Science.gov

Sample records for feed materials production center

  1. Feed Materials Production Center annual environmental report for calendar 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Dugan, T.A.; Gels, G.L.; Oberjohn, J.S.; Rogers, L.K.

    1990-10-01

    The mission of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) has been to process uranium for United States' defense programs. On July 10, 1989, the FMPC suspended production operations, but remains on standby for certain segments of production. The FMPC also manages the storage of some radioactive and hazardous materials. As part of its operations, the FMPC continuously monitors the environment to determine that it is operating within federal and state standards and guidelines regarding emission of radioactive and nonradioactive materials. Data collected from the FMPC monitoring program are used to calculate estimates of radiation dose for residents due to FMPC operations. For 1989, the estimate of dose through the air pathway, excluding radon, indicated that people in the area were exposed to less than 6% of the DOE guideline established to protect the public from radiation exposure. When radon emissions are included, the dose from FMPC operations during 1989 was less than 22% of the annual background radiation dose in the Greater Cincinnati area. This report is a summary of FMPC's environmental activities and monitoring program for 1989. An Environmental Compliance Self-Assessment presents the FMPC's efforts to comply with environmental regulations through June 1990. 44 refs., 48 figs.

  2. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Feed Materials Production Center, Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the environmental survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), conducted June 16 through 27, 1986. The survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the FMPC. The survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at FMPC, and interviews with site personnel. The survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its onsite activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by a DOE national laboratory or a support contractor. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the FMPC Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the FMPC survey. 41 refs., 20 figs., 25 tabs.

  3. Radiological environmental pathway screening analysis for the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Eckart, R.; Carr, D.; Conner, B.; Janke, R.; Janke, R.

    1989-11-01

    The University of Cincinnati is working with the Westinghouse Materials Company of Ohio (WMCO) to develop remedial action residual radioactive material soil guidelines for the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC). As a first step in developing these soil guidelines, a radiological environmental pathway screening analysis was performed. The purpose of the pathway screening analysis was to identify the radionuclides and environmental pathways that would lead to the highest exposure or dose to humans from residual radioactivity in the soil at the FMPC. In addition, the screening analysis identifies those pathways that are critical to a particular radioisotope.

  4. Reproduction and growth in American robins at the Feed Materials Production Center

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, D.R.; Jones, F.A. . Dept. of Zoology)

    1991-01-01

    Birds have been useful in environmental monitoring within forest ecosystems and at a variety of industrial sites. Growth analyses have been shown to be a sensitive measure of environmental stress in gulls, eagles, and in passerine birds. As part of an intensive year-long baseline ecological study investigations were initiated in late spring 1987 in order to characterize growth and reproductive success in Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura) and American Robins (Turdus migratorius) at the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC). The current study was initiated in order to determine whether the pattern of suppressed growth and reproduction in FMPC birds still existed onsite. We selected only American robins (Turdus migratorius) for study because they appeared the most severely affected in 1987. 44 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Environment, safety and health compliance assessment, Feed Materials Production Center, Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    The Secretary of Energy established independent Tiger Teams to conduct environment, safety, and health (ES H) compliance assessments at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. This report presents the assessment of the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) at Fernald, Ohio. The purpose of the assessment at FMPC is to provide the Secretary with information regarding current ES H compliance status, specific ES H noncompliance items, evaluation of the adequacy of the ES H organizations and resources (DOE and contractor), and root causes for noncompliance items. Areas reviewed included performance under Federal, state, and local agreements and permits; compliance with Federal, state and DOE orders and requirements; adequacy of operations and other site activities, such as training, procedures, document control, quality assurance, and emergency preparedness; and management and staff, including resources, planning, and interactions with outside agencies.

  6. Radon suppression in storage silos at the United States Department of Energy Feed Material Production Center, Fernald, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Land, R.R. ); Biancheria, A. ); Craig, J.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Two silos at the Department of Energy Feed Material Production Facility in Fernald, Ohio, contain an estimated 8800 metric tons of high-grade pitchblende ore residue solids, which contain approximately 3,300 curies (Ci) of radium and 1810 Ci of thorium. These silos are the subject of an on-going CERCLA RI/F Program. Fugitive radon emissions from the silos exceed EPA limits. In addition, structural analyses have revealed that the silos have little credible remaining design life. While pursuing final remediation, a removal action is being taken to address the current situation. The removal action entails the emplacement of a covering layer of bentonite slurry inside the silos. The bentonite will reduce the fugitive emissions to EPA limits and mitigate the effects of dome structural failure, while presenting minimum impact on potential final remedial action alternatives for the silos. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Occurrence of uranium in ground water in the vicinity of the U.S. Department of Energy Feed Materials Production Center, Fernald, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedam, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    Process wastes are stored on site in rubber-lined and clay-lined pits and in large tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), where purified uranium and uranium compounds are produced. Water samples collected from off-site domestic and commercial wells in December 1981 and in August 1982, contained concentrations of dissolved uranium that ranged from < 0.4 to 430 micrograms/L (ug/L). The wells whose samples contained unusual concentrations of uranium (> 10 ug/L) lie roughly along a line extending about 2000 ft south from the southern boundary of FMPC. The offsite area affected by these concentrations is probably < 100 acres. It is not possible to determine the exact point of origination of contaminants in the groundwater on the basis of available data. (Author 's abstract)

  8. Measurements of radon, thoron, isotopic uranium and thorium to determine occupational and environmental exposure and risk at Fernald Feed Materials Production Center. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, N.H.

    1998-06-01

    'The research objectives of this report are: (1) To develop an accurate personal radon/thoron monitor to quantitate exposure during remediation. This personal monitor is a miniaturization and modification of the area {sup 222}Rn monitor that has proven accuracy and precision. (2) To develop a personal aerosol particle size sampler, based on the principles of the novel sampler the author has developed. The sampler measures not only {sup 222}Rn decay product aerosol size but long lived nuclides. There are, as yet, no size distribution data on the aerosol particle size distribution of these nuclides during remediation, yet the aerosol particle size is the major determinant of lung dose. (3) To develop the sequential radiochemistry necessary to measure any environmental sample for {sup 228,230,232}Th, {sup 226,228}Ra, {sup 234,235,238}U and {sup 210}Pb. To utilize the radiochemistry to accurately trace and delineate these nuclides in the environment. To obtain historic and present radiochemical data to understand the need for supplemental soil/water etc. measurements.'

  9. Validation study of a lateral-flow immunoassay for detection of ruminant by-product material in animal feeds and feed ingredients.

    PubMed

    Klein, Frank; Lupo, Tony; Pielack, Don; Mozola, Mark

    2005-01-01

    An immunoassay with a lateral flow format has been developed for the detection of ruminant by-product material in animal feeds and feed ingredients. The test is designed for the analysis of animal feeds destined for feeding to ruminants to ensure that they do not contain ruminant by-products in violation of the ruminant-to-ruminant feed ban established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1997. This feed ban was established as a firewall against exposure of ruminant livestock animals to the prion agents responsible for neurological diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie. The test is designed for field use, e.g., at a feed mill, and yields a qualitative (presence/absence) result in 15-20 min. The objective of the study was to validate the lateral-flow test for detection of ruminant by-product material in a variety of finished animal feeds and feed ingredients. Results indicate that the test is specific for ruminant material and can detect as little as 1% ruminant material in these commodities. PMID:16526437

  10. Feeding Livestock. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Boyd C.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit on feeding livestock contains nine lessons based upon competencies needed to be a livestock producer. The lessons in this unit cover the importance of good feeding practices, the identification of nutritional needs and the composition of feeds for…

  11. Potential utilization of bagasse as feed material for earthworm Eisenia fetida and production of vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Sartaj Ahmad; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2015-01-01

    In the present work bagasse (B) i.e waste of the sugar industry, was fed to Eisenia fetida with cattle dung (CD) support as feed material at various ratios (waste: CD) of 0:100 (B0), 25:75 (B25), 50:50 (B50), 75:25 (B75) and 100:0 (B100) on dry weight basis. Co-composting with cattle dung helped to improve their acceptability for E. fetida and also improved physico-chemical characteristics. Best appropriate ratio for survival, maximum growth and population buildup of E. fetida was determined by observing population buildup, growth rate, biomass, mortality and cocoon formation. Minimum mortality and highest population size of worms was observed in 50:50 (B50) ratio. Increasing concentrations of wastes significantly affected the growth and reproduction of worms. Nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and sodium increased from pre-vermicompost to post-vermicompost, while organic carbon, and C:N ratio decreased in all the end products of post-vermicomposting. Heavy metals decreased significantly from initial except zinc, iron and manganese which increased significantly. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to recognize the changes in texture in the pre and post-vermicomposted samples. The post-vermicomposted ratios in the presence of earthworms validate more surface changes that prove to be good manure. The results observed from the present study indicated that the earthworm E. fetida was able to change bagasse waste into nutrient-rich manure and thus play a major role in industrial waste management. PMID:25625035

  12. Potential utilization of bagasse as feed material for earthworm Eisenia fetida and production of vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Sartaj Ahmad; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2015-01-01

    In the present work bagasse (B) i.e waste of the sugar industry, was fed to Eisenia fetida with cattle dung (CD) support as feed material at various ratios (waste: CD) of 0:100 (B0), 25:75 (B25), 50:50 (B50), 75:25 (B75) and 100:0 (B100) on dry weight basis. Co-composting with cattle dung helped to improve their acceptability for E. fetida and also improved physico-chemical characteristics. Best appropriate ratio for survival, maximum growth and population buildup of E. fetida was determined by observing population buildup, growth rate, biomass, mortality and cocoon formation. Minimum mortality and highest population size of worms was observed in 50:50 (B50) ratio. Increasing concentrations of wastes significantly affected the growth and reproduction of worms. Nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and sodium increased from pre-vermicompost to post-vermicompost, while organic carbon, and C:N ratio decreased in all the end products of post-vermicomposting. Heavy metals decreased significantly from initial except zinc, iron and manganese which increased significantly. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to recognize the changes in texture in the pre and post-vermicomposted samples. The post-vermicomposted ratios in the presence of earthworms validate more surface changes that prove to be good manure. The results observed from the present study indicated that the earthworm E. fetida was able to change bagasse waste into nutrient-rich manure and thus play a major role in industrial waste management.

  13. THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CENTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ARTZ, DELPHINE; AND OTHERS

    THIS BULLETIN PRESENTS RECOMMENDATIONS WITH REGARD TO PROGRAM, PERSONNEL, AND FACILITIES FOR AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CENTER. IT INCLUDES UTILIZATION, MATERIALS, FACILITIES, ORGANIZATION AND LAYOUTS FOR AN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CENTER. CASE STUDIES AND EXAMPLES ARE PROVIDED FOR MAKING THE MAXIMUM POSSIBLE USAGE OF THE CENTER WITHIN BOTH THE…

  14. Product consistency test round robin conducted by the Materials Characterization Center - Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, G.F.; Jones, T.E.; Eggett, D.L.; Mellinger, G.B.

    1989-09-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) Product Consistency Test (PCT) was developed as a short duration leach test that could be used to evaluate the consistency of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) glass. The goals were to develop a test that would be sensitive to glass composition and homogeneity, rapid enough to support quality control of the production process, and easily conducted remotely to facilitate working with highly radioactive materials. The long-term SRL goal is to show that the PCT can be used to demonstrate that DWPF glass meets the elemental and radionuclide release requirements of the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS). The Materials Characterization Center (MCC) at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was requested by SRL to conduct a multi-laboratory round robin to evaluate the effectiveness of the PCT methodology. 12 figs., 10 tabs.

  15. Structured catalyst bed and method for conversion of feed materials to chemical products and liquid fuels

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Yong , Liu; Wei

    2012-01-24

    The present invention is a structured monolith reactor and method that provides for controlled Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The invention controls mass transport limitations leading to higher CO conversion and lower methane selectivity. Over 95 wt % of the total product liquid hydrocarbons obtained from the monolithic catalyst are in the carbon range of C.sub.5-C.sub.18. The reactor controls readsorption of olefins leading to desired products with a preselected chain length distribution and enhanced overall reaction rate. And, liquid product analysis shows readsorption of olefins is reduced, achieving a narrower FT product distribution.

  16. Apparatus for continuous feed material melting

    DOEpatents

    Surma, Jeffrey E.; Perez, Jr., Joseph M.

    1998-01-01

    The apparatus of the present invention is a melter housing having a pretreat chamber heated with a feed material heater that is partially isolated from a melter chamber. The method of the present invention has the steps of introducing feed material into a pretreat chamber and heating the feed material to a softening temperature of the feed material, and passing the pretreated feed material to a melter chamber.

  17. Feeding cotton products to cattle.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C

    2002-07-01

    Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities. PMID:12235661

  18. Development of New Materials and Technologies for Welding and Surfacing at Research and Production Center "Welding Processes and Technologies"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, N. A.; Kryukov, R. E.; Galevsky, G. V.; Titov, D. A.; Shurupov, V. M.

    2015-09-01

    The paper provides description of research into the influence of new materials and technologies on quality parameters of welds and added metal carried out at research and production center «Welding processes and technologies». New welding technologies of tanks for northern conditions are considered, as well as technologies of submerged arc welding involving fluxing agents AN - 348, AN - 60, AN - 67, OK. 10.71 and carbon-fluorine containing additives, new flux cored wires and surfacing technologies, teaching programs and a trainer for welders are designed.

  19. Estimation of costs for control of Salmonella in high-risk feed materials and compound feed

    PubMed Central

    Wierup, Martin; Widell, Stig

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Feed is a potential and major source for introducing Salmonella into the animal-derived food chain. This is given special attention in the European Union (EU) efforts to minimize human food-borne Salmonella infections from animal-derived food. The objective of this study was to estimate the total extra cost for preventing Salmonella contamination of feed above those measures required to produce commercial feed according to EU regulation (EC) No 183/2005. The study was carried out in Sweden, a country where Salmonella infections in food-producing animals from feed have largely been eliminated. Methods On the initiative and leadership of the competent authority, the different steps of feed production associated with control of Salmonella contamination were identified. Representatives for the major feed producers operating in the Swedish market then independently estimated the annual mean costs during the years 2009 and 2010. The feed producers had no known incentives to underestimate the costs. Results and discussion The total cost for achieving a Salmonella-safe compound feed, when such a control is established, was estimated at 1.8–2.3 € per tonne of feed. Of that cost, 25% relates to the prevention of Salmonella contaminated high-risk vegetable feed materials (mainly soybean meal and rapeseed meal) from entering feed mills, and 75% for measures within the feed mills. Based on the feed formulations applied, those costs in relation to the farmers’ 2012 price for compound feed were almost equal for broilers and dairy cows (0.7%). Due to less use of protein concentrate to fatten pigs, the costs were lower (0.6%). These limited costs suggest that previous recommendations to enforce a Salmonella-negative policy for animal feed are realistic and economically feasible to prevent a dissemination of the pathogen to animal herds, their environment, and potentially to human food products. PMID:24959328

  20. Inline evenflow material distributor for pneumatic material feed systems

    DOEpatents

    Thiry, Michael J.

    2007-02-20

    An apparatus for reducing clogs in a pneumatic material feed line, such as employed in abrasive waterjet machining systems, by providing an evenflow feed of material therethrough. The apparatus preferably includes a hollow housing defining a housing volume and having an inlet capable of connecting to an upstream portion of the pneumatic material feed line, an outlet capable of connecting to a downstream portion of the pneumatic material feed line, and an air vent located between the inlet and outlet for venting excess air pressure out from the housing volume. A diverter, i.e. an impingement object, is located at the inlet and in a path of incoming material from the upstream portion of the pneumatic material feed line, to break up clumps of ambient moisture-ridden material impinging on the diverter. And one or more filter screens is also preferably located in the housing volume to further break up clumps and provide filtering.

  1. Biological and ecological site characterization of the Feed Materials Production Center, June 1986--June 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Facemire, C.F.; Guttman, S.I.; Osborne, D.R.; Sperger, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    This section summarizes field and laboratory studies conducted at the FMPC from June, 1986 through June, 1987. The major items to be accomplished per contract were (1) plan and lay-out permanent transects to be utilized in gathering biological and ecological data, (2) identify aquatic and terrestrial life forms within the environs of the FMPC, (3) prepare a catalog documenting the location and associated habitat of all species found, (4) determine species distribution and abundance, (5) determine the possibility of stress-induced differences between onsite and offsite plant and animal populations using electrophoretic techniques, and (6) interpret the results of the study.

  2. Species identification of processed animal proteins (PAPs) in animal feed containing feed materials from animal origin.

    PubMed

    Axmann, Sonja; Adler, Andreas; Brandstettner, Agnes Josephine; Spadinger, Gabriela; Weiss, Roland; Strnad, Irmengard

    2015-01-01

    Since June 2013 the total feed ban of processed animal proteins (PAPs) was partially lifted. Now it is possible to mix fish feed with PAPs from non-ruminants (pig and poultry). To guarantee that fish feed, which contains non-ruminant PAPs, is free of ruminant PAPs, it has to be analysed with a ruminant PCR assay to comply with the total ban of feeding PAPs from ruminants. However, PCR analysis cannot distinguish between ruminant DNA, which originates from proteins such as muscle and bones, and ruminant DNA, which comes from feed materials of animal origin such as milk products or fat. Thus, there is the risk of obtaining positive ruminant PCR signals based on these materials. The paper describes the development of the combination of two analysis methods, micro-dissection and PCR, to eliminate the problem of 'false-positive' PCR signals. With micro-dissection, single particles can be isolated and subsequently analysed with PCR.

  3. Instructional Materials Centers; Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poli, Rosario, Comp.

    An annotated bibliography lists 74 articles and reports on instructional materials centers (IMC) which appeared from 1967-70. The articles deal with such topics as the purposes of an IMC, guidelines for setting up an IMC, and the relationship of an IMC to technology. Most articles deal with use of an IMC on an elementary or secondary level, but…

  4. Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Linda

    2002-10-01

    The Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) will be a user facility with a strong component of joint, collaborative research. CNMS is being developed, together with the scientific community, with support from DOE's Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The Center will provide a thriving, multidisciplinary environment for research as well as the education of students and postdoctoral scholars. It will be co-located with the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the Joint Institute for Neutron Sciences (JINS). The CNMS will integrate nanoscale research with neutron science, synthesis science, and theory/modeling/simulation, bringing together four areas in which the United States has clear national research and educational needs. The Center's research will be organized under three scientific thrusts: nano-dimensioned "soft" materials (including organic, hybrid, and interfacial nanophases); complex "hard" materials systems (including the crosscutting areas of interfaces and reduced dimensionality that become scientifically critical on the nanoscale); and theory/modeling/simulation. This presentation will summarize the progress towards identification of the specific research focus topics for the Center. Currently proposed topics, based on two workshops with the potential user community, include catalysis, nanomagnetism, synthetic and bio-inspired macromolecular materials, nanophase biomaterials, nanofluidics, optics/photonics, carbon-based nanostructures, collective behavior, nanoscale interface science, virtual synthesis and nanomaterials design, and electronic structure, correlations, and transport. In addition, the proposed 80,000 square foot facility (wet/dry labs, nanofabrication clean rooms, and offices) and the associated technical equipment will be described. The CNMS is scheduled to begin construction in spring, 2003. Initial operations are planned for late in 2004.

  5. Compression device for feeding a waste material to a reactor

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Paul M.; Faller, Kenneth M.; Bauer, Edward J.

    2001-08-21

    A compression device for feeding a waste material to a reactor includes a waste material feed assembly having a hopper, a supply tube and a compression tube. Each of the supply and compression tubes includes feed-inlet and feed-outlet ends. A feed-discharge valve assembly is located between the feed-outlet end of the compression tube and the reactor. A feed auger-screw extends axially in the supply tube between the feed-inlet and feed-outlet ends thereof. A compression auger-screw extends axially in the compression tube between the feed-inlet and feed-outlet ends thereof. The compression tube is sloped downwardly towards the reactor to drain fluid from the waste material to the reactor and is oriented at generally right angle to the supply tube such that the feed-outlet end of the supply tube is adjacent to the feed-inlet end of the compression tube. A programmable logic controller is provided for controlling the rotational speed of the feed and compression auger-screws for selectively varying the compression of the waste material and for overcoming jamming conditions within either the supply tube or the compression tube.

  6. The materials processing research base of the Materials Processing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemings, M. C.; Bowen, H. K.; Kenney, G. B.

    1980-01-01

    The goals and activities of the center are discussed. The center activities encompass all engineering materials including metals, ceramics, polymers, electronic materials, composites, superconductors, and thin films. Processes include crystallization, solidification, nucleation, and polymer synthesis.

  7. Transforming Space in the Curriculum Materials Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teel, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Transforming space to facilitate and compliment learning has become an integral component in the redesign and renovation of academic libraries. This article offers a framework of discussion based on the redesign and renovation of the existing curriculum materials center at East Carolina University Joyner Library. The curriculum materials center,…

  8. Food, fuel, and feed production with microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R.; Weissman, J.C.

    1993-12-31

    Large-scale (>10 hectares) microalgae cultures are being used in several countries around the world for the production of human food supplements and specialty animal (mainly aquaculture) feeds. Microalgae cultures are also extensively used in wastewater treatment and being produced on a small scale for soil inoculants and diagnostic reagents. In addition, microalgae cultures are being investigated for their potential in fuel production and CO{sub 2} utilization, as a method for greenhouse gas mitigation. A pilot plant effort in New Mexico, under a US Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Lab. subcontract, demonstrated the feasibility of cultivating a number of algal species in large outdoor ponds on brackish waters. Building on this experience, SeaAg, Inc. has developed a process for the mass culture of microalgae as a source of bivalve feeds. In this process, algae (diatoms) are cultured in large open ponds on seawater, and then fed to clams and oysters, which filter and convert the algal cells into high value protein. The SeaAg process is another application of a technology which promises to eventually result in large-scale commercial production of microalgae for a variety of useful products and processes.

  9. Instructional Materials Centers; Selected Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Neville P.; Butler, Lucius

    Revolutionary innovation in the traditional school library has produced "the media center", where--in addition to books--films, television, tapes, and multimedia displays are available to increase student learning. This book represents a collection of eighty-three articles from library journals dealing with library science in its modern form. The…

  10. Feed Materials Production Center. Final phase-in report volume 6 of 15 finance, October 25, 1985--December 31, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, A.C.

    1986-01-17

    This study of the financial operations at the FMPC indicates that the accounting system functions, however many improvements in accuracy, timeliness, and efficiency, can be accomplished by automation. A new financial projects section will be established to accomplish the required improvements.

  11. Hazardous materials (HAZMAT) Spill Center strategic plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This strategic Plan was developed in keeping with the Department of Energy`s mission for partnership with its customers to contribute to our Nation`s welfare by providing the technical information and the scientific and educational foundation for the technology, policy and institutional leadership necessary to achieve efficiency in energy use, diversity in energy sources, a more productive and competitive economy, improved environmental quality, and a secure national defense. The Plan provides the concepts for realigning the Departments`s Hazardous Materials Spill Center (HSC) in achieving its vision of becoming the global leader in meeting the diverse HAZMAT needs in the areas of testing, training, and technology. Each of these areas encompass many facets and a multitude of functional and operational requirements at the Federal, state, tribal, and local government levels, as well as those of foreign governments and the private sector. The evolution of the limited dimensional Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility into a multifaceted HAZMAT Spill Center will require us to totally redefine our way of thinking as related to our business approach, both within and outside of the Department. We need to establish and maintain a viable and vibrant outreach program through all aspects of the public (via government agencies) and private sectors, to include foreign partnerships. The HAZMAT Spill Center goals and objectives provide the direction for meeting our vision. This direction takes into consideration the trends and happenings identified in the {open_quotes}Strategic Outlook{close_quotes}, which includes valuable input from our stakeholders and our present and future customers. It is our worldwide customers that provide the essence of the strategic outlook for the HAZMAT Spill Center.

  12. Earth melter and method of disposing of feed materials

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, Christopher C.

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus, and method of operating the apparatus, wherein a feed material is converted into a glassified condition for subsequent use or disposal. The apparatus is particularly useful for disposal of hazardous or noxious waste materials which are otherwise either difficult or expensive to dispose of. The apparatus is preferably constructed by excavating a melt zone in a quantity of soil or rock, and lining the melt zone with a back fill material if refractory properties are needed. The feed material is fed into the melt zone and, preferably, combusted to an ash, whereupon the heat of combustion is used to melt the ash to a molten condition. Electrodes may be used to maintain the molten feed material in a molten condition, and to maintain homogeneity of the molten materials.

  13. Earth melter and method of disposing of feed materials

    DOEpatents

    Chapman, C.C.

    1994-10-11

    An apparatus, and method of operating the apparatus is described, wherein a feed material is converted into a glassified condition for subsequent use or disposal. The apparatus is particularly useful for disposal of hazardous or noxious waste materials which are otherwise either difficult or expensive to dispose of. The apparatus is preferably constructed by excavating a melt zone in a quantity of soil or rock, and lining the melt zone with a back fill material if refractory properties are needed. The feed material is fed into the melt zone and, preferably, combusted to an ash, whereupon the heat of combustion is used to melt the ash to a molten condition. Electrodes may be used to maintain the molten feed material in a molten condition, and to maintain homogeneity of the molten materials. 3 figs.

  14. Production and feeding of single-cell protein

    SciTech Connect

    Ferranti, M.P.; Fiechter, A.

    1983-01-01

    This book addresses the technical and economic factors which must be considered when evaluating plans for the production of animal feed proteins from agricultural and forestry wastes. The work is divided into three parts, the first focusing on pretreatment and hydrolysis of lignocellulostic materials, the second on upgrading of whey and the third on nutrition and toxicology. The presentation concludes with a Round Table discussion including evaluations and recommendations for submission to the Commission of the European Communities. CONTENTS: Special Section: Pretreatment and Degradation of Lignocellulosic Materials. Subject Area 1: Production of SCP Enriched Substrate from Cellulosic Materials. Lignin and Lignocellulose. Process Development. Carbohydrates. Subject Area 2: Single Cell Protein from Whey. Subject Area 3: Nutrition and Toxicology. Round Table Discussion: Evaluation and Recommendations. List of Participants. Index of Authors.

  15. Material and Energy Productivity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Resource productivity, measured as GDP output per resource input, is a widespread sustainability indicator combining economic and environmental information. Resource productivity is ubiquitous, from the IPAT identity to the analysis of dematerialization trends and policy goals. High resource productivity is interpreted as the sign of a resource-efficient, and hence more sustainable, economy. Its inverse, resource intensity (resource per GDP) has the reverse behavior, with higher values indicating environmentally inefficient economies. In this study, we investigate the global systematic relationship between material, energy and carbon productivities, and economic activity. We demonstrate that different types of materials and energy exhibit fundamentally different behaviors, depending on their international income elasticities of consumption. Biomass is completely inelastic, whereas fossil fuels tend to scale proportionally with income. Total materials or energy, as aggregates, have intermediate behavior, depending on the share of fossil fuels and other elastic resources. We show that a small inelastic share is sufficient for the total resource productivity to be significantly correlated with income. Our analysis calls into question the interpretation of resource productivity as a sustainability indicator. We conclude with suggestions for potential alternatives. PMID:21210661

  16. Cambridge journals blog: Improving feed efficiency in dairy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because the cost of feeding animals is one of the greatest expenses in dairy production (40-60% of production costs), research focused on ways to identify and select for animals that are the most efficient at converting feed into milk has greatly expanded during the last decade. The animal Article o...

  17. The use of marine products in animal feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal feeds represent a growing market for the nutrient rich by-products of marine fish and seafood processing. Fishmeal is one product obtained from fisheries that was traditionally used as a low-cost source of protein to supplement pig and poultry feeds. Fishmeal typically contains over 50 wt% cr...

  18. Acidic organic compounds in beverage, food, and feed production.

    PubMed

    Quitmann, Hendrich; Fan, Rong; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Organic acids and their derivatives are frequently used in beverage, food, and feed production. Acidic additives may act as buffers to regulate acidity, antioxidants, preservatives, flavor enhancers, and sequestrants. Beneficial effects on animal health and growth performance have been observed when using acidic substances as feed additives. Organic acids could be classified in groups according to their chemical structure. Each group of organic acids has its own specific properties and is used for different applications. Organic acids with low molecular weight (e.g. acetic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid), which are part of the primary metabolism, are often produced by fermentation. Others are produced more economically by chemical synthesis based on petrochemical raw materials on an industrial scale (e.g. formic acid, propionic and benzoic acid). Biotechnology-based production is of interest due to legislation, consumer demand for natural ingredients, and increasing environmental awareness. In the United States, for example, biocatalytically produced esters for food applications can be labeled as "natural," whereas identical conventional acid catalyst-based molecules cannot. Natural esters command a price several times that of non-natural esters. Biotechnological routes need to be optimized regarding raw materials and yield, microorganisms, and recovery methods. New bioprocesses are being developed for organic acids, which are at this time commercially produced by chemical synthesis. Moreover, new organic acids that could be produced with biotechnological methods are under investigation for food applications.

  19. THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CENTER--WHOSE EMPIRE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WYMAN, RAYMOND

    GROWTH OF NEW MEDIA PROGRAMS HAS CAUSED A QUESTION AS TO WHETHER THEY BELONG IN THE DOMAIN OF THE LIBRARIAN OR OF THE AUDIOVISUAL SPECIALIST. ONE SOLUTION IS TO COMBINE ALL MEDIA IN A SINGLE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CENTER FROM WHICH TEACHERS AND STUDENTS MAY PROCURE THE MEDIA NEEDED FOR LARGE GROUP PRESENTATION, SMALL GROUP INTERACTION, OR…

  20. Special Education Learning Materials Centers (SELMC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christmas, Oren L.

