming feeds below that typically obtainable with naphtha hydrotreating improves the reformer operation significantly. In evaluations of pilot-plant and commercial operations, high-rhenium content reforming catalysts have been used with low-sulfur naphtha feeds and have been shown to dramatically affect catalyst cycle length, gasoline yield, and stability. The consequences of insufficient removal of sulfur include shorter cycle length, more rapid reactor temperature rise to maintain octane, and as a result of that increase, more rapid catalyst deactivation.

  14. Waste Feed Delivery System Phase 1 Preliminary RAM Analysis [SEC 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    DYKES, A.A.

    2000-10-11

    This report presents the updated results of the preliminary reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analysis of selected waste feed delivery (WFD) operations to be performed by the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) during Phase I activities in support of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). For planning purposes, waste feed tanks are being divided into five classes in accordance with the type of waste in each tank and the activities required to retrieve, qualify, and transfer waste feed. This report reflects the baseline design and operating concept, as of the beginning of Fiscal Year 2000, for the delivery of feed from three of these classes, represented by source tanks 241-AN-102, 241-AZ-101 and 241-AN-105. The preliminary RAM analysis quantifies the potential schedule delay associated with operations and maintenance (OBM) field activities needed to accomplish these operations. The RAM analysis is preliminary because the system design, process definition, and activity planning are in a state of evolution. The results are being used to support the continuing development of an O&M Concept tailored to the unique requirements of the WFD Program, which is being documented in various volumes of the Waste Feed Delivery Technical Basis (Carlson. 1999, Rasmussen 1999, and Orme 2000). The waste feed provided to the WTP must: (1) meet limits for chemical and radioactive constituents based on pre-established compositional envelopes (i.e., feed quality); (2) be in acceptable quantities within a prescribed sequence to meet feed quantities; and (3) meet schedule requirements (i.e., feed timing). In the absence of new criteria related to acceptable schedule performance due to the termination of the TWRS Privatization Contract, the original criteria from the Tank Waste Remediation System (77443s) Privatization Contract (DOE 1998) will continue to be used for this analysis.

  15. Review Guidance for the TWRS FSAR amendment for Waste Retrieval and waste feed delivery

    SciTech Connect

    GRIFFITH, R.W.

    1999-10-01

    This review guidance (Guide) was developed for Office of River Protection (ORP) reviewers to use in reviewing the amendment to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) covering waste retrieval and waste feed delivery. Waste retrieval and waste feed delivery are necessary to supply nuclear waste from TWRS storage tanks to the TWRS Privatization (TWRS-P) Contractor's vitrification facility and to receive intermediate waste from the vitrification facility back into the TWRS tank farms for interim storage. An amendment to the approved TWRS FSAR (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Rev. 0) is necessary to change the authorization basis to accommodate waste retrieval and waste feed delivery. The ORP'S safety responsibility in reviewing the FSAR amendment is to determine that reasonable assurance exists that waste retrieval and waste feed delivery operations can be accomplished with adequate safety for the workers, the public, and the environment. To carry out this responsibility, the ORP will evaluate the Contractor's amendment to the TWRS FSAR for waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to determine whether the submittal provides adequate safety and complies with applicable regulatory requirements.

  16. Particulate emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), including open beef cattle feedlots, swine facilities, and poultry facilities, can emit large amounts of particulate matter, including TSP (total suspended particulates), PM10 (particulate matter with equivalent aerodynamic diameter of 10 mm or less) a...

  17. Waste Feed Delivery Environmental Permits and Approvals Plan

    SciTech Connect

    TOLLEFSON, K.S.

    2000-01-18

    This plan describes the environmental permits approvals, and other requirements that may affect establishment of a waste feed delivery system for the Hanford Site's River Protection Project. This plan identifies and screens environmental standards for potential applicability, outlines alternatives for satisfying applicable standards, and describes preferred permitting and approval approaches.

  18. Early versus delayed oral feeding after cesarean delivery under different anesthetic methods--a randomized controlled trial anesthesia, feeding in cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Yunus; Altunyurt, Sabahattin; Oge, Tufan; Sahin, Fezan

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of early feeding after cesarean delivery under different anesthetic methods. Two hundred women with elective cesarean delivery were randomly assigned to early oral feeding (EOF) or routine oral feeding (ROF) groups. EOF patients were informed that they could begin taking fluids orally (regime I) as soon as 2 hours after the delivery and then gradually progress to solid foods (regime III), if tolerated. ROF patients were informed that they could start regime I right after bowel sounds were heard on examination and then gradually move on to regime III. Hospitalization time and total time to ambulation (primary outcomes), gasstool discharge time and onset of bowel sounds (secondary outcomes) were compared in groups A [EOF patients after regional anesthesia (n=49)}, B [EOF patients after general anesthesia (n=48)}, C [ROF patients after regional anesthesia (n=47)} and 0 [ROF patients after general anesthesia (n=48)]. There were significant differences in primary and secondary outcomes between group A and the remaining groups, especially group D. The status of patients from group B was not better than group C. In fact, the latter were discharged home sooner and passage of gas, as well as initiation of regime I occurred earlier as compared to the former Cesarean section under regional anesthesia and encouragement of oral feeding 2 hours after the operation should be recommended in order to acnieve postoperative recovery and early hospital discharge. Routine oral feeding (right after bowel sounds are heard on examination) after cesarean section under general anesthesia should be the last choice.

  19. Feed delivery method affects the learning of feeding and competitive behavior in dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Greter, A M; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; McBride, B W; DeVries, T J

    2010-08-01

    bunk in the 2h following feed delivery (40.6 vs. 25.9 min/d). Heifers previously fed the TDR were displaced from the feed bunk more frequently than heifers previously fed the TMR (23.0 vs. 13.1 times/d), particularly during the 2-h period following feed delivery. Fecal scores were lower (more fluid in consistency) for heifers originally fed the TDR (3.2 vs. 3.7). The continued difference in feed bunk competition suggests that heifers previously fed the TDR had learned these patterns in the past, retaining them even when switched to an unfamiliar ration. Furthermore, lower fecal scores for heifers previously fed the TDR suggest altered rumen fermentation, possibly because of altered diurnal consumption patterns. These results show that feeding a TMR to replacement dairy heifers from a young age promotes a more even diurnal feeding pattern, minimizes feed bunk competition, and promotes a more solid fecal consistency.

  20. Antibiotic prophylaxis for operative vaginal delivery.

    PubMed

    Liabsuetrakul, T; Choobun, T; Peeyananjarassri, K; Islam, M

    2004-01-01

    Vacuum and forceps assisted vaginal deliveries are reported to increase the incidence of postpartum infections and maternal readmission to hospital compared to spontaneous vaginal delivery. Prophylactic antibiotics are prescribed to prevent these infections. However, the benefit of antibiotic prophylaxis for operative vaginal deliveries is still unclear. To assess the effectiveness and safety of antibiotic prophylaxis in reducing infectious puerperal morbidities in women undergoing operative vaginal deliveries including vacuum and/or forceps deliveries. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register (November 2003), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2003) and MEDLINE (1966 to November 2003). All randomised trials comparing any prophylactic antibiotic regimens with placebo or no treatment in women undergoing vacuum or forceps deliveries were eligible. Participants were all pregnant women without evidence of infections or other indications for antibiotics of any gestational age undergoing vacuum or forceps delivery for any indications. Interventions were any antibiotic prophylaxis (any dosage regimen, any route of administration or at any time during delivery or the puerperium) compared with either placebo or no treatment. Four reviewers assessed trial eligibility and methodological quality. Two reviewers extracted the data independently using prepared data extraction forms. Any discrepancies were resolved by discussion and a consensus reached through discussion with all reviewers. We assessed methodological quality of the included trial using the standard Cochrane criteria and the CONSORT statement of randomised controlled trials. We calculated the relative risks using a fixed effect model and all the reviewers interpreted and discussed the results. One trial, involving 393 women undergoing either vacuum or forceps deliveries, was included. This trial identified only two out of the nine

  1. Development of a Nutritional Delivery System to Feed Crew in a Pressurized Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, J. W.; Leonig, M. L.; Douglas, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    The contingency scenario for an emergency cabin depressurization event may require crewmembers to subsist in a pressurized suit for up to 144 hours. This scenario requires the capability for safe nutrition delivery through a helmet feed port against a 4 psi pressure differential to enable crewmembers to maintain strength and cognition to perform critical tasks. Two nutritional delivery prototypes were developed and analyzed for compatibility with the helmet feed port interface and for operational effectiveness against the pressure differential. The bag-in-bag (BiB) prototype, designed to equalize the suit pressure with the beverage pouch and enable a crewmember to drink normally, delivered water successfully to three different subjects in suits pressurized to 4 psi. The Boa restrainer pouch, designed to provide mechanical leverage to overcome the pressure differential, did not operate sufficiently. Guidelines were developed and compiled for contingency beverages that provide macro-nutritional requirements, a minimum one-year shelf life, and compatibility with the delivery hardware. Evaluation results and food product parameters have the potential to be used to improve future prototype designs and develop complete nutritional beverages for contingency events. These feeding capabilities would have additional use on extended surface mission EVAs, where the current in-suit drinking device may be insufficient.

  2. Waste Feed Delivery System Phase 1 Preliminary Reliability and Availability and Maintainability Analysis [SEC 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    CARLSON, A.B.

    1999-11-11

    The document presents updated results of the preliminary reliability, availability, maintainability analysis performed for delivery of waste feed from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AN-105 to British Nuclear Fuels Limited, inc. under the Tank Waste Remediation System Privatization Contract. The operational schedule delay risk is estimated and contributing factors are discussed.

  3. Self-cleaning feed distributing delivery device for glass melters

    SciTech Connect

    Mensink, D.L.

    1991-01-16

    This invention consists of a self cleaning, plug resistant, adjustable parameter feed distributing and delivery apparatus for a glass melter comprising a housing with a passage therethrough for a glass slurry, a cold finger within the passage for creating a dispersion patten of the slurry, a movable slotted tube for controlling the confluence of air propellant and slurry in the passage, and a plurality of ribs that extend through the slots in the slotted tube to urge the slurry forward if it becomes stuck or resists forward movement. Coolant passages in the housing and the cold finger maintain the slurry temperature below that of the melter plenum. The cold finger is axially movable to adjust the dispersion patten to the desired consistency. Other design features of size can be applied for use in situations requiring different parameters of patten, particle size, rate, feed consistencies. The device utilizes air as both a propellant and a surface cleansing mechanism. Other fluids may be used as propellants where process compatibility requires.

  4. Self-cleaning feed distributing delivery device for glass melters

    DOEpatents

    Mensink, Daniel L.

    1992-01-01

    A self cleaning, plug resistant, adjustable parameter feed distributing and delivery apparatus for a glass melter comprising a housing with a passage therethrough for a glass slurry, a cold finger within the passage for creating a dispersion pattern of the slurry, a movable slotted tube for controlling the confluence of air propellant and slurry in the passage, and a plurality of ribs that extend through the slots in the slotted tube to urge the slurry forward if it becomes stuck or resists forward movement. Coolant passages in the housing and the cold finger maintain the slurry temperature below that of the melter plenum. The cold finger is axially movable to adjust the dispersion pattern to the desired consistency. Other design features of size can be applied for use in situations requiring different parameters of pattern, particle size, rate, and feed consistencies. The device utilizes air as both a propellant and a surface cleansing mechanism. Other fluids may be used as propellants where process compatibility requires.

  5. Breast-feeding and its relation to smoking and mode of delivery.

    PubMed

    Leung, Gabriel M; Lam, Tai Hing; Ho, Lai Ming

    2002-05-01

    To examine the effects of cesarean and forceps or vacuum delivery and parental smoking habits on the initiation and duration of breast-feeding. We conducted a prospective, population-based birth cohort study in 1997. Data were collected on breast-feeding history, household smoking habits, method of delivery, and other demographic, obstetric, behavioral, and potential confounding variables via a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the association between method of birth (cesarean versus forceps or vacuum delivery versus normal vaginal birth) and either not initiating breast-feeding or doing so for less than 1 month. Among women who breast-fed for 1 month or more, multivariable survival analysis was employed to study the relationship between method of delivery and breast-feeding duration. We repeated these analyses to examine the link between parental smoking habits and breast-feeding initiation and duration. A total of 7825 mother-infant pairs were followed up for 9 months. Cesarean delivery was a risk factor for not initiating breast-feeding, for breast-feeding less than 1 month, and remained a significant hazard against breast-feeding duration. Assisted delivery with forceps or vacuum, although not associated with breast-feeding initiation, was a significant risk against breast-feeding duration. Conversely, current parental smoking habits only affected breast-feeding initiation but were unrelated to breast-feeding duration. This study indicates a possible effect of forceps or vacuum delivery on breast-feeding and of cesarean on long-term breast-feeding duration. The findings provide additional evidence in support of the avoidance of unnecessary obstetric interventions.

  6. Low-activity waste feed delivery -- Minimum duration between successive batches

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, B.B.

    1998-08-25

    The purpose of this study is to develop a defensible basis for establishing what ``minimum duration`` will provide acceptable risk mitigation for low-activity waste feed delivery to the privatization vendors. The study establishes a probabilistic-based duration for staging of low-activity waste feed batches. A comparison is made of the durations with current feed delivery plans and potential privatization vendor facility throughput rates.

  7. HLW Feed Delivery AZ101 Batch Transfer to the Private Contractor Transfer and Mixing Process Improvements [Initial Release at Rev 2

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN, G.P.

    2000-02-28

    The primary purpose of this business case is to provide Operations and Maintenance with a detailed transfer process review for the first High Level Waste (HLW) feed delivery to the Privatization Contractor (PC), AZ-101 batch transfer to PC. The Team was chartered to identify improvements that could be implemented in the field. A significant penalty can be invoked for not providing the quality, quantity, or timely delivery of HLW feed to the PC.

  8. RISK MANAGEMENT EVALUATION FOR CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) developed a Risk Management Evaluation (RME) to provide information needed to help plan future research in the Laboratory dealing with the environmental impact of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Agriculture...

  9. RISK MANAGEMENT EVALUATION FOR CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) developed a Risk Management Evaluation (RME) to provide information needed to help plan future research in the Laboratory dealing with the environmental impact of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Agriculture...

  10. Investigation of biosecurity risks associated with the feed delivery: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bottoms, Kate; Dewey, Cate; Richardson, Karen; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2015-05-01

    This study explored potential biosecurity issues related to the delivery of feed to commercial farms. A pilot study was conducted to collect information about the day-to-day feed delivery, including biosecurity concerns at the level of the feed truck, the driver, and the farm. In addition, a reusable rubber boot was tested in an effort to increase the proportion of farms at which truck drivers wore clean footwear, and to explore an alternative to the standard plastic disposable boots that may be unsafe in winter conditions. Most farms did well in terms of proper dead-stock management and keeping the farm lane and feed bin areas clean. The provision of reusable rubber boots significantly increased the proportion of deliveries in which the driver wore clean footwear.

  11. Investigation of biosecurity risks associated with the feed delivery: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bottoms, Kate; Dewey, Cate; Richardson, Karen; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2015-01-01

    This study explored potential biosecurity issues related to the delivery of feed to commercial farms. A pilot study was conducted to collect information about the day-to-day feed delivery, including biosecurity concerns at the level of the feed truck, the driver, and the farm. In addition, a reusable rubber boot was tested in an effort to increase the proportion of farms at which truck drivers wore clean footwear, and to explore an alternative to the standard plastic disposable boots that may be unsafe in winter conditions. Most farms did well in terms of proper dead-stock management and keeping the farm lane and feed bin areas clean. The provision of reusable rubber boots significantly increased the proportion of deliveries in which the driver wore clean footwear. PMID:25969585

  12. Temporal discrimination learning of operant feeding in goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Philip; Stephenson, David; Wright, Donald E.

    1994-01-01

    Operant temporal discrimination learning was investigated in goldfish. In the first experiment, there was a fixed daily change in illumination. Eight subjects were trained to operate a lever that reinforced each press with food. The period during which responses were reinforced was then progressively reduced until it was 1 hr in every 24. The final 1-hr feeding schedule was maintained over 4 weeks. The feeding period commenced at the same time each day throughout. The food dispensers were then made inactive, and a period of extinction ensued for 6 days. The pattern of responding suggested that the fish were able to exhibit temporal discrimination in anticipation of feeding time. This pattern of responding persisted for a limited number of days during the extinction procedure. The second experiment produced evidence that operant temporal discrimination could develop under continuous illumination. PMID:16812735

  13. WTP Waste Feed Qualification: Glass Fabrication Unit Operation Testing Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M. E.; Newell, J. D.; Johnson, F. C.; Edwards, T. B.

    2016-07-14

    The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) design, safety basis, and technical basis by assuring waste acceptance requirements are met for each staged waste feed campaign prior to transfer from the Tank Operations Contractor to the feed receipt vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. The Waste Feed Qualification Program Plan describes the three components of waste feed qualification: 1. Demonstrate compliance with the waste acceptance criteria 2. Determine waste processability 3. Test unit operations at laboratory scale. The glass fabrication unit operation is the final step in the process demonstration portion of the waste feed qualification process. This unit operation generally consists of combining each of the waste feed streams (high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW)) with Glass Forming Chemicals (GFCs), fabricating glass coupons, performing chemical composition analysis before and after glass fabrication, measuring hydrogen generation rate either before or after glass former addition, measuring rheological properties before and after glass former addition, and visual observation of the resulting glass coupons. Critical aspects of this unit operation are mixing and sampling of the waste and melter feeds to ensure representative samples are obtained as well as ensuring the fabrication process for the glass coupon is adequate. Testing was performed using a range of simulants (LAW and HLW simulants), and these simulants were mixed with high and low bounding amounts of GFCs to evaluate the mixing, sampling, and glass preparation steps in shielded cells using laboratory techniques. The tests were performed with off-the-shelf equipment at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that is similar to equipment used in the SRNL work during qualification of waste feed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and other waste treatment facilities at the

  14. Design and performance of feed delivery systems for simulated radioactive waste slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, J.M. Jr.

    1983-02-01

    Processes for vitrifying simulated high-level radioactive waste have been developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) over the last several years. Paralleling this effort, several feed systems used to deliver the simulated waste slurry to the melter have been tested. Because there had been little industrial experience in delivering abrasive slurries at feed rates of less than 10 L/min, early experience helped direct the design of more-dependable systems. Also, as feed delivery requirements changed, the feed system was modified to meet these new requirements. The various feed systems discussed in this document are part of this evolutionary process, so they have not been ranked against each other. The four slurry feed systems discussed are: (1) vertical-cantilevered centrifugal pump system; (2) airlift feed systems; (3) pressurized-loop systems; and (4) positive-displacement pump system. 20 figures, 11 tables.

  15. Impact of Mode of Delivery on Female Postpartum Sexual Functioning: Spontaneous Vaginal Delivery and Operative Vaginal Delivery vs. Cesarean Section.

    PubMed

    Barbara, Giussy; Pifarotti, Paola; Facchin, Federica; Cortinovis, Ivan; Dridi, Dhohua; Ronchetti, Camilla; Calzolari, Luca; Vercellini, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Several studies have explored the association between modes of delivery and postpartum female sexual functioning, although with inconsistent findings. To investigate the impact of mode of delivery on female postpartum sexual functioning by comparing spontaneous vaginal delivery, operative vaginal delivery, and cesarean section. One hundred thirty-two primiparous women who had a spontaneous vaginal delivery, 45 who had an operative vaginal delivery, and 92 who underwent a cesarean section were included in the study (N = 269). Postpartum sexual functioning was evaluated 6 months after childbirth using the Female Sexual Function Index. Time to resumption of sexual intercourse, postpartum depression, and current breastfeeding also were assessed 6 months after delivery. Female Sexual Function Index total and domain scores and time to resumption of sexual intercourse at 6 months after childbirth. Women who underwent an operative vaginal delivery had poorer scores on arousal, lubrication, orgasm, and global sexual functioning compared with the cesarean section group and lower orgasm scores compared with the spontaneous vaginal delivery group (P < .05). The mode of delivery did not significantly affect time to resumption of sexual intercourse. Women who were currently breastfeeding had lower lubrication, more pain at intercourse, and longer time to resumption of sexual activity. Operative vaginal delivery might be associated with poorer sexual functioning, but no conclusions can be drawn from this study regarding the impact of pelvic floor trauma (perineal laceration or episiotomy) on sexual functioning because of the high rate of episiotomies. Overall, obstetric algorithms currently in use should be refined to decrease further the risk of operative vaginal delivery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. REMOTE SENSING FOR DETECTING SWINE ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface runoff from animal feeding operations (AFO's) and its infiltration into ground water can
    pose a number of risks to water quality mainly because of the amount of animal manure and wastewater they produce. Excess nutrients generated by livestock facilities can lead to a...

  17. Reuse of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operating Wastewater on Agricultural Lands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) generate large volumes of manure and manure-contaminated wash and runoff water. Transportation, storage, and treatment of manure and manure-contaminated water are costly. The large volume of waste generated, and the lack of disposal ...

  18. LAGOON WATER FROM CONFINED ANIMAL FEED OPERATIONS AND AMPHIBIAN DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory


    Lagoon Water from Confined Animal Feed Operations and Amphibian Development. Dumont, J. N.* and Slagle, S., Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, and Hutchins, S. R., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (NRMRL/SPRD), Ada, OK. There is some evidence that confined anima...

  19. Auditing and assessing air quality in concentrated feeding operations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potential adverse effects of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) on the environment are a growing concern. The air quality issues of most concerns to CAFO vary, but generally include ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOC), green house gase...

  20. Identifying Key Odors Offsite From Animal Feeding Operation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Odors from animal feeding operations are some of the most significant emissions at the local level. Current methods used to measure agricultural odor are bias and inadequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of 2 different techniques to identify key odorants. The first techni...

  1. REMOTE SENSING FOR DETECTING SWINE ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface runoff from animal feeding operations (AFO's) and its infiltration into ground water can
    pose a number of risks to water quality mainly because of the amount of animal manure and wastewater they produce. Excess nutrients generated by livestock facilities can lead to a...

  2. Reuse of concentrated animal feed operation wastewater on agricultural lands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) generate large volumes of manure and manure-contaminated wash and runoff water. Transportation, storage, and treatment of manure and manure-contaminated water are costly. The large volume of waste generated, and the lack of disposal areas, further lim...

  3. Reuse of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operating Wastewater on Agricultural Lands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) generate large volumes of manure and manure-contaminated wash and runoff water. Transportation, storage, and treatment of manure and manure-contaminated water are costly. The large volume of waste generated, and the lack of disposal ...

  4. Delivery after Operation for Deeply Infiltrating Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Allerstorfer, Christina; Enzelsberger, Simon H.; Shebl, Omar Josef; Mayer, Richard Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Background. It has been suggested that, during pregnancy, endometriosis can cause a variety of disease-related complications. Objectives. The purpose of the study was to find out if women with histologically confirmed endometriosis do have a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcome and if they suffer from a higher rate of complications during labor. Study Design. 51 women who underwent surgery because of deeply infiltrating endometriosis in the General Hospital Linz and the Women's General Hospital Linz and who gave birth in the Women's General Hospital Linz after the surgery were included in our survey. Results. 31 women (60.8%) had a spontaneous delivery and in 20 women (39.2%) a caesarean section was performed. There were no cases of third- and fourth-degree perineal lacerations. Collectively there were 4 cases (7.8%) of preterm delivery and one case (2.0%) of premature rupture of membranes. In two women (6.5%) a retained placenta was diagnosed. Conclusions. Our study is the first description on delivery modes after surgery for deeply infiltrating endometriosis. We did not find an elevated risk for perineal or vaginal laceration in women with a history of surgery for deeply infiltrating endometriosis, even when a resection of the rectum or of the posterior vaginal wall had been performed. PMID:27517050

  5. Engineering Basis Document Review for Waste Feed Delivery from Single Shell Tanks (SST)

    SciTech Connect

    SMITH, D.F.

    1999-10-07

    This report provides the results of a review conducted on existing operating specifications and safety requirements and provides a summary of applicable design constraints on the Single-Shell Tank (SST) System. The SST System is required to transition from the current waste storage mission to support the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) waste retrieval mission described in the Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis Report (Acree 1998). The SST System is also required to support the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) portions of the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) mission. In Phase 1 the SST System will be required to retrieve waste from selected SSTs (tanks 241-C-102 and 241-C-104) for transfer to the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System (tanks 241-AZ-101,241-AY-102). The SST System will include all the systems, structures and components required to safely store, retrieve, and transfer waste in support of the TWRS mission. Operational Specification Documents (OSDs) govern operation of the existing SST System components. However, the system will be highly modified to support the TWRS mission. Therefore OSD requirements may not apply to the new system's design. This document describes the review of existing SST OSDs and provides the rationale for selecting or rejecting requirements as constraints on the SST System design. The selected requirements (or design constraints) will be included in System Specification for the Single-Shell Tank System, HNF-3912(Conrads 1999).

  6. Technical baseline description of high-level waste andlow-activity waste feed mobilization and delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Papp, I.G.

    1997-06-01

    This document is a compilation of information related to the high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) feed staging, mobilization, and transfer/delivery issues. Information relevant to current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) inventories and activities designed to feed the Phase I Privatization effort at the Hanford Site is included. Discussions on the higher level Phase II activities are offered for a perspective on the interfaces.

  7. Are operative delivery procedures in Greece socially conditioned?

    PubMed

    Skalkidis, Y; Petridou, E; Papathoma, E; Revinthi, K; Tong, D; Trichopoulos, D

    1996-04-01

    Caesarean section rates have increased in Greece by almost 50% during the last 13 years. We conducted a study in Athens, Greece, to assess the importance of a series of medical and socioeconomic factors in the use of Caesarean section or operative vaginal procedures, rather than a non-operative process, for the delivery of singleton, liveborn babies of primiparous mothers. We used a case control approach to compare 444 babies delivered through a Caesarean section and 130 delivered through operative vaginal delivery with 1235 normally delivered babies in a public and a private hospital. Data were analysed through multiple logistic regression. Caesarean section was more commonly performed in older, shorter or overweight mothers and for high and low birth-weight babies, as well as in response to several obstetric complications and following in-vitro fertilization. A similar pattern was noted with respect to operative vaginal delivery, except that this procedure was not unusually frequent among overweight women and was not encountered in this study among children born after in-vitro fertilization. Caesarean section was performed twice as often in the public teaching hospital as in a private maternity hospital, and operative vaginal delivery was several times more common in the former than in the latter, after controlling for biomedical risk factors. The unequal distribution of operative delivery procedures between the public and the private hospital raises questions about the justification of their performance in a substantial fraction of deliveries, and indicates that social factors condition their use.

  8. Impact of Feed Delivery Pattern on Aerial Particulate Matter and Behavior of Feedlot Cattle †

    PubMed Central

    Mitloehner, Frank M.; Dailey, Jeff W.; Morrow, Julie L.; McGlone, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Fine particulate matter (with less than 2.5 microns diameter; aka PM2.5) are a human and animal health concern because they can carry microbes and chemicals into the lungs. Particulate matter (PM) in general emitted from cattle feedlots can reach high concentrations. When feedlot cattle were given an altered feeding schedule (ALT) that more closely reflected their biological feeding times compared with conventional morning feeding (CON), PM2.5 generation at peak times was substantially lowered. Average daily generation of PM2.5 was decreased by 37% when cattle behavior was redirected away from PM-generating behaviors and toward evening feeding behaviors. Behavioral problems such as agonistic (i.e., aggressive) and bulling (i.e., mounting each other) behaviors also were reduced several fold among ALT compared with CON cattle. Intake of feed was less and daily body weight gain tended to be less with the altered feeding schedule while efficiency of feed utilization was not affected. Although ALT may pose a challenge in feed delivery and labor scheduling, cattle had fewer behavioral problems and reduced PM2.5 generation when feed delivery times matched with the natural drive to eat in a crepuscular pattern. Abstract Fine particulate matter with less than 2.5 microns diameter (PM2.5) generated by cattle in feedlots is an environmental pollutant and a potential human and animal health issue. The objective of this study was to determine if a feeding schedule affects cattle behaviors that promote PM2.5 in a commercial feedlot. The study used 2813 crossbred steers housed in 14 adjacent pens at a large-scale commercial West Texas feedlot. Treatments were conventional feeding at 0700, 1000, and 1200 (CON) or feeding at 0700, 1000, and 1830 (ALT), the latter feeding time coincided with dusk. A mobile behavior lab was used to quantify behaviors of steers that were associated with generation of PM2.5 (e.g., fighting, mounting of peers, and increased locomotion

  9. Effect of frequency of feed delivery on the behavior and productivity of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hart, K D; McBride, B W; Duffield, T F; DeVries, T J

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feed delivery frequency on the behavioral patterns and productivity of lactating dairy cows. Twelve freestall-housed, lactating Holstein dairy cows, including 6 primiparous (PP) and 6 multiparous (MP), milked 3 ×/d (at 1400, 2200, and 0600 h), were exposed to each of 3 treatments (over 21-d periods) in a replicated Latin square design. Treatments included feed delivery frequency of (1) 1 ×/d (at 1400 h), (2) 2 ×/d (at 1400 and 2200 h), and (3) 3 ×/d (at 1400, 2200, and 0600 h). Milk production as well as feeding, lying, and rumination behaviors were electronically monitored for each animal for the last 7d of each treatment period. Milk samples were collected for the last 3d of each period for milk component analysis. Dry matter intake (DMI) varied with feed delivery frequency, with greatest DMI observed in cows fed 3 ×/d (27.8 kg/d) compared with those fed 2 ×/d (27.0 kg/d) or 1 ×/d (27.4 kg/d). Treatment had no effect on milk yield (41.3 kg/d) or efficiency of production (1.54 kg of milk/kg of DMI). Cows that did not receive delivery of feed following the 2200 h milking (treatment 1) and 0600 h milking (treatments 1 and 2) had lower DMI during the first hour after milking than those that received feed at all milkings (treatment 3). Total feeding time and meal frequency, size, and duration did not vary by treatment, but PP cows consumed smaller meals at a slower rate, resulting in lower DMI compared with MP cows. Primiparous cows consumed 50.1% and 26.1% less dry matter than MP cows during the first meal following the first and second milkings, respectively. Lying time did not vary by treatment, but PP cows spent more time lying (10.3 vs. 8.3h/d) than MP cows. Under 3 ×/d milking schedules, greater feed delivery frequency resulted in greater DMI as a function of increased DMI following the return from milking and the delivery of feed. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published

  10. Feed Me! Rethinking Traditional Modes of Library Access and Content Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchens, Chad; Clark, Jason

    2008-01-01

    At their core, XML feeds are content-delivery vehicles. This fact has not always been highlighted in library conversations surrounding RSS and ATOM. The authors have looked to extend the conversation by offering a proof of concept application using RSS as a means to deliver all types of library data: PDFs, docs, images, video--to people where and…

  11. School Feeding and Educational Access in Rural Ghana: Is Poor Targeting and Delivery Limiting Impact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essuman, Ato; Bosumtwi-Sam, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to address social imbalances and equity in Ghana's education delivery and to achieve her Education for All (EFA) agenda, some pro-poor programmes have been introduced. Among these is the Ghana School Feeding Programme (GSFP) that aims among others, at providing safety nets for the poor, increasing school enrolment in addition to…

  12. Analysis of Waste Leak and Toxic Chemical Release Accidents from Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) Diluent System

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIAMS, J.C.

    2000-09-15

    Radiological and toxicological consequences are calculated for 4 postulated accidents involving the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) diluent addition systems. Consequences for the onsite and offsite receptor are calculated. This analysis contains technical information used to determine the accident consequences for the River Protection Project (RPP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).

  13. Feed Me! Rethinking Traditional Modes of Library Access and Content Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchens, Chad; Clark, Jason

    2008-01-01

    At their core, XML feeds are content-delivery vehicles. This fact has not always been highlighted in library conversations surrounding RSS and ATOM. The authors have looked to extend the conversation by offering a proof of concept application using RSS as a means to deliver all types of library data: PDFs, docs, images, video--to people where and…

  14. School Feeding and Educational Access in Rural Ghana: Is Poor Targeting and Delivery Limiting Impact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essuman, Ato; Bosumtwi-Sam, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to address social imbalances and equity in Ghana's education delivery and to achieve her Education for All (EFA) agenda, some pro-poor programmes have been introduced. Among these is the Ghana School Feeding Programme (GSFP) that aims among others, at providing safety nets for the poor, increasing school enrolment in addition to…

  15. Double Shell Tanks (DST) and Waste Feed Delivery Project Management Quality Affecting Procedures Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    LUND, D.P.

    2000-09-25

    The purpose of the Double Shell Tanks (DST) and Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) Management Assessment Plan is to define how management assessments within DST h WFD will be conducted. The plan as written currently includes only WFD Project assessment topics. Other DST and WFD group assessment topics will be added in future revisions.

  16. A feeding protocol for delivery of agents to assess development in Varroa mites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel feeding protocol for delivery of bio-active agents to Varroa mites was developed by providing mites with honey bee larva hemolymph supplemented with cultured insect cells and selected materials suspended delivered on a fibrous cotton substrate. Mites were starved, fed on treated hemolymph to...

  17. PERSPECTIVES REGARDING ANTENATAL CARE, DELIVERY AND BREAST FEEDING PRACTICES OF WOMEN FROM BALUCHISTAN, PAKISTAN.

    PubMed

    Khoso, Aneeta; Khan, Ayesha Zahid; Sayed, Sayeeda Amber; Rafique, Ghazala

    2016-01-01

    Antenatal Care is one of the fundamental rights for women to safeguard their health. Neonatal mortality rates have remained relatively static, compared to the decline in infant and under 5 mortality rates, adverse practices regarding breast feeding and pre-lacteal feeds being the important factors responsible. This study aimed to explore the Antenatal Care, delivery and breastfeeding practices in three districts of Baluchistan. It was a qualitative phenomenological design using Constructivist approach. The study was conducted in three districts of Baluchistan province, Gwadar, Quetta, Qila Saifullah. There were a total of 14 Focus Group Discussions with women regarding Antenatal Care, delivery and Breastfeeding practices, followed by audio taping, transcription as verbatim and analysis through Nvivo version 2. A process was deployed for identification and reporting of the components in order to ensure quality and validity of the qualitative findings. Across the sites, women attended ANC at least once. However, their descriptions of ANC often varied. The women preferred Dais instead of doctors, due to the affordability, customs and availability. A lack of trained doctors and long distances to get a check-up lead to home deliveries in the study setting. Colostrum was discarded by majority of the mothers, while prelacteal feed was a common practice. This paper has explored factors affecting ANC attendance, delivery and breast feeding practices across three settings. Both the demand and supply side factors have an important influence on practices.

  18. Impact of Feed Delivery Pattern on Aerial Particulate Matter and Behavior of Feedlot Cattle †.

    PubMed

    Mitloehner, Frank M; Dailey, Jeff W; Morrow, Julie L; McGlone, John J

    2017-03-01

    Fine particulate matter with less than 2.5 microns diameter (PM2.5) generated by cattle in feedlots is an environmental pollutant and a potential human and animal health issue. The objective of this study was to determine if a feeding schedule affects cattle behaviors that promote PM2.5 in a commercial feedlot. The study used 2813 crossbred steers housed in 14 adjacent pens at a large-scale commercial West Texas feedlot. Treatments were conventional feeding at 0700, 1000, and 1200 (CON) or feeding at 0700, 1000, and 1830 (ALT), the latter feeding time coincided with dusk. A mobile behavior lab was used to quantify behaviors of steers that were associated with generation of PM2.5 (e.g., fighting, mounting of peers, and increased locomotion). PM2.5 samplers measured respirable particles with a mass median diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) every 15 min over a period of 7 d in April and May. Simultaneously, the ambient temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, precipitation, air pressure, and solar radiation were measured with a weather station. Elevated downwind PM2.5 concentrations were measured at dusk, when cattle that were fed according to the ALT vs. the CON feeding schedule, demonstrated less PM2.5-generating behaviors (p < 0.05). At dusk, steers on ALT vs. CON feeding schedules ate or were waiting to eat (standing in second row behind feeding cattle) at much greater rates (p < 0.05). Upwind PM2.5 concentrations were similar between the treatments. Downwind PM2.5 concentrations averaged over 24 h were lower from ALT compared with CON pens (0.072 vs. 0.115 mg/m³, p < 0.01). However, dry matter intake (DMI) was less (p < 0.05), and average daily gain (ADG) tended to be less (p < 0.1) in cattle that were fed according to the ALT vs. the CON feeding schedules, whereas feed efficiency (aka gain to feed, G:F) was not affected. Although ALT feeding may pose a challenge in feed delivery and labor scheduling, cattle exhibited fewer PM2.5-generating behaviors and

  19. Prophylactic manual rotation for fetal malposition to reduce operative delivery.

    PubMed

    Phipps, Hala; de Vries, Bradley; Hyett, Jon; Osborn, David A

    2014-12-22

    Manual rotation is commonly performed to increase the chances of normal vaginal delivery and is perceived to be safe. Manual rotation has the potential to prevent operative delivery and caesarean section, and reduce obstetric and neonatal complications. To assess the effect of prophylactic manual rotation for women with malposition in labour on mode of delivery, and maternal and neonatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 October 2014), the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR), ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (all searched 23 February 2014), previous reviews and, references of retrieved studies. Randomised, quasi-randomised or cluster-randomised clinical trials comparing prophylactic manual rotation in labour for fetal malposition versus expectant management, augmentation of labour or operative delivery. We defined prophylactic manual rotation as rotation performed without immediate assisted delivery. Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility and quality, and extracted data. We included only one small pilot study (involving 30 women). The study, which we considered to be at low risk of bias, was conducted in a tertiary referral hospital in Australia, and involved women with cephalic, singleton pregnancies. The primary outcome was operative delivery (instrumental delivery or caesarean section).In the manual rotation group, 13/15 women went on to have an instrumental delivery or caesarean section, whereas in the control group, 12/15 women had an operative delivery. The estimated risk ratio was 1.08 (95% confidence interval 0.79 to 1.49). There were no maternal or fetal mortalities in either groupThere were no clear differences for any of the secondary maternal or neonatal outcomes reported (e.g. perineal trauma, analgesia use duration of labour).In terms of adverse events, there were no

  20. Joint position paper on rural surgery and operative delivery.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Stuart; Kornelsen, Jude; Woollard, Robert; Caron, Nadine; Warnock, Garth; Friesen, Randall; Miles, Peter; Vogt Haines, Victoria; Batchelor, Bret; Blake, Jenny; Mazowita, Garey; Wyman, Roy; Geller, Brian; de Klerk, Braam

    2015-01-01

    Our professional organizations have prepared this paper as part of an integrated, multidisciplinary plan to ensure the availability of well-trained practitioner teams to sustain safe, effective and high-quality rural surgical and operative delivery services. Without these robust local (or nearby) surgical services, sustaining rural maternity care is much more difficult. This paper describes the "network model" as a health human resources solution to meet the surgical needs, including operative delivery, of rural residents; outlines necessary policy directions for achieving this solution; and poses a series of enabling recommendations.

  1. Operation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells with dry feeds: Design and operating strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogarth, Warren H. J.; Benziger, Jay B.

    The operation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) with dry feeds has been examined with different fuel cell flow channel designs as functions of pressure, temperature and flow rate. Auto-humidified (or self-humidifying) PEMFC operation is improved at higher pressures and low gas velocities where axial dispersion enhances "back-mixing" of the product water with the dry feed. We demonstrate auto-humidified operation of the channel-less, self-draining fuel cell, based on a stirred tank reactor; data is presented showing auto-humidified operation from 25 to 115 °C at 1 and 3 atm. Design and operating requirements are derived for the auto-humidified operation of the channel-less, self-draining fuel cell. The auto-humidified self-draining fuel cell outperforms a fully humidified serpentine flow channel fuel cell at high current densities. The new design offers substantial benefits for simplicity of operation and control including: the ability to self-drain reducing flooding, the ability to uniformly disperse water removing current gradients and the ability to operate on dry feeds eliminating the need for humidifiers. Additionally, the design lends itself well to a modular design concept.

  2. Age at menarche and the risk of operative delivery.

    PubMed

    Chong, Hsu Phern; Frøen, J Frederik; Richardson, Sylvia; Liquet, Benoit; Charnock-Jones, D Stephen; Smith, Gordon C S

    2017-09-28

    We sought to evaluate the impact of later menarche on the risk of operative delivery. We studied 38,069 eligible women (first labors at term with a singleton infant in a cephalic presentation) from the Norwegian Mothers and Child Cohort Study. The main exposures were the age at menarche and the duration of the interval between menarche and the first birth. Poisson's regression with a robust variance estimator. Operative delivery, defined as emergency cesarean or assisted vaginal delivery (ventouse extraction or forceps). A 5 year increase in age at menarche was associated with a reduced risk of operative delivery (risk ratio [RR] 0.84, 95%CI 0.78, 0.89; p < .001). Adjustment for the age at first birth slightly strengthened the association (RR 0.79, 95%CI 0.74, 0.84; p < .001). However, the association was lost following adjustment for the menarche to birth interval (RR 0.99, 95%CI 0.93, 1.06; p = .81). A 5 years increase in menarche to birth interval was associated with an increased risk of operative delivery (RR 1.26, 95%CI 1.23, 1.28; p < .001). This was not materially affected by adjustment for an extensive series of maternal characteristics (RR 1.23, 95%CI 1.20, 1.25; p < .001). Later menarche reduces the risk of an operative first birth through shortening the menarche to birth interval. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that the pattern and/or duration of prepregnancy exposure of the uterus to estrogen and progesterone contributes to uterine aging.

  3. A Novel Approach to Improving Fat Delivery in Neonatal Enteral Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Jarjour, Jane; Juarez, Alexa M.; Kocak, Denizen K.; Liu, Nathan J.; Tabata, Mika M.; Hawthorne, Keli M.; Ramos, Renata F.; Abrams, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Continuous infusion systems used for enteral nutrition support in the neonatal intensive care unit deliver as little as 60% of the fat in human milk to the neonate. This study determined the effect of mixing common feedings for preterm infants in the feeding bag and tubing on fat losses during enteral feeding. Laboratory models were developed to assess the contribution of various mixing techniques to delivered fat content. Fat content was measured periodically during feeding and compared to baseline measurements. A multistage approach incorporating a feeding bag inverter and a tubing circulation loop delivered >90% of milk fat when used in conjunction with a commercial continuous infusion system. With unfortified human milk, this approach delivered 91.9% ± 1.5% of fat content over a one hour feed, significantly greater (p < 0.01) than 77.5% ± 2.2% delivered by continuous infusion controls (Mean ± SEM). With fortified human milk, this approach delivered 92.1% ± 2.4% of fat content, significantly greater (p < 0.01) than 79.4% ± 1.0% delivered by a non-adapted infusion system (Mean ± SEM). Mixing human milk during continuous infusion improves fat delivery, which may improve nutrition and growth outcomes in low birth weight neonates. PMID:26110253

  4. The Vacuum-Operated Nutrient Delivery System: hydroponics for microgravity.

    PubMed

    Brown, C S; Cox, W M; Dreschel, T W; Chetirkin, P V

    1992-11-01

    A nutrient delivery system that may have applicability for growing plants in microgravity is described. The Vacuum-Operated Nutrient Delivery System (VONDS) draws nutrient solution across roots that are under a partial vacuum at approximately 91 kPa. Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Blue Lake 274) plants grown on the VONDS had consistently greater leaf area and higher root, stem, leaf, and pod dry weights than plants grown under nonvacuum control conditions. This study demonstrates the potential applicability of the VONDS for growing plants in microgravity for space biology experimentation and/or crop production.

  5. A feeding protocol for delivery of agents to assess development in Varroa mites

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A novel feeding protocol for delivery of bio-active agents to Varroa mites was developed by providing mites with honey bee larva hemolymph supplemented with cultured insect cells and selected materials delivered on a fibrous cotton substrate. Mites were starved, fed on treated hemolymph to deliver selected agents and then returned to bee larvae. Transcript levels of two reference genes, actin and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), as well as for nine selected genes involved in reproductive processes showed that the starvation and feeding protocol periods did not pose a high level of stress to the mites as transcript levels remained comparable between phoretic mites and those completing the protocol. The feeding protocol was used to deliver molecules such as hormone analogs or plasmids. Mites fed with Tebufenozide, an ecdysone analog, had higher transcript levels of shade than untreated or solvent treated mites. In order to extend this feeding protocol, cultured insect cells were incorporated to a final ratio of 1 part cells and 2 parts hemolymph. Although supplementation with Bombyx mori Bm5 cells increased the amount of hemolymph consumed per mite, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of mites that fed and survived. On the other hand, Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells reduced significantly the percentage of mites that fed and survived as well as the amount of hemolymph consumed. The feeding protocol provides a dynamic platform with which to challenge the Varroa mite to establish efficacy of control agents for this devastating honey bee pest. PMID:28448606

  6. A feeding protocol for delivery of agents to assess development in Varroa mites.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Ana R; Shirk, Paul D; Teal, Peter E A

    2017-01-01

    A novel feeding protocol for delivery of bio-active agents to Varroa mites was developed by providing mites with honey bee larva hemolymph supplemented with cultured insect cells and selected materials delivered on a fibrous cotton substrate. Mites were starved, fed on treated hemolymph to deliver selected agents and then returned to bee larvae. Transcript levels of two reference genes, actin and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), as well as for nine selected genes involved in reproductive processes showed that the starvation and feeding protocol periods did not pose a high level of stress to the mites as transcript levels remained comparable between phoretic mites and those completing the protocol. The feeding protocol was used to deliver molecules such as hormone analogs or plasmids. Mites fed with Tebufenozide, an ecdysone analog, had higher transcript levels of shade than untreated or solvent treated mites. In order to extend this feeding protocol, cultured insect cells were incorporated to a final ratio of 1 part cells and 2 parts hemolymph. Although supplementation with Bombyx mori Bm5 cells increased the amount of hemolymph consumed per mite, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of mites that fed and survived. On the other hand, Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells reduced significantly the percentage of mites that fed and survived as well as the amount of hemolymph consumed. The feeding protocol provides a dynamic platform with which to challenge the Varroa mite to establish efficacy of control agents for this devastating honey bee pest.

  7. Fortifier and cream improve fat delivery in continuous enteral infant feeding of breast milk.

    PubMed

    Tabata, Mika; Abdelrahman, Khaled; Hair, Amy B; Hawthorne, Keli M; Chen, Zhensheng; Abrams, Steven A

    2015-02-11

    Premature and high-risk infants require accurate delivery of nutrients to promote appropriate growth. Continuous enteral feeding methods may result in significant fat and micronutrient loss. This study evaluated fat loss in enteral nutrition using current strategies for providing high-risk infants fortified human milk (HM). The fat content of HM was measured by IR analyzer in a simulated feeding system using the Kangaroo epumpTM and the MedFusionTM 2010 pump. Comparisons in fat loss were made between HM, HM supplemented with donor HM-derived fortifier Prolacta+H2MFTM (H2MF), and HM supplemented with H2MF and donor HM-derived cream ProlactCRTM (cream). When using the Kangaroo epumpTM, the addition of H2MF and cream to HM increased fat delivery efficiency from 75.0%±1.2% to 83.7%±1.0% (p<0.0001). When using the MedFusionTM 2010 pump, the addition of H2MF to HM increased fat delivery efficiency from 83.2%±2.8% to 88.8%±0.8% (p<0.05), and the addition of H2MF and cream increased fat delivery efficiency to 92.0%±0.3% (p<0.01). The addition of H2MF and cream to HM provides both the benefits of bioactive elements from mother's milk and increased fat delivery, making the addition of H2MF and cream an appropriate method to improve infant weight gain.

  8. Load requirements for maintaining structural integrity of Hanford single-shell tanks during waste feed delivery and retrieval activities

    SciTech Connect

    JULYK, L.J.

    1999-09-22

    This document provides structural load requirements and their basis for maintaining the structural integrity of the Hanford Single-Shell Tanks during waste feed delivery and retrieval activities. The requirements are based on a review of previous requirements and their basis documents as well as load histories with particular emphasis on the proposed lead transfer feed tanks for the privatized vitrification plant.

  9. Melter feed tank operating map from the FA-10.02 test data

    SciTech Connect

    Spatz, T.L.

    1994-08-01

    The operability of the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) feed loops has been tested during the DWPF-FA-10.02 test. The ability to feed the melter at three distinct melter feed rates (0.20, 0.45, and 0.90 gpm), two distinct agitator speeds (65 and 130 rpm), varying liquid levels, and varying slurry rheologies was tested. This report correlates the operability of the feed loops with the above mentioned variables. The data are presented in the form of operating maps, Figs. 1 through 4, which are plots of the liquid level versus the wt% total solids (and yield stress) for two agitator speeds. The maps are divided into regions of acceptable feed loop operation and unacceptable feed loop operation. This report does not consider how closely the compositions of the MFT, the melter feed lines, and the Hydragard samples agree. The significant observations in this report are as follows: Both feed loops satisfy the operability criteria down to a liquid level below the upper impeller blade at low speed agitation (65 rpm). Under high speed agitation (130 rpm), feed loop No. 2 operates much more poorly than feed loop No. 1. The uncertainty associated with the wt% total solids of a slurry sample is larger than the current design basis range for total solids. The dilution of slurry due to pump priming is shown graphically in the chronological presentation of wt% total solids.

  10. 77 FR 21098 - Reissuance of NPDES General Permit for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) Located in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Reissuance of NPDES General Permit for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) Located in... from coverage in the general permit, owners/ operators of animal feeding operations that are defined...

  11. Double strand RNA delivery system for plant-sap-feeding insects.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Saikat Kumar B; Hunter, Wayne B; Park, Alexis L; Gundersen-Rindal, Dawn E

    2017-01-01

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated gene silencing, also known as RNA interference (RNAi), has been a breakthrough technology for functional genomic studies and represents a potential tool for the management of insect pests. Since the inception of RNAi numerous studies documented successful introduction of exogenously synthesized dsRNA or siRNA into an organism triggering highly efficient gene silencing through the degradation of endogenous RNA homologous to the presented siRNA. Managing hemipteran insect pests, especially Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), is critical to food productivity. BMSB was recently introduced into North America where it is both an invasive agricultural pest of high value specialty, row, and staple crops, as well as an indoor nuisance pest. RNAi technology may serve as a viable tool to manage this voracious pest, but delivery of dsRNA to piercing-sucking insects has posed a tremendous challenge. Effective and practical use of RNAi as molecular biopesticides for biocontrol of insects like BMSB in the environment requires that dsRNAs be delivered in vivo through ingestion. Therefore, the key challenge for molecular biologists in developing insect-specific molecular biopesticides is to find effective and reliable methods for practical delivery of stable dsRNAs such as through oral ingestion. Here demonstrated is a reliable delivery system of effective insect-specific dsRNAs through oral feeding through a new delivery system to induce a significant decrease in expression of targeted genes such as JHAMT and Vg. This state-of-the-art delivery method overcomes environmental delivery challenges so that RNAi is induced through insect-specific dsRNAs orally delivered to hemipteran and other insect pests.

  12. Double strand RNA delivery system for plant-sap-feeding insects

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Saikat Kumar B.; Hunter, Wayne B.; Park, Alexis L.; Gundersen-Rindal, Dawn E.

    2017-01-01

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated gene silencing, also known as RNA interference (RNAi), has been a breakthrough technology for functional genomic studies and represents a potential tool for the management of insect pests. Since the inception of RNAi numerous studies documented successful introduction of exogenously synthesized dsRNA or siRNA into an organism triggering highly efficient gene silencing through the degradation of endogenous RNA homologous to the presented siRNA. Managing hemipteran insect pests, especially Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), is critical to food productivity. BMSB was recently introduced into North America where it is both an invasive agricultural pest of high value specialty, row, and staple crops, as well as an indoor nuisance pest. RNAi technology may serve as a viable tool to manage this voracious pest, but delivery of dsRNA to piercing-sucking insects has posed a tremendous challenge. Effective and practical use of RNAi as molecular biopesticides for biocontrol of insects like BMSB in the environment requires that dsRNAs be delivered in vivo through ingestion. Therefore, the key challenge for molecular biologists in developing insect-specific molecular biopesticides is to find effective and reliable methods for practical delivery of stable dsRNAs such as through oral ingestion. Here demonstrated is a reliable delivery system of effective insect-specific dsRNAs through oral feeding through a new delivery system to induce a significant decrease in expression of targeted genes such as JHAMT and Vg. This state-of-the-art delivery method overcomes environmental delivery challenges so that RNAi is induced through insect-specific dsRNAs orally delivered to hemipteran and other insect pests. PMID:28182760

  13. Prevention of the first cesarean delivery: the role of operative vaginal delivery.

    PubMed

    Gei, Alfredo F

    2012-10-01

    While the cesarean delivery (CD) rates have increased worldwide, operative vaginal delivery (OVD) rates continue to decline, with the United States having some of the lower rates amongst developed countries. It is clear that the use of forceps or vacuum can safely assist in accomplishing a vaginal delivery and prevent a cesarean during the IInd stage of labor performed for a variety of maternal or fetal indications. In the absence of randomized trials between OVD's and immediate CD's for anticipated difficult births the question of the balance of risks between the two interventions remains unanswered. Properly performed OVD's are associated with lower maternal morbidity compared with cesarean, without an increase in significant neonatal morbidity. In order to reverse the current trends and for these skills to continue active training in OVD's is clearly needed during and after residency. The availability of clinicians with expertise in OVD's should aid in decreasing the rates of CD and the training of newer generations of practitioners. The professional endorsement of OVD's is also fundamental not only to frame the practice for physicians but to promote and improve the general acceptance of assisted deliveries and facilitate the societal discourse to reduce CD rates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. High pressure feeder and method of operating to feed granular or fine materials

    SciTech Connect

    Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

    2014-10-07

    A coal feed system to feed pulverized low rank coals containing up to 25 wt % moisture to gasifiers operating up to 1000 psig pressure is described. The system includes gas distributor and collector gas permeable pipes imbedded in the lock vessel. Different methods of operation of the feed system are disclosed to minimize feed problems associated with bridging and packing of the pulverized coal. The method of maintaining the feed system and feeder device exit pressures using gas addition or extraction with the pressure control device is also described.

  15. High pressure feeder and method of operating to feed granular or fine materials

    DOEpatents

    Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

    2016-08-09

    A coal feed system to feed pulverized low rank coals containing up to 25 wt % moisture to gasifiers operating up to 1000 psig pressure is described. The system includes gas distributor and collector gas permeable pipes imbedded in the lock vessel. Different methods of operation of the feed system are disclosed to minimize feed problems associated with bridging and packing of the pulverized coal. The method of maintaining the feed system and feeder device exit pressures using gas addition or extraction with the pressure control device is also described.

  16. Short communication: effects of frequency of feed delivery and bunk space on the feeding behavior of limit-fed dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Greter, A M; Westerveld, R S; Duffield, T F; McBride, B W; Widowski, T M; Devries, T J

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the interaction between feed bunk space and frequency of feed provision on the feeding behavior patterns and growth of growing dairy heifers fed a limited amount. Sixteen Holstein dairy heifers (183.4 ± 9.1 d of age, mean ± standard deviation) were divided into 4 groups of 4. The groups were exposed to each of 4 treatments, using a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, over 21-d periods (14-d adaptation period, 7-d data collection periods). The treatments were arranged in 2 feed delivery frequencies (once per day at 1200 h: 1 ×/d, and twice per day at 1200 and 1400 h: 2 ×/d) and 2 levels of feed bunk space (adequate feed bunk space: 0.40 m/heifer, and reduced feed bunk space: 0.29 m/heifer). Pen dry matter intake (DMI) was recorded daily, average daily gain (ADG) was recorded weekly, and variability in ADG was calculated from the standard deviation of ADG. Feeding, unrewarded behavior (time at feed bunk without feed present), and competitive behavior were recorded using time-lapse video. Feeding and unrewarded behavior were measured for the last 7 d of each period, whereas competitive behavior was recorded on d 16, 18, and 20 of each period. Lying time was recorded for the last 7 d of each period. A tendency for interaction between feed bunk space and frequency of feed delivery on the feed efficiency of limit-fed dairy heifers was noted. Heifers provided restricted bunk space were reported as being less efficient when fed 2 ×/d; however, no other interactions were found. Although DMI and variability in ADG were similar between treatments, ADG was higher (1.0 vs. 0.9 kg/d) when heifers were provided with 0.40 m of feed bunk space and tended to be higher when fed 1 ×/d compared with that of heifers given restricted bunk space or fed 2 ×/d. Heifers fed 1 ×/d spent more time feeding throughout the day (70.5 vs. 58.9 min/d) than heifers fed 2 ×/d. Heifers fed at a

  17. Immediate Postsession Feeding Reduces Operant Responding in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smethells, John R.; Fox, Andrew T.; Andrews, Jennifer J.; Reilly, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the effects of immediate and delayed postsession feeding on progressive-ratio and variable-interval schedule performance in rats. During Experiments 1 and 2, immediate postsession feeding decreased the breakpoint, or largest completed ratio, under progressive-ratio schedules. Experiment 3 was conducted to extend the…

  18. Immediate Postsession Feeding Reduces Operant Responding in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smethells, John R.; Fox, Andrew T.; Andrews, Jennifer J.; Reilly, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the effects of immediate and delayed postsession feeding on progressive-ratio and variable-interval schedule performance in rats. During Experiments 1 and 2, immediate postsession feeding decreased the breakpoint, or largest completed ratio, under progressive-ratio schedules. Experiment 3 was conducted to extend the…

  19. Comparison of Waste Feed Delivery Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Simulant to Hanford Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Beric E.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.