    This study evaluated the current status and utilization of the Michigan Special Education Learning Materials Centers (SELMCs) mandated in 1970 by the State of Michigan 75th legislature and designed to assist administrators in future decision making. Twenty-two SELMC contact persons and 368 special educators were separately surveyed. Major results…

  1. Energy Materials Center at Cornell: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Abruña, Héctor; Mutolo, Paul F

    2015-01-02

    The mission of the Energy Materials Center at Cornell (emc2) was to achieve a detailed understanding, via a combination of synthesis of new materials, experimental and computational approaches, of how the nature, structure, and dynamics of nanostructured interfaces affect energy conversion and storage with emphasis on fuel cells, batteries and supercapacitors. Our research on these systems was organized around a full system strategy for; the development and improved performance of materials for both electrodes at which storage or conversion occurs; understanding their internal interfaces, such as SEI layers in batteries and electrocatalyst supports in fuel cells, and methods for structuring them to enable high mass transport as well as high ionic and electronic conductivity; development of ion-conducting electrolytes for batteries and fuel cells (separately) and other separator components, as needed; and development of methods for the characterization of these systems under operating conditions (operando methods) Generally, our work took industry and DOE report findings of current materials as a point of departure to focus on novel material sets for improved performance. In addition, some of our work focused on studying existing materials, for example observing battery solvent degradation, fuel cell catalyst coarsening or monitoring lithium dendrite growth, employing in operando methods developed within the center.

  2. The Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowndes, Douglas

    2005-03-01

    The Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be the first DOE Nanoscale Science Research Center to begin operation, with construction to be completed in April 2005 and initial operations in October 2005. The CNMS' scientific program has been developed through workshops with the national community, with the goal of creating a highly collaborative research environment to accelerate discovery and drive technological advances. Research at the CNMS is organized under seven Scientific Themes selected to address challenges to understanding and to exploit particular ORNL strengths (see http://cnms.ornl.govhttp://cnms.ornl.gov). These include extensive synthesis and characterization capabilities for soft, hard, nanostructured, magnetic and catalytic materials and their composites; neutron scattering at the Spallation Neutron Source and High Flux Isotope Reactor; computational nanoscience in the CNMS' Nanomaterials Theory Institute and utilizing facilities and expertise of the Center for Computational Sciences and the new Leadership Scientific Computing Facility at ORNL; a new CNMS Nanofabrication Research Laboratory; and a suite of unique and state-of-the-art instruments to be made reliably available to the national community for imaging, manipulation, and properties measurements on nanoscale materials in controlled environments. The new research facilities will be described together with the planned operation of the user research program, the latter illustrated by the current ``jump start'' user program that utilizes existing ORNL/CNMS facilities.

  3. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD...

  4. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  5. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  6. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  7. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  8. Valorisation of food waste to produce new raw materials for animal feed.

    PubMed

    San Martin, D; Ramos, S; Zufía, J

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses the suitability of vegetable waste produced by food industry for use as a raw material for animal feed. It includes safety and nutritional viability, technical feasibility and environmental evaluation. Vegetable by-products were found to be nutritionally and sanitarily appropriate for use in animal feed. The drying technologies tested for making vegetable waste suitable for use in the animal feed market were pulse combustion drying, oven and microwave. The different meal prototypes obtained were found to comply with all the requirements of the animal feed market. An action plan that takes into account all the stages of the valorisation process was subsequently defined in agreement with local stakeholders. This plan was validated in a pilot-scale demonstration trial. Finally, the technical feasibility was studied and environmental improvement was performed. This project was funded by the European LIFE+ program (LIFE09 ENV/ES/000473).

  9. The materials processing research base of the Materials Processing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latanision, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    An annual report of the research activities of the Materials Processing Center of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is given. Research on dielectrophoresis in the microgravity environment, phase separation kinetics in immiscible liquids, transport properties of droplet clusters in gravity-free fields, probes and monitors for the study of solidification of molten semiconductors, fluid mechanics and mass transfer in melt crystal growth, and heat flow control and segregation in directional solidification are discussed.

  10. Evaluation of employees in public day care centers knowledge about breastfeeding and complementary feeding

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Joelânia Pires de O.; Prudente, Amanda Moura; Silva, Dyene Aparecida; Pereira, Leandro Alves; Rinaldi, Ana Elisa M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the knowledge of public day care centers employees about breastfeeding and complementary feeding. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 15 public day care centers randomly selected in the city of Uberlandia, Southeast Brazil. A questionnaire applied to school principals, teachers, educators and general services assistants (GSA) included demographic and socioeconomic variables and questions about knowledge on breastfeeding, complementary feeding besides employees' perceptions about these subjects. Kruskal-Wallis with multiple comparison and chi-square tests were used to compare variables by professional category. RESULTS: 304 employees participated in the study. The highest percentages of correct answers were noted for questions about exclusive breastfeeding: definition - 97% (n=296) and duration - 65% (n=199). Regarding complementary feeding, 61% (n=187) correctly answered about the appropriate age to introduce it, with a lower percentage for meat (56%; n=170) and sugar (16%; n=50). Concerning employees' perceptions, 9% (n=29) believed that there is weak breast milk, 79% (n=241) and 51% (n=157) reported the negative influence of bottle feeding and pacifier use on breastfeeding. Among the interviewed subjects, 77% (n=234) answered that they had a positive influence on the quality of the food given to the children. There were no differences in the answers according to professional category, except for the negative influence of pacifiers on breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS: Employees of public day care centers knew more about breastfeeding than about complementary feeding. Educational activities about breastfeeding and complementary feeding are necessary for day care centers employees. PMID:24473953

  11. What Do We Feed to Food-Production Animals? A Review of Animal Feed Ingredients and Their Potential Impacts on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Amy R.; Lefferts, Lisa Y.; McKenzie, Shawn; Walker, Polly

    2007-01-01

    Objective Animal feeding practices in the United States have changed considerably over the past century. As large-scale, concentrated production methods have become the predominant model for animal husbandry, animal feeds have been modified to include ingredients ranging from rendered animals and animal waste to antibiotics and organoarsenicals. In this article we review current U.S. animal feeding practices and etiologic agents that have been detected in animal feed. Evidence that current feeding practices may lead to adverse human health impacts is also evaluated. Data sources We reviewed published veterinary and human-health literature regarding animal feeding practices, etiologic agents present in feed, and human health effects along with proceedings from animal feed workshops. Data extraction Data were extracted from peer-reviewed articles and books identified using PubMed, Agricola, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention databases. Data synthesis Findings emphasize that current animal feeding practices can result in the presence of bacteria, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, prions, arsenicals, and dioxins in feed and animal-based food products. Despite a range of potential human health impacts that could ensue, there are significant data gaps that prevent comprehensive assessments of human health risks associated with animal feed. Limited data are collected at the federal or state level concerning the amounts of specific ingredients used in animal feed, and there are insufficient surveillance systems to monitor etiologic agents “from farm to fork.” Conclusions Increased funding for integrated veterinary and human health surveillance systems and increased collaboration among feed professionals, animal producers, and veterinary and public health officials is necessary to effectively address these issues. PMID:17520050

  12. Conversion of organic material by black soldier fly larvae: establishing optimal feeding rates.

    PubMed

    Diener, Stefan; Zurbrügg, Christian; Tockner, Klement

    2009-09-01

    Larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), are voracious feeders of organic material and may thus be used in simple engineered systems to reduce organic waste in low- and middle-income countries. Controlled feeding experiments with standard fodder were conducted to assess the optimum amount of organic waste to be added to a CORS system (Conversion of Organic Refuse by Saprophages). A daily feeding rate of 100 mg chicken feed (60% moisture content) per larva resulted in an optimum trade-off between material reduction efficiency (41.8%, SE 0.61) and biomass production (prepupal dry weight: 48.0 mg, SE 2.0). Applied to market waste and human faeces, this corresponds to a potential daily feeding capacity of 3-5 kg/m(2) and 6.5 kg/m(2), respectively. In addition, H. illucens prepupae quality was assessed to determine their suitability to substitute fishmeal in animal feed production. The chitin-corrected crude protein content ranged from 28.2 to 42.5%, depending on the amount of food provided to the larvae. Based on our study, a waste processing unit could yield a daily prepupal biomass of 145 g (dry mass) per m(2). We conclude that larvae of the black soldier fly are potentially capable of converting large amounts of organic waste into protein-rich biomass to substitute fishmeal, thereby contributing to sustainable aquaculture. PMID:19502252

  13. Conversion of organic material by black soldier fly larvae: establishing optimal feeding rates.

    PubMed

    Diener, Stefan; Zurbrügg, Christian; Tockner, Klement

    2009-09-01

    Larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), are voracious feeders of organic material and may thus be used in simple engineered systems to reduce organic waste in low- and middle-income countries. Controlled feeding experiments with standard fodder were conducted to assess the optimum amount of organic waste to be added to a CORS system (Conversion of Organic Refuse by Saprophages). A daily feeding rate of 100 mg chicken feed (60% moisture content) per larva resulted in an optimum trade-off between material reduction efficiency (41.8%, SE 0.61) and biomass production (prepupal dry weight: 48.0 mg, SE 2.0). Applied to market waste and human faeces, this corresponds to a potential daily feeding capacity of 3-5 kg/m(2) and 6.5 kg/m(2), respectively. In addition, H. illucens prepupae quality was assessed to determine their suitability to substitute fishmeal in animal feed production. The chitin-corrected crude protein content ranged from 28.2 to 42.5%, depending on the amount of food provided to the larvae. Based on our study, a waste processing unit could yield a daily prepupal biomass of 145 g (dry mass) per m(2). We conclude that larvae of the black soldier fly are potentially capable of converting large amounts of organic waste into protein-rich biomass to substitute fishmeal, thereby contributing to sustainable aquaculture.

  14. Implementing the Data Center Energy Productivity Metric

    SciTech Connect

    Sego, Landon H.; Marquez, Andres; Rawson, Andrew; Cader, Tahir; Fox, Kevin M.; Gustafson, William I.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2012-10-01

    As data centers proliferate in both size and number, their energy efficiency is becoming increasingly important. We discuss the properties of a number of the proposed metrics of energy efficiency and productivity. In particular, we focus on the Data Center Energy Productivity (DCeP) metric, which is the ratio of useful work produced by the data center to the energy consumed performing that work. We describe our approach for using DCeP as the principal outcome of a designed experiment using a highly instrumented, high performance computing data center. We found that DCeP was successful in clearly distinguishing between different operational states in the data center, thereby validating its utility as a metric for identifying configurations of hardware and software that would improve (or even maximize) energy productivity. We also discuss some of the challenges and benefits associated with implementing the DCeP metric, and we examine the efficacy of the metric in making comparisons within a data center and among data centers.

  15. 7 CFR 600.8 - Plant materials centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plant materials centers. 600.8 Section 600.8..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.8 Plant materials centers. Plant materials centers (PMC) assemble and test plant species for conservation uses. Usually a PMC serves two or more States, and...

  16. 7 CFR 600.8 - Plant materials centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Plant materials centers. 600.8 Section 600.8..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.8 Plant materials centers. Plant materials centers (PMC) assemble and test plant species for conservation uses. Usually a PMC serves two or more States, and...

  17. 7 CFR 600.8 - Plant materials centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant materials centers. 600.8 Section 600.8..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.8 Plant materials centers. Plant materials centers (PMC) assemble and test plant species for conservation uses. Usually a PMC serves two or more States, and...

  18. 7 CFR 600.8 - Plant materials centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plant materials centers. 600.8 Section 600.8..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.8 Plant materials centers. Plant materials centers (PMC) assemble and test plant species for conservation uses. Usually a PMC serves two or more States, and...

  19. 7 CFR 600.8 - Plant materials centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant materials centers. 600.8 Section 600.8..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.8 Plant materials centers. Plant materials centers (PMC) assemble and test plant species for conservation uses. Usually a PMC serves two or more States, and...

  20. Marshall Space Flight Center Materials and Processes Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tramel, Terri L.

    2012-01-01

    Marshall?s Materials and Processes Laboratory has been a core capability for NASA for over fifty years. MSFC has a proven heritage and recognized expertise in materials and manufacturing that are essential to enable and sustain space exploration. Marshall provides a "systems-wise" capability for applied research, flight hardware development, and sustaining engineering. Our history of leadership and achievements in materials, manufacturing, and flight experiments includes Apollo, Skylab, Mir, Spacelab, Shuttle (Space Shuttle Main Engine, External Tank, Reusable Solid Rocket Motor, and Solid Rocket Booster), Hubble, Chandra, and the International Space Station. MSFC?s National Center for Advanced Manufacturing, NCAM, facilitates major M&P advanced manufacturing partnership activities with academia, industry and other local, state and federal government agencies. The Materials and Processes Laborato ry has principal competencies in metals, composites, ceramics, additive manufacturing, materials and process modeling and simulation, space environmental effects, non-destructive evaluation, and fracture and failure analysis provide products ranging from materials research in space to fully integrated solutions for large complex systems challenges. Marshall?s materials research, development and manufacturing capabilities assure that NASA and National missions have access to cutting-edge, cost-effective engineering design and production options that are frugal in using design margins and are verified as safe and reliable. These are all critical factors in both future mission success and affordability.

  1. Materials for geothermal production

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    Advances in the development of new materials continue to be made in the geothermal materials project. Many successes have already been accrued and the results used commercially. In FY 1991, work was focused on reducing well drilling, fluid transport and energy conversion costs. Specific activities performed included lightweight CO{sub 2}-resistant well cements, thermally conductive and scale resistant protective liner systems, chemical systems for lost circulation control, corrosion mitigation in process components at The Geysers, and elastomer-metal bonding systems. Efforts to transfer the technologies developed in these efforts to other energy-related sectors of the economy continued and considerable success was achieved.

  2. BOTTLE MATERIAL AND CLEANSING PROCEDURES OF INFANT FEEDING BOTTLES.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Wen-Hui; Chen, Yi-Lang

    2016-01-01

    The cleanliness of feeding bottles is vital for child health. Although machine cleansing of bottles in the food industry has been established, mechanical and manual cleansing methods are highly variable. This study was undertaken to determine the differences in the cleanliness of bottles that were cleaned using various combinations of bottle materials [glass and polypropylene (PP)], rinsing water volumes (1/3, 1/2, and 2/3 capacity of a bottle), and sustained shaking times (5 seconds and 20 seconds). Total organic carbon (TOC) and conductivity measurements were respectively used to evaluate the rinsed quantities of organic and inorganic formula residue from feeding bottles. The results indicated that glass bottles filled with rinsing water to 2/3 of their capacity showed the most efficient cleansing performance. However, the PP bottles exhibited a relatively poor cleansing result, particularly for organic cleanliness. The organic residue tends to accumulate on the PP bottle interior because of the aggregation of compounds with similar properties. The shaking time hardly influenced the cleanliness. The glass bottle was superior to the PP bottle in both organic and inorganic cleanliness, and organic constituents were more difficult to rinse from the bottle than the inorganic constituents were. PMID:27086435

  3. BOTTLE MATERIAL AND CLEANSING PROCEDURES OF INFANT FEEDING BOTTLES.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Wen-Hui; Chen, Yi-Lang

    2016-01-01

    The cleanliness of feeding bottles is vital for child health. Although machine cleansing of bottles in the food industry has been established, mechanical and manual cleansing methods are highly variable. This study was undertaken to determine the differences in the cleanliness of bottles that were cleaned using various combinations of bottle materials [glass and polypropylene (PP)], rinsing water volumes (1/3, 1/2, and 2/3 capacity of a bottle), and sustained shaking times (5 seconds and 20 seconds). Total organic carbon (TOC) and conductivity measurements were respectively used to evaluate the rinsed quantities of organic and inorganic formula residue from feeding bottles. The results indicated that glass bottles filled with rinsing water to 2/3 of their capacity showed the most efficient cleansing performance. However, the PP bottles exhibited a relatively poor cleansing result, particularly for organic cleanliness. The organic residue tends to accumulate on the PP bottle interior because of the aggregation of compounds with similar properties. The shaking time hardly influenced the cleanliness. The glass bottle was superior to the PP bottle in both organic and inorganic cleanliness, and organic constituents were more difficult to rinse from the bottle than the inorganic constituents were.

  4. Host stress hormones alter vector feeding preferences, success, and productivity.

    PubMed

    Gervasi, Stephanie S; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan; Burgan, Sarah C; Schrey, Aaron W; Hassan, Hassan K; Unnasch, Thomas R; Martin, Lynn B

    2016-08-17

    Stress hormones might represent a key link between individual-level infection outcome, population-level parasite transmission, and zoonotic disease risk. Although the effects of stress on immunity are well known, stress hormones could also affect host-vector interactions via modification of host behaviours or vector-feeding patterns and subsequent reproductive success. Here, we experimentally manipulated songbird stress hormones and examined subsequent feeding preferences, feeding success, and productivity of mosquito vectors in addition to defensive behaviours of hosts. Despite being more defensive, birds with elevated stress hormone concentrations were approximately twice as likely to be fed on by mosquitoes compared to control birds. Moreover, stress hormones altered the relationship between the timing of laying and clutch size in blood-fed mosquitoes. Our results suggest that host stress could affect the transmission dynamics of vector-borne parasites via multiple pathways. PMID:27512147

  5. Materials for Geothermal Production

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, Lawrence E.

    1992-03-24

    Advances in the development of new materials continue to be made in the Geothermal Materials Project. Many successes have already been accrued and the results used commercially. In FY 1991, work was focused on reducing well drilling, fluid transport and energy conversion costs. Specific activities performed included lightweight CO{sub 2}-resistant well cements, thermally conductive and scale resistant protective liner systems, chemical systems for lost circulation control, corrosion mitigation in process components at The Geysers, and elastomer-metal bonding systems. Efforts to transfer the technologies developed in these efforts to other energy-related sectors of the economy continued and considerable success was achieved. Laboratory testing of BNL-developed phosphate modified calcium aluminate cements confirmed their hydrolytic stability in 300 C brine and their resistance to chemical attack by CO{sub 2}. Specimens were found to be >20 times more resistant to carbonation than Class H cement and twice as resistant as unmodified calcium aluminate cements. Testing of thermally conductive polymer cements as potential corrosion resistant liner materials for use in heat exchanger applications was continued. Field test were conducted in flowing hypersaline brine and the results indicated scale deposition rates lower than those on a high alloy steel. Additional tests for bottoming cycle heat exchange use are planned for FY 1992. Progress was also made with chemical systems for lost circulation control. If materials placement is to be performed by pumping through an open drillpipe or through a drillable straddle packer, a bentonite-ammonium polyphosphate-borax-magnesium oxide formulation, containing fibers or particulates when large fissures are encountered, can be used. This system was ready for demonstration in FY 1991, but a suitable test site did not become available. Optimization of this and three other formulations for use with other Sandia National Laboratories

  6. DNA extraction techniques compared for accurate detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in maize food and feed products.

    PubMed

    Turkec, Aydin; Kazan, Hande; Karacanli, Burçin; Lucas, Stuart J

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, DNA extraction methods have been evaluated to detect the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in maize food and feed products commercialised in Turkey. All the extraction methods tested performed well for the majority of maize foods and feed products analysed. However, the highest DNA content was achieved by the Wizard, Genespin or the CTAB method, all of which produced optimal DNA yield and purity for different maize food and feed products. The samples were then screened for the presence of GM elements, along with certified reference materials. Of the food and feed samples, 8 % tested positive for the presence of one GM element (NOS terminator), of which half (4 % of the total) also contained a second element (the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter). The results obtained herein clearly demonstrate the presence of GM maize in the Turkish market, and that the Foodproof GMO Screening Kit provides reliable screening of maize food and feed products. PMID:26243938

  7. DNA extraction techniques compared for accurate detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in maize food and feed products.

    PubMed

    Turkec, Aydin; Kazan, Hande; Karacanli, Burçin; Lucas, Stuart J

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, DNA extraction methods have been evaluated to detect the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in maize food and feed products commercialised in Turkey. All the extraction methods tested performed well for the majority of maize foods and feed products analysed. However, the highest DNA content was achieved by the Wizard, Genespin or the CTAB method, all of which produced optimal DNA yield and purity for different maize food and feed products. The samples were then screened for the presence of GM elements, along with certified reference materials. Of the food and feed samples, 8 % tested positive for the presence of one GM element (NOS terminator), of which half (4 % of the total) also contained a second element (the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter). The results obtained herein clearly demonstrate the presence of GM maize in the Turkish market, and that the Foodproof GMO Screening Kit provides reliable screening of maize food and feed products.

  8. The use of dried bakery products in a free-choice feeding method for small-scale broiler production.

    PubMed

    Madiya, A T; McCrindle, C M E; Veary, C M; Bisschop, S P R

    2003-12-01

    Waste material from bakeries is an unconventional energy feed source which is available in sufficient quantities for use in small-scale broiler production in South Africa. Small-scale broiler producers do not have access to the computer programs required to balance home-mixed rations. This investigation confirms that the use of dried bakery products (DBP) in a 2-stage, free-choice method can be used to compensate for this lack. A total of 570 day-old male broiler chickens was assigned to 3 feeding treatments: the control group was fed a 2-stage feeding programme using standard commercial starter and grower rations. The 2nd group received a commercial starter ration up to Day 7 and was thereafter given a choice of a commercial starter ration with normal salt content (0.35%) and DBP. The 3rd group was fed a commercial starter ration up to Day 7, then offered a choice of commercial starter ration with a lower salt content (0.1%) and DBP. The low salt alternative was used to test whether the higher salt percentage in DBP influenced the choice of feed by the birds. It was found that the control group consumed significantly more feed (P < 0.05) and was significantly heavier (P < 0.05) than the experimental groups. However, there was no significant difference between the 2 experimental groups, which indicated that salt content did not play a role in the choice of ration. Feed consumption by both experimental groups was about one-third less than the control group, but the profit margin, as calculated using gross margin analysis, was approximately 15 % higher. It was therefore concluded that dried bakery products can be profitably incorporated as an energy feed source, using the free-choice feeding method, in small-scale broiler enterprises.

  9. The use of dried bakery products in a free-choice feeding method for small-scale broiler production.

    PubMed

    Madiya, A T; McCrindle, C M E; Veary, C M; Bisschop, S P R

    2003-12-01

    Waste material from bakeries is an unconventional energy feed source which is available in sufficient quantities for use in small-scale broiler production in South Africa. Small-scale broiler producers do not have access to the computer programs required to balance home-mixed rations. This investigation confirms that the use of dried bakery products (DBP) in a 2-stage, free-choice method can be used to compensate for this lack. A total of 570 day-old male broiler chickens was assigned to 3 feeding treatments: the control group was fed a 2-stage feeding programme using standard commercial starter and grower rations. The 2nd group received a commercial starter ration up to Day 7 and was thereafter given a choice of a commercial starter ration with normal salt content (0.35%) and DBP. The 3rd group was fed a commercial starter ration up to Day 7, then offered a choice of commercial starter ration with a lower salt content (0.1%) and DBP. The low salt alternative was used to test whether the higher salt percentage in DBP influenced the choice of feed by the birds. It was found that the control group consumed significantly more feed (P < 0.05) and was significantly heavier (P < 0.05) than the experimental groups. However, there was no significant difference between the 2 experimental groups, which indicated that salt content did not play a role in the choice of ration. Feed consumption by both experimental groups was about one-third less than the control group, but the profit margin, as calculated using gross margin analysis, was approximately 15 % higher. It was therefore concluded that dried bakery products can be profitably incorporated as an energy feed source, using the free-choice feeding method, in small-scale broiler enterprises. PMID:15038423

  10. Environmentally sustainable production of food, feed and fuel from natural resources in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Preston, T Reg

    2009-10-01

    Responding to the challenges posed by global warming, peak oil and biofuels will require a paradigm shift in the practice of agriculture and in the role of live stock within the farming system. Farming systems should aim at maximizing plant biomass production from locally available diversified resources, processing of the biomass on farm to provide food, feed and energy and recycling of all waste materials. The approach that is the subject of this paper is that the generation of electricity can be a by-product of food/feed production. The concept is the fractionation of biomass into inedible cell wall material that can be converted to an inflammable gas by gasification, the gas in turn being the source of fuel for internal combustion engines driving electrical generators. The cell contents and related structures such as tree leaves are used as human food or animal feed. As well as providing food and feed the model is highly appropriate for decentralized small scale production of electricity in rural areas. It also offers opportunities for sequestration of carbon in the form of biochar the solid residue remaining after gasification of the biomass.

  11. Environmentally sustainable production of food, feed and fuel from natural resources in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Preston, T Reg

    2009-08-01

    Responding to the challenges posed by global warming, peak oil and biofuels will require a paradigm shift in the practice of agriculture and in the role of live stock within the farming system. Farming systems should aim at maximizing plant biomass production from locally available diversified resources, processing of the biomass on farm to provide food, feed and energy and recycling of all waste materials. The approach that is the subject of this paper is that the generation of electricity can be a by-product of food/feed production. The concept is the fractionation of biomass into inedible cell wall material that can be converted to an inflammable gas by gasification, the gas in turn being the source of fuel for internal combustion engines driving electrical generators. The cell contents and related structures such as tree leaves are used as human food or animal feed. As well as providing food and feed the model is highly appropriate for decentralized small scale production of electricity in rural areas. It also offers opportunities for sequestration of carbon in the form of biochar the solid residue remaining after gasification of the biomass.

  12. Environmentally sustainable production of food, feed and fuel from natural resources in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Preston, T Reg

    2009-10-01

    Responding to the challenges posed by global warming, peak oil and biofuels will require a paradigm shift in the practice of agriculture and in the role of live stock within the farming system. Farming systems should aim at maximizing plant biomass production from locally available diversified resources, processing of the biomass on farm to provide food, feed and energy and recycling of all waste materials. The approach that is the subject of this paper is that the generation of electricity can be a by-product of food/feed production. The concept is the fractionation of biomass into inedible cell wall material that can be converted to an inflammable gas by gasification, the gas in turn being the source of fuel for internal combustion engines driving electrical generators. The cell contents and related structures such as tree leaves are used as human food or animal feed. As well as providing food and feed the model is highly appropriate for decentralized small scale production of electricity in rural areas. It also offers opportunities for sequestration of carbon in the form of biochar the solid residue remaining after gasification of the biomass. PMID:19728132

  13. Environmentally sustainable production of food, feed and fuel from natural resources in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Preston, T Reg

    2009-08-01

    Responding to the challenges posed by global warming, peak oil and biofuels will require a paradigm shift in the practice of agriculture and in the role of live stock within the farming system. Farming systems should aim at maximizing plant biomass production from locally available diversified resources, processing of the biomass on farm to provide food, feed and energy and recycling of all waste materials. The approach that is the subject of this paper is that the generation of electricity can be a by-product of food/feed production. The concept is the fractionation of biomass into inedible cell wall material that can be converted to an inflammable gas by gasification, the gas in turn being the source of fuel for internal combustion engines driving electrical generators. The cell contents and related structures such as tree leaves are used as human food or animal feed. As well as providing food and feed the model is highly appropriate for decentralized small scale production of electricity in rural areas. It also offers opportunities for sequestration of carbon in the form of biochar the solid residue remaining after gasification of the biomass. PMID:19011987

  14. Staff Manual for Instructional Material Centers. Fourth Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrucci, Martha

    For media center volunteers or inexperienced technicians, a workshop training guide provides reference and assistance in everyday problems and situations that arise in an instructional material center (IMC). Two five-hour days of instruction and participation, using the guide, are suggested for workshops. Step-by-step processing of book materials,…

  15. Union Catalog: Special Education Instructional Materials Center Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. for Exceptional Children.

    Listed are approximately 5100 professional textbooks or instructional materials available to clients from the three Special Education Instructional Materials Centers in North Carolina. Client status is said to be available to anyone concerned with the education of exceptional children. The procedure for borrowing items from the centers is…

  16. Conjugated organometallic materials containing tungsten centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Marya

    Our group is interested in the optical and electronic properties of organometallic analogues of conjugated organic compounds. Specifically, in this thesis we will discuss the properties of complexes in which W≡C moieties replace C≡C fragments within the framework of oligo(phenyleneethynylenes) and a C4-polyyne. A family of derivatives of the type Ph(C≡CC6H4 )m(L)4W≡C(C6H 4C≡C)nPh (m = 0, 1; n = 0, 1, 2) have been prepared and characterized by X-ray crystallography, electronic-absorption spectroscopy, and electrochemistry. This substitution has allowed us to directly compare the electronic and optical properties of these organometallic complexes with those of their organic analogues. We found that while these systems exhibit redox and spectroscopic properties similar to those of their organic counterparts they also exhibit new characteristics that are due to the incorporation of the metal center. The design of these compounds has also allowed us to address how the position of the metal within the backbone affects the electronic and optical properties of these compounds. We found that the position of the metal is important in controlling the electronic structure of the material, thus suggesting that the properties of these compounds can be further tuned by changing the position of the metal within the conjugated carbon chain. In addition, we have appended sulfur and isocyanide functionalities to oligo(phenyleneethynylene) analogues. A family of compounds of the type Cl(dppe) 2W(≡CC6H4-4-(C≡CC6H 4)m-4'-R) (m = l, 2; R = N≡C, SCH2CH 2Si(CH3)3) have been prepared and characterized by electronic-absorption spectroscopy and electrochemistry. Differences between the sulfur and isocyanide functionalities are examined, along with the effects of extending conjugation along the arylidyne chain. Evidence that the sulfur-containing arylidyne complexes form self-assembled monolayers on Au and Pt electrodes is presented. In addition, the electron-transfer rates for

  17. Phase Center Stabilization of a Horn Antenna and its Application in a Luneburg Lens Feed Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simakauskas, Brian H.