    2012-07-10

    The Hanford double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions' Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems. A series of these tests have used a five-part simulant composed of particles of different size and density and designed to be equal or more challenging than AY-102 waste. This five-part simulant, however, has not been compared with the broad range of Hanford waste, and thus there is an additional uncertainty that this simulant may not be as challenging as the most difficult Hanford waste. The purpose of this study is to quantify how the current five-part simulant compares to all of the Hanford sludge waste, and to suggest alternate simulants that could be tested to reduce the uncertainty in applying the current testing results to potentially more challenging wastes.

  20. Comparison of Waste Feed Delivery Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Simulant to Hanford Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Beric E.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.

    2011-09-01

    The Hanford double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions' Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems. A series of these tests have used a five-part simulant composed of particles of different size and density and designed to be equal or more challenging than AY-102 waste. This five-part simulant, however, has not been compared with the broad range of Hanford waste, and thus there is an additional uncertainty that this simulant may not be as challenging as the most difficult Hanford waste. The purpose of this study is to quantify how the current five-part simulant compares to all of the Hanford sludge waste, and to suggest alternate simulants that could be tested to reduce the uncertainty in applying the current testing results to potentially more challenging wastes.

  1. Association between Caesarean Delivery and Isolated Doses of Formula Feeding in Cow Milk Allergy.

    PubMed

    Gil, Francisco; Amezqueta, Ana; Martinez, Diana; Aznal, Elena; Etayo, Veronica; Durá, Teodoro; Sánchez-Valverde, Félix

    2017-01-01

    Cow milk allergy (CMA) is the most common food allergy in breastfed infants. The aim of this study is to verify whether certain perinatal factors may influence the development of CMA immunoglobulin E (IgE)+. A retrospective, observational study of case and control groups was carried out. Information was collected of patients with CMA IgE+ from our department during the years 1990-2013. Patients of the same age and sex were recruited for the control group. Information on the following variables was collected: sex, age, pregnancy tolerance, duration of pregnancy, type of delivery, isolated doses of formula feeding in hospital (FFH), duration of breastfeeding, and family history of allergy (defined as ≥1 first-degree family member with allergic disease). Statistical analysis was performed using multivariate logistic regression techniques. A total of 211 cases were included in this study. Multivariate analysis showed an influence of duration of breastfeeding, FFH to be a risk factor (OR 4.94; 95% CI 2.68-9.08), especially in caesarean delivery (OR 11.82; 95% CI 2.64-47.50), and prematurity (OR 0.29; 95% CI 0.09-0.92) to be a protective factor. Perinatal factors play a key role in the development of CMA IgE+, with an influence of breastfeeding duration, FFH and caesarean delivery as risk factors and prematurity as a protective factor. While family history had no important role, environmental factors were more decisive. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Rapid Ammonia Deposition Measured Near Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, L. G.; Pan, D.; Sun, K.; Golston, L.; Tao, L.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) emit massive amounts of ammonia (NH3) to the atmosphere. Current measurements of NH3 are generally conducted far away from the sources (satellites, airplanes, etc.). There is insufficient knowledge about the dry deposition rate of NH3 near the sources, which might contribute to the large discrepancies between measured concentrations at CAFOs and those from models. During the 2014 NASA DISCOVER-AQ campaign, we designed a series of tests to measure the deposition rate of NH3 by utilizing a suite of sensors, including a LICOR LI-7700 methane sensor and Princeton University's custom open path NH3 sensor, which was mounted on top of a small SUV. Our mobile sampling technique enables us to follow feedlot emission plumes to see how ambient NH3 concentration decays as gases moves away from the CAFO. The mobile platform is used to perform upwind and downwind sampling to characterize the NH3 emission source. We tracked the change of the enhancement of NH3 concentration relative to the enhancement of CH4 concentration (ΔNH3:ΔCH4), while transecting the plume of individual cattle feedlots. Measured data shows that the high concentration of NH3 seen at the source decreases quickly as one moves further downwind from it. A time constant of approximately ten minutes has been calculated from the decay of the ΔNH3:ΔCH4 ratios while moving away from the sources. We also will compare our measurements with those of NASA's P-3B aerosol measurements to show that the majority must be lost to dry deposition. This rapid deposition suggests that large amounts of NH3 are being deposited in very close proximity to these CAFOs, which is consistent with previous findings of locally high soil pH near NH3 sources. Our results will be used to better characterize nitrogen deposition from cattle feedlots and estimate NH3 lifetime.

  3. The effect of different feed delivery methods on time to consume feed and the resulting changes in postprandial metabolite concentrations in horses.

    PubMed

    Kutzner-Mulligan, J; Eisemann, J; Siciliano, P; Smith, J; Hewitt, K; Sharlette, J; Pratt-Phillips, S

    2013-08-01

    Management techniques that reduce the insulin response to feeding in horses have application in preventing insulin resistance (IR) and potential associations (e.g., laminitis). Eight mature idle horses of BCS between 5 and 6.5 and with no previous indication of IR were fed a meal of concentrate under 4 feed delivery treatments in a repeated Latin Square design. Treatments were all based on a bucket of equal dimensions. The treatments included a control (CON) and 3 treatments hypothesized to increase time to consume feed (TCF): mobile obstacles above the feed (BALL), stationary obstacles below the feed (WAFF), and feed with water added (WTR). Jugular venous blood samples were taken at feed delivery, every 10 min for the first hour, and then every 30 min until 300 min after feed delivery. The TCF was different across treatment and was greater (P < 0.05) for BALL and WAFF when compared with CON and WTR. Glucose and insulin concentrations increased after feeding (P < 0.05) and tended to differ among treatments (P < 0.10). Peak insulin and glucose concentrations were affected by treatment as were the time to peak insulin and the area under the curve of insulin (P < 0.05). Therefore, feed delivery methods that include obstacles effectively increase TCF and attenuate postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations. A second experiment was designed to determine if the TCF changes associated with BALL and WAFF in Exp. 1 remain effective over a 4-d period. Four horses with no recent or regular history of consuming concentrates were fed concentrate meals for 4 consecutive d using the same treatments described in Exp. 1 and a Latin square design. Horses were subject to a 4-d adaptation period and were randomly assigned to 4-d treatment periods using the 4 previously described treatments. During adaptation, TCF decreased over time (P = 0.02). After adaptation, WAFF had greater TCF when compared with CON and WTR (P < 0.05) whereas WTR had the lowest TCF overall. Using obstacles

  4. [Operations research in group feeding programs: techniques for the identification and analysis of management problems].

    PubMed

    Montealegre, J; Fuentes, F; Mata, A; Cuevas, R

    1989-09-01

    The operations of the group feeding programs (PAG--"Programas de Alimentación a Grupos"--) can be viewed as a sequence of decisions and activities that according to their direction, order, relationship and dependency, will influence the quality and quantity of the service's delivery. While searching for the essential characteristics of a PAG: components, relationship, variables, pertinent parameters, restrictions, underlying criteria and objective functions, operations research can be useful for its analysis, the identification of its management problems, and to develop, evaluate and finally, implement solutions. Various operation research techniques are presented in this article, which are geared towards responding to those knowledge needs of the national technicians and program managers, in order to give a solid foundation to solutions for the management problems identified in a PAG. Failures of different quantitative models had been due, mainly, to the tendency to formulate models or investigate problems without users being prepared to implement the solutions. The techniques presented herein take into consideration the interaction between specialists and users.

  5. 40 CFR 123.36 - Establishment of technical standards for concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Establishment of technical standards for concentrated animal feeding operations. 123.36 Section 123.36 Protection of Environment... § 123.36 Establishment of technical standards for concentrated animal feeding operations. If the State...

  6. 40 CFR 123.36 - Establishment of technical standards for concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Establishment of technical standards for concentrated animal feeding operations. 123.36 Section 123.36 Protection of Environment... § 123.36 Establishment of technical standards for concentrated animal feeding operations. If the State...

  7. 40 CFR 123.36 - Establishment of technical standards for concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Establishment of technical standards for concentrated animal feeding operations. 123.36 Section 123.36 Protection of Environment... § 123.36 Establishment of technical standards for concentrated animal feeding operations. If the State...

  8. CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS AS A SOURCE OF EDCS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States, there is an estimated 376,000 animal feed operations, generating approximately 128 billion pounds of waste each year. A facility is an animal feed operation (AFO) if animals are stabled/confined, or fed/maintained, for 45 days or more within any 12-month per...

  9. 40 CFR 123.36 - Establishment of technical standards for concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for concentrated animal feeding operations. 123.36 Section 123.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS STATE PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS State Program Submissions § 123.36 Establishment of technical standards for concentrated animal feeding operations. If the State...

  10. 40 CFR 123.36 - Establishment of technical standards for concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for concentrated animal feeding operations. 123.36 Section 123.36 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS STATE PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS State Program Submissions § 123.36 Establishment of technical standards for concentrated animal feeding operations. If the State...

  11. CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS AS A SOURCE OF EDCS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States, there is an estimated 376,000 animal feed operations, generating approximately 128 billion pounds of waste each year. A facility is an animal feed operation (AFO) if animals are stabled/confined, or fed/maintained, for 45 days or more within any 12-month per...

  12. From Data to Improved Decisions: Operations Research in Healthcare Delivery.

    PubMed

    Capan, Muge; Khojandi, Anahita; Denton, Brian T; Williams, Kimberly D; Ayer, Turgay; Chhatwal, Jagpreet; Kurt, Murat; Lobo, Jennifer Mason; Roberts, Mark S; Zaric, Greg; Zhang, Shengfan; Schwartz, J Sanford

    2017-11-01

    The Operations Research Interest Group (ORIG) within the Society of Medical Decision Making (SMDM) is a multidisciplinary interest group of professionals that specializes in taking an analytical approach to medical decision making and healthcare delivery. ORIG is interested in leveraging mathematical methods associated with the field of Operations Research (OR) to obtain data-driven solutions to complex healthcare problems and encourage collaborations across disciplines. This paper introduces OR for the non-expert and draws attention to opportunities where OR can be utilized to facilitate solutions to healthcare problems. Decision making is the process of choosing between possible solutions to a problem with respect to certain metrics. OR concepts can help systematically improve decision making through efficient modeling techniques while accounting for relevant constraints. Depending on the problem, methods that are part of OR (e.g., linear programming, Markov Decision Processes) or methods that are derived from related fields (e.g., regression from statistics) can be incorporated into the solution approach. This paper highlights the characteristics of different OR methods that have been applied to healthcare decision making and provides examples of emerging research opportunities. We illustrate OR applications in healthcare using previous studies, including diagnosis and treatment of diseases, organ transplants, and patient flow decisions. Further, we provide a selection of emerging areas for utilizing OR. There is a timely need to inform practitioners and policy makers of the benefits of using OR techniques in solving healthcare problems. OR methods can support the development of sustainable long-term solutions across disease management, service delivery, and health policies by optimizing the performance of system elements and analyzing their interaction while considering relevant constraints.

  13. Comparison of Waste Feed Delivery Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Simulant to Hanford Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Beric E.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.

    2011-08-15

    'The Hanford double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste feed delivery to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Hall (2008) includes WTP acceptance criteria that describe physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be certified as acceptable before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST. The objectives of Washington River Protection Solutions' (WRPS) Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project are to understand and demonstrate the DST sampling and batch transfer performance at multiple scales using slurry simulants comprised of UDS particles and liquid (Townson 2009). The SSMD project utilizes geometrically scaled DST feed tanks to generate mixing, sampling, and transfer test data. In Phase 2 of the testing, RPP-49740, the 5-part simulant defined in RPP-48358 was used as the waste slurry simulant. The Phase 2 test data are being used to estimate the expected performance of the prototypic systems in the full-scale DSTs. As such, understanding of the how the small-scale systems as well as the simulant relate to the full-scale DSTs and actual waste is required. The focus of this report is comparison of the size and density of the 5-part SSMD simulant to that of the Hanford waste. This is accomplished by computing metrics for particle mobilization, suspension, settling, transfer line intake, and pipeline transfer from the characterization of the 5-part SSMD simulant and characterizations of the Hanford waste. In addition, the effects of the suspending fluid characteristics on the test results are considered, and a computational fluid dynamics tool useful to quantify uncertainties from simulant selections is discussed.'

  14. Rulemaking Petition to lower the threshold that qualifies animal feeding operations (“AFOs”) as concentrated animal feeding operations (“CAFOs”) and thereby “point sources” under section 402 of the Clean Water Act (“CWA”)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Rulemaking Petition submitted September 20, 2015 to lower the threshold that qualifies animal feeding operations (AFOs) as concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and thereby point sources under§ 402 of the Clean Water Act (CWA).

  15. Effect of bait delivery rate in a GreenFeed system on methane emission estimates from cattle grazing rangeland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of bait delivery rate on methane emission estimates measured by a GreenFeed system (GFS; C-Lock, Inc., Rapid City, SD). The manufacture recommends that cattle have a minimum visit time of 3 minutes so that at least 3 eructations are captured to ...

  16. ANALYSIS OF LAGOON SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS FOR ESTROGENS AND ESTROGEN CONJUGATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations CAFOs) have been identified as potentially important sources for the release of estrogens into the environment, information is lacking on the concentrations of estrogens in whole lagoon effluents (including suspended solids)which ar...

  17. ANALYSIS OF LAGOON SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS FOR ESTROGENS AND ESTROGEN CONJUGATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations CAFOs) have been identified as potentially important sources for the release of estrogens into the environment, information is lacking on the concentrations of estrogens in whole lagoon effluents (including suspended solids)which ar...

  18. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE ELECTROLYZER OPERATION WITH VARYING INLET WATER FEED CONFIGURATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, E

    2008-09-12

    Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) electrolysis is a potential alternative technology to crack water in specialty applications where a dry gas stream is needed, such as isotope production. One design proposal is to feed the cathode of the electrolyzer with vapor phase water. This feed configuration would allow isotopic water to be isolated on the cathode side of the electrolyzer and the isotope recovery system could be operated in a closed loop. Tests were performed to characterize the difference in the current-voltage behavior between a PEM electrolyzer operated with a cathode water vapor feed and with an anode liquid water feed. The cathode water vapor feed cell had a maximum limiting current density of 100 mA/cm2 at 70 C compared to a current density of 800 mA/cm2 for the anode liquid feed cell at 70 C. The limiting current densities for the cathode water vapor feed cell were approximately 3 times lower than predicted by a water mass transfer model. It is estimated that a cathode water vapor feed electrolyzer system will need to be between 8-14 times larger in active area or number of cells than an anode liquid feed system.

  19. Simulant Development for Hanford Double-Shell Tank Mixing and Waste Feed Delivery Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Tran, Diana N.; Buchmiller, William C.

    2012-09-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Projection manages the River Protection Project, which has the mission to retrieve and treat the Hanford tank waste for disposal and close the tank farms (Certa et al. 2011). Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) is responsible for a primary objective of this mission which is to retrieve and transfer tank waste to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). A mixing and sampling program with four separate demonstrations is currently being conducted to support this objective and also to support activities in a plan for addressing safety concerns identified by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board related to the ability of the WTP to mix, sample, and transfer fast settling particles. Previous studies have documented the objectives, criteria, and selection of non-radioactive simulants for these four demonstrations. The identified simulants include Newtonian suspending liquids with densities and viscosities that span the range expected in waste feed tanks. The identified simulants also include non-Newtonian slurries with Bingham yield stress values that span a range that is expected to bound the Bingham yield stress in the feed delivery tanks. The previous studies identified candidate materials for the Newtonian and non-Newtonian suspending fluids, but did not provide specific recipes for obtaining the target properties and information was not available to evaluate the compatibility of the fluids and particles or the potential for salt precipitation at lower temperatures. The purpose of this study is to prepare small batches of simulants in advance of the demonstrations to determine specific simulant recipes, to evaluate the compatibility of the liquids and particles, and to determine if the simulants are stable for the potential range of test temperatures. The objective of the testing, which is focused primarily on the Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, is to determine the composition of

  20. Delivery efficiency of an Elekta linac under gated operation.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guoqiang; Housley, David J; Chen, Fan; Mehta, Vivek K; Shepard, David M

    2014-09-08

    In this study, we have characterized the efficiency of an Elekta linac in the delivery of gated radiotherapy. We have explored techniques to reduce the beam-on delay and to improve the delivery efficiency, and have investigated the impact of frequent beam interruptions on the dosimetric accuracy of gated deliveries. A newly available gating interface was installed on an Elekta Synergy. Gating signals were generated using a surface mapping system in conjunction with a respiratory motion phantom. A series of gated deliveries were performed using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment plans previously generated for lung cancer patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy. Baseline values were determined for the delivery times. The machine was then tuned in an effort to minimize beam-on delays and improve delivery efficiency. After that process was completed, the dosimetric accuracy of the gated deliveries was evaluated by comparing the measured and the planned coronal dose distributions using gamma index analyses. Comparison of the gated and the non-gated deliveries were also performed. The results demonstrated that, with the optimal machine settings, the average beam-on delay was reduced to less than 0.22 s. High dosimetric accuracy was demonstrated with gamma index passing rates no lower than 99.0% for all tests (3%/3 mm criteria). Consequently, Elekta linacs can provide a practical solution for gated VMAT treatments with high dosimetric accuracy and only a moderate increase in the overall delivery time.

  1. Predictors of shoulder dystocia at the time of operative vaginal delivery.

    PubMed

    Palatnik, Anna; Grobman, William A; Hellendag, Madeline G; Janetos, Timothy M; Gossett, Dana R; Miller, Emily S

    2016-11-01

    It remains uncertain whether clinical factors known prior to delivery can predict which women are more likely to experience shoulder dystocia in the setting of operative vaginal delivery. We sought to identify whether shoulder dystocia can be accurately predicted among women undergoing an operative vaginal delivery. This was a case-control study of women undergoing a low or outlet operative vaginal delivery from 2005 through 2014 in a single tertiary care center. Cases were defined as women who experienced a shoulder dystocia at the time of operative vaginal delivery. Controls consisted of women without a shoulder dystocia at the time of operative vaginal delivery. Variables previously identified to be associated with shoulder dystocia that could be known prior to delivery were abstracted from the medical records. Bivariable analyses and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify factors independently associated with shoulder dystocia. A receiver operating characteristic curve was created to evaluate the predictive value of the model for shoulder dystocia. Of the 4080 women who met inclusion criteria, shoulder dystocia occurred in 162 (4.0%) women. In bivariable analysis, maternal age, parity, body mass index, diabetes, chorioamnionitis, arrest disorder as an indication for an operative vaginal delivery, vacuum use, and estimated fetal weight >4 kg were significantly associated with shoulder dystocia. In multivariable analysis, parity, diabetes, chorioamnionitis, arrest disorder as an indication for operative vaginal delivery, vacuum use, and estimated fetal weight >4 kg remained independently associated with shoulder dystocia. The area under the curve for the generated receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.73 (95% confidence interval, 0.69-0.77), demonstrating only a modest ability to predict shoulder dystocia before performing an operative vaginal delivery. While risk factors for shoulder dystocia at the time of operative vaginal delivery

  2. MANAGING WATERBORNE PATHOGENS ASSOCIATED WITH CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pathogenic microorganisms of fecal origin are the leading cause of river and stream impairments in the United States. Runoff from agricultural operations, particularly animal agricultural, can be a major contributor of fecal microbial pollution in a watershed. Several management...

  3. MANAGING WATERBORNE PATHOGENS ASSOCIATED WITH CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pathogenic microorganisms of fecal origin are the leading cause of river and stream impairments in the United States. Runoff from agricultural operations, particularly animal agricultural, can be a major contributor of fecal microbial pollution in a watershed. Several management...

  4. Intrapartum ultrasound: A useful method for evaluating labor progress and predicting operative vaginal delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ki Hoon

    2014-01-01

    The last step of a successful pregnancy is the safe delivery of the fetus. An important question is if the delivery should vaginal or operative. In addition to the use of conventional antenatal ultrasound, the use of intrapartum ultrasound to evaluate fetal head station, position, cervical ripening, and placental separation is promising. This review evaluates and summarizes the usefulness of intrapartum ultrasound for the evaluation of labor progress and predicting successful operative vaginal delivery. PMID:25469329

  5. POTENTIAL OF CONFINED ANIMAL FEED OPERATIONS (CAFOS) TO CONTRIBUTE ESTROGENS TO THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confined Animal Feed Operations (CAFOs) are a growing industry, with a trend towards fewer operations with higher concentrations of animals. Animals are either fed and/or treated with many different types of pharmaceuticals, including antibiotics and hormones, which can end up in...

  6. POTENTIAL OF CONFINED ANIMAL FEED OPERATIONS (CAFOS) TO CONTRIBUTE ESTROGENS TO THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confined Animal Feed Operations (CAFOs) are a growing industry, with a trend towards fewer operations with higher concentrations of animals. Animals are either fed and/or treated with many different types of pharmaceuticals, including antibiotics and hormones, which can end up in...

  7. Values of Particle Size, Particle Density & Slurry Viscosity to use in Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    JEWETT, J R

    2002-03-14

    The objective of this document is to provide recommended values for three waste properties to be used in a planned revision of the Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis (Julyk et al. 2001). These properties are particle size distribution (PSD), particle density, and slurry viscosity. In this document, the results of laboratory and engineering studies will be collated and summarized to provide a succinct source of physical property data for use in the hydraulic analysis of the transfer system.

  8. Denitrifying phosphorus removal in a step-feed CAST with alternating anoxic-oxic operational strategy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Juan; Peng, Yongzhen; Wang, Shuying; Wang, Li; Liu, Yang; Ma, Ningping

    2009-01-01

    A bench-scale cyclic activated sludge technology (CAST) was operated to study the biological phosphorus removal performance and a series of batch tests was carried out to demonstrate the accumulation of denitrifying polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (DNPAOs) in CAST system. Under all operating conditions, step-feed CAST with enough carbon sources in influent had the highest nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency as well as good sludge settling performance. The average removal rate of COD, NH4+-N, PO4(3-)-P and total nitrogen (TN) was 88.2%, 98.7%, 97.5% and 92.1%, respectively. The average sludge volume index (SVI) was 133 mL/g. The optimum anaerobic/aerobic/anoxic (AOA) conditions for the cultivation of DNPAOs could be achieved by alternating anoxic/oxic operational strategy, thus a significant denitrifying phosphorus removal occurred in step-feed CAST. The denitrification of NOx(-)-N completed quickly due to step-feed operation and enough carbon sources, which could enhance phosphorus release and further phosphorus uptake capability of the system. Batch tests also proved that polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) in the step-feed process had strong denitrifying phosphorus removal capacity. Both nitrate and nitrite could be used as electron acceptors in denitrifying phosphorus removal. Low COD supply with step-feed operation strategy would favor DNPAOs accumulation.

  9. Formula delivery in patients receiving enteral tube feeding on general hospital wards: the impact of nasogastric extubation and diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Kevin; Hill, Lydia; Preedy, Victor R; Judd, Patricia A; Taylor, Moira A

    2006-10-01

    In contrast to the intensive care unit, little is known of the percentage of formula delivered to patients receiving enteral tube feeding (ETF) on general wards or of the complications that affect its delivery. This study prospectively investigated the incidence of nasogastric extubation and diarrhea in patients starting ETF on general wards and examined their effect on formula delivery. In a prospective observational study, the volume of formula delivered to patients receiving ETF on general wards was compared with the volume prescribed. The incidence of nasogastric extubation and diarrhea was measured and its effect on formula delivery calculated. Twenty-eight patients were monitored for a total of 319 patient days. The mean +/- SD volume of formula prescribed was 1460 +/- 213 mL/d, whereas the mean volume delivered was only 1280 +/- 418 mL/d (P < 0.001), representing a mean percentage delivery of 88 +/- 25% of prescribed formula. Nasogastric extubation occurred in 17 of 28 patients (60%), affecting 53 of the 319 patient days (17%). The percentage of formula delivered on days when the nasogastric tube remained in situ was 96 +/- 12% and on days when nasogastric extubation occurred it was only 45 +/- 31% (P < 0.001). Diarrhea affected 39 of 319 patient days (12%) but there was no difference in formula delivery on days when diarrhea did or did not occur (78% versus 89%, P = 0.295). There was a significant, albeit small, negative correlation between the daily stool score and formula delivery (correlation coefficient -0.216, P < 0.001). Formula delivery is marginally suboptimal in patients receiving ETF on general wards. Nasogastric extubation is common and results in an inherent cessation of ETF until the nasogastric tube is replaced and is therefore a major factor impeding formula delivery. Diarrhea is also common but does not result in significant reductions in formula delivery.

  10. Arsenic pollution of agricultural soils by concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs).

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueping; Zhang, Wenfeng; Hu, Yuanan; Hu, Erdan; Xie, Xiande; Wang, Lingling; Cheng, Hefa

    2015-01-01

    Animal wastes from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) can cause soil arsenic pollution due to the widespread use of organoarsenic feed additives. This study investigated the arsenic pollution of surface soils in a typical CAFO zone, in comparison with that of agricultural soils in the Pearl River Delta, China. The mean soil arsenic contents in the CAFO zone were elevated compared to those in the local background and agricultural soils of the Pearl River Delta region. Chemical speciation analysis showed that the soils in the CAFO zone were clearly contaminated by the organoarsenic feed additive, p-arsanilic acid (ASA). Transformation of ASA to inorganic arsenic (arsenite and arsenate) in the surface soils was also observed. Although the potential ecological risk posed by the arsenic in the surface soils was relatively low in the CAFO zone, continuous discharge of organoarsenic feed additives could cause accumulation of arsenic and thus deserves significant attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Design, fabrication, delivery, operation and maintenance of a geothermal power conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The design, fabrication, delivery, operation and maintenance of an Hydrothermal Power Company 1250 KVA geothermal power conversion system using a helical screw expander as the prime mover is described. Hydrostatic and acceptance testing are discussed.

  12. Increasing rates of operative vaginal delivery across two decades: accompanying outcomes and instrument preferences.

    PubMed

    Hehir, Mark P; Reidy, Fiona R; Wilkinson, Michael N; Mahony, Rhona

    2013-11-01

    To examine rates and outcomes of operative vaginal delivery over a 20-year study period and the changing preference for various instruments during this period. This retrospective analysis of prospectively gathered data was carried out at a large tertiary referral center from 1991 to 2010. All cases of operative vaginal delivery during the study period were recorded. The rates of instrumental delivery, as well as neonatal outcomes and instrument preference, were compared for individual 5-year epochs. During the study period there were 156,130 deliveries of which 17,841 were operative vaginal deliveries, an incidence of 11.4/100 deliveries and 13.6/100 vaginal deliveries. There was an increase in the rate of operative vaginal delivery across the 20-year period (P < 0.0001; R(2) = 0.85; Slope = 0.42). When individual 5-year epochs were compared, the incidence of instrumental delivery increased from 7.3% (2340/31,937) in the first five years, 1991-1995, to 13.7% (6179/45,177) in the final five years, 2006-2010 (P < 0.0001; OR 2.34, 95% CI = 2.23-2.47). The perinatal mortality rate in cases of instrumental delivery was decreased when these time periods were compared (7.3/1000 (17/2340) vs. 1.8/1000 (11/6179); P = 0.003, OR 0.24, 95% CI = 0.11-0.52). The choice of instrument also varied, with 68.2% (1596/2340) of instrumental deliveries in 1991-1995 being carried out with forceps compared to 32.9% (2033/6179) in 2006-2010 (P < 0.001). Rates of operative vaginal delivery have increased over the 20-year study period. The rate of perinatal mortality in infants who had an assisted vaginal delivery was decreased in the 5-year epoch at the end of the study compared with the period at the beginning. The rate of forceps delivery has fallen significantly, with vacuum delivery now being the choice of the majority of clinicians. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. VERIFICATION OF AMBIENT MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES FOR AMMONIA AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE AT ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing concentration of livestock agriculture into animal feeding operations (AFOs) has raised concerns about the environmental and potential health impact of the emissions from AFOs into the atmosphere. Gaseous ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2...

  14. VERIFICATION OF AMBIENT MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES FOR AMMONIA AND HYDROGEN SULFIDE AT ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing concentration of livestock agriculture into animal feeding operations (AFOs) has raised concerns about the environmental and potential health impact of the emissions from AFOs into the atmosphere. Gaseous ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2...

  15. A SEMI-AUTOMATED APPROACH FOR DETECTING AND LOCATING SWINE ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS OVER REGIONAL AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface runoff from animal feeding operations (AFO's) and its infiltration into ground water can
    pose a number of risks to water quality mainly because of the amount of animal manure and wastewater they produce. Excess nutrients generated by livestock facilities can lead to a...

  16. Characterizing and mitigating emissions of volatile organic compounds from animal feeding operations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted from animal feeding operations negatively impact local and potentially regional air quality though the release of both odorous and ozone precursor molecules. Characterizing emissions of VOCs from AFOs is strongly influenced by both the method and location of ...

  17. Characterization of VOCs and odorants on PM from animal feeding operations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted from animal feeding operations negatively impact local and potentially regional air quality though the release of both odorous and ozone precursor molecules. Characterizing emissions of VOCs from AFOs is strongly influenced by both the method and location of ...

  18. THE PRESENCE OF ESTROGENIC AND ANDROGENIC SUBSTANCES IN EFFLUENTS FROM CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In February 2003 the U.S.EPA published a final rule on National Polllutant Discharge Elimination System Permit Regulation and Effluent Limitation Guidelines and Standards for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs). Manure and wastewater from CAFOs have the potential to c...

  19. Evaluation of surface waters associated with animal feeding operations for estrogenic chemicals and activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Estrogens and estrogenic activity (EA) were evaluated in surface waters associated with animal feeding operations. Water was sampled at 19 sites in 12 states using discrete (n=41) and POCIS (n=19) sampling methods. Estrogenic chemicals measured in unfiltered water by GC/MS2 included: estrone (E1),17...

  20. ENDOCRINE MODULATING EFFECTS OF LAGOON WATER FROM CONFINED ANIMAL FEED OPERATIONS ON AMPHIBIANS

    EPA Science Inventory


    Endocrine Modulating Effects of Lagoon Water from Confined Animal Feed Operations on Amphibians. Weber, L.P.*1, Dumont, J.N.1, Selcer, K.W.2, Hutchins, S.R.3, and Janz, D.M.1 1Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, 2Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA, 3U.S. Environmenta...

  1. 77 FR 41185 - Notification of Public Teleconferences of the Science Advisory Board Animal Feeding Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... AGENCY Notification of Public Teleconferences of the Science Advisory Board Animal Feeding Operations... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces two public... data and the Panel's draft advisory report regarding EPA draft methodologies for estimating...

  2. ENDOCRINE MODULATING EFFECTS OF LAGOON WATER FROM CONFINED ANIMAL FEED OPERATIONS ON AMPHIBIANS

    EPA Science Inventory


    Endocrine Modulating Effects of Lagoon Water from Confined Animal Feed Operations on Amphibians. Weber, L.P.*1, Dumont, J.N.1, Selcer, K.W.2, Hutchins, S.R.3, and Janz, D.M.1 1Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, 2Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA, 3U.S. Environmenta...

  3. Standardization of flux chambers and wind tunnels for area source emission measurements at animal feeding operations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Researchers and practitioners have used many varied designs of wind tunnels and flux chambers to measure the flux of volatile organic compounds, odor, and ammonia from area sources at animal feeding operations. The measured fluxes are used to estimate emission factors or compare treatments. We sho...

  4. A SEMI-AUTOMATED APPROACH FOR DETECTING AND LOCATING SWINE ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS OVER REGIONAL AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface runoff from animal feeding operations (AFO's) and its infiltration into ground water can
    pose a number of risks to water quality mainly because of the amount of animal manure and wastewater they produce. Excess nutrients generated by livestock facilities can lead to a...

  5. Feeding Behavior of Aplysia: A Model System for Comparing Cellular Mechanisms of Classical and Operant Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Feeding behavior of Aplysia provides an excellent model system for analyzing and comparing mechanisms underlying appetitive classical conditioning and reward operant conditioning. Behavioral protocols have been developed for both forms of associative learning, both of which increase the occurrence of biting following training. Because the neural…

  6. Feeding Behavior of Aplysia: A Model System for Comparing Cellular Mechanisms of Classical and Operant Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Feeding behavior of Aplysia provides an excellent model system for analyzing and comparing mechanisms underlying appetitive classical conditioning and reward operant conditioning. Behavioral protocols have been developed for both forms of associative learning, both of which increase the occurrence of biting following training. Because the neural…

  7. THE PRESENCE OF ESTROGENIC AND ANDROGENIC SUBSTANCES IN EFFLUENTS FROM CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In February 2003 the U.S.EPA published a final rule on National Polllutant Discharge Elimination System Permit Regulation and Effluent Limitation Guidelines and Standards for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs). Manure and wastewater from CAFOs have the potential to c...

  8. [Risk and prophylaxis acute pancreatitis while enteral tube feeding in patients operated for destructive cholecystitis].

    PubMed

    Zhurikhina, A V; Kitiashvili, I Z; Kutukov, V V; Kondrashova, Iu V

    2011-01-01

    Determined by risk and method of prophylaxis of acute pancreatitis in the postoperative enteral tube feeding in patients with destructive cholecystitis, analyzed levels of a-amylase in blood serum and clinical manifestations of acute pancreatitis in 135 operated patients. It was established that the use of nasoduodenal access is more likely to cause the elevated level of serum amylase (p<0,05) and more incidence of sings of acute pancreatitis in contrast to nasoduodenal tube placement. For the prevention of acute pancreatitis with enteral tube feeding is preferred mode designed using nasoduodenal access.

  9. Gene delivery by dendrimers operates via a cholesterol dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Manunta, Maria; Tan, Peng Hong; Sagoo, Pervinder; Kashefi, Kirk; George, Andrew J T

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking of dendrimer-DNA complexes is an important prerequisite for improving the transfection efficiency of non-viral vector-mediated gene delivery. Dendrimers are synthetic polymers used for gene transfer. Although these cationic molecules show promise as versatile DNA carriers, very little is known about the mechanism of gene delivery. This paper investigates how the uptake occurs, using an endothelial cell line as model, and evaluates whether the internalization of dendriplexes takes place randomly on the cell surface or at preferential sites such as membrane rafts. Following extraction of plasma membrane cholesterol, the transfection efficiency of the gene delivered by dendrimers was drastically decreased. Replenishment of membrane cholesterol restored the gene expression. The binding and especially internalization of dendriplexes was strongly reduced by cholesterol depletion before transfection. However, cholesterol removal after transfection did not inhibit expression of the delivered gene. Fluorescent dendriplexes co-localize with the ganglioside GM1 present into membrane rafts in both an immunoprecipitation assay and confocal microscopy studies. These data strongly suggest that membrane cholesterol and raft integrity are physiologically relevant for the cellular uptake of dendrimer-DNA complexes. Hence these findings provide evidence that membrane rafts are important for the internalization of non-viral vectors in gene therapy.

  10. Timing of operative vaginal delivery and associated perinatal outcomes in nulliparous women.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yvonne W; Shaffer, Brian L; Bianco, Katherine; Caughey, Aaron B

    2011-05-01

    To compare perinatal outcomes in nulliparous women who had operative vaginal delivery early during second stage (1-3 h) to those who delivered vaginally with a prolonged second stage (>3 h). This is a retrospective cohort study of nulliparas with term, singleton, vaginal deliveries beyond the first hour of second stage. Women who underwent operative vaginal deliveries (OVD) during 1-3 h of the second stage were compared to women who delivered vaginally but with a second stage duration of >3 h. Perinatal outcomes were examined using chi-square test, and potential confounders were controlled for using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Nulliparas delivered vaginally beyond 3 h of second stage had lower odds of third or fourth degree perineal lacerations (aOR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.51-0.77), neonatal cephalohematoma (aOR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.28-0.83) and admissions to intensive care nursery (aOR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.49-0.99) compared to operative vaginal deliveries during 1-3 h of second stage. Compared to nulliparas who had operative vaginal deliveries performed early (1-3 h) in the second stage, women who delivered later (>3 h duration of second stage), either by spontaneous or operative vaginal delivery, had lower risk of third or fourth degree perineal lacerations without incurring risk of increased adverse neonatal outcomes.

  11. A Post-operative Feeding Protocol to Improve Outcomes for Neonates With Critical Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Newcombe, Jennifer; Fry-Bowers, Eileen

    2017-01-04

    Neonates with critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) are vulnerable to malnutrition during the post-operative period due to hypermetabolism and hypercatabolism. To improve nutritional outcomes during hospitalization, a nurse led post-operative enteral feeding protocol was implemented at a large U.S. children's hospital. During an eight-month implementation period, twenty-one neonates met protocol inclusion criteria. Days for neonates to achieve goal caloric feedings (120kcal/kg/day) were decreased. A one-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed serum albumin levels and serial anthropometric measurements improved significantly throughout hospitalization (p<0.005). Results from this quality improvement project show standardizing nutritional care for neonates with CCHD during the post-operative period is an effective way to improve nutritional outcomes and shorten length of hospital stay.

  12. Manual rotation to decrease operative delivery in posterior or transverse positions.

    PubMed

    Le Ray, Camille; Deneux-Tharaux, Catherine; Khireddine, Imane; Dreyfus, Michel; Vardon, Delphine; Goffinet, François

    2013-09-01

    To assess the effect of a policy of manual rotation on the mode of delivery of fetuses in posterior or transverse positions at full dilatation. This was a prospective study to compare two policies of management for posterior and transverse positions in two different hospitals (Hospital 1: no manual rotation and Hospital 2: manual rotation). We used univariable and multivariable analyses to study the association between the management policy for posterior and transverse positions at full dilatation in these hospitals and maternal and neonatal outcomes. The principal end point was operative delivery (ie, cesarean or instrumental vaginal delivery). All factors associated with the risk of operative delivery in the univariable analysis (P<.1) were included in the logistic regression models. We then specifically studied whether manual rotation was independently associated with a reduction in operative deliveries. The rate of posterior or transverse positions at full dilatation was 15.9% (n=111) in Hospital 1 and 15.3% (n=220) in Hospital 2 (P=.75). Of the 172 attempts of manual rotation in Hospital 2, 155 (90.1%) were successful. The rate of operative delivery was significantly lower in Hospital 2, which performed manual rotations (23.2% compared with 38.7% in Hospital 1, adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28-0.95). After multivariable analysis, manual rotation remained significantly associated with a reduction in the risk of operative delivery (adjusted OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.25-0.85). Five-minute Apgar score and arterial pH at birth were similar in the two hospitals. For fetuses in posterior or transverse positions at full dilatation, a strategy of manual rotation is associated with a reduction in the rate of operative delivery. III.

  13. 20 CFR 662.430 - Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system established prior to the enactment of WIA be designated... DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop Operators § 662.430 Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system...

  14. 20 CFR 662.430 - Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system established prior to the enactment of WIA be designated... DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop Operators § 662.430 Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system...

  15. The role of European starlings in the spread of coccidia within concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Carlson, James C; Linz, George M; Ballweber, Lora R; Elmore, Stacey A; Pettit, Susan E; Franklin, Alan B

    2011-08-25

    To investigate the relationship between European starlings and bovine coccidiosis we collected samples from European starlings, cattle feed bunks, cattle water troughs, and cattle feces within concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These samples were screened for coccidia spp. to investigate (i) the prevalence of coccidia in starlings using CAFOs; (ii) if there is a relationship between bovine coccidiosis and starling numbers; (iii) if coccidia contamination of cattle feed and water is related to the number of starlings observed on CAFOs. Coccidia belonging to the genus Eimeria were detected in cattle feces and one water sample but no Eimeria spp. were detected in European starlings or cattle feed. However, many European starling samples were positive for Isospora. Starling use of CAFOs did not appear to be associated with coccidia spp. shedding by cattle and there was no correlation between starling numbers and contamination of cattle feed and water, suggesting that starling do not contribute to the amplification and spread of Eimeria in CAFOs. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. The influence of operational parameters and feed preparation in a convective batch ribbon powder mixer.

    PubMed

    Yeow, Sin Tung; Shahar, Asnawi; Abdul Aziz, Norashikin; Anuar, Mohd Shamsul; Yusof, Yus Aniza; Taip, Farah Saleena

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effect of feed preparation characteristics and operational parameters on mixing homogeneity in a convective batch ribbon mixer. Lactose 100M, lactose 200M, ascorbic acid, and zinc oxide powders were used for the mixing study. Operational parameters studied were rotational speed and mixing time. The feed preparations studied were the use of preblending and the particle size of the feed materials. The blends of ascorbic acid, zinc oxide, and lactose were prepared with preblending and without preblending, prior to mixing at different blender rotation speeds and mixing times. Chemical tests were performed to measure the homogeneity of the ascorbic acid in the model mixture. With preblending, a mixture with lactose 200M achieved the required homogeneity in a shorter period of time at a lower rotational speed. The results indicated that the homogeneity of the mixtures was influenced by the blender rotation speed and mixing time. Better mixing can be obtained with higher rotation speeds and longer mixing time. It was also observed that preblending and smaller feed particle size achieved the required homogeneity in a shorter period of time at a lower rotational speed. These results illustrate that using binders with a smaller particle size and a preblending technique improves the mixing process in a convective batch ribbon powder mixer. However, prolonged periods of high-speed mixing will lead to mixture segregation.

  17. The influence of operational parameters and feed preparation in a convective batch ribbon powder mixer

    PubMed Central

    Yeow, Sin Tung; Shahar, Asnawi; Aziz, Norashikin Abdul; Anuar, Mohd Shamsul; Yusof, Yus Aniza; Taip, Farah Saleena

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of feed preparation characteristics and operational parameters on mixing homogeneity in a convective batch ribbon mixer. Methods Lactose 100M, lactose 200M, ascorbic acid, and zinc oxide powders were used for the mixing study. Operational parameters studied were rotational speed and mixing time. The feed preparations studied were the use of preblending and the particle size of the feed materials. The blends of ascorbic acid, zinc oxide, and lactose were prepared with preblending and without preblending, prior to mixing at different blender rotation speeds and mixing times. Chemical tests were performed to measure the homogeneity of the ascorbic acid in the model mixture. Results With preblending, a mixture with lactose 200M achieved the required homogeneity in a shorter period of time at a lower rotational speed. Conclusion The results indicated that the homogeneity of the mixtures was influenced by the blender rotation speed and mixing time. Better mixing can be obtained with higher rotation speeds and longer mixing time. It was also observed that preblending and smaller feed particle size achieved the required homogeneity in a shorter period of time at a lower rotational speed. These results illustrate that using binders with a smaller particle size and a preblending technique improves the mixing process in a convective batch ribbon powder mixer. However, prolonged periods of high-speed mixing will lead to mixture segregation. PMID:22162640

  18. Integrating UF6 Cylinder RF Tracking With Continuous Load Cell Monitoring for Verifying Declared UF6 Feed and Withdrawal Operations Verifying Declared UF6 Feed and Withdrawal Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Krichinsky, Alan M; Miller, Paul; Pickett, Chris A; Richardson, Dave; Rowe, Nathan C; Whitaker, J Michael; Younkin, James R

    2009-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is demonstrating the integration of UF6 cylinder tracking, using RF technology, with continuous load cell monitoring (CLCM) at mock UF6 feed and withdrawal (F&W) stations. CLCM and cylinder tracking are two of several continuous-monitoring technologies that show promise in providing integrated safeguards of F&W operations at enrichment plants. Integrating different monitoring technologies allows advanced, automated event processing to screen innocuous events thereby minimizing false alerts to independent inspectors. Traditionally, international inspectors rely on batch verification of material inputs and outputs derived from operator declarations and periodic on-site inspections at uranium enrichment plants or other nuclear processing facilities. Continuously monitoring F&W activities between inspections while providing filtered alerts of significant operational events will substantially increase the amount of valuable information available to inspectors thereby promising to enhance the effectiveness of safeguards and to improve efficiency in conducting on-site inspections especially at large plants for ensuring that all operations are declared.

  19. Perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality after attempted operative vaginal delivery at midpelvic station

    PubMed Central

    Muraca, Giulia M.; Sabr, Yasser; Lisonkova, Sarka; Skoll, Amanda; Brant, Rollin; Cundiff, Geoffrey W.; Joseph, K.S.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased use of operative vaginal delivery (i.e., forceps or vacuum application), of which 20% occurs at midpelvic station, has been advocated to reduce the rate of cesarean delivery. We aimed to quantify severe perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality associated with attempted midpelvic operative vaginal delivery. METHODS: We studied all term singleton deliveries in Canada between 2003 and 2013, by attempted midpelvic operative vaginal or cesarean delivery with labour (with and without prolonged second stage). The primary outcomes were composite severe perinatal morbidity and mortality (e.g., convulsions, assisted ventilation, severe birth trauma and perinatal death), and composite severe maternal morbidity and mortality (e.g., severe postpartum hemorrhage, shock, sepsis, cardiac complications, acute renal failure and death). RESULTS: The study population included 187 234 deliveries. Among women with dystocia and prolonged second stage of labour, midpelvic operative vaginal delivery was associated with higher rates of severe perinatal morbidity and mortality compared with cesarean delivery (forceps, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24 to 2.64; vacuum, AOR 1.81, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.80; sequential instruments, AOR 3.19, 95% CI 1.73 to 5.88), especially with higher rates of severe birth trauma. Rates of severe maternal morbidity and mortality were not significantly different after operative vaginal delivery, although rates of obstetric trauma were higher (forceps, AOR 4.51, 95% CI 4.04 to 5.02; vacuum, AOR 2.70, 95% CI 2.35 to 3.09; sequential instruments, AOR 4.24, 95% CI 3.46 to 5.19). Among women with fetal distress, similar associations were seen for severe birth trauma and obstetric trauma, although vacuum was associated with lower rates of severe maternal morbidity and mortality (AOR 0.52, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.80). Associations tended to be stronger among women without a prolonged second stage. INTERPRETATION: Midpelvic

  20. Does occiput posterior position in the second stage of labour increase the operative delivery rate?

    PubMed

    Carseldine, Wendy J; Phipps, Hala; Zawada, Shannon F; Campbell, Neil T; Ludlow, Joanne P; Krishnan, Surya Y; De Vries, Bradley S

    2013-06-01

    To assess the impact of occipito-posterior position in the second stage of labour on operative delivery. Double-blinded prospective cohort study of ultrasound determined occiput-posterior position during the second stage of labour compared with occiput-anterior position. The primary outcome was operative (caesarean section, forceps or vacuum) delivery. A total of 68% (13/19) women in the occiput-posterior group, and 27% (39/141) in the occiput-anterior group had an operative delivery (unadjusted: P < 0.001). Caesarean section was performed in 37% and 5%, respectively (P < 0.001). The occiput-posterior group had a longer second stage (mean 2 h 59 minutes vs 1 h 54 minutes; P = 0.001) and larger infants (mean 3723 g vs 3480 g, P = 0.024). In the logistic regression, occiput-posterior position, nulliparity, abnormal second stage cardiotocograph and epidural analgesia were independent predictors for operative delivery. Occiput-posterior position early in the second stage of labour is strongly associated with operative delivery. There is potential to explore interventions such as manual rotation. © 2013 The Authors ANZJOG © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  1. Criteria Considered in Selecting Feed Items for Americium-241 Oxide Production Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, Louis D.

    2015-01-30

    The analysis in this document serves the purpose of defining a number of attributes in selection of feed items to be utilized in recovery/recycle of Pu and also production operations of 241AmO2 material intended to meet specification requirements. This document was written in response to a specific request on the part of the 2014 annual program review which took place over the dates of October 28-29, 2014. A number of feed attributes are noted including: (1) Non-interference with existing Pu recovery operations; (2) Content of sufficient 241Am to allow process efficiency in recovery operations; (3) Absence of indications that 243Am might be mixed in with the Pu/241Am material; (4) Absence of indications that Cm might be mixed in with the Pu/241Am material; (5) Absence of indications of other chemical elements that would present difficulty in chemical separation from 241Am; (6) Feed material not expected to present difficulty in dissolution; (7) Dose issues; (8) Process efficiency; (9) Size; (10) Hazard associated with items and package configuration in the vault; (11) Within existing NEPA documentation. The analysis in this document provides a baseline of attributes considered for feed materials, but does not presume to replace the need for technical expertise and judgment on the part of individuals responsible for selecting the material feed to be processed. This document is not comprehensive as regards all attributes that could prove to be important. The value of placing a formal QA hold point on accepting feed items versus more informal management of feed items is discussed in the summation of this analysis. The existing planned QA hold points on 241AmO2 products produced and packaged may be adequate as the entire project is based on QA of the product rather than QA of the process. The probability of introduction of items that would inherently cause the241

  2. Operative vaginal delivery and invasive procedures in pregnancy among women living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Peters, Helen; Francis, Kate; Harding, Kate; Tookey, Pat A; Thorne, Claire

    2017-03-01

    To describe the use and outcomes of operative delivery and invasive procedures in pregnancy amongst women living with HIV. The National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC) is a comprehensive population-based surveillance study in the UK and Ireland. The NSHPC has collected data on operative delivery since 2008, and invasive procedures in pregnancy (amniocentesis, cordocentesis, chorionic villus sampling) from 2012. Descriptive analyses were conducted on 278 pregnancies expected to deliver from 1 January 2008 with outcome reported to the NSHPC by 31 March 2016. Among 9372 pregnancies in 2008-2016, there were 9072 livebirths with 251 operative deliveries and 27 invasive procedures in pregnancy reported. Information was available for 3023/3490 vaginal deliveries, and use of forceps or vacuum reported in 251deliveries (8.2%), increasing over calendar time to almost 10% by 2014-16. Forceps were used twice as often as vacuum delivery, and forceps use increased over time. One infant delivered operatively is known to have acquired HIV. From 2012 there were 4063 pregnancies resulting in 3952 livebirths, 83 terminations and 28 stillbirths. 2163/4063 had information on use (or not) of invasive procedures in pregnancy. Amniocentesis was reported in 25/2163 pregnancies, there was one report of chorionic villus sampling and one of cordocentesis. There were no reported transmissions following invasive procedures in pregnancy. This is the largest study to date to report on operative delivery in women living with HIV on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), and provides an up-to-date picture of invasive procedures during pregnancy in this group. Findings from this comprehensive national study are reassuring but numbers are currently low; on-going monitoring is crucial as obstetric care of women with HIV becomes normalised. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of Feed Delivery Pattern on Aerial Particulate Matter and Behavior of Feedlot Cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fine particulate matter (PM) generated by cattle in feedlots is an environmental pollutant and a potential human and animal health issue. The objective of this study was to determine if a feeding schedule affects cattle behaviors that promote PM in a commercial feedlot. The study used 2,813 crossbre...

  4. Maternal and Neonatal Morbidity After Attempted Operative Vaginal Delivery According to Fetal Head Station.

    PubMed

    Ducarme, Guillaume; Hamel, Jean-François; Bouet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Legendre, Guillaume; Vandenbroucke, Laurent; Sentilhes, Loic

    2015-09-01

    To compare severe short-term maternal and neonatal morbidity associated with midpelvic and low pelvic attempted operative vaginal delivery. Prospective study of 2,138 women with live singleton term fetuses in vertex presentation who underwent an attempted operative vaginal delivery in a tertiary care university hospital. We used multivariate logistic regression and propensity score methods to compare outcomes associated with midpelvic and low pelvic delivery. Severe maternal morbidity was defined as third- or fourth-degree perineal laceration, perineal hematoma, cervical laceration, extended uterine incision for cesarean delivery, postpartum hemorrhage greater than 1,500 mL, surgical hemostatic procedures, uterine artery embolization, blood transfusion, infection, thromboembolic events, admission to the intensive care unit, and maternal death; severe neonatal morbidity was defined as 5-minute Apgar score less than 7, umbilical artery pH less than 7.00, need for resuscitation or intubation, neonatal trauma, intraventricular hemorrhage greater than grade 2, neonatal intensive care unit admission for more than 24 hours, convulsions, sepsis, and neonatal death. From December 2008 through October 2013 there were 2,138 attempted operative vaginal deliveries; 18.3% (n=391) were midpelvic, 72.5% (n=1,550) low, and 9.2% (n=197) outlet. Severe maternal morbidity occurred in 10.2% (n=40) of midpelvic, 7.8% (n=121) of low, and 6.6% (n=13) of outlet attempts (P=.21); and severe neonatal morbidity in 15.1% (n=59), 10.2% (n=158), and 10.7% (n=21) (P=.02), respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis found no significant difference between midpelvic and low attempted operative vaginal delivery for either composite severe maternal (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.66-1.55) or neonatal morbidity (adjusted OR 1.25, 95% CI 0.84-1.86). Similarly, propensity score matching found no significant difference between midpelvic and low operative

  5. Antenatal depressive symptoms and the risk of preeclampsia or operative deliveries: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong; Li, Yingxue; Zhang, Zhixia; Yan, Weirong

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between depression and/or depressive symptoms during pregnancy and the risk of an operative delivery or preeclampsia, and to quantify the strength of the association. A search of the PubMed, SCI/SSCI, Proquest PsycARTICLES and CINAHL databases was supplemented by manual searches of bibliographies of key retrieved articles and review articles. We aimed to include case control or cohort studies that reported data on antenatal depression and /or depressive symptoms and the risk of an operative delivery and/or preeclampsia. Twelve studies with self-reported screening instruments were eligible for inclusion with a total of 8400 participants. Seven articles that contained 4421 total participants reported the risk for an operative delivery, and five articles that contained 3979 total participants reported the risk for preeclampsia. The pooled analyses showed that both operative delivery and preeclampsia had a statistically significant association with antenatal depressive symptoms (RR = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.35, and OR = 1.63, 95% CI, 1.32 to 2.02, respectively). When the pre-pregnancy body mass indices were controlled in their initial design, the risk for preeclampsia still existed (OR = 1.48, 95% CI, 1.04 to 2.01), while the risk for an operative delivery became uncertain (RR = 1.01, 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.22). Antenatal depressive symptoms are associated with a moderately increased risk of an operative delivery and preeclampsia. An abnormal pre-pregnancy body mass index may modify this association.

  6. Antenatal Depressive Symptoms and the Risk of Preeclampsia or Operative Deliveries: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rong; Li, Yingxue; Zhang, Zhixia; Yan, Weirong

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between depression and/or depressive symptoms during pregnancy and the risk of an operative delivery or preeclampsia, and to quantify the strength of the association. Methods A search of the PubMed, SCI/SSCI, Proquest PsycARTICLES and CINAHL databases was supplemented by manual searches of bibliographies of key retrieved articles and review articles. We aimed to include case control or cohort studies that reported data on antenatal depression and /or depressive symptoms and the risk of an operative delivery and/or preeclampsia. Results Twelve studies with self-reported screening instruments were eligible for inclusion with a total of 8400 participants. Seven articles that contained 4421 total participants reported the risk for an operative delivery, and five articles that contained 3979 total participants reported the risk for preeclampsia. The pooled analyses showed that both operative delivery and preeclampsia had a statistically significant association with antenatal depressive symptoms (RR = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.35, and OR = 1.63, 95% CI, 1.32 to 2.02, respectively). When the pre-pregnancy body mass indices were controlled in their initial design, the risk for preeclampsia still existed (OR = 1.48, 95% CI, 1.04 to 2.01), while the risk for an operative delivery became uncertain (RR = 1.01, 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.22). Conclusions Antenatal depressive symptoms are associated with a moderately increased risk of an operative delivery and preeclampsia. An abnormal pre-pregnancy body mass index may modify this association. PMID:25789626

  7. Antibiotic resistant enterococci and staphylococci isolated from flies collected near confined poultry feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jay P; Price, Lance B; Evans, Sean L; Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2009-04-01

    Use of antibiotics as feed additives in poultry production has been linked to the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in farm workers, consumer poultry products and the environs of confined poultry operations. There are concerns that these resistant bacteria may be transferred to communities near these operations; however, environmental pathways of exposure are not well documented. We assessed the prevalence of antibiotic resistant enterococci and staphylococci in stored poultry litter and flies collected near broiler chicken houses. Drug resistant enterococci and staphylococci were isolated from flies caught near confined poultry feeding operations in the summer of 2006. Susceptibility testing was conducted on isolates using antibiotics selected on the basis of their importance to human medicine and use in poultry production. Resistant isolates were then screened for genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance. A total of 142 enterococcal isolates and 144 staphylococcal isolates from both fly and poultry litter samples were identified. Resistance genes erm(B), erm(A), msr(C), msr(A/B) and mobile genetic elements associated with the conjugative transposon Tn916, were found in isolates recovered from both poultry litter and flies. Erm(B) was the most common resistance gene in enterococci, while erm(A) was the most common in staphylococci. We report that flies collected near broiler poultry operations may be involved in the spread of drug resistant bacteria from these operations and may increase the potential for human exposure to drug resistant bacteria.