    With any reflecting or refracting structure, such as a parabolic reflector or lens antenna, the knowledge of the focal point is critical in the design as it determines the point at which a feeding signal should originate for proper operation. Spherically symmetrical lenses have a distinct advantage over other structure types in that there exists an infinite number of focal points surrounding the lens. Due to this feature, a spherical lens can remain in a fixed position while a beam can be steered to any direction by movement of the feed only. Unlike phased arrays that beam-steer electronically, a spherical lens exhibits no beam deterioration at wide angles. The lens that accomplishes this is in practice called the Luneburg lens which has been studied since the 1940s. Due to the electromechanical properties of the horn antenna, it is often used to feed the above mentioned configurations. In the focusing of any feed antenna, its phase center is an approximate point in space that should be coincident with a reflector or lens's focal point to minimize phase error over the radiating aperture. Although this is often easily accomplished over a narrow bandwidth, over wide bandwidths some antennas have phase centers that vary significantly, making their focusing a challenge. This thesis seeks to explain the problem with focusing a Luneburg lens with a canonical horn antenna and offers a modified horn design that remains nearly focused over a frequency band of 18 -- 45 GHz. In addition to simulating the feed / lens configurations, the lens and feed horn will be fabricated and mounted for far field measurements to be taken in an anechoic antenna range. A final feed design will be implemented in an array configuration with the Luneburg lens, capable of transmitting and receiving multiple beams without requiring any moving parts or complex electronic beam-forming networks. As a tradeoff, a separate receiver or switching network is required to accommodate each feed antenna. This

  18. Thermal Flammable Gas Production from Bulk Vitrification Feed

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, Randall D.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Bagaasen, Larry M.

    2008-05-21

    The baseline bulk-vitrification (BV) process (also known as in-container vitrification ICV™) includes a mixer/dryer to convert liquid low-activity waste (LAW) into a dried, blended feed for vitrification. Feed preparation includes blending LAW with glass-forming minerals (GFMs) and cellulose and drying the mixture to a suitable dryness, consistency, and particle size for transport to the ICVTM container. The cellulose is to be added to the BV feed at a rate sufficient to destroy 75% of the nitrogen present as nitrate or nitrite. Concern exists that flammable gases may be produced during drying operations at levels that could pose a risk. The drying process is conducted under vacuum in the temperature range of 60 to 80°C. These flammable gases could be produced either through thermal decomposition of cellulose or waste organics or as a by-product of the reaction of cellulose and/or waste organics with nitrate or the postulated small amount of nitrite present in the waste. To help address the concern about flammable gas production during drying, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) performed studies to identify the gases produced at dryer temperatures and at possible process upset conditions. Studies used a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) up to 525°C and isothermal testing up to 120°C to determine flammable gas production resulting from the cellulose and organic constituents in bulk vitrification feed. This report provides the results of those studies to determine the effects of cellulose and waste organics on flammable gas evolution

  19. The fermentative production of L-lysine as an animal feed additive.

    PubMed

    Kircher, M; Pfefferle, W

    2001-04-01

    A new and innovative process for the biotechnological production of L-lysine is presented, exemplified here by the fermentative production of the feed additive Biolys60. The novel feature of this product is that the entire manufacturing concept, i.e. the production strain, the raw materials, all process stages and the product specifications have been systematically tailored for optimal environmental compatibility and for minimum resource depletion and waste. The process completely dispenses with the need to discharge residual and waste material and reduces the handling of hazardous materials to a minimum. Since only a few process stages are involved, the method is economical to use and investment outlay is reduced. The process, which also leads to a higher grade product, is thus highly attractive in both ecological and economical terms. By boosting the nutrient value of the plant-based feedstuffs, the product itself makes an cost-effective contribution towards a more sustainable form of animal feeding and by reducing nitrogen emission levels promotes a more environmentally compatible form of animal husbandry. PMID:11233822

  20. Effects of no feeding, maintenance feeding, and refeeding on production and processing characteristics of market-size hybrid catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A pond study was initiated to evaluate effects of no feeding, maintenance feeding, and refeeding on production and processing characteristics of market-size hybrid catfish (female Channel Catfish Ictalurus punctatus × male Blue Catfish I. furcatus). Fish with an average weight of 644 g were stocked ...

  1. Material efficiency: providing material services with less material production.

    PubMed

    Allwood, Julian M; Ashby, Michael F; Gutowski, Timothy G; Worrell, Ernst

    2013-03-13

    Material efficiency, as discussed in this Meeting Issue, entails the pursuit of the technical strategies, business models, consumer preferences and policy instruments that would lead to a substantial reduction in the production of high-volume energy-intensive materials required to deliver human well-being. This paper, which introduces a Discussion Meeting Issue on the topic of material efficiency, aims to give an overview of current thinking on the topic, spanning environmental, engineering, economics, sociology and policy issues. The motivations for material efficiency include reducing energy demand, reducing the emissions and other environmental impacts of industry, and increasing national resource security. There are many technical strategies that might bring it about, and these could mainly be implemented today if preferred by customers or producers. However, current economic structures favour the substitution of material for labour, and consumer preferences for material consumption appear to continue even beyond the point at which increased consumption provides any increase in well-being. Therefore, policy will be required to stimulate material efficiency. A theoretically ideal policy measure, such as a carbon price, would internalize the externality of emissions associated with material production, and thus motivate change directly. However, implementation of such a measure has proved elusive, and instead the adjustment of existing government purchasing policies or existing regulations-- for instance to do with building design, planning or vehicle standards--is likely to have a more immediate effect.

  2. Material efficiency: providing material services with less material production

    PubMed Central

    Allwood, Julian M.; Ashby, Michael F.; Gutowski, Timothy G.; Worrell, Ernst

    2013-01-01

    Material efficiency, as discussed in this Meeting Issue, entails the pursuit of the technical strategies, business models, consumer preferences and policy instruments that would lead to a substantial reduction in the production of high-volume energy-intensive materials required to deliver human well-being. This paper, which introduces a Discussion Meeting Issue on the topic of material efficiency, aims to give an overview of current thinking on the topic, spanning environmental, engineering, economics, sociology and policy issues. The motivations for material efficiency include reducing energy demand, reducing the emissions and other environmental impacts of industry, and increasing national resource security. There are many technical strategies that might bring it about, and these could mainly be implemented today if preferred by customers or producers. However, current economic structures favour the substitution of material for labour, and consumer preferences for material consumption appear to continue even beyond the point at which increased consumption provides any increase in well-being. Therefore, policy will be required to stimulate material efficiency. A theoretically ideal policy measure, such as a carbon price, would internalize the externality of emissions associated with material production, and thus motivate change directly. However, implementation of such a measure has proved elusive, and instead the adjustment of existing government purchasing policies or existing regulations— for instance to do with building design, planning or vehicle standards—is likely to have a more immediate effect. PMID:23359746

  3. Measurement of Radon, Thoron, Isotopic Uranium and Thorium to Determine Occupational and Environmental Exposure and Risk at Fernald Feed Material Production Center

    SciTech Connect

    Naomi H. Harley, Ph.D.

    2004-07-01

    To develop a new and novel area and personal radon/thoron detector for both radon isotopes to better measure the exposure to low airborne concentrations of these gases at Fernald. These measurements are to be used to determine atmospheric dispersion and exposure to radon and thoron prior to and during retrieval and removal of the 4000 Ci of radium in the two silos at Fernald.

  4. Instructional Materials Center, Project Director's Report: 1969-70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trockman, Mitchell D.

    The Instructional Materials Center (IMC) originated in association with the development of a course to train teachers in specific techniques for teaching reading and the use of a wide range of multisensory reading materials. The major objective of the IMC project was to supply teachers with a wide variety of useful instructional materials for…

  5. End of Project Report. Volume IV, Center Instructional Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Township Diagnostic and Remedial Learning Center, Park Ridge, IL.

    Reported are the results of an inservice diagnostic demonstration center for children with learning problems. Information is provided on testing materials, referral interviews, a survey of reading disabilities, an instructional materials listing, a professional bibliography, descriptions of remediation material, and a parent survey. Also included…

  6. Nutrieconomics: improving performance and reducing CO2 footprint of channel catfish production with a phytogenic feed additive

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aquaculture growth is driven by the increasing demand for seafood products and at the same time by the decline in capture fisheries. This increase is in turn contributing to a growing demand for feed raw materials not only from aquaculture, but also from other animal production sectors and the b...

  7. Mesoporous materials for antihydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Consolati, Giovanni; Ferragut, Rafael; Galarneau, Anne; Di Renzo, Francesco; Quasso, Fiorenza

    2013-05-01

    Antimatter is barely known by the chemist community and this article has the vocation to explain how antimatter, in particular antihydrogen, can be obtained, as well as to show how mesoporous materials could be used as a further improvement for the production of antimatter at very low temperatures (below 1 K). The first experiments with mesoporous materials highlighted in this review show very promising and exciting results. Mesoporous materials such as mesoporous silicon, mesoporous material films, pellets of MCM-41 and silica aerogel show remarkable features for antihydrogen formation. Yet, the characteristics for the best future mesoporous materials (e.g. pore sizes, pore connectivity, shape, surface chemistry) remain to be clearly identified. For now among the best candidates are pellets of MCM-41 and aerogel with pore sizes between 10 and 30 nm, possessing hydrophobic patches on their surface to avoid ice formation at low temperature. From a fundamental standpoint, antimatter experiments could help to shed light on open issues, such as the apparent asymmetry between matter and antimatter in our universe and the gravitational behaviour of antimatter. To this purpose, basic studies on antimatter are necessary and a convenient production of antimatter is required. It is exactly where mesoporous materials could be very useful.

  8. Accepting Mixed Waste as Alternate Feed Material for Processing and Disposal at a Licensed Uranium Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Frydenland, D. C.; Hochstein, R. F.; Thompson, A. J.

    2002-02-26

    Certain categories of mixed wastes that contain recoverable amounts of natural uranium can be processed for the recovery of valuable uranium, alone or together with other metals, at licensed uranium mills, and the resulting tailings permanently disposed of as 11e.(2) byproduct material in the mill's tailings impoundment, as an alternative to treatment and/or direct disposal at a mixed waste disposal facility. This paper discusses the regulatory background applicable to hazardous wastes, mixed wastes and uranium mills and, in particular, NRC's Alternate Feed Guidance under which alternate feed materials that contain certain types of mixed wastes may be processed and disposed of at uranium mills. The paper discusses the way in which the Alternate Feed Guidance has been interpreted in the past with respect to processing mixed wastes and the significance of recent changes in NRC's interpretation of the Alternate Feed Guidance that sets the stage for a broader range of mixed waste materials to be processed as alternate feed materials. The paper also reviews the le gal rationale and policy reasons why materials that would otherwise have to be treated and/or disposed of as mixed waste, at a mixed waste disposal facility, are exempt from RCRA when reprocessed as alternate feed material at a uranium mill and become subject to the sole jurisdiction of NRC, and some of the reasons why processing mixed wastes as alternate feed materials at uranium mills is preferable to direct disposal. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion of the specific acceptance, characterization and certification requirements applicable to alternate feed materials and mixed wastes at International Uranium (USA) Corporation's White Mesa Mill, which has been the most active uranium mill in the processing of alternate feed materials under the Alternate Feed Guidance.

  9. 7 CFR 305.26 - Khapra beetle treatment schedule for feeds and milled products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Khapra beetle treatment schedule for feeds and milled... Treatments § 305.26 Khapra beetle treatment schedule for feeds and milled products. Feeds and milled products may be treated for khapra beetle using schedule T307-a. The temperature must be 180 °F in any part...

  10. Innate preference or opportunism: mosquitoes feeding on birds of prey at the Southeastern Raptor Center.

    PubMed

    Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; Bingham, Andrea M; Porterfield, Christopher; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2014-06-01

    The amplification of mosquito-borne pathogens is driven by patterns of host use by vectors. While each mosquito species is innately adapted to feed upon a particular group of hosts, this "preference" is difficult to assess in field-based studies, because factors such as host defenses and spatial and temporal overlap of mosquitoes and hosts affect which host animals actually get bitten. Here we examined patterns of host use by mosquitoes feeding on caged raptors at a rehabilitation and education center for birds of prey in Alabama, U.S.A. PCR-based techniques were used to determine the host species fed upon. Of 19 raptor species at the facility, seven were found to be fed upon by mosquitoes. Feeding indices and linear regression indicated that no species or family of raptor were significantly preferred over another (R(2)=0.46). Relative abundance adjusted for bird size explained a statistically significant amount of the variation in relative host use (R(2)=0.71), suggesting that bird size is an important component of host selection by mosquitoes. These findings support the hypothesis that traits of host animals drive patterns of host use by mosquitoes in nature, an interaction that leads to amplification of mosquito-borne viruses. PMID:24820552

  11. Center for Intelligent Fuel Cell Materials Design

    SciTech Connect

    Santurri, P.R.,; Hartmann-Thompson, C.; Keinath, S.E.

    2008-08-26

    The goal of this work was to develop a composite proton exchange membrane utilizing 1) readily available, low cost materials 2) readily modified and 3) easily processed to meet the chemical, mechanical and electrical requirements of high temperature PEM fuel cells. One of the primary goals was to produce a conducting polymer that met the criteria for strength, binding capability for additives, chemical stability, dimensional stability and good conductivity. In addition compatible, specialty nanoparticles were synthesized to provide water management and enhanced conductivity. The combination of these components in a multilayered, composite PEM has demonstrated improved conductivity at high temperatures and low humidity over commercially available polymers. The research reported in this final document has greatly increased the knowledge base related to post sulfonation of chemically and mechanically stable engineered polymers (Radel). Both electrical and strength factors for the degree of post sulfonation far exceed previous data, indicating the potential use of these materials in suitable proton exchange membrane architectures for the development of fuel cells. In addition compatible, hydrophilic, conductive nano-structures have been synthesized and incorporated into unique proton exchange membrane architectures. The use of post sulfonation for the engineered polymer and nano-particle provide cost effective techniques to produce the required components of a proton exchange membrane. The development of a multilayer proton exchange membrane as described in our work has produced a highly stable membrane at 170°C with conductivities exceeding commercially available proton exchange membranes at high temperatures and low humidity. The components and architecture of the proton exchange membrane discussed will provide low cost components for the portable market and potentially the transportation market. The development of unique components and membrane architecture

  12. Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response training Center needs assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, K.A.; Bolton, P.A.; Robinson, R.K.

    1993-09-01

    For the Hanford Site to provide high-quality training using simulated job-site situations to prepare the 4,000 Site workers and 500 emergency responders for known and unknown hazards a Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center is needed. The center will focus on providing classroom lecture as well as hands-on, realistic training. The establishment of the center will create a partnership among the US Department of Energy; its contractors; labor; local, state, and tribal governments; and Xavier and Tulane Universities of Louisiana. This report presents the background, history, need, benefits, and associated costs of the proposed center.

  13. Transitioning from Curriculum Materials Center to School Library Media Center in Pre-Service Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Gail; Cogdell, Edna A.; Gavigan, Karin

    2004-01-01

    Pre-service teachers use Curriculum Materials Centers (CMCs) to find resources to use in assignments for college-level pre-service coursework and to use in practice teaching with PK-12 students. CMCs that visually and environmentally resemble school library media centers can transition pre-service CMC users into classroom teachers who use school…

  14. A Look Inside Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials

    ScienceCinema

    Divan, Ralu; Rosenthal, Dan; Rose, Volker; Wai Hla, Saw; Liu, Yuzi

    2016-07-12

    At a very small, or "nano" scale, materials behave differently. The study of nanomaterials is much more than miniaturization - scientists are discovering how changes in size change a material's properties. From sunscreen to computer memory, the applications of nanoscale materials research are all around us. Researchers at Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials are creating new materials, methods and technologies to address some of the world's greatest challenges in energy security, lightweight but durable materials, high-efficiency lighting, information storage, environmental stewardship and advanced medical devices.

  15. A Look Inside Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Divan, Ralu; Rosenthal, Dan; Rose, Volker; Wai Hla, Saw; Liu, Yuzi

    2014-01-29

    At a very small, or "nano" scale, materials behave differently. The study of nanomaterials is much more than miniaturization - scientists are discovering how changes in size change a material's properties. From sunscreen to computer memory, the applications of nanoscale materials research are all around us. Researchers at Argonne's Center for Nanoscale Materials are creating new materials, methods and technologies to address some of the world's greatest challenges in energy security, lightweight but durable materials, high-efficiency lighting, information storage, environmental stewardship and advanced medical devices.

  16. NASA. Lewis Research Center materials research and technology: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grisaffe, Salvatore J.

    1990-01-01

    The Materials Division at the Lewis Research Center has a long record of contributions to both materials and process technology as well as to the understanding of key high-temperature phenomena. This paper overviews the division staff, facilities, past history, recent progress, and future interests.

  17. Multi-Cultural Resource Center Materials Handbook, Grades K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Mary F.; Barrientos, Anita

    This annotated bibliography cites multicultural materials whose themes correlate with basic concepts taught in the primary grades. The items are in the Multi-Cultural Resource Center of the Toledo, Ohio public schools. The purpose of the bibliography is to help teachers integrate materials into their classroom. Films, filmstrips, books, study…

  18. Union Catalog 1973 Supplement: Special Education Instructional Materials Center Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. for Exceptional Children.

    Listed are approximately 650 professional textbooks or instructional materials, which constitute a supplement to a prior listing, represent holdings through May, 1973 and are available to clients from the three Special Education Instructional Materials Centers in North Carolina. Client status is said to be available to anyone concerned with the…

  19. 2005 Research Briefs : Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2005-05-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems, and Materials Modeling and Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  20. 2003 research briefs : Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2003-08-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems and Materials Modeling and Computational Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  1. 2004 research briefs :Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems, and Materials Modeling and Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  2. Dual Feed Support Assembly Standard Product for Telecommunications Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, O.; Liminana, C.; Martinez, R.; Garcia, E.; Santiago Prowal, J.

    2012-07-01

    As a result of demanding a high number of dual FSA’s installed in S/C, EADS CASA Espacio is carrying out a new development from the currently optimized design of the Dual FSA. This means a second step from the first development (FSA current design), which implies a complete standardization of this product, and consequently a high level of industrialization and important reduction of risk, planning and costs. This development has been carried out with the support of the European Space Agency (ESA), and is taking into account an envelope of the main customer requirements in order to define a FSA which complies with the most demanding requirements defined for the most demanding telecom operators. The new structure has the capability to accommodate two heavy Feed Chain Assemblies (FCA’s) (up to 15kg for each one) and a large range of different positions of subreflector dishes. All these have been possible due to the improved design of the structure, and the analysis of different configurations of Feed Chain Assemblies (FCA’s) and subreflectors based in long CASA experience in this kind of structures. The new design improves the manufacturing process, making it easier, faster and minimizing risks from the definition of the structure up to the manufacturing and assembly processes. Structure definition is covered by the standard design, what implies a high reduction in cost and planning related with the design and manufacturing documentation. Manufacturing processes have been improved by using high quality technologies like Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM) and Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM) parts. On the other hand, performances have been improved achieving a good behaviour compliant with a severe stiffness requirement, first mode above 60 Hz including the air effect, showing a very comfortable MOS in dynamic analyses. Even the subreflectors thermo-elastic behaviour has been hard improved in terms of RMS. All these performances have been obtained with significant

  3. Feeding of by-products completely replaced cereals and pulses in dairy cows and enhanced edible feed conversion ratio.

    PubMed

    Ertl, P; Zebeli, Q; Zollitsch, W; Knaus, W

    2015-02-01

    When fed human-edible feeds, such as grains and pulses, dairy cows are very inefficient in transforming them into animal products. Therefore, strategies to reduce human-edible inputs in dairy cow feeding are needed to improve food efficiency. The aim of this feeding trial was to analyze the effect of the full substitution of a common concentrate mixture with a by-product concentrate mixture on milk production, feed intake, blood values, and the edible feed conversion ratio (eFCR), defined as human-edible output per human edible input. The experiment was conducted as a change-over design, with each experimental period lasting for 7wk. Thirteen multiparous and 5 primiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments. Treatments consisted of a grass silage-based forage diet supplemented with either conventional ingredients or solely by-products from the food processing industry (BP). The BP mixture had higher contents of fiber and ether extract, whereas starch content was reduced compared with the conventional mixture. Milk yield and milk solids were not affected by treatment. The eFCR in the BP group were about 4 and 2.7 times higher for energy and protein, respectively. Blood values did not indicate negative effects on cows' metabolic health status. Results of this feeding trial suggest that by-products could replace common concentrate supplements in dairy cow feeding, resulting in an increased eFCR for energy and protein which emphasizes the unique role of dairy cows as net food producers.

  4. Inorganic and Radiochemical Analysis of AW-101 and AN-107 ''Diluted Feed'' Materials

    SciTech Connect

    MW Urie; JJ Wagner; LR Greenwood; OT Farmer; SK Fiskum; RT Ratner; CZ Soderquist

    1999-11-11

    This report presents the inorganic and radiochemical analytical results for AW-101 and AN-107 diluted feed materials. The analyses were conducted in support of the BNFL Proposal No. 29952/29953 Task 2.1. The inorganic and radiochemical analysis results obtained from the diluted feed materials are used to provide initial characterization information for subsequent processing testing. Quality Assurance (QA) Plan MCS-033 provides the operational and quality control protocols for the analytical activities.

  5. Infant feeding: the interfaces between interaction design and cognitive ergonomics in user-centered design.

    PubMed

    Lima, Flavia; Araújo, Lilian Kely

    2012-01-01

    This text presents a discussion on the process of developing interactive products focused on infant behavior, which result was an interactive game for encouraging infant feeding. For that, it describes the use of cognitive psychology concepts added to interaction design methodology. Through this project, this article sustains how the cooperative use of these concepts provides adherent solutions to users' needs, whichever they are. Besides that, it verifies the closeness of those methodologies to boundary areas of knowledge, such as design focused on user and ergonomics.

  6. Infant feeding: the interfaces between interaction design and cognitive ergonomics in user-centered design.

    PubMed

    Lima, Flavia; Araújo, Lilian Kely

    2012-01-01

    This text presents a discussion on the process of developing interactive products focused on infant behavior, which result was an interactive game for encouraging infant feeding. For that, it describes the use of cognitive psychology concepts added to interaction design methodology. Through this project, this article sustains how the cooperative use of these concepts provides adherent solutions to users' needs, whichever they are. Besides that, it verifies the closeness of those methodologies to boundary areas of knowledge, such as design focused on user and ergonomics. PMID:22316864

  7. 7 CFR 613.4 - Special production of plant materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special production of plant materials. 613.4 Section 613.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS PLANT MATERIALS CENTERS § 613.4...

  8. Carbon dioxide sequestration by direct mineral carbonation: process mineralogy of feed and products

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, William K.; Dahlin, David C.; Rush, G.E.; Dahlin, Cheryl L.; Collins, W. Keith

    2001-01-01

    Direct mineral carbonation has been investigated as a process to convert gaseous CO2 into a geologically stable final form. The process utilizes a slurry of water, with bicarbonate and salt additions, mixed with a mineral reactant, such as olivine (Mg2SiO4) or serpentine [Mg3Si2O5(OH)4]. Carbon dioxide is dissolved into this slurry, resulting in dissolution of the mineral and precipitation of magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). Optimum results have been achieved using heat pretreated serpentine feed material and high partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2). Specific conditions include: 155?C; PCO2=185 atm; 15% solids. Under these conditions, 78% conversion of the silicate to the carbonate was achieved in 30 minutes. Process mineralogy has been utilized to characterize the feed and process products, and interpret the mineral dissolution and carbonate precipitation reaction paths.

  9. Feeding and feedback in nearby AGN - comparison with the Milky Way center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storchi-Bergmann, T.

    2014-05-01

    I discuss feeding and feedback processes observed in the inner few hundred parsecs of nearby active galaxies using integral field spectroscopy at spatial resolutions of a few to tens of parsecs. Signatures of feedback include outflows from the nucleus with velocities ranging from 200 to 1000 km s-1, with mass outflow rates between 0.5 and a few M⊙ yr-1. Signatures of feeding include the observation of gas inflows along nuclear spirals and filaments, with velocities ranging from 50 to 100 km s-1 and mass flow rates from 0.1 to ˜1 M⊙ yr-1. These rates are 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than the mass accretion rate to the supermassive black hole (SMBH). These inflows can thus lead, during less than one activity cycle, to the accumulation of enough gas in the inner few hundred parsecs, to trigger the formation of new stars, leading to the growth of the galaxy bulge. Young to intermediate age stars have indeed been found in circumnuclear rings around a number of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). In particular, one of these rings, with radius of ≈ 100 pc is observed in the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068, and is associated to an off-centered molecular ring, very similar to that observed in the Milky Way (MW). On the basis of an evolutionary scenario in which gas falling into the nuclear region triggers star formation followed by the triggering of nuclear activity, we speculate that, in the case of the MW, molecular gas has already accumulated within the inner ≈ 100 pc to trigger the formation of new stars, as supported by the presence of blue stars close to the galactic center. A possible increase in the star-formation rate in the nuclear region will then be followed, probably tens of millions of years later, by the triggering of nuclear activity in Sgr A*.

  10. Economic values of production and functional traits, including residual feed intake, in Finnish milk production.

    PubMed

    Hietala, P; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kantanen, J; Juga, J

    2014-02-01

    Improving the feed efficiency of dairy cattle has a substantial effect on the economic efficiency and on the reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy production through lower feeding costs and emissions from dairy farming. To assess the economic importance of feed efficiency in the breeding goal for dairy cattle, the economic values for the current breeding goal traits and the additional feed efficiency traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle under production circumstances in 2011 were determined. The derivation of economic values was based on a bioeconomic model in which the profit of the production system was calculated, using the generated steady state herd structure. Considering beef production from dairy farms, 2 marketing strategies for surplus calves were investigated: (A) surplus calves were sold at a young age and (B) surplus calves were fattened on dairy farms. Both marketing strategies were unprofitable when subsidies were not included in the revenues. When subsidies were taken into account, a positive profitability was observed in both marketing strategies. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake (RFI) of breeding heifers and cows were -25.5 and -55.8 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic value for RFI of animals in fattening was -29.5 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year. To compare the economic importance among traits, the standardized economic weight of each trait was calculated as the product of the marginal economic value and the genetic standard deviation; the standardized economic weight expressed as a percentage of the sum of all standardized economic weights was called relative economic weight. When not accounting for subsidies, the highest relative economic weight was found for 305-d milk yield (34% in strategy A and 29% in strategy B), which was followed by protein percentage (13% in strategy A and 11% in strategy B). The third most important traits were calving

  11. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate

  12. Center for Coal-Derived Low Energy Materials for Sustainable Construction

    SciTech Connect

    Jewell, Robert; Robl, Tom; Rathbone, Robert

    2012-06-30

    The overarching goal of this project was to create a sustained center to support the continued development of new products and industries that manufacture construction materials from coal combustion by-products or CCB’s (e.g., cements, grouts, wallboard, masonry block, fillers, roofing materials, etc). Specific objectives includes the development of a research kiln and associated system and the formulation and production of high performance low-energy, low-CO2 emitting calcium sulfoaluminate (CAS) cement that utilize coal combustion byproducts as raw materials.

  13. Estimation of metabolic heat production and methane emission in Sahiwal and Karan Fries heifers under different feeding regimes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Singh, S. V.; Pandey, Priyanka; Kumar, Narendra; Hooda, O. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was designed to estimate the metabolic heat production and methane emission in Sahiwal and Karan Fries (Holstein-Friesian X Tharparkar) heifers under two different feeding regimes, i.e., feeding regime-1 as per the National Research Council (NRC) (2001) and feeding regime-2 having 15% higher energy (supplementation of molasses) than NRC (2001). Materials and Methods: Six (n = 6) healthy heifers of Sahiwal and Karan Fries with 18-24 months of age were selected from Indian Council of Agricultural Research-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. An initial 15 days was maintained under feeding regime-1 and feeding regime-2 as adaptation period; actual experiment was conducted from 16th day onward for next 15 days. At the end of feeding regimes (on day 15th and 16th), expired air and volume were collected in Douglas bag for two consecutive days (morning [6:00 am] and evening [4:00 pm]). The fraction of methane and expired air volume were measured by methane analyzer and wet test meter, respectively. The oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were measured by iWorx LabScribe2. Results: The heat production (kcal/day) was significantly (p<0.05) higher in feeding regime-2 as compared to feeding regimen-1 in both breeds. The heat production per unit metabolic body weight was numerically higher in feeding regime-1 than feeding regime-2; however, the values were found statistically non-significant (p>0.05). The energy loss as methane (%) from total heat production was significantly (p<0.05) higher in feeding regime-1. The body weight (kg), metabolic body weight (W0.75), and basal metabolic rate (kcal/kg0.75) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in feeding regime-2 in both breeds. Conclusions: This study indicates that higher energy diet by supplementing molasses may reduce energy loss as methane and enhance the growth of Sahiwal and Karan Fries heifers. PMID:27284226

  14. Is a Materials Resource Center Right for You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Tom

    2004-01-01

    When a commercial pilot steps into the cockpit of an airplane, it has been serviced by a host of personnel and will be supported by many more from takeoff to landing. In more and more places, when an elementary school teacher steps into inquiry-centered science instruction, his or her materials have been carefully prepared by a team of experts,…

  15. Instructional Materials Center Project Director's Report 1970-71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Public Schools, Minn.

    The Instructional Materials Center (IMC) was developed in August, 1969, to support the Title I Pyramids Reading Program (PRP) begun a year earlier. The PRP attempted to improve the reading skills of educationally disadvantaged children by (1) using one basal reading series in all Minneapolis Target Area elementary schools, (2) providing an…

  16. Localising livestock protein feed production and the impact on land use and greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Sasu-Boakye, Y; Cederberg, C; Wirsenius, S

    2014-08-01

    Livestock farmers in Sweden usually grow feed grains for livestock but import protein feed from outside Sweden. Aside from the economic implications, some environmental issues are associated with this practice. We used life cycle assessment to evaluate the impact of local protein feed production on land use and greenhouse gas emissions, compared with the use of imported protein feed, for pig meat and dairy milk produced in Sweden. Our results showed that local production reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 4.5% and 12%, respectively, for pigs and dairy cows. Land use for feed production in Sweden increased by 11% for pigs and 25% for dairy cows, but total land use decreased for pig production and increased for dairy milk production. Increased protein feed cultivation in Sweden decreased inputs needed for animal production and improved some ecological processes (e.g. nutrient recycling) of the farm systems. However, the differences in results between scenarios are relatively small and influenced to an extent by methodological choices such as co-product allocation. Moreover, it was difficult to assess the contribution of greenhouse emissions from land use change. The available accounting methods we applied did not adequately account for the potential land use changes and in some cases provided conflicting results. We conclude that local protein feed production presents an opportunity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions but at a cost of increasing land occupation in Sweden for feed production.

  17. Localising livestock protein feed production and the impact on land use and greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Sasu-Boakye, Y; Cederberg, C; Wirsenius, S

    2014-08-01

    Livestock farmers in Sweden usually grow feed grains for livestock but import protein feed from outside Sweden. Aside from the economic implications, some environmental issues are associated with this practice. We used life cycle assessment to evaluate the impact of local protein feed production on land use and greenhouse gas emissions, compared with the use of imported protein feed, for pig meat and dairy milk produced in Sweden. Our results showed that local production reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 4.5% and 12%, respectively, for pigs and dairy cows. Land use for feed production in Sweden increased by 11% for pigs and 25% for dairy cows, but total land use decreased for pig production and increased for dairy milk production. Increased protein feed cultivation in Sweden decreased inputs needed for animal production and improved some ecological processes (e.g. nutrient recycling) of the farm systems. However, the differences in results between scenarios are relatively small and influenced to an extent by methodological choices such as co-product allocation. Moreover, it was difficult to assess the contribution of greenhouse emissions from land use change. The available accounting methods we applied did not adequately account for the potential land use changes and in some cases provided conflicting results. We conclude that local protein feed production presents an opportunity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions but at a cost of increasing land occupation in Sweden for feed production. PMID:26263191

  18. Mycotoxin occurrence in feed and feed raw materials worldwide: long-term analysis with special focus on Europe and Asia.

    PubMed

    Streit, Elisabeth; Naehrer, Karin; Rodrigues, Inês; Schatzmayr, Gerd

    2013-09-01

    During an 8-year period, 17 316 samples of feed and feed raw materials from all over the world were analysed for contamination with aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins. Overall, 72% of the samples tested positive for at least one mycotoxin and 38% were found to be co-contaminated. Mycotoxin concentrations were generally low and the majority of the samples were compliant with the most stringent EU guidance values or maximum levels for mycotoxins in feed. However, in their present state these regulations do not address co-contamination and associated risks. Long-term trends are difficult to establish as strong yearly variations were observed regarding mycotoxin prevalence and contamination levels. In some cases unusual weather conditions can be linked with high observed mycotoxin loads. An exception to this rule is South-East Asia, where a steady increase of aflatoxin prevalence has been observed. The percentage of aflatoxin-positive samples in this region rose from 32% in 2005 to 71% in 2011.

  19. Materials characterization center workshop on corrosion of engineered barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, M.D.; Zima, G.E.; Jones, R.H.; Westerman, R.E.

    1981-03-01

    A workshop on corrosion test procedures for materials to be used as barriers in nuclear waste repositories was conducted August 19 and 20, 1980, at the Battelle Seattle Research Center. The purpose of the meeting was to obtain guidance for the Materials Characterization Center in preparing test procedures to be approved by the Materials Review Board. The workshop identified test procedures that address failure modes of uniform corrosion, pitting and crevice corrosion, stress corrosion, and hydrogen effects that can cause delayed failures. The principal areas that will require further consideration beyond current engineering practices involve the analyses of pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion, especially with respect to quantitative predictions of the lifetime of barriers. Special techniques involving accelerated corrosion testing for uniform attack will require development.

  20. Current issues connected with usage of genetically modified crops in production of feed and livestock feeding.

    PubMed

    Kwiatek, K; Mazur, M; Sieradzki, Z

    2008-01-01

    Progress, which is brought by new advances in modern molecular biology, allowed interference in the genome of live organisms and gene manipulation. Introducing new genes to the recipient organism enables to give them new features, absent before. Continuous increase in the area of the biotech crops triggers continuous discussion about safety of genetically modified (GM) crops, including food and feed derived from them. Important issue connected with cultivation of genetically modified crops is a horizontal gene transfer and a bacterial antibiotic resistance. Discussion about safety of GM crops concerns also food allergies caused by eating genetically modified food. The problem of genetic modifications of GM crops used for livestock feeding is widely discussed, taking into account Polish feed law.

  1. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum: Its effectiveness as an alternative bedding material for broiler production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) may be a viable low-cost alternative bedding material for broiler production. In order to evaluate FGD gypsum’s viability, three consecutive trials were conducted to determine its influence on live performance (body weight, feed consumption, feed efficiency, an...

  2. Energy Frontier Research Center, Center for Materials Science of Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Todd R. Allen

    2011-12-01

    This is a document required by Basic Energy Sciences as part of a mid-term review, in the third year of the five-year award period and is intended to provide a critical assessment of the Center for Materials Science of Nuclear Fuels (strategic vision, scientific plans and progress, and technical accomplishments).

  3. Plasma amino acids of wether lambs supplemented with novel feed products to reduce locoweed toxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Locoweed is a toxic legume that impairs performance and may cause death in grazing livestock. Novel feed and supplement products are needed that counter or minimize the toxic effects of locoweed. The objective was to evaluate the effects of 3 proprietary feed product formulations on plasma amino aci...

  4. Enteric methane production from beef cattle that vary in feed efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We hypothesized that CH4 production will decrease with increased feed efficiency. Two experiments were conducted to determine CH4 production of cattle that differed in feed efficiency. Cattle in both studies were selected from larger contemporary groups. Animals furthest from the confidence ellip...

  5. Composite Structures and Materials Research at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Dexter, H. Benson; Johnston, Norman J.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Cano, roberto J.

    2003-01-01

    A summary of recent composite structures and materials research at NASA Langley Research Center is presented. Fabrication research to develop low-cost automated robotic fabrication procedures for thermosetting and thermoplastic composite materials, and low-cost liquid molding processes for preformed textile materials is described. Robotic fabrication procedures discussed include ply-by-ply, cure-on-the-fly heated placement head and out-of-autoclave electron-beam cure methods for tow and tape thermosetting and thermoplastic materials. Liquid molding fabrication processes described include Resin Film Infusion (RFI), Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM). Results for a full-scale composite wing box are summarized to identify the performance of materials and structures fabricated with these low-cost fabrication methods.

  6. Composite Structures and Materials Research at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Dexter, H. Benson; Johnston, Norman J.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Cano, Roberto J.

    2001-01-01

    A summary of recent composite structures and materials research at NASA Langley Research Center is presented. Fabrication research to develop low-cost automated robotic fabrication procedures for thermosetting and thermoplastic composite materials, and low-cost liquid molding processes for preformed textile materials is described. Robotic fabrication procedures discussed include ply-by-ply, cure-on-the-fly heated placement head and out-of-autoclave electron-beam cure methods for tow and tape thermosetting and thermoplastic materials. Liquid molding fabrication processes described include Resin Film Infusion (RFI) Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM). Results for a full-scale composite wing box are summarized to identify the performance of materials and structures fabricated with these low-cost fabrication methods.

  7. Development of coal-feeding systems at the Morgantown Energy Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobday, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Systems for feeding crushed and pulverized coal into coal conversion reactor vessels are described. Pneumatic methods for feeding pulverized coal, slurry feeders, and coal pumps, methods for steam pickup, and a method for drying a water-coal slurry in a steam fluidized bed subsequent to feeding the coal into a reactor vessel are included.

  8. [Application of deactivating properties of some sorbents in aquaculture feed production].

    PubMed

    Vasukevich, T A; Nitievskaya, L S

    2014-01-01

    The possibility and effectiveness of application of selective sorbents for fish feed production in aquaculture in the area exposed to the radioactive pollution were studied. The investigations of the fish feed deactivating properties with additives of ferrocyn and potassium alginate, and magnesium on whitefish fry-fingerlings and yearlings were carried out. The study has shown that the ferrocyn performance is greater than 99% regardless of the fish age. 1% ferrocyn addition to feed allows increasing the acceptable concentration of feed compo- nents polluted by the above norm cesium radionuclide up to 20 times. The alginate additives in feed provide almost double decrease in the activity of fish tissues. The optimally effective alginate dose should exceed the calcium concentration in feed up to 4 times. It was found that utilization of the feedstock (fish meal, crops and legumes, oil meal and oil cake) polluted by radionuclides is possible in combined aquaculture feed pro- duction. The application of sorbents in feed will allow increasing the amount permissible for use of the feed components polluted above the norm; ensure the radiation safety of feed and, finally, the protection of aquatic biological resources from radioactive contamination. It is shown that the sorbent additive in feed is also jus- tified in case of fish farming in closed waters affected by radioactive pollution. Feeding by mixed fodder with the sorbent additives prevents fish from radionuclide intake from natural food sources.

  9. [Application of deactivating properties of some sorbents in aquaculture feed production].

    PubMed

    Vasukevich, T A; Nitievskaya, L S

    2014-01-01

    The possibility and effectiveness of application of selective sorbents for fish feed production in aquaculture in the area exposed to the radioactive pollution were studied. The investigations of the fish feed deactivating properties with additives of ferrocyn and potassium alginate, and magnesium on whitefish fry-fingerlings and yearlings were carried out. The study has shown that the ferrocyn performance is greater than 99% regardless of the fish age. 1% ferrocyn addition to feed allows increasing the acceptable concentration of feed compo- nents polluted by the above norm cesium radionuclide up to 20 times. The alginate additives in feed provide almost double decrease in the activity of fish tissues. The optimally effective alginate dose should exceed the calcium concentration in feed up to 4 times. It was found that utilization of the feedstock (fish meal, crops and legumes, oil meal and oil cake) polluted by radionuclides is possible in combined aquaculture feed pro- duction. The application of sorbents in feed will allow increasing the amount permissible for use of the feed components polluted above the norm; ensure the radiation safety of feed and, finally, the protection of aquatic biological resources from radioactive contamination. It is shown that the sorbent additive in feed is also jus- tified in case of fish farming in closed waters affected by radioactive pollution. Feeding by mixed fodder with the sorbent additives prevents fish from radionuclide intake from natural food sources. PMID:25980288

  10. The Feed Materials Program of the Manhattan Project: A Foundational Component of the Nuclear Weapons Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2014-12-01

    The feed materials program of the Manhattan Project was responsible for procuring uranium-bearing ores and materials and processing them into forms suitable for use as source materials for the Project's uranium-enrichment factories and plutonium-producing reactors. This aspect of the Manhattan Project has tended to be overlooked in comparison with the Project's more dramatic accomplishments, but was absolutely vital to the success of those endeavors: without appropriate raw materials and the means to process them, nuclear weapons and much of the subsequent cold war would never have come to pass. Drawing from information available in Manhattan Engineer District Documents, this paper examines the sources and processing of uranium-bearing materials used in making the first nuclear weapons and how the feed materials program became a central foundational component of the postwar nuclear weapons complex.

  11. Nematode community composition and feeding shaped by contrasting productivity regimes in the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lins, Lidia; da Silva, Maria Cristina; Hauquier, Freija; Esteves, André Morgado; Vanreusel, Ann

    2015-05-01

    In the Southern Ocean, during the ANT-XXVIII expedition (RV Polarstern), four stations contrasting in terms of surface primary productivity were studied along the Polar Front from 39°W to 10°E. We investigated to what extent differences in surface primary productivity, together with benthic environmental parameters (concentration of Chlorophyll a and its derivatives, and sediment fatty acid composition) mirrored in nematode standing stocks (i.e. density and biomass) and differences in community composition. Moreover, nematode fatty acid (FA) analyses were performed to unravel feeding selectivity patterns on "bulk" nematodes and particular nematode taxa (Desmodora and Desmoscolecidae). South Georgia station, located NW of South Georgia island, possessed not only highest surface primary productivity, but also highest Chlorophyll a (and its derivatives) and total sediment FA concentrations, also reflected in up to 10-fold higher nematode standing stocks. FA composition from "bulk" nematodes, Desmodora and desmoscolecids revealed a planktonic-based diet, as revealed by diatom biomarkers (16:1 ω 7/16:0 > 1) for "bulk" nematodes and Desmodora from South Georgia. Nematodes at the other stations situated more to the east showed non-selectivity for fresh diatom material based on the FA composition, associated with low surface primary productivity and low labile carbon concentrations (low Chlorophyll a values) in these areas. Uncommonly found in typical deep-sea environments, the nematode genus Desmodora exhibited high numbers at South Georgia station, probably as a response to the high primary productivity at the surface, confirming the strong benthic-pelagic coupling even at great depths. This study suggests that alterations in nematode standing stocks and community composition, together with selective feeding reflected by distinct FA composition, can be positively associated and shaped by surface productivity regimes.

  12. Nuclear Industry Support Services by the Buffalo Materials Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, L.G. )

    1993-01-01

    The Buffalo Materials Research Center (BMRC) is located on the campus of the State University of New York at Buffalo, Principal facilities within BMRC include a 2-MW PULSTAR, low-enrichment reactor, an electron accelerator, and irradiated materials remote testing facilities. The reactor and the materials testing facilities have been utilized extensively in support of the power reactor community since 1961. This paper briefly highlights the nature and scope of this service. The BMRC is operated for the university by Buffalo Materials Research, Inc., a private for-profit company, which is a subsidiary of Materials Engineering Associates, Inc. (MEA), a Maryland-based materials testing company. A primary mission of MEA has been research on the effects of neutron irradiation on reactor structural materials, including those used for pressure vessel and piping systems. The combined resources of MEA and BMRC have played a pivotal role in the assessment of reactor pressure vessel safety both in the United States and abroad and in the development of new radiation-resistant steels.

  13. Products Available from the National Center for Education Statistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromboluti, Carol Sue

    This booklet lists some of the products available from the National Center for Education Statistics. Each product is described briefly, with some notes about its development and use, and ordering information, including cost and stock number. The following products are described: (1) "Student Data Handbook for Elementary, Secondary, and Early…

  14. Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials

    MedlinePlus

    ... for source and byproduct materials. Washington, DC: U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; NUREG-1717; ... April 2010. The Health Physics Society is a nonprofit scientific professional organization whose ...

  15. An inexpensive feeding bioassay technique for stored-product insects.

    PubMed

    Clark, Erin L; Isitt, Rylee; Plettner, Erika; Fields, Paul G; Huber, Dezene P W

    2014-02-01

    ABSTRACT We used the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), to compare three feeding bioassay techniques using flour disks. The area (scanner or digital photographs) and mass (sensitive balance) of the same flour disks were measured daily for 1 or 2 wk to assess feeding by insects. The loss in mass and area over 4 h was measured, as some variation over time was noticed in the disks with no insects feeding on them. The gravimetric method correlated well with both measurements of the area for the disks held in a growth chamber: scanner (R2 = 0.96), digital photography (R2 = 0.96). There was also a high correlation (R2 = 0.86) between the disk weight and area scanned at normal lab conditions. There were differences in the percentage of the disks remaining over time depending on the temperature and whether they were weighed or scanned. Measuring the mass of the disks resulted in a relatively larger percent of disk remaining compared with the scanned area. Mass measurements required a sensitive balance, handling of the disks and the insects, and appeared slightly more sensitive to humidity and temperature changes over time. Scanning the disks requires flat bed scanner access but less handling of both insects and disks. Digital photographs could be taken quickly, requiring less equipment, although photographs had to be further processed to determine area Scanning or taking digital photographs of flour disk area was an effective technique for measuring insect feeding.

  16. Biofuels and Their Co-Products as Livestock Feed: Global Economic and Environmental Implications.

    PubMed

    Popp, József; Harangi-Rákos, Mónika; Gabnai, Zoltán; Balogh, Péter; Antal, Gabriella; Bai, Attila

    2016-01-01

    This review studies biofuel expansion in terms of competition between conventional and advanced biofuels based on bioenergy potential. Production of advanced biofuels is generally more expensive than current biofuels because products are not yet cost competitive. What is overlooked in the discussion about biofuel is the contribution the industry makes to the global animal feed supply and land use for cultivation of feedstocks. The global ethanol industry produces 44 million metric tonnes of high-quality feed, however, the co-products of biodiesel production have a moderate impact on the feed market contributing to just 8-9 million tonnes of protein meal output a year. By economically displacing traditional feed ingredients co-products from biofuel production are an important and valuable component of the biofuels sector and the global feed market. The return of co-products to the feed market has agricultural land use (and GHG emissions) implications as well. The use of co-products generated from grains and oilseeds can reduce net land use by 11% to 40%. The proportion of global cropland used for biofuels is currently some 2% (30-35 million hectares). By adding co-products substituted for grains and oilseeds the land required for cultivation of feedstocks declines to 1.5% of the global crop area.

  17. Biofuels and Their Co-Products as Livestock Feed: Global Economic and Environmental Implications.

    PubMed

    Popp, József; Harangi-Rákos, Mónika; Gabnai, Zoltán; Balogh, Péter; Antal, Gabriella; Bai, Attila

    2016-01-01

    This review studies biofuel expansion in terms of competition between conventional and advanced biofuels based on bioenergy potential. Production of advanced biofuels is generally more expensive than current biofuels because products are not yet cost competitive. What is overlooked in the discussion about biofuel is the contribution the industry makes to the global animal feed supply and land use for cultivation of feedstocks. The global ethanol industry produces 44 million metric tonnes of high-quality feed, however, the co-products of biodiesel production have a moderate impact on the feed market contributing to just 8-9 million tonnes of protein meal output a year. By economically displacing traditional feed ingredients co-products from biofuel production are an important and valuable component of the biofuels sector and the global feed market. The return of co-products to the feed market has agricultural land use (and GHG emissions) implications as well. The use of co-products generated from grains and oilseeds can reduce net land use by 11% to 40%. The proportion of global cropland used for biofuels is currently some 2% (30-35 million hectares). By adding co-products substituted for grains and oilseeds the land required for cultivation of feedstocks declines to 1.5% of the global crop area. PMID:26938514

  18. Implementing the Data Center Energy Productivity Metric in a High Performance Computing Data Center

    SciTech Connect

    Sego, Landon H.; Marquez, Andres; Rawson, Andrew; Cader, Tahir; Fox, Kevin M.; Gustafson, William I.; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2013-06-30

    As data centers proliferate in size and number, the improvement of their energy efficiency and productivity has become an economic and environmental imperative. Making these improvements requires metrics that are robust, interpretable, and practical. We discuss the properties of a number of the proposed metrics of energy efficiency and productivity. In particular, we focus on the Data Center Energy Productivity (DCeP) metric, which is the ratio of useful work produced by the data center to the energy consumed performing that work. We describe our approach for using DCeP as the principal outcome of a designed experiment using a highly instrumented, high-performance computing data center. We found that DCeP was successful in clearly distinguishing different operational states in the data center, thereby validating its utility as a metric for identifying configurations of hardware and software that would improve energy productivity. We also discuss some of the challenges and benefits associated with implementing the DCeP metric, and we examine the efficacy of the metric in making comparisons within a data center and between data centers.

  19. Hydrogen production from carbonaceous material

    DOEpatents

    Lackner, Klaus S.; Ziock, Hans J.; Harrison, Douglas P.

    2004-09-14

    Hydrogen is produced from solid or liquid carbon-containing fuels in a two-step process. The fuel is gasified with hydrogen in a hydrogenation reaction to produce a methane-rich gaseous reaction product, which is then reacted with water and calcium oxide in a hydrogen production and carbonation reaction to produce hydrogen and calcium carbonate. The calcium carbonate may be continuously removed from the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction zone and calcined to regenerate calcium oxide, which may be reintroduced into the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction zone. Hydrogen produced in the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction is more than sufficient both to provide the energy necessary for the calcination reaction and also to sustain the hydrogenation of the coal in the gasification reaction. The excess hydrogen is available for energy production or other purposes. Substantially all of the carbon introduced as fuel ultimately emerges from the invention process in a stream of substantially pure carbon dioxide. The water necessary for the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction may be introduced into both the gasification and hydrogen production and carbonation reactions, and allocated so as transfer the exothermic heat of reaction of the gasification reaction to the endothermic hydrogen production and carbonation reaction.

  20. Increasing pressure on freshwater resources due to terrestrial feed ingredients for aquaculture production.

    PubMed

    Pahlow, M; van Oel, P R; Mekonnen, M M; Hoekstra, A Y

    2015-12-01

    As aquaculture becomes more important for feeding the growing world population, so too do the required natural resources needed to produce aquaculture feed. While there is potential to replace fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients, it is important to understand both the positive and negative implications of such a development. The use of feed with a large proportion of terrestrial feed may reduce the pressure on fisheries to provide feed for fish, but at the same time it may significantly increase the pressure on freshwater resources, due to water consumption and pollution in crop production for aquafeed. Here the green, blue and gray water footprint of cultured fish and crustaceans related to the production of commercial feed for the year 2008 has been determined for the major farmed species, representing 88% of total fed production. The green, blue and gray production-weighted average feed water footprints of fish and crustaceans fed commercial aquafeed are estimated at 1629 m3/t, 179 m3/t and 166 m3/t, respectively. The estimated global total water footprint of commercial aquafeed was 31-35 km3 in 2008. The top five contributors to the total water footprint of commercial feed are Nile tilapia, Grass carp, Whiteleg shrimp, Common carp and Atlantic salmon, which together have a water footprint of 18.2 km3. An analysis of alternative diets revealed that the replacement of fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients may further increase pressure on freshwater resources. At the same time economic consumptive water productivity may be reduced, especially for carnivorous species. The results of the present study show that, for the aquaculture sector to grow sustainably, freshwater consumption and pollution due to aquafeed need to be taken into account. PMID:26258557

  1. Increasing pressure on freshwater resources due to terrestrial feed ingredients for aquaculture production.

    PubMed

    Pahlow, M; van Oel, P R; Mekonnen, M M; Hoekstra, A Y

    2015-12-01

    As aquaculture becomes more important for feeding the growing world population, so too do the required natural resources needed to produce aquaculture feed. While there is potential to replace fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients, it is important to understand both the positive and negative implications of such a development. The use of feed with a large proportion of terrestrial feed may reduce the pressure on fisheries to provide feed for fish, but at the same time it may significantly increase the pressure on freshwater resources, due to water consumption and pollution in crop production for aquafeed. Here the green, blue and gray water footprint of cultured fish and crustaceans related to the production of commercial feed for the year 2008 has been determined for the major farmed species, representing 88% of total fed production. The green, blue and gray production-weighted average feed water footprints of fish and crustaceans fed commercial aquafeed are estimated at 1629 m3/t, 179 m3/t and 166 m3/t, respectively. The estimated global total water footprint of commercial aquafeed was 31-35 km3 in 2008. The top five contributors to the total water footprint of commercial feed are Nile tilapia, Grass carp, Whiteleg shrimp, Common carp and Atlantic salmon, which together have a water footprint of 18.2 km3. An analysis of alternative diets revealed that the replacement of fish meal and fish oil with terrestrial feed ingredients may further increase pressure on freshwater resources. At the same time economic consumptive water productivity may be reduced, especially for carnivorous species. The results of the present study show that, for the aquaculture sector to grow sustainably, freshwater consumption and pollution due to aquafeed need to be taken into account.

  2. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry... similar products, for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

  3. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry... similar products, for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

  4. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry... similar products, for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

  5. 9 CFR 95.14 - Blood meal, tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry. 95.14 Section 95.14..., tankage, meat meal, and similar products, for use as fertilizer or animal feed; requirements for entry... similar products, for use as fertilizer or as feed for domestic animals, shall not be imported...

  6. Probiotics and prebiotics in animal feeding for safe food production.

    PubMed

    Gaggìa, Francesca; Mattarelli, Paola; Biavati, Bruno

    2010-07-31

    Recent outbreaks of food-borne diseases highlight the need for reducing bacterial pathogens in foods of animal origin. Animal enteric pathogens are a direct source for food contamination. The ban of antibiotics as growth promoters (AGPs) has been a challenge for animal nutrition increasing the need to find alternative methods to control and prevent pathogenic bacterial colonization. The modulation of the gut microbiota with new feed additives, such as probiotics and prebiotics, towards host-protecting functions to support animal health, is a topical issue in animal breeding and creates fascinating possibilities. Although the knowledge on the effects of such feed additives has increased, essential information concerning their impact on the host are, to date, incomplete. For the future, the most important target, within probiotic and prebiotic research, is a demonstrated health-promoting benefit supported by knowledge on the mechanistic actions. Genomic-based knowledge on the composition and functions of the gut microbiota, as well as its deviations, will advance the selection of new and specific probiotics. Potential combinations of suitable probiotics and prebiotics may prove to be the next step to reduce the risk of intestinal diseases and remove specific microbial disorders. In this review we discuss the current knowledge on the contribution of the gut microbiota to host well-being. Moreover, we review available information on probiotics and prebiotics and their application in animal feeding. PMID:20382438

  7. Probiotics and prebiotics in animal feeding for safe food production.

    PubMed

    Gaggìa, Francesca; Mattarelli, Paola; Biavati, Bruno

    2010-07-31

    Recent outbreaks of food-borne diseases highlight the need for reducing bacterial pathogens in foods of animal origin. Animal enteric pathogens are a direct source for food contamination. The ban of antibiotics as growth promoters (AGPs) has been a challenge for animal nutrition increasing the need to find alternative methods to control and prevent pathogenic bacterial colonization. The modulation of the gut microbiota with new feed additives, such as probiotics and prebiotics, towards host-protecting functions to support animal health, is a topical issue in animal breeding and creates fascinating possibilities. Although the knowledge on the effects of such feed additives has increased, essential information concerning their impact on the host are, to date, incomplete. For the future, the most important target, within probiotic and prebiotic research, is a demonstrated health-promoting benefit supported by knowledge on the mechanistic actions. Genomic-based knowledge on the composition and functions of the gut microbiota, as well as its deviations, will advance the selection of new and specific probiotics. Potential combinations of suitable probiotics and prebiotics may prove to be the next step to reduce the risk of intestinal diseases and remove specific microbial disorders. In this review we discuss the current knowledge on the contribution of the gut microbiota to host well-being. Moreover, we review available information on probiotics and prebiotics and their application in animal feeding.

  8. Designed Amino Acid Feed in Improvement of Production and Quality Targets of a Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibody.

    PubMed

    Torkashvand, Fatemeh; Vaziri, Behrouz; Maleknia, Shayan; Heydari, Amir; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Davami, Fatemeh; Mahboudi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Cell culture feeds optimization is a critical step in process development of pharmaceutical recombinant protein production. Amino acids are the basic supplements of mammalian cell culture feeds with known effect on their growth promotion and productivity. In this study, we reported the implementation of the Plackett-Burman (PB) multifactorial design to screen the effects of amino acids on the growth promotion and productivity of a Chinese hamster ovary DG-44 (CHO-DG44) cell line producing bevacizumab. After this screening, the amino acid combinations were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM) to determine the most effective concentration in feeds. Through this strategy, the final monoclonal antibody (mAb) titre was enhanced by 70%, compared to the control group. For this particular cell line, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and glycine had the highest positive effects on the final mAb titre. Simultaneously, the impact of the designed amino acid feed on some critical quality attributes of bevacizumab was examined in the group with highest productivity. The product was analysed for N-glycan profiles, charge variant distribution, and low molecular weight forms. The results showed that the target product quality has been improved using this feeding strategy. It was shown how this strategy could significantly diminish the time and number of experiments in identifying the most effective amino acids and related concentrations in target product enhancement. This model could be successfully applied to other components of culture media and feeds.

  9. Use of Thickened Liquids to Manage Feeding Difficulties in Infants: A Pilot Survey of Practice Patterns in Canadian Pediatric Centers.

    PubMed

    Dion, Stephanie; Duivestein, Janice A; St Pierre, Astrid; Harris, Susan R

    2015-08-01

    Improved survival rates of sick or preterm infants have resulted in an increase of observed feeding difficulties. One common method for managing feeding difficulties in infants is to manipulate liquid viscosity by adding thickening agents to formula or expressed breast milk. Concerns regarding the lack of clinical practice guidelines for the use of this strategy have been raised in the literature and in clinical settings for several years. This study aimed to survey feeding clinicians working in major Canadian pediatric centers to identify current practice patterns for use of thickened liquids in managing feeding difficulties of infants and to justify the need for standardization of this practice. A web-based pilot survey was developed using Fluidsurveys software. The questionnaire contained 37 questions targeting the process of prescribing thickeners, choice of thickener, awareness of issues, and inconsistencies raised in the literature about thickener use and how to address them. A total of 69 questionnaire responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inductive thematic analysis methods. Our study results indicate that thickened liquids continue to be broadly used to manage feeding difficulties in Canadian infants, despite numerous areas of concern related to their use raised by our respondents. While clear practice patterns for assessment and management were observed among the respondents, some areas of practice did not reflect recent published research or experts' opinion. Further research to develop a systematic approach for assessment, intervention, and follow-up is warranted to guide clinicians in this complex decision-making process. PMID:26025758

  10. Teaching User-Centered Design in New Product Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Edwin; Stone, Donn E.; Wilton, Taine

    2011-01-01

    Thanks in part to groundbreaking work by companies such as Apple and IDEO, there has been growing interest in design as a way to improve the odds of new product success. This paper describes a user-centered design workshop developed for a new product marketing course. The workshop included exercises designed to explain and illustrate the…

  11. The Marketing of Information Analysis Center Products and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veazie, Walter H., Jr.; Connolly, Thomas F.