  8. Pulsatile delivery of a leucine supplement during long-term continuous enteral feeding enhances lean growth in term neonatal pigs.

    PubMed

    Boutry, Claire; El-Kadi, Samer W; Suryawan, Agus; Steinhoff-Wagner, Julia; Stoll, Barbara; Orellana, Renán A; Nguyen, Hanh V; Kimball, Scot R; Fiorotto, Marta L; Davis, Teresa A

    2016-04-15

    Neonatal pigs are used as a model to study and optimize the clinical treatment of infants who are unable to maintain oral feeding. Using this model, we have shown previously that pulsatile administration of leucine during continuous feeding over 24 h via orogastric tube enhanced protein synthesis in skeletal muscle compared with continuous feeding alone. To determine the long-term effects of leucine pulses, neonatal piglets (n = 11-12/group) were continuously fed formula via orogastric tube for 21 days, with an additional parenteral infusion of either leucine (CON + LEU; 800 μmol·kg(-1)·h(-1)) or alanine (CON + ALA) for 1 h every 4 h. The results show that body and muscle weights and lean gain were ∼25% greater, and fat gain was 48% lower in CON + LEU than CON + ALA; weights of other tissues were unaffected by treatment. Fractional protein synthesis rates in longissimus dorsi, gastrocnemius, and soleus muscles were ∼30% higher in CON + LEU compared with CON + ALA and were associated with decreased Deptor abundance and increased mTORC1, mTORC2, 4E-BP1, and S6K1 phosphorylation, SNAT2 abundance, and association of eIF4E with eIF4G and RagC with mTOR. There were no treatment effects on PKB, eIF2α, eEF2, or PRAS40 phosphorylation, Rheb, SLC38A9, v-ATPase, LAMTOR1, LAMTOR2, RagA, RagC, and LAT1 abundance, the proportion of polysomes to nonpolysomes, or the proportion of mRNAs encoding rpS4 or rpS8 associated with polysomes. Our results demonstrate that pulsatile delivery of a leucine supplement during 21 days of continuous enteral feeding enhances lean growth by stimulating the mTORC1-dependent translation initiation pathway, leading to protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of neonates.

  9. Indications for operative delivery between 1999-2010 and induction of labor and epidural analgesia on the risk of operative delivery--a population based Swedish register study.

    PubMed

    Poignant, Marie; Hjelmstedt, Anna; Ekéus, Cecilia

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the distribution of indications for vacuum extraction (VE) and emergency cesarean section (EMCS) from 1999 to 2010. Furthermore, we investigated the association of induction of labor and epidural analgesia (EA) on the risk of operative delivery. Population based register study with data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register during 1999-2010 including all 415230 primiparous women giving birth in gestational week 37+0 to 41+6. Indication for operative delivery as well as VE and EMCS. Among the VE deliveries the indication "signs of fetal distress" increased while "multiple indications" decreased. For EMCS, "prolonged labor" increased steadily while "multiple indications" decreased. The total rate of induction of labor increased from 8.2% in 1999 to 11.9% in 2010, and was associated with an increased risk of both EMCS (OR 3.37) and VE (OR 1.5). The total rate of EA increased from 43.7% in 1999 to 49.8% in 2010, and was associated with a double risk for VE (OR=2.23) and with an increased risk of EMCS (OR=1.64). There have been changes in the distribution of indications for VE and EMCS during the study period. A growing number of mothers are being induced and more mothers receive EA. These factors seem to have influenced the rate of operative deliveries. Our findings underline the importance of carefully considering the advantages, disadvantages and risks with EA and induction of labor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Severe perineal laceration during operative vaginal delivery: the impact of occiput posterior position.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, E; Elue, R; Wagner, A; Nelson, K; Silver, R K; Zhou, Y; Adams, M G

    2014-12-01

    To identify risk factors for severe (third/fourth degree) perineal laceration with operative vaginal delivery (OVD, forceps or vacuum). Case-control study comparing singleton OVDs with or without severe laceration (n=138). In multivariable analyses, severe perineal laceration was associated with occiput posterior (OP) position at delivery, vaginal nulliparity, use of forceps, longer period pushing in the second stage and lower gestational age, but not birth weight, labor induction or episiotomy. Among 29 OP patients at full dilation, 9/13 (69%) attempted rotations to occiput anterior (OA) were successful, and 14/16 (88%) patients in whom rotation was not attempted remained OP at delivery. Successful rotation from OP to OA was associated with fewer severe lacerations than no attempt or unsuccessful rotation (22 vs 75%, P=0.01). Severe perineal laceration during OVD is associated with OP position at delivery and is reduced threefold in patients successfully rotated from OP to OA.

  11. Insulin regulates its own delivery to skeletal muscle by feed-forward actions on the vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Upchurch, Charles T.; Liu, Zhenqi

    2011-01-01

    Insulin, at physiological concentrations, regulates the volume of microvasculature perfused within skeletal and cardiac muscle. It can also, by relaxing the larger resistance vessels, increase total muscle blood flow. Both of these effects require endothelial cell nitric oxide generation and smooth muscle cell relaxation, and each could increase delivery of insulin and nutrients to muscle. The capillary microvasculature possesses the greatest endothelial surface area of the body. Yet, whether insulin acts on the capillary endothelial cell is not known. Here, we review insulin's actions at each of three levels of the arterial vasculature as well as recent data suggesting that insulin can regulate a vesicular transport system within the endothelial cell. This latter action, if it occurs at the capillary level, could enhance insulin delivery to muscle interstitium and thereby complement insulin's actions on arteriolar endothelium to increase insulin delivery. We also review work that suggests that this action of insulin on vesicle transport depends on endothelial cell nitric oxide generation and that insulin's ability to regulate this vesicular transport system is impaired by inflammatory cytokines that provoke insulin resistance. PMID:21610226

  12. Effect of catalyst properties and operating conditions on hydroprocessing high metals feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Pazos, J.M.; Gonzalez, J.C.; Saluzar-Gullen, A.J.

    1983-10-01

    Catalytic hydroprocessing of high metals heavy oils, containing over 480 ppm Ni + V, was carried out in trickle bed pilot units. The analyses of the used catalysts (coke, metals content, and vanadium distribution) were correlated with the deactivation runs. The deactivation by coke is very much dependent on the catalyst physical properties (mean pore diameter), rather than on the chemical properties, and on the nature of the feed. As metals removal is a diffusion-controlled reaction, catalysts and operating conditions that increase the Thiele modulus, e.g., high activity and small pore catalysts, high hydrogen pressures and temperatures, show a stronger deactivation by feed metals. In this case, most of the vanadium was deposited in the outer edge of the catalyst particle. Unconventional vanadium profiles along the reactor length were obtained under certain conditions. Based on these data, a kinetic model was proposed which considers that demetallization is a complex reaction that occurs through a series of consecutive and parallel reactions.

  13. Values of Particle Size Particle Density & Slurry Viscosity to use in Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    JEWETT, J R

    2002-01-30

    Recommended values have been developed for particle size distribution, particle density, and slurry viscosity that maybe used in slurry flow calculations that support the design of the piping system that is being modified to deliver Hanford wastes from the underground storage tanks to the planned Waste Treatment Plant for vitrification. The objective of this document is to provide recommended values for three waste properties to be used in a planned revision of the Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis. These properties are particle size distribution (PSD), particle density, and slurry viscosity. In this document, the results of laboratory and engineering studies will be collated and summarized to provide a succinct source of physical property data for use in the hydraulic analysis of the transfer system.

  14. Implication of Dopaminergic Modulation in Operant Reward Learning and the Induction of Compulsive-Like Feeding Behavior in "Aplysia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedecarrats, Alexis; Cornet, Charles; Simmers, John; Nargeot, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Feeding in "Aplysia" provides an amenable model system for analyzing the neuronal substrates of motivated behavior and its adaptability by associative reward learning and neuromodulation. Among such learning processes, appetitive operant conditioning that leads to a compulsive-like expression of feeding actions is known to be associated…

  15. Implication of Dopaminergic Modulation in Operant Reward Learning and the Induction of Compulsive-Like Feeding Behavior in "Aplysia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedecarrats, Alexis; Cornet, Charles; Simmers, John; Nargeot, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Feeding in "Aplysia" provides an amenable model system for analyzing the neuronal substrates of motivated behavior and its adaptability by associative reward learning and neuromodulation. Among such learning processes, appetitive operant conditioning that leads to a compulsive-like expression of feeding actions is known to be associated…

  16. Intestinal microbiota of 6-week-old infants across Europe: geographic influence beyond delivery mode, breast-feeding, and antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Fallani, Matteo; Young, David; Scott, Jane; Norin, Elisabeth; Amarri, Sergio; Adam, Rüdiger; Aguilera, Marga; Khanna, Sheila; Gil, Angel; Edwards, Christine A; Doré, Joël

    2010-07-01

    : There are many differences in diet and lifestyle across Europe that may influence the development of the infant gut microbiota. This work aimed to assess the impact of geographic area, mode of delivery, feeding method, and antibiotic treatment on the fecal microbiota of infants from 5 European countries with different lifestyle characteristics: Sweden, Scotland, Germany, Italy, and Spain. : Fecal samples from 606 infants (age 6 weeks) recruited within the European project INFABIO were analyzed by fluorescent in situ hybridization combined with flow cytometry using a panel of 10 rRNA targeted group- and species-specific oligonucleotide probes. Information on factors potentially affecting gut microbiota composition was collected with questionnaires and associations were evaluated with multivariate analyses. : The Bifidobacterium genus was predominant (40% average proportion of total detectable bacteria), followed by Bacteroides (11.4%) and enterobacteria (7.5%). Northern European countries were associated with higher proportions of bifidobacteria in infant feces, whereas a more diverse microbiota with more bacteroides characterized southern countries. Bifidobacteria dominated the microbiota of breast-fed infants, whereas formula-fed babies had significantly higher proportions of Bacteroides and members of the Clostridium coccoides and Lactobacillus groups. Newborns delivered by cesarean section or from mothers treated with antibiotics perinatally had lower proportions of Bacteroides and members of the Atopobium cluster. : Delivery mode and feeding method influenced the fecal microbiota of European infants at 6 weeks, as expected, but the effect of country of birth was more pronounced, with dominant bifidobacteria in northern countries and greater early diversification in southern European countries.

  17. The Effects of Pre-Operative Enteral Nutrition from Nasal Feeding Tubes on Gastric Outlet Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi-hua; Lin, Su-yong; Dai, Qi-bao; Hua, Jin; Chen, Shao-qin

    2017-01-01

    We examined gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) patients who received two weeks of strengthening pre-operative enteral nutrition therapy (pre-EN) through a nasal–jejenal feeding tube placed under a gastroscope to evaluate the feasibility and potential benefit of pre-EN compared to parenteral nutrition (PN). In this study, 68 patients confirmed to have GOO with upper-gastrointestinal contrast and who accepted the operation were randomized into an EN group and a PN group. The differences in nutritional status, immune function, post-operative complications, weight of patients, first bowel sound and first flatus time, pull tube time, length of hospital stay (LOH), and cost of hospitalization between pre-operation and post-operation were all recorded. Statistical analyses were performed using the chi square test and t-test; statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. The success rate of the placement was 91.18% (three out of 31 cases). After pre-EN, the levels of weight, albumin (ALB), prealbumin (PA), and transferrin (TNF) in the EN group were significantly increased by pre-operation day compared to admission day, but were not significantly increased in the PN group; the weights in the EN group were significantly increased compared to the PN group by pre-operation day and day of discharge; total protein (TP), ALB, PA, and TNF of the EN group were significantly increased compared to the PN group on pre-operation and post-operative days one and three. The levels of CD3+, CD4+/CD8+, IgA, and IgM in the EN group were higher than those of the PN group at pre-operation and post-operation; the EN group had a significantly lower incidence of poor wound healing, peritoneal cavity infection, pneumonia, and a shorter first bowel sound time, first flatus time, and post-operation hospital stay than the PN group. Pre-EN through a nasal–jejunum feeding tube and placed under a gastroscope in GOO patients was safe, feasible, and beneficial to the nutrition status, immune

  18. The Effects of Pre-Operative Enteral Nutrition from Nasal Feeding Tubes on Gastric Outlet Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Hua; Lin, Su-Yong; Dai, Qi-Bao; Hua, Jin; Chen, Shao-Qin

    2017-04-10

    We examined gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) patients who received two weeks of strengthening pre-operative enteral nutrition therapy (pre-EN) through a nasal-jejenal feeding tube placed under a gastroscope to evaluate the feasibility and potential benefit of pre-EN compared to parenteral nutrition (PN). In this study, 68 patients confirmed to have GOO with upper-gastrointestinal contrast and who accepted the operation were randomized into an EN group and a PN group. The differences in nutritional status, immune function, post-operative complications, weight of patients, first bowel sound and first flatus time, pull tube time, length of hospital stay (LOH), and cost of hospitalization between pre-operation and post-operation were all recorded. Statistical analyses were performed using the chi square test and t-test; statistical significance was defined as p < 0.05. The success rate of the placement was 91.18% (three out of 31 cases). After pre-EN, the levels of weight, albumin (ALB), prealbumin (PA), and transferrin (TNF) in the EN group were significantly increased by pre-operation day compared to admission day, but were not significantly increased in the PN group; the weights in the EN group were significantly increased compared to the PN group by pre-operation day and day of discharge; total protein (TP), ALB, PA, and TNF of the EN group were significantly increased compared to the PN group on pre-operation and post-operative days one and three. The levels of CD3+, CD4+/CD8+, IgA, and IgM in the EN group were higher than those of the PN group at pre-operation and post-operation; the EN group had a significantly lower incidence of poor wound healing, peritoneal cavity infection, pneumonia, and a shorter first bowel sound time, first flatus time, and post-operation hospital stay than the PN group. Pre-EN through a nasal-jejunum feeding tube and placed under a gastroscope in GOO patients was safe, feasible, and beneficial to the nutrition status, immune function

  19. The Primary Care Electronic Library: RSS feeds using SNOMED-CT indexing for dynamic content delivery.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Judas; de Lusignan, Simon; Kostkova, Patty; Madge, Bruce; Marsh, A; Biniaris, C

    2006-01-01

    Rich Site Summary (RSS) feeds are a method for disseminating and syndicating the contents of a website using extensible mark-up language (XML). The Primary Care Electronic Library (PCEL) distributes recent additions to the site in the form of an RSS feed. When new resources are added to PCEL, they are manually assigned medical subject headings (MeSH terms), which are then automatically mapped to SNOMED-CT terms using the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus. The library is thus searchable using MeSH or SNOMED-CT. Our syndicate partner wished to have remote access to PCEL coronary heart disease (CHD) information resources based on SNOMED-CT search terms. To pilot the supply of relevant information resources in response to clinically coded requests, using RSS syndication for transmission between web servers. Our syndicate partner provided a list of CHD SNOMED-CT terms to its end-users, a list which was coded according to UMLS specifications. When the end-user requested relevant information resources, this request was relayed from our syndicate partner's web server to the PCEL web server. The relevant resources were retrieved from the PCEL MySQL database. This database is accessed using a server side scripting language (PHP), which enables the production of dynamic RSS feeds on the basis of Source Asserted Identifiers (CODEs) contained in UMLS. Retrieving resources using SNOMED-CT terms using syndication can be used to build a functioning application. The process from request to display of syndicated resources took less than one second. The results of the pilot illustrate that it is possible to exchange data between servers using RSS syndication. This method could be utilised dynamically to supply digital library resources to a clinical system with SNOMED-CT data used as the standard of reference.

  20. Evaluation of 241-AZ tank farm supporting phase 1 privatization waste feed delivery

    SciTech Connect

    CARLSON, A.B.

    1998-11-19

    This evaluation is one in a series of evaluations determining the process needs and assessing the adequacy of existing and planned equipment in meeting those needs at various double-shell tank farms in support of Phase 1 privatization. A number of tank-to-tank transfers and waste preparation activities are needed to process and feed waste to the private contractor in support of Phase 1 privatization. The scope of this evaluation is limited to process needs associated with 241-AZ tank farm during the Phase 1 privatization.

  1. System-state and operating condition sensitive control method and apparatus for electric power delivery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, III, William Wesley (Inventor); Wilson, Thomas George (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a method and apparatus for determining a precise switching sequence for the power switching elements of electric power delivery systems of the on-off switching type and which enables extremely fast transient response, precise regulation and highly stable operation. The control utilizes the values of the power delivery system power handling network components, a desired output characteristic, a system timing parameter, and the externally imposed operating conditions to determine where steady state operations should be in order to yield desired output characteristics for the given system specifications. The actual state of the power delivery system is continuously monitored and compared to a state-space boundary which is derived from the desired equilibrium condition, and from the information obtained from this comparison, the system is moved to the desired equilibrium condition in one cycle of switching control. Since the controller continuously monitors the power delivery system's externally imposed operating conditions, a change in the conditions is immediately sensed and a new equilibrium condition is determined and achieved, again in a single cycle of switching control.

  2. Early-Life Events, Including Mode of Delivery and Type of Feeding, Siblings and Gender, Shape the Developing Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Cetinyurek Yavuz, Aysun; Ben-Amor, Kaouther; Roelofs, Mieke; Ishikawa, Eiji; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Swinkels, Sophie; Sakai, Takafumi; Oishi, Kenji; Kushiro, Akira; Knol, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of the infant gut is believed to be critically important for a healthy growth as it influences gut maturation, metabolic, immune and brain development in early life. Understanding factors that influence this process is important, since an altered colonization has been associated with a higher risk of diseases later in life. Fecal samples were collected from 108 healthy neonates in the first half year of life. The composition and functionality of the microbiota was characterized by measuring 33 different bacterial taxa by qPCR/RT qPCR, and 8 bacterial metabolites. Information regarding gender, place and mode of birth, presence of siblings or pets; feeding pattern and antibiotic use was collected by using questionnaires. Regression analysis techniques were used to study associations between microbiota parameters and confounding factors over time. Bacterial DNA was detected in most meconium samples, suggesting bacterial exposure occurs in utero. After birth, colonization by species of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was influenced by mode of delivery, type of feeding and presence of siblings, with differences found at species level and over time. Interestingly, infant-type bifidobacterial species such as B. breve or B. longum subsp infantis were confirmed as early colonizers apparently independent of the factors studied here, while B. animalis subsp. lactis presence was found to be dependent solely on the type of feeding, indicating that it might not be a common infant gut inhabitant. One interesting and rather unexpected confounding factor was gender. This study contributes to our understanding of the composition of the microbiota in early life and the succession process and the evolution of the microbial community as a function of time and events occurring during the first 6 months of life. Our results provide new insights that could be taken into consideration when selecting nutritional supplementation strategies to support the

  3. ANALYSIS OF LAGOON SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS (CAFOS) FOR ESTROGENS AND ESTROGEN CONJUGATES (PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) have been identified as potentially important sources for the release of estrogens into the environment, information is lacking on the concentrations of estrogens in whole lagoon effluents (including suspended solids) which ...

  4. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA) AS A FRAMEWORK FOR ADDRESSING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS (CAFOS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The challenges Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) directly pose to sustainability include their impact on human health, receiving water bodies, groundwater, and air quality. These challenges result from the large quantities of macronutrients (carbon, nitrogen, and pho...

  5. ANALYSIS OF LAGOON SAMPLES FROM DIFFERENT CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS (CAFOS) FOR ESTROGENS AND ESTROGEN CONJUGATES (PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) have been identified as potentially important sources for the release of estrogens into the environment, information is lacking on the concentrations of estrogens in whole lagoon effluents (including suspended solids) which ...

  6. 77 FR 6795 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board (SAB) Animal Feeding Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... Triangle Park hotel, 4700 Guardian Drive, Durham, North Carolina 27703, (919) 941-6200. FOR FURTHER... animal feeding operations, please contact Mr. Larry Elmore of EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and...

  7. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT (LCA) AS A FRAMEWORK FOR ADDRESSING THE SUSTAINABILITY OF CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS (CAFOS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The challenges Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) directly pose to sustainability include their impact on human health, receiving water bodies, groundwater, and air quality. These challenges result from the large quantities of macronutrients (carbon, nitrogen, and pho...

  8. EPA's Review of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO) Permits and Nutrient Management Plans in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Starting in 2013, EPA conducted reviews of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) permits and nutrient management plans (NMPs) in six of the Bay jurisdictions (Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia and West Virginia).

  9. Impacts of waste from concentrated animal feeding operations on water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkholder, J.; Libra, B.; Weyer, P.; Heathcote, S.; Kolpin, D.; Thorne, P.S.; Wichman, M.

    2007-01-01

    Waste from agricultural livestock operations has been a long-standing concern with respect to contamination of water resources, particularly in terms of nutrient pollution. However, the recent growth of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) presents a greater risk to water quality because of both the increased volume of waste and to contaminants that may be present (e.g., antibiotics and other veterinary drugs) that may have both environmental and public health importance. Based on available data, generally accepted livestock waste management practices do not adequately or effectively protect water resources from contamination with excessive nutrients, microbial pathogens, and pharmaceuticals present in the waste. Impacts on surface water sources and wildlife have been documented in many agricultural areas in the United States. Potential impacts on human and environmental health from long-term inadvertent exposure to water contaminated with pharmaceuticals and other compounds are a growing public concern. This workgroup, which is part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, identified needs for rigorous ecosystem monitoring in the vicinity of CAFOs and for improved characterization of major toxicants affecting the environment and human health. Last, there is a need to promote and enforce best practices to minimize inputs of nutrients and toxicants from CAFOs into freshwater and marine ecosystems.

  10. Impacts of waste from concentrated animal feeding operations on water quality.

    PubMed

    Burkholder, Joann; Libra, Bob; Weyer, Peter; Heathcote, Susan; Kolpin, Dana; Thorne, Peter S; Wichman, Michael

    2007-02-01

    Waste from agricultural livestock operations has been a long-standing concern with respect to contamination of water resources, particularly in terms of nutrient pollution. However, the recent growth of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) presents a greater risk to water quality because of both the increased volume of waste and to contaminants that may be present (e.g., antibiotics and other veterinary drugs) that may have both environmental and public health importance. Based on available data, generally accepted livestock waste management practices do not adequately or effectively protect water resources from contamination with excessive nutrients, microbial pathogens, and pharmaceuticals present in the waste. Impacts on surface water sources and wildlife have been documented in many agricultural areas in the United States. Potential impacts on human and environmental health from long-term inadvertent exposure to water contaminated with pharmaceuticals and other compounds are a growing public concern. This work-group, which is part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards--Searching for Solutions, identified needs for rigorous ecosystem monitoring in the vicinity of CAFOs and for improved characterization of major toxicants affecting the environment and human health. Last, there is a need to promote and enforce best practices to minimize inputs of nutrients and toxicants from CAFOs into freshwater and marine ecosystems.

  11. Impacts of Waste from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations on Water Quality

    PubMed Central

    Burkholder, JoAnn; Libra, Bob; Weyer, Peter; Heathcote, Susan; Kolpin, Dana; Thorne, Peter S.; Wichman, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Waste from agricultural livestock operations has been a long-standing concern with respect to contamination of water resources, particularly in terms of nutrient pollution. However, the recent growth of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) presents a greater risk to water quality because of both the increased volume of waste and to contaminants that may be present (e.g., antibiotics and other veterinary drugs) that may have both environmental and public health importance. Based on available data, generally accepted livestock waste management practices do not adequately or effectively protect water resources from contamination with excessive nutrients, microbial pathogens, and pharmaceuticals present in the waste. Impacts on surface water sources and wildlife have been documented in many agricultural areas in the United States. Potential impacts on human and environmental health from long-term inadvertent exposure to water contaminated with pharmaceuticals and other compounds are a growing public concern. This work-group, which is part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards—Searching for Solutions, identified needs for rigorous ecosystem monitoring in the vicinity of CAFOs and for improved characterization of major toxicants affecting the environment and human health. Last, there is a need to promote and enforce best practices to minimize inputs of nutrients and toxicants from CAFOs into freshwater and marine ecosystems. PMID:17384784

  12. Feed-Back Moisture Sensor Control for the Delivery of Water to Plants Cultivated in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Howard G.; Prenger, Jessica J.; Rouzan, Donna T.; Spinale, April C.; Murdoch, Trevor; Burtness, Kevin A.

    2005-01-01

    The development of a spaceflight-rated Porous Tube Insert Module (PTIM) nutrient delivery tray has facilitated a series of studies evaluating various aspects of water and nutrient delivery to plants as they would be cultivated in space. We report here on our first experiment using the PTIM with a software-driven feedback moisture sensor control strategy for maintaining root zone wetness level set-points. One-day-old wheat seedlings (Tritium aestivum cv Apogee; N=15) were inserted into each of three Substrate Compartments (SCs) pre-packed with 0.25-1 . mm Profile(TradeMark) substrate and maintained at root zone relative water content levels of 70, 80 and 90%. The SCs contained a bottom-situated porous tube around which a capillary mat was wrapped. Three Porous Tubes. were planted using similar protocols (but without the substrate) and also maintained at these three moisture level set-points. Half-strength modified Hoagland's nutrient solution was used to supply water and nutrients. Results on hardware performance, water usage rates and wheat developmental differences between the different experimental treatments are presented.

  13. Feed-Back Moisture Sensor Control for the Delivery of Water to Plants Cultivated in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Howard G.; Prenger, Jessica J.; Rouzan, Donna T.; Spinale, April C.; Murdoch, Trevor; Burtness, Kevin A.

    2005-01-01

    The development of a spaceflight-rated Porous Tube Insert Module (PTIM) nutrient delivery tray has facilitated a series of studies evaluating various aspects of water and nutrient delivery to plants as they would be cultivated in space. We report here on our first experiment using the PTIM with a software-driven feedback moisture sensor control strategy for maintaining root zone wetness level set-points. One-day-old wheat seedlings (Tritium aestivum cv Apogee; N=15) were inserted into each of three Substrate Compartments (SCs) pre-packed with 0.25-1 . mm Profile(TradeMark) substrate and maintained at root zone relative water content levels of 70, 80 and 90%. The SCs contained a bottom-situated porous tube around which a capillary mat was wrapped. Three Porous Tubes. were planted using similar protocols (but without the substrate) and also maintained at these three moisture level set-points. Half-strength modified Hoagland's nutrient solution was used to supply water and nutrients. Results on hardware performance, water usage rates and wheat developmental differences between the different experimental treatments are presented.

  14. Operations of solids feed and waste disposal systems at the Nucla CFB

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, M.A. ); Melvin, R.H. ); Solomon, N.G. )

    1990-01-01

    Achieving a high unit availability with a variety of coal types is a key factor influencing the attractiveness of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers in the utility market. To accomplish this, attention must be given to the design of solids feed and waste disposal systems. These auxiliary systems typically use off-the-shelf hardware with in-service applications different than conventional units. The design of this equipment typically dictates the flexibility of the boiler for burning different fuel types. This paper discusses the design and operating experience of these auxiliary systems at the Nucla CFB since initial unit start-up in May 1987.

  15. Assessing the stability of an ALPAO deformable mirror for feed-forward operation.

    PubMed

    Bitenc, Urban; Bharmal, Nazim A; Morris, Timothy J; Myers, Richard M

    2014-05-19

    A deformable mirror (DM) is a mirror whose surface can be deformed in order to correct for optical aberrations. If a DM is used in a feed-forward operation (i.e. without feed-back, also known as open-loop) it is, among other requirements, crucial that a set of actuator commands repeatedly results in the same surface shape. We have tested an ALPAO DM against this criterion, by repeatedly applying a set of actuator commands over hours and monitoring the DM shape with an interferometer. We found that if the surface shape was held to shape A for several hours, then changed to a second shape, ℬ, the DM surface will drift from this new shape over the course of several hours. During this period the root-mean-square (RMS) of the deviation from shape ℬ can exceed 30% of the RMS of the difference between shapes A and ℬ. This can correspond to a surface deviation with RMS of several hundred nanometers, and would severely impact the resulting performance of an AO system using such a DM in a feed-forward operation. We have developed a model to correct for the time-varying surface shape in software by continuously adapting the actuator commands over the stabilization period. Application of the stabilisation procedure allows the surface to remain stable to within 4 nm RMS after a period of 6 minutes. We also provide a suggestion on how to improve the repeatability of surface response to different sets of actuator commands, which can be affected by the surface drift.

  16. Recent Developments in the Quantification and Regulation of Air Emissions from Animal Feeding Operations.

    PubMed

    Heinzen, Tarah

    2015-03-01

    Animal feeding operations (AFOs) emit various air pollutants, including ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, methane, and nitrous oxide. Several of these pollutants are regulated under federal clean air statutes, yet AFOs have largely escaped regulation under these laws because of challenges in accurately estimating the rate and quantity of emissions from various types of livestock operations. Recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) efforts to collect emissions data, develop an emissions model capable of estimating emissions at AFOs nationwide, and establish emissions estimating methodologies for certain key livestock air pollutants suffered from design flaws and omitted pollutants of concern. Moreover, this process seems to have stalled, delaying other regulatory reforms needed to increase transparency and increase regulation of these facilities. Until EPA establishes these methodologies, significant AFO pollution regulation under the Clean Air Act or emissions reporting statutes will be very difficult to achieve, and the public health and environmental impacts of these emissions will continue unabated.

  17. Monitoring and Modeling of Emissions from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Overview of Methods

    PubMed Central

    Bunton, Bryan; O’Shaughnessy, Patrick; Fitzsimmons, Sean; Gering, John; Hoff, Stephen; Lyngbye, Merete; Thorne, Peter S.; Wasson, Jeffrey; Werner, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Accurate monitors are required to determine ambient concentration levels of contaminants emanating from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), and accurate models are required to indicate the spatial variability of concentrations over regions affected by CAFOs. A thorough understanding of the spatial and temporal variability of concentration levels could then be associated with locations of healthy individuals or subjects with respiratory ailments to statistically link the presence of CAFOs to the prevalence of ill health effects in local populations. This workgroup report, which was part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards—Searching for Solutions, describes instrumentation currently available for assessing contaminant concentration levels in the vicinity of CAFOs and reviews plume dispersion models that may be used to estimate concentration levels spatially. Recommendations for further research with respect to ambient air monitoring include accurately determining long-term average concentrations for a region under the influence of CAFO emissions using a combination of instruments based on accuracy, cost, and sampling duration. In addition, development of instruments capable of accurately quantifying adsorbed gases and volatile organic compounds is needed. Further research with respect to plume dispersion models includes identifying and validating the most applicable model for use in predicting downwind concentrations from CAFOs. Additional data are needed to obtain reliable emission rates from CAFOs. PMID:17384783

  18. The potential impact of flooding on confined animal feeding operations in eastern North Carolina.

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Steve; Freedman, Stephanie; Band, Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    Thousands of confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have been constructed in eastern North Carolina. The fecal waste pit and spray field waste management systems used by these operations are susceptible to flooding in this low-lying region. To investigate the potential that flood events can lead to environmental dispersion of animal wastes containing numerous biologic and chemical hazards, we compared the geographic coordinates of 2,287 CAFOs permitted by the North Carolina Division of Water Quality (DWQ) with estimates of flooding derived from digital satellite images of eastern North Carolina taken approximately 1 week after Hurricane Floyd dropped as much as 15-20 inches of rain in September 1999. Three cattle, one poultry, and 237 swine operations had geographic coordinates within the satellite-based flooded area. DWQ confirmed 46 operations with breached or flooded fecal waste pits in the same area. Only 20 of these 46 CAFOs were within the satellite-based estimate of the inundated area. CAFOs within the satellite-based flood area were located in 132 census block groups with a population of 171,498 persons in the 2000 census. African Americans were more likely than whites to live in areas with flooded CAFOs according to satellite estimates, but not according to DWQ reports. These areas have high poverty rates and dependence on wells for drinking water. Our analysis suggests that flood events have a significant potential to degrade environmental health because of dispersion of wastes from industrial animal operations in areas with vulnerable populations. PMID:11940456

  19. Effect of delivery room routines on success of first breast-feed.

    PubMed

    Righard, L; Alade, M O

    1990-11-03

    72 infants delivered normally were observed for 2 h after birth. In the separation group (n = 34), the infant was placed on the mother's abdomen immediately after birth but removed after about 20 min for measuring and dressing. In the contact group (n = 38) contact between mother and infant was uninterrupted for at least 1 h. After about 20 min the infants began to make crawling movements towards the breast; the rooting reflex soon came into play, and at an average of 50 min after birth most of the infants were sucking at the breast. More infants in the contact group than in the separation group showed the correct sucking technique (24/38 vs 7/34). 40 (56%) of the 72 mothers had received pethidine during labour; the infants were also sedated and most of them (25/40) did not suck at all. It is suggested that contact between mother and infant should be uninterrupted during the first hour after birth or until the first breast-feed has been accomplished, and that use of drugs such as pethidine should be restricted.

  20. Initial Investigation of Waste Feed Delivery Tank Mixing and Sampling Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Fort, James A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Stewart, Charles W.

    2007-10-01

    The Hanford tank farms contractor will deliver waste to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) from a staging double-shell tank. The WTP broadly classifies waste it receives in terms of “Envelopes,” each with different limiting properties and composition ranges. Envelope A, B, and C wastes are liquids that can include up to 4% entrained solids that can be pumped directly from the staging DST without mixing. Envelope D waste contains insoluble solids and must be mixed before transfer. The mixing and sampling issues lie within Envelope D solid-liquid slurries. The question is how effectively these slurries are mixed and how representative the grab samples are that are taken immediately after mixing. This report summarizes the current state of knowledge concerning jet mixing of wastes in underground storage tanks. Waste feed sampling requirements are listed, and their apparent assumption of uniformity by lack of a requirement for sample representativeness is cited as a significant issue. The case is made that there is not an adequate technical basis to provide such a sampling regimen because not enough is known about what can be achieved in mixing and distribution of solids by use of the baseline submersible mixing pump system. A combined mixing-sampling test program is recommended to fill this gap. Historical Pacific Northwest National Laboratory project and tank farms contractor documents are used to make this case. A substantial investment and progress are being made to understand mixing issues at the WTP. A summary of the key WTP activities relevant to this project is presented in this report. The relevant aspects of the WTP mixing work, together with a previously developed scaled test strategy for determining solids suspension with submerged mixer pumps (discussed in Section 3) provide a solid foundation for developing a path forward.

  1. Efficacy of European starling control to reduce Salmonella enterica contamination in a concentrated animal feeding operation in the Texas panhandle.

    PubMed

    Carlson, James C; Engeman, Richard M; Hyatt, Doreene R; Gilliland, Rickey L; DeLiberto, Thomas J; Clark, Larry; Bodenchuk, Michael J; Linz, George M

    2011-02-16

    European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are an invasive bird species known to cause damage to plant and animal agriculture. New evidence suggests starlings may also contribute to the maintenance and spread of diseases within livestock facilities. Identifying and mitigating the risk pathways that contribute to disease in livestock is necessary to reduce production losses and contamination of human food products. To better understand the impact starlings have on disease transmission to cattle we assessed the efficacy of starling control as a tool to reduce Salmonella enterica within a concentrated animal feeding operation. We matched a large facility, slated for operational control using DRC-1339 (3-chloro-4-methylaniline hydrochloride, also 3-chloro p-toluidine hydrochloride, 3-chloro-4-methylaniline), with a comparable reference facility that was not controlling birds. In both facilities, we sampled cattle feed, cattle water and cattle feces for S. enterica before and after starling control operations. Within the starling-controlled CAFO, detections of S. enterica contamination disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following starling control operations. Within the reference facility, detections of S. enterica contamination increased substantially within feed bunks and water troughs. Starling control was not observed to reduce prevalence of S. enterica in the cattle herd. Following starling control operations, herd prevalence of S. enterica increased on the reference facility but herd prevalence of S. enterica on the starling-controlled CAFO stayed at pretreatment levels. Within the starling-controlled facility detections of S. enterica disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following control operations. Since cattle feed and water are obvious routes for the ingestion of S. enterica, starling control shows promise as a tool to help livestock producers manage disease. Yet, we do not believe

  2. Efficacy of European starling control to reduce Salmonella enterica contamination in a concentrated animal feeding operation in the Texas panhandle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are an invasive bird species known to cause damage to plant and animal agriculture. New evidence suggests starlings may also contribute to the maintenance and spread of diseases within livestock facilities. Identifying and mitigating the risk pathways that contribute to disease in livestock is necessary to reduce production losses and contamination of human food products. To better understand the impact starlings have on disease transmission to cattle we assessed the efficacy of starling control as a tool to reduce Salmonella enterica within a concentrated animal feeding operation. We matched a large facility, slated for operational control using DRC-1339 (3-chloro-4-methylaniline hydrochloride, also 3-chloro p-toluidine hydrochloride, 3-chloro-4-methylaniline), with a comparable reference facility that was not controlling birds. In both facilities, we sampled cattle feed, cattle water and cattle feces for S. enterica before and after starling control operations. Results Within the starling-controlled CAFO, detections of S. enterica contamination disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following starling control operations. Within the reference facility, detections of S. enterica contamination increased substantially within feed bunks and water troughs. Starling control was not observed to reduce prevalence of S. enterica in the cattle herd. Following starling control operations, herd prevalence of S. enterica increased on the reference facility but herd prevalence of S. enterica on the starling-controlled CAFO stayed at pretreatment levels. Conclusions Within the starling-controlled facility detections of S. enterica disappeared from feed bunks and substantially declined within water troughs following control operations. Since cattle feed and water are obvious routes for the ingestion of S. enterica, starling control shows promise as a tool to help livestock producers manage

  3. Results of Inspections of Operation of the ORNL Mock Feed/Withdrawal System

    SciTech Connect

    White-Horton, Jessica L; Laughter, Mark D; Krichinsky, Alan M

    2010-01-01

    Remote monitoring of process activities is one tool under consideration by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to handle increasing demands for conducting verification inspections at safeguarded facilities. The ability for the IAEA to continuously monitor feed and withdrawal (F&W) station operations (e.g., load cells and other process attributes) would provide independent verification of normal plant operations, supply data that would make safeguards more effective and efficient, and enable information-driven inspections. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have assembled a mock UF6 F&W system using water in lieu of UF6 to test the feasibility of advanced process monitoring systems and concepts (such as remote monitoring) for safeguards. One use of the F&W mockup involves exploring how a safeguards inspector would interact with the data and use it to perform onsite inspections more effectively, so the researchers divided staff into two groups: operators and inspectors. This paper will discuss this process and the promising results of the inspections that have been performed at the mock facility to verify operator declarations and detect material diversion. This paper also will present the intuitive and user-friendly graphic interface researchers used to analyze the information. Although the data gathered previously came from a computer local to the F&W system, future work will include remote transmission and analysis of the data.

  4. Test and Evaluation Plan for Waste Feed Delivery Project W-521

    SciTech Connect

    MAY, T.H.

    2000-09-11

    The purpose of this Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP) is to identify the Test and Evaluation (T&E) activities required to confirm that design and installation of systems, structures, and components (SSCs) provided by Project W-521 will satisfy Level 2 and operational requirements, and to describe the T&E program to be implemented during the various project phases. This TEP establishes a sequence of test and evaluation activities to provide confidence that all required T&E activities will be accomplished successfully to support a smooth and timely turnover of completed SSCs to the River Protection Project (RPP) operations organization. In addition, organizational responsibilities for managing and performing the T&E activities are outlined. This TEP was prepared in accordance with the guidance and requirements of the RPP Test and Evaluation Management Plan. The Project W-521 TEP documents the process that will show that the SSCs are (1) compliant with the requirements of the Level 2 Specifications, (2) constructed in accordance with approved design drawings and procurement/construction specifications, (3) installed properly and appropriately integrated into the existing systems, and (4) will operate adequately on turnover to the customer.

  5. Integrated assessment of runoff from concentrated animal feeding operations: Analytical approaches, in vitro bioassays, and in vivo fish exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    While the trend toward using concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has resulted in increased efficiency in food production, this has prompted concern regarding the impact these operations have on the environment. For example, animal waste from CAFOs can contain natural a...

  6. Integrated assessment of runoff from concentrated animal feeding operations: Analytical approaches, in vitro bioassays, and in vivo fish exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    While the trend toward using concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has resulted in increased efficiency in food production, this has prompted concern regarding the impact these operations have on the environment. For example, animal waste from CAFOs can contain natural a...

  7. Delivery of dsRNA through topical feeding for RNA interference in the citrus sap piercing-sucking hemipteran, Diaphorina citri.

    PubMed

    Killiny, Nabil; Kishk, Abdelaziz

    2017-06-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful means to study functional genomics in insects. The delivery of dsRNA is a challenging step in the development of RNAi assay. Here, we describe a new delivery method to increase the effectiveness of RNAi in the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri. Bromophenol blue droplets were topically applied to fifth instar nymphs and adults on the ventral side of the thorax between the three pairs of legs. In addition to video recordings that showed sucking of the bromophenol blue by the stylets, dissected guts turned blue indicating that the uptake was through feeding. Thus, we called the method topical feeding. We targeted the abnormal wing disc gene (awd), also called nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK), as a reporter gene to prove the uptake of dsRNA via this method of delivery. Our results showed that dsRNA-awd caused reduction of awd expression and nymph mortality. Survival and lifespan of adults emerged from treated nymphs and treated adults were affected. Silencing awd caused wing malformation in the adults emerged from treated nymphs. Topical feeding as a delivery of dsRNA is highly efficient for both nymphs and adults. The described method could be used to increase the efficiency of RNAi in D. citri and other sap piercing-sucking hemipterans. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Intrapartum transperineal ultrasound used to predict cases of complicated operative (vacuum and forceps) deliveries in nulliparous women.

    PubMed

    Sainz, José Antonio; García-Mejido, José Antonio; Aquise, Adriana; Bonomi, María José; Borrero, Carlota; De la Fuente, Paloma; Fernández-Palacín, Ana

    2017-09-10

    The objective of this study was to investigate the predictive value of intrapartum transperineal ultrasound in the identification of complicated operative(vacuum or forceps) deliveries in nulliparous women. Prospective observational study of nulliparous women with an indication for operative-delivery who underwent intrapartum transperineal ultrasound before fetal extraction. Managing obstetricians were blinded to the ultrasound data. Intrapartum transperineal ultrasound was performed immediately before blade application, both at rest and concurrently with contractions and active pushing. Operative delivery was classified as complicated when one or more of the following situations occurred: ≥3 tractions;a 3-4(th) degree perineal tear; significant bleeding during the episiotomy repair; major tear or significant traumatic neonatal lesion. 143 nulliparous women were included in the study[82 vacuum-assisted deliveries and 61 forceps-assisted deliveries] with 20 fetuses in occiput posterior position. Forty-seven operative deliveries were classified as complicated deliveries(28 vacuum-assisted deliveries, 19 forceps-assisted deliveries). No differences in obstetric, intrapartum or neonatal characteristics were observed between the study groups, with the following exceptions: birth weight (3,229±482 uncomplicated deliveries vs. 3,623±406 complicated deliveries; P<0.003)) and number of vacuum-tractions (1.4 uncomplicated deliveries,4.5 complicated deliveries; p<0.0005). The strongest predictors of a complicated delivery, using the area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUC), were the angle of progression with active pushing (AoP2)(AUC 86.9%) and the progression distance with active pushing (PD2) (AUC 74.5%). The optimal cut-off value for predicting a difficult operative delivery was an AoP2 of 153.5°(sensitivity=95.2%; false-positive-rate=5.9%) or PD2 of 58.5 mm(sensitivity= 95.2%; false-positive-rate=7.1%). The sonographic parameters AoP2 and PD2 can

  9. Methods and techniques for measuring gas emissions from agricultural and animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Hu, Enzhu; Babcock, Esther L; Bialkowski, Stephen E; Jones, Scott B; Tuller, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Emissions of gases from agricultural and animal feeding operations contribute to climate change, produce odors, degrade sensitive ecosystems, and pose a threat to public health. The complexity of processes and environmental variables affecting these emissions complicate accurate and reliable quantification of gas fluxes and production rates. Although a plethora of measurement technologies exist, each method has its limitations that exacerbate accurate quantification of gas fluxes. Despite a growing interest in gas emission measurements, only a few available technologies include real-time, continuous monitoring capabilities. Commonly applied state-of-the-art measurement frameworks and technologies were critically examined and discussed, and recommendations for future research to address real-time monitoring requirements for forthcoming regulation and management needs are provided.

  10. Feeding behavior of Aplysia: a model system for comparing cellular mechanisms of classical and operant conditioning.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Douglas A; Byrne, John H

    2006-01-01

    Feeding behavior of Aplysia provides an excellent model system for analyzing and comparing mechanisms underlying appetitive classical conditioning and reward operant conditioning. Behavioral protocols have been developed for both forms of associative learning, both of which increase the occurrence of biting following training. Because the neural circuitry that mediates the behavior is well characterized and amenable to detailed cellular analyses, substantial progress has been made toward a comparative analysis of the cellular mechanisms underlying these two forms of associative learning. Both forms of associative learning use the same reinforcement pathway (the esophageal nerve, En) and the same reinforcement transmitter (dopamine, DA). In addition, at least one cellular locus of plasticity (cell B51) is modified by both forms of associative learning. However, the two forms of associative learning have opposite effects on B51. Classical conditioning decreases the excitability of B51, whereas operant conditioning increases the excitability of B51. Thus, the approach of using two forms of associative learning to modify a single behavior, which is mediated by an analytically tractable neural circuit, is revealing similarities and differences in the mechanisms that underlie classical and operant conditioning.

  11. Ambient odour testing of concentrated animal feeding operations using field and laboratory olfactometers.

    PubMed

    Newby, B D; McGinley, M A

    2004-01-01

    The Missouri Air Conservation Commission regulations include regulations that limit the amount of acceptable odor from confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). The regulations concerning odor designate the use of a scentometer as a screening tool. The rules dictate that if an odor is detectable by an investigator at a dilution ratio of 5.4 using a scentometer then an air sample should be collected and sent to an olfactometry laboratory for an odor panel to determine the detection threshold and the intensity of the odor sample. The detection thresholds are determined following ASTM E679-91 and EN13725. The intensity is determined following ASTM E544-99. If the olfactometry laboratory determined the detection threshold of the sample to be above seven, then the CAFO would be in violation. If the olfactometry laboratory determined the intensity level to be above a level equivalent to 225 ppm of n-butanol, then the source of odor would be in violation. The CAFO odor rules came under scrutiny by representatives of the largest hog producer in the State of Missouri. Specifically, they argued that the detection threshold limit of seven in the CAFO portion of the rule was too low for the rule to realistically identify a violation. This paper presents the results of a study to find the appropriate regulatory level of odor as determined by laboratory olfactometry. The study took place from November 2001 to October 2002. Samples were collected from field locations that exhibited odor produced by confined animal feeding operations and from areas exhibiting no apparent odor. The odors were categorized based upon the scentometer level at which the odors were detectable, and then samples were sent to an odor evaluation laboratory for analysis by olfactometry.

  12. High-rate nitrogen removal and its behavior of granular sequence batch reactor under step-feed operational strategy.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chen; Wang, Yaqin; Wang, Yongjian; Lv, Junping; Li, Yaochen; Zhu, Jianrong

    2013-04-01

    Alternating anoxic/oxic (A/O) combined with the step-feed granular sequence batch reactor (step-feed SBR) was operated in laboratory scale to investigate nitrogen removal. The results showed that when the total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels were 55 and 320 mg/L in the influent, the TIN removal efficiencies were 89.7-92.4% in the step-feed mode and 48.1-59.5% in the conventional alternating A/O single-feed mode within a 360 min cycle. The pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) were used to optimize the process of denitrification and nitrification in the step-feed mode. The optimized operational condition was achieved by shortening the cycle time to 207 min, resulting in a nitrogen removal rate of 0.27 kg N/m3 d, which was much higher than those achieved using activated sludge systems. The dominant community in the aerobic granules was coccus-like bacteria, and filamentous bacteria were hardly found. Granules were well maintained throughout the 90 days of continuous step-feed operation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Planned versus actual outcomes as a result of animal feeding operation decisions for managing phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Cabot, Perry E; Nowak, Pete

    2005-01-01

    The paper explores how decisions made on animal feeding operations (AFOs) influence the management of manure and phosphorus. Variability among these decisions from operation to operation and from field to field can influence the validity of nutrient loss risk assessments. These assessments are based on assumptions that the decision outcomes regarding manure distribution will occur as they are planned. The discrepancy between planned versus actual outcomes in phosphorus management was explored on nine AFOs managing a contiguous set of 210 fields in south-central Wisconsin. A total of 2611 soil samples were collected and multiple interviews conducted to assign phosphorus index (PI) ratings to the fields. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (r(S)) indicated that PI ratings were less sensitive to soil test phosphorus (STP) levels (r(S) = 0.378), universal soil loss equation (USLE) (r(S) = 0.261), ratings for chemical fertilizer application (r(S) = 0.185), and runoff class (r(S) = -0.089), and more sensitive to ratings for manure application (r(S) = 0.854). One-way ANOVA indicated that mean field STP levels were more homogenous than field PI ratings between AFOs. Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) tests displayed several nonsignificant comparisons for cumulative distribution functions, S(x), of mean STP levels on AFO fields. On the other hand, the K-S tests of S(x) for PI ratings indicated that the majority of these S(x) functions were significantly different between AFOs at or greater than the 0.05 significance level. Interviews suggested multiple reasons for divergence between planned and actual outcomes in managing phosphorus, and that this divergence arises at the strategic, tactical, and operational levels of decision-making.

  14. Use of intrapartum ultrasound in the prediction of complicated operative forceps delivery of fetuses in non-occiput posterior position.

    PubMed

    Cuerva, M J; Bamberg, C; Tobias, P; Gil, M M; De La Calle, M; Bartha, J L

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the hypothesis that intrapartum ultrasound (ITU) measurements, including the angle of progression (AOP), progression distance (PD) and head direction (HD), can predict complicated forceps delivery in non-occiput posterior deliveries. In this prospective observational study, a single operator performed ITU on 30 patients with an indication for operative forceps delivery. Managing obstetricians were blinded to the results. ITU was performed just before blade application, between contractions and concurrently with contractions and active pushing. Forceps delivery was classified as complicated when one or more of the following situations occurred: three or more tractions; a subjective impression of a difficult or failed application; a third-degree or higher perineal tear; significant bleeding during the episiotomy repair; major tear; significant traumatic neonatal lesion. Twenty-one forceps deliveries were classified as uncomplicated and nine were complicated. The strongest predictor of a complicated forceps delivery, calculated using the area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUC), was the AOP between contractions (AOP1) (AUC = 98.9%). The best cut-off for predicting a difficult forceps delivery was an AOP1 of 138° (sensitivity = 85.7%, specificity = 100%). The best predictive model included both the AOP1 and the HD during a contraction with active pushing (HD2). The sonographic parameters AOP and HD can be used to predict complicated operative forceps delivery in fetuses in non-occiput posterior position. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Birth wind and fire: raising awareness to operating room fires during delivery.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Omer; Weissman, Oren; Harats, Moti; Farber, Nimrod; Stavrou, Demetris; Tessone, Ariel; Zilinsky, Isaac; Winkler, Eyal; Haik, Josef

    2013-09-01

    We researched whether the obstetric operating room (OR) qualified as a fire-risk environment so as to take preventive measures accordingly. We analyzed a series of iatrogenic burns inflicted during birth by collecting clinical data and comparing it with known OR fire risk factors and with other factors that repeated in all cases in search of unique characteristics of the obstetric OR. All three cases shared in common the same type of oxygen-rich open ventilation system, alcohol-based prepping solution, and the hastiness of cesarean delivery while spontaneous vaginal delivery was already in progress. The obstetric OR is, as suspected, a fire-prone zone in more ways than the regular OR. Therefore, preventive measures should be undertaken and awareness for the possibility for such occurrences should be raised.

  16. Performance and endurance of a PEMFC operated with synthetic reformate fuel feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sishtla, Chakravarthy; Koncar, Gerald; Platon, Renato; Gamburzev, Serguei; Appleby, A. John; Velev, Omourtag A.

    Widespread implementation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) powerplants for stationary and vehicular applications will be dependent in the near future on using readily available hydrocarbon fuels as the source of the hydrogen fuel. Methane and propane are ideal fuels for stationary applications, while methanol, gasoline, and diesel fuel are better suited for vehicular applications. Various means of fuel processing are possible to produce a gaseous fuel containing H2, CO2 and CO. CO is a known electrocatalyst poison and must be reduced to low (10's) ppm levels and CO2 is said to cause additional polarization effects. Even with no CO in the feed gas a H2/CO2/H2O gas mixture will form some CO. Therefore, as a first step of developing a PEMFC that can operate for thousands of hours using a reformed fuel, we used an anode gas feed of 80% H2 and 20% CO2 to simulate the reforming of CH4. To investigate the effect of reformate on cell performance and endurance, a single cell with an active area of 58 cm2 was assembled with a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) furnished by Texas A&M University using IGT's internally manifolded heat exchange (IMHEX™) design configuration. The MEA consisted of a Nafion 112 membrane with anode and cathode Pt catalyst loadings of 0.26 and 1.46 mg/cm2, respectively. The cell was set to operate on a synthetic reformate-air at 60°C and 1 atm and demonstrated over 5000 h of endurance with a decay rate of less than 1%/1000 h of operation. The cell also underwent four successful thermal cycles with no appreciable loss in performance. The stable performance is attributed to a combination of the IGT IMHEX plate design with its inherent uniform gas flow distribution across the entire active area and MEA quality. The effects of temperature, gas composition, fuel utilization (stoics) and thermal cycle on cell performance are described.

  17. Interaction of the role of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) in Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDS).

    PubMed

    Hollenbeck, James E

    2016-03-01

    Most significant change in the evolution of the influenza virus is the rapid growth of the Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) on a global scale. These industrial agricultural operations have the potential of housing thousands of animals in a relatively small area. Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs) event can be considered as a shift in the pathogen-host-environment interplay characteristics described by Engering et al. (2013). These changes in the host-environment and the disease ecology are key to creating novel transmission patterns and selection of novel pathogens with a modification of genetic traits. With the development of CAFOs throughout the world, the need for training of animal caretakers to observe, identify, treat, vaccinate and cull if necessary is important to safeguard public health. The best defense against another pandemic of Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs) is the constant monitoring of the livestock and handlers of CAFOs and the live animal markets. These are the most likely epicenter of the next pandemic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of number of deliveries and total breast-feeding time on bone mineral density in premenopausal and young postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Tsvetov, Gloria; Levy, Sigal; Benbassat, Carlos; Shraga-Slutzky, Ilana; Hirsch, Dania

    2014-03-01

    Pregnancy and lactation have been associated with decline in bone mineral density (BMD). It is not clear if there is a full recovery of BMD to baseline. This study sought to determine if pregnancy or breast-feeding or both have a cumulative effect on BMD in premenopausal and early postmenopausal women. We performed single-center cohort analysis. Five hundred women aged 35-55 years underwent routine BMD screening from February to July 2011 at a tertiary medical center. Patients were questioned about number of total full-term deliveries and duration of breast-feeding and completed a background questionnaire on menarche and menopause, smoking, dairy product consumption, and weekly physical exercise. Weight and height were measured. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure spinal, dual femoral neck, and total hip BMD. Associations between background characteristics and BMD values were analyzed. Sixty percent of the women were premenopausal. Mean number of deliveries was 2.5 and mean duration of breast-feeding was 9.12 months. On univariate analysis, BMD values were negatively correlated with patient age (p=0.006) and number of births (p=0.013), and positively correlated with body mass index (p<0.001). On multiple (adjusted) logistic regression analysis, prolonged breast-feeding duration, but not number of deliveries, was significantly correlated to a low BMD (p=0.008). An effect was noted only in postmenopausal women. The spine was the most common site of BMD decrease. Prolonged breast-feeding may have a deleterious long-term effect on BMD and may contribute to increased risk of osteoporosis later in life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of particle-borne odorants emitted from concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xufei; Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa; Cadwallader, Keith R; Wang, Xinlei; Zhang, Yuanhui; Lee, Jongmin

    2014-08-15

    Airborne particles are known to serve as a carrier of odors emanating from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). However, limited quantitative data about particle-borne odorants preclude an accurate assessment of the role of particles in odor transport. This study collected total suspended particulates (TSP) and PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) at the air exhaust of eight types of CAFOs (swine: farrowing, gestation, weaning, and finishing; poultry: manure-belt layer hen, tom turkey, chicken broiler, and cage-free layer hen; in total 20 animal buildings) in multiple seasons, and examined the variability in particle odorant composition with animal operation type, season, and particle size. Fifty-seven non-sulfur-containing odorants were identified and quantitated, including carbonyls, alcohols, acids, phenols, and nitrogen-containing compounds. They in total accounted for 2.19±1.52% TSP and 4.97±3.25% PM10 mass. Acetic acid and ethanol were most abundant but less odor-contributing than phenylacetic acid, indole, dodecanoic acid, and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, as determined by odor activity value. Particle odorant composition varied significantly with animal operation type, season, and particle size. The TSP and PM10 samples from swine gestation buildings, for example, showed distinctly different odorant compositions than those from tom turkey buildings. The summer TSP and PM10 samples contained in general lower concentrations of short-chain fatty acids but higher concentrations of long-chain fatty acids, aldehydes, and short-chain alcohols than the winter samples. Compared to TSP, PM10 samples from different types of CAFOs shared a more similar odorant composition, contained higher odorant concentrations per mass of particles, and accounted for on average 53.2% of the odor strength of their corresponding TSP samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations

    PubMed Central

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R.

    2015-01-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI = 0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI = 1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI = 1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. PMID:25600418

  1. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Christopher D; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R

    2015-04-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI=0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI=1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI=1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing the relationship between groundwater nitrate and animal feeding operations in Iowa (USA).

    PubMed

    Zirkle, Keith W; Nolan, Bernard T; Jones, Rena R; Weyer, Peter J; Ward, Mary H; Wheeler, David C

    2016-10-01

    Nitrate-nitrogen is a common contaminant of drinking water in many agricultural areas of the United States of America (USA). Ingested nitrate from contaminated drinking water has been linked to an increased risk of several cancers, specific birth defects, and other diseases. In this research, we assessed the relationship between animal feeding operations (AFOs) and groundwater nitrate in private wells in Iowa. We characterized AFOs by swine and total animal units and type (open, confined, or mixed), and we evaluated the number and spatial intensities of AFOs in proximity to private wells. The types of AFO indicate the extent to which a facility is enclosed by a roof. Using linear regression models, we found significant positive associations between the total number of AFOs within 2km of a well (p trend <0.001), number of open AFOs within 5km of a well (p trend <0.001), and number of mixed AFOs within 30km of a well (p trend <0.001) and the log nitrate concentration. Additionally, we found significant increases in log nitrate in the top quartiles for AFO spatial intensity, open AFO spatial intensity, and mixed AFO spatial intensity compared to the bottom quartile (0.171log(mg/L), 0.319log(mg/L), and 0.541log(mg/L), respectively; all p<0.001). We also explored the spatial distribution of nitrate-nitrogen in drinking wells and found significant spatial clustering of high-nitrate wells (>5mg/L) compared with low-nitrate (≤5mg/L) wells (p=0.001). A generalized additive model for high-nitrate status identified statistically significant areas of risk for high levels of nitrate. Adjustment for some AFO predictor variables explained a portion of the elevated nitrate risk. These results support a relationship between animal feeding operations and groundwater nitrate concentrations and differences in nitrate loss from confined AFOs vs. open or mixed types. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing the relationship between groundwater nitrate and animal feeding operations in Iowa (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zirkle, Keith W.; Nolan, Bernard T.; Jones, Rena R.; Weyer, Peter J.; Ward, Mary H.; Wheeler, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate-nitrogen is a common contaminant of drinking water in many agricultural areas of the United States of America (USA). Ingested nitrate from contaminated drinking water has been linked to an increased risk of several cancers, specific birth defects, and other diseases. In this research, we assessed the relationship between animal feeding operations (AFOs) and groundwater nitrate in private wells in Iowa. We characterized AFOs by swine and total animal units and type (open, confined, or mixed), and we evaluated the number and spatial intensities of AFOs in proximity to private wells. The types of AFO indicate the extent to which a facility is enclosed by a roof. Using linear regression models, we found significant positive associations between the total number of AFOs within 2 km of a well (p trend < 0.001), number of open AFOs within 5 km of a well (p trend < 0.001), and number of mixed AFOs within 30 km of a well (p trend < 0.001) and the log nitrate concentration. Additionally, we found significant increases in log nitrate in the top quartiles for AFO spatial intensity, open AFO spatial intensity, and mixed AFO spatial intensity compared to the bottom quartile (0.171 log(mg/L), 0.319 log(mg/L), and 0.541 log(mg/L), respectively; all p < 0.001). We also explored the spatial distribution of nitrate-nitrogen in drinking wells and found significant spatial clustering of high-nitrate wells (> 5 mg/L) compared with low-nitrate (≤ 5 mg/L) wells (p = 0.001). A generalized additive model for high-nitrate status identified statistically significant areas of risk for high levels of nitrate. Adjustment for some AFO predictor variables explained a portion of the elevated nitrate risk. These results support a relationship between animal feeding operations and groundwater nitrate concentrations and differences in nitrate loss from confined AFOs vs. open or mixed types.

  4. Assessing impacts of land-applied manure from concentrated animal feeding operations on fish populations and communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) waste is a cost effective fertilizer. In the Midwest, networks of subsurface tile-drains expedite transport of animal hormones and nutrients from land-applied CAFO waste to adjacent waterways. The objective of this study was to evaluat...

  5. Standardization of flux chamber and wind tunnel flux measurements for quantifying emissions from area sources at animal feeding operations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A variety of wind tunnels and flux chambers have been used to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and ammonia (NH3) at animal feeding operations (AFO). However, there has been little regard to the extreme variation and inaccuracy caused by inappropriate air velocity or sweep air flow...

  6. Assessing impacts of land-applied manure from concentrated animal feeding operations on fish populations and communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) waste is a cost effective fertilizer. In the Midwest, networks of subsurface tile-drains expedite transport of animal hormones and nutrients from land-applied CAFO waste to adjacent waterways. The objective of this study was to evaluat...

  7. Evaluating Best Management Practices and Correlations Between Culture and Molecular Data at a Cattle Feeding Operation and Nearby Stream

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will include: Evaluate the performance of an infiltration basin and constructed wetland in a cattle-feeding operation (culture data only); Examine the correlation between culture data and qPCR measurements at two different research sites; Describe the relationship b...

  8. Evaluating Best Management Practices and Correlations Between Culture and Molecular Data at a Cattle Feeding Operation and Nearby Stream

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will include: Evaluate the performance of an infiltration basin and constructed wetland in a cattle-feeding operation (culture data only); Examine the correlation between culture data and qPCR measurements at two different research sites; Describe the relationship b...

  9. Do lagoons near concentrated animal feeding operations promote nitrous oxide supersaturation?

    PubMed

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Andra, Syam S; Bach, Stephan B H; Datta, Rupali

    2009-06-01

    Animal wastewater lagoons nearby concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) represent the latest tendency in global animal farming, severely impacting the magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions, including nitrous oxide (N(2)O). We hypothesized that lagoon wastewater could be supersaturated with N(2)O as part of incomplete microbial nitrification/denitrification processes, thereby regulating the N(2)O partitioning in the gaseous phase. The objectives of this study were: (i) to investigate the magnitude of dissolved N(2)O concentrations in the lagoon; and (ii) to determine the extent to which supersaturation of N(2)O occurs in wastewater lagoons. Dissolved N(2)O concentrations in the wastewater samples were high, ranging from 0.4 to 40.5 microg N(2)O mL(-1). Calculated dissolved N(2)O concentrations from the experimentally measured partition coefficients were much greater than those typically expected in aquatic systems (< approximately 0.6 microg N(2)O mL(-1)). Knowledge of the factors controlling the magnitude of N(2)O supersaturation could potentially bridge mass balance differences between in situ measurements and global N(2)O models.

  10. Concentrated animal feeding operations, row crops, and their relationship to nitrate in eastern Iowa Rivers.

    PubMed

    Weldon, Mark B; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2006-05-15

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) and fertilizer application to row crops may contribute to poor water quality in surface waters. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated nutrient concentrations and fluxes in four Eastern Iowa watersheds sampled between 1996 and 2004. We found that these watersheds contribute nearly 10% of annual nitrate flux entering the Gulf of Mexico, while representing only 1.5% of the contributing drainage basin. Mass budget analysis shows streamflow to be a major loss of nitrogen (18% of total N output), second only to crop harvest (63%). The major watershed inputs of nitrogen include applied fertilizer for corn (54% of total N input) and nitrogen fixation by soybeans (26%). Despite the relatively small input from animal manure (approximately 5%), the results of spatial analysis indicate that row crop and CAFO densities are significantly and independently correlated to higher nitrate concentration in streams. Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.59 and 0.89 were found between nitrate concentration and row crop and CAFO density, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis produced a correlation for nitrate concentration with an R2 value of 85%. High spatial density of row crops and CAFOs are linked to the highest river nitrate concentrations (up to 15 mg/L normalized over five years).

  11. Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations, Row Crops and their Relationship to Nitrate in Eastern Iowa Rivers

    PubMed Central

    Weldon, Mark B.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) and fertilizer application to row crops may contribute to poor water quality in surface waters. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated nutrient concentrations and fluxes in four Eastern Iowa watersheds sampled between 1996-2004. We found that these watersheds contribute nearly 10% of annual nitrate flux entering the Gulf of Mexico, while representing only 1.5% of the contributing drainage basin. Mass budget analysis shows stream flow to be a major loss of nitrogen (18% of total N output), second only to crop harvest (63%). The major watershed inputs of nitrogen include applied fertilizer for corn (54% of total N input) and nitrogen fixation by soybeans (26%). Despite the relatively small input from animal manure (~5%), the results of spatial analysis indicate that row crop and CAFO densities are significantly and independently correlated to higher nitrate concentration in streams. Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.59 and 0.89 were found between nitrate concentration and row crop and CAFO density, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis produced a correlation for nitrate concentration with an R2 value of 85%. High spatial density of row crops and CAFOs are linked to the highest river nitrate concentrations (up to 15 mg/l normalized over five years). PMID:16749677

  12. Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards—Searching for Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Peter S.

    2007-01-01

    A scientific conference and workshop was held March 2004 in Iowa City, Iowa, that brought together environmental scientists from North America and Europe to address major environmental health issues associated with concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in large, industrialized livestock production facilities. After one and a half days of plenary sessions, five expert workgroups convened to consider the most relevant research areas, including respiratory health effects, modeling and monitoring of air toxics, water quality issues, influenza pandemics and antibiotic resistance, and community health and socioeconomic issues. The workgroup reports that follow outline the state of the science and public health concerns relating to livestock production as they apply to each workgroup topic. The reports also identify areas in which further research is needed and suggest opportunities to translate science to policy initiatives that would effect improvements in public and environmental health. Viable solutions to some of the current environmental health problems associated with CAFOs are outlined. In addition, these reports bring to light several major concerns, including air and water contamination, the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in livestock, and the specter of influenza outbreaks arising from siting industrialized poultry and swine production in proximity to each other and to humans. PMID:17384781

  13. Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Enthusiasm greeted the development of synthetic organic insecticides in the mid-twentieth century, only to see this give way to dismay and eventually scepticism and outright opposition by some. Regardless of how anyone feels about this issue, insecticides and other pesticides have become indispensable, which creates something of a dilemma. Possibly as a result of the shift in public attitude towards insecticides, genetic engineering of microbes was first met with scepticism and caution among scientists. Later, the development of genetically modified crop plants was met with an attitude that hardened into both acceptance and hard-core resistance. Transgenic insects, which came along at the dawn of the twenty-first century, encountered an entrenched opposition. Those of us responsible for studying the protection of crops have been affected more or less by these protagonist and antagonistic positions, and the experiences have often left one thoughtfully mystified as decisions are made by non-participants. Most of the issues boil down to concerns over delivery mechanisms. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry PMID:23852646

  14. Effect of non-feeding period length on the intermittent operation of UASB reactors treating dairy effluents.

    PubMed

    Coelho, N M; Rodrigues, A A; Arroja, L M; Capela, I F

    2007-02-01

    Recent environmental concerns have prompted a re-evaluation of conventional management strategies and refueled the search of innovative waste management practices. In this sense, the anaerobic digestion of both fat and the remaining complex organic matter present in dairy wastewaters is attractive, although the continuous operation of high rate anaerobic processes treating this type of wastewaters causes the failure of the process. This work accesses the influence of non-feeding period length on the intermittent operation of mesophilic UASB reactors treating dairy wastewater, in order to allow the biological degradation to catch up with adsorption phenomenon. During the experiments, two UASB reactors were subject to three organic loading rates, ranging from 6 to 12 g(COD) x L(-1) x d(-1), with the same daily load applied to both reactors, each one with a different non-feeding period. Both reactors showed good COD removal efficiencies (87-92%). A material balance for COD in the reactors during the feeding and non-feeding periods showed the importance of the feedless period, which allowed the biomass to degrade substrate that was accumulated during the feeding period. The reactor with the longest non-feeding period had a better performance, which resulted in a higher methane production and adsorption capacity for the same organic load applied with a consequent less accumulation of substrate into the biomass. In addition, both reactors had a stable operation for the organic load of 12 g(COD) x L(-1) x d(-1), which is higher than the maximum applicable load reported in literature for continuous systems (3-6 g(COD) x L(-1) x d(-1)).

  15. Characterization and Analyses of Valves, Feed Lines and Tanks used in Propellant Delivery Systems at NASA SSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Harry M.; Coote, David J.; Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin

    2006-01-01

    Accurate modeling of liquid rocket engine test processes involves assessing critical fluid mechanic and heat and mass transfer mechanisms within a cryogenic environment, and accurately modeling fluid properties such as vapor pressure and liquid and gas densities as a function of pressure and temperature. The Engineering and Science Directorate at the NASA John C. Stennis Space Center has developed and implemented such analytic models and analysis processes that have been used over a broad range of thermodynamic systems and resulted in substantial improvements in rocket propulsion testing services. In this paper, we offer an overview of the analyses techniques used to simulate pressurization and propellant fluid systems associated with the test stands at the NASA John C. Stennis Space Center. More specifically, examples of the global performance (one-dimensional) of a propellant system are provided as predicted using the Rocket Propulsion Test Analysis (RPTA) model. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses utilizing multi-element, unstructured, moving grid capability of complex cryogenic feed ducts, transient valve operation, and pressurization and mixing in propellant tanks are provided as well.

  16. Oxytocin augmentation of labour in women with epidural analgesia for reducing operative deliveries.

    PubMed

    Costley, Philippa L; East, Christine E

    2012-05-16

    The rate of operative deliveries (both caesarean sections, vacuum extractions and forceps), continues to rise throughout the world. These are associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity. The most common reasons for operative births in nulliparous women are labour dystocia (failure to progress), and non-reassuring fetal status. Epidural analgesia has been shown to slow the progress of labour, as well as increase the rate of instrumental deliveries. However, it is unclear whether the use of oxytocin in women with epidural analgesia results in a reduction in operative deliveries, and thereby reduces both maternal and fetal morbidity. To determine whether augmentation of women using epidural analgesia with oxytocin will decrease the incidence of operative deliveries and thereby reduce fetal and maternal morbidity. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (29 February 2012). All published and unpublished randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compared augmentation with oxytocin of women in spontaneous labour with epidural analgesia versus intent to manage expectantly were included. Cluster-randomised trials were eligible for inclusion but none were identified.Cross-over study designs were unlikely to be relevant for this intervention, and we planned to exclude them if any were identified. We did not include results that were only available in published abstracts. The two review authors independently assessed for inclusion the 16 studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Both review authors independently assessed the risk of bias for each included study. Both review authors independently extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. We included two studies, involving 319 women. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in either of the primary outcomes of caesarean section (risk ratio (RR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42 to 2.12) or instrumental delivery (RR 0

  17. Oxytocin augmentation of labour in women with epidural analgesia for reducing operative deliveries.

    PubMed

    Costley, Philippa L; East, Christine E

    2013-07-11

    The rate of operative deliveries (both caesarean sections, vacuum extractions and forceps), continues to rise throughout the world. These are associated with significant maternal and neonatal morbidity. The most common reasons for operative births in nulliparous women are labour dystocia (failure to progress), and non-reassuring fetal status. Epidural analgesia has been shown to slow the progress of labour, as well as increase the rate of instrumental deliveries. However, it is unclear whether the use of oxytocin in women with epidural analgesia results in a reduction in operative deliveries, and thereby reduces both maternal and fetal morbidity. To determine whether augmentation of women using epidural analgesia with oxytocin will decrease the incidence of operative deliveries and thereby reduce fetal and maternal morbidity. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 June 2013). All published and unpublished randomised and quasi-randomised trials that compared augmentation with oxytocin of women in spontaneous labour with epidural analgesia versus intent to manage expectantly were included. Cluster-randomised trials were eligible for inclusion but none were identified.Cross-over study designs were unlikely to be relevant for this intervention, and we planned to exclude them if any were identified. We did not include results that were only available in published abstracts. The two review authors independently assessed for inclusion the 16 studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Both review authors independently assessed the risk of bias for each included study. Both review authors independently extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. We included two studies, involving 319 women. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in either of the primary outcomes of caesarean section (risk ratio (RR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42 to 2.12) or instrumental delivery (RR 0.88, 95

  18. Medical capability team: the clinical microsystem for combat healthcare delivery in counterinsurgency operations.

    PubMed

    Clark, Susz; Van Steenvort, Jon K

    2008-01-01

    Today's operational environment in the support of counterinsurgency operations requires greater tactical and operational flexibility and diverse medical capabilities. The skills and organizations required for full spectrum medical operations are different from those of the past. Combat healthcare demands agility and the capacity for rapid change in clinical systems and processes to better support the counterinsurgency environment. This article proposes the Army Medical Department (AMEDD) develop and implement the medical capability team (MCT) for combat healthcare delivery. It discusses using the concept of the brigade combat team to develop medical capability teams as the unit of effectiveness to transform frontline care; provides a theoretical overview of the MCT as a "clinical microsystem"; discusses MCT leadership, training, and organizational support, and the deployment and employment of the MCT in a counterinsurgency environment. Additionally, this article proposes that the AMEDD initiate the development of an AMEDD Combat Training Center of Excellence to train and validate the MCTs. The complexity of combat healthcare demands an agile and campaign quality AMEDD with joint expeditionary capability in order to promote the best patient outcomes in a counterinsurgency environment.

  19. Pulsatile delivery of a leucine supplement during long-term continuous enteral feeding enhances lean growth in term neonatal pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Neonatal pigs are used as a model to study and optimize the clinical treatment of infants who are unable to maintain oral feeding. Using this model, we have previously shown that pulsatile administration of leucine during continuous feeding over 24 h via orogastric tube enhanced protein synthesis in...

  20. Availability of Information about Airborne Hazardous Releases from Animal Feeding Operations

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tyler J. S.; Rubenstein, Leonard S.; Nachman, Keeve E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Air from animal feeding operations (AFOs) has been shown to transport numerous contaminants of public health concern. While federal statutes like the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) generally require that facilities report hazardous releases, AFOs have been exempted from most of these requirements by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). We assessed the availability of information about AFO airborne hazardous releases following these exemptions. Methods We submitted public records requests to 7 states overlapping with or adjacent to the Chesapeake Bay watershed for reports of hazardous releases made by AFOs under EPCRA. From the records received, we calculated the proportion of AFOs in each state for which ≥1 reports were available. We also determined the availability of specific types of information required under EPCRA. The numbers of AFOs permitted under the Clean Water Act (CWA) or analogous state laws, as determined from permitting databases obtained from states, were used as denominators. Results We received both EPCRA reports and permitting databases from 4 of 7 states. Across these 4 states, the mean proportion of AFOs for which ≥1 EPCRA reports were available was 15% (range: 2-33%). The mean proportions of AFOs for which the name or identity of the substance released, ≥1 estimates of quantity released, and information about nearby population density and sensitive populations were available were 15% (range: 2-33%), 8% (range: 0-22%), and 14% (range: 2-8%), respectively. Discussion These results suggest that information about the airborne hazardous releases of a large majority of AFOs is not available under federal law in the states that we investigated. While the results cannot be attributed to specific factors by this method, attention to multiple factors, including revision of the EPA’s exemptions, may increase the availability of information relevant to the health of populations living or working

  1. Convective transport of pollutants from eastern Colorado concentrated animal feeding operations into the Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pina, A.; Denning, A.; Schumacher, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    As the population of the urban corridor along the eastern Front Range grows at an unprecedented rate, concern about pollutant transport into the Rocky Mountains is on the rise. The confluence of mountain meteorology and major pollution sources conspire to transport pollutants across the Front Range, especially nitrogen species (NH3, NH4+, orgN, and NO3-) from concentrated animal feeding operations and urban regions, into the Rocky Mountains. The Rocky Mountains have coarse-textured soils which disallow the uptake nitrogen-rich precipitation, allowing most ions in precipitation to reach, be stored in, and eutrophicate alpine terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The focus of this study was to examine the meteorological conditions in which atmospheric deposition of pollutants at two mountain sites was anomalously high due to convective transport. We looked at 19 years (1994-2013) of precipitation and wet deposition data from two National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NAPD) sites in the Rocky Mountains: Beaver Meadows (CO19) and Loch Vale (CO98). Loch Vale (3159 m) and Beaver Meadows (2477 m) are located approximately 11 km apart but differ in height by 682 m resulting in different seasonal precipitation composition and totals. The Advanced Research WRF model was used to simulate the meteorology at a high resolution for the progression of the upslope event that led to high nitrogen deposition in the Rocky Mountains. Data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) was used to observe and verify synoptic conditions produced by the WRF model that influenced the high-deposition events. Dispersion plumes showed a mesoscale mountain circulation caused by differential heating between mountains-tops and the plains was the main driver of the westward convective transport towards the mountains. Additionally and unexpectedly, a lee trough and high precipitable water values associated with a cold front played significant roles in the nitrogen deposition into the Rocky

  2. Field sampling method for quantifying volatile sulfur compounds from animal feeding operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabue, Steven; Scoggin, Kenwood; Mitloehner, Frank; Li, Hong; Burns, Robert; Xin, Hongwei

    Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are a major class of chemicals associated with odor from animal feeding operations (AFOs). Identifying and quantifying VSCs in air is challenging due to their volatility, reactivity, and low concentrations. In the present study, a canister-based method collected whole air in fused silica-lined (FSL) mini-canister (1.4 L) following passage through a calcium chloride drying tube. Sampled air from the canisters was removed (10-600 mL), dried, pre-concentrated, and cryofocused into a GC system with parallel detectors (mass spectrometer (MS) and pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD)). The column effluent was split 20:1 between the MS and PFPD. The PFPD equimolar sulfur response enhanced quantitation and the location of sulfur peaks for mass spectral identity and quantitation. Limit of quantitation for the PFPD and MSD was set at the least sensitive VSC (hydrogen sulfide) and determined to be 177 and 28 pg S, respectively, or 0.300 and 0.048 μg m -3 air, respectively. Storage stability of hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol was problematic in warm humid air (25 °C, 96% relative humidity (RH)) without being dried first, however, stability in canisters dried was still only 65% after 24 h of storage. Storage stability of hydrogen sulfide sampled in the field at a swine facility was over 2 days. The greater stability of field samples compared to laboratory samples was due to the lower temperature and RH of field samples compared to laboratory generated samples. Hydrogen sulfide was the dominant odorous VSCs detected at all swine facilities with methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide detected notably above their odor threshold values. The main odorous VSC detected in aged poultry litter was dimethyl trisulfide. Other VSCs above odor threshold values for poultry facilities were methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide.

  3. Implication of dopaminergic modulation in operant reward learning and the induction of compulsive-like feeding behavior in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Bédécarrats, Alexis; Cornet, Charles; Simmers, John; Nargeot, Romuald

    2013-05-16

    Feeding in Aplysia provides an amenable model system for analyzing the neuronal substrates of motivated behavior and its adaptability by associative reward learning and neuromodulation. Among such learning processes, appetitive operant conditioning that leads to a compulsive-like expression of feeding actions is known to be associated with changes in the membrane properties and electrical coupling of essential action-initiating B63 neurons in the buccal central pattern generator (CPG). Moreover, the food-reward signal for this learning is conveyed in the esophageal nerve (En), an input nerve rich in dopamine-containing fibers. Here, to investigate whether dopamine (DA) is involved in this learning-induced plasticity, we used an in vitro analog of operant conditioning in which electrical stimulation of En substituted the contingent reinforcement of biting movements in vivo. Our data indicate that contingent En stimulation does, indeed, replicate the operant learning-induced changes in CPG output and the underlying membrane and synaptic properties of B63. Significantly, moreover, this network and cellular plasticity was blocked when the input nerve was stimulated in the presence of the DA receptor antagonist cis-flupenthixol. These results therefore suggest that En-derived dopaminergic modulation of CPG circuitry contributes to the operant reward-dependent emergence of a compulsive-like expression of Aplysia's feeding behavior.

  4. The impact of a preloaded intraocular lens delivery system on operating room efficiency in routine cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jason J; Chu, Jeffrey; Graham, Jacob; Zaluski, Serge; Rocha, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the operational impact of using preloaded intraocular lens (IOL) delivery systems compared with manually loaded IOL delivery processes during routine cataract surgeries. Time and motion data, staff and surgery schedules, and cost accounting reports were collected across three sites located in the US, France, and Canada. Time and motion data were collected for manually loaded IOL processes and preloaded IOL delivery systems over four surgery days. Staff and surgery schedules and cost accounting reports were collected during the 2 months prior and after introduction of the preloaded IOL delivery system. The study included a total of 154 routine cataract surgeries across all three sites. Of these, 77 surgeries were performed using a preloaded IOL delivery system, and the remaining 77 surgeries were performed using a manual IOL delivery process. Across all three sites, use of the preloaded IOL delivery system significantly decreased mean total case time by 6.2%-12.0% (P<0.001 for data from Canada and the US and P<0.05 for data from France). Use of the preloaded delivery system also decreased surgeon lens time, surgeon delays, and eliminated lens touches during IOL preparation. Compared to a manual IOL delivery process, use of a preloaded IOL delivery system for cataract surgery reduced total case time, total surgeon lens time, surgeon delays, and eliminated IOL touches. The time savings provided by the preloaded IOL delivery system provide an opportunity for sites to improve routine cataract surgery throughput without impacting surgeon or staff capacity.

  5. O'Connor et al. systematic review regarding animal feeding operations and public health: critical flaws may compromise conclusions.

    PubMed

    Nachman, Keeve E; Lam, Juleen; Schinasi, Leah H; Smith, Tara C; Feingold, Beth J; Casey, Joan A

    2017-08-31

    In this comment, we summarize several scientific concerns with the recently published systematic review from O'Connor and colleagues that examined the relationship between proximity to animal-feeding operations and health of individuals in nearby communities. The authors utilized a bias tool not designed for environmental health research, erroneously excluded important studies, and incorrectly interpreted others. As a result, the conclusions drawn in the review misrepresent the evidence from the published literature, limiting its value to policymakers, researchers, and the public.

  6. Size-related bacterial diversity and tetracycline resistance gene abundance in the air of concentrated poultry feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Gao, Min; Jia, Ruizhi; Qiu, Tianlei; Han, Meilin; Wang, Xuming

    2017-01-01

    Concentrated animal-feeding operations (CAFOs) are considered a source of airborne human pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes. Although bacterial abundance and diversity have been well studied, limited information on the size distribution of bioaerosols has prevented a clear understanding of the health effects of exposure to bioaerosols from CAFOs. Here, different sizes of particles were sampled from the inside and outside of atmospheric environments of layer and broiler feeding operations using 8-stage Andersen samplers. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and 16S rDNA-based sequencing were used to analyze the characteristics of biological abundance and diversity, respectively, according to size. The results indicated that size-related differences occurred in terms of airborne bacterial richness, diversity, and concentration at poultry-feeding operations. The richness of biological genera in the urban atmospheric environment was lower than in concentrated poultry-feeding operations. The biological diversity of airborne bacterial genera, including genera associated with potential pathogens, varied according to size. The bacterial lineages of bioaerosols present in the 7 size stages for layers clustered apart from those for broilers, suggesting that the type of poultry house is a more important factor than the particle size in shaping the microbial communities. In most cases, the concentrations of the 16S rDNA, Escherichia coli, tetW, and tetL genes increased as the particle size increased, with the geometric mean diameters varying from 4.7 to 5.8 μm. These results regarding the size-related differences in the diversity and abundance of bioaerosols will facilitate a better understanding of the potential health impact on both poultry and humans working in such environments.

  7. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs): chemical compositions and separation of sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Bin; Coggon, Matthew M.; Koss, Abigail R.; Warneke, Carsten; Eilerman, Scott; Peischl, Jeff; Aikin, Kenneth C.; Ryerson, Thomas B.; de Gouw, Joost A.

    2017-04-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) emit a large number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. In this study, we conducted mobile laboratory measurements of VOCs, methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) downwind of dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep and chicken CAFO facilities in northeastern Colorado using a hydronium ion time-of-flight chemical-ionization mass spectrometer (H3O+ ToF-CIMS), which can detect numerous VOCs. Regional measurements of CAFO emissions in northeastern Colorado were also performed using the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) campaign. Alcohols and carboxylic acids dominate VOC concentrations and the reactivity of the VOCs with hydroxyl (OH) radicals. Sulfur-containing and phenolic species provide the largest contributions to the odor activity values and the nitrate radical (NO3) reactivity of VOC emissions, respectively. VOC compositions determined from mobile laboratory and aircraft measurements generally agree well with each other. The high time-resolution mobile measurements allow for the separation of the sources of VOCs from different parts of the operations occurring within the facilities. We show that the emissions of ethanol are primarily associated with feed storage and handling. Based on mobile laboratory measurements, we apply a multivariate regression analysis using NH3 and ethanol as tracers to determine the relative importance of animal-related emissions (animal exhalation and waste) and feed-related emissions (feed storage and handling) for different VOC species. Feed storage and handling contribute significantly to emissions of alcohols, carbonyls, carboxylic acids and sulfur-containing species. Emissions of phenolic species and nitrogen-containing species are predominantly associated with animals and their waste.

  8. Chart documentation of informed consent for operative vaginal delivery: is it adequate?

    PubMed

    Nichols, Catherine Matthews; Pendlebury, Laura C; Jennell, Jamie

    2006-12-01

    To determine the documentation frequency of informed consent for women undergoing a trial of nonemergent instrumental delivery. A retrospective chart review of instrumented vaginal deliveries from 1992 to 2005 was performed. Cases were identified from a Labor and Delivery database and hospital records were reviewed for documentation of associated risks, general consent for the procedure, indication, and option of cesarean delivery (CD). Three hundred forty six charts were reviewed: 246 were excluded for an emergency delivery (19%), misclassification (25%), or lost notes (27%). In the remaining 100 cases, 61% had a general consent for instrumented vaginal delivery. Documentation of any maternal or neonatal risks was found in 3% and 0%, respectively. The option of a cesarean delivery was documented in 22% of the cases. When comparing 5-year time intervals before and after 2000, there was no increased frequency in documentation of maternal or neonatal risks. Documentation of informed consent for instrumented vaginal delivery is inconsistent and should be improved.

  9. Evaluation of pelvic floor symptoms and sexual function in primiparous women who underwent operative vaginal delivery versus cesarean delivery for second-stage arrest.

    PubMed

    Crane, Andrea K; Geller, Elizabeth J; Bane, Heather; Ju, Rujin; Myers, Erinn; Matthews, Catherine A

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the prevalence and severity of pelvic floor symptoms and sexual function at 1 year postpartum in women who underwent either operative vaginal delivery (OVD) or cesarean delivery (CD) for second-stage arrest. In this cohort study, women with second-stage arrest in their first pregnancy who delivered between January 2009 and May 2011 at 2 different institutions were identified by an obstetric database using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes. Validated questionnaires evaluating pelvic floor symptoms and sexual function were administered. Subjects were dichotomized into those who underwent an OVD or a CD. Additional analyses by intent-to-treat and stratification of vacuum versus forceps operative deliveries were performed. Of the 109 women who completed the 1-year postpartum symptom questionnaires, 53 (48.6%) had a successful OVD, 20 (18.3%) failed OVD and underwent CD, and 36 (33%) underwent CD only. There were no differences between those who had a successful OVD and those who underwent a CD in either pelvic floor function or sexual function, but bulge symptoms were more common in the OVD group (7.5% vs 0, P = 0.05). When analyzed by intent-to-treat (planned OVD vs planned CD), pelvic floor symptoms remained similar between groups. However, those in the planned CD group reported higher orgasm and overall sexual satisfaction scores. In this sample of primiparous women with second-stage arrest, mode of delivery did not significantly impact pelvic floor function 1 year after delivery, except for bulge symptoms in the OVD group and sexual satisfaction in the planned CD group.

  10. Evaluation of Pelvic Floor Symptoms and Sexual Function in Primiparous Women Who Underwent Operative Vaginal Delivery Versus Cesarean Delivery for Second-Stage Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Andrea K.; Geller, Elizabeth J.; Bane, Heather; Ju, Rujin; Myers, Erinn; Matthews, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to compare the prevalence and severity of pelvic floor symptoms and sexual function at 1 year postpartum in women who underwent either operative vaginal delivery (OVD) or cesarean delivery (CD) for second-stage arrest. Methods In this cohort study, women with second-stage arrest in their first pregnancy who delivered between January 2009 and May 2011 at 2 different institutions were identified by an obstetric database using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes. Validated questionnaires evaluating pelvic floor symptoms and sexual function were administered. Subjects were dichotomized into those who underwent an OVD or a CD. Additional analyses by intent-to-treat and stratification of vacuum versus forceps operative deliveries were performed. Results Of the 109 women who completed the 1-year postpartum symptom questionnaires, 53 (48.6%) had a successful OVD, 20 (18.3%) failed OVD and underwent CD, and 36 (33%) underwent CD only. There were no differences between those who had a successful OVD and those who underwent a CD in either pelvic floor function or sexual function, but bulge symptoms were more common in the OVD group (7.5% vs 0, P = 0.05). When analyzed by intent-to-treat (planned OVD vs planned CD), pelvic floor symptoms remained similar between groups. However, those in the planned CD group reported higher orgasm and overall sexual satisfaction scores. Conclusions In this sample of primiparous women with second-stage arrest, mode of delivery did not significantly impact pelvic floor function 1 year after delivery, except for bulge symptoms in the OVD group and sexual satisfaction in the planned CD group. PMID:23321653

  11. Increased maternal TSH and decreased maternal FT4 are associated with a higher operative delivery rate in low-risk pregnancies: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Monen, L; Pop, V J; Hasaart, T H; Wijnen, H; Oei, S G; Kuppens, S M

    2015-10-16

    The increasing number of operative deliveries is a topic of major concern in modern obstetrics. Maternal thyroid function is of known influence on many obstetric parameters. Our objective was to investigate a possible relation between maternal thyroid function, and operative deliveries. Secondary aim was to explore whether thyroid function was related to specific reasons for operative deliveries. In this prospective cohort study, low-risk Caucasian women, pregnant of a single cephalic fetus were included. Women with known auto-immune disease, a pre-labour Caesarean section, induction of labour, breech presentation or preterm delivery were excluded. In all trimesters of pregnancy the thyroid function was assessed. Differences in mean TSH and FT4 were assessed using t-test. Mean TSH and FT4 levels for operative deliveries were determined by one way ANOVA. Repeated measurement analyses were performed (ANOVA), adjusting for BMI, partiy, maternal age and gestational age at delivery. In total 872 women were included, of which 699 (80.2%) had a spontaneous delivery. At 36 weeks gestation women who had an operative delivery had a significantly higher mean TSH (1.63 mIU/L versus 1.46 mIU/L, p = 0.025) and lower mean FT4 (12.9 pmol/L versus 13.3 pmol/L, p = 0.007)) compared to women who had a spontaneous delivery. Mean TSH was significantly higher (p = 0.026) and mean FT4 significantly lower (p = 0.030) throughout pregnancy for women with an operative delivery due to failure to progress in second stage of labour, compared to women with a spontaneous delivery or operative delivery for other reasons. Increased TSH and decreased FT4 seem to be associated with more operative vaginal deliveries and Caesarean sections. After adjusting for several confounders the association remained for operative deliveries due to failure to progress in second stage of labour, possibly to be explained by less efficient uterine action.

  12. Operational Marine Data Acquisition and Delivery Powered by Web and Geospatial Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R.; Buck, J. J. H.

    2015-12-01

    As novel sensor types and new platforms are deployed to monitor the global oceans, the volumes of scientific and environmental data collected in the marine context are rapidly growing. In order to use these data in both the traditional operational modes and in innovative "Big Data" applications the data must be readily understood by software agents. One approach to achieving this is the application of both World Wide Web and Open Geospatial Consortium standards: namely Linked Data1 and Sensor Web Enablement2 (SWE). The British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) is adopting this strategy in a number of European Commission funded projects (NETMAR; SenseOCEAN; Ocean Data Interoperability Platform - ODIP; and AtlantOS) to combine its existing data archiving architecture with SWE components (such as Sensor Observation Services) and a Linked Data interface. These will evolve the data management and data transfer from a process that requires significant manual intervention to an automated operational process enabling the rapid, standards-based, ingestion and delivery of data. This poster will show the current capabilities of BODC and the status of on-going implementation of this strategy. References1. World Wide Web Consortium. (2013). Linked Data. Available:http://www.w3.org/standards/semanticweb/data. Last accessed 7th April 20152. Open Geospatial Consortium. (2014). Sensor Web Enablement (SWE). Available:http://www.opengeospatial.org/ogc/markets-technologies/swe. Last accessed 8th October 2014

  13. 20 CFR 662.270 - How are the costs of providing services through the One-Stop delivery system and the operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... through the One-Stop delivery system and the operating costs of the system to be funded? 662.270 Section... and the operating costs of the system to be funded? The MOU must describe the particular funding arrangements for services and operating costs of the One-Stop delivery system. Each partner must contribute a...

  14. 20 CFR 662.270 - How are the costs of providing services through the One-Stop delivery system and the operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... through the One-Stop delivery system and the operating costs of the system to be funded? 662.270 Section... and the operating costs of the system to be funded? The MOU must describe the particular funding arrangements for services and operating costs of the One-Stop delivery system. Each partner must contribute a...

  15. The Deep Space Network's X/X/Ka Feed: Modifications for 100 kW CW Uplink Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, Daniel J.; Khayatian, Behrouz; Sosnowski, John B.

    2010-01-01

    The Deep Space Network, which provides communication services for NASA's robotic missions, consists of a number of 34m beam waveguide antennas and conventional 70m dual-reflector antennas located around the globe, [1]. The 34m beam waveguide antennas employ a three-band feed covering the deep space uplink band near 7.2 GHz, and downlink bands at 8.45 and 32 GHz. Simultaneous uplink commanding at 25 kW CW and ultra low noise reception in both bands is supported along with monopulse tracking at 32 GHz, [2]. An existing uplink capability of 25 kW is also available on the 70m antennas using a more conventional X/X diplexing feed. In order to provide an equivalent uplink capability with the 34m antennas the X/X/Ka feed is currently being modified for 100 kW CW operation, [3]. Here we will discuss both the existing feed and the 100 kW modifications which are underway.

  16. The Deep Space Network's X/X/Ka Feed: Modifications for 100 kW CW Uplink Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, Daniel J.; Khayatian, Behrouz; Sosnowski, John B.

    2010-01-01

    The Deep Space Network, which provides communication services for NASA's robotic missions, consists of a number of 34m beam waveguide antennas and conventional 70m dual-reflector antennas located around the globe, [1]. The 34m beam waveguide antennas employ a three-band feed covering the deep space uplink band near 7.2 GHz, and downlink bands at 8.45 and 32 GHz. Simultaneous uplink commanding at 25 kW CW and ultra low noise reception in both bands is supported along with monopulse tracking at 32 GHz, [2]. An existing uplink capability of 25 kW is also available on the 70m antennas using a more conventional X/X diplexing feed. In order to provide an equivalent uplink capability with the 34m antennas the X/X/Ka feed is currently being modified for 100 kW CW operation, [3]. Here we will discuss both the existing feed and the 100 kW modifications which are underway.

  17. Pregnancy and Delivery in Functional Single Ventricle Patient; Successful Long-Term Outcome after Right Ventricle Exclusion and Fontan Operation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Cho, Sungkyu; Choi, Eunseok

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-six-year-old Ebstein's anomaly patient, who had failed both biventricular and one-and-a-half repair, underwent right ventricle exclusion and Fontan operation. She completed pregnancy and delivery owing to the excellent long-term clinical course. Although the caesarean section was performed due to symptoms of heart failure on the gestational age of 32+6 weeks, preterm delivery was agreeable with neonatology support. In Korea, there has not yet been a case of pregnancy and delivery of functional single ventricle patient because most patients have been discouraged from getting pregnant. However, functional single ventricle patient can endure pregnancy and delivery, if valve function and ventricular contractility, status of Fontan pathway and absence of arrhythmia predict favorable outcome as presented in this case. Although the patient maintained her pregnancy without anticoagulation owing to laminar flow in the Fontan pathway and absence of thromboembolic event, anticoagulation should be considered, weighing the benefits and risks during the pregnancy. PMID:26798394

  18. Pregnancy and Delivery in Functional Single Ventricle Patient; Successful Long-Term Outcome after Right Ventricle Exclusion and Fontan Operation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Cho, Sungkyu; Choi, Eunseok; Kim, Woong-Han

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-six-year-old Ebstein's anomaly patient, who had failed both biventricular and one-and-a-half repair, underwent right ventricle exclusion and Fontan operation. She completed pregnancy and delivery owing to the excellent long-term clinical course. Although the caesarean section was performed due to symptoms of heart failure on the gestational age of 32+6 weeks, preterm delivery was agreeable with neonatology support. In Korea, there has not yet been a case of pregnancy and delivery of functional single ventricle patient because most patients have been discouraged from getting pregnant. However, functional single ventricle patient can endure pregnancy and delivery, if valve function and ventricular contractility, status of Fontan pathway and absence of arrhythmia predict favorable outcome as presented in this case. Although the patient maintained her pregnancy without anticoagulation owing to laminar flow in the Fontan pathway and absence of thromboembolic event, anticoagulation should be considered, weighing the benefits and risks during the pregnancy.

  19. A remotely operated drug delivery system with an electrolytic pump and a thermo-responsive valve

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Ying; Zaher, Amir; Yassine, Omar; Kosel, Jurgen; Foulds, Ian G.

    2015-01-01

    Implantable drug delivery devices are becoming attractive due to their abilities of targeted and controlled dose release. Currently, two important issues are functional lifetime and non-controlled drug diffusion. In this work, we present a drug delivery device combining an electrolytic pump and a thermo-responsive valve, which are both remotely controlled by an electromagnetic field (40.5 mT and 450 kHz). Our proposed device exhibits a novel operation mechanism for long-term therapeutic treatments using a solid drug in reservoir approach. Our device also prevents undesired drug liquid diffusions. When the electromagnetic field is on, the electrolysis-induced bubble drives the drug liquid towards the Poly (N-Isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) valve that consists of PNIPAM and iron micro-particles. The heat generated by the iron micro-particles causes the PNIPAM to shrink, resulting in an open valve. When the electromagnetic field is turned off, the PNIPAM starts to swell. In the meantime, the bubbles are catalytically recombined into water, reducing the pressure inside the pumping chamber, which leads to the refilling of the fresh liquid from outside the device. A catalytic reformer is included, allowing more liquid refilling during the limited valve's closing time. The amount of body liquid that refills the drug reservoir can further dissolve the solid drug, forming a reproducible drug solution for the next dose. By repeatedly turning on and off the electromagnetic field, the drug dose can be cyclically released, and the exit port of the device is effectively controlled. PMID:26339328

  20. Apparatus for feeding fluidized bed incinerator, and method of autogenic operation of same

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.F.

    1981-09-29

    This invention relates to an improved method and apparatus for continuous autogenic incineration of high-moisture easily friable combustible agglomerates in a fluidized-bed. The improvement comprises introducing the waste materials into the bed in a tube of air provided by supplemental air means which surrounds the in-bed feed means.

  1. The association between proximity to animal-feeding operations and community health: a protocol for updating a systematic review.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Annette M; Auvermann, Brent W; Higgins, Julian P T; Kirychuk, Shelley P; Sargeant, Jan M; Von Essen, Susanna G; Glanville, Julie M; Wood, Hannah

    2014-09-08

    Livestock and poultry operations that feed large numbers of animals are common. Facility capacity varies, but it is not uncommon for facilities to house 1,000 swine with multiple barns at a single site, feedlots to house 50,000 cattle, and poultry houses to house 250,000 hens. There is primary research that suggests livestock facilities that confine animals indoors for feeding can represent a health hazard for surrounding communities. In this protocol, we describe a review about the association between proximity to animal-feeding operations (AFOs) and the health of individuals in nearby communities. A systematic review of the topic was published by some members of our group in 2010. The purpose of this review is to update that review. The populations of interest are people living in communities near livestock production facilities. Outcomes of interest are any health outcome measured in humans such as respiratory disease, gastrointestinal disease, and mental health. Measures of antibiotic resistance in people from the communities compared to measures of resistance found in animals and the environment on animal-feeding operations will also be summarized. The exposure of interest will be exposure to livestock production using a variety of metrics such as distance from facilities, endotoxin levels, and measures of odor. Electronic searches will be conducted using MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process (via OvidSP), CAB Abstracts (via Web of Knowledge), and Science Citation Index (via Web of Knowledge). No language or date restriction will be applied. We will access the risk of bias using a pilot version of a tool developed by the Methods Groups of the Cochrane Collaboration for non-randomized interventions.We propose to conduct a meta-analysis for each health metric (e.g., combining all respiratory disease outcomes, combining all gastrointestinal outcomes). A planned subgroup analysis will be based on the domains of the risk of bias. This systematic review will provide

  2. Characterizing non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumsey, Ian C.; Aneja, Viney P.; Lonneman, William A.

    2012-02-01

    Emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) were determined from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) in North Carolina. NMVOCs were measured in air samples collected in SUMMA and fused-silica lined (FSL) canisters and were analyzed using a gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID) system. Measurements were made from both an anaerobic lagoon and barn in each of the four seasonal sampling periods during the period June 2007 through April 2008. In each sampling period, nine to eleven canister samples were taken from both the anaerobic lagoon and barn over a minimum of four different days during a period of ˜1 week. Measurements of meteorological and physiochemical parameters were also made during the sampling period. In lagoon samples, six NMVOCs were identified that had significantly larger emissions in comparison to other NMVOCs. This included three alcohols (ethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, and methanol), two ketones (acetone and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)) and an aldehyde (acetaldehyde). The overall average fluxes for these NMVOCs, ranged from 0.18 μg m -2 min -1 for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol to 2.11 μg m -2 min -1 for acetone, with seasonal fluxes highest in the summer for four (acetone, acetaldehyde, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and MEK) of the six compounds In barn samples, there were six NMVOCs that had significantly larger concentrations and emissions in comparison to other NMVOCs. These consisted of two alcohols (methanol and ethanol), an aldehyde (acetaldehyde), two ketones (acetone and 2,3-butanedione), and a phenol (4-methylphenol). Overall average barn concentration ranged from 2.87 ppb for 4-methylphenol to 16.12 ppb for ethanol. Overall average normalized barn emission rates ranged from 0.10 g day -1 AU -1 (1 AU (animal unit) = 500 kg of live animal weight) for acetaldehyde to 0.45 g day -1 AU -1 for ethanol. The NMVOCs, 4-methylphenol and 2,3-butanedione, which have low odor thresholds (odor thresholds = 1.86 ppb and 0

  3. Characterizing reduced sulfur compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumsey, Ian C.; Aneja, Viney P.; Lonneman, William A.

    2014-09-01

    Reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have become a potential environmental and human health concern, as a result of changes in livestock production methods. RSC emissions were determined from a swine CAFO in North Carolina. RSC measurements were made over a period of ≈1 week from both the barn and lagoon during each of the four seasonal periods from June 2007 to April 2008. During sampling, meteorological and other environmental parameters were measured continuously. Seasonal hydrogen sulfide (H2S) barn concentrations ranged from 72 to 631 ppb. Seasonal dimethyl sulfide (DMS; CH3SCH3) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS; CH3S2CH3) concentrations were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower, ranging from 0.18 to 0.89 ppb and 0.47 to 1.02 ppb, respectively. The overall average barn emission rate was 3.3 g day-1 AU-1 (AU (animal unit) = 500 kg of live animal weight) for H2S, which was approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the DMS and DMDS overall average emissions rates, determined as 0.017 g day-1 AU-1 and 0.036 g day-1 AU-1, respectively. The overall average lagoon flux was 1.33 μg m-2 min-1 for H2S, which was approximately an order of magnitude higher than the overall average DMS (0.12 μg m-2 min-1) and DMDS (0.09 μg m-2 min-1) lagoon fluxes. The overall average lagoon emission for H2S (0.038 g day-1 AU-1) was also approximately an order of magnitude higher than the overall average DMS (0.0034 g day-1 AU-1) and DMDS (0.0028 g day-1 AU-1) emissions. H2S, DMS and DMDS have offensive odors and low odor thresholds. Over all four sampling seasons, 77% of 15 min averaged H2S barn concentrations were an order of magnitude above the average odor threshold. During these sampling periods, however, DMS and DMDS concentrations did not exceed their odor thresholds. The overall average barn and lagoon emissions from this study were used to help estimate barn, lagoon and total (barn + lagoon) RSC emissions from swine CAFOs

  4. Characterizing Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions from a Swine Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aneja, V. P.; Rumsey, I. C.; Lonneman, W. A.

    2011-12-01

    The emission of NMVOCs from swine concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in North Carolina is of concern, due to their contribution to odor. In addition, of the 188 listed hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), 162 are classified as NMVOCs. NMVOCs emissions were determined over four seasonal sampling periods from an anaerobic lagoon and barn at a swine CAFO in North Carolina. Sampling was conducted during the period June 2007 through April 2008. Air samples were collected using SUMMA and fused-silca lined (FSL) canisters and were analyzed for NMVOCs using a gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID) system. Nine to eleven canister samples were collected from both the anaerobic lagoon and the barn over a ~1 week sampling period, with samples collected on a minimum of four different days. Measurements of meteorological and physiochemical parameters were made during the lagoon and barn sampling. Six NMVOCs (acetone, acetaldehyde, ethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, methanol and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)) were identified in lagoon samples, that were classified as having significantly larger emissions in comparison to other NMVOCs. Overall average lagoon fluxes of these NMVOCs ranged from 0.18 ug m-2 min-1 for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol to 2.11 ug m-2 min-1 for acetone. In barn samples there were also six NMVOCs (acetaldehyde, acetone, 2,3-butanedione, ethanol, methanol and 4-methylphenol) that were classified as having significantly larger emissions in comparison to other compounds. Overall average concentrations for these six compounds ranged from 2.87 ppb for 4-methylphenol to 16.12 ppb for ethanol. The overall average normalized emissions ranged from 0.10 g day-1 AU-1 (AU = one animal unit, representing 500 kg of live animal weight) for acetaldehyde to 0.45 g day-1 AU-1 for ethanol. Eight odorous compounds were identified in lagoon and barn samples. These were 2,3-butanedione, decanal, ethylbenzene, heptanal, hexanal, 4-methylphenol, nonanal, and octanal. Of the eight

  5. DETECTING AND MITIGATING THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF FECAL PATHOGENS ORIGINATING FROM CONFINED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS: REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a review of literature regarding the potential impact of fecal pathogens originating from animal agriculture in the United States. Livestock production and dairy operations continue their trend toward larger and more concentrated facilities. These operations ...

  6. DETECTING AND MITIGATING THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF FECAL PATHOGENS ORIGINATING FROM CONFINED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS: REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a review of literature regarding the potential impact of fecal pathogens originating from animal agriculture in the United States. Livestock production and dairy operations continue their trend toward larger and more concentrated facilities. These operations ...

  7. A call for clarity in infant breast and bottle-feeding definitions for research.

    PubMed

    Thulier, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Unclear and inconsistent infant-feeding definitions have plagued much of breastfeeding research. To determine accurate health outcomes associated with infant feeding, it is imperative that different types of feedings be explicitly described. Definitions must be based on content, not mode of milk delivery. Five new definitions for infant feeding are provided. These definitions are operationally useful for breastfeeding researchers, allowing for the inclusion of almost every infant into an appropriate sample group.

  8. Shaping of fuel delivery characteristics for solenoid operated diesel engine gaseous injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, H.; Krepec, T.; Kekedjian, H.

    1996-09-01

    Solenoid operated gaseous injectors, when compared to conventional liquid fuel diesel injectors, differ in the way the fuel dose and its discharge rate are controlled. While in conventional diesel systems, the fuel dose and its injection rate depends on the fuel injection pump effective stroke and on the plunger diameter and velocity, the solenoid injectors operate in an on-off manner which limits the ability to control the gas discharge rate, resulting in its profile to be basically rectangular in shape. To reduce the gas injection rate at the beginning of the injection process in order to suppress the diesel-knock phenomenon, similar procedures as used in diesel engines could be implemented. One such approach is to use a throttling type pintle nozzle, and another method is to use a double-spring injector with a hole nozzle. The rationale for using such nozzle configurations is that gaseous fuels do not require atomization, and therefore, can be injected at lower discharge velocities than with liquid fuels. The gas delivery characteristics from a solenoid injector has been computer-simulated in order to assess the impact of the investigated three modes of fuel discharge rate control strategies. The simulation results confirmed that the gas dose and its discharge rate can be shaped as required. An experimental set-up is described to measure the gas discharge rate using a special gas injection mass flow rate indicator with a strain-gage sensor installed at the entry to a long tube, similar to that proposed by Bosch for liquid fuel volumetric flow rate measurements.

  9. Implementation and Operational Research: Expedited Results Delivery Systems Using GPRS Technology Significantly Reduce Early Infant Diagnosis Test Turnaround Times.

    PubMed

    Deo, Sarang; Crea, Lindy; Quevedo, Jorge; Lehe, Jonathan; Vojnov, Lara; Peter, Trevor; Jani, Ilesh

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of a new technology to communicate the results of an infant HIV diagnostic test on test turnaround time and to quantify the association between late delivery of test results and patient loss to follow-up. We used data collected during a pilot implementation of Global Package Radio Service (GPRS) printers for communicating results in the early infant diagnosis program in Mozambique from 2008 through 2010. Our dataset comprised 1757 patient records, of which 767 were from before implementation and 990 from after implementation of expedited results delivery system. We used multivariate logistic regression model to determine the association between late result delivery (more than 30 days between sample collection and result delivery to the health facility) and the probability of result collection by the infant's caregiver. We used a sample selection model to determine the association between late result delivery to the facility and further delay in collection of results by the caregiver. The mean test turnaround time reduced from 68.13 to 41.05 days post-expedited results delivery system. Caregivers collected only 665 (37.8%) of the 1757 results. After controlling for confounders, the late delivery of results was associated with a reduction of approximately 18% (0.44 vs. 0.36; P < 0.01) in the probability of results collected by the caregivers (odds ratio = 0.67, P < 0.05). Late delivery of results was also associated with a further average increase in 20.91 days of delay in collection of results (P < 0.01). Early infant diagnosis program managers should further evaluate the cost-effectiveness of operational interventions (eg, GPRS printers) that reduce delays.

  10. Report: Eleven Years After Agreement, EPA Has Not Developed Reliable Emission Estimation Methods to Determine Whether Animal Feeding Operations Comply With Clean Air Act and Other Statutes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #17-P-0396, September 19, 2017. Until the EPA develops sound methods to estimate emissions, the agency cannot reliably determine whether animal feeding operations comply with applicable Clean Air Act requirements.

  11. Draft NPDES Permits and Proposed Certifications Under CWA Section 401 - Two Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) Within Boundary of Omaha Tribe of Nebraska Reservation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    1) Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits for two Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) within boundary of Omaha Tribe of Nebraska Reservation 2) Proposed Certifications of Compliance with Section 401 of CWA

  12. Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes by Attempted Mode of Operative Delivery From a Low Station in the Second Stage of Labor.