    Information analysis centers (IACs) represent a valuable national resource which has not been fully utilized, often because their products and services are not widely known. Recent Government economy measures demand consideration of increased marketability of these products and services and the institution of service charges as a possible source…

  12. Hydrolysates of lignocellulosic materials for biohydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong; Wang, Yong-Zhong; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Xu, Teng-Fei

    2013-05-01

    Lignocellulosic materials are commonly used in bio-H2 production for the sustainable energy resource development as they are abundant, cheap, renewable and highly biodegradable. In the process of the bio-H2 production, the pretreated lignocellulosic materials are firstly converted to monosaccharides by enzymolysis and then to H2 by fermentation. Since the structures of lignocellulosic materials are rather complex, the hydrolysates vary with the used materials. Even using the same lignocellulosic materials, the hydrolysates also change with different pretreatment methods. It has been shown that the appropriate hydrolysate compositions can dramatically improve the biological activities and bio-H2 production performances. Over the past decades, hydrolysis with respect to different lignocellulosic materials and pretreatments has been widely investigated. Besides, effects of the hydrolysates on the biohydrogen yields have also been examined. In this review, recent studies on hydrolysis as well as their effects on the biohydrogen production performance are summarized.

  13. NASA Lewis Research Center's Preheated Combustor and Materials Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemets, Steve A.; Ehlers, Robert C.; Parrott, Edith

    1995-01-01

    The Preheated Combustor and Materials Test Facility (PCMTF) in the Engine Research Building (ERB) at the NASA Lewis Research Center is one of two unique combustor facilities that provide a nonvitiated air supply to two test stands, where the air can be used for research combustor testing and high-temperature materials testing. Stand A is used as a research combustor stand, whereas stand B is used for cyclic and survivability tests of aerospace materials at high temperatures. Both stands can accommodate in-house and private industry research programs. The PCMTF is capable of providing up to 30 lb/s (pps) of nonvitiated, 450 psig combustion air at temperatures ranging from 850 to 1150 g F. A 5000 gal tank located outdoors adjacent to the test facility can provide jet fuel at a pressure of 900 psig and a flow rate of 11 gal/min (gpm). Gaseous hydrogen from a 70,000 cu ft (CF) tuber is also available as a fuel. Approximately 500 gpm of cooling water cools the research hardware and exhaust gases. Such cooling is necessary because the air stream reaches temperatures as high as 3000 deg F. The PCMTF provides industry and Government with a facility for studying the combustion process and for obtaining valuable test information on advanced materials. This report describes the facility's support systems and unique capabilities.

  14. Equipment for nuclear medical centers, production capabilities of Rosatom enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrish, Yu. N.; Koloskov, S. A.; Smirnov, V. P.; Strokach, A. P.

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of the capabilities of the State Corporation Rosatom enterprises on the development and production of diagnostic and therapeutic equipment for nuclear medicine centers is presented. Prospects of the development of accelerator equipment for the production of a wide range of radioisotope products are shown, and the trends of its development are determined. A comparative analysis of the technical parameters of domestic tomographs and devices for brachytherapy with foreign counterparts is given.

  15. Equipment for nuclear medical centers, production capabilities of Rosatom enterprises

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrish, Yu. N.; Koloskov, S. A.; Smirnov, V. P.; Strokach, A. P.

    2015-12-15

    Analysis of the capabilities of the State Corporation Rosatom enterprises on the development and production of diagnostic and therapeutic equipment for nuclear medicine centers is presented. Prospects of the development of accelerator equipment for the production of a wide range of radioisotope products are shown, and the trends of its development are determined. A comparative analysis of the technical parameters of domestic tomographs and devices for brachytherapy with foreign counterparts is given.

  16. A novel method for material characterization of reusable products.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Lorena M; Diyamandoglu, Vasil

    2016-06-01

    Product reuse contributes favorably to waste management and resource recovery by diverting products from terminal disposal to second-hand urban markets. Many organizations with social mission incorporate in their activities the process of reuse, thus making valuable products available to second-hand customers through their thrift stores. Data management and product classification are an important aspect of quantitative analysis of second-hand products circulating through reuse organizations. The New York City Center for Materials Reuse has, for the last 10years, organized the reuse activities of most not for profit organizations, and collected valuable information on the strengths and weaknesses of their operations. One such finding is the casual, and inconsistent approach used by these organizations to keep a record of the level and value of the reuse efforts they undertake. This paper describes a novel methodology developed to standardize record keeping and characterize commonly reused post-consumer products by assessing the outgoing product flow from reuse organizations. The approach groups material composition of individual products into main product categories, creating a simplified method to characterize products. Furthermore, by linking product categories and material composition, the method creates a matrix to help identify the material composition of products handled by reuse organizations. As part of the methodology, whenever adequate data are not available about certain types of products, a process identified as "field characterization study" is proposed and incorporated in the implementation to develop meaningful and useful data on the weight and material composition. Finally, the method incorporates the estimation of the environmental impact of reuse using standard models available through the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and other worldwide entities. The diversified weight and size of products poses a challenge to the statistical significance

  17. A novel method for material characterization of reusable products.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Lorena M; Diyamandoglu, Vasil

    2016-06-01

    Product reuse contributes favorably to waste management and resource recovery by diverting products from terminal disposal to second-hand urban markets. Many organizations with social mission incorporate in their activities the process of reuse, thus making valuable products available to second-hand customers through their thrift stores. Data management and product classification are an important aspect of quantitative analysis of second-hand products circulating through reuse organizations. The New York City Center for Materials Reuse has, for the last 10years, organized the reuse activities of most not for profit organizations, and collected valuable information on the strengths and weaknesses of their operations. One such finding is the casual, and inconsistent approach used by these organizations to keep a record of the level and value of the reuse efforts they undertake. This paper describes a novel methodology developed to standardize record keeping and characterize commonly reused post-consumer products by assessing the outgoing product flow from reuse organizations. The approach groups material composition of individual products into main product categories, creating a simplified method to characterize products. Furthermore, by linking product categories and material composition, the method creates a matrix to help identify the material composition of products handled by reuse organizations. As part of the methodology, whenever adequate data are not available about certain types of products, a process identified as "field characterization study" is proposed and incorporated in the implementation to develop meaningful and useful data on the weight and material composition. Finally, the method incorporates the estimation of the environmental impact of reuse using standard models available through the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and other worldwide entities. The diversified weight and size of products poses a challenge to the statistical significance

  18. Production of monoclonal antibody for the detection of meat and bone meal in animal feed.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin-Hee; Huang, Tung-Shi; Seymour, Thomas A; Wei, Cheng-i; Kempf, Stephen C; Bridgman, C Roger; Clemens, Roger A; An, Haejung

    2004-12-15

    For the detection of prohibited meat and bone meal (MBM) in animal feed, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were raised against heat-stable h-caldesmon purified from bovine intestinal smooth muscle. The obtained hybridoma cells were screened against extracts of the bovine MBM and heat-treated smooth muscle, and MAb 5E12 was identified as having the best performance. Antibody 5E12 did not react with animal feed, milk product, plant proteins, and other ingredients used for commercial animal feed except for the gelatin. This antibody diluted to 100-fold was able to detect MBM mixed in animal feed at 0.05% in an ELISA, and it showed strong affinity toward bovine smooth muscle autoclaved at 130 degrees C. Therefore, this antibody can be used in the ELISA system for field testing of the presence of MBM in animal feed.

  19. Salmonella Isolated from Animals and Feed Production in Sweden Between 1993 and 1997

    PubMed Central

    Boqvist, S; Hansson, I; Nord Bjerselius, U; Hamilton, C; Wahlström, H; Noll, B; Tysen, E; Engvall, A

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents Salmonella data from animals, feedstuffs and feed mills in Sweden between 1993 and 1997. During that period, 555 isolates were recorded from animals, representing 87 serotypes. Of those, 30 serotypes were found in animals in Sweden for the first time. The majority of all isolates from animals were S. Typhimurium (n = 91), followed by S. Dublin (n = 82). There were 115 isolates from cattle, 21 from broilers, 56 from layers and 18 from swine. The majority of these isolates were from outbreaks, although some were isolated at the surveillance at slaughterhouses. The number of isolates from the feed industry was similar to that of the previous 5-year period. Most of those findings were from dust and scrapings from feed mills, in accordance with the HACCP programme in the feed control programme. It can be concluded that the occurrence of Salmonella in animals and in the feed production in Sweden remained favourable during 1993–97. PMID:15074631

  20. Advances in Materials Research: An Internship at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrios, Elizabeth A.; Roberson, Luke B.

    2011-01-01

    My time at Kennedy Space Center. was spent immersing myself in research performed in the Materials Science Division of the Engineering Directorate. My Chemical Engineering background provided me the ability to assist in many different projects ranging from tensile testing of composite materials to making tape via an extrusion process. However, I spent the majority of my time on the following three projects: (1) testing three different materials to determine antimicrobial properties; (2) fabricating and analyzing hydrogen sensing tapes that were placed at the launch pad for STS-133 launch; and (3) researching molten regolith electrolysis at KSC to prepare me for my summer internship at MSFC on a closely related topic. This paper aims to explain, in detail, what I have learned about these three main projects. It will explain why this research is happening and what we are currently doing to resolve the issues. This paper will also explain how the hard work and experiences that I have gained as an intern have provided me with the next big step towards my career at NASA.

  1. Activities and Products at IVS combination center at BKG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, S.; Lösler, M.

    2013-08-01

    The IVS combination center is primarily responsible to provide rapid EOP products based on observation campaigns twice a week and a long-term EOP series which is updated four times a year. Besides EOP products, methods and analysis of combined station coordinates and source positions are evolving and new products are developed in order to expand the range of combined VLBI products. Within the last year the combination center continuously worked on several improvements and refinements of the combination procedure: outlier test have been improved, the detection of unsuitable sessions in order to improve the stability of the results, the modeling of station coordinates of the reference frame generation and the data presentation on the combination centers website. Besides the routine combination of 24h VLBI sessions, several other projects have been developed, e.g. the preparation of the latest VLBI reference frame (VTRF) including the calculation of station height variations and baseline lengths generation derived by the combination of station coordinates. The combination center is furthermore intensely working on the combination of source coordinates and on providing user friendly online analysis tools on the combination centers website in order to meet the user requirements.

  2. Electrorefiner system for recovering purified metal from impure nuclear feed material

    DOEpatents

    Berger, John F.; Williamson, Mark A.; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G.; Willit, James L.; Barnes, Laurel A.; Blaskovitz, Robert J.

    2015-10-06

    An electrorefiner system according to a non-limiting embodiment of the present invention may include a vessel configured to maintain a molten salt electrolyte and configured to receive a plurality of alternately arranged cathode and anode assemblies. The anode assemblies are configured to hold an impure nuclear feed material. Upon application of the power system, the impure nuclear feed material is anodically dissolved and a purified metal is deposited on the cathode rods of the cathode assemblies. A scraper is configured to dislodge the purified metal deposited on the cathode rods. A conveyor system is disposed at a bottom of the vessel and configured to remove the dislodged purified metal from the vessel.

  3. PRODUCTION OF SHEET FROM PARTICULATE MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Blainey, A.

    1959-05-12

    A process is presented for forming coherent sheet material from particulate material such as granular or powdered metal, granular or powdered oxide, slurries, pastes, and plastic mixes which cohere under pressure. The primary object is to avoid the use of expensive and/ or short lived pressing tools, that is, dies and specially profiled rolls, and so to reduce the cost of the product and to prcvide in a simple manner for the making of the product in a variety of shapes or sizes. The sheet material is formed when the particulate material is laterally confined in a boundary material deformable in all lateral directions under axial pressure and then axially compressing the layer of particulate material together with the boundary material.

  4. Invited review: improving feed efficiency in dairy production: challenges and possibilities.

    PubMed

    Connor, E E

    2015-03-01

    Despite substantial advances in milk production efficiency of dairy cattle over the last 50 years, rising feed costs remain a significant threat to producer profitability. There also is a greater emphasis being placed on reducing the negative impacts of dairy production on the environment; thus means to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and nutrient losses to the environment associated with cattle production are being sought. Improving feed efficiency among dairy cattle herds offers an opportunity to address both of these issues for the dairy industry. However, the best means to assess feed efficiency and make genetic progress in efficiency-related traits among lactating cows without negatively impacting other economically important traits is not entirely obvious. In this review, multiple measurements of feed efficiency for lactating cows are described, as well as the heritability of the traits and their genetic and phenotypic correlations with other production traits. The measure of feed efficiency, residual feed intake is discussed in detail in terms of the benefits for its selection, how it could be assessed in large commercial populations, as well as biological mechanisms contributing to its variation among cows, as it has become a commonly used method to estimate efficiency in the recent scientific literature.

  5. Invited review: improving feed efficiency in dairy production: challenges and possibilities.

    PubMed

    Connor, E E

    2015-03-01

    Despite substantial advances in milk production efficiency of dairy cattle over the last 50 years, rising feed costs remain a significant threat to producer profitability. There also is a greater emphasis being placed on reducing the negative impacts of dairy production on the environment; thus means to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and nutrient losses to the environment associated with cattle production are being sought. Improving feed efficiency among dairy cattle herds offers an opportunity to address both of these issues for the dairy industry. However, the best means to assess feed efficiency and make genetic progress in efficiency-related traits among lactating cows without negatively impacting other economically important traits is not entirely obvious. In this review, multiple measurements of feed efficiency for lactating cows are described, as well as the heritability of the traits and their genetic and phenotypic correlations with other production traits. The measure of feed efficiency, residual feed intake is discussed in detail in terms of the benefits for its selection, how it could be assessed in large commercial populations, as well as biological mechanisms contributing to its variation among cows, as it has become a commonly used method to estimate efficiency in the recent scientific literature. PMID:25482927

  6. Energy Frontier Research Center, Center for Materials Science of Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Todd R. Allen, Director

    2011-04-01

    The Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, has funded the INL as one of the Energy Frontier Research Centers in the area of material science of nuclear fuels. This document is the required annual report to the Office of Science that outlines the accomplishments for the period of May 2010 through April 2011. The aim of the Center for Material Science of Nuclear Fuels (CMSNF) is to establish the foundation for predictive understanding of the effects of irradiation-induced defects on thermal transport in oxide nuclear fuels. The science driver of the center’s investigation is to understand how complex defect and microstructures affect phonon mediated thermal transport in UO2, and achieve this understanding for the particular case of irradiation-induced defects and microstructures. The center’s research thus includes modeling and measurement of thermal transport in oxide fuels with different levels of impurities, lattice disorder and irradiation-induced microstructure, as well as theoretical and experimental investigation of the evolution of disorder, stoichiometry and microstructure in nuclear fuel under irradiation. With the premise that thermal transport in irradiated UO2 is a phonon-mediated energy transport process in a crystalline material with defects and microstructure, a step-by-step approach will be utilized to understand the effects of types of defects and microstructures on the collective phonon dynamics in irradiated UO2. Our efforts under the thermal transport thrust involved both measurement of diffusive phonon transport (an approach that integrates over the entire phonon spectrum) and spectroscopic measurements of phonon attenuation/lifetime and phonon dispersion. Our distinct experimental efforts dovetail with our modeling effort involving atomistic simulation of phonon transport and prediction of lattice thermal conductivity using the Boltzmann transport framework.

  7. Bottle feeding and ideology in colonial Malaya: the production of change.

    PubMed

    Manderson, L

    1982-01-01

    Considerable attention has been paid to the correlation between high infant morbidity and mortality rates and the increased incidence of bottle feeding. The shift from prolonged breast feeding to a mixed regime or the exclusive use of sweetened condensed milk or infant formula has been related to the promotional activities of milk companies, and typically has been presented as a relatively recent development in Third World countries. However, the marketing of tinned and powdered milk only partially explains the increased use of these products. In colonial Malaya, condensed milk was marketed from the late 19th century. Infant formula was available from the turn of the century and was widely advertised, first in the English-language press and later also in the vernacular presses. At the same time, other social and cultural factors served to discourage breast feeding. There were changes in ideas regarding ideal body weight for both women and infants, and regarding infant care and diet; these ideas were presented in the mass media. In addition, maternal and child health clinics, established in the 1920s to reduce the high infant mortality rate, both propagated popular beliefs about infant weight and supplied milk and educated women to artificially feed their infants. Industry, the media, and health services all promoted, if not always intentionally, bottle feeding rather than breast feeding. Bottle feeding as an ideal, if not a reality, was thus well established before the intensive promotion of milk products by multinational corporations that followed the political independence of the colony. PMID:6754637

  8. Bottle feeding and ideology in colonial Malaya: the production of change.

    PubMed

    Manderson, L

    1982-01-01

    Considerable attention has been paid to the correlation between high infant morbidity and mortality rates and the increased incidence of bottle feeding. The shift from prolonged breast feeding to a mixed regime or the exclusive use of sweetened condensed milk or infant formula has been related to the promotional activities of milk companies, and typically has been presented as a relatively recent development in Third World countries. However, the marketing of tinned and powdered milk only partially explains the increased use of these products. In colonial Malaya, condensed milk was marketed from the late 19th century. Infant formula was available from the turn of the century and was widely advertised, first in the English-language press and later also in the vernacular presses. At the same time, other social and cultural factors served to discourage breast feeding. There were changes in ideas regarding ideal body weight for both women and infants, and regarding infant care and diet; these ideas were presented in the mass media. In addition, maternal and child health clinics, established in the 1920s to reduce the high infant mortality rate, both propagated popular beliefs about infant weight and supplied milk and educated women to artificially feed their infants. Industry, the media, and health services all promoted, if not always intentionally, bottle feeding rather than breast feeding. Bottle feeding as an ideal, if not a reality, was thus well established before the intensive promotion of milk products by multinational corporations that followed the political independence of the colony.

  9. Enhanced curdlan production with nitrogen feeding during polysaccharide synthesis by Rhizobium radiobacter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Yu-Zhu; Dong, Jin-Jun; Xu, Guo-Chao; Han, Rui-Zhi; Ni, Ye

    2016-10-01

    Curdlan is a secondary metabolite synthesized by Agrobacterium sp. and some other bacteria. A newly isolated exopolysaccharide-producing strain was identified to be Rhizobium radiobacter CGMCC 12099. The polysaccharide product was confirmed to be curdlan with a molecule weight of 1.4×10(5)Da, and its molecular structure was determined by HPLC and infrared spectrum. Although nitrogen source is necessary for cell reproduction, curdlan production is largely dependent on nitrogen limitation, as well as cell vitality. Here, a nitrogen feeding strategy was investigated to elevate the curdlan production by R. radiobacter. The optimal concentration and addition time of (NH4)2HPO4 were investigated. The results showed that the enhanced cell density was correlated to the amount of (NH4)2HPO4 added. Also, nitrogen addition in earlier fermentation stage was beneficial to the cell growth and curdlan production. Furthermore, continuously feeding strategy was employed by feeding (NH4)2HPO4 at a constant rate of 1.24g/h at 35(th)h of fermentation for 9h, achieving a final curdlan production of 65.27g/L, productivity of 0.544g/L/h and glucose conversion rate of 38.89%. The curdlan production was improved by 2.1 times compared with that without nitrogen addition. This study provides a feasible and cheap nitrogen feeding strategy to enhance curdlan production. PMID:27312649

  10. Efficient and reliable protocols for the production of live feeds for larval Florida pompano

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As is the case with most marine finfish species, production of live feed organisms represents the majority of time and labor associated with larviculture operations. As a byproduct of establishing a reproduction and larviculture research program at our facility, procedures for the production and en...

  11. Enhanced curdlan production with nitrogen feeding during polysaccharide synthesis by Rhizobium radiobacter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Yu-Zhu; Dong, Jin-Jun; Xu, Guo-Chao; Han, Rui-Zhi; Ni, Ye

    2016-10-01

    Curdlan is a secondary metabolite synthesized by Agrobacterium sp. and some other bacteria. A newly isolated exopolysaccharide-producing strain was identified to be Rhizobium radiobacter CGMCC 12099. The polysaccharide product was confirmed to be curdlan with a molecule weight of 1.4×10(5)Da, and its molecular structure was determined by HPLC and infrared spectrum. Although nitrogen source is necessary for cell reproduction, curdlan production is largely dependent on nitrogen limitation, as well as cell vitality. Here, a nitrogen feeding strategy was investigated to elevate the curdlan production by R. radiobacter. The optimal concentration and addition time of (NH4)2HPO4 were investigated. The results showed that the enhanced cell density was correlated to the amount of (NH4)2HPO4 added. Also, nitrogen addition in earlier fermentation stage was beneficial to the cell growth and curdlan production. Furthermore, continuously feeding strategy was employed by feeding (NH4)2HPO4 at a constant rate of 1.24g/h at 35(th)h of fermentation for 9h, achieving a final curdlan production of 65.27g/L, productivity of 0.544g/L/h and glucose conversion rate of 38.89%. The curdlan production was improved by 2.1 times compared with that without nitrogen addition. This study provides a feasible and cheap nitrogen feeding strategy to enhance curdlan production.

  12. Passive solar energy effects on egg production and feed efficiency phase II

    SciTech Connect

    MacDougall, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    The production efficiency of a small solar heated hen house are compared to those of a large commercial operation. The solar hen house proved to give higher egg production than the larger commercial operation. Feed efficiencies for the commercial operation are better than the solar hen house in reporting grain used per dozen eggs. 6 refs.

  13. New textile composite materials development, production, application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikhailov, Petr Y.

    1993-01-01

    New textile composite materials development, production, and application are discussed. Topics covered include: super-high-strength, super-high-modulus fibers, filaments, and materials manufactured on their basis; heat-resistant and nonflammable fibers, filaments, and textile fabrics; fibers and textile fabrics based on fluorocarbon poylmers; antifriction textile fabrics based on polyfen filaments; development of new types of textile combines and composite materials; and carbon filament-based fabrics.

  14. Modelling milk production from feed intake in dairy cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, D.L.

    1985-05-01

    Predictive models were developed for both Holstein and Jersey cows. Since Holsteins comprised eighty-five percent of the data, the predictive models developed for Holsteins were used for the development of a user-friendly computer model. Predictive models included: milk production (squared multiple correlation .73), natural log (ln) of milk production (.73), four percent fat-corrected milk (.67), ln four percent fat-corrected milk (.68), fat-free milk (.73), ln fat-free milk (.73), dry matter intake (.61), ln dry matter intake (.60), milk fat (.52), and ln milk fat (.56). The predictive models for ln milk production, ln fat-free milk and ln dry matter intake were incorporated into a computer model. The model was written in standard Fortran for use on mainframe or micro-computers. Daily milk production, fat-free milk production, and dry matter intake were predicted on a daily basis with the previous day's dry matter intake serving as an independent variable in the prediction of the daily milk and fat-free milk production. 21 refs.

  15. Fabrication and characterization of MCC (Materials Characterization Center) approved testing material---ATM-2, ATM-3, and ATM-4 glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Wald, J.W.

    1988-03-01

    Materials Characterization Center glasses ATM-2, ATM-3, and ATM-4 are designed to simulate high-level waste glasses that are likely to result from the reprocessing of commercial nuclear reactor fuels. The three Approved Testing Materials (ATMs) are borosilicate glasses based upon the MCC-76-68 glass composition. One radioisotope was added to form each ATM. The radioisotopes added to form ATM-2, ATM-3, and ATM-4 were /sup 241/Am, /sup 237/Np, and /sup 239/Pu, respectively. Each of the ATM lots was produced in a nominal lot size of 450 g from feed stock melted in a nitrogen-atmosphere glove box at 1200/degree/C in a platinum crucible. Each ATM was then cast into bars. Analyzed compositions of these glasses are listed. The nonradioactive elements were analyzed by inductively coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP), and the radioisotope analyses were done by alpha energy analysis. Results are discussed. 7 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. BUILDING MATERIALS MADE FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael W. Grutzeck; Maria DiCola; Paul Brenner

    2006-03-30

    Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) materials are produced in abundant quantities by coal burning utilities. Due to environmental restrains, flue gases must be ''cleaned'' prior to release to the atmosphere. They are two general methods to ''scrub'' flue gas: wet and dry. The choice of scrubbing material is often defined by the type of coal being burned, i.e. its composition. Scrubbing is traditionally carried out using a slurry of calcium containing material (slaked lime or calcium carbonate) that is made to contact exiting flue gas as either a spay injected into the gas or in a bubble tower. The calcium combined with the SO{sub 2} in the gas to form insoluble precipitates. Some plants have been using dry injection of these same materials or their own Class C fly ash to scrub. In either case the end product contains primarily hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}O) with smaller amounts of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O). These materials have little commercial use. Experiments were carried out that were meant to explore the feasibility of using blends of hannebachite and fly ash mixed with concentrated sodium hydroxide to make masonry products. The results suggest that some of these mixtures could be used in place of conventional Portland cement based products such as retaining wall bricks and pavers.

  17. Mitigation of methane production from cattle by feeding cashew nut shell liquid.

    PubMed

    Shinkai, T; Enishi, O; Mitsumori, M; Higuchi, K; Kobayashi, Y; Takenaka, A; Nagashima, K; Mochizuki, M; Kobayashi, Y

    2012-09-01

    The effects of cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) feeding on methane production and rumen fermentation were investigated by repeatedly using 3 Holstein nonlactating cows with rumen fistulas. The cows were fed a concentrate and hay diet (6:4 ratio) for 4 wk (control period) followed by the same diet with a CNSL-containing pellet for the next 3 wk (CNSL period). Two trials were conducted using CNSL pellets blended with only silica (trial 1) or with several other ingredients (trial 2). Each pellet type was fed to cows to allow CNSL intake at 4 g/100 kg of body weight per day. Methane production was measured in a respiration chamber system, and energy balance, nutrient digestibility, and rumen microbial changes were monitored. Methane production per unit of dry matter intake decreased by 38.3 and 19.3% in CNSL feeding trials 1 and 2, respectively. Energy loss as methane emission decreased from 9.7 to 6.1% (trial 1) and from 8.4 to 7.0% (trial 2) with CNSL feeding, whereas the loss to feces (trial 1) and heat production (trial 2) increased. Retained energy did not differ between the control and CNSL periods. Digestibility of dry matter and gross energy decreased with CNSL feeding in trial 1, but did not differ in trial 2. Feeding CNSL caused a decrease in acetate and total short-chain fatty acid levels and an increase in propionate proportion in both trials. Relative copy number of methyl coenzyme-M reductase subunit A gene and its expression decreased with CNSL feeding. The relative abundance of fibrolytic or formate-producing species such as Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, and Treponema bryantii decreased, but species related to propionate production, including Prevotella ruminicolla, Selenomonas ruminantium, Anaerovibrio lipolytica, and Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens, increased. If used in a suitable formulation, CNSL acts as a potent methane-inhibiting and propionate-enhancing agent through the alteration of rumen microbiota without adversely

  18. Feeding nine billion: the challenge to sustainable crop production.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Peter J; George, Timothy S

    2011-11-01

    In the recent past there was a widespread working assumption in many countries that problems of food production had been solved, and that food security was largely a matter of distribution and access to be achieved principally by open markets. The events of 2008 challenged these assumptions, and made public a much wider debate about the costs of current food production practices to the environment and whether these could be sustained. As in the past 50 years, it is anticipated that future increases in crop production will be achieved largely by increasing yields per unit area rather than by increasing the area of cropped land. However, as yields have increased, so the ratio of photosynthetic energy captured to energy expended in crop production has decreased. This poses a considerable challenge: how to increase yield while simultaneously reducing energy consumption (allied to greenhouse gas emissions) and utilizing resources such as water and phosphate more efficiently. Given the timeframe in which the increased production has to be realized, most of the increase will need to come from crop genotypes that are being bred now, together with known agronomic and management practices that are currently under-developed.

  19. Direct and correlated responses to selection in two lines of rabbits selected for feed efficiency under ad libitum and restricted feeding: I. Production traits and gut microbiota characteristics.

    PubMed

    Drouilhet, L; Achard, C S; Zemb, O; Molette, C; Gidenne, T; Larzul, C; Ruesche, J; Tircazes, A; Segura, M; Bouchez, T; Theau-Clément, M; Joly, T; Balmisse, E; Garreau, H; Gilbert, H

    2016-01-01

    To get insights into selection criteria for feed efficiency, 2 rabbit lines have been created: the ConsoResidual line was selected for residual feed intake (RFI) with ad libitum feeding and the ADGrestrict line was selected for ADG under restricted feeding (-20% of voluntary intake). The first objective of this study was to evaluate, after 9 generations of selection, the direct and correlated responses to selection on production traits in the 2 lines for traits recorded during growth. Second, applying the 2 feeding conditions used for selection to both selected lines plus the control unselected line (generation 0, G0) in a 2 × 3 factorial trial, the line performances were compared and the gut microbiota of the lines was characterized. The correlated responses in feed conversion ratio (FCR) were remarkably equivalent in both selected lines (-2.74 genetic σ) but correlated responses in other traits were notably different. In the ConsoResidual line, selection for decreased RFI resulted in a small negative correlated response in BW at 63 d old (BW63) and in a null response in ADG. In the ADGrestrict line, on the contrary, the correlated response in BW63 was substantial (+1.59 σ). The 2 selected lines had a FCR reduced by 0.2 point compared with the G0 line, and the same difference was found in both feeding regimens ( < 0.001). Indeed, selection on ADG would lead to heavier animals with no significant reduction of feed costs, whereas selection on RFI leads to lower feed costs and no increase of animal BW under ad libitum feeding. Altogether, our results do not suggest any genotype × environment interaction in the response to feeding regimens. The intestinal microbial communities from efficient rabbits differed from their unselected counterparts in terms of fermentation end products and microbial phylotypes, suggesting a central role of these microbes in the better feed efficiency of the rabbits.