    PubMed

    Halscott, Torre L; Reddy, Uma M; Landy, Helain J; Ramsey, Patrick S; Iqbal, Sara N; Huang, Chun-Chih; Grantz, Katherine L

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate maternal and neonatal outcomes by attempted mode of operative delivery from a low station in the second stage of labor. Retrospective study of 2,518 women carrying singleton fetuses at 37 weeks of gestation or greater who underwent attempted forceps-assisted delivery, attempted vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery, or cesarean delivery from a low station in the second stage of labor. Primary outcomes were stratified by parity and included a maternal adverse outcome composite (postpartum hemorrhage, transfusion, endometritis, peripartum hysterectomy, or intensive care unit admission) and a neonatal adverse outcome composite (5-minute Apgar score less than 4, respiratory morbidity, neonatal intensive care unit admission, shoulder dystocia, birth trauma, or sepsis). In nulliparous patients, the maternal adverse composite was not significantly different between women who underwent attempted forceps (12.1% compared with 10.8%, adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40-1.34) or vacuum (8.3% compared with 10.8%, adjusted OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.40-1.16) delivery compared with cesarean delivery. Among parous women, the maternal adverse composite was not significantly different with attempted forceps (10.7% compared with 12.5%, adjusted OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.09-1.71) or vacuum (11.3% compared with 12.5%, adjusted OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.11-1.72) compared with cesarean delivery. Compared with neonates delivered by cesarean, the neonatal adverse composite was significantly lower among neonates born to nulliparous women who underwent attempted forceps (9.4% compared with 16.7%, adjusted OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.27-0.72) but not among those who underwent vacuum delivery (11.9% compared with 16.7%, adjusted OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.44-1.04). Among parous women, the neonatal adverse composite was not significantly different after attempted forceps (4.1% compared with 12.5%, adjusted OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.06-1.35) or vacuum (12.5% compared with 12.5%, adjusted OR 1.03, 95% CI 0

  13. Can a customized standard for large for gestational age identify women at risk of operative delivery and shoulder dystocia?

    PubMed

    Cha, Hyun-Hwa; Kim, Ji-Young; Choi, Suk-Joo; Oh, Soo-Young; Roh, Cheong-Rae; Kim, Jong-Hwa

    2012-04-22

    To determine whether a customized standard for large for gestational age (LGA) identifies undiagnosed women at risk of operative delivery and shoulder dystocia. We previously generated customized standards from our institution. We compared the baseline maternal characteristics and neonatal outcomes between LGA and non-LGA births, which were classified by both population-based and customized standards. The risk of operative delivery (vacuum delivery or emergent cesarean section) and shoulder dystocia was compared by logistic regression analysis in LGA pregnancies that were identified by a population-based birth weight standard and a customized standard after adjusting for maternal age, parity, body mass index, and neonatal gender. Multivariable analysis revealed that the pregnancies identified as LGA by a customized standard were associated with an increased risk of emergent cesarean section [odds ratio (OR), 4.09; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.00-5.74] and shoulder dystocia (OR, 10.56; 95% CI, 5.52-20.19). However, there was no association between an increased risk of vacuum delivery (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 0.92-2.30) and pregnancies identified as non-LGA, using both standards. In addition, customized LGA infants were at increased risk of admission to neonatal intensive care unit (OR 1.63; 95% CI, 1.09-2.43). A customized standard of LGA is useful in identifying previously unrecognized women at risk of emergent cesarean section and shoulder dystocia.

  14. Operative intervention in delivery is associated with compromised early mother-infant interaction.

    PubMed

    Rowe-Murray, H J; Fisher, J R

    2001-10-01

    To investigate the effects of mode and place of delivery on first mother-infant contact and maternal emotional wellbeing. A prospective, longitudinal study. A sociodemographically representative sample of 203 consecutive primiparous women was recruited, of whom 81% (n = 164) were followed up. Four metropolitan hospitals, including one accredited baby friendly hospital, in Melbourne, Australia, 1997. During the postnatal hospital stay women were interviewed and medical records were inspected. completed two self-report psychometric measures: the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Profile of Moods States (POMS). Follow up at eight months postpartum comprised completion of a postal questionnaire and repeat administration of the standardised self-report psychometric mood questionnaires. The First Contact Index provides a measure of the first contact between a mother and her baby after the birth. Two-way analysis of variance revealed significant differences in First Contact Index between three modes of delivery groups: spontaneous, instrumentally-assisted, and caesarean section (P < 0.001) and four hospital of delivery groups (P < 0.001), but there was no significant interaction effect (P = 0.55). Significant negative correlations existed between the First Contact Index and both the POMS and EPDS scores at two days postpartum (POMS, r = -0.339, 95% Cl -0.46 to -0.22; EPDS, r = -0.279, 95% CI -0.41 to -0.16), even within delivery groups, and these were still present at eight months postpartum (POMS, r = -0.298, 95% CI -0.44 to -0.14, EPDS, r = -0.206, 95% CI -0.36 to -0.03). Instrumental and surgical delivery exert a negative impact on first postnatal contact between a mother and her baby which has persistent adverse maternal emotional correlates. Hospital practices associated with obstetric intervention in delivery also varied and are amenable to change, enabling optimal first mother-baby interaction regardless of mode of delivery.

  15. Early oral feeding after emergency abdominal operations: another paradigm to be broken?

    PubMed

    Le Guen, Morgan; Fessler, Julien; Fischler, Marc

    2014-09-01

    The scope of this article is to provide an updated review examining the role of early feeding in the postoperative period. Guidelines for postoperative care after abdominal surgery have historically outlined the dogma of 'nil by mouth' until bowel movement returns, but they are currently questioned. This change in mindset, especially after colorectal surgery, was initiated with fast-track or enhanced recovery after surgery programs, which particularly led to an opioid-sparing strategy. Many randomized trials and meta-analyses suggested an absence of benefit in keeping patients 'nil by mouth'. Conversely, in elective abdominal surgery, improvement in comfort without increased morbidity is now demonstrated with a liberal strategy, and a recent meta-analysis even demonstrated a decrease in mortality. Early caloric hydration and chewing gum are the most acceptable actions with a high level of proof. After emergency surgery, few data are available but a similar strategy should probably be chosen with no obvious benefit from maintenance of fasting. Early oral intake is possible after elective abdominal surgery and should be moderate and progressive to be well tolerated. Any sign of nausea may mean intestinal or gastric disturbance and is a caution not to pursue this policy. The strategy in emergency abdominal surgery still requires adequately powered, randomized controlled trials.

  16. Scaling up delivery of contraceptive implants in sub-Saharan Africa: operational experiences of Marie Stopes International

    PubMed Central

    Duvall, Susan; Thurston, Sarah; Weinberger, Michelle; Nuccio, Olivia; Fuchs-Montgomery, Nomi

    2014-01-01

    Contraceptive implants offer promising opportunities for addressing the high and growing unmet need for modern contraceptives in sub-Saharan Africa. Marie Stopes International (MSI) offers implants as one of many family planning options. Between 2008 and 2012, MSI scaled up voluntary access to implants in 15 sub-Saharan African countries, from 80,041 implants in 2008 to 754,329 implants in 2012. This 9-fold increase amounted to more than 1.7 million implants delivered cumulatively over the 5-year period. High levels of client satisfaction were attained alongside service provision scale up by using existing MSI service delivery channels—mobile outreach, social franchising, and clinics—to implement strategies that broadened access for underserved clients and maintained service quality. Use of adaptive and context-specific service delivery models and attention to key operational components, including sufficient numbers of trained providers, strong supply chains, diverse financing mechanisms, and implant removal services, underpinned our service delivery efforts. Accounting for 70% of the implants delivered by MSI in 2012, mobile outreach services through dedicated MSI provider teams played a central role in scale-up efforts, fueled in part by the provision of free or heavily subsidized services. Social franchising also demonstrated promise for future program growth, along with MSI clinics. Continued high growth in implant provision between 2011 and 2012 in all sub-Saharan African countries indicates the region's capacity for further service delivery expansion. Meeting the expected rising demand for implants and ensuring long-term sustainable access to the method, as part of a comprehensive method mix, will require continued use of appropriate service delivery models, effective operations, and ongoing collaboration between the private, public, and nongovernmental sectors. MSI's experience can be instructive for future efforts to ensure contraceptive access and

  17. Scaling up delivery of contraceptive implants in sub-Saharan Africa: operational experiences of Marie Stopes International.

    PubMed

    Duvall, Susan; Thurston, Sarah; Weinberger, Michelle; Nuccio, Olivia; Fuchs-Montgomery, Nomi

    2014-02-01

    Contraceptive implants offer promising opportunities for addressing the high and growing unmet need for modern contraceptives in sub-Saharan Africa. Marie Stopes International (MSI) offers implants as one of many family planning options. Between 2008 and 2012, MSI scaled up voluntary access to implants in 15 sub-Saharan African countries, from 80,041 implants in 2008 to 754,329 implants in 2012. This 9-fold increase amounted to more than 1.7 million implants delivered cumulatively over the 5-year period. High levels of client satisfaction were attained alongside service provision scale up by using existing MSI service delivery channels-mobile outreach, social franchising, and clinics-to implement strategies that broadened access for underserved clients and maintained service quality. Use of adaptive and context-specific service delivery models and attention to key operational components, including sufficient numbers of trained providers, strong supply chains, diverse financing mechanisms, and implant removal services, underpinned our service delivery efforts. Accounting for 70% of the implants delivered by MSI in 2012, mobile outreach services through dedicated MSI provider teams played a central role in scale-up efforts, fueled in part by the provision of free or heavily subsidized services. Social franchising also demonstrated promise for future program growth, along with MSI clinics. Continued high growth in implant provision between 2011 and 2012 in all sub-Saharan African countries indicates the region's capacity for further service delivery expansion. Meeting the expected rising demand for implants and ensuring long-term sustainable access to the method, as part of a comprehensive method mix, will require continued use of appropriate service delivery models, effective operations, and ongoing collaboration between the private, public, and nongovernmental sectors. MSI's experience can be instructive for future efforts to ensure contraceptive access and choice

  18. Distribution and Diversity of Escherichia and Salmonella isolates obtained from beef cattle concentrated animal feeding operations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Southern High Plains are home to numerous cattle feedlots containing approximately 3.5 million beef cattle that account for nearly 30% of the United States fed beef cattle operations. The high density of beef cattle results in a concentration of nutrients (C, N, and P) due to the generation of m...

  19. Case Studies on the Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) on Ground Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a series of case studies involving commercial swine, poultry, dairy, and beef CAFO operations where ground water contamination by nitrate and ammonia has occurred to ascertain whether other stressors in CAFO wastes are also being transported through the vado...

  20. Case Studies on the Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) on Ground Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a series of case studies involving commercial swine, poultry, dairy, and beef CAFO operations where ground water contamination by nitrate and ammonia has occurred to ascertain whether other stressors in CAFO wastes are also being transported through the vado...

  1. Operational Control Procedures for the Activated Sludge Process, Part III-B: Calculation Procedures for Step-Feed Process Responses and Addendum No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Alfred W.

    This is the third in a series of documents developed by the National Training and Operational Technology Center describing operational control procedures for the activated sludge process used in wastewater treatment. This document deals with the calculation procedures associated with a step-feed process. Illustrations and examples are included to…

  2. Endoscopic jejunal access for enteral feeding.

    PubMed

    Coates, N E; MacFadyen, B V

    1995-06-01

    Enteral (gut) alimentation appears to offer greater benefit for patients than calories delivered via a parenteral (intravenous) route. Enteral alimentation prevents mucosal atrophy, maintains normal gut flora, decreases bacterial translocation, and enhances enteral immunological competence. Reliable delivery into the jejunum without the placement of an operative feeding tube is difficult, however. We have been interested for some time in endoscopically placing a jejunal tube for enteral nutrition early (within 24 hours) after trauma resuscitation or operation. A simplified technique is described for the endoscopic placement of a jejunal feeding tube, with or without a concomitant percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.

  3. Intraoral Vacuum of Breast-Feeding Newborns Within the First 24 Hr: Cesarean Section Versus Vaginal Delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Xia, Haiou; Li, Xia; Qin, Ling; Gu, Hongmei; Xu, Xujuan; Shen, Meiyun

    2016-07-01

    To explore whether newborns born via Cesarean section have a weaker intraoral vacuum compared with those born vaginally and to determine whether a weaker intraoral vacuum is related to a delayed onset of lactation. For this prospective cohort study, 71 mother-infant dyads were enrolled and divided into birthing groups, vaginal or Cesarean. The newborn intraoral vacuum was measured via a tube placed alongside the nipple and connected to a pressure sensor during a breast-feeding session within the first 24 hr after birth. Onset of lactation was confirmed by maternal perception of breast fullness. The intraoral vacuum and its relationship with the onset of lactation were analyzed. After adjustment for confounding factors, the peak intraoral vacuum was -19.50 kPa in the vaginal group, which was significantly stronger than the -13.78 kPa in the Cesarean group (p = .005). Additionally, the baseline intraoral vacuum in the vaginal group (-2.35 kPa) was significantly stronger than that in the Cesarean group (-1.18 kPa; p = .022). Strength of the newborn intraoral vacuum was associated with the time of onset of maternal lactation. Cesarean section may weaken newborns' intraoral vacuum within the first 24 hr after birth. Stronger intraoral vacuum was related to earlier onset of lactation. Early intervention aimed at the weaker intraoral vacuum should be provided to promote the onset of lactation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Communications Satellites in Health Education and Health Care Delivery: Operation Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boor, John L.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Reviews user-related pitfalls which occurred during 222 satellite-mediated broadcasts which were related to medical education and health care delivery, and directed to Washington, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho. Specific consideration is given to those problems which need to be remedied for a user-acceptable system of satellite communication. (FM)

  5. Wind-tunnel tests and modeling indicate that aerial dispersant delivery operations are highly accurate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The United States Department of Agriculture’s high-speed wind tunnel facility in College Station, Texas, USA was used to determine droplet size distributions generated by dispersant delivery nozzles at wind speeds comparable to those used in aerial dispersant application. A laser particle size anal...

  6. Communications Satellites in Health Education and Health Care Delivery: Operation Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boor, John L.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Reviews user-related pitfalls which occurred during 222 satellite-mediated broadcasts which were related to medical education and health care delivery, and directed to Washington, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho. Specific consideration is given to those problems which need to be remedied for a user-acceptable system of satellite communication. (FM)

  7. Preoperative scar hyperalgesia is associated with post-operative pain in women undergoing a repeat Caesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Ortner, C M; Granot, M; Richebé, P; Cardoso, M; Bollag, L; Landau, R

    2013-01-01

    Over 1.4 million Caesarean deliveries are performed annually in the United States, out of which 30% are elective repeat procedures. Post-operative hyperalgesia is associated with an increased risk for persistent post-surgical pain; however, there are no data on whether residual scar hyperalgesia (SHA) from a previous Caesarean delivery (CD) persists until the next delivery. We hypothesized that residual SHA may be present in a substantial proportion of women and is associated with increased post-operative pain. One hundred and sixty-three women scheduled for a repeat CD under spinal anaesthesia were enrolled into the study. Mechanical temporal summation (mTS) and SHA index were measured preoperatively. SHA was considered present when the index was >0. Post-operative pain scores at 12, 24 and 48 h and wound hyperalgesia (WHA) at 48 h were recorded. SHA was present in 67 women 41% with a median SHA index of 0.42 (Q (25)  = 0.25; Q (75)  = 1.1, range 0.03-4.25). Women with SHA had overall higher post-operative pain scores and SHA was correlated with preoperative mTS (r = 0.164, p < 0.05), post-operative pain severity (r = 0.25, p < 0.002) and WHA at 48 h (r = 0.608, p < 0.001). Severe pain (visual analogue pain scale-S48 ≥ 7, n = 20) was predicted with a sensitivity and specificity of 60% and 62%, respectively. Positive predictive value was 18% and negative predictive value was 92%. Preoperative SHA is present in 41% of women scheduled for repeat CD and is associated with increased mTS and post-operative pain. Screening for preoperative SHA may predict women at risk for increased post-operative pain, and guide post-operative analgesia to include anti-hyperalgesic drugs. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  8. Terra Incognita: Absence of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations from the National Land Cover Database and Implications for Environmental Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, K. L.; Emanuel, R. E.; Vose, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The number of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has increased rapidly in recent decades. Although important to food supplies, CAFOs may present significant risks to human health and environmental quality. The National land cover database (NLCD) is a publically available database of land cover whose purpose is to provide assessment of ecosystem health, facilitate nutrient modeling, land use planning, and developing land management practices. However, CAFOs do not align with any existing NLCD land cover classes. This is especially concerning due to their distinct nutrient loading characteristics, potential for other environmental impacts, and given that individual CAFOs may occupy several NLCD pixels worth of ground area. Using 2011 NLCD data, we examined the land cover classification of CAFO sites in North Carolina (USA). Federal regulations require CAFOs with a liquid waste disposal system to obtain a water quality permit. In North Carolina, there were 2679 permitted sites as of 2015, primarily in the southeastern part of the state. As poultry operations most frequently use dry waste disposal systems, they are not required to obtain a permit and thus, their locations are undocumented. For each permitted CAFO, we determined the mode of the NLCD land uses within a 50m buffer surrounding point coordinates. We found permitted CAFOS were most likely to be classified as hay/pasture (58%). An additional 13% were identified as row crops, leaving 29% as a non-agricultural land cover class, including wetlands (12%). This misclassification of CAFOs can have implications for environmental management and public policy. Scientists and land managers need access to better spatial data on the distribution of these operations to monitor the environmental impacts and identify the best landscape scale mitigation strategies. We recommend adding a new land cover class (concentrated animal operations) to the NLCD database.

  9. Pick-up and Delivery: A Comparison of Functional Alignments and the Impact on Customer Service and Vehicle Operator Utilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    deliveries and calculated the pick-up and delivery time for each delivery. The customer is only concerned with the time it takes to get the asset after...they have established the demand. Therefore, for purposes of this research, the pick-up and delivery time is defined as the time the demand was...were first sorted by delivery time . There were deliveries that indicated a negative delivery time . This would indicate that SBSS, SATS, or both were

  10. Managing waste from confined animal feeding operations in the United States: the need for sanitary reform.

    PubMed

    Graham, Jay P; Nachman, Keeve E

    2010-12-01

    Confined food-animal operations in the United States produce more than 40 times the amount of waste than human biosolids generated from US wastewater treatment plants. Unlike biosolids, which must meet regulatory standards for pathogen levels, vector attraction reduction and metal content, no treatment is required of waste from animal agriculture. This omission is of concern based on dramatic changes in livestock production over the past 50 years, which have resulted in large increases in animal waste and a high degree of geographic concentration of waste associated with the regional growth of industrial food-animal production. Regulatory measures have not kept pace with these changes. The purpose of this paper is to: 1) review trends that affect food-animal waste production in the United States, 2) assess risks associated with food-animal wastes, 3) contrast food-animal waste management practices to management practices for biosolids and 4) make recommendations based on existing and potential policy options to improve management of food-animal waste.

  11. Quantifying nitrogen and carbon emissions from large-scale cattle feeding operations through the use of a mobile measurement platform.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floerchinger, C. R.; Fortner, E.; Brooks, B.; Wormhoult, J.; Massoli, P.; Nowak, J. B.; Roscioli, J. R.; Agnese, M.; Ham, J. M.; Knighton, W. B.; Bon, D.; Herndon, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's) are believed to contribute a significant fraction of reactive nitrogen to the ecosystem in Rocky Mountain National Park through regional transport and deposition of biogenic ammonia and associated particle nitrate, at the same time acting as large contributors to the regional methane budget. These operations were characterized by the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory as a part of the FRAPPE field study 2014 with the focus of understanding the emission, transmission, and subsequent evolution of the CAFO biogenic airmass. Using Quantum Cascade Laser - Tunable Infrared Laser Differential Absorption Spectrometers (QCL-TILDAS) we measured ammonia, a hydrolysis product of NH4+ found in urine and feces, and methane, a product of both enteric fermentation occurring in the rumen and methanogenic bacterial colonies found in feces. Using a High Resolution Time of Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS) we also quantified inorganic nitrate aerosol, a secondary aerosol product generated through the reaction of primary ammonia with nitric acid. The results are presented and compared to other methods.

  12. Decreased rates of operant food self-administration are associated with reward deficits in high-fat feeding mice.

    PubMed

    Íbias, Javier; Miguéns, Miguel; Del Rio, Danila; Valladolid-Acebes, Ismael; Stucchi, Paula; Ambrosio, Emilio; Martín, Miriam; Morales, Lidia; Ruiz-Gayo, Mariano; Del Olmo, Nuria

    2016-06-01

    Highly palatable foods behave as appetitive reinforcers and tend to be consumed compulsively. Nevertheless, the motivation for this kind of diets in experimental diet-induced obesity models has not been well established. Our hypothesis is that obesity caused by a regular consumption of high-fat diet (HFD) occurs concomitantly with the inhibition of food reward. The ultimate goal of our study was to further analyze the extent to which the perception of food as an appetitive reinforcer is a necessary condition for obesity. We have evaluated the influence of HFD on operant food self-administration (FSA) during a whole light-dark (12-12-h) cycle in mice that consumed HFD either during 1, 4 or 8 weeks. The study has been complemented by a two-bottle free-choice assay between tap water and sweetened drinks. These data show that both 4- and 8-week HFD treatments induced a significant decrease in operant FSA rate. Moreover, HFD impaired the sweetened-conditioned flavor preference in the two-bottle choice assay. Our results, showing a reduction in how hard an animal is willing to work for food reinforcers, provide evidence that chronic consumption of HFD negatively contributes to the incentive motivation to acquire food/drink reinforcers. We demonstrate that energy homeostasis imbalance triggered by HFD is associated with the inhibition of hedonic feeding.

  13. Antimicrobial residues in animal waste and water resources proximal to large-scale swine and poultry feeding operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campagnolo, E.R.; Johnson, K.R.; Karpati, A.; Rubin, C.S.; Kolpin, D.W.; Meyer, M.T.; Esteban, J. Emilio; Currier, R.W.; Smith, K.; Thu, K.M.; McGeehin, M.

    2002-01-01

    Expansion and intensification of large-scale animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the United States has resulted in concern about environmental contamination and its potential public health impacts. The objective of this investigation was to obtain background data on a broad profile of antimicrobial residues in animal wastes and surface water and groundwater proximal to large-scale swine and poultry operations. The samples were measured for antimicrobial compounds using both radioimmunoassay and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS) techniques. Multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds (commonly at concentrations of >100 μg/l) were detected in swine waste storage lagoons. In addition, multiple classes of antimicrobial compounds were detected in surface and groundwater samples collected proximal to the swine and poultry farms. This information indicates that animal waste used as fertilizer for crops may serve as a source of antimicrobial residues for the environment. Further research is required to determine if the levels of antimicrobials detected in this study are of consequence to human and/or environmental ecosystems. A comparison of the radioimmunoassay and LC/ESI-MS analytical methods documented that radioimmunoassay techniques were only appropriate for measuring residues in animal waste samples likely to contain high levels of antimicrobials. More sensitive LC/ESI-MS techniques are required in environmental samples, where low levels of antimicrobial residues are more likely.

  14. Measurement of seepage losses and chemical export from waste lagoons at animal feeding operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, J. M.; DeSutter, T. M.

    2001-05-01

    Whole-lagoon seepage rates were measured from 20 lagoons in Kansas using water balance techniques. Study sites included cattle feedlots, swine facilities, and one dairy. Seepage rates ranged from 0.2 mm/day to 2.4 mm/day with and overall average of 1.2 mm/day. Analysis of lagoon effluent (58 samples from 38 sites) indicated large differences in lagoon chemistry between locations. Ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N), which accounted for over 99 percent of the soluble nitrogen, ranged from 10 ppm to 3500 ppm. On average, nitrogen concentrations in swine lagoons were about five times higher than those at cattle feedlots. The chemical flux density (flux boundary condition) was estimated from the seepage rate and the corresponding waste chemistry data from each lagoon. Results showed that ammonium-N export was between 0.02 and 1.06 kg NH4-N m-2 yr^{-1} with an overall average of about 0.3 kg NH4-N m^{-2} yr^{-1}$ . Similar data are available for other soluble compounds. Soil cores were collected beneath eight lagoons that had been operated from 12 to 25 years. Results showed that NH4-N was strongly adsorbed by the soil clay particles and that nitrogen concentrations often decreased to background levels at 3 m beneath the lagoon. Other ions, such as chloride, penetrated to much lower depths at all locations. The 'reservoir' of NH4-N that exists beneath older lagoons could convert to nitrate and move to lower depths after lagoon closure. Data suggest that the properties if the soil beneath lagoons, the concentration of the waste, the seepage rate, and the depth to groundwater are the crucial factors that affect the risk of groundwater contamination.

  15. Prediction of preterm and low birth weight delivery by maternal periodontal parameters: receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Al Habashneh, Rola; Khader, Yousef S; Jabali, Olfat Al; Alchalabi, Haifa'a

    2013-02-01

    In this study we used receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to comparatively evaluate maternal periodontal parameters to predict preterm (PB) delivery and low birth weight (LBW) delivery among Jordanian women. A total of 277 pregnant women (20 weeks of gestation or less) had periodontal examination at baseline and followed up until delivery. Gestational age and birth weight were retrieved from their medical records. ROC curve analyses were used to examine the overall discriminatory power of the studied periodontal parameters to predict PB, LBW, and PB or LBW. For the three outcome variables, the area under curve (AUC) ranged from 0.84 to 0.87 for average clinical attachment level (CAL), 0.78-0.86 for percent of sites with CAL ≥ 5 mm, 0.63-0.74 for percent of sites with CAL ≥ 6 mm, and 0.71-0.82 for number of missing teeth indicating that they had high discriminating power to predict adverse pregnancy outcomes. All other parameters had AUC less than 0.60 and thus had low discriminating power. Average CAL performed the best in predicting the studied adverse pregnancy outcomes because it has the highest AUC. The severity and extent of periodontal disease as measured by CAL can be used to predict the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  16. Plasma and tissue cefazolin concentrations in obese patients undergoing cesarean delivery and receiving differing pre-operative doses of drug.

    PubMed

    Stitely, Michael; Sweet, Michael; Slain, Douglas; Alons, Lindsy; Holls, William; Hochberg, Charles; Briggs, Frank

    2013-10-01

    Patients undergoing cesarean delivery typically receive a 1-g to 2-g dose of cefazolin as pre-operative antibacterial prophylaxis. This traditional dosage may not provide an adequate tissue concentration of cefazolin in obese patients during the peri-operative period. This study compared the tissue concentrations of prophylactic cefazolin administered as a either a 2-g or a 4-g dose prior to cesarean delivery in obese patients. Twenty obese patients (first trimester body mass index [BMI] >35) who underwent cesarean delivery completed this randomized study. Eleven patients received 2 g of cefazolin, and nine received 4 g. Blood and subcutaneous tissues were collected at the times of the incision and closure. Myometrial biopsies were collected at uterine closure. A cefazolin concentration threshold of 4 mcg/g for tissue samples was used as a surrogate adequate concentration. Plasma and tissue cefazolin concentrations were compared for the two doses. Mean plasma, umbilical cord, and myometrial cefazolin concentrations were significantly higher in the 4-g treatment group (p<0.05). Subcutaneous incision site tissue obtained at time of incision creation also was significantly higher in the 4-g group than in the 2-g group (40.11±24.10 mcg/g vs. 18.36±6.68 mcg/g; p=0.0005). Subcutaneous tissue concentrations at closure were significantly different in the two dosage groups (34.89±17.42 mcg/g vs. 21.73±16.02 mcg/g; p=0.044). All tissue samples were above the target of 4 mcg/g. Body morphometry did not correlate with the variability in cefazolin tissue concentration. No surgical site infections, endometritis, or other adverse effects were observed. Administering a prophylactic dose of 4 g of cefazolin produced blood and tissue cefazolin concentrations that were significantly higher than concentrations obtained from a 2-g dose in patients with BMIs between 35 and 60 kg/m(2) undergoing cesarean delivery. It is unclear if the larger cefazolin dose

  17. Standardization of flux chamber and wind tunnel flux measurements for quantifying volatile organic compound and ammonia emissions from area sources at animal feeding operations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A variety of wind tunnels and flux chambers have been used to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and ammonia (NH3) at animal feeding operations (AFO). However, there has been little regard to the extreme variation and potential inaccuracies caused by inappropriate air velocity or sw...

  18. Colorimetric polymer-metal nanocomposite sensor of ammonia for the agricultural industry of confined animal feeding operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkisov, Sergey S.; Czarick, Michael; Fairchild, Brian D.; Liang, Yi; Kukhtareva, Tatiana; Curley, Michael J.

    2014-02-01

    The proposed colorimetric sensor of ammonia for the confined animal feeding industry uses the method of optoelectronic spectroscopic measurement of the reversible change of the color of a nanocomposite reagent film in response to ammonia. The film is made of a gold nanocolloid in a polymer matrix with an ammonia-sensitive indicator dye additive. The response of the indicator dye (increase of the optical absorption between 550 and 650 nm) is enhanced by the nanoparticles (˜8 nm in size) in two ways: (a) concentration of the optical field near the nanoparticle due to the plasmon resonance and (b) catalytic acceleration of the chemical reaction of deprotonization of the indicator dye in the presence of ammonia and water vapor. This enhancement helps to miniaturize the sensing element without compromising its sensitivity of <1 parts per million (ppm) for the range 0 to 100 ppm. The sensor underwent field tests in commercial poultry farms in Georgia and Arkansas and was compared against a scientific-grade photoacoustic gas analyzer. The coefficient of correlation between the sensor and the photoacoustic data for several weeks of continuous side-by-side operation in a commercial poultry house was ˜0.9 and the linear regression slope was 1.0. The conclusions on the necessary improvements were made.

  19. Control of Groundwater Pollution from Animal Feeding Operations: A Farm-Level Dynamic Model for Policy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Baerenklau, K.

    2012-12-01

    Consolidation in livestock production generates higher farm incomes due to economies of scale, but it also brings waste disposal problems. Over-application of animal waste on adjacent land produces adverse environmental and health effects, including groundwater nitrate pollution. The situation is particularly noticeable in California. In respond to this increasingly severe problem, EPA published a type of command-and-control regulation for concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in 2003. The key component of the regulation is its nutrient management plans (NMPs), which intend to limit the land application rates of animal waste. Although previous studies provide a full perspective on potential economic impacts for CAFOs to meet nutrient standards, their models are static and fail to reflect changes in management practices other than spreading manure on additional land and changing cropping patterns. We develop a dynamic environmental-economic modeling framework for representative CAFOs. The framework incorporates four models (i.e., animal model, crop model, hydrologic model, and economic model) that include various components such as herd management, manure handling system, crop rotation, water sources, irrigation system, waste disposal options, and pollutant emissions. We also include the dynamics of soil characteristics in the rootzone as well as the spatial heterogeneity of the irrigation system. The operator maximizes discounted total farm profit over multiple periods subject to environmental regulations. Decision rules from the dynamic optimization problem demonstrate best management practices for CAFOs to improve their economic and environmental performance. Results from policy simulations suggest that direct quantity restrictions of emission or incentive-based emission policies are much more cost-effective than the standard approach of limiting the amount of animal waste that may be applied to fields (as shown in the figure below); reason being

  20. Indices of extinction-induced "depression" after operant learning using a runway vs. a cued free-reward delivery schedule.

    PubMed

    Topic, Bianca; Kröger, Inga; Vildirasova, Petya G; Huston, Joseph P

    2012-11-01

    Loss of reward is one of the etiological factors leading to affective disorders, such as major depression. We have proposed several variants of an animal model of depression based on extinction of reinforced behavior of rats. A number of behaviors emitted during extinction trials were found to be attenuated by antidepressant treatment and, thus, qualified as indices of extinction-induced "despair". These include increases in immobility in the Morris water maze and withdrawal from the former source of reward as well as biting behavior in operant chambers. Here, we assess the effects of reward omission on behaviors after learning of (a) a cued free-reward delivery in an operant chamber and (b) food-reinforced runway behavior. Sixty adult male Wistar rats were either trained to receive food reinforcement every 90 s (s) after a 5s lasting cue light (FI 90), or to traverse an alley to gain food reward. Daily drug treatment with either the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram or the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine (each 10mg/kg) or vehicle was begun either 25 days (operant chamber) or 3 days (runway) prior to extinction. The antidepressants suppressed rearing behavior in both paradigms specifically during the extinction trials, which indicates this measure as a useful marker of depression-related behavior, possibly indicating vertical withdrawal. In the operant chamber, only marginal effects on operant learning responses during extinction were found. In the runway, the operant learned responses run time and distance to the goal, as well as total distance moved, grooming and quiescence were also influenced by the antidepressants, providing a potential set of markers for extinction-induced "depression" in the runway. Both paradigms differ substantially with respect to the anticipation of reward, behaviors that are learned and that accompany extinction. Accordingly, antidepressant treatment influenced different sets of behaviors in these two learning tasks.

  1. IMPACT OF CANAL DESIGN LIMITATIONS ON WATER DELIVERY OPERATIONS AND AUTOMATION

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Irrigation canals are often designed for water transmission. The design engineer simply ensures that the canal will pass the maximum design discharge. However, irrigation canals frequently operated far below design capacity. Because demands and the distribution of flow at bifurcations (branch points...

  2. Epidural hydromorphone with and without epinephrine for post-operative analgesia after cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, T B; Baysinger, C L; Henenberger, J C; Gooding, D J

    1989-03-01

    The efficacy of epidural hydromorphone alone or in combination with epinephrine for postoperative analgesia was evaluated in 30 healthy women who underwent cesarean delivery with epidural anesthesia. They were assigned randomly to receive either 1.5 mg hydromorphone alone (N = 15) or 1.5 mg hydromorphone with 1/200,000 epinephrine (N = 15). Duration of analgesia (mean +/- SD) was 24.3 +/- 9.4 hours after the epidural injection of hydromorphone plus epinephrine. This was significantly greater (p less than 0.01) than the duration of 18.2 +/- 5.9 hours after the same dose of plain hydromorphone. Analgesia was more rapid in onset and significantly better at the 0.5, 1, 3, and 12 hours postoperatively in the hydromorphone-epinephrine group. Side effects including pruritus (73%), nausea (20%), and vomiting (15%) were of similar frequency with and without epinephrine. Although mean venous PCO2 (PvCO2) levels three and six hours after the hydromorphone-epinephrine dose were elevated significantly over the pre-drug PvCO2 levels, no respiratory depression was detected by an apnea monitor to which all patients were connected. The addition of epinephrine to epidural hydromorphone hastened onset and prolonged the duration of analgesia after cesarean section.

  3. Concentration, size, and density of total suspended particulates at the air exhaust of concentrated animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xufei; Lee, Jongmin; Zhang, Yuanhui; Wang, Xinlei; Yang, Liangcheng

    2015-08-01

    Total suspended particulate (TSP) samples were seasonally collected at the air exhaust of 15 commercial concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs; including swine finishing, swine farrowing, swine gestation, laying hen, and tom turkey) in the U.S. Midwest. The measured TSP concentrations ranged from 0.38 ± 0.04 mg m⁻³ (swine gestation in summer) to 10.9 ± 3.9 mg m⁻³ (tom turkey in winter) and were significantly affected by animal species, housing facility type, feeder type (dry or wet), and season. The average particle size of collected TSP samples in terms of mass median equivalent spherical diameter ranged from 14.8 ± 0.5 µm (swine finishing in winter) to 30.5 ± 2.0 µm (tom turkey in summer) and showed a significant seasonal effect. This finding affirmed that particulate matter (PM) released from CAFOs contains a significant portion of large particles. The measured particle size distribution (PSD) and the density of deposited particles (on average 1.65 ± 0.13 g cm⁻³) were used to estimate the mass fractions of PM10 and PM2.5 (PM ≤ 10 and ≤ 2.5 μm, respectively) in the collected TSP. The results showed that the PM10 fractions ranged from 12.7 ± 5.1% (tom turkey) to 21.1 ± 3.2% (swine finishing), whereas the PM2.5 fractions ranged from 3.4 ± 1.9% (tom turkey) to 5.7 ± 3.2% (swine finishing) and were smaller than 9.0% at all visited CAFOs. This study applied a filter-based method for PSD measurement and deposited particles as a surrogate to estimate the TSP's particle density. The limitations, along with the assumptions adopted during the calculation of PM mass fractions, must be recognized when comparing the findings to other studies.

  4. Pigs in Space: Determining the Environmental Justice Landscape of Swine Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Carrel, Margaret; Young, Sean G; Tate, Eric

    2016-08-25

    Given the primacy of Iowa in pork production for the U.S. and global markets, we sought to understand if the same relationship with traditional environmental justice (EJ) variables such as low income and minority populations observed in other concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) studies exists in the relationship with swine CAFO densities in Iowa. We examined the potential for spatial clustering of swine CAFOs in certain parts of the state and used spatial regression techniques to determine the relationships of high swine concentrations to these EJ variables. We found that while swine CAFOs do cluster in certain regions and watersheds of Iowa, these high densities of swine are not associated with traditional EJ populations of low income and minority race/ethnicity. Instead, the potential for environmental injustice in the negative impacts of intensive swine production require a more complex appraisal. The clustering of swine production in watersheds, the presence of antibiotics used in swine production in public waterways, the clustering of manure spills, and other findings suggest that a more literal and figurative "downstream" approach is necessary. We document the presence and location of antibiotics used in animal production in the public waterways of the state. At the same time, we suggest a more "upstream" understanding of the structural, political and economic factors that create an environmentally unjust landscape of swine production in Iowa and the Upper Midwest is also crucial. Finally, we highlight the important role of publicly accessible and high quality data in the analysis of these upstream and downstream EJ questions.

  5. Pigs in Space: Determining the Environmental Justice Landscape of Swine Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) in Iowa

    PubMed Central

    Carrel, Margaret; Young, Sean G.; Tate, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Given the primacy of Iowa in pork production for the U.S. and global markets, we sought to understand if the same relationship with traditional environmental justice (EJ) variables such as low income and minority populations observed in other concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) studies exists in the relationship with swine CAFO densities in Iowa. We examined the potential for spatial clustering of swine CAFOs in certain parts of the state and used spatial regression techniques to determine the relationships of high swine concentrations to these EJ variables. We found that while swine CAFOs do cluster in certain regions and watersheds of Iowa, these high densities of swine are not associated with traditional EJ populations of low income and minority race/ethnicity. Instead, the potential for environmental injustice in the negative impacts of intensive swine production require a more complex appraisal. The clustering of swine production in watersheds, the presence of antibiotics used in swine production in public waterways, the clustering of manure spills, and other findings suggest that a more literal and figurative “downstream” approach is necessary. We document the presence and location of antibiotics used in animal production in the public waterways of the state. At the same time, we suggest a more “upstream” understanding of the structural, political and economic factors that create an environmentally unjust landscape of swine production in Iowa and the Upper Midwest is also crucial. Finally, we highlight the important role of publicly accessible and high quality data in the analysis of these upstream and downstream EJ questions. PMID:27571091

  6. Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams.

    PubMed

    Ciparis, Serena; Iwanowicz, Luke R; Voshell, J Reese

    2012-01-01

    Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on nutrients and estrogenic activity was also evaluated. During periods of high and low flow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and orthophosphate (PO(4)-P) concentrations were analyzed and estrogens/estrogenic compounds were extracted and quantified as17β-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq) using a bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen. Estrogenic activity was measurable in the majority of collected samples, and 20% had E2Eq concentrations >1 ng/L. Relatively high concentrations of DIN (>1000 μg/L) were also frequently detected. During all sampling periods, there were strong relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and in-stream concentrations of DIN (R(2) = 0.56-0.81) and E2Eq (R(2) = 0.39-0.75). Relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and PO(4)-P were weaker, but were also significant (R(2) = 0.27-0.57). When combined with the effect of watershed AFO density, streams receiving WWTP effluent had higher concentrations of PO(4)-P than streams without WWTP discharges, and PO(4)-P was the only analyte with a consistent relationship to WWTPs. The results of this study suggest that as the watershed density of AFOs increases, there is a proportional increase in the potential for nonpoint source pollution of agricultural streams and their receiving waters by nutrients, particularly DIN, and compounds that can cause endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reconnaissance of Organic Wastewater Compounds at a Concentrated Swine Feeding Operation in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Stephen L.

    2009-01-01

    Water-quality and hydrologic data were collected during 2008 to examine the occurrence of organic wastewater compounds at a concentrated swine feeding operation located in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Continuous groundwater level and stream-stage data were collected at one monitoring well and one stream site, respectively, throughout 2008. One round of environmental and quality-control samples was collected in September 2008 following a period of below-normal precipitation and when swine waste was not being applied to the spray fields. Samples were collected at one lagoon site, seven shallow groundwater sites, and one surface-water site for analysis of 111 organic wastewater compounds, including household, industrial, and agricultural-use compounds, sterols, pharmaceutical compounds, hormones, and antibiotics. Analytical data for environmental samples collected during the study provide preliminary information on the occurrence of organic wastewater compounds in the lagoon-waste source material, groundwater beneath fields that receive spray applications of the lagoon wastes, and surface water in the tributary adjacent to the site. Overall, 28 organic wastewater compounds were detected in the collected samples, including 11 household, industrial, and agricultural-use compounds; 3 sterols; 2 pharmaceutical compounds; 5 hormones; and 7 antibiotics. The lagoon sample had the greatest number (20) and highest concentrations of compounds compared to groundwater and surface-water samples. The antibiotic lincomycin had the maximum detected concentration (393 micrograms per liter) in the lagoon sample. Of the 11 compounds identified in the groundwater and surface-water samples, all with reported concentrations less than 1 microgram per liter, only lincomycin identified in groundwater at 1 well and 3-methyl-1H-indole and indole identified in surface water at 1 site also were identified in the lagoon waste material.

  8. Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ciparis, S.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Voshell, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on nutrients and estrogenic activity was also evaluated. During periods of high and low flow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and orthophosphate (PO 4-P) concentrations were analyzed and estrogens/estrogenic compounds were extracted and quantified as17??-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq) using a bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen. Estrogenic activity was measurable in the majority of collected samples, and 20% had E2Eq concentrations >1ng/L. Relatively high concentrations of DIN (>1000??g/L) were also frequently detected. During all sampling periods, there were strong relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and in-stream concentrations of DIN (R 2=0.56-0.81) and E2Eq (R 2=0.39-0.75). Relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and PO 4-P were weaker, but were also significant (R 2=0.27-0.57). When combined with the effect of watershed AFO density, streams receiving WWTP effluent had higher concentrations of PO 4-P than streams without WWTP discharges, and PO 4-P was the only analyte with a consistent relationship to WWTPs. The results of this study suggest that as the watershed density of AFOs increases, there is a proportional increase in the potential for nonpoint source pollution of agricultural streams and their receiving waters by nutrients, particularly DIN, and compounds that can cause endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Effects of watershed densities of animal feeding operations on nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity in agricultural streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ciparis, Serena; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Voshell, J. Reese

    2012-01-01

    Application of manures from animal feeding operations (AFOs) as fertilizer on agricultural land can introduce nutrients and hormones (e.g. estrogens) to streams. A landscape-scale study was conducted in the Shenandoah River watershed (Virginia, USA) in order to assess the relationship between densities of AFOs in watersheds of agricultural streams and in-stream nutrient concentrations and estrogenic activity. The effect of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on nutrients and estrogenic activity was also evaluated. During periods of high and low flow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and orthophosphate (PO4-P) concentrations were analyzed and estrogens/estrogenic compounds were extracted and quantified as17β-estradiol equivalents (E2Eq) using a bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen. Estrogenic activity was measurable in the majority of collected samples, and 20% had E2Eq concentrations > 1 ng/L. Relatively high concentrations of DIN (> 1000 μg/L) were also frequently detected. During all sampling periods, there were strong relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and in-stream concentrations of DIN (R2 = 0.56–0.81) and E2Eq (R2 = 0.39–0.75). Relationships between watershed densities of AFOs and PO4-P were weaker, but were also significant (R2 = 0.27–0.57). When combined with the effect of watershed AFO density, streams receiving WWTP effluent had higher concentrations of PO4-P than streams without WWTP discharges, and PO4-P was the only analyte with a consistent relationship to WWTPs. The results of this study suggest that as the watershed density of AFOs increases, there is a proportional increase in the potential for nonpoint source pollution of agricultural streams and their receiving waters by nutrients, particularly DIN, and compounds that can cause endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms.

  10. Photo-redox activated drug delivery systems operating under two photon excitation in the near-IR.

    PubMed

    Guardado-Alvarez, Tania M; Devi, Lekshmi Sudha; Vabre, Jean-Marie; Pecorelli, Travis A; Schwartz, Benjamin J; Durand, Jean-Olivier; Mongin, Olivier; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille; Zink, Jeffrey I

    2014-05-07

    We report the design and synthesis of a nano-container consisting of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with the pore openings covered by "snap-top" caps that are opened by near-IR light. A photo transducer molecule that is a reducing agent in an excited electronic state is covalently attached to the system. Near IR two-photon excitation causes inter-molecular electron transfer that reduces a disulfide bond holding the cap in place, thus allowing the cargo molecules to escape. We describe the operation of the "snap-top" release mechanism by both one- and two-photon activation. This system presents a proof of concept of a near-IR photoredox-induced nanoparticle delivery system that may lead to a new type of photodynamic drug release therapy.

  11. Delivery of Operative Pediatric Surgical Care by Physicians and Non-Physician Clinicians in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Tyson, Anna F; Msiska, Nelson; Kiser, Michelle; Samuel, Jonathan C; Mclean, Sean; Varela, Carlos; Charles, Anthony G

    2014-01-01

    Background Specialized pediatric surgeons are unavailable in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Delegating some surgical tasks to non-physician clinical officers can mitigate the dependence of a health system on highly skilled clinicians for specific services. Methods We performed a case-control study examining pediatric surgical cases over a 12 month period. Operating surgeon was categorized as physician or clinical officer. Operative acuity, surgical subspecialty, and outcome were then compared between the two groups, using physicians as the control. Results A total of 1186 operations were performed on 1004 pediatric patients. Mean age was 6 years (±5) and 64% of patients were male. Clinical officers performed 40% of the cases. Most general surgery, urology and congenital cases were performed by physicians, while most ENT, neurosurgery, and burn surgery cases were performed by clinical officers. Reoperation rate was higher for patients treated by clinical officers (17%) compared to physicians (7.1%), although this was attributable to multiple burn surgical procedures. Physician and clinical officer cohorts had similar complication rates (4.5% and 4.0%, respectively) and mortality rates (2.5% and 2.1%, respectively). Discussion Fundamental changes in health policy in Africa are imperative as a significant increase in the number of surgeons available in the near future is unlikely. Task-shifting from surgeons to clinical officers may be useful to provide coverage of basic surgical care. PMID:24560846

  12. Controlled release drug delivery systems to improve post-operative pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bhusal, Prabhat; Harrison, Jeff; Sharma, Manisha; Jones, David S; Hill, Andrew G; Svirskis, Darren

    2016-10-01

    Over 230 million surgical procedures are conducted worldwide each year with numbers increasing. Pain, undesirable inflammation and infection are common complications experienced by patients following surgery. Opioids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), local anaesthetics (LAs) and antibiotics are the commonly administered drugs peri-operatively to manage these complications. Post-operative pharmacotherapy is typically achieved using immediate-release dosage forms of drugs, which lead to issues around fluctuating plasma concentrations, systemic adverse effects and poor patient adherence. Controlled release (CR) systems for certain medicines including opioids, NSAIDs and antibiotics have demonstrably enhanced treatment efficacy in the post-surgical setting. However, challenges remain to ensure patient safety while achieving individual therapeutic needs. Newer CR systems in the research and development pipeline have a high level of control over medicine release, which can be initiated, tuned or stopped on-demand. Future systems will self-regulate drug release in response to biological markers providing precise individualized therapy. In this review, we cover currently adopted CR systems in post-operative pharmacotherapy, including drug eluting medical devices, and highlight a series of examples of novel CR technologies that have the potential for translation into post-surgical settings to improve medication efficacy and enhance post-surgical recovery.

  13. Delivery of operative pediatric surgical care by physicians and non-physician clinicians in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Tyson, Anna F; Msiska, Nelson; Kiser, Michelle; Samuel, Jonathan C; Mclean, Sean; Varela, Carlos; Charles, Anthony G

    2014-01-01

    Specialized pediatric surgeons are unavailable in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Delegating some surgical tasks to non-physician clinical officers can mitigate the dependence of a health system on highly skilled clinicians for specific services. We performed a case-control study examining pediatric surgical cases over a 12 month period. Operating surgeon was categorized as physician or clinical officer. Operative acuity, surgical subspecialty, and outcome were then compared between the two groups, using physicians as the control. A total of 1186 operations were performed on 1004 pediatric patients. Mean age was 6 years (±5) and 64% of patients were male. Clinical officers performed 40% of the cases. Most general surgery, urology and congenital cases were performed by physicians, while most ENT, neurosurgery, and burn surgery cases were performed by clinical officers. Reoperation rate was higher for patients treated by clinical officers (17%) compared to physicians (7.1%), although this was attributable to multiple burn surgical procedures. Physician and clinical officer cohorts had similar complication rates (4.5% and 4.0%, respectively) and mortality rates (2.5% and 2.1%, respectively). Fundamental changes in health policy in Africa are imperative as a significant increase in the number of surgeons available in the near future is unlikely. Task-shifting from surgeons to clinical officers may be useful to provide coverage of basic surgical care. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies. Prey Selection and Feeding Patterns of Fish in a Southern United States Hydropower Tailwater.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    peaking hydropower generation at Lake Hartwell /4. Georgia -South Carolina, on the diel prey selection and feeding of four species of fish--silver redhorse...releases on the feeding of fish. Materials and Methods 2. The tailwater of Lake Hartwell is that reach of the Savannah River between Georgia and South...Carolina extending 15-20 km downstream from Hartwell Dam (Figure 1). During generation of peaking hydropower 3 I Hartwel Lake StStation 2 !~ Or g S

  15. ARPOP: an appetitive reward-based pseudo-outer-product neural fuzzy inference system inspired from the operant conditioning of feeding behavior in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Cheu, Eng Yeow; Quek, Chai; Ng, See Kiong

    2012-02-01

    Appetitive operant conditioning in Aplysia for feeding behavior via the electrical stimulation of the esophageal nerve contingently reinforces each spontaneous bite during the feeding process. This results in the acquisition of operant memory by the contingently reinforced animals. Analysis of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the feeding motor circuitry revealed that activity-dependent neuronal modulation occurs at the interneurons that mediate feeding behaviors. This provides evidence that interneurons are possible loci of plasticity and constitute another mechanism for memory storage in addition to memory storage attributed to activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. In this paper, an associative ambiguity correction-based neuro-fuzzy network, called appetitive reward-based pseudo-outer-product-compositional rule of inference [ARPOP-CRI(S)], is trained based on an appetitive reward-based learning algorithm which is biologically inspired by the appetitive operant conditioning of the feeding behavior in Aplysia. A variant of the Hebbian learning rule called Hebbian concomitant learning is proposed as the building block in the neuro-fuzzy network learning algorithm. The proposed algorithm possesses the distinguishing features of the sequential learning algorithm. In addition, the proposed ARPOP-CRI(S) neuro-fuzzy system encodes fuzzy knowledge in the form of linguistic rules that satisfies the semantic criteria for low-level fuzzy model interpretability. ARPOP-CRI(S) is evaluated and compared against other modeling techniques using benchmark time-series datasets. Experimental results are encouraging and show that ARPOP-CRI(S) is a viable modeling technique for time-variant problem domains.

  16. Intelligent layered nanoflare: ``lab-on-a-nanoparticle'' for multiple DNA logic gate operations and efficient intracellular delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Zhang, Xiao-Bing; Kang, Li-Ping; Huang, Zhi-Mei; Shen, Guo-Li; Yu, Ru-Qin; Tan, Weihong

    2014-07-01

    DNA strand displacement cascades have been engineered to construct various fascinating DNA circuits. However, biological applications are limited by the insufficient cellular internalization of naked DNA structures, as well as the separated multicomponent feature. In this work, these problems are addressed by the development of a novel DNA nanodevice, termed intelligent layered nanoflare, which integrates DNA computing at the nanoscale, via the self-assembly of DNA flares on a single gold nanoparticle. As a ``lab-on-a-nanoparticle'', the intelligent layered nanoflare could be engineered to perform a variety of Boolean logic gate operations, including three basic logic gates, one three-input AND gate, and two complex logic operations, in a digital non-leaky way. In addition, the layered nanoflare can serve as a programmable strategy to sequentially tune the size of nanoparticles, as well as a new fingerprint spectrum technique for intelligent multiplex biosensing. More importantly, the nanoflare developed here can also act as a single entity for intracellular DNA logic gate delivery, without the need of commercial transfection agents or other auxiliary carriers. By incorporating DNA circuits on nanoparticles, the presented layered nanoflare will broaden the applications of DNA circuits in biological systems, and facilitate the development of DNA nanotechnology.DNA strand displacement cascades have been engineered to construct various fascinating DNA circuits. However, biological applications are limited by the insufficient cellular internalization of naked DNA structures, as well as the separated multicomponent feature. In this work, these problems are addressed by the development of a novel DNA nanodevice, termed intelligent layered nanoflare, which integrates DNA computing at the nanoscale, via the self-assembly of DNA flares on a single gold nanoparticle. As a ``lab-on-a-nanoparticle'', the intelligent layered nanoflare could be engineered to perform a variety of

  17. Cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Dresang, Lee T; Leeman, Lawrence

    2012-03-01

    Cesarean delivery rates rose from 20 to 33% of births in the United States from 2006-2009 without an accompanying improvement in neonatal outcomes. The cesarean rate may be safely decreased by increasing vaginal birth after cesarean, encouraging external cephalic version for breech presentation, maintaining operative vaginal delivery skills, and applying stricter criteria for operative intervention in labor dystocia. A variety of cesarean operative techniques are supported by randomized controlled trials. Optimal maternity care outcomes depend on sound medical decision-making, appropriate operative technique and skills, and effective communication between maternity care team members. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Isolation of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria from the Air Plume Downwind of a Swine Confined or Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Shawn G.; Green, Christopher F.; Tarwater, Patrick M.; Mota, Linda C.; Mena, Kristina D.; Scarpino, Pasquale V.