  20. Nocturnal Light Pulses Lower Carbon Dioxide Production Rate without Affecting Feed Intake in Geese.

    PubMed

    Huang, De-Jia; Yang, Shyi-Kuen

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nocturnal light pulses (NLPs) on the feed intake and metabolic rate in geese. Fourteen adult Chinese geese were penned individually, and randomly assigned to either the C (control) or NLP group. The C group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod (12 h light and 12 h darkness per day), whereas the NLP group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod inserted by 15-min lighting at 2-h intervals in the scotophase. The weight of the feed was automatically recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 wk. The fasting carbon dioxide production rate (CO2 PR) was recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 d. The results revealed that neither the daily feed intake nor the feed intakes during both the daytime and nighttime were affected by photoperiodic regimen, and the feed intake during the daytime did not differ from that during the nighttime. The photoperiodic treatment did not affect the time distribution of feed intake. However, NLPs lowered (p<0.05) the mean and minimal CO2 PR during both the daytime and nighttime. Both the mean and minimal CO2 PR during the daytime were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those during the nighttime. We concluded that NLPs lowered metabolic rate of the geese, but did not affect the feed intake; both the mean and minimal CO2 PR were higher during the daytime than during the nighttime. PMID:26950871

  1. Feed intake and production efficiency of beef cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between DMI and growth as heifers and cows and calves weaned, weight of calf weaned, and milk production. Cows born in 1999-2001and sired by industry AI bulls (Angus, Hereford, Simmental, Limousin, Charolais, Gelbvieh, and Red Angus) an...

  2. Relationship between selection for feed efficiency and methane production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteric methane is a product of fermentation in the gastro-intestinal tract of ruminants. A group of archaea bacteria collectively called “methanogens” are responsible for the synthesis of methane. In ruminants, the methanogens grow in the reticulum-rumen complex and in the cecum. Most of the met...

  3. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED...

  4. Integrated protein production and electricity generation using renewable alfalfa feedstock in a combination advanced IGCC and feed processing arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, M.M.; Oelke, E.A.; Hanson, C.

    1999-07-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to determine the viability of a co-production concept of alfalfa leaf meal as a concentrated protein animal feed and the generation of electricity from the remaining stem material. Alfalfa is a well-known and widely-planted crop that offers environmental and soil conservation advantages when grown as a 4-year segment in a 7-year rotation with corn and soybeans. Alfalfa fixes nitrogen from the air, thereby enhancing soil nitrogen and decreasing the need for manufactured nitrogen fertilizer. With alfalfa yields of 8.96 metric tonnes/hectare (4 dry tons per acre) per year and with separated alfalfa leaves being sold as a high-value animal feed, separated alfalfa stems can be economically viable fuel feedstock for a gasifier/combined cycle power plant. This paper reports on a feasibility study for an integrated biomass power system, where an energy crop (alfalfa) is coupled to a processing plant and a power plant (integrated gasification combined cycle with hot gas cleanup) in a way that benefits the joint venture of an alfalfa producers cooperative and a utility entity. The sale of a mid-level protein animal feed-co-product and electricity both support the production cost of alfalfa. The co-product/fuel processing operation uses a common train of equipment, thereby requiring neither product to carry the total cost. The power plant provides an important continuous demand for the feedstock and results in continuous supply of leaf product to provide a reliable supply needed for the leaf meal product. This concept provides a means for rural economic development with a sustainable approach to production agriculture.

  5. Genetically modified feeds in poultry diet: safety, performance, and product quality.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, V; Selvaggi, M; Dario, C; Laudadio, V

    2015-01-01

    Concerns have been expressed regarding the safety of using biotechnology derived feeds in diets of livestock animals and in regard to human consumption of products from species fed transgenic crops. As a consequence, a large number of poultry nutrition studies have been conducted to evaluate the wholesomeness of transgenic crops by examining performances of animals during growth or egg laying. Studies also evaluated whether foreign DNA and proteins could be detected in meat, egg, and tissue samples from broiler chickens and laying hens fed diets containing transgenic feeds. In all studies, the conclusions were in agreement that the transgenic crops provided comparable performance, carcass and egg yields, and meat and egg composition, when compared with conventional grains. Moreover, it was demonstrated that transgenic proteins and DNA present in livestock feeds are not detectable in food products derived from these animals, using the most sensitive detection methods available, confirming that they are rapidly degraded by normal digestive processes. The lack of significant differences were a result of the similarity in nutrient composition of the genetically modified feeds and lack of differences in intake and digestibility, while there were no evidences that the differences reported for performance response variables and carcass measurements between treatment groups were attributable to the presence of the transgenic gene and protein in the biotechnology derived plants. Results demonstrated that genetically modified feeds are substantially equivalent and they result as safe as existing conventional feeds.

  6. Effect of feeding food waste-broiler litter and bakery by-product mixture to pigs.

    PubMed

    Kwak, W S; Kang, J S

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding aerobically processed and vacuum-dried food waste-broiler litter and bakery by-product mixture to finishing pigs on performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and taste panel test. A corn-soy diet (Control) was replaced with food waste mixture (FWM) at dietary levels of 25% (25% FWM) and 50% (50% FWM) on a dry matter (DM) basis. Diets were fed to a total of 45 pigs (mean body weight 69.4kg) during the eight wk of finishing period. After slaughtering, longissmus muscle at 24h postmortem was used for meat quality analysis. Restaurant food waste was high in protein (22.0%) and fat (23.9%). Supplementing a corn-soy diet with FWM increased (P<0.05) feed DM intake, did not alter (P>0.05) average daily gain, decreased (P<0.05) feed efficiency especially for 50% FWM treatment, and substantially reduced (P<0.05) feed cost, compared with feeding a corn-soy diet only. Feeding FWM up to 50% did not affect (P>0.05) carcass characteristics (carcass weight, dressing percentage, backfat thickness and carcass grade), meat fatty acid composition, meat quality (marbling score, pH, water holding capacity, drip loss, L*, a*, b* values, Warner-Bratzler shear force, cooking loss), and taste panel test (flavor, taste, tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptance) compared with feeding a corn-soy diet. However, meat color was paler (P<0.05) for 50% FWM fed animals than a corn-soy diet fed animals. Meat color was the only limiting factor when FWM was fed to finishing pigs. In conclusion, aerobically processed and vacuum-dried food waste-broiler litter and bakery by-product mixture was similar to a corn-soy diet in feed value for finishing pigs. PMID:16171681

  7. Hydrolysates of lignocellulosic materials for biohydrogen production

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rong; Wang, Yong-Zhong; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Xu, Teng-Fei

    2013-01-01

    Lignocellulosic materials are commonly used in bio-H2 production for the sustainable energy resource development as they are abundant, cheap, renewable and highly biodegradable. In the process of the bio-H2 production, the pretreated lignocellulosic materials are firstly converted to monosaccharides by enzymolysis and then to H2 by fermentation. Since the structures of lignocellulosic materials are rather complex, the hydrolysates vary with the used materials. Even using the same lignocellulosic materials, the hydrolysates also change with different pretreatment methods. It has been shown that the appropriate hydrolysate compositions can dramatically improve the biological activities and bio-H2 production performances. Over the past decades, hydrolysis with respect to different lignocellulosic materials and pretreatments has been widely investigated. Besides, effects of the hydrolysates on the biohydrogen yields have also been examined. In this review, recent studies on hydrolysis as well as their effects on the biohydrogen production performance are summarized. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(5): 244-251] PMID:23710634

  8. Hazardous materials readiness of United States level 1 trauma centers.

    PubMed

    Ghilarducci, D P; Pirrallo, R G; Hegmann, K T

    2000-07-01

    Injuries caused by hazardous materials (hazmat) accidents are common in the United States, and emergency departments should be capable of decontaminating these patients. There are, however, no national studies that assess emergency department preparedness. The purpose of this survey was to assess the hazmat readiness of US Level 1 trauma centers (TCs). All 1996 Hospital Blue Book TCs (256) were queried by anonymous survey; 61% (156) responded to the survey. The TCs treated 43,046 +/- 28,455 patients (median, 40,500; range, 600 to 220,000); 15 +/- 29 (median, 6; range, 0 to 200) were hazmat-contaminated. Only 6% acknowledged having all necessary equipment required for safe decontamination. Many (83%) had hazmat response plans, but few (30%) of these plans were complete. Approximately 36% of the staff had received training. Thirteen staff required medical attention themselves after rendering care to a contaminated patient. Only 58% of the TCs performed a single drill. The preparedness of US Level 1 TCs to safely decontaminate hazmat patients seems to be inadequate.

  9. Enteric methane production from beef cattle that vary in feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Freetly, H C; Brown-Brandl, T M

    2013-10-01

    We hypothesized that CH4 production will decrease with increased feed efficiency. Two experiments were conducted to determine CH4 production of cattle that differed in feed efficiency. Cattle in both studies were selected from larger contemporary groups. Animals furthest from the confidence ellipse that resulted from regressing BW gain on DMI were selected. In the first experiment, 113 crossbred steers were evaluated for feed efficiency for 64 d. Steers were 355 ± 1 d of age and weighed 456 ± 10 kg when they began the study. Steers were fed a ration that consisted of (DM basis) 82.8% corn, 12.8% corn silage, and 4.5% supplement [contains 0.065% monensin, 32% CP (28% NPN), 7.5% Ca, 0.8% P, 4.8% NaCl, 1.8% K, and 55,116 IU/kg vitamin A]. Thirty-seven steers were selected to measure CH4 production. In the second experiment, 197 heifers were evaluated for feed efficiency for 64 d. Heifers were 286 ± 1 d of age and weighed 327 ± 2 kg when they began the study. Heifers were fed a ration that consisted of (DM basis) 60% corn silage, 30% alfalfa hay, and 10% wet distillers grains with solubles. Forty-seven heifers were selected to measure CH4 production. Methane production was measured with respiration calorimeters. In both experiments, cattle had ad libitum access to feed, and DMI consumed during the 24 h before CH4 production was measured. Methane production was collected for a 6-h period on untrained cattle. Consequently, methane production is not a quantitative measure of daily methane production; rather, it is an index value to rank cattle. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between either BW gain:DMI ratio or residual feed intake (RFI) on CH4 production after adjusting for the previous 24-h DMI. In the steers, BW gain:DMI ratio and previous 24-h feed intake accounted for little of the variance in CH4 production (R(2) = 0.009), and neither did RFI and previous 24-h feed intake (R(2) = 0.001). In the heifers, the BW gain:DMI ratio

  10. High volume production of nanostructured materials

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B.; Morrell, Jonathan S.; Seals, Roland D.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2009-10-13

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  11. Modeling of soluble microbial products in anaerobic digestion: the effect of feed strength and composition.

    PubMed

    Barker, D J; Stuckey, D C

    2001-01-01

    Continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and fill-and-draw reactors were used to investigate soluble microbial product (SMP) production during anaerobic digestion. Continuously stirred tank reactors with a glucose feed at three different strengths (5, 10, and 20 g chemical oxygen demand [COD]/L) and fill-and-draw reactors with four different feed compositions (glucose, glycerol, lactic acid, and starch at 10 g COD/L) were used with a solids retention time (SRT) of 15 days. The SMP production ranged from 102 to 588 mg COD/L for the glucose-fed CSTRs and between 157 and 1192 mg COD/L for the fill-and-draw reactors and was found to increase with increasing influent COD (SO). Normalized production of SMPs (SMP/So) ranged from 1.4 to 3% for the CSTRs and 12.0, 1.7, 14.7, and 3.6% for the glucose-, glycerol-, lactic acid-, and starch-fed reactors, respectively. A model incorporating SMP production and degradation was fitted to results from carbon-14 tracer studies in all of the reactors. The best-fit parameters from this model revealed that the type of SMP that dominates in any particular system depends not only on the strength of the feed but also on the composition of the feed and the type of reactor.

  12. Influence of the nature of FCC feed on the production of light olefins by catalytic cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Chapus, Th.; Cauffriez, H.; Marcilly, Ch.

    1996-10-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act has act rules for gasoline reformulation, which requires major compositional changes, Including a higher contribution of oxygenated compounds to the gasoline pool. This explains why FCC units are expected to play a major role in the coming years as a producer of light olefins (propylene, butenes and amylenes) to be used as feedstock for oxygenate (MTBE/TAME) production. The impact of the nature of FCC feedstock on light olefins production (C3 to C5 olefins) has been studied using a MAT unit running at various operating conditions (C/O ratio, reactor temperature). Paraffinic feeds are potentially efficient to produce light olefins by catalytic cracking. Heavier paraffinic feeds like mixtures VGO + reside and pure reside have also been evaluated, and compared to naphthenic and aromatic feeds.

  13. Land processes distributed active archive center product lifecycle plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daucsavage, John C.; Bennett, Stacie D.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Data System Program worked together to establish, develop, and operate the Land Processes (LP) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) to provide stewardship for NASA’s land processes science data. These data are critical science assets that serve the land processes science community with potential value beyond any immediate research use, and therefore need to be accounted for and properly managed throughout their lifecycle. A fundamental LP DAAC objective is to enable permanent preservation of these data and information products. The LP DAAC accomplishes this by bridging data producers and permanent archival resources while providing intermediate archive services for data and information products.

  14. Corn seeds as bioreactors for the production of phytase in the feed industry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rumei; Zhang, Chunyi; Yao, Bin; Xue, Guangxing; Yang, Wenzhu; Zhou, Xiaojin; Zhang, Junmin; Sun, Cheng; Chen, Ping; Fan, Yunliu

    2013-05-20

    Corn seed is a major ingredient of animal feed worldwide. However, it contains phytate, a major phosphate storage form that is unavailable to monogastric animals like pigs and poultry. We report a transgenic corn with bioavailable phosphate, achieved by seed-specific overexpression of Aspergillus niger phytase, an enzyme catalyzing the release of phosphate from phytate. We obtained maximal phytase activity of 125 FTU/g kernels, 1000-fold above that of the wild type, with 1000 g of kernels containing up to 67 times the feed industry requirement. Enzymatic characterization of Zea mays recombinant phytase (ZmrPhy) showed it to be equivalent to yeast (Pichia pastoris) recombinant phytase (PprPhy), a commercially available phytase product. An animal feeding trial demonstrated that ZmrPhy had similar nutritional effects on broiler chickens to PprPhy in terms of reducing inorganic phosphorus addition to feed and phosphate excretion in animal manure. These results suggest that transgenic phytase corn can be used directly in the feed industry. Experiments were conducted to assess the food safety of the corn; the results demonstrated no difference versus regular corn. This is the first genetically modified corn officially issued with a biosafety certificate in China and has great potential in the animal feed industry.

  15. Evolution of a reaction center in an explosive material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. L.; Kapila, A. K.; Stewart, D. S.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to the spatial structure and temporal evolution of a reaction center for a model involving Arrhenius kinetics. The center, which is characterized by peaks in pressure and temperature with little diminution in local density, is found to have one of two possible self-similar structures. The analysis uses a combination of asymptotics and numerics and terminates when pressure and temperature in the reaction center have peaked.

  16. Feeding and production of zooplankton in the Catalan Sea (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz, Enric; Calbet, Albert; Atienza, Dacha; Alcaraz, Miquel

    2007-08-01

    Zooplankton are key components of the structure and functioning of marine planktonic food webs. They are the main link of planktonic primary production towards top pelagic consumer levels (fish), and play a relevant role on the nutrient recycling in the water column and on the export of particulate matter out of the photic zone. In this paper, we review the present knowledge on the feeding and production of zooplankton in the Catalan Sea (NW Mediterranean), with special emphasis on copepods. Feeding of zooplankton in the Catalan Sea appears typically food limited, with average daily rations on a yearly basis in the order of 48% body C d -1. Heterotrophic prey constitute a relevant fraction of their diet, as an alternative to the scarce phytoplankton in the area. From a structural point of view, the trophic impact and control of their prey populations are low on standing stocks but, at certain times, zooplankton can exert a meaningful effect on their prey production. Regarding zooplankton production, the available estimates of growth rates in the area are based on the egg production rate of copepods. Egg production rates appear to be limited, especially in summer. Tentative estimates of copepod production in the area are in the order of 20-40 mg C m -2 d -1. In conclusion, this review confirms that the oligotrophic character of the NW Mediterranean constrains the feeding activity and production of zooplankton.

  17. The effects of feeding time on milk production, total-tract digestibility, and daily rhythms of feeding behavior and plasma metabolites and hormones in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Niu, M; Ying, Y; Bartell, P A; Harvatine, K J

    2014-12-01

    The timing of feed intake entrains circadian rhythms regulated by internal clocks in many mammals. The objective of this study was to determine if the timing of feeding entrains daily rhythms in dairy cows. Nine Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. An automated system recorded the timing of feed intake over the last 7 d of each period. Treatments were feeding 1×/d at 0830 h (AM) or 2030 h (PM) and feeding 2×/d in equal amounts at 0830 and 2030 h. All treatments were fed at 110% of daily intake. Cows were milked 2×/d at 0500 and 1700 h. Milk yield and composition were not changed by treatment. Daily intake did not differ, but twice-daily feeding tended to decrease total-tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). A treatment by time of day interaction was observed for feeding behavior. The amount of feed consumed in the first 2h after feeding was 70% greater for PM compared with AM feeding. A low rate of intake overnight (2400 to 0500 h; 2.2 ± 0.74% daily intake/h, mean ± SD) and a moderate rate of intake in the afternoon (1200 to 1700 h; 4.8 ± 1.1% daily intake/h) was noted for all treatments, although PM slightly reduced the rate during the afternoon period compared with AM. A treatment by time of day interaction was seen for fecal NDF and indigestible NDF (iNDF) concentration, blood urea nitrogen, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, body temperature, and lying behavior. Specifically, insulin increased and glucose decreased more after evening feeding than after morning feeding. A cosine function within a 24-h period was used to characterize daily rhythms using a random regression. Rate of feed intake during spontaneous feeding, fecal NDF and iNDF concentration, plasma glucose, insulin, NEFA, body temperature, and lying behavior fit a cosine function within a 24-h period that was modified by treatment. In conclusion, feeding time can reset the daily rhythms of feeding and

  18. New Data Products Available at the IRIS Data Management Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahern, T.; Casey, R.; Kamb, L.; Zeleznik, M.; Ammon, C. J.

    2007-12-01

    With USArray data processing and services in full production, the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) has developed an online tool to function as a library for products derived from raw USArray observations as well as other catalogs with broad interest produced and supplied by the geoscience community. The service, called SPADE, is a flexible, annotated cataloging system for storing heterogeneous data products supplied by registered providers. SPADE includes a web interface that allows users to search across the spectrum of varied data products using geographic, temporal, and/or keyword parameters to locate products of specific interest. In addition to cooperative product submissions from outside institutions, the IRIS DMC is collaborating and developing frameworks to produce and to provide interesting products that take advantage of data from USArray sensors. These products are automatically produced in near- real time following interesting seismic events, and broaden the range of information that IRIS delivers to the geoscience community. In this presentation we will demonstrate the SPADE query interface and present examples of the available data products such as Global Centroid Moment Tensor solutions from Harvard and Columbia Universities, historic earthquake data scanned from select WWSSN film chips, as well as IRIS-produced seismic record sections, and ground-motion animations derived from Transportable Array observations.

  19. Geospatial Products and Techniques at the Center for Transportation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Shih-Miao; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Peterson, Bruce E

    2008-01-01

    This paper highlights geospatial science-related innovations and developments conducted by the Center for Transportation Analysis (CTA) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. CTA researchers have been developing integrated inter-modal transportation solutions through innovative and cost-effective research and development for many years. Specifically, this paper profiles CTA-developed Geographic Information System (GIS) products that are publicly available. Examples of these GIS-related products include: the CTA Transportation Networks; GeoFreight system; and the web-based Multi-Modal Routing Analysis System. In addition, an application on assessment of railroad Hazmat routing alternatives is also discussed.

  20. The effect of feeding lovastatin and colestipol on production and cholesterol content of eggs.

    PubMed

    Luhman, C M; Miller, B G; Beitz, D C

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether feeding lovastatin or colestipol, or both, to laying hens would decrease the concentration of cholesterol in eggs. Forty-eight White Leghorn hens (69 wk of age) were allocated randomly to one of four groups. For 5 wk, the birds were fed: 1) a control diet; 2) diets supplemented with 35 mg of lovastatin per kg of feed; 3) 11.7 g of colestipol per kg of feed; or 4) both 35 mg of lovastatin and 11.7 g of colestipol per kg of feed. Drug feeding did not affect egg production or the concentration of cholesterol in the yolk, muscle, or liver. Lovastatin residue was found in liver samples from hens receiving lovastatin, but no lovastatin residue was found in the muscle, egg-white, or egg-yolk samples from hens on any treatment. These findings suggest that lovastatin or colestipol, or both, fed at relatively low amounts do not decrease the concentration of cholesterol in egg yolk and do not depress egg production. PMID:2367274

  1. Effects of feeding on glassy-winged sharpshooter lipid content and egg production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glassy-winged sharpshooter females emerge without mature eggs, and females must feed to produce mature eggs. As a result, allocation of incoming resources must be balanced between egg production and maintenance of other critical biological functions. Central to this process is allocation of lipids s...

  2. 77 FR 9528 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... Register of November 25, 2011 (76 FR 72617), codifying a method of detection for residues of n-methyl-2....hhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the Federal Register of November 25, 2011 (76 FR 72617), FDA... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 500 Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products;...

  3. Estrogenicity of sugar beet by-products used as animal feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A veterinarian observed a reduction in embryo transfer success rates on beef and dairy farms in Minnesota, which were both feeding sugar beet by-products. Beet tailings and pelleted post-extraction beet pulp, associated with the affected farms were analyzed for estrogenicity by E-Screen (proliferati...

  4. Optimization of chemically defined feed media for monoclonal antibody production in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Kishishita, Shohei; Katayama, Satoshi; Kodaira, Kunihiko; Takagi, Yoshinori; Matsuda, Hiroki; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Takuma, Shinya; Hirashima, Chikashi; Aoyagi, Hideki

    2015-07-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the most commonly used mammalian host for large-scale commercial production of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Chemically defined media are currently used for CHO cell-based mAb production. An adequate supply of nutrients, especially specific amino acids, is required for cell growth and mAb production, and chemically defined fed-batch processes that support rapid cell growth, high cell density, and high levels of mAb production is still challenging. Many studies have highlighted the benefits of various media designs, supplements, and feed addition strategies in cell cultures. In the present study, we used a strategy involving optimization of a chemically defined feed medium to improve mAb production. Amino acids that were consumed in substantial amounts during a control culture were added to the feed medium as supplements. Supplementation was controlled to minimize accumulation of waste products such as lactate and ammonia. In addition, we evaluated supplementation with tyrosine, which has poor solubility, in the form of a dipeptide or tripeptide to improve its solubility. Supplementation with serine, cysteine, and tyrosine enhanced mAb production, cell viability, and metabolic profiles. A cysteine-tyrosine-serine tripeptide showed high solubility and produced beneficial effects similar to those observed with the free amino acids and with a dipeptide in improving mAb titers and metabolic profiles.

  5. Process for hydrocracking carbonaceous material to provide fuels or chemical feed stock

    DOEpatents

    Duncan, Dennis A.

    1980-01-01

    A process is disclosed for hydrocracking coal or other carbonaceous material to produce various aromatic hydrocarbons including benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, phenol and cresols in variable relative concentrations while maintaining a near constant maximum temperature. Variations in relative aromatic concentrations are achieved by changing the kinetic severity of the hydrocracking reaction by altering the temperature profile up to and quenching from the final hydrocracking temperature. The relative concentration of benzene to the alkyl and hydroxyl aromatics is increased by imposing increased kinetic severity above that corresponding to constant heating rate followed by immediate quenching at about the same rate to below the temperature at which dehydroxylation and dealkylation reactions appreciably occur. Similarly phenols, cresols and xylenes are produced in enhanced concentrations by adjusting the temperature profile to provide a reduced kinetic severity relative to that employed when high benzene concentrations are desired. These variations in concentrations can be used to produce desired materials for chemical feed stocks or for fuels.

  6. Feeding strategy design for recombinant human growth hormone production by Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Burcu; Öztürk, Sibel; Çalık, Pınar; Özdamar, Tunçer H

    2015-10-01

    Defined and semi-defined medium-based feeding strategies were developed to enhance recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) production by Bacillus subtilis BGSC-1A178 (scoC (-)) strain carrying pMK4::pre(subC)::hGH. Defined medium-based feeding strategies were designed by exponential feeding of glucose and (NH4)2HPO4 at two pre-determined specific growth rates, µ 0 = 0.10 and 0.17 h(-1). Semi-defined medium-based feeding strategies were designed by exponential feeding of substrate solution consisting of glucose, (NH4)2HPO4, peptone, and trace salt solution (PTM1) at three pre-determined specific growth rates, µ 0 = 0.10, 0.17, and 0.25 h(-1). At all the strategies applied, transition cultivation time from batch to fed-batch operation was t T = 4 h. The highest rhGH concentration was obtained as C rhGH = 0.5 g L(-1) with semi-defined medium-based feeding strategy designed with µ 0 = 0.25 h(-1) using feed substrate stock solution containing 200 g L(-1) glucose, 117 g L(-1) (NH4)2HPO4, 100 g L(-1) peptone, and 5 mL L(-1) PTM1 at t = 22 h when the cell concentration reached to C X = 8.29 g L(-1). The overall product and cell yields on glucose were obtained as [Formula: see text] = 7.21 mg g(-1) and [Formula: see text] = 0.12 g g(-1), respectively. The results indicate the requirement of designing continuous feed stream in fed-batch production to enhance rhGH production by r-B. subtilis.

  7. Impact of timing of feed delivery on the behavior and productivity of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    King, M T M; Crossley, R E; DeVries, T J

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the effect of timing of feed delivery on the behavior and productivity of cows milked 3 times per day. Twelve lactating Holstein dairy cows (4 primiparous and 8 multiparous), milked 3 times per day (at 1400, 2100, and 0700 h), were individually assigned and exposed to each of 2 treatments (over 21-d periods) in a replicated crossover design. Treatments were the manipulation of timing of TMR delivery, 2 times per day, in relation to milking time: (1) feeding at milking time (at 1400 and 0700 h), and (2) feeding halfway between milking times (at 1730 and 1030 h). Milk production, feeding, sorting, and rumination behavior were monitored for each animal for the last 7 d of each treatment period. Milk samples were collected for 2 of the last 4 d of each period for milk component analysis. With a feed delivery delay, dry matter intake (DMI) tended to be lower (26.5 vs. 27.2 kg/d). Although no difference was found in feeding time (224.2 min/d), cows fed with a delay consumed their feed more slowly (0.12 vs. 0.13 kg of dry matter/min) in more frequent meals (10.0 vs. 9.1 meals/d), which were smaller in size (2.8 vs. 3.1 kg/meal) and tended to be shorter in duration (26.7 vs. 30.1 min/meal). Cows fed at milking sorted for long particles (102.3%), whereas cows fed with a delay did not sort for or against those particles. Cows sorted for medium particles to a similar extent (102.5%) on each treatment. Cows did not sort for or against short particles on either treatment. Sorting against fine particles was observed, to a similar extent (97.1%), on both treatments. Rumination time (8.9 h/d) and lying time (9.5 h/d) were similar between treatments. Cows without fresh feed at the 1400 h milking tended to stand for less time following that milking (71.0 vs. 94.0 min), whereas cows without fresh feed at the 0700 h milking stood for less time following that milking (66.3 vs. 87.8 min). No difference in this latency to lie down was seen at the

  8. Impact of timing of feed delivery on the behavior and productivity of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    King, M T M; Crossley, R E; DeVries, T J

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the effect of timing of feed delivery on the behavior and productivity of cows milked 3 times per day. Twelve lactating Holstein dairy cows (4 primiparous and 8 multiparous), milked 3 times per day (at 1400, 2100, and 0700 h), were individually assigned and exposed to each of 2 treatments (over 21-d periods) in a replicated crossover design. Treatments were the manipulation of timing of TMR delivery, 2 times per day, in relation to milking time: (1) feeding at milking time (at 1400 and 0700 h), and (2) feeding halfway between milking times (at 1730 and 1030 h). Milk production, feeding, sorting, and rumination behavior were monitored for each animal for the last 7 d of each treatment period. Milk samples were collected for 2 of the last 4 d of each period for milk component analysis. With a feed delivery delay, dry matter intake (DMI) tended to be lower (26.5 vs. 27.2 kg/d). Although no difference was found in feeding time (224.2 min/d), cows fed with a delay consumed their feed more slowly (0.12 vs. 0.13 kg of dry matter/min) in more frequent meals (10.0 vs. 9.1 meals/d), which were smaller in size (2.8 vs. 3.1 kg/meal) and tended to be shorter in duration (26.7 vs. 30.1 min/meal). Cows fed at milking sorted for long particles (102.3%), whereas cows fed with a delay did not sort for or against those particles. Cows sorted for medium particles to a similar extent (102.5%) on each treatment. Cows did not sort for or against short particles on either treatment. Sorting against fine particles was observed, to a similar extent (97.1%), on both treatments. Rumination time (8.9 h/d) and lying time (9.5 h/d) were similar between treatments. Cows without fresh feed at the 1400 h milking tended to stand for less time following that milking (71.0 vs. 94.0 min), whereas cows without fresh feed at the 0700 h milking stood for less time following that milking (66.3 vs. 87.8 min). No difference in this latency to lie down was seen at the

  9. Space Weather Products at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael; Kuznetsova, M.; Pulkkinen, A.; Maddox, M.; Rastaetter, L.; Berrios, D.; MacNeice, P.