    2006-01-01

    Objective In this study we evaluated the levels of antibiotic- and multidrug-resistant bacteria in bioaerosols upwind, within, and downwind at locations 25 m, 50 m, 100 m, and 150 m from a swine confined animal feeding operation. Design We used Andersen two-stage samplers to collect bacterial samples, the replicate plate method to isolate organisms, and the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method to determine antibiotic resistance. Results The percentage of organisms resistant to at least two antibiotic classes and all four classes evaluated were, respectively, 2.1 and 3.0 times higher inside (n = 69) than upwind (n = 59) of the facility. Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent organism recovered. Concentrations of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus decreased with increasing distance from the facility. Using Fisher’s exact methods, the change in distribution of antibiotic resistance profiles for each antibiotic was statistically significant (oxytetracycline, p = 0.010; tetracycline, p = 0.014; ampicillin, p = 0.007; erythromycin, p = 0.035); however, this relationship was not seen with lincomycin and penicillin (p > 0.05). In addition, the levels of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus 25 m downwind were significantly greater than the levels from samples taken upwind from the facility for the same four antibiotics (p < 0.05). The percentage of resistant group A streptococci and fecal coliform increased within the facility compared with upwind values for all antibiotics evaluated, except for lincomycin. The percentage of resistant total coliform organisms increased within the facility compared with upwind values for oxytetracycline and tetracycline. Conclusions Bacterial concentrations with multiple antibiotic resistances or multidrug resistance were recovered inside and outside to (at least) 150 m downwind of this facility at higher percentages than upwind. Bacterial concentrations with multiple antibiotic resistances were found within and downwind of the facility even

  19. Possible sources of nitrate in ground water at swine licensed-managed feeding operations in Oklahoma, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, Mark F.; Peter, Kathy D.; Masoner, Jason

    2002-01-01

    Samples collected and analyzed by the Oklahoma Department of Agriculture, Food, and Forestry from 1999 to 2001 determined that nitrate exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level for public drinking-water supplies of 10 milligrams per liter as nitrogen in 79 monitoring wells at 35 swine licensed-managed feeding operations (LMFO) in Oklahoma. The LMFOs are located in rural agricultural settings where long-term agriculture has potentially affected the ground-water quality in some areas. Land use prior to the construction of the LMFOs was assessed to evaluate the types of agricultural land use within a 500-meter radius of the sampled wells. Chemical and microbiological techniques were used to determine the possible sources of nitrate in water sampled from 10 wastewater lagoons and 79 wells. Samples were analyzed for dissolved major ions, dissolved trace elements, dissolved nutrients, nitrogen isotope ratios of nitrate and ammonia, wastewater organic compounds, and fecal coliform bacteria. Bacteria ribotyping analysis was done on selected samples to identify possible specific animal sources. A decision process was developed to identify the possible sources of nitrate. First, nitrogen isotope ratios were used to define sources as animal, mixed animal and fertilizer, or fertilizer. Second, wastewater organic compound detections, nitrogen-isotope ratios, fecal coliform bacteria detections, and ribotyping were used to refine the identification of possible sources as LFMO waste, fertilizer, or unidentified animal or mixtures of these sources. Additional evidence provided by ribotyping and wastewater organic compound data can, in some cases, specifically indicate the animal source. Detections of three or more wastewater organic compounds that are indicators of animal sources and detections of fecal coliform bacteria provided additional evidence of an animal source. LMFO waste was designated as a possible source of nitrate in water from 10

  20. Batch vs continuous-feeding operational mode for the removal of pesticides from agricultural run-off by microalgae systems: A laboratory scale study.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Víctor; Rodríguez, Yolanda

    2016-05-15

    Microalgae-based water treatment technologies have been used in recent years to treat different water effluents, but their effectiveness for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off has not yet been addressed. This paper assesses the effect of microalgae in pesticide removal, as well as the influence of different operation strategies (continuous vs batch feeding). The following pesticides were studied: mecoprop, atrazine, simazine, diazinone, alachlor, chlorfenvinphos, lindane, malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and clofibric acid (tracer). 2L batch reactors and 5L continuous reactors were spiked to 10 μg L(-1) of each pesticide. Additionally, three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were assessed (2, 4 and 8 days) in the continuous feeding reactors. The batch-feeding experiments demonstrated that the presence of microalgae increased the efficiency of lindane, alachlor and chlorpyrifos by 50%. The continuous feeding reactors had higher removal efficiencies than the batch reactors for pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos and lindane. Whilst longer HRTs increased the technology's effectiveness, a low HRT of 2 days was capable of removing malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, and endosulfan by up to 70%. This study suggests that microalgae-based treatment technologies can be an effective alternative for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Some Recent Ideas on School Feeding. UNESCO-UNICEF-WFP Co-operative Programme Digest No. 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicot, Claude; And Others

    This digest for national and international officials, educational administrators, teacher trainers, and teachers addresses the purposes and goals of school feeding projects. Projects that both do and do not receive donated food from abroad are considered. The digest is introduced with a discussion of background information. This discussion raises…

  2. Some Recent Ideas on School Feeding. UNESCO-UNICEF-WFP Co-operative Programme Digest No. 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicot, Claude; And Others

    This digest for national and international officials, educational administrators, teacher trainers, and teachers addresses the purposes and goals of school feeding projects. Projects that both do and do not receive donated food from abroad are considered. The digest is introduced with a discussion of background information. This discussion raises…

  3. Characterizing reduced sulfur compounds and non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumsey, Ian Cooper

    Reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have become a potential environmental and human health concern. Both RSCs and NMVOCs contribute to odor. In addition, RSCs also have the potential to form fine particulate matter (PMfine) and NMVOCs the potential to form ozone. Measurements of RSCs and NMVOCs emissions were made from both an anaerobic lagoon and barn at a swine CAFO in North Carolina. Emission measurements were made over all four seasonal periods. In each seasonal period, measurements were made from both the anaerobic lagoon and barn for ˜1 week. RSC and NMVOCs samples were collected using passivated canisters. Nine to eleven canister samples were taken from both the lagoon and barn over each sampling period. The canisters were analyzed ex-situ using gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) measurements were made in-situ using a pulsed fluorescence H2S/SO2 analyzer. During sampling, measurements of meteorological and physiochemical parameters were made. H2S had the largest RSC flux, with an overall average lagoon flux of 1.33 mug m-2 min-1. The two main RSCs identified by the GC-FID, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), had overall average lagoon fluxes an order of magnitude lower, 0.12 and 0.09 mug m-2 min-1, respectively. Twelve significant NMVOCs were identified in lagoon samples (ethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, methanol, acetaldehyde, decanal, heptanal, hexanal, nonanal, octanal, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and 4-methylphenol). The overall average fluxes for these NMVOCs, ranged from 0.08 mug m-2 min-1 (4-methylphenol) to 2.11 mug m-2 min-1 (acetone). Seasonal H2S barn concentrations ranged from 72-631 ppb. DMS and DMDS seasonal concentrations were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower. There were six significant NMVOCs identified in barn samples (methanol, ethanol, acetone 2-3 butanedione, acetaldehyde

  4. Improving Performance and Operational Stability of Porcine Interferon-α Production by Pichia pastoris with Combinational Induction Strategy of Low Temperature and Methanol/Sorbitol Co-feeding.

    PubMed

    Gao, Min-Jie; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Xu; Dong, Shi-Juan; Li, Zhen; Shi, Zhong-Ping; Lin, Chi-Chung

    2015-05-01

    Various induction strategies were investigated for effective porcine interferon-α (pIFN-α) production by Pichia pastoris in a 10 L fermenter. We found that pIFN-α concentration could be significantly improved with the strategies of low-temperature induction or methanol/sorbitol co-feeding. On this basis, a combinational strategy of induction at lower temperature (20 °C) with methanol/sorbitol co-feeding has been proposed for improvement of pIFN-α production. The results reveal that maximal pIFN-α concentration and antiviral activity reach the highest level of 2.7 g/L and 1.8 × 10(7) IU/mg with the proposed induction strategy, about 1.3-2.1 folds higher than those obtained with other sub-optimal induction strategies. Metabolic analysis and online multi-variable measurement results indicate that energy metabolic enrichment is responsible for the performance enhancement of pIFN-α production, as a large amount of ATP could be simultaneously produced from both formaldehyde oxidation pathway in methanol metabolism and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in sorbitol metabolism. In addition, the proposed combinational induction strategy enables P. pastoris to be resistant to high methanol concentration (42 g/L), which conceivably occur associating with the error-prone methanol over-feeding. As a result, the proposed combinational induction strategy simultaneously increased the targeted protein concentration and operational stability leading to significant improvement of pIFN-α production.

  5. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (<2.5 cm) offered at a ratio of 7:3 as a mixture (MIX), or as separate components (COM). Feed was provided ad libitum. Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2 kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the MIX diet and remained on trial for an additional 3 wk. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 4d during wk 6, 8, 9, and 11. In wk 6, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration

  6. Telerobotic-assisted bone-drilling system using bilateral control with feed operation scaling and cutting force scaling

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, Yusuke; Kawana, Hiromasa; Usuda, Shin; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    2012-01-01

    Background Drilling is used in the medical field, especially in oral surgery and orthopaedics. In recent years, oral surgery involving dental implants has become more common. However, the risky drilling process causes serious accidents. To prevent these accidents, supporting systems such as robotic drilling systems are required. Methods A telerobotic-assisted drilling system is proposed. An acceleration-based four-channel bilateral control system is implemented in linear actuators in a master–slave system for drill feeding. A reaction force observer is used instead of a force sensor for measuring cutting force. Cutting force transmits from a cutting material to a surgeon, who may feel a static cutting resistance force and vigorous cutting vibrations, via the master–slave system. Moreover, position scaling and force scaling are achieved. Scaling functions are used to achieve precise drilling and hazard detection via force sensation. Results Cutting accuracy and reproducibility of the cutting force were evaluated by angular velocity/position error and frequency analysis of the cutting force, respectively, and errors were > 2.0 rpm and > 0.2 mm, respectively. Spectrum peaks of the cutting vibration were at the theoretical vibration frequencies of 30, 60 and 90 Hz. Conclusions The proposed telerobotic-assisted drilling system achieved precise manipulation of the drill feed and vivid feedback from the cutting force. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22271710

  7. Telerobotic-assisted bone-drilling system using bilateral control with feed operation scaling and cutting force scaling.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Yusuke; Kawana, Hiromasa; Usuda, Shin; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    2012-06-01

    Drilling is used in the medical field, especially in oral surgery and orthopaedics. In recent years, oral surgery involving dental implants has become more common. However, the risky drilling process causes serious accidents. To prevent these accidents, supporting systems such as robotic drilling systems are required. A telerobotic-assisted drilling system is proposed. An acceleration-based four-channel bilateral control system is implemented in linear actuators in a master-slave system for drill feeding. A reaction force observer is used instead of a force sensor for measuring cutting force. Cutting force transmits from a cutting material to a surgeon, who may feel a static cutting resistance force and vigorous cutting vibrations, via the master-slave system. Moreover, position scaling and force scaling are achieved. Scaling functions are used to achieve precise drilling and hazard detection via force sensation. Cutting accuracy and reproducibility of the cutting force were evaluated by angular velocity/position error and frequency analysis of the cutting force, respectively, and errors were > 2.0 rpm and > 0.2 mm, respectively. Spectrum peaks of the cutting vibration were at the theoretical vibration frequencies of 30, 60 and 90 Hz. The proposed telerobotic-assisted drilling system achieved precise manipulation of the drill feed and vivid feedback from the cutting force. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Dust feed mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Milliman, Edward M.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a dust feed device for delivery of a uniform supply of dust for long periods of time to an aerosolizing means for production of a dust suspension. The device utilizes at least two tandem containers having spiral brushes within the containers which transport the dust from a supply to the aerosolizer means.

  9. Pelvic Floor Disorders 6 Months after Attempted Operative Vaginal Delivery According to the Fetal Head Station: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ducarme, Guillaume; Hamel, Jean-François; Brun, Stéphanie; Madar, Hugo; Merlot, Benjamin; Sentilhes, Loïc

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of the fetal head station at attempted operative vaginal delivery (aOVD), and specifically midpelvic or low aOVD, on urinary incontinence (UI), anal incontinence (AI), and perineal pain at 6 months. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting 1941 women with singleton term fetuses in vertex presentation with midpelvic or low aOVD between 2008 and 2013 in a tertiary care university hospital. Methods Symptoms of urinary incontinence (UI) using the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms questionnaire, and symptoms of anal incontinence (AI) severity using Fecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI) were assessed 6 months after aOVD. We measured the association between midpelvic or low aOVD and symptoms of UI, AI, and perineal pain at 6 months using multiple regression and adjusting for demographics, and risk factors of UI and AI, with adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results The study included 907 women (46.7%) who responded to the questionnaire; 18.4% (167/907) had midpelvic aOVD, and 81.6% (740/907) low; and none of women with symptoms of UI (26.6%, and 22.4%, respectively; p = 0.31), AI (15.9%, and 21.8%; p = 0.09), the FISI score, and perineal pain (17.2%, and 12.7%; p = 0.14) differed significantly between groups. The same was true for stress, urge, and mixed-type UI, severe UI and difficulty voiding. Compared with low pelvic aOVD, the aORs for symptoms of UI in midpelvic aOVD were 0.70 (0.46–1.05) and AI 1.42 (0.85–2.39). Third- and fourth-degree tears were a major risk factor of symptoms of UI (aOR 3.08, 95% CI 1.35–7.00) and AI (aOR 3.47, 95% CI 1.43–8.39). Conclusion Neither symptoms of urinary nor anal incontinence differed at 6 months among women who had midpelvic and low pelvic aOVD. These findings are reassuring and need further studies at long-term to confirm these short-term data. PMID:27992558

  10. Fetal blood sampling in early labour: is there an increased risk of operative delivery and fetal morbidity?

    PubMed

    Heazell, A E P; Riches, J; Hopkins, L; Myers, J E

    2011-06-01

    To determine whether the rate of caesarean section was increased in women undergoing fetal blood sampling (FBS) in early labour. Retrospective study. Secondary and tertiary obstetric units in the UK. A cohort of 381 women undergoing FBS. Data relating to demographics, labour and delivery characteristics, and neonatal outcomes were collected on women undergoing FBS in labour. Odds ratios (ORs) for caesarean section compared with vaginal delivery for women who had their first FBS in early labour (≤ 3 cm cervical dilatation) and for women who required multiple samples were calculated. Mode of delivery. Forty-eight percent of women who required their first FBS at a cervical dilatation of ≤ 3 cm achieved a vaginal delivery; these women were at modestly increased risk of caesarean section (adjusted OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.04-3.13) compared with women who had their first FBS at a cervical dilatation of ≥ 4 cm. The odds ratio for caesarean section in women who required two or more FBS was 1.71 (95% CI 1.37-2.13) compared with those requiring a single sample. There were no differences in instrumental delivery. Infants undergoing three or more FBS were more likely to be admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU; OR 2.69; 95% CI 1.09-6.64), although this was not associated with increased acidaemia. Women who require FBS in early labour or multiple FBS are at a modestly increased risk of caesarean section compared with those in established labour. When contemplating FBS at ≤ 3-cm cervical dilatation, practitioners should not be put off by the perceived low chance of vaginal delivery, but repeating FBS on more than three occasions should be considered carefully. © 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 RCOG.

  11. Effect of growth promotants on the occurrence of endogenous and synthetic steroid hormones on feedlot soils and in runoff from beef cattle feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Snow, Daniel D; Kranz, William L; Mader, Terry L; Shapiro, Charles A; Donk, Simon J van; Shelton, David P; Tarkalson, David D; Zhang, Tian C

    2012-02-07

    Supplements and growth promotants containing steroid hormones are routinely administered to beef cattle to improve feeding efficiency, reduce behavioral problems, and enhance production. As a result, beef cattle manure will contain both synthetic steroids as well as a range of endogenous steroids including androgens, estrogens, and progestogens. A two-year controlled study was conducted in which beef cattle were administered steroid hormones via subcutaneous implants and feed additives and the occurrence of 16 endogenous and synthetic steroid hormones and metabolites was evaluated in runoff from beef cattle feedlots and in manure and soil collected from feedlot surfaces. Samples were extracted and analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometryfor metabolites of the synthetic androgen trenbolone acetate, 17α-trenbolone, 17β-trenbolone, for the nonsteroidal semisynthetic estrogen agonist, α-zearalanol, and the synthetic progesterone melengesterol acetate, as well as a wide range of endogeneous estrogens, androgens, and fusarium metabolites. Synthetic steroids including trenbolone metabolites and melengestrol acetate were detected in fresh manure and in feedlot surface soils from cattle administered synthetic steroids at concentrations up to 55 ± 22 ng/g dry weight (dw) (17α-trenbolone) and 6.5 ± 0.4 ng/g dw (melengesterol acetate). Melengesterol acetate was detected in 6% of runoff samples from feedlots holding cattle administered synthetic steroids at concentrations ranging up to 115 ng/L. The presence of melengesterol acetate in runoff from beef cattle feeding operations has not been previously reported. Synthetic steroids were not detected in manure or runoff from control cattle. A wide range of endogenous hormones were detected in runoff and feedlot surface soils and manure from cattle given synthetic steroids and from control cattle, with no statistically significant differences in concentration. These results indicate that runoff from

  12. [When is breast feeding contraceptive?].

    PubMed

    1998-06-01

    Breast-feeding has always been perceived as a contraceptive measure, probably because it is associated with amenorrhea. However, many pregnancies occur during breast-feeding, often quite soon after delivery. A pregnancy occurring 3 months after delivery is considered at risk for both the mother and child. Three conditions are necessary for a 98% contraceptive efficacy of lactation: total amenorrhea; exclusive breast-feeding on demand, both day and night; and occurrence within the first 6 months postpartum. If the three conditions are met, no additional contraceptive method is needed. Beyond 6 months, another method should be used.

  13. Antibiotic-Resistant Enterococci and Fecal Indicators in Surface Water and Groundwater Impacted by a Concentrated Swine Feeding Operation

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Amy R.; Curriero, Frank C.; Gibson, Kristen E.; Schwab, Kellogg J.

    2007-01-01

    Background The nontherapeutic use of antibiotics in swine feed can select for antibiotic resistance in swine enteric bacteria. Leaking swine waste storage pits and the land-application of swine manure can result in the dispersion of resistant bacteria to water sources. However, there are few data comparing levels of resistant bacteria in swine manure–impacted water sources versus unaffected sources. Objectives The goal of this study was to analyze surface water and groundwater situated up and down gradient from a swine facility for antibiotic-resistant enterococci and other fecal indicators. Methods Surface water and groundwater samples (n = 28) were collected up and down gradient from a swine facility from 2002 to 2004. Fecal indicators were isolated by membrane filtration, and enterococci (n = 200) were tested for susceptibility to erythromycin, tetracycline, clindamycin, virginiamycin, and vancomycin. Results Median concentrations of enterococci, fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli were 4- to 33-fold higher in down-gradient versus up-gradient surface water and groundwater. We observed higher minimal inhibitory concentrations for four antibiotics in enterococci isolated from down-gradient versus up-gradient surface water and groundwater. Elevated percentages of erythromycin- (p = 0.02) and tetracycline-resistant (p = 0.06) enterococci were detected in down-gradient surface waters, and higher percentages of tetracycline- (p = 0.07) and clindamycin-resistant (p < 0.001) enterococci were detected in down-gradient groundwater. Conclusions We detected elevated levels of fecal indicators and antibiotic-resistant enterococci in water sources situated down gradient from a swine facility compared with up-gradient sources. These findings provide additional evidence that water contaminated with swine manure could contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance. PMID:17637920

  14. Articulating feedstock delivery device

    DOEpatents

    Jordan, Kevin

    2013-11-05

    A fully articulable feedstock delivery device that is designed to operate at pressure and temperature extremes. The device incorporates an articulating ball assembly which allows for more accurate delivery of the feedstock to a target location. The device is suitable for a variety of applications including, but not limited to, delivery of feedstock to a high-pressure reaction chamber or process zone.

  15. Research and demonstration to improve air quality for the U.S. animal feeding operations in the 21st century - a critical review.

    PubMed

    Ni, Ji-Qin

    2015-05-01

    There was an increasing interest in reducing production and emission of air pollutants to improve air quality for animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the U.S. in the 21st century. Research was focused on identification, quantification, characterization, and modeling of air pollutions; effects of emissions; and methodologies and technologies for scientific research and pollution control. Mitigation effects were on pre-excretion, pre-release, pre-emission, and post-emission. More emphasis was given on reducing pollutant emissions than improving indoor air quality. Research and demonstrations were generally continuation and improvement of previous efforts. Most demonstrated technologies were still in a limited scale of application. Future efforts are needed in many fundamental and applied research areas. Advancement in instrumentation, computer technology, and biological sciences and genetic engineering is critical to bring major changes in this area. Development in research and demonstration will depend on the actual political, economic, and environmental situations.

  16. Microbial and Nutrient Concentration and Load Data During Stormwater Runoff at a Swine Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Stephen L.

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes water-quality and hydrologic data collected during 2006-2007 to characterize bacteria and nutrient loads associated with overland runoff and subsurface tile drainage in spray fields at a swine concentrated animal feeding operation. Four monitoring locations were established at the Lizzie Research Site in the North Carolina Coastal Plain Physiographic Province for collecting discharge and water-quality data during stormwater-runoff events. Water stage was measured continuously at each monitoring location. A stage-discharge relation was developed for each site and was used to compute instantaneous discharge values for collected samples. Water-quality samples were collected for five storm events during 2006-2007 for analysis of nutrients and fecal indicator bacteria. Instantaneous loads of nitrite plus nitrate, total coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and enterococci were computed for selected times during the five storm events.

  17. Methods of enteral feeding in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Maggio, L; Costa, S; Zecca, C; Giordano, L

    2012-05-01

    Whenever possible, oral feeding is the preferred method in neonatal feeding. However, many premature infants are unable to suck and swallow effectively; in these cases alternative methods of nutrient delivery must be used. We briefly review the different feeding methods used in neonatal units, with particular attention to their theoretical advantages, disadvantages and to the current best evidence available.

  18. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING DL

    2008-03-19

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions.

  19. Functional redundancy ensures performance robustness in 3-stage PHA-producing mixed cultures under variable feed operation.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Gilda; Pedras, Inês; Karst, Soren M; Oliveira, Catarina S S; Duque, Anouk F; Nielsen, Per H; Reis, Maria A M

    2017-08-22

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are biopolymers that can be produced by mixed microbial cultures using wastes or industrial by-products, which represent an economical and environmental advantage over pure culture processes. The use of alternate feedstocks enables using seasonal by-products, providing that the process is resilient to transient conditions. The mixed microbial communities of a 3-stage PHA producing system fed initially with molasses and then cheese whey were investigated through amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The transition in feedstock resulted in an adaptation of the acidogenic community, where Actinobacteria dominated with sugarcane molasses (up to 93% of the operational taxonomic units) and Firmicutes, with cheese whey (up to 97%). The resulting fermentation products profile also changed, with a higher fraction of HV precursors obtained with molasses than cheese whey (7.1±0.5 and 1.7±0.7 gCOD/L, respectively). As for the PHA storing culture, the genera Azoarcus, Thauera and Paracoccus were enriched with fermented molasses (average 89% of Bacteria). Later, fermented cheese whey fostered a higher diversity, including some less characterised PHA-storers such as the genera Paenibacillus and Lysinibacillus. Although the microbial community structure was significantly affected by the feedstock shift, the acidogenic and PHA storing performance of the 3-stage system was very similar once a pseudo steady state was attained, showing that a reliable level of functional redundancy was attained in both mixed cultures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Tubes Health Information Sheet Q & A with Experts Patient Stories Social Security Disability Application Process For Kids ... Feeding Tubes Health Information Sheet Q & A with Experts Patient Stories Social Security Disability Application Process For Kids ...

  1. VLBI2010 Feed Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrachenko, Bill

    2013-01-01

    VLBI2010 requires a feed that simultaneously has high efficiency over the full 2.2-14 GHz frequency range. The simultaneity requirement implies that the feed must operate at high efficiency over the full frequency range without the need to adjust its focal position to account for frequency dependent phase centre variations. Two feeds meet this specification: The Eleven Feed developed at Chalmers University. (For more information, contact Miroslav Pantaleev, miroslav.pantaleev@chalmers.se. The Eleven Feed, integrated with LNA's in a cryogenic receiver, is available as a product from Omnisys Instruments, info@omnisys.se). The Quadruple Ridged Flared Horn (QRFH) developed at the California Institute of Technology. (For more information please contact Ahmed Akgiray, aakgiray@ieee.org or Sander Weinreb, sweinreb@caltech.edu) Although not VLBI2010 compliant, two triband S/X/Ka feeds are also being developed for the commissioning of VLBI2010 antennas, for S/X observations during the VLBI2010 transition period, and to support X/Ka CRF observations. The two feeds are: The Twin Telescopes Wettzell (TTW) triband feed developed by Mirad Microwave. (For more information please contact Gerhard Kronschnabl, Gerhard.Kronschnabl@bkg.bund.de) The RAEGE (Spain) triband feed developed at Yebes Observatory. (For more information please contact Jose Antonio Lopez Perez, ja.lopezperez@oan.es)

  2. Recent results of PADReS, the Photon Analysis Delivery and REduction System, from the FERMI FEL commissioning and user operations.

    PubMed

    Zangrando, Marco; Cocco, Daniele; Fava, Claudio; Gerusina, Simone; Gobessi, Riccardo; Mahne, Nicola; Mazzucco, Eric; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Rumiz, Luca; Svetina, Cristian

    2015-05-01

    The Photon Analysis Delivery and REduction System of FERMI (PADReS) has been routinely used during the machine commissioning and operations of FERMI since 2011. It has also served the needs of several user runs at the facility from late 2012. The system is endowed with online and shot-to-shot diagnostics giving information about intensity, spatial-angular distribution, spectral content, as well as other diagnostics to determine coherence, pulse length etc. Moreover, PADReS is capable of manipulating the beam in terms of intensity and optical parameters. Regarding the optics, besides a standard refocusing system based on an ellipsoidal mirror, the Kirkpatrick-Baez active optics systems are key elements and have been used intensively to meet users' requirements. A general description of the system is given, together with some selected results from the commissioning/operations/user beam time.

  3. Intermittent bolus feeding increases visceral tissue protein synthesis more than continuous feeding in neonatal pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Orogastric tube feeding, using either continuous or intermittent bolus delivery, is commonly used in infants unable to feed orally. To compare the impact of different feeding strategies on visceral tissue protein synthesis, neonatal pigs (5–7 day old) received a balanced formula orally either by int...

  4. Hydration and dehydration cycles in polymer electrolyte fuel cells operated with wet anode and dry cathode feed: A neutron imaging and modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Salaberri, P. A.; Sánchez, D. G.; Boillat, P.; Vera, M.; Friedrich, K. A.

    2017-08-01

    Proper water management plays an essential role in the performance and durability of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (PEFCs), but it is challenged by the variety of water transport phenomena that take place in these devices. Previous experimental work has shown the existence of fluctuations between low and high current density levels in PEFCs operated with wet hydrogen and dry air feed. The alternation between both performance states is accompanied by strong changes in the high frequency resistance, suggesting a cyclic hydration and dehydration of the membrane. This peculiar scenario is examined here considering liquid water distributions from neutron imaging and predictions from a 3D two-phase non-isothermal model. The results show that the hydration-dehydration cycles are triggered by the periodic condensation and shedding of liquid water at the anode inlet. The input of liquid water humidifies the anode channel and offsets the membrane dry-out induced by the dry air stream, thus leading to the high-performance state. When liquid water is flushed out of the anode channel, the dehydration process takes over, and the cell comes back to the low-performance state. The predicted amplitude of the current oscillations grows with decreasing hydrogen and increasing air flow rates, in agreement with previous experimental data.

  5. Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this study,…

  6. High Level Waste Feed Certification in Hanford Double Shell Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Thien, Micheal G.; Wells, Beric E.; Adamson, Duane J.

    2010-03-01

    The ability to effectively mix, sample, certify, and deliver consistent batches of High Level Waste (HLW) feed from the Hanford Double Shell Tanks (DST) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) presents a significant mission risk with potential to impact mission length and the quantity of HLW glass produced. DOE’s River Protection Project (RPP) mission modeling and WTP facility modeling assume that individual 3785 cubic meter (1 million gallon) HLW feed tanks are homogenously mixed, representatively sampled, and consistently delivered to the WTP. It has been demonstrated that homogenous mixing of HLW sludge in Hanford DSTs is not likely achievable with the baseline design thereby causing representative sampling and consistent feed delivery to be more difficult. Inconsistent feed to the WTP could cause additional batch to batch operational adjustments that reduces operating efficiency and has the potential to increase the overall mission length. The Hanford mixing and sampling demonstration program will identify DST mixing performance capability, will evaluate representative sampling techniques, and will estimate feed batch consistency. An evaluation of demonstration program results will identify potential mission improvement considerations that will help ensure successful mission completion. This paper will discuss the history, progress, and future activities that will define and mitigate the mission risk.

  7. The Application of Operations Research Methodologies to the Delivery of Care Model for Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury: The Access to Care and Timing Project

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Vanessa K.; Soril, Lesley; Atkins, Derek; Lewis, Rachel; Santos, Argelio; Fehlings, Michael G.; Burns, Anthony S.; Singh, Anoushka

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The long-term impact of spinal cord injury (SCI) on the health care system imposes a need for greater efficiency in the use of resources and the management of care. The Access to Care and Timing (ACT) project was developed to model the health care delivery system in Canada for patients with traumatic SCI. Techniques from Operations Research, such as simulation modeling, were used to predict the impact of best practices and policy initiatives on outcomes related to both the system and patients. These methods have been used to solve similar problems in business and engineering and may offer a unique solution to the complexities encountered in SCI care delivery. Findings from various simulated scenarios, from the patients' point of injury to community re-integration, can be used to inform decisions on optimizing practice across the care continuum. This article describes specifically the methodology and implications of producing such simulations for the care of traumatic SCI in Canada. Future publications will report on specific practices pertaining to the access to specialized services and the timing of interventions evaluated using the ACT model. Results from this type of research will provide the evidence required to support clinical decision making, inform standards of care, and provide an opportunity to engage policymakers. PMID:22800432

  8. The application of operations research methodologies to the delivery of care model for traumatic spinal cord injury: the access to care and timing project.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Vanessa K; Soril, Lesley; Atkins, Derek; Lewis, Rachel; Santos, Argelio; Fehlings, Michael G; Burns, Anthony S; Singh, Anoushka; Dvorak, Marcel F

    2012-09-01

    The long-term impact of spinal cord injury (SCI) on the health care system imposes a need for greater efficiency in the use of resources and the management of care. The Access to Care and Timing (ACT) project was developed to model the health care delivery system in Canada for patients with traumatic SCI. Techniques from Operations Research, such as simulation modeling, were used to predict the impact of best practices and policy initiatives on outcomes related to both the system and patients. These methods have been used to solve similar problems in business and engineering and may offer a unique solution to the complexities encountered in SCI care delivery. Findings from various simulated scenarios, from the patients' point of injury to community re-integration, can be used to inform decisions on optimizing practice across the care continuum. This article describes specifically the methodology and implications of producing such simulations for the care of traumatic SCI in Canada. Future publications will report on specific practices pertaining to the access to specialized services and the timing of interventions evaluated using the ACT model. Results from this type of research will provide the evidence required to support clinical decision making, inform standards of care, and provide an opportunity to engage policymakers.

  9. Analyzing opportunities for energy conservation in municipal fleet management: service delivery patterns, equipment, supply, operations, and maintenance. Information bulletin of the energy task force of the urban consortium

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Vehicle fleet management as a five-step process is portrayed and the multiple energy conservation opportunities within each step are examined. The five steps described are, configuration of service area and service delivery patterns, equipping the fleet, operating the fleet, maintaining the fleet, and supplying the fleet with fuel. A systems approach to decision making about municipal fleets is outlined. Management options, control techniques, and devices are suggested for each of the five steps. Reference is made to analytic tools which will assist in deliberating options at each of these steps. These tools are presented in a list. Four concise case studies of jurisdictions which are taking deliberate steps to reduce fuel use are presented. Key opportunities for fuel conservation are then summarized, followed by a selected bibliography, and listing of reference materials and additional resources.

  10. Multiple repeated cesarean deliveries: operative complications in the fourth and fifth surgeries in urgent and elective cases.

    PubMed

    Gedikbasi, Ali; Akyol, Alpaslan; Bingol, Banu; Cakmak, Demet; Sargin, Akif; Uncu, Remzi; Ceylan, Yavuz

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the maternal and neonatal risk related with multiple repeated cesarean sections. A case control study was conducted in a single tertiary maternity and children's center. The outcome of a study group including 122 pregnant women undergoing cesarean section for the fourth or fifth time was compared with a control group comprising 146 women sectioned for the second and third time. All multiple repeated cesarean sections were divided into urgent and elective groups to compare the outcome measures of demographic, neonatal, intra- and post-operative data. Compared with the control group, the study group had significantly lower birth weights (p=0.026), lower Apgar scores at 1 minute (p=0.0001) and 5 minutes (p=0.042), higher numbers of fetal death (p=0.03), higher rate of omentum adhesions (p =0.0001) and peritoneal adhesions (p=0.008), increased risk of cesarean hysterectomy (p = 0.014), increased need for transfusion (p = 0.018), and an increase in hospitalization days (p=0.005). Compared with the elective group, preterm birth incidence was higher (p = 0.01) and birth weight was lower (p=0.004) in the urgent group. The risk for myometrium herniation (p=0.018), need for drainage during operation (p=0.018), and post-operative fever (p =0.001) was also more common in the urgent group. Multiple repeated cesarean sections increase the risks for operative complications and poor perinatal outcomes. Patients must be informed about the related risks of multiple repeated cesarean sections and tubal ligation needs to be encouraged. Copyright © 2010 Taiwan Association of Obstetric & Gynecology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The technique of delivery of peri-operative analgesia does not affect the rehabilitation or outcomes following total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    McDonald, D A; Deakin, A H; Ellis, B M; Robb, Y; Howe, T E; Kinninmonth, A W G; Scott, N B

    2016-09-01

    This non-blinded randomised controlled trial compared the effect of patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) versus local infiltration analgesia (LIA) within an established enhanced recovery programme on the attainment of discharge criteria and recovery one year after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The hypothesis was that LIA would increase the proportion of patients discharged from rehabilitation by the fourth post-operative day but would not affect outcomes at one year. A total of 242 patients were randomised; 20 were excluded due to failure of spinal anaesthesia leaving 109 patients in the PCEA group and 113 in the LIA group. Patients were reviewed at six weeks and one year post-operatively. There was no difference in the proportion of patients discharged from rehabilitation by the fourth post-operative day, (77% in the PCEA group, 82% in the LIA group, p = 0.33), mean length of stay (four days in each group, p = 0.540), day of first mobilisation (p = 0.013) or pain (p = 0.278). There was no difference in mean Oxford Knee Scores (41 points in each group, p = 0.915) or the rate of complications in the two groups. Both techniques provided adequate pain relief, enabled early mobilisation and accelerated rehabilitation and good patient-reported outcomes up to one year post-operatively. PCEA and LIA are associated with similar clinical outcomes following TKA. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B1189-96. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  12. The relationship between pacifier use, bottle feeding and breast feeding.

    PubMed

    Görbe, E; Kõhalmi, B; Gaál, G; Szánthó, A; Rigó, J; Harmath, A; Csabay, L; Szabó, Gy

    2002-08-01

    To investigate the influence of pacifier use and the introduction of formula milk on breast feeding. The mothers of 356 healthy newborn infants who initiated breast feeding while in-patients were interviewed within 3 days of birth and later at 2 and 6 months postpartum. Information regarding previous birth, breast-feeding frequency, pacifier use and the adoption of formula milk were obtained. The data were analyzed using chi2 and Kruskal-Wallis tests. At the end of the second month, 264 (74%) of the mothers were still breast feeding; by the end of the sixth month this had fallen to 236 (66%). Among the 356 mothers, 152 had at least one previous infant, and 132 (86.8%) of them had breast fed a previous infant. Of the women who breast fed their previous infant for more than 2 months, 112 (84.8%) breast fed the current child until the end of the second month and 104 (78.7%) until the end of the sixth month after delivery. Of all investigated patients, 204 were primiparous (57.3%). Of these, 152 (74.5%) breast fed until the end of the second month, and 132 (64.7%) until the end of the sixth month after delivery. Amongthe 204 primiparae, 92 (45%) gave formula to their newborn infants. Forty-four of these 92 mothers (47.8%) had discontinued breast feeding by the end of the second month. Among the 356 newborn infants, 220 used pacifiers at the end of the second month. Within this group, 72 (33%) of the infants did not breast feed, while 148 (67%) did breast feed. Of all investigated mothers, 136 did not give pacifiers to their infants and only eight of these mothers (6%) had stopped breast feeding at the end of the second month. We found an inverse correlation between pacifier usage and breast feeding. Breast feeding was most common among multiparous mothers.

  13. Doctor-diagnosed health problems in a region with a high density of concentrated animal feeding operations: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hooiveld, Mariëtte; Smit, Lidwien A M; van der Sman-de Beer, Femke; Wouters, Inge M; van Dijk, Christel E; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Heederik, Dick J J; Yzermans, C Joris

    2016-02-17

    There is growing interest in health risks of residents living near concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Previous research mostly focused on swine CAFOs and self-reported respiratory conditions. The aim was to study the association between the presence of swine, poultry, cattle and goat CAFOs and health of Dutch neighbouring residents using electronic medical records from general practitioners (GPs). Data for the year 2009 were collected of 119,036 inhabitants of a rural region with a high density of CAFOs using information from GIAB (high exposed population). A comparison was made with GP data from 78,060 inhabitants of rural areas with low densities of CAFOs (low exposed population). Associations between the number of CAFOs near residents' homes and morbidity were determined by multilevel (cross-classified) logistic regression. In 2009, the prevalence of most respiratory and gastrointestinal conditions was similar in the high and low exposed population. Exceptions were pneumonia, atopic eczema and unspecified infectious diseases with an increased prevalence, and sinusitis with a decreased prevalence in the high exposed population. Within the high CAFO density region, the number of poultry, cattle and swine CAFOs near residents' homes was not associated with allergic, respiratory or gastrointestinal conditions. Conversely, each additional goat CAFO within the postal code area of residents' homes significantly increased the odds of unspecified infectious disease and pneumonia by 87 and 41 percent, respectively. Using GP records, pneumonia and unspecified infectious diseases were positively associated with the number of goat CAFOs near residents' homes, but no association was found between swine, cattle, and poultry CAFOs and respiratory, allergic or gastrointestinal conditions.

  14. Clinical utility of topiramate extended-release capsules (USL255): Bioequivalence of USL255 sprinkled and intact capsule in healthy adults and an in vitro evaluation of sprinkle delivery via enteral feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Clark, Annie M; Pellock, John M; Holmay, Mary; Anders, Bob; Cloyd, James

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of these two studies were to determine if beads from extended-release topiramate capsules sprinkled onto soft food are bioequivalent to the intact capsule and if beads from the capsule can be passed through enteral gastrostomy (G-) and jejunostomy (J-) feeding tubes. Bioequivalence of 200-mg USL255 (Qudexy XR [topiramate] extended-release capsules) sprinkled onto soft food (applesauce) versus the intact capsule was evaluated in a phase 1, randomized, single-dose, crossover study (N=36). Pharmacokinetic evaluations included area under the curve (AUC), maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), time to Cmax (Tmax), and terminal elimination half-life (t1/2). If 90% confidence intervals (CI) of the ratio of geometric least-squares means were between 0.80 and 1.25, AUC and Cmax were considered bioequivalent. In separate in vitro experiments, 100-mg USL255 beads were passed through feeding tubes using gentle syringe pressure to develop a clog-free bead-delivery method. Multiple tube sizes (14- to 18-French [Fr] tubes), dilutions (5 mg/15 mL-25 mg/15 mL), and diluents (deionized water, apple juice, Ketocal, sparkling water) were tested. Area under the curve and Cmax for USL255 beads sprinkled onto applesauce were bioequivalent to the intact capsule (GLSM [90% CI]: AUC0-t 1.01 [0.97-1.04], AUC0-∞ 1.02 [0.98-1.05]; Cmax 1.09 [1.03-1.14]). Median Tmax was 4h earlier for USL255 sprinkled versus the intact capsule (10 vs 14 h; p=0.0018), and t1/2 was similar (84 vs 82 h, respectively). In 14-Fr G-tubes, USL255 beads diluted in Ketocal minimized bead clogging versus deionized water. Recovery of USL255 beads diluted in deionized water was nearly 100% in 16-Fr G-, 18-Fr G-, and 18-Fr J-tubes. For patients with difficulty swallowing pills, USL255 sprinkled onto applesauce offers a useful once-daily option for taking topiramate. USL255 beads were also successfully delivered in vitro through ≥14-Fr G- or J-tubes, with tube clogging minimized by portioning the dose and

  15. Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale: Validation of the Italian Version and Correlation With Breast-feeding at 3 Months.

    PubMed

    Petrozzi, Angela; Gagliardi, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Psychological factors can influence breast-feeding. We translated into Italian and validated the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale Short Form (BSES-SF) and investigated its predictive ability and its relation with postpartum depression symptoms.BSES-SF and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) were administered 2 to 3 days after delivery to 122 mothers. Breast-feeding was assessed at 3 months.The BSES-SF displayed good validity (receiver operating characteristic area = 0.69) for predicting full breast-feeding at 3 months. In multivariate analysis, the probability of full breast-feeding increased 2.4% for 1-point increase of BSES-SF. The BSES-SF and EPDS scores were inversely correlated. BSES-SF is a useful tool to identify the risk of early breast-feeding attrition.

  16. LIFE Delivery Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Anklam, T. M.

    2011-04-20

    The LIFE Delivery Plan describes the path from ignition on NIF to achieving the goal of an operational fusion power plant that demonstrates all the functions and performance characteristics required to underwrite the move to a commercial fleet.

  17. Comparison of Efficacy and Safety of Intramuscular Piroxicam and Tramadol for Post-operative Pain in Patients Undergoing Caesarean Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Thippeswamy, Tejashree; Bengalorkar, Girish M; Mariyappa, Narayanaswamy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Post-caesarean section pain can be both stressful and unfavourable. Effective and rapid reduction of pain facilitates early ambulation and care of the new born. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) and opioids are used for pain relief but they are associated with adverse effects both in the mother and the child. Aim To evaluate efficacy and safety of piroxicam and tramadol in post-caesarean section pain. Materials and Methods Primigravidae who underwent elective caesarean section received either piroxicam 20mg or tramadol 100mg intra-muscularly, following recovery from anaesthesia. Severity of pain was assessed using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and side-effects to study drugs were noted. Rescue analgesic butorphanol 2mg was administered if VAS score was more than four. Patient’s satisfaction score was assessed at 12 hours post-operatively. Results Mean age in piroxicam and tramadol groups were 23.32±3.43 and 22.03±2.0 years respectively. Significant reduction in pain was observed at 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours in both groups (p<0.001). Pain relief was significant at 2, 4 and 8 hours in piroxicam group compared to tramadol. Twenty-one and 12 patients in tramadol and piroxicam groups received rescue analgesic respectively. Sedation and nausea was significantly higher in tramadol group (p<0.001), 46.66% of patients graded their satisfaction score as good and 15% as excellent in piroxicam group. Conclusion Intra-muscular piroxicam was effective in reducing post-caesarean section pain for 24 hours with minimal side-effects compared to tramadol. PMID:28050391

  18. Enteral feedings.

    PubMed

    Chernoff, R

    1980-01-01

    The benefits, equipment used, commercially available sources, and the indications and techniques for administration of enteral nutrients are reviewed. In many malabsorption states, enteral feeding is preferable and parenteral nutrients are seldom indicated. Transitional enteral nutrient support usually is indicated after parenteral nutrient therapy. Enteral tube-feeding formulas should be matched to the patient's needs; formulas using blenderized natural foods or intact isolated nutrients are appropriate for patients with intact gastrointestinal tracts. Patients should be monitored for glucosuria and hyperglycemia, bloating, nausea, dehydration, and renal, hepatic and hematologic status. Formula dilution, and a reduced flow rate or use of continuous-drip feeding, will reduce the incidence of osmotic diarrhea. The effectiveness, low cost and low potential for serious complications make enteral feeding preferable to parenteral nutrient therapy for many patients.

  19. [History of complementary feeding].

    PubMed

    Turck, D

    2010-12-01

    Complementary feeding, which embraces all solid and liquid foods other than breast milk or infant formula, is strongly influenced by cultural, familial and economic factors. For many times, there was a strong taboo on the use of colostrum ("the white blood") during the first week after delivery, sometimes even the first month. Therefore, the newborn baby received complementary foods as gruel, or panada. However, in the Greek civilization, wet nurses were asked by contract to breastfeed exclusively for the first 6 months and to start complementary feeding thereafter. From the sixteenth century onwards, many writers deplored the practice of giving gruel and panada during the first six months before the teeth erupted. In 1921, a Swedish pediatrician, Jundell, reported for the first time that starting complementary feeding at 6 months of age was associated with a better growth and resistance to infections. The recommendation of the World Health Organization to start complementary feeding after a 6-month period of exclusive breastfeeding is often in contradiction with the habits of the populations to propose very early other food sources than breast milk. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. A Process Based Approach to Modeling Hydrogen Sulfide Emissions Across the Air-Surface Interface of Manure from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumsey, I. C.; Aneja, V.

    2009-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are an important concern due to their contribution to odor and their potential to form PMfine. CAFO manure surface emissions occur from barns floors, during waste storage and treatment, and following land application. There is a need for a process based model, which will provide a method for quantifying emissions in different production, management and environmental conditions. A process based air-surface interface mass transfer model with chemical reactions was developed based on theoretical principles and related published information on H2S emissions. Different approaches were used to calculate the three main components of the model: the dissociation constant, the Henry’s law constant, and the overall mass transport coefficient. The dissociation constant was calculated based on thermodynamic principles and was corrected for the ionic strength of the manure. Similarly, the Henry’s law constant was also calculated based on thermodynamic principles. The overall mass transfer coefficient was developed using a previously published air-surface interface mass transport model, which considered the most important properties affecting mass transport to be the diffusivity of H2S in air, the air viscosity, and the air density. These parameters were modeled using dimensional analysis, which identified the variables that needed to be measured to determine the relevant constant and exponents values. By using the previously published study’s model and their measured constant and exponent values, an appropriate overall mass transfer coefficient was developed. Sensitivity analysis of the process based air-surface interface mass transfer model showed predicted fluxes to be most dependent on manure sulfide concentration and manure pH, and to a smaller extent on wind speed and manure temperature. Model predicted fluxes were compared with measured H2S flux and meteorological and physiochemical

  1. Low-head feeding system for thin section castings

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Sabah S.; Kleeb, Thomas R.; Lewis, Thomas W.; McDermott, John F.; Ozgu, Mustafa R.; Padfield, Ralph C.; Rego, Donovan N.; Vassilicos, Achilles

    1990-01-01

    A feed system is provided for conveying molten metal to a thin section caster having mold surfaces moving exclusively in the direction of casting. The feed system has a passage of circular cross section adjacent to one end thereof for receiving molten metal and a rectangular cross section at the delivery end thereof adjacent to the caster. The feed system is designed for supplying molten metal to the caster at low pressure for "closed-pool" type caster operation. The point of highest elevation in the metal flow passage of the feed system is on the upper surface of a transition portion where the cross section changes from circular to rectangular adjacent to the nozzle. The level or height of the high point above the centerline of the nozzle exit is selected so as to be less than the pressure of the metal measured in inches at the nozzle exit. This feature enables the maintenance of positive pressure in the metal within the feed system so that ingress of air into the metal is prevented.

  2. Intracochlear Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Borenstein, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Advances in molecular biology and in the basic understanding of the mechanisms associated with sensorineural hearing loss and other diseases of the inner ear, are paving the way towards new approaches for treatments for millions of patients. However, the cochlea is a particularly challenging target for drug therapy, and new technologies will be required to provide safe and efficacious delivery of these compounds. Emerging delivery systems based on microfluidic technologies are showing promise as a means for direct intracochlear delivery. Ultimately, these systems may serve as a means for extended delivery of regenerative compounds to restore hearing in patients suffering from a host of auditory diseases. Areas covered in this review Recent progress in the development of drug delivery systems capable of direct intracochlear delivery is reviewed, including passive systems such as osmotic pumps, active microfluidic devices, and systems combined with currently available devices such as cochlear implants. The aim of this article is to provide a concise review of intracochlear drug delivery systems currently under development, and ultimately capable of being combined with emerging therapeutic compounds for the treatment of inner ear diseases. Expert Opinion Safe and efficacious treatment of auditory diseases will require the development of microscale delivery devices, capable of extended operation and direct application to the inner ear. These advances will require miniaturization and integration of multiple functions, including drug storage, delivery, power management and sensing, ultimately enabling closed-loop control and timed-sequence delivery devices for treatment of these diseases. PMID:21615213

  3. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast-feed more than one baby? Here's help breast-feeding twins or other multiples, from getting positioned and ensuring an adequate milk supply to combining breast-feeding and formula-feeding. By Mayo Clinic Staff If ...

  4. Environmental and water-quality operational studies. Prey selection and feeding patterns of fish in a Southern United States hydropower tailwater. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barwick, D.; Hudson, P.L.; Nestler, J.M.

    1985-10-01

    The downstream effects of peaking hydropower generation at Lake Hartwell Georgia-South Carolina, on the diel prey selection and feeding of four species of fish-silver redhorse (Moxostoma anisurum), redbreast sunfish (Lepomis auritus), green sunfish (L. cyanellus), and bluegill (L. macrochirus)--were determined. Aquatic insects (primarily dipterans, ephemeropterans, and trichopterans), crayfish, and terrestrial organisms (primarily insects) composed most of the food eaten. These fish fed primarily during daylight, before daily hydropower generation began, and little or no feeding occurred during generation. Consequently, few organisms entrained from the reservoir or displaced from the tailwater during hydropower generation were eaten by these fish.

  5. High efficiency multifrequency feed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajioka, J. S.; Tsuda, G. I.; Leeper, W. A. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Antenna systems and particularly compact and simple antenna feeds which can transmit and receive simultaneously in at least three frequency bands, each with high efficiency and polarization diversity are described. The feed system is applicable for frequency bands having nominal frequency bands with the ratio 1:4:6. By way of example, satellite communications telemetry bands operate in frequency bands 0.8 - 1.0 GHz, 3.7 - 4.2 GHz and 5.9 - 6.4 GHz. In addition, the antenna system of the invention has monopulse capability for reception with circular or diverse polarization at frequency band 1.

  6. Effect of growth promotants on the occurrence of endogenous and synthetic steroid hormones on feedlot soils and in runoff from beef cattle feeding operations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Supplements and growth promotants containing steroid hormones are routinely administered to beef cattle to improve feeding efficiency, reduce behavioral problems, and enhance production. As a result, beef cattle manure will contain both synthetic steroids as well as a range of endogenous steroids i...

  7. Using in situ simulation to identify and resolve latent environmental threats to patient safety: case study involving operational changes in a labor and delivery ward.

    PubMed

    Hamman, William R; Beaudin-Seiler, Beth M; Beaubien, Jeffrey M; Gullickson, Amy M; Orizondo-Korotko, Krystyna; Gross, Amy C; Fuqua, Wayne; Lammers, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Since the publication of "To Err Is Human" in 1999, health care professionals have looked to high-reliability industries such as aviation for guidance on improving system safety. One of the most widely adopted aviation-derived approaches is simulation-based team training, also known as crew resource management training. In the health care domain, crew resource management training often takes place in custom-built simulation laboratories that are designed to replicate operating rooms or labor and delivery rooms. Unlike these traditional crew resource management training programs, "in situ simulation" occurs on actual patient care units, involves actual health care team members, and uses actual organization processes to train and assess team performance. During the past 24 months, our research team has conducted nearly 40 in situ simulations. In this article, we present the results from 1 such simulation: a patient who experienced a difficult labor that resulted in an emergency caesarian section and hysterectomy. During the simulation, a number of latent environmental threats to safety were identified. This article presents the latent threats and the steps that the hospital has taken to remedy them.

  8. Promising practices for delivery of court-supervised substance abuse treatment: Perspectives from six high-performing California counties operating Proposition 36

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Elizabeth; Anglin, M. Douglas; Urada, Darren; Yang, Joy

    2010-01-01

    Operative for nearly a decade, California's voter-initiated Proposition 36 program offers many offenders community-based substance abuse treatment in lieu of likely incarceration. Research has documented program successes and plans for replication have proliferated, yet very little is known about how the Proposition 36 program works or practices for achieving optimal program outcomes. In this article, we identify policies and practices that key stakeholders perceive to be most responsible for the successful delivery of court-supervised substance abuse treatment to offenders under Proposition 36. Data was collected via focus groups conducted with 59 county stakeholders in six high-performing counties during 2009. Discussion was informed by seven empirical indicators of program performance and outcomes and was focused on identifying and describing elements contributing to success. Program success was primarily attributed to four strategies, those that: (1) fostered program engagement, monitored participant progress, and sustained cooperation among participants; (2) cultivated buy-in among key stakeholders; (3) capitalized on the role of the court and the judge; and (4) created a setting which promoted a high-quality treatment system, utilization of existing resources, and broad financial and political support for the program. Goals and practices for implementing each strategy are discussed. Findings provide a “promising practices” resource for Proposition 36 program evaluation and improvement and inform the design and study of other similar types of collaborative justice treatment efforts. PMID:20965568

  9. On-Site Determination and Monitoring of Real-Time Fluence Delivery for an Operating UV Reactor Based on a True Fluence Rate Detector.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengkai; Li, Wentao; Qiang, Zhimin; Blatchley, Ernest R

    2017-07-18

    At present, on-site fluence (distribution) determination and monitoring of an operating UV system represent a considerable challenge. The recently developed microfluorescent silica detector (MFSD) is able to measure the approximate true fluence rate (FR) at a fixed position in a UV reactor that can be compared with a FR model directly. Hence it has provided a connection between model calculation and real-time fluence determination. In this study, an on-site determination and monitoring method of fluence delivery for an operating UV reactor was developed. True FR detectors, a UV transmittance (UVT) meter, and a flow rate meter were used for fundamental measurements. The fluence distribution, as well as reduction equivalent fluence (REF), 10th percentile dose in the UV fluence distribution (F10), minimum fluence (Fmin), and mean fluence (Fmean) of a test reactor, was calculated in advance by the combined use of computational fluid dynamics and FR field modeling. A field test was carried out on the test reactor for disinfection of a secondary water supply. The estimated real-time REF, F10, Fmin, and Fmean decreased 73.6%, 71.4%, 69.6%, and 72.9%, respectively, during a 6-month period, which was attributable to lamp output attenuation and sleeve fouling. The results were analyzed with synchronous data from a previously developed triparameter UV monitoring system and water temperature sensor. This study allowed demonstration of an accurate method for on-site, real-time fluence determination which could be used to enhance the security and public confidence of UV-based water treatment processes.

  10. Bolus vs. continuous feeding to optimize anabolism in neonates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Neonates with feeding difficulties can be fed by orogastric tube, using either continuous or bolus delivery. This review reports on recent findings that bolus is advantageous compared to continuous feeding in supporting optimal protein anabolism. Whether bolus or continuous feeding is more beneficia...

  11. 29 CFR 780.214 - Feed sales and other activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Feed sales and other activities. 780.214 Section 780.214... Agriculture as It Relates to Specific Situations Hatchery Operations § 780.214 Feed sales and other activities. In some situations, the hatchery also operates a feed store and furnishes feed to the growers. As in...

  12. Intermittent bolus feeding has a greater stimulatory effect on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle than continuous feeding in neonatal pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Feeding by orogastric tube, using either continuous or intermittent bolus delivery, is common for infants for whom normal feeding is contraindicated. To determine the impact of different feeding modalities on muscle protein anabolism, neonatal pigs (5–7 day old) received a balanced enteral formula e...

  13. Intermittent bolus feeding has a greater stimulatory effect on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle than continuous feeding in neonatal pigs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Orogastric tube feeding, using either continuous or intermittent bolus delivery, is common in infants for whom normal feeding is contraindicated. To compare the impact of different feeding strategies on muscle protein synthesis, after withholding food overnight, neonatal pigs received a complete for...

  14. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  15. Breast Feeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on breast-feeding. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, academics and professionals, health personnel and educators, and policy-makers. The contents cover health-related differences between breast and bottle milk; patterns of…

  16. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  17. Delivery presentations

    MedlinePlus

    ... passage will take place depends on how your baby is positioned during delivery. The best position for the baby to be ... possible, but labor will generally take longer. After delivery, the baby's face or brow will be swollen and may ...

  18. Forceps Delivery

    MedlinePlus

    ... is typically done during a contraction while the mother pushes. Your health care provider might recommend a ... delivery poses a risk of injury for both mother and baby. If a forceps delivery fails, a ...

  19. Short communication: Diurnal feeding pattern of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    DeVries, T J; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Beauchemin, K A

    2003-12-01

    The objectives of this research were to: 1) describe the diurnal variation in feed alley attendance patterns of lactating dairy cows, 2) describe the sources of variation in these patterns, and 3) determine the effects of altering the feed push-up schedule on these patterns. An electronic monitoring system was used to record individual cow presence (6-s resolution) at the feed alley for 24 cows housed in a free-stall barn. Cows were subjected to 2 feeding schedules: 1) baseline schedule, where cows were fed at 0600 and 1515 h and feed was pushed closer to the cows at 1100 and 2130 h; and 2) experimental schedule, where 2 additional feed push-ups at 0030 and 0330 h were added to the baseline schedule. With the data collected from the monitoring system, description of the feed alley attendance patterns on a per minute basis of the group of cows was undertaken. Feed alley attendance was consistently higher during the day and early evening compared with the late night and early morning hours. The greatest percentage of cows attending the feed alley was seen after the delivery of fresh feed and the return from milking. The addition of extra feed push-ups in the early morning hours did little to increase feeding activity. It can be concluded that milking and delivery of fresh feed had a much greater affect on the diurnal pattern of feed alley attendance than did the feed push-ups.

  20. Ground-water quality and effects of poultry confined animal feeding operations on shallow ground water, upper Shoal Creek basin, Southwest Missouri, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mugel, Douglas N.

    2002-01-01

    Forty-seven wells and 8 springs were sampled in May, October, and November 2000 in the upper Shoal Creek Basin, southwest Missouri, to determine if nutrient concentrations and fecal bacteria densities are increasing in the shallow aquifer as a result of poultry confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Most of the land use in the basin is agricultural, with cattle and hay production dominating; the number of poultry CAFOs has increased in recent years. Poultry waste (litter) is used as a source of nutrients on pasture land as much as several miles away from poultry barns.Most wells in the sample network were classified as ?P? wells, which were open only or mostly to the Springfield Plateau aquifer and where poultry litter was applied to a substantial acreage within 0.5 mile of the well both in spring 2000 and in several previous years; and ?Ag? wells, which were open only or mostly to the Springfield Plateau aquifer and which had limited or no association with poultry CAFOs. Water-quality data from wells and springs were grouped for statistical purposes as P1, Ag1, and Sp1 (May 2000 samples) and P2, Ag2, and Sp2 (October or November 2000 samples). The results of this study do not indicate that poultry CAFOs are affecting the shallow ground water in the upper Shoal Creek Basin with respect to nutrient concentrations and fecal bacteria densities. Statistical tests do not indicate that P wells sampled in spring 2000 have statistically larger concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate or fecal indicator bacteria densities than Ag wells sampled during the same time, at a 95-percent confidence level. Instead, the Ag wells had statistically larger concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate and fecal coliform bacteria densities than the P wells.The results of this study do not indicate seasonal variations from spring 2000 to fall 2000 in the concentrations of nutrients or fecal indicator bacteria densities from well samples. Statistical tests do not indicate statistically

  1. Breast feeding patterns in a military hospital.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad; Quddusi, Ahmed Iqbal; Iqbal, Mudassir; Sultan, Mehboob

    2006-02-01

    To determine the status of breast feeding, exclusive breast feeding and other feeding patterns in infants upto 12 months age. Cross- sectional study. Paediatrics Department and Immunization Center, Combined Military Hospital, Multan, from October 2004 to March 2005. This study was based on "current status analysis method" to eliminate the bias of recall method used in most previous studies. Mothers of 650 infants from 0-12 months of age, attending immunization centre and paediatrics OPD, were interviewed about current feeding patterns and other socioeconomic variables. They were divided in three groups depending upon their monthly income. Living conditions matched with monthly income status in all groups. Month-wise distribution of feeding pattern was determined. Analysis was made about the effect of education of mothers, family income, place and mode of delivery, gender of the baby on exclusive breast feeding, duration of breast feeding and initiation of breast feeding. Statistical analysis of the results was made by application of Parson's Chi-square test. Breast feeding was maintained at high level (more than 88%) throughout infancy. Exclusive breast feeding was also maintained at quite high level (66%) till 4 month age. But later there was a sharp decline to 16% at six months of age. The median duration of exclusive breast feeding was 3 months. Mothers with lesser education and lower family income were more likely to exclusively breast feed (p < 0.001). The time interval between birth and first feed observed was quite desirable (less than 3 hours) in most cases. Only 14% infants received pre-lacteal feeds (ghutti, honey, water etc.), while majority of them (59%) received breast milk. Formula milk was first feed in only 25% cases. Breast milk as first and early feed was observed more in babies born by normal delivery in hospital (p < 0.001). Status of breast feeding, exclusive breast feeding and other feeding practices was quite encouraging and desirable in this

  2. Delivery of the Obese Gravida.

    PubMed

    Faucett, Allison M; Metz, Torri D

    2016-03-01

    Obesity in pregnancy confers morbidity to both the mother and neonate. Obese women are at increased risk of cesarean delivery, operative vaginal delivery, and failed trial of labor after cesarean delivery. In addition to impacting the mode of delivery, obesity is associated with hemorrhage, infection, and thromboembolic complications in the peripartum period. The risk of these complications increases with increasing maternal body mass index. In this chapter, we discuss evidence-based strategies to mitigate these risks and to manage complications that occur at the time of delivery in obese parturients.

  3. 14 CFR 121.227 - Pressure cross-feed arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pressure cross-feed arrangements. 121.227... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING... cross-feed arrangements. (a) Pressure cross-feed lines may not pass through parts of the airplane used...

  4. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 5): Feed Materials Production Center, (USDOE) operable unit 5, AKA Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Hamilton County, OH, January 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 5 of the FEMP site in Hamilton and Butler Counties, Ohio. Operable Unit 5 consists of impacted environmental media including groundwater in the underlying Great Miami Aquifer, perched groundwater, surface water, soil, sediment, flora, and fauna.

  5. Duration of breast-feeding in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Giashuddin, M S; Kabir, M

    2004-06-01

    The duration of exclusive breast-feeding in Bangladesh is low. Though several studies have been carried out on breast-feeding in Bangladesh, the factors influencing the duration of breast-feeding are not studied. The purpose of this study was to assess the duration of breast-feeding among children in Bangladesh and to study socio-economic and demographic factors affecting the duration. The study included 5068 mother-child pairs, selected on the basis of Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey (BDHS) of 1999-2000. The risk of giving supplementary food at different ages was estimated by life table survival method. Independent effects of total duration of breast-feeding of each of the study variables were estimated by using Cox's regression model. The median duration of full breast-feeding was 3.67 months whereas mean and median durations of total breast-feeding was 31.3 and 30 months respectively. Life table analysis showed that 69.9 per cent women gave supplementary food to their babies before reaching six months of age. Cox's regression analysis revealed that women who had lived in rural areas were less likely to terminate breast-feeding than those living in urban areas. Women who had completed at least secondary education were more likely to stop breast-feeding than less or uneducated mothers. Children born in high economic status families had higher risk of stopping breast-feeding compared to those in low economic status families. Further, the deliveries assisted by the relatives had lower risk of terminating breastfeeding than by the health professionals. According to the study results, women with higher education, high economic level, lower birth interval and delivery assisted by health personnel had lower duration of breastfeeding. Future breast-feeding programme in Bangladesh should give special attention to these women since they breast-feed relatively shorter periods of time.

  6. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals.

  7. Effect of milk feeding level on development of feeding behavior in dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    Evidence exists that early life experiences may influence development of characteristic feeding patterns in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of milk feeding level on performance and development of feeding patterns in dairy calves. Twenty Holstein bull calves were assigned at birth to a milk replacer feeding level, fed via a teat: (1) ad libitum (ADL) or (2) restricted feeding at 5 L/d (0.75 kg of milk replacer) in 2 feedings/d (RES). All calves were offered concentrate ad libitum during the milk feeding stage. Calves were weaned gradually during wk 7 and then fed a pelleted diet ad libitum for 7 wk. Calves were weighed 2 times/wk. Feed and milk intakes were recorded daily. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 5 d in each of wk 3, 6, 8, 11, and 14. Calves fed ADL consumed 2.6 times more milk, had greater weight gain (1.2 vs. 0.6 kg/d), and consumed less solid feed (45.2 vs. 98.0 g/d) during the milk feeding period than did calves fed RES. As expected, providing milk ADL resulted in more frequent meals (in wk 6, 7.1 vs. 2.0) and more evenly distributed diurnal patterns of feeding activity compared with the RES milk level. When considering all sucking bouts (milk feeding and nonnutritive sucking), no difference was observed between treatments in daily bout frequency or sucking time/bout. Postweaning, calves fed RES had initially greater rate of intake (24.9 vs. 17.8 g/min) and meal size (160.8 vs. 117.2 g/meal). Diurnal feeding patterns also differed in the first week after weaning, with ADL calves feeding less continuously at the time of feed delivery. Meal characteristics and diurnal patterns of feeding activity were similar between calves by the end of the trial. However, milk feeding level had a longer-term effect on variability in feeding behavior, with calves fed RES having greater day-to-day variability in feeding time and meal size. Variability of meal characteristics also decreased over time across treatments

  8. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  9. Multiple feed powder splitter

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  10. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 5): Feed Materials Production Center, (USDOE), Operable Unit 2, Fernald, Hamilton County, OH, June 8, 1995. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for Operable Unit 2 at the U.S. Department of Energy FEMP site in Fernald, Ohio. Operable Unit 2 consists of the Solid Waste Landfill, the North and South Lime Sludge Ponds, the South Field, the Inactive and Active Flyash Piles, and berms, liners, and soils within the Operable Unit 2 boundaries. The selected remedy for Operable unit 2 includes excavation of all material with contaminants of concern above the established cleanup levels, material processing for size reduction and moisture control if required, on-site disposal in an engineered disposal facility with a composite cap and liner system, and off-site disposal of a small fraction of the excavated material that exceeds the waste acceptance criteria of the on-site disposal facility.

  11. Low Activity Waste Feed Process Control Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  12. Enteral nutrition by tube feeding in adults.

    PubMed

    Mohandas, K M; Shastri, Y M; Shirodkar, M

    2001-01-01

    Patients who cannot eat enough require alternatives to oral feeding. Tube feeding is one such method for patients with a functioning gut. The techniques for the placement of feeding tubes and diets for tube feeding have improved during the past 20 years. Comfortable thin-bore polyurethane tubes are replacing the thicker vinyl tubes. Long term access routes such as gastrostomy and jejunostomy are being done by endoscopic or radiological techniques. Pre-defined formula feeds have reduced the effort and labour involved in the preparation, storage and administration of blenderized tube feeds. However, the use of soft feeding tubes and commercial formulae will increase the cost of nutrition therapy in India. The ultimate cost-effectiveness of tube feeding will depend on whether it is used appropriately during an illness with adequate delivery of feeds, and whether attention is given to small details by a dedicated nutritional support team. A strong commitment to the scientific use of nutritional support is necessary for getting the best results from tube feeding in everyday practice.

  13. Mechanisms for Nitrogen Oxide Formation during Ensiling of Dairy Feeds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Silage (ensiled feed), as a dairy’s greatest operational cost, is its most critical feed commodity. Ensiling is the process of converting entire harvested feed plants such as corn, sorghum, or alfalfa into fermented, stable anaerobic animal feed (i.e., silage). The continued use...

  14. Mechanisms for Nitrogen Oxide Formation during Ensiling of Dairy Feeds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Silage (ensiled feed), as a dairy’s greatest operational cost, is its most critical feed commodity. Ensiling is the process of converting entire harvested feed plants such as corn, sorghum, or alfalfa into fermented, stable anaerobic animal feed (i.e., silage). The continued use...

  15. Performance tests of R-22 and R-32/R-125/R-134a mixture for baseline air conditioning and liquid over-feeding operations

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Chen, D.T.; HuangFu, E.P.

    1995-12-31

    Much experimental and theoretical analysis of potential R-22 replacements has been accomplished. However, published information regarding the experimental analysis of any off-the-shelf air conditioners with a potential R-22 replacement at realistic operating conditions is still rare. This type of work could be useful because it would provide baseline data for comparing the performance of R-22 and its potential replacement at drop-in conditions. In this study, an off-the-shelf window air conditioners was tested at Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI)-rated indoor conditions and at different ambient temperatures, include the ARI-rated outdoor condition, with R-22 and with its potential replacement, a ternary mixture of R-32(30%)/R-125(10%)/R-134a(60%) (the ternary mixture). A test rig was built that provided for baseline operation and for the option of operating the system with a flooded evaporator by means of liquid overfeeding (LOF). The test results indicated that the cooling capacity of the ternary mixture was 7.7% less than that of R-22 at 95 F ambient for baseline operation. The cooling capacity for both refrigerants improved when a flooded evaporator, or LOF, was used. For LOF operation, the cooling capacity of the ternary mixture was only 1.1% less than that of R-22. The ternary mixture had slightly higher compressor discharge pressure, a lower compressor discharge temperature, slightly lower compressor power consumption, and a higher compressor high/low pressure ratio.

  16. HIGH-LEVEL WASTE FEED CERTIFICATION IN HANFORD DOUBLE-SHELL TANKS

    SciTech Connect

    THIEN MG; WELLS BE; ADAMSON DJ

    2010-01-14

    The ability to effectively mix, sample, certify, and deliver consistent batches of High Level Waste (HLW) feed from the Hanford Double Shell Tanks (DST) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) presents a significant mission risk with potential to impact mission length and the quantity of HLW glass produced. DOE's River Protection Project (RPP) mission modeling and WTP facility modeling assume that individual 3785 cubic meter (l million gallon) HLW feed tanks are homogenously mixed, representatively sampled, and consistently delivered to the WTP. It has been demonstrated that homogenous mixing ofHLW sludge in Hanford DSTs is not likely achievable with the baseline design thereby causing representative sampling and consistent feed delivery to be more difficult. Inconsistent feed to the WTP could cause additional batch-to-batch operational adjustments that reduce operating efficiency and have the potential to increase the overall mission length. The Hanford mixing and sampling demonstration program will identify DST mixing performance capability, will evaluate representative sampling techniques, and will estimate feed batch consistency. An evaluation of demonstration program results will identify potential mission improvement considerations that will help ensure successful mission completion. This paper will discuss the history, progress, and future activities that will define and mitigate the mission risk.

  17. Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis of mobile harvesting equipment and sediment delivery to streams during forest harvest operations on steep terrain: Experimental design

    Treesearch

    Daniel Bowker; Jeff Stringer; Chris Barton; Songlin. Fei

    2011-01-01

    Sediment mobilized by forest harvest machine traffic contributes substantially to the degradation of headwater stream systems. This study monitored forest harvest machine traffic to analyze how it affects sediment delivery to stream channels. Harvest machines were outfitted with global positioning system (GPS) dataloggers, recording machine movements and working status...

  18. Colostrum feeding behaviour and initiation of breast-feeding in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Holman, D J; Grimes, M A

    2001-01-01

    Human breast milk is primarily colostrum immediately following birth. Colostrum gradually changes to mature milk over the next several days. The role of colostrum in fighting infections and promoting growth and development of the newborn is widely acknowledged. This role is mediated by differences across cultures in the acceptability of colostrum and the prevalence of colostrum feeding. This study examined the prevalence of colostrum feeding and time to initiation of breast-feeding in 143 rural Bangladeshi women in Matlab thana. Structured interviews were collected during a 9-month prospective study conducted in 1993. Women were usually interviewed within 4 days of giving birth and were asked about whether or not they fed their child colostrum and the number of hours until they began breast-feeding the baby. Ninety per cent of the mothers reported feeding their newborn colostrum. A logistic regression found no effect on the prevalence of colostrum feeding from the following covariates: mother's age, parity, history of pregnancy loss, child's sex, mother's self-report of delivery complications, and the time from birth to interview. Fifty-nine per cent of mothers initiated breast-feeding within 4 h, and 88% within 12 h of parturition. Survival analysis was used to estimate the effects of covariates on the time from delivery to initial breast-feeding. Time to initial breast-feeding was delayed slightly, but significantly, for older mothers, for male infants, and by mothers who did not report delivery complications. The percentage of mothers who fed their child colostrum was higher, and times to initial breast-feeding were shorter, than almost all previous reports from South Asia. These findings might be explained, in part, by methodological differences among studies, but it is suggested that recent changes towards earlier initiation of breast-feeding have taken place in rural Bangladesh.

  19. Enteral feeding pumps: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability

    PubMed Central

    White, Helen; King, Linsey

    2014-01-01

    Enteral feeding is a long established practice across pediatric and adult populations, to enhance nutritional intake and prevent malnutrition. Despite recognition of the importance of nutrition within the modern health agenda, evaluation of the efficacy of how such feeds are delivered is more limited. The accuracy, safety, and consistency with which enteral feed pump systems dispense nutritional formulae are important determinants of their use and acceptability. Enteral feed pump safety has received increased interest in recent years as enteral pumps are used across hospital and home settings. Four areas of enteral feed pump safety have emerged: the consistent and accurate delivery of formula; the minimization of errors associated with tube misconnection; the impact of continuous feed delivery itself (via an enteral feed pump); and the chemical composition of the casing used in enteral feed pump manufacture. The daily use of pumps in delivery of enteral feeds in a home setting predominantly falls to the hands of parents and caregivers. Their understanding of the use and function of their pump is necessary to ensure appropriate, safe, and accurate delivery of enteral nutrition; their experience with this is important in informing clinicians and manufacturers of the emerging needs and requirements of this diverse patient population. The review highlights current practice and areas of concern and establishes our current knowledge in this field. PMID:25170284

  20. Enteral feeding pumps: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability.

    PubMed

    White, Helen; King, Linsey

    2014-01-01

    Enteral feeding is a long established practice across pediatric and adult populations, to enhance nutritional intake and prevent malnutrition. Despite recognition of the importance of nutrition within the modern health agenda, evaluation of the efficacy of how such feeds are delivered is more limited. The accuracy, safety, and consistency with which enteral feed pump systems dispense nutritional formulae are important determinants of their use and acceptability. Enteral feed pump safety has received increased interest in recent years as enteral pumps are used across hospital and home settings. Four areas of enteral feed pump safety have emerged: the consistent and accurate delivery of formula; the minimization of errors associated with tube misconnection; the impact of continuous feed delivery itself (via an enteral feed pump); and the chemical composition of the casing used in enteral feed pump manufacture. The daily use of pumps in delivery of enteral feeds in a home setting predominantly falls to the hands of parents and caregivers. Their understanding of the use and function of their pump is necessary to ensure appropriate, safe, and accurate delivery of enteral nutrition; their experience with this is important in informing clinicians and manufacturers of the emerging needs and requirements of this diverse patient population. The review highlights current practice and areas of concern and establishes our current knowledge in this field.

  1. Feed Materials Production Center. Final phase-in report volume 1 of 15 operations and maintenance, October 25, 1985--December 31, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, W.H.

    1986-01-17

    The basic purpose of the transition program in the operations area was to obtain a detailed understanding of the FMPC operations with emphasis on equipment and organization, Also considered in this evaluation were several extant conditions at FMPC which may have significant impact on initiatives adopted in the operations area. These conditions are as follows: capital expenditures over the last several years averaged less than 20% of what might be considered minimum to sustain such a facility in a good operating condition; the production load is ramping up placing greater demands on an old facility; the workforce is relatively inexperienced (68% with less than five (5) years) at FMPC; plans are in place to institute major upgrading of FMPC facilities; the RFP described the need for a major effort in the Environment, Safety and Health Area. Considering the above concerns, the transition program was focused in the following areas: Procedures - An inexperienced workforce operating in an atmosphere requiring rigid compliance with more rigorous environmental criteria necessitates clear, concise up-to-date procedures to enhance performance; Training - New equipment, new people and rigorous environmental constraints demand an aggressive, focused training program. Equipment - Site conditions are not conducive to reliable equipment performance. Specific knowledge of forecasted equipment performance is imperative to control the present and plan the future. Restoration - The massive planned expenditures must be well understood to ensure that the future production needs are satisfied and that priorities are aligned with need. Maintenance - Based on the site descriptions provided in the RFP, it was clear that the past maintenance practice has been reactive. The facility upgrade program, to be successful, must be complemented by an agressively managed maintenance program.

  2. [Complications of cesarean deliveries].

    PubMed

    Valgeirsdottir, Heiddis; Hardardottir, Hildur; Bjarnadottir, Ragnheidur I

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the rate of complications which accompany cesarean sections at Landspitali University Hospital (LSH). All deliveries by cesarean section from July 1st 2001 to December 31st 2002 were examined in a retrospective manner. Information was collected from maternity records regarding the operation and its complications if they occurred, during or following the operation. During this period 761 women delivered by cesarean section at LSH. The overall complication rate was 35,5%. The most common complications were; blood loss > or =1000 ml (16.5%), post operative fever (12.2%), extension from the uterine incision (7.2%) and need for blood transfusion (4.3%). Blood transfusion was most common in women undergoing cesarean section after attempted instrumental vaginal delivery (20%). Fever and extension from the uterine incision were most common in women undergoing cesarean section after full cervical dilation without attempt of instrumental delivery (19,4%). These complications were least likely to occur if the patient underwent an elective cesarean section. Complications following cesarean section are common, especially if labor is advanced. Each indication for an operative delivery should be carefully weighed and the patient informed accordingly.

  3. Increased risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension and operative delivery after conception induced by in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection in women aged 40 years and older.

    PubMed

    Toshimitsu, Masatake; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Nagasaka, Takaaki; Iwasawa-Kawai, Yuki; Komatsu, Atsushi; Yamashita, Takahiro; Osuga, Yutaka; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2014-10-01

    To clarify the association between preconception fertility status and obstetric outcomes in women aged 40 years and older. Retrospective study by reviewing medical records. Tertiary perinatal center in a university hospital. 330 women aged 40 years and older who delivered a singleton from 2006 to 2010, and 450 women aged 30 to 34 years who delivered at the same facility as controls. None. Incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm birth, low birth weight, and mode of delivery assessed based on the mode of conception; spontaneous conception (SC) and in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection conception (IVF-ICSI). The incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension was statistically significantly higher in IVF-ICSI group than the SC group. This gap was commonly observed in both the women aged 40 years and older and those in the 30 to 34 age group. No statistically significant difference was observed in the frequency of gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm birth, or low birth weight. As a characteristic of nulliparous women of advanced age, the rate of operative delivery, which includes emergency cesarean section and instrumental delivery, was statistically significantly higher in IVF-ICSI group than in the SC group. Detailed investigation into the medical indications for operative delivery revealed that the difference was attributable to the elevated incidence of labor protraction and arrest. Preconception fertility status can be a predicting factor of the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension and labor outcome, especially for women aged 40 years and older. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of an algorithm for feed-forward chlorine dosing of lettuce wash operations and correlation of chlorine profile with Escherichia coli O157:H7 inactivation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Luo, Yaguang; Nou, Xiangwu; Millner, Patricia

    2014-04-01

    The dynamic interactions of chlorine and organic matter during a simulated fresh-cut produce wash process and the consequences for Escherichia coli O157:H7 inactivation were investigated. An algorithm for a chlorine feed-forward dosing scheme to maintain a stable chlorine level was further developed and validated. Organic loads with chemical oxygen demand of 300 to 800 mg/liter were modeled using iceberg lettuce. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) was added to the simulated wash solution incrementally. The solution pH, free and total chlorine, and oxidation-reduction potential were monitored, and chlorination breakpoint and chloramine humps determined. The results indicated that the E. coli O157:H7 inactivation curve mirrored that of the free chlorine during the chlorine replenishment process: a slight reduction in E. coli O157:H7 was observed as the combined chlorine hump was approached, while the E. coli O157:H7 cell populations declined sharply after chlorination passed the chlorine hump and decreased to below the detection limit (<0.75 most probable number per ml) after the chlorination breakpoint was reached. While the amounts of NaOCl required for reaching the chloramine humps and chlorination breakpoints depended on the organic loads, there was a linear correlation between NaOCl input and free chlorine in the wash solution once NaOCl dosing passed the chlorination breakpoint, regardless of organic load. The data obtained were further exploited to develop a NaOCl dosing algorithm for maintaining a stable chlorine concentration in the presence of an increasing organic load. The validation tests results indicated that free chlorine could be maintained at target levels using such an algorithm, while the pH and oxidation-reduction potential were also stably maintained using this system.

  5. Recurrent postpartum anaphylaxis with breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Shank, Jessica J; Olney, Stacey C; Lin, Fang L; McNamara, Michael F

    2009-08-01

    Anaphylaxis associated with breast-feeding is a rare but potentially life-threatening event. This woman reported anaphylaxis with three previous pregnancies while breast-feeding. With her fourth pregnancy she was treated with corticosteroids and antihistamines after delivery. Despite treatment, she developed urticaria, facial edema, and throat tightening, less severe than prior episodes. Her symptoms resolved with epinephrine and antihistamine but recurred with subsequent breast-feeding. On postpartum day 4 she had no symptoms while breast-feeding. Three cases of postpartum breast-feeding anaphylaxis have been reported. Although the pathophysiology is unclear, it may involve the decrease in progesterone and rise of prolactin causing mast cell degranulation. Avoidance of nonsteroidal antiinflammatories and prophylaxis with corticosteroids and antihistamines may offer the best protection.

  6. Factors influencing breast-feeding among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Neifert, M; Gray, J; Gary, N; Camp, B

    1988-11-01

    During a 15-month study period, 244 adolescent mothers under 18 years of age were surveyed, of whom 53% elected to breast-feed. A subset of 60 primiparous breast-feeding adolescents were studied regarding the influence of several factors on the duration of breast-feeding. An attitude questionnaire was administered in the hospital within 48 hours of delivery. Follow-up interviews were obtained by telephone or in person at approximately 2 weeks and 2 months after birth. Eighty-three percent made the decision to breast-feed before the third trimester. Thirty-five percent discontinued breast-feeding within the first postpartum month, the most common reason being "nipple confusion" in the infant; 22% nursed for more than 1 month but less than 2 months, and 43% breast-fed for 2 months or more. None of the variables examined (maternal age, ethnic group, education level, involvement of the baby's father, timing of the breast-feeding decision, intended duration of breast-feeding, age at which formula supplementation was started, or availability of maternal support) was predictive of the duration of breast-feeding. Contrary to adolescent stereotypes, 65% of mothers chose breast-feeding because it was "good for the baby," and 67% identified the "closeness" of the nursing relationship as the most enjoyable part of breast-feeding. Twenty-eight percent cited modesty issues about breast-feeding as the greatest disadvantage, and 17% returned to work or school within the first 2 postpartum months, posing additional obstacles to breast-feeding. Our data suggest that adolescents are receptive to breast-feeding, but they may require close follow-up and anticipatory guidance tailored to their individual needs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. 14 CFR 125.125 - Pressure cross-feed arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pressure cross-feed arrangements. 125.125... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION... Requirements § 125.125 Pressure cross-feed arrangements. (a) Pressure cross-feed lines may not pass through...

  8. Risk-adjusted operative delivery rates and maternal-neonatal outcomes as measures of quality assessment in obstetric care: a multicenter prospective study.

    PubMed

    Maso, Gianpaolo; Monasta, Lorenzo; Piccoli, Monica; Ronfani, Luca; Montico, Marcella; De Seta, Francesco; Parolin, Sara; Businelli, Caterina; Travan, Laura; Alberico, Salvatore

    2015-02-05

    Although the evaluation of caesarean delivery rates has been suggested as one of the most important indicators of quality in obstetrics, it has been criticized because of its controversial ability to capture maternal and neonatal outcomes. In an "ideal" process of labor and delivery auditing, both caesarean (CD) and assisted vaginal delivery (AVD) rates should be considered because both of them may be associated with an increased risk of complications. The aim of our study was to evaluate maternal and neonatal outcomes according to the outlier status for case-mix adjusted CD and AVD rates in the same obstetric population. Standardized data on 15,189 deliveries from 11 centers were prospectively collected. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the risk-adjusted probability of a woman in each center having an AVD or a CD. Centers were classified as "above", "below", or "within" the expected rates by considering the observed-to-expected rates and the 95% confidence interval around the ratio. Adjusted maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared among the three groupings. Centers classified as "above" or "below" the expected CD rates had, in both cases, higher adjusted incidence of composite maternal (2.97%, 4.69%, 3.90% for "within", "above" and "below", respectively; p = 0.000) and neonatal complications (3.85%, 9.66%, 6.29% for "within", "above" and "below", respectively; p = 0.000) than centers "within" CD expected rates. Centers with AVD rates above and below the expected showed poorer and better composite maternal (3.96%, 4.61%, 2.97% for "within", "above" and "below", respectively; p = 0.000) and neonatal (6.52%, 9.77%, 3.52% for "within", "above" and "below", respectively; p = 0.000) outcomes respectively than centers with "within" AVD rates. Both risk-adjusted CD and AVD delivery rates should be considered to assess the level of obstetric care. In this context, both higher and lower-than-expected rates of CD and "above" AVD rates

  9. Vacuum-Assisted Vaginal Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Unzila A; Norwitz, Errol R

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 5% (1 in 20) of all deliveries in the United States are operative vaginal deliveries. The past 20 years have seen a progressive shift away from the use of forceps in favor of the vacuum extractor as the instrument of choice. This article reviews in detail the indications, contraindications, patient selection criteria, choice of instrument, and technique for vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery. The use of vacuum extraction at the time of cesarean delivery will also be discussed. With vacuum extraction becoming increasingly popular, it is important that obstetric care providers are aware of the maternal and neonatal risks associated with such deliveries and of the options available to effect a safe and expedient delivery. PMID:19399290

  10. Association between community socioeconomic factors, animal feeding operations, and campylobacteriosis incidence rates: Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), 2004-2010.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg Goldstein, Rachel E; Cruz-Cano, Raul; Jiang, Chengsheng; Palmer, Amanda; Blythe, David; Ryan, Patricia; Hogan, Brenna; White, Benjamin; Dunn, John R; Libby, Tanya; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Huang, Jennifer Y; McGuire, Suzanne; Scherzinger, Karen; Lee, Mei-Ling Ting; Sapkota, Amy R

    2016-07-22

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States. Campylobacter infections have been associated with individual risk factors, such as the consumption of poultry and raw milk. Recently, a Maryland-based study identified community socioeconomic and environmental factors that are also associated with campylobacteriosis rates. However, no previous studies have evaluated the association between community risk factors and campylobacteriosis rates across multiple U.S. states. We obtained Campylobacter case data (2004-2010; n = 40,768) from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) and socioeconomic and environmental data from the 2010 Census of Population and Housing, the 2011 American Community Survey, and the 2007 U.S. Census of Agriculture. We linked data by zip code and derived incidence rate ratios using negative binomial regression models. Community socioeconomic and environmental factors were associated with both lower and higher campylobacteriosis rates. Zip codes with higher percentages of African Americans had lower rates of campylobacteriosis (incidence rate ratio [IRR]) = 0.972; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.970,0.974). In Georgia, Maryland, and Tennessee, three leading broiler chicken producing states, zip codes with broiler operations had incidence rates that were 22 % (IRR = 1.22; 95 % CI = 1.03,1.43), 16 % (IRR = 1.16; 95 % CI = 0.99,1.37), and 35 % (IRR = 1.35; 95 % CI = 1.18,1.53) higher, respectively, than those of zip codes without broiler operations. In Minnesota and New York FoodNet counties, two top dairy producing areas, zip codes with dairy operations had significantly higher campylobacteriosis incidence rates (IRR = 1.37; 95 % CI = 1.22, 1.55; IRR = 1.19; 95 % CI = 1.04,1.36). Community socioeconomic and environmental factors are important to consider when evaluating the relationship between possible risk factors and Campylobacter infection.

  11. Low-level waste feed staging plan

    SciTech Connect

    Certa, P.J.; Grams, W.H.; McConville, C.M.; L. W. Shelton, L.W.; Slaathaug, E.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-12

    The `Preliminary Low-Level Waste Feed Staging Plan` was updated to reflect the latest requirement in the Tank Waste Remediation Privatization Request for Proposals (RFP) and amendments. The updated plan develops the sequence and transfer schedule for retrieval of DST supernate by the management and integration contractor and delivery of the staged supernate to the private low-activity waste contractors for treatment. Two DSTs are allocated as intermediate staging tanks. A transfer system conflict analysis provides part of the basis for determining transfer system upgrade requirements to support both low-activity and high-level waste feed delivery. The intermediate staging tank architecture and retrieval system equipment are provided as a planning basis until design requirements documents are prepared. The actions needed to successfully implement the plan are identified. These include resolution of safety issues and changes to the feed envelope limits, minimum order quantities, and desired batch sizes.

  12. A Case of Toxic Breast-feeding?

    PubMed

    Schultz, Megan L; Kostic, Mark; Kharasch, Sigmund

    2017-01-06

    Opiates are frequently prescribed postpartum for pain relief after cesarean delivery, episiotomies, and headaches. It is estimated that greater than 30% of breast-feeding mothers in the United States are prescribed opiates for pain relief associated with childbirth. Many opiates are readily transferred to human milk, although life-threatening events are rare. We report a 6-day-old breast-feeding infant whose mother was taking hydromorphone for pain relief from a cesarean delivery and whose clinical course was suggestive of opiate toxicity. This case emphasizes the importance of thorough medication history taking in postpartum breast-feeding mothers whose infants may present with symptoms of opiate toxicity. Semisynthetic opiates are frequently not detected on emergency department urine toxicology screens. The pertinent literature is reviewed.

  13. Water-quality data from ground- and surface-water sites near concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and non-CAFOs in the Shenandoah Valley and eastern shore of Virginia, January-February, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, Karen C.; Monti, Michele M.; Ettinger, Matthew R.

    2005-01-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) result from the consolidation of small farms with animals into larger operations, leading to a higher density of animals per unit of land on CAFOs than on small farms. The density of animals and subsequent concentration of animal wastes potentially can cause contamination of nearby ground and surface waters. This report summarizes water-quality data collected from agricultural sites in the Shenandoah Valley and Eastern Shore of Virginia. Five sites, three non-CAFO and two dairy-operation CAFO sites, were sampled in the Shenandoah Valley. Four sites, one non-CAFO and three poultry-operation CAFO sites were sampled on the Eastern Shore. All samples were collected during January and February 2004. Water samples were analyzed for the following parameters and constituents: temperature, specific conductance, pH, and dissolved oxygen; concentrations of the indicator organisms Escherichia coli (E. coli) and enterococci; bacterial isolates of E. coli, enterococci, Salmonella spp., and Campylobacter spp.; sensitivity to antibiotics of E. coli, enterococci, and Salmonella spp.; arsenic, cadmium, chromium3+, copper, nickel, and mercury; hardness, biological oxygen demand, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, ortho-phosphate, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon, and dissolved organic carbon; and 45 dissolved organic compounds, which included a suite of antibiotic compounds.Data are presented in tables 5-21 and results of analyses of replicate samples are presented in tables 22-28. A summary of the data in tables 5-8 and 18-21 is included in the report.

  14. Effects of Maternal Magnesium Sulfate Treatment on Neonatal Feeding Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Belden, Meghan K; Gnadt, Sarah; Ebert, Ann

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether antenatal exposure to magnesium sulfate has an effect on neonatal enteral feeding tolerance. In this single-center, retrospective, observational study, charts of pregnant women who received intravenous magnesium sulfate infusions prior to delivery between July 1, 2012, and July 31, 2013, were reviewed. Neonates born at 24 weeks' gestational age or greater admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) whose mothers received magnesium sulfate infusions prior to delivery were included. Neonates with independent factors that could lead to feeding intolerance were excluded. The primary outcome was incidence of neonatal enteral feeding intolerance measured by deviations from the NICU feeding protocol. Secondary outcomes included days on parenteral nutrition, incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis, time to first stool, and urine output in the first 72 hours of life. Cumulative maternal magnesium sulfate dose was significantly higher in the enteral feeding intolerance group than those infants who tolerated enteral feeds (70.4 ± 52.3 vs 47.4 ± 40.1 g; p = 0.04). Infants exposed to more than 80 g of maternal magnesium sulfate therapy were more likely to develop enteral feeding intolerance (44% vs 22%; p = 0.04). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that prematurity and cumulative maternal magnesium sulfate dose were the strongest predictors of neonatal enteral feeding intolerance. Infants of mothers who received more than 80 g of intravenous magnesium sulfate prior to delivery were more likely to develop feeding intolerance. Prematurity also was a significant predictor of intolerance.

  15. 7 CFR 205.237 - Livestock feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.237 Livestock feed. (a) The producer of an organic livestock operation must provide livestock with a total feed ration...

  16. Use of radioimmunoassay as a screen for antibiotics in confined animal feeding operations and confirmation by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, M.T.; Bumgarner, J.E.; Varns, J.L.; Daughtridge, J.V.; Thurman, E.M.; Hostetler, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    Approximately one-half of the 50 000000 lb of antibiotics produced in the USA are used in agriculture. Because of the intensive use of antibiotics in the management of confined livestock operations, the potential exists for the transport of these compounds and their metabolites into our nation's water resources. A commercially available radioimmunoassay method, developed as a screen for tetracycline antibiotics in serum, urine, milk, and tissue, was adapted to analyze water samples at a detection level of approximately 1.0 ppb and a semiquantitative analytical range of 1-20 ppb. Liquid waste samples were obtained from 13 hog lagoons in three states and 52 surface- and ground-water samples were obtained primarily from areas associated with intensive swine and poultry production in seven states. These samples were screened for the tetracycline antibiotics by using the modified radioimmunoassay screening method. The radioimmunoassay tests yielded positive results for tetracycline antibiotics in samples from all 13 of the hog lagoons. Dilutions of 10-100-fold of the hog lagoon samples indicated that tetracycline antibiotic concentrations ranged from approximately 5 to several hundred parts per billion in liquid hog lagoon waste. Of the 52 surface- and ground-water samples collected all but two tested negative and these two samples contained tetracycline antibiotic concentrations less than 1 ppb. A new liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method was used to confirm the radioimmunoassay results in 9 samples and also to identify the tetracycline antibiotics to which the radioimmunoassay test was responding. The new liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method with online solid-phase extraction and a detection level of 0.5 ??g/l confirmed the presence of chlorotetracycline in the hog lagoon samples and in one of the surface-water samples. The concentrations calculated from the radioimmunoassay were a factor of 1-5 times less than those calculated by the liquid

  17. EPA OIG's RSS Feed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA OIG's RSS Feed - The EPA OIG offers an XML news feed (RSS) covering all of our publications and news. To use our pre-made feed, click on the link below, copy the URL, then paste it into your prefferred feed reader.

  18. Static feed water electrolysis module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Jensen, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    An advanced static feed water electrolysis module (SFWEM) and associated instrumentation for generating breathable O2 was developed. The system also generates a H2 byproduct for use in an air revitalization system for O2 recovery from metabolic CO2. Special attention was given to: (1) eliminating water feed compartment degassing, (2) eliminating need for zero gravity condenser/separators, (3) increasing current density capability, and (4) providing a self contained module so that operation is independent of laboratory instrumentation and complicated startup/shutdown procedures.

  19. [Anaesthesia and breast-feeding: should breast-feeding be discouraged?].

    PubMed

    Kranke, Peter; Frambach, Torsten; Schelling, Philip; Wirbelauer, Johannes; Schaefer, Christof; Stamer, Ulrike

    2011-05-01

    Until a few years ago an interruption of breast-feeding for 12 or even 24 hours was recommended for breast-feeding mothers after anaesthesia, this is no longer valid. If it is the mother's wish, if she is sufficiently awake and physically able, there is no reason not to start breast-feeding a mature and healthy baby immediately after recovery from a general or regional anaesthesia. Even breast-feeding after a Caesarean delivery with administration of the common anaesthetics in the usual (single) doses is no longer considered to be a problem since the amount of the substance taken up from colostrum is vanishingly small in comparison to the amount that is transferred by transplacental routes. Neither the pharmacological properties of the drugs used in association with anaesthesia nor clinical experience justify an interruption of breast-feeding.

  20. Carboxymethylcellulose adhesion barrier placement at primary cesarean delivery and outcomes at repeat cesarean delivery.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Rodney K; Ingersoll, Melissa; Gerkin, Richard D; Bodea-Braescu, Ana V; Lin, Monique G

    2014-05-01

    To assess associations of a commercially available carboxymethylcellulose adhesion barrier placed during primary cesarean delivery with clinical outcomes of repeat cesarean deliveries. We performed a retrospective cohort study of women undergoing primary cesarean delivery on or after January 1, 2008, and first repeat cesarean delivery in one of four hospitals in the same system by June 30, 2011. Women were included if both deliveries were live singletons at 34-42 weeks of gestation delivered through transverse abdominal incisions and the first hysterotomy was low transverse. Exclusion criteria included intervening delivery; puerperal infection, bowel injury, or bladder injury at primary cesarean delivery; uterine incision or laparotomy (except primary cesarean delivery) before repeat cesarean delivery; and use of another adhesion barrier at primary cesarean delivery. As a surrogate for adhesion grading, the primary outcome was time from skin incision to neonate delivery at repeat cesarean delivery. We also assessed total operative time and rates of selected surgical complications. There were 517 women who met criteria; 248 received the adhesion barrier during primary cesarean delivery and 269 did not. There were no demographic differences between groups except delivery hospital. In the adhesion barrier and no adhesion barrier groups, respectively, mean±standard deviation times to delivery at repeat cesarean delivery were 6.1±3.0 compared with 5.8±2.5 minutes (P=.25), and total operative times were 31.2±10.6 compared with 31.8±11.6 minutes (P=.56). Surgical complications were not different between groups. Placing a commercially available carboxymethylcellulose adhesion barrier at primary cesarean delivery is not associated with decreased time to delivery, total operative time, or complications during repeat cesarean deliveries. II.

  1. Expanding Alternative Delivery Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltzer, Jan A.

    Alternative educational delivery systems that might be useful to community colleges are considered. The following categories of delivery systems are covered: broadcast delivery systems; copy delivery systems, print delivery systems, computer delivery systems, telephone delivery systems, and satellites. Among the applications for broadcast…

  2. Skeletal muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs is increased more by intermittent bolus than continuous feeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Feeding by orogastric tube, using either continuous or intermittent bolus delivery, is common for infants for whom normal feeding is contraindicated. To determine the impact of different feeding modalities on muscle protein anabolism, neonatal pigs (5-7 day old) received a balanced enteral formula e...

  3. [Twin delivery].

    PubMed

    Schaal, Jean-Patrick; Equy, Véronique; Thong-Vanh, Catherine; Pons, Jean-Claude; Hoffmann, Pascale

    2006-12-31

    The number of twin pregnancies is still increasing. This should not be assessed only as therapeutic success but also as complex obstetrical challenges. The main difficulties encountered are dystocic presentations, dystocic labours, and cord prolapses. Specific multiple pregnancy dystocias as chin-to-chin interlocking twins and conjoined twins are very rare. Twin delivery is substantially worse when compared with singleton delivery, with increased morbidity and mortality principally involving the second twin. Labour induction is possible, and should be indicated between the 38th and 39th weeks of gestation. Caesarean section should be done easily, especially in case of prematurity or in case of breech presentation for the first twin. Excepting these cases and the usual caesarean section indications, there is no demonstrated superiority of the caesarean section delivery compared to the vaginal delivery. When needed, internal version and/or breech extraction should be done with intact membranes. Active management of the third stage is necessary, due to uterine surdistension easily leading to uterine atonia.

  4. Decision to delivery intervals for assisted vaginal vertex delivery.

    PubMed

    Okunwobi-Smith, Y; Cooke, I; MacKenzie, I Z

    2000-04-01

    To describe the time interval between decision for assisted vaginal delivery and the birth of the baby in different clinical circumstances. A prospective analysis of 225 consecutive women with a singleton fetal cephalic presentation in the second stage of labour requiring an operative vaginal delivery for various reasons. A maternity unit in a district general hospital delivering more than 6,000 women annually. The decision to delivery interval and the immediate and short term maternal and neonatal outcomes according to indication for operative vaginal delivery. The mean (SD) decision to delivery interval was 34.4 minutes (28.3) with a range of 5 to 101 minutes. For those delivered because of suspected fetal distress, the interval of 26.5 minutes (14.0) was significantly shorter than for those performed without fetal distress 39.5 minutes (19.0) (P < 0.0001); for cases with fetal distress, forceps were significantly quicker at 23.3 minutes (14.3) than the ventouse 29.2 minutes (13.2) (P = 0.04). The longer the interval in cases of fetal distress the less favourable the condition of the neonate at birth, although this trend did not reach statistical significance and was not seen for deliveries expedited for other reasons. Perineal repair was required following 96% forceps deliveries compared with 87% ventouse (P = 0.015). Perineal trauma was not influenced by the interval between decision and delivery. If speed of delivery is important, use of forceps results in a quicker birth than use of the ventouse, without any compromise to the condition of the baby at delivery, and with similar rates of perineal trauma.

  5. Assessment for oral feeding in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Bolzan, Geovana de Paula; Berwig, Luana Cristina; Prade, Leila Sauer; Cuti, Lilian Kopp; Yamamoto, Raquel Coube de Carvalho; Silva, Ana Maria Toniolo da; Weinmann, Angela Regina Maciel

    2016-07-04

    To assess the accuracy of the Preterm Oral Feeding Readiness Scale (POFRAS) on the beginning of oral feeding in preterm infants and to verify the concordance between this tool and the Oral Feeding Skill Level. 82 preterm infants were assessed by POFRAS regarding their readiness to initiate oral feeding and by the oral feeding skill level evaluation during the first oral feeding. POFRAS's accuracy was estimated regarding proficiency by a Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve. The concordance between the tools was obtained by analysis of the Kappa coefficient. POFRAS's global accuracy was of 71.29%. The cut-off value of 29 was the one that presented most optimization of the sensitivity based on specificity. The Kappa coefficient has shown a weak concordance between the instruments to identify infants able and unable to oral feeding (k=0.281). POFRAS's accuracy to initiate oral feeding considering the proficiency was similar to that obtained with the technique of translactation. We observed a weak concordance between the instruments. We suggest that, in clinical practice, both instruments should be used in a complementary manner, since both present important aspects of the preterm feeding behavior that together will better guide the necessary conduct to provide an effective and quick transition to full oral feeding in this population.

  6. Closed-loop controlled noninvasive ultrasonic glucose sensing and insulin delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Eun-Joo; Werner, Jacob; Jaiswal, Devina; Smith, Nadine Barrie

    2010-03-01

    To prevent complications in diabetes, the proper management of blood glucose levels is essential. Previously, ultrasonic transdermal methods using a light-weight cymbal transducer array has been studied for noninvasive methods of insulin delivery for Type-1 diabetes and glucose level monitoring. In this study, the ultrasound systems of insulin delivery and glucose sensing have been combined by a feedback controller. This study was designed to show the feasibility of the feedback controlled ultrasound system for the noninvasive glucose control. For perspective human application, in vivo experiments were performed on large animals that have a similar size to humans. Four in vivo experiments were performed using about 200 lbs pigs. The cymbal array of 3×3 pattern has been used for insulin delivery at 30 kHz with the spatial-peak temporal-peak intensity (Isptp) of 100 mW/cm2. For glucose sensing, a 2×2 array was operated at 20 kHz with Isptp = 100 mW/cm2. Based on the glucose level determined by biosensors after the ultrasound exposure, the ultrasound system for the insulin delivery was automatically operated. The glucose level of 115 mg/dl was set as a reference value for operating the insulin delivery system. For comparison, the glucose levels of blood samples collected from the ear vein were measured by a commercial glucose meter. Using the ultrasound system operated by the close-loop, feed-back controller, the glucose levels of four pigs were determined every 20 minutes and continuously controlled for 120 minutes. In comparison to the commercial glucose meter, the glucose levels determined by the biosensor were slightly higher. The results of in vivo experiments indicate the feasibility of the feedback controlled ultrasound system using the cymbal array for noninvasive glucose sensing and insulin delivery. Further studies on the extension of the glucose control will be continued for the effective method of glucose control.

  7. Pioneer F/G feed movement mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    The Pioneer F/G spacecraft achieves the desired earth-pointing direction through a system requiring the shifting of the main antenna feed 1 in. off axis. The feed is pivoted to this position by an electrically heated thermal actuator consisting of an electroless nickel bellows in a copper housing and filled with Freon 21. The actuator overtravels and maintains the feed in the offset position in a thermostatic limit cycle operation mode until commanded off. The mechanism is expected to operate in a -240 F environment near Jupiter and was successfully tested at such temperatures.

  8. Tank Farm Contractor Operation and Utilization Plan [SEC 1 Thru 3

    SciTech Connect

    KIRKBRIDE, R.A.

    2000-04-19

    This document updates the operating scenario and plans for feed delivery to BNFL Inc. of retrieval and waste from single-shell tanks, and the overall process flowsheets for Phases 1 and 2 of the River Protection Project. The plans and flowsheets are updated with the most recent guidance from ORP and tank-by-tank inventory. The results provide the technical basis for the RTP-2 planning effort. Sensitivity cases were run to evaluate the effect of changes on key parameters.

  9. Barriers to breast-feeding in obese women: A qualitative exploration.

    PubMed

    Keely, Alice; Lawton, Julia; Swanson, Vivien; Denison, Fiona C

    2015-05-01

    to explore the factors that influence breast-feeding practices in obese women who had either stopped breast-feeding or were no longer exclusively breast-feeding 6-10 weeks following the birth of their babies, despite an original intention to do so for 16 weeks or longer. Specifically (i) to identify the barriers to successful breast-feeding and reasons for introducing formula and/or stopping breast-feeding, and (ii) to explore the women׳s views and experiences of current breast-feeding support services. descriptive, qualitative study comprising semi-structured face-to-face interviews. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. participants recruited from one large maternity unit in Scotland and interviewed in their homes. 28 obese women at 6-10 weeks following birth. three major themes emerged from the data analysis: the impact of birth complications, a lack of privacy, and a low uptake of specialist breast-feeding support. Impact of birth complications: 19 of 28 women had given birth by caesarean section and some felt this led to feeling 'out of it' post-operatively, a delay in establishing skin-to-skin contact, and in establishing breast-feeding. Lack of privacy; several women described reluctance to breast feed in front of others, difficulties in achieving privacy, in hospital, at home and in public. Low uptake of postnatal breast-feeding support; despite experiencing problems such as physical difficulties during breast-feeding or a perception of low milk supply, breast-feeding support services were underused by this sample of women. A small number of the women in this study used breast-feeding clinics and reported finding these useful. A further small number felt they benefitted from the support of a friend who was successfully breast-feeding. midwives should be mindful of the presence of additional factors alongside maternal obesity, such as caesarean delivery, physical difficulties when breast-feeding

  10. The first weeks of breast feeding.

    PubMed

    King, F S

    1984-10-01

    The 2 main causes of the contemporary epidemic of breastfeeding failure appear to be urban life and hospital delivery. In rural areas, the majority of mothers breastfeed successfully. They have much emotional support from experienced women around them, and although some women experience problems, traditional birth attendants are skilled at both preventing and overcoming them. In town, a woman may be surrounded only by young friends as inexperienced as herself and a husband who is impatient of a crying infant. The most obvious solution to any difficulty is a feeding bottle which she can see many modern people using, including some health workers. Hospital delivery contributes to lactation failure by separating the mother and baby to allow them both to "rest," yet mothers who are separated from their babies for even 12 hours stop breastfeeding sooner than mothers who put their baby to the breast immediately after delivery. Possibly the emotional bonding that occurs during the 1st few hours gives a mother the motivation that she needs to persist with breastfeeding when it becomes difficult. In most societies it is customary to let the baby breastfeed immediately, and many traditional birth attendants are aware of how this helps both to stop uterine bleeding and to promote a better flow of milk. In hospitals a baby may be given feeds of formula milk or glucose water, while he/she "waits" for mother's milk to come in. Prelacteal feeds fill a baby's stomach, reduce his/her appetite, and make the baby less willing to suck at the breast. This delays the onset of lactation and increases the dangers of engorgement. If a baby is given his/her prelacteal feeds (or later feeds) from a bottle with a rubber teat, he/she is likely to develop "nipple confusion" and to fail to suck effectively from his/her mother. If hospitals are to be places in which babies may start to feed safely, the staff should let a mother suckle her baby immediately after delivery, and they should let her

  11. Evaluation of Alternative Video Imagery Processors in Unjammed and Jammed Environments in Terms of Operator Performance in a Weapon Delivery Simulator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    Frederick R. Bodine Teresa L. Marshall Michael Masse Michael R. Poole Mark A. Theodoras Julius A. Tieber 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS(MAJOR HEADINGS) 1.0 Introduction... cond pass. The change in miss distance is less than 6 feet. If there is any indication of familiarization at all, it is in the fact that the operators

  12. Automatic real-time pair-feeding system for animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, H. A.; Connolly, J. P.; Hitchman, M. J.; Humbert, J. E. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A pair feeding method and apparatus are provided for experimental animals wherein the amount of food consumed is immediately delivered to a normal or control animal so that there is a qualitative, quantitative and chronological correctness in the pair feeding of the two animals. This feeding mechanism delivers precisely measured amounts of food to a feeder. Circuitry is provided between master and slave feeders so that there is virtually no chance of a malfunction of the feeding apparatus, causing erratic results. Recording equipment is also provided so that an hourly record is kept of food delivery.

  13. Remotely controlled reagent feed system for mixed waste treatment Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, D.K.; Bowers, J.S.; Reed, R.K.

    1995-02-01

    LLNL has developed and installed a large-scale. remotely controlled, reagent feed system for use at its existing aqueous low-level radioactive and mixed waste treatment facility (Tank Farm). LLNL`s Tank Farm is used to treat aqueous low-level and mixed wastes prior to vacuum filtration and to remove the hazardous and radioactive components before it is discharged to the City of Livermore Water Reclamation Plant (LWRP) via the sanitary sewer in accordance with established limits. This reagent feed system was installed to improve operational safety and process efficiency by eliminating the need for manual handling of various reagents used in the aqueous waste treatment processes. This was done by installing a delivery system that is controlled either remotely or locally via a programmable logic controller (PLC). The system consists of a pumping station, four sets of piping to each of six 6,800-L (1,800-gal) treatment tanks, air-actuated discharge valves at each tank, a pH/temperature probe at each tank, and the PLC-based control and monitoring system. During operation, the reagents are slowly added to the tanks in a preprogrammed and controlled manner while the pH, temperature, and liquid level are continuously monitored by the PLC. This paper presents the purpose of this reagent feed system, provides background related to LLNL`s low-level/mixed waste treatment processes, describes the major system components, outlines system operation, and discusses current status and plans.

  14. 14 CFR 121.227 - Pressure cross-feed arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pressure cross-feed arrangements. 121.227... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.227 Pressure cross-feed arrangements. (a) Pressure cross-feed lines may not pass through parts of the airplane...

  15. Ammonia emissions from cattle feeding operations.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ammonia is a colorless gas with an pungent odor that occurs naturally in trace amounts in the atmosphere, where it is the dominant base. Ammonia is produced during the decomposition of livestock manure. There is concern about atmospheric ammonia because of its potential effects on air quality, wat...

  16. Feeding underground: kinematics of feeding in caecilians.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Measey, G John

    2012-11-01

    Caecilians are limbless amphibians that have evolved distinct cranial and postcranial specializations associated with a burrowing lifestyle. Observations on feeding behavior are rare and restricted to above-ground feeding in laboratory conditions. Here we report data on feeding in tunnels using both external video and X-ray recordings of caecilians feeding on invertebrate prey. Our data show feeding kinematics similar to those previously reported, including the pronounced neck bending observed during above-ground feeding. Our data illustrate, however, that caecilians may be much faster than previously suspected, with lunge speeds of up to 7 cm sec(-1). Although gape cycles are often slow (0.67 ± 0.29 sec), rapid jaw closure is observed during prey capture, with cycle times and jaw movement velocities similar to those observed in other terrestrial tetrapods. Finally, our data suggest that gape angles may be large (64.8 ± 18°) and that gape profiles are variable, often lacking distinct slow and fast opening and closing phases. These data illustrate the importance of recording naturalistic feeding behavior and shed light on how these animals are capable of capturing and processing prey in constrained underground environments. Additional data on species with divergent cranial morphologies would be needed to better understand the co-evolution between feeding, burrowing, and cranial design in caecilians.

  17. Let’s Explore Health Services Delivery with Rams or A Vision for an Air Force Medical Home Concept of Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    22 Figure 12. Base Operational Medicine Cell organizational model. ................... 32 Figure 13. Fictional ACHM Balanced Scorecard ...unlimited Release #88ABW-2014-4102, dated 29 August 2014 Performance Data Make strategy everyone’s everyday job. — Robert Kaplan & David Norton ...performance data, displayed in terms of a Balanced Scorecard (Figure 13), to demonstrate how the AFMS as a whole, each site, each care team, and each

  18. Implementation and Operational Research: Impact of a Systems Engineering Intervention on PMTCT Service Delivery in Côte d'Ivoire, Kenya, Mozambique: A Cluster Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Rustagi, Alison Silvis; Gimbel, Sarah; Nduati, Ruth; Cuembelo, Maria de Fatima; Wasserheit, Judith N; Farquhar, Carey; Gloyd, Stephen; Sherr, Kenneth

    2016-07-01

    Efficacious interventions to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) have not translated well into effective programs. Previous studies of systems engineering applications to PMTCT lacked comparison groups or randomization. Thirty-six health facilities in Côte d'Ivoire, Kenya, and Mozambique were randomized to usual care or a systems engineering intervention, stratified by country and volume. The intervention guided facility staff to iteratively identify and then rectify barriers to PMTCT implementation. Registry data quantified coverage of HIV testing during first antenatal care visit, antiretrovirals (ARVs) for HIV-positive pregnant women, and screening HIV-exposed infants (HEI) for HIV by 6-8 weeks. We compared the change between baseline (January 2013-January 2014) and postintervention (January 2015-March 2015) periods using t-tests. All analyses were intent-to-treat. ARV coverage increased 3-fold [+13.3% points (95% CI: 0.5 to 26.0) in intervention vs. +4.1 (-12.6 to 20.7) in control facilities] and HEI screening increased 17-fold [+11.6 (-2.6 to 25.7) in intervention vs. +0.7 (-12.9 to 14.4) in control facilities]. In prespecified subgroup analyses, ARV coverage increased significantly in Kenya [+20.9 (-3.1 to 44.9) in intervention vs. -21.2 (-52.7 to 10.4) in controls; P = 0.02]. HEI screening increased significantly in Mozambique [+23.1 (10.3 to 35.8) in intervention vs. +3.7 (-13.1 to 20.6) in controls; P = 0.04]. HIV testing did not differ significantly between arms. In this first randomized trial of systems engineering to improve PMTCT, we saw substantially larger improvements in ARV coverage and HEI screening in intervention facilities compared with controls, which were significant in prespecified subgroups. Systems engineering could strengthen PMTCT service delivery and protect infants from HIV.