    2010-01-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) is a US inter-agency activity aiming at research in support of the generation of advanced space weather models. As one of its main functions, the CCMC provides to researchers the use of space science models, even if they are not model owners themselves. The second CCMC activity is to support Space Weather forecasting at national Space Weather Forecasting Centers. This second activity involves model evaluations, model transitions to operations, and the development of space weather forecasting tools. Owing to the pace of development in the science community, new model capabilities emerge frequently. Consequently, space weather products and tools involve not only increased validity, but often entirely new capabilities. This presentation will review the present state of space weather tools as well as point out emerging future capabilities.

  10. Genetic and phenotypic correlations among feed efficiency, production and selected conformation traits in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Manafiazar, G; Goonewardene, L; Miglior, F; Crews, D H; Basarab, J A; Okine, E; Wang, Z

    2016-03-01

    The difficulties and costs of measuring individual feed intake in dairy cattle are the primary factors limiting the genetic study of feed intake and utilisation, and hence the potential of their subsequent industry-wide applications. However, indirect selection based on heritable, easily measurable, and genetically correlated traits, such as conformation traits, may be an alternative approach to improve feed efficiency. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic correlations among feed intake, production, and feed efficiency traits (particularly residual feed intake; RFI) with routinely recorded conformation traits. A total of 496 repeated records from 260 Holstein dairy cows in different lactations (260, 159 and 77 from first, second and third lactation, respectively) were considered in this study. Individual daily feed intake and monthly BW and body condition scores of these animals were recorded from 5 to 305 days in milk within each lactation from June 2007 to July 2013. Milk yield and composition data of all animals within each lactation were retrieved, and the first lactation conformation traits for primiparous animals were extracted from databases. Individual RFI over 301 days was estimated using linear regression of total 301 days actual energy intake on a total of 301 days estimated traits of metabolic BW, milk production energy requirement, and empty BW change. Pair-wise bivariate animal models were used to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters among the studied traits. Estimated heritabilities of total intake and production traits ranged from 0.27±0.07 for lactation actual energy intake to 0.45±0.08 for average body condition score over 301 days of the lactation period. RFI showed a moderate heritability estimate (0.20±0.03) and non-significant phenotypic and genetic correlations with lactation 3.5 % fat-corrected milk and average BW over lactation. Among the conformation traits, dairy strength, stature, rear attachment width

  11. Progress in materials and structures at Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasgow, T. K.; Lauver, R. W.; Halford, G. R.; Davies, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The development of power and propulsion system technology is discussed. Specific emphasis is placed on the following: high temperature materials; composite materials; advanced design and life prediction; and nondestructive evaluation. Future areas of research are also discussed.

  12. Components of productivity in black-legged kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla: Response to supplemental feeding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, V.A.; Hatch, Shyla A.

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to the high productivity of black-legged kittiwakes in Britain, kittiwakes at many colonies in Alaska have failed chronically to reproduce since the mid 1970s. To determine if food is limiting productivity and, if so, at what stages of nesting food shortages are most severe, in 1996 and 1997 we supplementally fed kittiwakes nesting on an abandoned building. The effects of feeding were stronger in 1997 than in 1996, possibly because naturally occurring prey were of poorer quality in 1997. Consumption of supplemental herring declined as egg laying approached then increased slowly during incubation and more rapidly after hatching. All of the six components of productivity we studied were improved by supplemental feeding to some degree. Supplemental food did not significantly alter laying success in either year, although fed pairs bred at slightly higher rates than unfed pairs in 1997, the poorer food year. In 1996 and 1997, extra food noticeably increased clutch size and hatching success, but significantly so only in 1997. Fledging success and productivity were substantially augmented by feeding in both years. Fed pairs fledged twice as many chicks per nest as did unfed pairs in 1996 and three times as many in 1997. Fed and unfed pairs lost most of their potential productivity through the inability to hatch eggs, and secondarily because of their poor success at raising chicks. The benefits of supplemental feeding did not carry over from one stage of breeding to another. Pairs cut off from supplemental food after laying or hatching performed similarly to pairs that had not been previously fed. This study provides benchmark values of breeding performance attainable by kittiwakes in Alaska under optimal conditions. These values are comparable to highly productive colonies in Britain and suggest that differences in life-history characteristics between Pacific and Atlantic breeding populations are primarily controlled by food supply.

  13. THE ENGLISH PROGRAM OF THE USOE CURRICULUM STUDY AND DEMONSTRATION CENTER MATERIALS CURRENTLY AVAILABLE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1967

    AFTER FIVE YEARS OF FEDERALLY-SUPPORTED CURRICULUM RESEARCH IN ENGLISH, 14 STUDY CENTERS AND FIVE DEMONSTRATION CENTERS ARE NOW MAKING THE RESULTS OF THEIR WORK AVAILABLE TO THE PUBLIC. THIS PAMPHLET LISTS TITLES OF REPORTS AND INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS PREPARED BY THE FOLLOWING CENTERS--(1) CARNEGIE-MELLON UNIVERSITY, (2) TEACHERS COLLEGE, COLUMBIA…

  14. The Minnesota Project English Center: Selected Materials. Unit 701: Introduction to the Study of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English.

    This Minnesota Curriculum Center report recounts the development of teaching materials on the nature and uses of language for grades 7-12 and presents the first of five seventh-grade units. A description of the origins, purposes, and personnel of the Center is followed by brief discussions of (1) the Center's underlying assumption that a study of…

  15. Effects of feeding increasing levels of wet corn gluten feed on production and ruminal fermentation in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Mullins, C R; Grigsby, K N; Anderson, D E; Titgemeyer, E C; Bradford, B J

    2010-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary inclusion rates of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF; Sweet Bran; Cargill Inc., Blair, NE) on milk production and rumen parameters. Four primiparous and 4 multiparous ruminally cannulated Holstein cows averaging 90±13 d in milk (mean ± SD) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 sequences in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with 28-d periods. Treatments were diets containing 0, 11, 23, and 34% WCGF on a dry matter basis; alfalfa hay, corn silage, corn grain, soybean meal, expeller soybean meal, and mineral supplements were varied to maintain similar nutrient concentrations across diets. Performance and measures of ruminal fermentation were monitored. Linear and quadratic effects of increasing WCGF inclusion rate were assessed using mixed-model analysis. Increasing dietary WCGF linearly increased dry matter intake (26.7, 25.9, 29.3, and 29.7 kg/d for 0, 11, 23, and 34% WCGF, respectively) and milk production (36.8, 37.0, 40.1, and 38.9 kg/d). Concentrations of milk components did not differ among treatments; however, protein and lactose yields increased linearly and fat yield tended to increase linearly when more WCGF was fed. This led to greater production of energy-corrected milk (38.2, 38.8, 41.7, and 40.4 kg/d) and solids-corrected milk (35.2, 35.7, 38.5, and 37.2 kg/d), but efficiency of production linearly decreased. Increased WCGF in the diet tended to linearly decrease ruminal pH (6.18, 6.12, 6.14, and 5.91), possibly because mean particle size was below typical recommendations for all diets, and diets with greater proportions of WCGF had a smaller mean particle size. Ruminal acetate concentration decreased linearly and propionate increased linearly as WCGF inclusion rate increased. Treatments had a quadratic effect on ammonia concentration, with greater concentrations for the 0 and 34% WCGF diets. In situ digestibility of soybean hulls showed a significant diet-by-time interaction, and

  16. Yeast product supplementation modulated feeding behavior and metabolism in transition dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Yuan, K; Liang, T; Muckey, M B; Mendonça, L G D; Hulbert, L E; Elrod, C C; Bradford, B J

    2015-01-01

    Yeast supplementation has been shown to increase feed intake and production in some studies with early lactation dairy cows, but the mechanisms underlying such an effect remain unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of supplementing a yeast product derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae on production, feeding behavior, and metabolism in cows during the transition to lactation. Forty multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by expected calving date and randomly assigned within block to 1 of 4 treatments (n=10) from 21 d before expected calving to 42 d postpartum. Rations were top-dressed with a yeast culture plus enzymatically hydrolyzed yeast (YC-EHY; Celmanax, Vi-COR Inc., Mason City, IA) at the rate of 0, 30, 60, or 90g/d throughout the experiment. Dry matter and water intake, feeding behavior, and milk production were monitored. Plasma samples collected on -21, -7, 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d relative to calving were analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, and nonesterified fatty acids. Data were analyzed using mixed models with repeated measures over time. Pre- or postpartum dry matter intake and water intake did not differ among treatments. Quadratic dose effects were observed for prepartum feeding behavior, reflecting decreased meal size, meal length, and intermeal interval, and increased meal frequency for cows received 30 and 60g/d of YC-EHY. Postpartum feeding behavior was unaffected by treatments. Milk yields were not affected (45.3, 42.6, 47.8, and 46.7kg/d for 0, 30, 60, and 90g/d, respectively) by treatments. Tendencies for increased percentages of milk fat, protein, and lactose were detected for cows receiving YC-EHY. Supplementing YC-EHY increased plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and tended to decrease (quadratic dose effect) glucose but did not affect nonesterified fatty acids. Yeast product supplementation during the transition period did not affect milk production and dry matter intake but modulated feeding behavior and metabolism

  17. The DOE Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials: Research briefs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This publication is designed to inform present and potential customers and partners of the DOE Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials about significant advances resulting from Center-coordinated research. The format is an easy-to-read, not highly technical, concise presentation of the accomplishments. Selected accomplishments from each of the Center`s seven initial focused projects are presented. The seven projects are: (1) conventional and superplastic forming; (2) materials joining; (3) nanoscale materials for energy applications; (4) microstructural engineering with polymers; (5) tailored microstructures in hard magnets; (6) processing for surface hardness; and (7) mechanically reliable surface oxides for high-temperature corrosion resistance.

  18. GATE Center of Excellence at UAB in Lightweight Materials for Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2011-07-31

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the UAB GATE Center of Excellence in Lightweight Materials for Automotive Applications. The first Phase of the UAB DOE GATE center spanned the period 2005-2011. The UAB GATE goals coordinated with the overall goals of DOE's FreedomCAR and Vehicles Technologies initiative and DOE GATE program. The FCVT goals are: (1) Development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost; (2) To provide a new generation of engineers and scientists with knowledge and skills in advanced automotive technologies. The UAB GATE focused on both the FCVT and GATE goals in the following manner: (1) Train and produce graduates in lightweight automotive materials technologies; (2) Structure the engineering curricula to produce specialists in the automotive area; (3) Leverage automotive related industry in the State of Alabama; (4) Expose minority students to advanced technologies early in their career; (5) Develop innovative virtual classroom capabilities tied to real manufacturing operations; and (6) Integrate synergistic, multi-departmental activities to produce new product and manufacturing technologies for more damage tolerant, cost-effective, and lighter automotive structures.

  19. Bibliography of Materials Available from the Russian Studies Center for Secondary Schools, Supplement, May 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate School, Wallingford, CT. Russian Studies Center for Secondary Schools.

    Background and instructional materials acquired since the February 1967 supplement are listed in this supplement to the "Bibliography of Materials" issued by the Russian Center for Secondary Schools. The majority of the items are in English, and all are available from the Center on a 3-week loan to secondary school teachers of Russian. Major…

  20. Target Cultivation and Financing Parameters for Sustainable Production of Fuel and Feed from Microalgae.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Léda N; Tester, Jefferson W; Beal, Colin M; Huntley, Mark E; Sills, Deborah L

    2016-04-01

    Production of economically competitive and environmentally sustainable algal biofuel faces technical challenges that are subject to high uncertainties. Here we identify target values for algal productivity and financing conditions required to achieve a biocrude selling price of $5 per gallon and beneficial environmental impacts. A modeling framework--combining process design, techno-economic analysis, life cycle assessment, and uncertainty analysis--was applied to two conversion pathways: (1) "fuel only (HTL)", using hydrothermal liquefaction to produce biocrude, heat and power, and (2) "fuel and feed", using wet extraction to produce biocrude and lipid-extracted algae, which can substitute components of animal and aqua feeds. Our results suggest that with supporting policy incentives, the "fuel and feed" scenario will likely achieve a biocrude selling price of less than $5 per gallon at a productivity of 39 g/m(2)/day, versus 47 g/m(2)/day for the "fuel only (HTL)" scenario. Furthermore, if lipid-extracted algae are used to substitute fishmeal, the process has a 50% probability of reaching $5 per gallon with a base case productivity of 23 g/m(2)/day. Scenarios with improved economics were associated with beneficial environmental impacts for climate change, ecosystem quality, and resource depletion, but not for human health. PMID:26942694

  1. Target Cultivation and Financing Parameters for Sustainable Production of Fuel and Feed from Microalgae.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Léda N; Tester, Jefferson W; Beal, Colin M; Huntley, Mark E; Sills, Deborah L

    2016-04-01

    Production of economically competitive and environmentally sustainable algal biofuel faces technical challenges that are subject to high uncertainties. Here we identify target values for algal productivity and financing conditions required to achieve a biocrude selling price of $5 per gallon and beneficial environmental impacts. A modeling framework--combining process design, techno-economic analysis, life cycle assessment, and uncertainty analysis--was applied to two conversion pathways: (1) "fuel only (HTL)", using hydrothermal liquefaction to produce biocrude, heat and power, and (2) "fuel and feed", using wet extraction to produce biocrude and lipid-extracted algae, which can substitute components of animal and aqua feeds. Our results suggest that with supporting policy incentives, the "fuel and feed" scenario will likely achieve a biocrude selling price of less than $5 per gallon at a productivity of 39 g/m(2)/day, versus 47 g/m(2)/day for the "fuel only (HTL)" scenario. Furthermore, if lipid-extracted algae are used to substitute fishmeal, the process has a 50% probability of reaching $5 per gallon with a base case productivity of 23 g/m(2)/day. Scenarios with improved economics were associated with beneficial environmental impacts for climate change, ecosystem quality, and resource depletion, but not for human health.

  2. Effect of feed consumption levels on growth performance and carcass composition during the force-feeding period in foie gras production of male Mule ducks.

    PubMed

    Wen, Z G; Jiang, Y; Tang, J; Xie, M; Yang, P L; Hou, S S

    2016-09-01

    In order to avoid excess feed consumption during the force-feeding period in foie gras production, a dose-response experiment with seven feed consumption levels (450, 540, 630, 720, 810, 900, 990 g/day per bird) was conducted to evaluate the effects of feed consumption levels on growth performance and carcass composition of male Mule ducks from 91 to 102 days of age. One-day-old Mule ducklings (sterile and artificial hybrid of male Albatre Muscovy duck and female Pekin duck were fed a two-phase commercial diets for ad libitum intake from hatching to 91 days of age, followed by graded feeding levels of a corn diet by force-feeding from 91 to 102 days of age. Fifty-six 91-day-old male Mule ducks with similar BW were randomly assigned to seven treatments, with eight birds per treatment. Birds were housed in individual pens. At 102 days of age, final BW was measured and BW gain and feed conversion ratio of ducks from each treatment were calculated from day 91 to 102, and then all ducks were slaughtered to evaluate the yields of skin with subcutaneous fat, abdominal fat, breast meat (including pectoralis major and pectoralis minor), leg meat (including thigh and drum stick), and liver. Significant differences in BW gain, total liver weight and liver relative weight were observed among the treatments (P<0.001). According to the broken-line regression analysis, the optimal feed consumption levels of male Mule ducks from 91 to 102 days of age for maximum BW gain, total liver weight and liver relative weight were 217, 227 and 216 g feed/kg BW0.75·per day, respectively.

  3. Effect of water addition to a total mixed ration on feed temperature, feed intake, sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Felton, C A; DeVries, T J

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of water addition to a high-moisture total mixed ration (TMR) on feed temperature, feed intake, feed sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (155.8+/-60.1 DIM), individually fed once daily at 1000 h, were exposed to 3 diets in a Latin square design with 28-d treatment periods. Diets had the same ingredient composition [30.9% corn silage, 30.3% alfalfa haylage, 21.2% high-moisture corn, and 17.6% protein supplement; dry matter (DM) basis] and differed only in DM concentration, which was reduced by the addition of water. Treatment diets averaged 56.3, 50.8, and 44.1% DM. The study was conducted between May and August when environmental temperature was 18.2+/-3.6 degrees C and ambient temperature in the barn was 24.4+/-3.3 degrees C. Dry matter intake (DMI) was monitored for each animal for the last 14 d of each treatment period. For the final 7 d of each period, milk production was monitored, feed temperature and ambient temperature and humidity were recorded (daily at 1000, 1300, and 1600 h), and fresh feed and orts were sampled for determination of sorting. For the final 4 d of each period, milk samples were taken for composition analysis. Samples taken for determining sorting were separated using a Penn State Particle Separator that had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each particle size fraction expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Greater amounts of water added to the TMR resulted in greater increases in feed temperature in the hours after feed delivery, greater sorting against long particles, and decreased DMI, reducing the overall intake of starch and neutral detergent fiber. Milk production and composition were not affected by the addition of water to the TMR. Efficiency of production of milk was, however

  4. Industrial Assessment Centers - Small Manufacturers Reduce Energy & Increase Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    2015-11-06

    Since 1976, the Industrial Assessment Centers (IACs), administered by the US Department of Energy, have supported small and medium-sized American manufacturers to reduce energy use and increase their productivity and competitiveness. The 24 IACs, located at premier engineering universities around the country (see below), send faculty and engineering students to local small and medium-sized manufacturers to provide no-cost assessments of energy use, process performance and waste and water flows. Under the direction of experienced professors, IAC engineering students analyze the manufacturer’s facilities, energy bills and energy, waste and water systems, including compressed air, motors/pumps, lighting, process heat and steam. The IACs then follow up with written energy-saving and productivity improvement recommendations, with estimates of related costs and payback periods.

  5. Studying the infant feeding intentions of pregnant women experiencing material deprivation: methodology of the Looking at Infant Feeding Today (LIFT) study.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Brian; Green, Josephine M; Woolridge, Michael W; Dyson, Lisa; Renfrew, Mary J; Clarke, Graham P

    2009-03-01

    The Looking at Infant Feeding Today (LIFT) study examined the factors underlying the infant feeding choices of first-time mothers in the Leeds and Bradford areas of England experiencing material hardship, with a view to informing interventions aimed at increasing breastfeeding uptake amongst this group. This short report describes the novel methodology used to obtain data from a sample of pregnant women who are traditionally 'hard-to-reach' in deprived areas. This involved the use of trusted individuals such as midwives and multilingual health workers. A total of 449 women were approached; 441 (91.5%) agreed to participate and 303 returned completed questionnaires. Whilst 285 participants self-completed, 18 opted for interviewer assistance provided by a trained multilingual health worker. Feeding method up to 10 days after birth was obtained from the hospital records of 248 women (82.4% of eligible returns), and self-reported feeding method at six weeks was obtained from 273 women (90.7% of eligible returns). The study succeeded in obtaining data from a relatively deprived and hard-to-reach sample, with adequate numbers of participants in the subgroups of interest (teenage, left full time education age 16 or younger, household receiving income support or job seekers allowance, Asian or African-Caribbean). PMID:19136182

  6. USBI Booster Production Company's Hazardous Waste Management Program at the Kennedy Space Center, FL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venuto, Charles

    1987-01-01

    In response to the hazardous-waste generating processes associated with the launch of the Space Shuttle, a hazardous waste management plan has been developed. It includes waste recycling, product substitution, waste treatment, and waste minimization at the source. Waste material resulting from the preparation of the nonmotor segments of the solid rocket boosters include waste paints (primer, topcoats), waste solvents (methylene chloride, freon, acetone, toluene), waste inorganic compounds (aluminum anodizing compound, fixer), and others. Ways in which these materials are contended with at the Kennedy Space Center are discussed.

  7. Insects feeding on cadavers as an alternative source of human genetic material.

    PubMed

    Skowronek, R; Tomsia, M; Droździok, K; Kabiesz, J

    2014-01-01

    In some criminal cases, the use of classical sources of human genetic material is difficult or even impossible. One solution may be the use of insects, especially blowfly larvae which feed on corpses. A recent review of case reports and experimental studies available in biomedical databases has shown that insects can be a valuable source of human mitochondrial and genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), allowing for an effective analysis of hypervariable region (HVR) sequences and short tandem repeat (STR) profiles, respectively. The optimal source of human DNA is the crop (a part of the gut) of active third-instar blowfly larvae. Pupae and insect faeces can be also used in forensic genetic practice instead of the contents of the alimentary tract.

  8. Image Analysis of Pellet Size for a Control System in Industrial Feed Production

    PubMed Central

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Frosch, Stina

    2011-01-01

    When producing aquaculture fish feed pellets, the size of the output product is of immense importance. As the production method cannot produce pellets of constant and uniform size using constant machine settings, there is a demand for size control. Fish fed with feed pellets of improper size are prone to not grow as expected, which is undesirable to the aquaculture industry. In this paper an image analysis method is proposed for automatic size-monitoring of pellets. This is called granulometry and the method used here is based on the mathematical morphological opening operation. In the proposed method, no image object segmentation is needed. The results show that it is possible to extract a general size distribution from an image of piled disordered pellets representing both length and diameter of the pellets in combination as an area. PMID:22031836

  9. MULTI-MEDIA CATALOG OF THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CENTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saginaw County Intermediate School District, MI.

    THIS IS A LISTING OF MATERIALS FOR K-12 AVAILABLE FOR TEACHERS AND PLANNERS, INCLUDING FILM LOOPS, TAPE RECORDINGS, FILMSTRIPS, SLIDES, TRANSPARENCIES, RECORDS, STUDY AND ART PRINTS, MODELS AND REALIA, SCULPTURE AND KITS. AN OVERALL SUBJECT INDEX IS FOLLOWED BY SEPARATE SUBJECT LISTS FOR EACH TYPE OF MATERIAL. A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF EACH…

  10. Valuable ingredients and feed toxicity evaluation of Microcystis aeruginosa acidolysis product in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qing; Xu, Yudi; Vanogtrop, Floris; Guo, Qijin; Liu, Guofeng; Yan, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    This research studied the extraction from Microcystis aeruginosa using hydrochloric acid method as a potentially valuable protein resource from eutrophic lakes. Amino acid composition, residual algal toxins, and heavy metals of the acidolysis product were studied. After 18 h of hydrochloric acid treatment, the product of M. aeruginosa contained 17 amino acids, 51.34% of total amino acid requirements, and 30.25% of the livestock and poultry essential amino acid (Eaa). The residual microcystin-LR (MC-LR) was 0.94 µg kg−1, which was less than WHO drinking water limit of microcystins. The removal ratio of microcystins was higher than 99.99% during the process of hydrolysis. The concentration of heavy metals of the product was in compliance with feed standards. Furthermore, using Horn’s method, Mouse Micronucleus Test and Sperm Shape Abnormality Test were conducted to study the forage safety of the product. Half lethal dose (LD50) of acidolysis product in mice was >9.09 g kg−1 body weight, actually belonging to non-toxic grade. Every dose treatment did not significantly increase activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT). The results of both micronucleus test and sperm shape abnormality test were negative, which suggested the product with no mutagenicity and sperm malformation effects. This study indicated that the acidolysis product of M. aeruginosa was safe to be used as a feed ingredient. PMID:25649189

  11. Biomass use, production, feed efficiencies, and greenhouse gas emissions from global livestock systems

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, Mario; Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Notenbaert, An; Rufino, Mariana C.; Thornton, Philip K.; Blümmel, Michael; Weiss, Franz; Grace, Delia; Obersteiner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We present a unique, biologically consistent, spatially disaggregated global livestock dataset containing information on biomass use, production, feed efficiency, excretion, and greenhouse gas emissions for 28 regions, 8 livestock production systems, 4 animal species (cattle, small ruminants, pigs, and poultry), and 3 livestock products (milk, meat, and eggs). The dataset contains over 50 new global maps containing high-resolution information for understanding the multiple roles (biophysical, economic, social) that livestock can play in different parts of the world. The dataset highlights: (i) feed efficiency as a key driver of productivity, resource use, and greenhouse gas emission intensities, with vast differences between production systems and animal products; (ii) the importance of grasslands as a global resource, supplying almost 50% of biomass for animals while continuing to be at the epicentre of land conversion processes; and (iii) the importance of mixed crop–livestock systems, producing the greater part of animal production (over 60%) in both the developed and the developing world. These data provide critical information for developing targeted, sustainable solutions for the livestock sector and its widely ranging contribution to the global food system. PMID:24344273

  12. Valuable ingredients and feed toxicity evaluation of Microcystis aeruginosa acidolysis product in mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Shiqun; Zhou, Qing; Xu, Yudi; Vanogtrop, Floris; Guo, Qijin; Liu, Guofeng; Yan, Shaohua

    2015-10-01

    This research studied the extraction from Microcystis aeruginosa using hydrochloric acid method as a potentially valuable protein resource from eutrophic lakes. Amino acid composition, residual algal toxins, and heavy metals of the acidolysis product were studied. After 18 h of hydrochloric acid treatment, the product of M. aeruginosa contained 17 amino acids, 51.34% of total amino acid requirements, and 30.25% of the livestock and poultry essential amino acid (Eaa). The residual microcystin-LR (MC-LR) was 0.94 µg kg(-1), which was less than WHO drinking water limit of microcystins. The removal ratio of microcystins was higher than 99.99% during the process of hydrolysis. The concentration of heavy metals of the product was in compliance with feed standards. Furthermore, using Horn's method, Mouse Micronucleus Test and Sperm Shape Abnormality Test were conducted to study the forage safety of the product. Half lethal dose (LD50) of acidolysis product in mice was >9.09 g kg(-1) body weight, actually belonging to non-toxic grade. Every dose treatment did not significantly increase activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT). The results of both micronucleus test and sperm shape abnormality test were negative, which suggested the product with no mutagenicity and sperm malformation effects. This study indicated that the acidolysis product of M. aeruginosa was safe to be used as a feed ingredient.

  13. Production and analysis of thermal decomposition products from polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, D. A.; Einhorn, I. N.; Hileman, F. D.; Futrell, J. H.; Voorhees, K. J.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of a strategy for analyzing the combustion process and the degradation products which are formed. One of three primary objectives in the study of polymer degradation is related to the characterization of the material to be studied and the investigation of the thermal behavior of the material. Another objective is concerned with the definition of the nature of the decomposition process by identification and quantitation of the degradation products. The third objective involves the determination of the mechanism and kinetics of the decomposition process. The methods of sample degradation include pyrolysis, oxidative degradation, flaming combustion, and the use of large-scale combustion chambers. Methods of chemical separation and identification are considered, taking into account low-boiling volatiles, high-boiling volatiles, and ancillary techniques.

  14. Determining the global maximum biofuel production potential without conflicting with food and feed consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumkaew, Watcharapol

    This study tries to resolve the competition between food and biofuel by balancing the allocation between food and feed areas and biofuel areas for the entire world. The maximum energy production is calculated by determining the theoretical amount of energy that can be grown, once food and feed consumption is taken into account, based on the assumption that unprotected grass and woody lands and forest lands can be converted into cultivated lands. The total optimum land area for biofuel energy, 4,926.49 Mha, consists of corn, rapeseed, sugar beet, sugar cane, and grasses. When considering energy conversion efficiency, the maximum energy production is 520.5 EJ. Of this amount, 5.9 EJ can be identified with food and feed energy and 514.6 EJ can be identified with biofuel energy. This result is a theoretical value to illustrate the potential global land area for biofuel. The biofuel energy production per area of land in this study is calculated to be 0.12 EJ/Mha. With regards to the limitation in the degree of invasion by grass and woody land and forest land areas, if it is not more than 10 percent, the biofuel energy production can serve about 76 percent of energy demand for transportation in 2009. The total optimum land area is about 45 percent of global cultivated land area. Sensitivity analysis shows that the land area of corn, sweet sorghum, sugarcane, grass, and woody crops is sensitive to energy content. The land area of sweet sorghum and soybeans is sensitive to the land area for food and feed consumption. Also, the land area of corn, sugar beet, and sugarcane is sensitive to the potential crop land area. This study, done at the global level, can also apply in a local area by using local constraints.

  15. Genetic analysis of production and feed efficiency traits in an Orlopp turkey line (Meleagris gallopavo).

    PubMed

    Willems, O W; Buddiger, N J H; Wood, B J

    2014-01-01

    1. Genetic parameters for production and feed efficiency traits in the Orlopp line of turkeys were estimated to determine breeding goals and future potential of the line in a long-term genetic improvement programme. 2. Body weight, egg production and fertility traits were recorded and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was assessed from 16-20 weeks of age. 3. Moderate heritabilities were found for feed intake and body weight gain (0.25 to 0.31). Average FCR was 3.14, with heritability of 0.10. Body weight, breast conformation score and egg production traits showed moderate heritabilities (0.22 to 0.52), while both fertility and hatch of fertile eggs were low (0.04 and 0.09, respectively). 4. Genetic correlations between breast confirmation score, 10- and 18-week body weights were moderate, 0.50 and 0.45, respectively. Average egg weight also showed moderate genetic correlations with 10- and 18-week body weights (0.59 and 0.42).