  19. Delivery Innovations.

    PubMed

    2017-03-01

    The need for innovations in care delivery is recognized by providers, payers, and patients alike. Hospitals, physicians, and other clinicians are experimenting with new models of care designed to better meet patients' needs, reduce administrative burdens, and lower costs. The Affordable Care Act placed the Medicare and Medicaid programs at the center of a national effort to experiment with delivery and payment models designed to improve care and contain costs. These public-sector efforts have often aligned with private initiatives, such as the use of reference pricing-in which an insurer will only pay for a service at the price available from the lowest-cost provider. Employers in the public and private sectors have adopted value-based insurance design, in which copayments and deductibles are calibrated to the clinical benefit obtained from different services. Patients have the most to gain-or lose-from delivery innovations. Better, more efficient care should translate into better health and lower costs, but payment models designed to encourage innovation may have the unintended effect of limiting access to care.

  20. Nasogastric feeding tube

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - nasogastric tube; NG tube; Bolus feeding; Continuous pump feeding; Gavage tube ... If your child has an NG tube, try to keep your child from touching or pulling on the tube. After your nurse teaches you how to flush the tube ...

  1. Feeding Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulton, Suzanne; Sexton, David

    1996-01-01

    Presents a digest of basic developmental information about children's feeding skills and behaviors, and gives general feeding recommendations. Also addresses requirements for feeding children with developmental disabilities and chronic medical conditions for which adapted environments or monitored nutrient intake may be necessary. (ET)

  2. Key principles to improve programmes and interventions in complementary feeding.

    PubMed

    Lutter, Chessa K; Iannotti, Lora; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Guyon, Agnes; Daelmans, Bernadette; Robert, Rebecca; Haider, Rukhsana

    2013-09-01

    Although there are some examples of successful complementary feeding programmes to promote healthy growth and prevent stunting at the community level, to date there are few, if any, examples of successful programmes at scale. A lack of systematic process and impact evaluations on pilot projects to generate lessons learned has precluded scaling up of effective programmes. Programmes to effect positive change in nutrition rarely follow systematic planning, implementation, and evaluation (PIE) processes to enhance effectiveness over the long term. As a result a set of programme-oriented key principles to promote healthy growth remains elusive. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap by proposing a set of principles to improve programmes and interventions to promote healthy growth and development. Identifying such principles for programme success has three requirements: rethinking traditional paradigms used to promote improved infant and young child feeding; ensuring better linkages to delivery platforms; and, improving programming. Following the PIE model for programmes and learning from experiences from four relatively large-scale programmes described in this paper, 10 key principles are identified in the areas of programme planning, programme implementation, programme evaluation, and dissemination, replication, and scaling up. Nonetheless, numerous operational research questions remain, some of which are highlighted in this paper.

  3. 77 FR 44494 - National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit Regulation for Concentrated Animal Feeding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Removal of Vacated Elements in Response to 2011 Court... Feeding Operation (CAFO) that ``proposes to discharge'' must apply for a National Pollutant Discharge... Feeding Operations in Response to the Waterkeeper Decision,'' (the 2008 CAFO Rule). DATES: This final...

  4. Effects of Cesarean delivery and formula supplementation on the intestinal microbiome of six-week old infants

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Juliette C.; Hoen, Anne G.; Lundgren, Sara N.; Farzan, Shohreh F.; Cottingham, Kathryn L.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Sogin, Mitchell L.; Li, Hongzhe; Moore, Jason H.; Karagas, Margaret R.

    2016-01-01

    Importance The intestinal microbiome plays a critical role in infant development, and delivery mode and feeding method (breastmilk vs. formula) are determinants of its composition. However, the importance of delivery mode beyond the first days of life is unknown, and studies of associations between infant feeding and microbiome composition have been generally limited to comparisons between exclusively breastfed and formula fed infants, with little consideration given to combination feeding of both breastmilk and formula. Objectives To examine the relative effects of delivery mode and feeding method on infant intestinal microbiome composition at approximately six weeks of life. Design, Setting and Participants Prospective observational study of 102 infants followed as part of a US pregnancy cohort study. Exposures Delivery mode was abstracted from delivery medical records and feeding method prior to the time of stool collection was ascertained through detailed questionnaires. Main Outcomes and Measures Stool microbiome composition was characterized using next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Results We identified independent associations between microbial community composition and both delivery mode and feeding method. Differences in microbial community composition between vaginally and infants delivered by Cesarean section were equivalent to or significantly larger than those between feeding groups. Bacterial communities associated with combination feeding were more similar to those associated with exclusive formula feeding than exclusive breastfeeding. We identified individual bacterial genera that were differentially abundant between delivery mode and feeding groups. Conclusions and Relevance The infant intestinal microbiome at approximately six weeks of age is significantly associated with both delivery mode and feeding method, and the supplementation of breastmilk feeding with formula is associated with a microbiome composition that resembles that of

  5. Feeding Practices and NEC

    PubMed Central

    Ramani, Manimaran

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a multifactorial disorder that primarily affects premature infants. Human milk as compared to formula reduces the incidence of NEC. Feeding practices such as minimal enteral nutrition (versus complete fasting) before progressive advancement of feeds, early introduction of feeds (before day 4 of life as compared to later), and a more rapid advancement of feeds (30–35 ml/kg/day as compared to 15–20 ml/kg/day) do not increase the incidence of NEC in preterm infants. There is no evidence supporting continuous over intermittent tube feedings in preterm infants. In a feed-intolerant preterm infant without any other clinical and radiological evidence of NEC, minimal enteral nutrition rather than complete suspension of enteral feeding may be an alternative. Human milk-based fortifier as compared to bovine-based fortifier may reduce the incidence of NEC but additional studies are required. PMID:23415260

  6. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The term uranium feed or natural uranium feed means natural uranium in the form of UF6 suitable for uranium...

  7. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The term uranium feed or natural uranium feed means natural uranium in the form of UF6 suitable for uranium...

  8. High Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  9. Fractionator feed section

    SciTech Connect

    Sampath, V.R.; Bachmann, D.E.

    1993-07-27

    A fractionator feed section in a fractionator to which is fed a feed mixture comprising a vapor component and a liquid component and which fractionator comprises a tray above said feed section which passes liquid reflux to said feed section, said feed section comprising: (a) a downwardly extending, elongated first baffle; (b) a downwardly extending, elongated second baffle; (c) a seal pan below said first baffle and said second baffle, said seal pan comprising a seal pan mixture of liquids into which a portion of said first baffle and a portion of said second baffle extend to form a mixing zone; (d) a feed nozzle which introduces said liquid component and said vapor component downward into said mixing zone; and, (e) a trough which introduces said liquid reflux to said mixing zone, wherein said liquid component and said liquid reflux mix to form said seal pan mixture of liquids.

  10. Xenon Feed System Progress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    From - To) 13-06-2006 Technical Paper 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER F04611-00-C-0055 Xenon Feed System Progress (Preprint) 5b. GRANT...propulsion xenon feed system for a flight technology demonstration program. Major accomplishments include: 1) Utilization of the Moog...successfully fed xenon to a 200 watt Hall Effect Thruster in a Technology Demonstration Program. The feed system has demonstrated throttling of xenon

  11. FEED FORWARD EQUATIONS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    and feed forward stabilization) have been implemented. An on-mount gyro system consists of gyroscopes mounted on the radar antenna which sense...antenna motion and send compensating signals back to the antenna servo mechanism. Feed forward stabilization consists of determining antenna angular rates...caused by ships attitude changes, as measured by a stable platform (such as SINS), and feeding compensating signals back to the antenna servo

  12. Fiber Optic Feed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-06

    Naval Research Laboratory IIK Washington, DC,20375 5000 NRL Memorandum Report 6741 0 N Fiber Optic Feed DENZIL STILWELL, MARK PARENT AND LEw GOLDBERG...SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Fiber Optic Feed 53-0611-A0 6. AUTHOR(S) P. D. Stilwell, M. G. Parent, L. Goldberg 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) This report details a Fiber Optic Feeding

  13. Mixed feed evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Vakil, Himanshu B.; Kosky, Philip G.

    1982-01-01

    In the preparation of the gaseous reactant feed to undergo a chemical reaction requiring the presence of steam, the efficiency of overall power utilization is improved by premixing the gaseous reactant feed with water and then heating to evaporate the water in the presence of the gaseous reactant feed, the heating fluid utilized being at a temperature below the boiling point of water at the pressure in the volume where the evaporation occurs.

  14. Status of Statewide Career Information Delivery Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Wynonia L.

    Intended as a resource document as well as a status report on all the statewide career information delivery systems (CIDS) in operation, this report examines the status of 39 statewide information systems. (Career information delivery systems are computer-based systems that provide national, state, and local information to individuals who are in…

  15. Document Delivery over the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Mary E.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses three innovative Internet-based electronic document delivery systems: Ariel, developed by the Research Libraries Group; Digitized Document Transmission Project, developed by North Carolina State University; and Network Fax Project, developed by Ohio State University. System are compared in terms of equipment, operation, advantages and…

  16. Infectious waste feed system

    DOEpatents

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  17. Assisted delivery with forceps

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000509.htm Assisted delivery with forceps To use the sharing features on ... called vacuum assisted delivery . When is a Forceps Delivery Needed? Even after your cervix is fully dilated ( ...

  18. Ultrasound in labor and delivery.

    PubMed

    Molina, Francisca S; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound may play an important role in the management of labor and delivery. Induction of labor is a common obstetric intervention, performed in about 20% of pregnancies. Pre-induction cervical length, measured by transvaginal sonography, has been shown to have a significant association with the induction-to-delivery interval and the risk for cesarean section. In the management of labor there is extensive evidence that digital pelvic examination does not provide accurate assessment of the position and descend of the fetal head both during the first but also in the second stage of labor. Several recent studies using both two- and three-dimensional ultrasound have now described objective measures of progression of the fetal head during labor. In instrumental deliveries an important determinant of a successful and safe use of vacuum and forceps is the correct determination of the fetal head position and appropriate application of the instrument. However, ultrasound studies have shown that digital examination before instrumental delivery fails to identify the correct fetal position in a high proportion of cases. The use of ultrasound is of crucial importance in performing a safe operative delivery and can help in the prediction of whether a vaginal delivery would be successful. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. WEDDS: The WITS Encrypted Data Delivery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, J.; Backes, P.

    1999-01-01

    WEDDS, the WITS Encrypted Data Delivery System, is a framework for supporting distributed mission operations by automatically transferring sensitive mission data in a secure and efficient manner to and from remote mission participants over the internet.

  20. WEDDS: The WITS Encrypted Data Delivery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, J.; Backes, P.

    1999-01-01

    WEDDS, the WITS Encrypted Data Delivery System, is a framework for supporting distributed mission operations by automatically transferring sensitive mission data in a secure and efficient manner to and from remote mission participants over the internet.

  1. Feeding behaviors of transition dairy cows fed glycerol as a replacement for corn.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, E R; Schmelz-Roberts, N S; White, H M; Wilcox, C S; Eicher, S D; Donkin, S S

    2012-12-01

    Feed sorting is a natural behavior of dairy cows that can result in inconsistencies in the nutritive value of a total mixed ration (TMR). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing high-moisture corn with glycerol on feed sorting and the feed intake pattern of transition dairy cows. Multiparous Holstein cows (n=26) were paired by expected calving date, housed in individual tie stalls, and fed diets containing either glycerol or high-moisture corn once daily from d -28 to +56 relative to calving. Glycerol was included at 11.5 and 10.8% of the ration dry matter for the pre- and postpartum diets, respectively. The feed consumption pattern was determined by measuring TMR disappearance during the intervals from 0 to 4 h, 4 to 8 h, 8 to 12 h, and 12 to 24 h relative to feed delivery. Feed sorting was determined on d -16, -9, 9, 16, and 51 relative to calving at 4, 8, 12 and 24 h after feeding. The TMR particle size profile was determined at feed delivery and at 4, 8, 12, and 24 after feed delivery by using the Penn State Particle Separator (Nasco, Fort Atkinson, WI) to yield long (>19 mm), medium (<19 mm, >8 mm), short (<8 mm, >1.18 mm), and fine (<1.18 mm) particles. Overall feed intake did not differ between diets and was 14.7±0.4 and 20.2±0.5 kg/d for the pre- and postpartum intervals, respectively. During the prepartum period, glycerol decreased the amount of feed consumed during the first 4h after feed delivery (7.22 vs. 5.59±0.35 kg; control vs. glycerol, respectively) but increased feed consumed from 12 through 24 h after feed delivery (2.22 vs. 3.82±0.35 kg; control vs. glycerol, respectively). Similar effects on the feed consumption pattern were observed after calving. During the prepartum period, cows fed the control diet sorted against long particles, whereas cows fed glycerol did not sort against long particles (77.2 vs. 101.5±3.50% of expected intake for control vs. glycerol; significant treatment effect). The data indicate

  2. Tank Farm Contractor Operation and Utilization Plan [SEC 1 Thru 3

    SciTech Connect

    KIRKBRIDE, R.A.

    1999-05-04

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan updates the operating scenario and plans for the delivery of feed to BNFL Inc., retrieval of waste from single-shell tanks, and the overall process flowsheets for Phases I and II of the privatization of the Tank Waste Remediation System. The plans and flowsheets are updated with the most recent tank-by-tank inventory and sludge washing data. Sensitivity cases were run to evaluate the impact or benefits of proposed changes to the BNFL Inc. contract and to evaluate a risk-based SST retrieval strategy.

  3. Feed up, Feedback, and Feed Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    "Feeding up" establishes a substantive line of inquiry that compels learners to engage in investigation and inquire. It also forms the basis for the assessments that follow. Once students understand the purpose and begin to work, they receive "feedback" that is timely and scaffolds their understanding. Based on their responses, the teacher gains a…

  4. Feed up, Feedback, and Feed Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    "Feeding up" establishes a substantive line of inquiry that compels learners to engage in investigation and inquire. It also forms the basis for the assessments that follow. Once students understand the purpose and begin to work, they receive "feedback" that is timely and scaffolds their understanding. Based on their responses, the teacher gains a…

  5. By-Product Feeds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    By-product feeds are generated from the production of food, fiber, and bio-energy products for human consumption. They include plant feedstuffs such as hulls, stalks, peels, and oil seed meals, and animal by-products such as blood meal, fats, bone meal, or processed organ meats. Some feed by-product...

  6. Infant Feeding and Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Mary D. Salter; Tracy, Russel L.

    This paper has two major purposes: first, to consider how infant feeding behavior may fit into attachment theory; and second, to cite some evidence to show how an infant's early interaction with his mother in the feeding situation is related to subsequent development. It was found that sucking and rooting are precursor attachment behaviors that…

  7. Testing Feeds for Salmonella.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Human salmonellosis outbreaks have been linked to contamination of animal feeds. Thus it is crucial to employ sensitive Salmonella detection methods for animal feeds. Based on a review of the literature, Salmonella sustains acid injury at about pH 4.0 to5.0. Low pH can also alter the metabolism of S...

  8. Feeding biology of Cerambycids

    Treesearch

    Robert A. Haack

    2017-01-01

    There are more than 36,000 species of Cerambycidae recognized throughout the world (see Chapter 1), occurring on all continents except Antarctica (Linsley 1959). Given such numbers, it is not surprising that cerambycids display great diversity in their feeding habits. Both adults and larvae are almost exclusively phytophagous. Some adults appear not to feed at all,...

  9. Sensory suppression during feeding

    PubMed Central

    Foo, H.; Mason, Peggy

    2005-01-01

    Feeding is essential for survival, whereas withdrawal and escape reactions are fundamentally protective. These critical behaviors can compete for an animal's resources when an acutely painful stimulus affects the animal during feeding. One solution to the feeding-withdrawal conflict is to optimize feeding by suppressing pain. We examined whether rats continue to feed when challenged with a painful stimulus. During feeding, motor withdrawal responses to noxious paw heat either did not occur or were greatly delayed. To investigate the neural basis of sensory suppression accompanying feeding, we recorded from brainstem pain-modulatory neurons involved in the descending control of pain transmission. During feeding, pain-facilitatory ON cells were inhibited and pain-inhibitory OFF cells were excited. When a nonpainful somatosensory stimulus preactivated ON cells and preinhibited OFF cells, rats interrupted eating to react to painful stimuli. Inactivation of the brainstem region containing ON and OFF cells also blocked pain suppression during eating, demonstrating that brainstem pain-modulatory neurons suppress motor reactions to external stimulation during homeostatic behaviors. PMID:16275919

  10. Infant feeding: a review.

    PubMed

    Poskitt, E M

    1983-08-01

    Ideas on how infants should be fed have changed dramatically over the past ten years. This has led to some confusion, amongst both the public and those concerned with advising mothers, on safe and acceptable infant feeding practices. A contemporary view of infant feeding and its problems is presented.

  11. Development of Wideband Feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujihara, Hideki; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Sekido, Mamoru; Kondo, Tetsuro

    2015-08-01

    Wideband feeds have developed for Kashima 34m antenna and new 2.4m portable VLBI antennas. Prototypes of the wideband feeds are multimode horns, first one was set on 34m in the end of 2013, and then replaced next one with 6.5-15.0GHz receiving frequency. Now, a new feed for 3.2GHz-14.4GHz will be installed in 2.4m and 34m antennas in this spring, which are named NINJA feed, because of its design flexibility in beam shpae. Next, IGUANA feed is now under design and fabrication, which is aimed for 2.2-22GHz and covers VGOS(VLBI2010) specification. This has coaxial structure, the smaller "daughter feed" for 6.4-22GHz is placed in the center of the larger "Mother feed" for 2.2-6.4GHz.They are used for our project of time and frequency transfer between remote atomic clocks by wideband VLBI, named Gala-V(Garapagos VLBI), and will also be used wideband VLBI observation for astronmy and geodesy.Prototype feeds were tested in measurement of aperture efficiency, SEFD and Tsys of 34m "Super Kashima Antenna" and both 6.7/12.2GHz methanol maser detection in one reciever system, and then better one is used for wideband VLBI observations.

  12. Tube Feeding Transition Plateaus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Marsha Dunn

    2007-01-01

    The journey children make from tube feeding to oral feeding is personal for each child and family. There is a sequence of predictable plateaus that children climb as they move toward orally eating. By better understanding this sequence, parents and children can maximize the development, learning, enjoyment and confidence at each plateau. The…

  13. [Effects of a breast feeding promotion program for working women].

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ji-Won; Park, Young-Joo

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effects of a breast feeding promotion program for working women on breast feeding continuation, mother-infant attachment, and maternal sensitivity. The design of this study is nonequivalent control group design with repeated measures. There were significant differences in breast feeding continuation between two groups at each time point except 2 days and 1 week after delivery. The scores of mother-infant attachment and maternal sensitivity of experimental group were higher than those of the control group, but there were no significant differences between two groups. Although some modifications in contents and administration will be required to increase the effectiveness of the program, breast feeding promotion program for working women can be an effective nursing intervention which can facilitate breast feeding continuation and mother-infant relationships.

  14. Determinants of the introduction of prelacteal feeds in the Maldives.

    PubMed

    Raheem, Raheema Abdul; Binns, Colin W; Chih, Hui Jun; Sauer, Kay

    2014-11-01

    This study identified the determinants of the introduction of prelacteal feeds in the Maldives. A cohort of 458 mothers was recruited from antenatal clinics at two major hospitals in Malé, the Maldives. The mothers were followed up after birth at 4 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. The child's birth, the type of infant delivery, the time breastfeeding was initiated, gender of the infants, types of prelacteal feeds, and feeding method were recorded. After birth, 4.1% of infants received infant formula from the hospitals, whereas 10.6% and 7.4% of them received honey and dates, respectively, as prelacteal ritual feeds. Factors associated with introduction of ritual feeds as prelacteal feeds included the infant being a boy (p=0.05; adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-2.98), attitude toward prelacteal feeds (p=0.01; AOR=2.87; 95% CI, 1.48-5.58), and maternal employment (p=0.01; AOR=2.3; 95% CI, 1.4-3.9). Higher maternal age was inversely associated with introduction of ritual feeds as a prelacteal feed (p=0.05; AOR=0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.9). Introduction of infant formula as the prelacteal feed was positively associated with birth by cesarean section (p=0.01; AOR=4.6; 95% CI, 1.6-13.3) and inversely associated with maternal mother's feeding method being breastfeeding (p=0.05; AOR=0.15; 95% CI, 0.04-0.6). Prelacteal feeding was associated with cessation of breastfeeding before 6 months (p=0.01; AOR 6.0; 95% CI, 1.64-21.80). Health professionals need to distinguish between religious and cultural practices in order to develop appropriate health education programs to reduce the unnecessary use of early additional feeds. Understanding the barriers related to the initiation of breastfeeding after cesarean section is also important.

  15. Combined boiler feed and condensate pump

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Cooper, Titusville, N.J.

    1993-06-01

    A pump for drawing the condensate from a condenser and feeding it to a steam boiler is described, the combination comprising: an elongate casing adapted to be connected in a pipeline having an inlet for receiving the condensate from a steam condenser and an outlet for feeding the condensate to a steam boiler; a pump shaft mounted in said casing rotating in a pair of bearings spaced along said shaft and fixed in said casing; an electric motor mounted in said casing connected to one end of said shaft for driving it; control means for operating said electric motor; an inducer pump mounted at the other end of said shaft, driven by said shaft; a multiple stage centrifugal feed pump located in said casing driven by said shaft and receiving condensate from the inducer pump, pumping said condensate to a higher pressure suitable for feeding a steam boiler and delivering said condensate to the outlet of said pump, the multiple stage centrifugal feed pump being located adjacent said inducer pump; and said inducer pump being of the type to produce sufficient positive pressure for properly feeding condensate to said feed pump.

  16. Suthi feeding: an experience.

    PubMed

    Gupta, B D; Jain, P; Mandowara, S L

    1995-06-01

    In cases in which expressed breast milk is given or breast feeding cannot be done at all, a suitable alternative to breast feeding is still in question. Bottle feeding poses many hazards. Spoon and bowl have been proposed as a reasonable alternative since users can achieve better cleanliness. Yet it is impractical for staff in health facility nurseries to feed every newborn with the spoon and bowl method since it requires so much time. On average, they need to provide oral feeds to at least 10 babies a day. In India, maternal grandparents present the family of a newborn with the traditional Sindhi silver or stainless steel utensil to provide the infant drinking water. It is called Suthi. It holds either 10 or 20 cc, making it easier to quantify the amount of milk/feed. It has a long semicircular beak and curved rounded margins. Advantages of the Suthi over other alternative feeding methods include: it is a shallow container with a broad upper surface, allowing the user to clean it thoroughly and easily; its narrow beak can go directly into the mouth of the newborn, particularly premature infants and low birth weight infants, with relative ease, reducing the likelihood of spilling milk, and the Suthi feeding procedure is less messy and faster (7-10 vs. 15-20 minutes for spoon) than other procedures. The Suthi method allows nursery staff to spend less time per feed for 8-10 babies (minimum time needed, 1 vs. 3 hours). It can also be used at home. Its use will reduce the likelihood of aspiration since it cannot be used lying down. Since it is a traditional container, the community will accept Suthi. When breast feeding is not possible, the Suthi should be used.

  17. Is looped nasogastric tube feeding more effective than conventional nasogastric tube feeding for dysphagia in acute stroke?

    PubMed Central

    Beavan, Jessica R; Conroy, Simon; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Bowling, Tim; Gaynor, Catherine; Gladman, John; Good, Dawn; Gorman, Peter; Harwood, Rowan; Riley, Jan; Sach, Tracey; Sunman, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Background Dysphagia occurs in up to 50% of patients admitted to hospital with acute strokes with up to 27% remaining by seven days. Up to 8% continue to have swallowing problems six months after their stroke with 1.7% still requiring enteral feeding. Nasogastric tubes (NGT) are the most commonly used method for providing enteral nutrition in early stroke, however they are easily and frequently removed leading to inadequate nutrition, early PEG (Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy) insertion or abandoning of feeding attempts. Looped nasogastric tube feeding may improve the delivery of nutrition to such patients. Methods Three centre, two arm randomised controlled trial, with 50 participants in each arm comparing loop (the intervention) versus conventional nasogastric tube feeding. The primary outcome measure is proportion of intended feed delivered in the first 2 weeks. The study is designed to show a mean increase of feed delivery of 16% in the intervention group as compared with the control group, with 90% power at a 5% significance level. Secondary outcomes are treatment failures, mean volume of feed received, adverse events, cost-effectiveness, number of chest x-rays, number of nasogastric tubes and tolerability. Trial Registration ISRCTN Number: ISRCTN61174381 PMID:17683555

  18. Breast-feeding and Transmission of HIV-1.

    PubMed

    John-Stewart, Grace; Mbori-Ngacha, Dorothy; Ekpini, Rene; Janoff, Edward N; Nkengasong, John; Read, Jennifer S; Van de Perre, Phillippe; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2004-02-01

    Breast-feeding substantially increases the risk of HIV-1 transmission from mother to child, and although peripartum antiretroviral therapy prophylaxis significantly decreases the risk of mother-to-child transmission around the time of delivery, this approach does not affect breast-feeding transmission. Increased maternal RNA viral load in plasma and breast milk is strongly associated with increased risk of transmission through breast-feeding, as is breast health, and it has been suggested that exclusive breast-feeding could be associated with lower rates of breast-feeding transmission than mixed feeding of both breast- and other milk or feeds. Transmission through breast-feeding can take place at any point during lactation, and the cumulative probability of acquisition of infection increases with duration of breast-feeding. HIV-1 has been detected in breast milk in cell-free and cellular compartments; infant gut mucosal surfaces are the most likely site at which transmission occurs. Innate and acquired immune factors may act most effectively in combination to prevent primary HIV-1 infection by breast milk.

  19. Breast-feeding and Transmission of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    John-Stewart, Grace; Mbori-Ngacha, Dorothy; Ekpini, Rene; Janoff, Edward N.; Nkengasong, John; Read, Jennifer S.; Van de Perre, Phillippe; Newell, Marie-Louise

    2012-01-01

    Breast-feeding substantially increases the risk of HIV-1 transmission from mother to child, and although peripartum antiretroviral therapy prophylaxis significantly decreases the risk of mother-to-child transmission around the time of delivery, this approach does not affect breast-feeding transmission. Increased maternal RNA viral load in plasma and breast milk is strongly associated with increased risk of transmission through breast-feeding, as is breast health, and it has been suggested that exclusive breast-feeding could be associated with lower rates of breast-feeding transmission than mixed feeding of both breast- and other milk or feeds. Transmission through breast-feeding can take place at any point during lactation, and the cumulative probability of acquisition of infection increases with duration of breast-feeding. HIV-1 has been detected in breast milk in cell-free and cellular compartments; infant gut mucosal surfaces are the most likely site at which transmission occurs. Innate and acquired immune factors may act most effectively in combination to prevent primary HIV-1 infection by breast milk. PMID:14722454

  20. Challenges in measuring feed efficiency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The term feed efficiency is vague, and is defined differently by people. Historically, feed efficiency has been defined as the feed:gain (F:G) ratio or the inverse (G:F). Indexes have been developed to rank animals for feed efficiency. These indexes include residual feed intake (RFI) and residual...

  1. Fluidized bed feeding of carbon black particles

    SciTech Connect

    Rybak, W.; Lahaye, J.

    1995-11-01

    Experiments on ignition and combustion of solid fuels and flow measurements (laser doppler velocimetry) require a pulverized fuel or refractory particle powder delivery system. Usually in any experiments involving the study of coal/or carbon and metals combustion, the fuel delivery system supplies particles to an entrained flow furnace or to an open gas flame. The particle feed system is a critical element of the apparatus; the accuracy and reliability of the data obtained form the experiments depend greatly on the system`s capacity to provide a wide range of stable and accurately measured mass flow-rates for different particle sizes over a desired period of time. In this study on combustion kinetics of carbon black particles under pressure, the particles are introduced from a feed system in a dilute, single stream on the center line of the reactor and burned downstream of a variety of premixed flames. The particle feed system is a vital component; its design must be matched to the particle size (below 0.1 micron), particle loading and flow rates required to maintain a uniform and continuous suspension without particle agglomeration, so that a stable particle combustion plume can be obtained. The present work describes a new feeder system capable of delivering small particles (like carbon black) over a wide range of flow-rates at high pressure.

  2. Through-Metal-Wall Power Delivery and Data Transmission for Enclosed Sensors: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ding-Xin; Hu, Zheng; Zhao, Hong; Hu, Hai-Feng; Sun, Yun-Zhe; Hou, Bao-Jian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the current viable technologies for wireless power delivery and data transmission through metal barriers. Using such technologies sensors enclosed in hermetical metal containers can be powered and communicate through exterior power sources without penetration of the metal wall for wire feed-throughs. In this review, we first discuss the significant and essential requirements for through-metal-wall power delivery and data transmission and then we: (1) describe three electromagnetic coupling based techniques reported in the literature, which include inductive coupling, capacitive coupling, and magnetic resonance coupling; (2) present a detailed review of wireless ultrasonic through-metal-wall power delivery and/or data transmission methods; (3) compare various ultrasonic through-metal-wall systems in modeling, transducer configuration and communication mode with sensors; (4) summarize the characteristics of electromagnetic-based and ultrasound-based systems, evaluate the challenges and development trends. We conclude that electromagnetic coupling methods are suitable for through thin non-ferromagnetic metal wall power delivery and data transmission at a relatively low data rate; piezoelectric transducer-based ultrasonic systems are particularly advantageous in achieving high power transfer efficiency and high data rates; the combination of more than one single technique may provide a more practical and reliable solution for long term operation. PMID:26694392

  3. Through-Metal-Wall Power Delivery and Data Transmission for Enclosed Sensors: A Review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ding-Xin; Hu, Zheng; Zhao, Hong; Hu, Hai-Feng; Sun, Yun-Zhe; Hou, Bao-Jian

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this review was to assess the current viable technologies for wireless power delivery and data transmission through metal barriers. Using such technologies sensors enclosed in hermetical metal containers can be powered and communicate through exterior power sources without penetration of the metal wall for wire feed-throughs. In this review, we first discuss the significant and essential requirements for through-metal-wall power delivery and data transmission and then we: (1) describe three electromagnetic coupling based techniques reported in the literature, which include inductive coupling, capacitive coupling, and magnetic resonance coupling; (2) present a detailed review of wireless ultrasonic through-metal-wall power delivery and/or data transmission methods; (3) compare various ultrasonic through-metal-wall systems in modeling, transducer configuration and communication mode with sensors; (4) summarize the characteristics of electromagnetic-based and ultrasound-based systems, evaluate the challenges and development trends. We conclude that electromagnetic coupling methods are suitable for through thin non-ferromagnetic metal wall power delivery and data transmission at a relatively low data rate; piezoelectric transducer-based ultrasonic systems are particularly advantageous in achieving high power transfer efficiency and high data rates; the combination of more than one single technique may provide a more practical and reliable solution for long term operation.

  4. A malfunctioning nasogastric feeding tube.

    PubMed

    Cereda, Emanuele; Costa, Antonio; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Pedrolli, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    A critical point of nasogastric feeding tube placement, potentially resulting in an unsafe and/or non-effective operation of the device, is the monitoring of its proper placement into the stomach. A properly obtained and interpreted radiograph is currently recommended to confirm placement. We reported the case of a 68-year-old demented woman referred for complicated dysphagia. A nasogastric tube was blindly inserted and its placement was confirmed by the radiologist. Enteral nutrition was initiated but the patient began to vomit immediately. After reviewing the radiograph it was understood that a gastric loop in the tube and its tip pointing upwards did not allow a safe infusion of the feeding formula. It is not enough having the radiologist reporting that a nasogastric feeding tube is placed in the stomach; the inclusion in the report of specific warnings on any potential cause of malfunctioning of the device should be considered. The presence of a gastric loop should be taken into account as a cause of potential malfunctioning.

  5. Waste Feed Delivery Purex Process Connector Design Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    BRACKENBURY, P.J.

    2000-04-11

    The pressure retaining capability of the PUREX process connector is documented. A context is provided for the connector's current use within existing Projects. Previous testing and structural analyses campaigns are outlined. The deficient condition of the current inventory of connectors and assembly wrenches is highlighted. A brief history of the connector is provided. A bibliography of pertinent references is included.

  6. Clearing obstructed feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Marcuard, S P; Stegall, K L; Trogdon, S

    1989-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating the ability of six solutions to dissolve clotted enteral feeding, which can cause feeding tube occlusion. The following clotted enteral feeding products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure Plus with added protein (Promod 20 g/liter), Osmolite, Enrich, and Pulmocare. Clot dissolution was then tested by adding Adolf's Meat Tenderizer, Viokase, Sprite, Pepsi, Coke, or Mountain Dew. Distilled water served as control. Dissolution score for each mixture was assessed blindly. Best dissolution was observed with Viokase in pH 7.9 solution (p less than 0.01). Similar results were obtained when feeding tube patency was restored in eight in vitro occluded feeding tubes (Dobbhoff, French size 8) by using first Pepsi (two/eight successful) and then Viokase in pH 7.9 (six/six successful). We also report our experience in the first 10 patients with occluded feeding tubes using this Viokase solution injected through a Drum catheter into the feeding tube. In seven patients, this method proved to be successful, and the reasons for failure in three patients include a knotted tube, impacted tablet powder, and a formula clot fo 24 hr duration and 45 cm in length.

  7. [Decision-making criteria for feeding of newborns: a survey of 308 women].

    PubMed

    Fanello, S; Moreau-Gout, I; Cotinat, J P; Descamps, P

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the women's motivations and hindrances for choosing and keeping on with breast-feeding. The survey was conducted in a group of 308 women chosen at random at least three months after their delivery. Practitioners and midwives submitted to them a self-questionnaire. The survey showed that breast-feeding was chosen only in 51% of the cases and that the average duration was of two months. Women who breast-fed were more than 35 years old, multiparous, having personal history of breast-feeding and having followed the courses of preparation for the delivery. The fear of mammary disease (22%) and the constraints of availability (50%) seem to influence the women towards an artificial feeding. The reflation of breast feeding should have financial and social incentive measures. The frame of breast feeding women should be improved notably by a better training of health professionals.

  8. Feeding regulation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Pool, Allan-Hermann; Scott, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Neuromodulators play a key role in adjusting animal behavior based on environmental cues and internal needs. Here, we review the regulation of Drosophila feeding behavior to illustrate how neuromodulators achieve behavioral plasticity. Recent studies have made rapid progress in determining molecular and cellular mechanisms that translate the metabolic needs of the fly into changes in neuroendocrine and neuromodulatory states. These neuromodulators in turn promote or inhibit discrete feeding behavioral subprograms. This review highlights the links between physiological needs, neuromodulatory states, and feeding decisions. PMID:24937262

  9. Coal feed lock

    DOEpatents

    Pinkel, I. Irving

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  10. Ocular delivery of macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoo-Chun; Chiang, Bryce; Wu, Xianggen; Prausnitz, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Biopharmaceuticals are making increasing impact on medicine, including treatment of indications in the eye. Macromolecular drugs are typically given by physician-administered invasive delivery methods, because non--invasive ocular delivery methods, such as eye drops, and systemic delivery, have low bioavailability and/or poor ocular targeting. There is a need to improve delivery of biopharmaceuticals to enable less-invasive delivery routes, less-frequent dosing through controlled-release drug delivery and improved drug targeting within the eye to increase efficacy and reduce side effects. This review discusses the barriers to drug delivery via various ophthalmic routes of administration in the context of macromolecule delivery and discusses efforts to develop controlled-release systems for delivery of biopharmaceuticals to the eye. The growing number of macromolecular therapies in the eye needs improved drug delivery methods that increase drug efficacy, safety and patient compliance. PMID:24998941

  11. Obstetric and infant feeding practices in Punjab: effect of educational intervention.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A; Gupta, R

    1992-03-01

    A survey of obstetric and infant feeding practices in 100 mothers showed that only 17% infants were exclusively breast fed. Antenatal advice regarding breast feeding was given to only 13%. Sixty eight per cent infants were put to breast 24 hours after delivery. Campaign against bottle feeding was then launched. Fifteen months later, a survey on another 100 mothers showed that 44% infants were exclusively breast-fed, antenatal advice was given to 11% mothers and 60% mothers got active postnatal advice regarding disadvantages of bottle feeds. Incidence of exclusive breast feeding was more in infants who were roomed-in with the mother early, started on breast feeding earlier and whose mothers received antenatal advice. It was concluded that even if the percentage of antenatal advice did not improve, active postnatal campaign directed towards dangers of bottle feeding could increase the prevalence of exclusive breast feeding.

  12. Determinants of using pacifier and bottle feeding

    PubMed Central

    Buccini, Gabriela dos Santos; Benício, Maria Helena D’Aquino; Venancio, Sonia Isoyama

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with the use of pacifiers and/or bottle feeding in infants aged under one year. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with 34,366 children and using data from the database of the 2nd Nationwide Survey of Breastfeeding Prevalence performed in the Brazilian capitals and Federal District in 2008. Cluster sampling was used. The questionnaire included questions about the use of artificial nipples in the last 24 hours. The analysis considered three outcomes: exclusive use of pacifier, exclusive use of bottle feeding, and use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding). Prevalence ratios were obtained using Poisson regression with robust variance following a hierarchical model. RESULTS The following factors were associated with exclusive use of the pacifier: mother working outside the home, primiparity, child was not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, low birth weight, child not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed milk formula and tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding): mother working outside the home, primiparity, cesarean delivery, the male gender, low birth weight, born in a hospital not accredited as “baby friendly”, required health baby monitoring in the Primary Health Care Unit (PR = 0.91), and child had consumed milk formula, water, or tea on the first day at home. CONCLUSIONS This study identified profiles of exclusive users of pacifiers, bottle feeding, and both. The provided information can guide preventive practices for child health. PMID:25210816

  13. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000803.htm Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding To use the sharing features ... best for you and your family. Benefits of Breastfeeding Breastfeeding is a wonderful way to bond with ...

  14. Feeding Your Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... you choose to breastfeed or formula feed. About Breastfeeding Breastfeeding your newborn has many advantages. Perhaps most ... to care for her newborn. continue Limitations of Breastfeeding With all the good things known about breastfeeding, ...

  15. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. ... for you and your baby. continue All About Breastfeeding Nursing can be a wonderful experience for both ...

  16. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump

    MedlinePlus

    ... before use. DO NOT add more formula or solid foods before you talk to your nurse. Feeding ... MD, gastroenterologist with Gastrointestinal Specialists of Georgia, Austell, GA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed ...

  17. Feeding tube - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... NG - infants Images Feeding tube References Kim YS. Nasogastric and nasoenteric tube insertion. In: Pfenninger JL, Fowler GC, eds. Pfenninger and Fowler's Procedures for Primary Care . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2011:chap ...

  18. [Maternal body mass index and breast feeding].

    PubMed

    Driul, L; Forzano, L; Londero, A P; Fachechi, G; Liva, S; Marchesoni, D

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine whether maternal BMI influences breast-feeding practice in quality and duration A retrospective case-control study were included Fifty women with Body Max Index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2 considered overweigh and obese and fifty controls with BMI<25 kg/m2 who delivered in our clinic between 2010 and 2011. The incidence of breast-feeding was significantly lower in overweight and obese women compared with normal weight. Breastfeeding length was negatively related to prepregnancy BMI but not to gestational weight gain, method of delivery or lactation integration. Obese women presented an elevated Body Max Index one year apart from childbirth and are correlated to maternal complications during breastfeeding. Maternal overweight and obesity is negatively correlated to duration and quality of lactation.

  19. Postsurgical decompression and immediate elemental feeding.

    PubMed

    Moss, G

    1977-05-01

    The paralytic ileus, poor nutritional state, and related complications that often develop following serious serious abdominal surgery have traditionally been accepted as unavoidable. Now, a nasogastric decompression and feeding tube is availabe that usually prevents paralytic ileus and also provides a complete liquid diet starting immedicately after the operation, thus speeding wound healing and recivery.

  20. Welding torch and wire feed manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. T.

    1967-01-01

    Welding torch and wire feed manipulator increase capability for performing automatic welding operations. The manipulator rotates on its horizontal axis to avoid obstacles as they approach the torch. The initial individual attitudes of the torch and wire guide are set with respect to the general configuration of the part.

  1. Sanitation & Safety for Child Feeding Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Tallahassee.

    In the interest of promoting good health, sanitation, and safety practices in the operation of child feeding programs, this bulletin discusses practices in personal grooming and wearing apparel; the purchasing, storage, handling, and serving of food; sanitizing equipment and utensils; procedures to follow in case of a food poisoning outbreak; some…

  2. Intermittent bolus feeding has a greater stimulatory effect on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle than continuous feeding in neonatal pigs.

    PubMed

    Gazzaneo, María C; Suryawan, Agus; Orellana, Renán A; Torrazza, Roberto Murgas; El-Kadi, Samer W; Wilson, Fiona A; Kimball, Scot R; Srivastava, Neeraj; Nguyen, Hanh V; Fiorotto, Marta L; Davis, Teresa A

    2011-12-01

    Orogastric tube feeding, using either continuous or intermittent bolus delivery, is common in infants for whom normal feeding is contraindicated. To compare the impact of different feeding strategies on muscle protein synthesis, after withholding food overnight, neonatal pigs received a complete formula orally as a bolus feed every 4 h or were continuously fed. Protein synthesis rate and translational mechanisms in skeletal muscle were examined after 0, 24, and 25.5 h. Plasma amino acid and insulin concentrations increased minimally and remained constant in continuously fed compared to feed-deprived pigs; however, the pulsatile meal feeding pattern was mimicked in bolus-fed pigs. Muscle protein synthesis was stimulated by feeding and the greatest response occurred after a bolus meal. Bolus but not continuous feeds increased polysome aggregation, the phosphorylation of protein kinase B, tuberous sclerosis complex 2, proline-rich Akt substrate of 40 kDa, eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E binding protein (4EBP1), and rp S6 kinase and enhanced dissociation of the 4EBP1 ·eIF4E complex and formation of the eIF4E ·eIF4G complex compared to feed deprivation (P < 0.05). Activation of insulin receptor substrate-1, regulatory associated protein of mammalian target of rapamycin, AMP-activated protein kinase, eukaryotic elongation factor 2, and eIF2α phosphorylation were unaffected by either feeding modality. These results suggest that in neonates, intermittent bolus feeding enhances muscle protein synthesis to a greater extent than continuous feeding by eliciting a pulsatile pattern of amino acid- and insulin-induced translation initiation.

  3. Power delivery system

    SciTech Connect

    Moroto, S.; Sakakibara, S.

    1987-06-16

    This patent describes a power delivery system for connecting a transmission to an output shaft of an engine, the transmission including a dog clutch for establishing a power transmission route by the engagement of the dog clutch, the power delivery system comprising; a clutch for disconnecting the engagement between an output member of the fluid coupling and the output shaft when the dog clutch is operated in order to switch between an on-state and an off-state. The clutch includes a clutch plate case in the form of a hollow cylinder which is connected to the turbine shell. A clutch disk wheel connected to the output shaft. A first set of clutch plates supports the clutch plate case, and a second set of clutch plates supports the clutch disk wheel. The first and second sets of clutch plates are positioned within the case adjacent the radially inward periphery of the fluid coupling; the clutch is engaged when the first and second sets of clutch plates are selectively pressed; an oil pump for supplying oil into the fluid coupling case; and the oil pump positioned within the case adjacent the radially inward periphery of the clutch.

  4. Breast feeding in IMD.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, A; Depondt, E; Evans, S; Daly, A; Hendriksz, C; Chakrapani A, A; Saudubray, J-M

    2006-01-01

    Breast feeding has proven benefits for many infants with inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs) but, with the exception of phenylketonuria, there are few reports in other conditions. A questionnaire, completed by dietitians and clinicians from 27 IMD centres from 15 countries (caring for a total of over 8000 patients with IMDs on diet) identified breast feeding experience in IMD. Successful, demand breast feeding (in combination with an infant amino acid formula free of precursor amino acids) was reported in 17 infants with MSUD, 14 with tyrosinaemia type I, and 5 with homocystinuria. Eighty-nine per cent were still breast fed at 16 weeks. Fewer infants with organic acidaemias were demand breast fed (7 with propionic acidaemia; 6 with methylmalonic acidaemia and 13 with isovaleric acidaemia) (usually preceded by complementary feeds of a protein-free infant formula or infant amino acid formula free of precursor amino acids). Only 12 infants with urea cycle disorders were given demand breast feeds, but this was unsuccessful beyond 8 days in CPS deficiency. Further work is needed in developing guidelines for feeding and for clinical and biochemical monitoring for breast-fed infants with IMDs.

  5. [Interventions during labor for reducing instrumental deliveries].

    PubMed

    Schmitz, T; Meunier, E

    2008-12-01

    Several interventions have been demonstrated, with high evidence levels (EL), to be associated with reduced instrumental deliveries and should therefore be undertaken during labor for increasing spontaneous vaginal deliveries. Using a partogram (EL1) and continuous support during labor and childbirth (EL1) lead to fewer operative vaginal deliveries. Systematic early amniotomy increases the frequency of fetal heart rate abnormalities (EL2) without decreasing the incidence of instrumental deliveries (EL1) and should thus be avoided. Early oxytocin in dysfunctional labor (EL2) and manual rotation of posterior and transverse presentations (EL3) may reduce operative vaginal deliveries. Even without epidural analgesia, any upright or lateral positions compared to supine or lithotomy positions do not reduce instrumental deliveries (EL2). Epidural analgesia alters significantly instrumental delivery rates and therefore patient management in the labor ward. Indeed, when used with high concentration of local anesthetic, epidural analgesia is associated with increased operative vaginal deliveries (EL1), at least in part because of increased posterior presentations (EL2). However, the effect of epidural analgesia on instrumental delivery rates closely depends from the type of anesthetic and concentrations used. This effect is reduced when low concentrations of local anesthetic are used in combination with fat-soluble morphinated agent (EL1). Finally, for nulliparous women with continuous epidural analgesia, unless irresistible urge to push or medical indication to shorten second stage of labor, delayed pushing is associated with reduced difficult instrumental deliveries (EL1). Fundal pressure maneuvers should be prohibited because of their inefficiency (EL2) and dangerousness (EL4).

  6. Apparatus and method for feeding coal into a coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Bissett, Larry A.; Friggens, Gary R.; McGee, James P.

    1979-01-01

    This invention is directed to a system for feeding coal into a gasifier operating at high pressures. A coal-water slurry is pumped to the desired pressure and then the coal is "dried" prior to feeding the coal into the gasifier by contacting the slurry with superheated steam in an entrained bed dryer for vaporizing the water in the slurry.

  7. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The...

  8. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The...

  9. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The...

  10. Network-aware scalable video monitoring system for emergency situations with operator-managed fidelity control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Hadhrami, Tawfik; Nightingale, James M.; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos

    2014-05-01

    In emergency situations, the ability to remotely monitor unfolding events using high-quality video feeds will significantly improve the incident commander's understanding of the situation and thereby aids effective decision making. This paper presents a novel, adaptive video monitoring system for emergency situations where the normal communications network infrastructure has been severely impaired or is no longer operational. The proposed scheme, operating over a rapidly deployable wireless mesh network, supports real-time video feeds between first responders, forward operating bases and primary command and control centers. Video feeds captured on portable devices carried by first responders and by static visual sensors are encoded in H.264/SVC, the scalable extension to H.264/AVC, allowing efficient, standard-based temporal, spatial, and quality scalability of the video. A three-tier video delivery system is proposed, which balances the need to avoid overuse of mesh nodes with the operational requirements of the emergency management team. In the first tier, the video feeds are delivered at a low spatial and temporal resolution employing only the base layer of the H.264/SVC video stream. Routing in this mode is designed to employ all nodes across the entire mesh network. In the second tier, whenever operational considerations require that commanders or operators focus on a particular video feed, a `fidelity control' mechanism at the monitoring station sends control messages to the routing and scheduling agents in the mesh network, which increase the quality of the received picture using SNR scalability while conserving bandwidth by maintaining a low frame rate. In this mode, routing decisions are based on reliable packet delivery with the most reliable routes being used to deliver the base and lower enhancement layers; as fidelity is increased and more scalable layers are transmitted they will be assigned to routes in descending order of reliability. The third tier

  11. New options for pumps and tubes: progress in enteral feeding techniques and devices.

    PubMed

    Varella, L D; Young, R J

    1999-07-01

    In the past, blenderized tube feeds prepared in the hospital kitchen were delivered by bolus or gravity at intervals of 4-6 h. These methods lack consistent steady flow and many times are not a safe mode of delivery for those at risk of vomiting and aspiration, and cause more patient discomfort than nutritional benefit. More recently, enteral feeding administration techniques and devices have been developed for the delivery of commercially prepared enteral formulas designed for specific disease states. These technological advances have improved enteral feeding practices.

  12. [Breast feeding rates and factors influencing breast feeding practice in late preterm infants: comparison with preterm born at less than 34 weeks of gestational age].

    PubMed

    Jang, Gun Ja; Lee, Sang Lak; Kim, Hyeon Mi

    2012-04-01

    This study was done to compare breast feeding rates and factors influencing feeding practice between late preterm (34 ≤ GA < 37) and preterm infants (GA<34). A survey was done of 207 late preterm and 117 preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) of 4 university hospitals in D city. Data were collected from July 2009 to June 2010 from 324 medical records in the NICU. Breast-feeding at home was checked either by telephone survey or questioning during hospital visits. Rate of breast feeding for late preterm infants was significantly lower than for preterm infants. There was no significant difference in breast-feeding at home. We found differences in factors influencing breast feeding between the two groups. Factors influencing feeding for late preterm infants were type of delivery, mothers' occupation, feeding type during hospitalization, time elapse from hospital discharge, total admission days, infant's body weight at first feeding and length of NPO (nothing by mouth). Factors influencing feeding for preterm infants were birth order, maternal disease and obstetric complications, and one-minute Apgar score. Results of the study show low rates of breast-feeding for late preterm infants indicating a need for breast-feeding education for mothers of these infants.

  13. Final wash precipitate feed simulants for DWPF Cold Chemical Runs

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, J.C.

    1992-05-15

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is scheduled to start non-radioactive process operation in September, 1992. The Cold Chemical Runs will demonstrate acceptable process operation and provide data required to satisfy the Waste Compliance Plan. Five basic sludge simulants will be required for these tests. Two basic precipitate simulants will be needed to operate the Salt Processing Cell with and without mercury in the precipitate feed. Precipitate feed simulant specifications for DWPF Cold Chemical Runs are revised in this report. All previous specifications of precipitate feed simulants for DWPF Cold Chemical Runs (CCRs) are superceded by this document. The revision is needed to (1) eliminate use of hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) in the precipitate process operation, (2) simulate the projected composition of the precipitate feed to DWPF produced by final washing to reduce the nitrite concentration to [le] 0.01M without washing the simulated feed, (3) delete organic trim chemical additions to the precipitate feed and (4) specify an additive to prevent foaming of the precipitate. Two specifications are provided to operate the Salt Processing Cell with mercury (Tests 5 6) and without mercury (Tests 1--4) in the precipitate feed.

  14. Final wash precipitate feed simulants for DWPF Cold Chemical Runs

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, J.C.

    1992-05-15

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is scheduled to start non-radioactive process operation in September, 1992. The Cold Chemical Runs will demonstrate acceptable process operation and provide data required to satisfy the Waste Compliance Plan. Five basic sludge simulants will be required for these tests. Two basic precipitate simulants will be needed to operate the Salt Processing Cell with and without mercury in the precipitate feed. Precipitate feed simulant specifications for DWPF Cold Chemical Runs are revised in this report. All previous specifications of precipitate feed simulants for DWPF Cold Chemical Runs (CCRs) are superceded by this document. The revision is needed to (1) eliminate use of hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) in the precipitate process operation, (2) simulate the projected composition of the precipitate feed to DWPF produced by final washing to reduce the nitrite concentration to {le} 0.01M without washing the simulated feed, (3) delete organic trim chemical additions to the precipitate feed and (4) specify an additive to prevent foaming of the precipitate. Two specifications are provided to operate the Salt Processing Cell with mercury (Tests 5&6) and without mercury (Tests 1--4) in the precipitate feed.

  15. Proceedings of the conference on Coal Feeding Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Development of coal feed systems for coal gasification, fluidized bed combustion, and magnetohydrodynamic applications is discussed. Process operations experience, energy conversion efficiency, and environment effects are among the factors considered.

  16. Experience in feeding coal into a liquefaction process development unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akhtar, S.; Friedman, S.; Mazzocco, N. J.; Yavorsky, P. M.

    1977-01-01

    A system for preparing coal slurry and feeding it into a high pressure liquefaction plant is described. The system was developed to provide supporting research and development for the Bureau of Mines coal liquefaction pilot plant. Operating experiences are included.

  17. Computer program for machine design of Cassegrain feed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, P. D.

    1968-01-01

    Program designs the feed system geometry and the subreflector surface, with the main reflector configuration and frequency of operation as input data. Although the feedhorn is not designed, its required gain, beamwidth, and approximate radiation pattern are specified.

  18. [Enteral tube feeding].

    PubMed

    Haller, Alois

    2014-03-01

    Tube feeding is an integral part of medical therapies, and can be easily managed also in the outpatient setting. Tube feeding by the stomach or small intestine with nasogastral or nasojejunal tubes is common in clinical practice. Long-term nutrition is usually provided through a permanent tube, i. e. a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). Modern portable nutrition pumps are used to cover the patient's nutritional needs. Enteral nutrition is always indicated if patients can not or should not eat or if nutritional requirements cannot be covered within 3 days after an intervention, e. g. after abdominal surgery. Industrially produced tube feedings with defined substrate concentrations are being used; different compositions of nutrients, such as glutamine fish oil etc., are used dependent on the the condition of the patient. Enteral nutrition may be associated with complications of the tube, e. g. dislocation, malposition or obstruction, as well as the feeding itself, e. g.hyperglycaemia, electrolyte disturbances, refeeding syndrome diarrhea or aspiration). However, the benefit of tube feeding usually exceeds the potential harm substantially.

  19. Review: Quantifying animal feeding behaviour with a focus on pigs.

    PubMed

    Maselyne, Jarissa; Saeys, Wouter; Van Nuffel, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    The study of animal feeding behaviour is of interest to understand feeding, to investigate the effect of treatments and conditions or to predict illness. This paper reviews the different steps to undertake when studying animal feeding behaviour, with illustrations for group-housed pigs. First, one must be aware of the mechanisms that control feeding and the various influences that can change feeding behaviour. Satiety is shown to largely influence free feeding (ad libitum and without an operant condition) in animals, but 'free' feeding seems a very fragile process, given the many factors that can influence feeding behaviour. Second, a measurement method must be chosen that is compatible with the goal of the research. Several measurement methods exist, which lead to different experimental set-ups and measurement data. Sensors are available for lab conditions, for research on group-housed pigs and also for on-farm use. Most of these methods result in a record of feeding visits. However, these feeding visits are often found to be clustered into meals. Thus, the third step is to choose which unit of feeding behaviour to use for analysis. Depending on the situation, either meals, feeding visits, other raw data, or a combination thereof can be suitable. Meals are more appropriate for analysing short-term feeding behaviour, but this may not be true for disease detection. Further research is therefore needed. To cluster visits into meals, an appropriate analysis method has to be selected. The last part of this paper provides a review and discussion of the existing methods for meal determination. A variety of methods exist, with the most recent methods based on the influence of satiety on feeding. More thorough validation of the recent methods, including validation from a behavioural point of view and uniformity in the applied methods is therefore necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fathers' child feeding practices: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Khandpur, Neha; Blaine, Rachel E; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; Davison, Kirsten K

    2014-07-01

    Despite their expanding role in child rearing, fathers are underrepresented in child feeding research. To address this knowledge gap and encourage father-focused research, this review compiles child feeding research that has included fathers and (i) documents characteristics of studies assessing fathers' feeding practices including study design, setting, recruitment strategies, participant characteristics, theoretical models utilized and measures of child feeding, (ii) outlines general patterns in fathers' feeding practices along with similarities and differences in mothers' and fathers' feeding practices, (iii) summarizes evidence on child and parent correlates of fathers' feeding practices and (iv) generates future research recommendations. A literature review of relevant articles published up to February 2014 was conducted. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they: (i) included fathers, or primary male caregivers, of children 2-18 years of age, (ii) measured fathers' child feeding practices or perceived role in child feeding through objective (e.g., meal observations) or subjective (i.e., fathers' self-report) methods, (iii) analyzed and presented data on fathers separately from mothers and (iv) were published in a peer reviewed journal in the English language. Twenty studies met eligibility criteria. Few studies included an operational definition of "father". Samples were generally small and focused on white, well-educated fathers, cohabiting with the child's mother. Most studies utilized self-report measures of child feeding practices that have not been validated specifically for use with fathers. Pressuring children to eat was a common feeding strategy adopted by fathers. Some differences were noted in mothers' and fathers' feeding practices; fathers were generally less likely to monitor children's food intake and to limit access to food compared with mothers. Child adiposity and a range of child and parent characteristics were associated with fathers