  16. Whey fermentation by Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens for production of a succinate-based animal feed additive

    SciTech Connect

    Samuelov, N.S.; Datta, R.; Jain, M.K. |; Zeikus, J.G. |

    1999-05-01

    Anaerobic fermentation processes for the production of a succinate-rich animal feed supplement from raw whey were investigated with batch, continuous, and variable-volume fed-batch cultures with Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens. The highest succinate yield, 90%, was obtained in a variable-volume fed-batch process in comparison to 80% yield in a batch cultivation mode. In continuous culture, succinate productivity was 3 g/liter/h, and the yield was 60%. Under conditions of excess CO{sub 2}, more than 90% of the whey-lactose was consumed, with an end product ratio of 4 succinate to 1 acetate. Under conditions of limited CO{sub 2}, lactose was only partially consumed and lactate was the major end product, with lower levels of ethanol, succinate, and acetate. When the succinic acid in this fermentation product was added to rumen fluid, it was completely consumed by a mixed rumen population and was 90% decarboxylated to propionate on a molar basis. The whey fermentation product formed under excess CO{sub 2}, which contained mainly organic acids and cells, could potentially be used as an animal feed supplement.

  17. High pressure feeder and method of operating to feed granular or fine materials

    SciTech Connect

    Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

    2014-10-07

    A coal feed system to feed pulverized low rank coals containing up to 25 wt % moisture to gasifiers operating up to 1000 psig pressure is described. The system includes gas distributor and collector gas permeable pipes imbedded in the lock vessel. Different methods of operation of the feed system are disclosed to minimize feed problems associated with bridging and packing of the pulverized coal. The method of maintaining the feed system and feeder device exit pressures using gas addition or extraction with the pressure control device is also described.

  18. Preliminary Assessment of the Hanford Tank Waste Feed Acceptance and Product Qualification Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, C. C.; Adamson, Duane J.; Herman, D. T.; Peeler, David K.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Reboul, S. H.; Stone, M. E.; Peterson, Reid A.; Chun, Jaehun; Fort, James A.; Vienna, John D.; Wells, Beric E.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (EM) is engaging the national laboratories to provide the scientific and technological rigor to support EM program and project planning, technology development and deployment, project execution, and assessment of program outcomes. As an early demonstration of this new responsibility, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have been chartered to implement a science and technology program addressing Hanford Tank waste feed acceptance and product qualification. As a first step, the laboratories examined the technical risks and uncertainties associated with the planned waste feed acceptance and qualification testing for Hanford tank wastes. Science and technology gaps were identified for work associated with 1) feed criteria development with emphasis on identifying the feed properties and the process requirements, 2) the Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process qualification program, and 3) the WTP HLW glass product qualification program. Opportunities for streamlining the accetpance and qualification programs were also considered in the gap assessment. Technical approaches to address the science and technology gaps and/or implement the opportunities were identified. These approaches will be further refined and developed as strong integrated teams of researchers from national laboratories, contractors, industry, and academia are brought together to provide the best science and technology solutions. Pursuing the identified approaches will have immediate and long-term benefits to DOE in reducing risks and uncertainties associated with tank waste removal and preparation, transfers from the tank farm to the WTP, processing within the WTP Pretreatment Facility, and in producing qualified HLW glass products. Additionally, implementation of the identified opportunities provides the potential for long-term cost savings given the anticipated

  19. Energy Frontier Research Center Center for Materials Science of Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Todd Allen

    2014-04-01

    Scientific Successes • The first phonon density of states (PDOS) measurements for UO2 to include anharmonicity were obtained using time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), and an innovative, experimental-based anharmonic smoothing technique has enabled quantitative benchmarking of ab initio PDOS simulations. • Direct comparison between anharmonicity-smoothed ab initio PDOS simulations for UO2 and experimental measurements has demonstrated the need for improved understanding of UO2 at the level of phonon dispersion, and, further, that advanced lattice dynamics simulations including finite temperatures approaches will be required for handling this strongly correlated nuclear fuel. • PDOS measurements performed on polycrystalline samples have identified the phonon branches and energy ranges most highly impacted by fission-product and hyper-stoichiometry lattice defects in UO2. These measurements have revealed the broad-spectrum impact of oxygen hyper-stoichiometry on thermal transport. The reduction in thermal conductivity caused by hyper-stoichiometry is many times stronger than that caused by substitutional fission-product impurities. • Laser-based thermo-reflectance measurements on UO2 samples irradiated with light (i.e. He) ions to introduce point defects have been coupled with MD simulations and lattice parameter measurements to determine the role of uranium and oxygen point defects in reducing thermal conductivity. • A rigorous perturbation theory treatment of phonon lifetimes in UO2 based on a 3D discretization of the Brillouin zone coupled with experimentally measured phonon dispersion has been implemented that produces improved predictions of the temperature dependent thermal conductivity. • Atom probe investigations of the influence of grain boundary structure on the segregation behavior of Kr in UO2 have shown that smaller amounts of Kr are present at low angle grain boundaries than at large angle grain

  20. Implementation Plan for the NASA Center of Excellence for Structures and Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Charles E. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the implementation plans of the Center of Excellence (COE) for Structures and Materials. The plan documented herein is the result of an Agencywide planning activity led by the Office of the Center of Excellence for Structures and Materials at Langley Research Center (LaRC). The COE Leadership Team, with a representative from each NASA Field Center, was established to assist LaRC in fulfilling the responsibilities of the COE. The Leadership Team developed the plan presented in this report.

  1. Space Weather Products at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In addition to supporting space research in the international community, the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) has as its second objective to bring to apply the power of modern research models toward space weather specification and forecasting. Initially motivated by the objective to test models and to ease the transition of research models to space weather forecasting organization, the CCMC has developed a number of real-time modeling systems, as well as large number of modeling and data products for space weather forecasting. Over time, these activities have evolved into tailored products for partners, as well as into a direct support of the space weather needs within NASA robotic mission community. Accessible through a customizable interface, users within the US or at partnering institutions internationally have access to space weather tools driven by the most advanced space research models. Through partnering with agencies and institutions in the US and abroad, the CCMC strives to set up further data sharing agreements to the benefit of all participating institutions. In this presentation, we provide an overview of existing CCMC space weather services and products, and we will explore additional avenues for international collaborations.

  2. Monte Carlo simulations of safeguards neutron counter for oxide reduction process feed material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hee; Lee, Chaehun; Oh, Jong-Myeong; An, Su Jung; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Park, Se-Hwan; Ku, Jeong-Hoe

    2016-10-01

    One of the options for spent-fuel management in Korea is pyroprocessing whose main process flow is the head-end process followed by oxide reduction, electrorefining, and electrowining. In the present study, a well-type passive neutron coincidence counter, namely, the ACP (Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process) safeguards neutron counter (ASNC), was redesigned for safeguards of a hot-cell facility related to the oxide reduction process. To this end, first, the isotopic composition, gamma/neutron emission yield and energy spectrum of the feed material ( i.e., the UO2 porous pellet) were calculated using the OrigenARP code. Then, the proper thickness of the gammaray shield was determined, both by irradiation testing at a standard dosimetry laboratory and by MCNP6 simulations using the parameters obtained from the OrigenARP calculation. Finally, the neutron coincidence counter's calibration curve for 100- to 1000-g porous pellets, in consideration of the process batch size, was determined through simulations. Based on these simulation results, the neutron counter currently is under construction. In the near future, it will be installed in a hot cell and tested with spent fuel materials.

  3. Novel Feed-through Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability (RMI) Experiment for Characterization of Dynamic Material Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opie, Saul; Gautam, Sudrishti; Fortin, Elizabeth; Lynch, Jenna; Loomis, Eric; Peralta, Pedro

    Hydrodynamic instabilities occur often in applications where forces act across a bimaterial interface. In Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities, surface perturbations grow exponentially under opposing pressure and density gradients. In the closely related Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability, the same perturbations grow linearly due to an impulsive acceleration, e.g., a passing shock wave. These effects are often analyzed with linear fluid theory, but it is well known that for materials possessing shear strength the perturbation evolution can be significantly affected. A challenge in modeling these effects is that existing knowledge of the interplay between strength and hydrodynamic instabilities in solids is limited for the loads and strain rates that are typically used to study them. We have developed novel feed-through RM instability experiments that are useful to understand and model this interplay. We will describe the experimental setup and show simulations that agree well with experimental results in two materials, one-phase copper, and iron loaded above and below the alpha-epsilon phase boundary, where modeling used a phase-aware strength model. In copper, the growth of surface perturbations is quite sensitive to strength model parameters, and so is the amplitude of the shock front perturbations. This is also observed in iron, along with an additional sensitivity in the modeling results to the parameters used to describe phase change kinetics. Work supported by Department of Energy (DOE) [Grant Number DE-SC0008683] from the Office of Fusion Energy Science.

  4. Feed and manure use in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa fertilizers and feeds are costly, not readily available, and used sparingly in agricultural production. In many parts of Western Europe, North America, and Oceania fertilizers and feeds are relatively inexpensive, readily available, and used abundantly to maximiz...

  5. 76 FR 16533 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products..., 2010 (75 FR 65565) amending the animal drug regulations. The October 26, 2010, final rule amended the... medicated feed. This correction is being made to improve the accuracy of the animal drug regulations....

  6. 7 CFR 613.4 - Special production of plant materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special production of plant materials. 613.4 Section... production of plant materials. NRCS can produce plant materials in the quantity required to do a specific conservation job if this production will serve the public welfare and only if the plant materials are...

  7. Effect of pre-partum prilled fat supplementation on feed intake, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shikha; Singh, Mahendra; Roy, Ashwani Kumar; Thakur, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of pre-partum prilled fat feeding on dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Advance pregnant Murrah buffaloes were either received a dietary supplement of prilled fat at 100 g/day for 35 days pre-partum and at 150 g/day for 95 days post-partum (supplemented group [SG]) or did not receive fat supplement (control group [CG]). DMI and the yields of milk and milk component were measured. A body condition score (BCS) was recorded. Energy balance and gross feed efficiency (GFE) were calculated. DMI and BCS were recorded and milk yield (MY), fat, protein, lactose, solid not fat, energy balance were measured. The fat corrected milk yield was calculated. Results: The DMI was non-significant between groups and periods of study. BCS of buffaloes improved in the SG than CG (p<0.01). The energy intake in terms of total digestible nutrients (TDN%), TDN intake, digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy/kg of milk, DE of milk, net energy, and GFE were higher (p<0.01) in SG during post-partum period. Crude protein intake was statistically similar in both the groups. MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG than in CG during 95 days of early lactation. Milk fat, fat corrected MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG however protein, lactose and solid not fat content did not varied between the groups. The feed efficiency of the SG was higher (p<0.01) than the CG during the post-partum period. Conclusion: It was inferred that prilled fat supplementation augments energy balance and milk production in transition Murrah buffaloes. PMID:27057108

  8. Fire and safety materials utilization at the John F. Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    The special needs of the Kennedy Space Center in the area of protective garments for personnel engaged in hazardous emergency operations are discussed. The materials used in the protective clothing and the specialized applications of various materials are described. It is concluded that Nomex is the best general purpose nonflammable material for protective clothing.

  9. The influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage on broiler production, nutrient digestibility and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Ranjitkar, S; Karlsson, A H; Petersen, M A; Bredie, W L P; Petersen, J S; Engberg, R M

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out in parallel with male Ross 308 broilers over 37 d. An experiment with a total of 736 broilers was performed to study the effect of dietary inclusion of crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on broiler production and meat quality. Another study with 32 broilers was carried out from 21 to 25 d to investigate the inclusion of CKMS on nutrient digestibility. In both trials, 4 dietary treatments were used: wheat-based feed (WBF), maize-based feed (MBF), maize-based feed supplemented with 15% CKMS (CKMS-15) and maize-based feed supplemented with 30% CKMS (CKMS-30). Compared with MBF, the dry matter (DM) intakes of broilers receiving CKMS-15 and CKMS-30, respectively, were numerically 7.5 and 6.2% higher and feed conversion ratio 6 and 12% poorer (significant for 30% CKMS), although there were no significant differences in AME content between the three diets. At 37 d, the body weight of birds receiving 15% CKMS was similar to birds fed with MBF. However, the inclusion of 30% CKMS decreased broiler growth. Dietary supplementation with CKMS significantly reduced the apparent digestibility of phosphorus. The fat digestibility was significantly lower for CKMS-30 than for the other three diets. Broiler mortality decreased significantly when CKMS was added to the diet. The consumption of drinking water was significantly lower in all maize-based diets as compared to WBF and was lowest in broilers fed with CKMS-30. An improved litter quality in terms of DM content and a lower frequency of foot pad lesions was observed with broilers supplemented with both dietary levels of CKMS. The addition of CKMS to maize-based diets increased juiciness, tenderness and crumbliness of the meat. In conclusion, the dietary supplementation of 15% CKMS had no negative effect on broiler growth and positively influenced bird welfare in terms of mortality and foot pad health. Therefore, the addition of 15% CKMS to maize-based diets is considered an advantageous feeding

  10. 21 CFR 558.6 - Veterinary feed directive drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS General Provisions... notification letter to the Center for Veterinary Medicine, Division of Animal Feeds (HFV-220), 7500 Standish Pl... Veterinary Medicine at the above address within 30 days of any change in name or business address. (2) If...

  11. 21 CFR 558.6 - Veterinary feed directive drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS General Provisions... notification letter to the Center for Veterinary Medicine, Division of Animal Feeds (HFV-220), 7500 Standish Pl... Veterinary Medicine at the above address within 30 days of any change in name or business address. (2) If...

  12. Feed Conversion, Survival and Development, and Composition of Four Insect Species on Diets Composed of Food By-Products.

    PubMed

    Oonincx, Dennis G A B; van Broekhoven, Sarah; van Huis, Arnold; van Loon, Joop J A

    2015-01-01

    A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from by-products of food manufacturing and formulated such as to vary in protein and fat content. These were offered to newly hatched Argentinean cockroaches, black soldier flies, yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two species are potentially interesting as a feed ingredient, while the latter two are considered edible for humans. Feed conversion efficiency, survival, development time, as well as chemical composition (nitrogen, phosphorus, and fatty acids), were determined. The Argentinean cockroaches and the black soldier flies converted feed more efficiently than yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two were also more efficient than conventional production animals. On three of the four diets yellow mealworms and house crickets had a feed conversion efficiency similar to pigs. Furthermore, on the most suitable diet, they converted their feed as efficiently as poultry, when corrected for edible portion. All four species had a higher nitrogen-efficiency than conventional production animals, when corrected for edible portion. Offering carrots to yellow mealworms increased dry matter- and nitrogen-efficiency and decreased development time. Diet affected survival in all species but black soldier flies, and development time was strongly influenced in all four species. The chemical composition of Argentinean cockroaches was highly variable between diets, for black soldier flies it remained similar. The investigated species can be considered efficient production animals when suitable diets are provided. Hence, they could form a sustainable alternative to conventional production animals as a source of feed or food. PMID:26699129

  13. Feed Conversion, Survival and Development, and Composition of Four Insect Species on Diets Composed of Food By-Products

    PubMed Central

    Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B.; van Broekhoven, Sarah; van Huis, Arnold; van Loon, Joop J. A.

    2015-01-01

    A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from by-products of food manufacturing and formulated such as to vary in protein and fat content. These were offered to newly hatched Argentinean cockroaches, black soldier flies, yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two species are potentially interesting as a feed ingredient, while the latter two are considered edible for humans. Feed conversion efficiency, survival, development time, as well as chemical composition (nitrogen, phosphorus, and fatty acids), were determined. The Argentinean cockroaches and the black soldier flies converted feed more efficiently than yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two were also more efficient than conventional production animals. On three of the four diets yellow mealworms and house crickets had a feed conversion efficiency similar to pigs. Furthermore, on the most suitable diet, they converted their feed as efficiently as poultry, when corrected for edible portion. All four species had a higher nitrogen-efficiency than conventional production animals, when corrected for edible portion. Offering carrots to yellow mealworms increased dry matter- and nitrogen-efficiency and decreased development time. Diet affected survival in all species but black soldier flies, and development time was strongly influenced in all four species. The chemical composition of Argentinean cockroaches was highly variable between diets, for black soldier flies it remained similar. The investigated species can be considered efficient production animals when suitable diets are provided. Hence, they could form a sustainable alternative to conventional production animals as a source of feed or food. PMID:26699129

  14. Feed Conversion, Survival and Development, and Composition of Four Insect Species on Diets Composed of Food By-Products.

    PubMed

    Oonincx, Dennis G A B; van Broekhoven, Sarah; van Huis, Arnold; van Loon, Joop J A

    2015-01-01

    A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from by-products of food manufacturing and formulated such as to vary in protein and fat content. These were offered to newly hatched Argentinean cockroaches, black soldier flies, yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two species are potentially interesting as a feed ingredient, while the latter two are considered edible for humans. Feed conversion efficiency, survival, development time, as well as chemical composition (nitrogen, phosphorus, and fatty acids), were determined. The Argentinean cockroaches and the black soldier flies converted feed more efficiently than yellow mealworms, and house crickets. The first two were also more efficient than conventional production animals. On three of the four diets yellow mealworms and house crickets had a feed conversion efficiency similar to pigs. Furthermore, on the most suitable diet, they converted their feed as efficiently as poultry, when corrected for edible portion. All four species had a higher nitrogen-efficiency than conventional production animals, when corrected for edible portion. Offering carrots to yellow mealworms increased dry matter- and nitrogen-efficiency and decreased development time. Diet affected survival in all species but black soldier flies, and development time was strongly influenced in all four species. The chemical composition of Argentinean cockroaches was highly variable between diets, for black soldier flies it remained similar. The investigated species can be considered efficient production animals when suitable diets are provided. Hence, they could form a sustainable alternative to conventional production animals as a source of feed or food.

  15. Anode materials for hydrogen sulfide containing feeds in a solid oxide fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roushanafshar, Milad

    SOFCs which can directly operate under high concentration of H2S would be economically beneficial as this reduces the cost of gas purification. H2S is highly reactive gas specie which can poison most of the conventional catalysts. As a result, developing anode materials which can tolerate high concentrations of H2S and also display high activity toward electrochemical oxidation of feed is crucial and challenging for this application. The performance of La0.4Sr0.6TiO3+/-delta -Y0.2Ce0.8O2-delta (LST-YDC) composite anodes in solid oxide fuel cells significantly improved when 0.5% H2 S was present in syngas (40% H2, 60% CO) or hydrogen. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses revealed that the rate of electrochemical oxidation of all fuel components improved when H2S containing syngas was present in the fuel. Electrochemical stability tests performed under potentiostatic condition showed that there was no power degradation for different feeds, and that there was power enhancement when 0.5% H2S was present in various feeds. The mechanism of performance improvement by H2S was discussed. Active anodes were synthesized via wet chemical impregnation of different amounts of La0.4Ce0.6O1.8 (LDC) and La 0.4Sr0.6TiO3 (L4ST) into porous yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). Co-impregnation of LDC with LS4T significantly improved the performance of the cell from 48 mW.cm-2 (L4ST) to 161 mW.cm -2 (LDC-L4ST) using hydrogen as fuel at 900 °C. The contribution of LDC to this improvement was investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). EIS measurements using symmetrical cells showed that the polarization resistance decreased from 3.1¦O.cm 2 to 0.5 O.cm2 when LDC was co-impregnated with LST, characterized in humidified H2 (3% H2O) at 900 °C. In addition, the microstructure of the cell was modified when LDC was impregnated prior to L4ST into the porous YSZ. TEM and SEM

  16. Effect of combined herbal feed additives on methane, total gas production and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Indu; Dutta, Tapas Kumar; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Sharma, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    The present study was to evaluate effect of herbal feed additives on methane and total gas production during the rumen fermentation for environment and animal health concern. Different parts of the five medicinal plants were selected such as leaf and small stems of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), roots of Curcuma longa (Haldi), fruits of Emblica officinalis (Amla), leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and leaves and small stem of Clerodendrum phlomidis (Arni) for our study. Addition of different herbal additive combinations did not influence IVDMD and total gas production however methane production (mg/g of substrate DM) was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni combinations. Total nitrogen significantly (P<0.01) increased in the combinations of Tulsi: Haldi and Amla: Neem. TCA-ppt-N is significantly (P<0.01) increased in Tulsi: Haldi, Haldi: Amla, Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni however NH3-N (mg/dl) significantly decreased in all treatments. We conclude that the screening of plant combinations, Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni have potential to decrease methane production and our herbal feed supplements have no side-effects on the ruminant in small amount. PMID:26124571

  17. Enhanced Product Generation at NASA Data Centers Through Grid Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Hinke, Thomas H.; Gavali, Shradha; Seufzer, William J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes how grid technology can support the ability of NASA data centers to provide customized data products. A combination of grid technology and commodity processors are proposed to provide the bandwidth necessary to perform customized processing of data, with customized data subsetting providing the initial example. This customized subsetting engine can be used to support a new type of subsetting, called phenomena-based subsetting, where data is subsetted based on its association with some phenomena, such as mesoscale convective systems or hurricanes. This concept is expanded to allow the phenomena to be detected in one type of data, with the subsetting requirements transmitted to the subsetting engine to subset a different type of data. The subsetting requirements are generated by a data mining system and transmitted to the subsetter in the form of an XML feature index that describes the spatial and temporal extent of the phenomena. For this work, a grid-based mining system called the Grid Miner is used to identify the phenomena and generate the feature index. This paper discusses the value of grid technology in facilitating the development of a high performance customized product processing and the coupling of a grid mining system to support phenomena-based subsetting.

  18. Vermicomposting of source-separated human faeces by Eisenia fetida: effect of stocking density on feed consumption rate, growth characteristics and vermicompost production.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kunwar D; Tare, Vinod; Ahammed, M Mansoor

    2011-06-01

    The main objective of the present study was to determine the optimum stocking density for feed consumption rate, biomass growth and reproduction of earthworm Eisenia fetida as well as determining and characterising vermicompost quantity and product, respectively, during vermicomposting of source-separated human faeces. For this, a number of experiments spanning up to 3 months were conducted using soil and vermicompost as support materials. Stocking density in the range of 0.25-5.00 kg/m(2) was employed in different tests. The results showed that 0.40-0.45 kg-feed/kg-worm/day was the maximum feed consumption rate by E. fetida in human faeces. The optimum stocking densities were 3.00 kg/m(2) for bioconversion of human faeces to vermicompost, and 0.50 kg/m(2) for earthworm biomass growth and reproduction.

  19. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  20. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  1. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  2. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...

  3. Mid-Atlantic Region Special Education Instructional Materials Center. Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, Raymond S.; Carter, Robert

    The final report of the Mid-Atlantic Region Special Education Instructional Materials Center (MAR-SEIMC) describes field services, information services, library services, and research and evaluation activities conducted from 1967 to August 1974. It is explained that 39 affiliate centers were established throughout Pennsylvania, New Jersey,…

  4. Current Condition of Michigan Curriculum Materials Centers and Collections in Academic Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohrman, Rita

    2015-01-01

    A 2005 sabbatical study revealed 24 unique curriculum materials centers or collections (CMCs) in Michigan colleges or universities. The focus of the study was to investigate the number, characteristics, and quality of these centers and collections supporting education faculty and students. A follow up 2014 study asked how or if the Michigan…

  5. Capabilities of the Materials Contamination Team at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Howard; Albyn, Keith; Edwards, David; Boothe, Richard; Finchum, Charles; Finckenor, Miria

    2003-01-01

    The Materials Contamination Team at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been recognized for its contributions supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) spacecraft development programs. These programs include the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and the International Space Station (ISS). The Environmental Effects Group, with the Materials Contamination Team and the Space Environmental Effects Team has been an integral part of NASA's success by the testing, evaluation, and qualification of materials, hardware, and processes. This paper focuses on the capabilities of the Materials Contamination Team. The Materials Contamination Team's realm of responsibility includes establishing contamination control during all phases of hardware development, including design, manufacturing, assembly, test, transportation, launch site processing, on-orbit exposure, return, and refurbishment. The team continues its mission of reducing the risk of equipment failure due to molecular or particulate contamination. Contamination is a concern in the Space Shuttle with sensitive bond-lines and reactive fluid (liquid oxygen) compatibility as well as for spacecraft with sensitive optics, such as Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-ray Observatory. The Materials Contamination Team has a variety of facilities and instrumentation capable of contaminant detection, identification, and monitoring. The team addresses material applications dealing with environments, including production facilities, clean rooms, and on-orbit exposure. The optically stimulated electron emission (OSEE) system, the Ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence (UVF) surface contamination detection, and the Surface Optics Corporation 400 (SOC 400) portable hand-held Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer are state-of-the-art tools for in-process molecular contamination detection. The team of engineers and technicians also develop contamination calibration standards

  6. Environmental impact of using specialty feed ingredients in swine and poultry production: A life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Kebreab, E; Liedke, A; Caro, D; Deimling, S; Binder, M; Finkbeiner, M

    2016-06-01

    Livestock production has a variety of environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas emissions, water pollution, acidification, and primary energy consumption. The demand for livestock products is expected to grow substantially, creating even more environmental pressure. The use of specialty feed ingredients (SFI) such as supplemented AA and phytase can reduce nutrient input into the system without compromising productivity and consequently can reduce emissions. The global change impact of using SFI in pig and broiler production systems in Europe and North and South America was studied. A life cycle assessment according to international standards (ISO 14040/44) analyzed contributions from producing SFI and animals to global change. Three different alternatives were analyzed. In addition, partial sensitivity analysis was conducted using 5 scenarios for each region for both production systems. Specialty feed ingredient supplementation in pig and broiler diets reduced greenhouse gas emissions (cradle to farm gate) by 56% and 54% in Europe, 17% and 15% in North America, and 33% and 19% in South America, respectively, compared to an unsupplemented diet. A total of 136 Mt CO equivalent (CO eq) was saved in 2012, rising to 146 Mt CO eq in 2050 on the basis of United Nations population projections. Considerable benefits of supplementation with SFI were apparent in European and South American diets when direct land use change was considered because of the reduced demand for soybean meal. The eutrophication potential of unsupplemented diets was reduced by up to 35% in pig and 49% in broiler production systems compared to supplemented alternatives. The acidification potential of supplemented strategies was reduced by up to 30% in pig and 79% in broiler production systems. The primary energy demand was similar in all alternatives, and this could be an area where the SFI industry can improve. Overall, SFI supplementation substantially reduced the global warming, eutrophication

  7. Stable isotope ratio measurements of royal jelly samples for controlling production procedures: impact of sugar feeding.

    PubMed

    Daniele, Gaëlle; Wytrychowski, Marine; Batteau, Magali; Guibert, Sylvie; Casabianca, Hervé

    2011-07-30

    The carbon and nitrogen stable ratios of royal jelly (RJ) samples from various origins are determined using an elemental analyser linked online to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer to evaluate authenticity and adulteration. The (13)C/(12)C and (15)N/(14)N stable isotope ratios are measured in more than 500 RJs (domestic, imported and derived from feeding experiments) in order to obtain isotopic measurements that take into account seasonal, botanical and geographical effects. Authenticity intervals are established for traditional beekeeping practices, without feeding, in the range -22.48 to -27.90‰ for δ(13)C. For these samples, the δ(15)N values range from -1.58 to 7.98‰, depending on the plant sources of pollen and nectar. The δ(13)C values of the commercial samples vary from -18.54 to -26.58‰. High δ(13)C values are typical of sugar cane or corn syrups which have distinctive isotopic (13)C signatures because both plants use the C4 photosynthetic cycle, in contrast to most RJs which are derived from C3 plants. These differences in the (13)C-isotopic composition allow the detection of the addition of such sugars. RJs from traditional sources and from industrial production by sugar feeding are thus successfully distinguished. PMID:21698675

  8. Immunoassay for the Detection of Animal Central Nervous Tissue in Processed Meat and Feed Products.

    PubMed

    Rao, Qinchun; Richt, Juergen A; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy

    2016-05-11

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) based on the detection of the thermal-stable central nervous tissue (CNT) marker protein, myelin basic protein (MBP), was developed to detect animal CNT in processed meat and feedstuffs. Two meat samples (cooked at 100 °C for 30 min and autoclaved at 133 °C for 20 min) of bovine brain in beef and two feed samples (bovine brain meal in beef meal and in soybean meal) were prepared at levels of 0.0008, 0.0031, 0.0063, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6%. An anti-MBP monoclonal antibody (mAb3E3) was produced using the hybridoma technique and characterized using Western blot. The optimized icELISA was CNT-specific without cross-reactivity with either meat (beef and pork) or soybean meal samples and had low intra-assay (%CV ≤ 3.5) and interassay variability (%CV ≤ 3.3), with low detection limits for bovine MBP (6.4 ppb) and bovine CNT spiked in both meat (0.05%) and feed (0.0125%) samples. This assay is therefore suitable for the quantitative detection of trace amounts of contaminated animal CNT in processed food and feed products.

  9. Immunoassay for the Detection of Animal Central Nervous Tissue in Processed Meat and Feed Products.

    PubMed

    Rao, Qinchun; Richt, Juergen A; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa Peggy

    2016-05-11

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) based on the detection of the thermal-stable central nervous tissue (CNT) marker protein, myelin basic protein (MBP), was developed to detect animal CNT in processed meat and feedstuffs. Two meat samples (cooked at 100 °C for 30 min and autoclaved at 133 °C for 20 min) of bovine brain in beef and two feed samples (bovine brain meal in beef meal and in soybean meal) were prepared at levels of 0.0008, 0.0031, 0.0063, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6%. An anti-MBP monoclonal antibody (mAb3E3) was produced using the hybridoma technique and characterized using Western blot. The optimized icELISA was CNT-specific without cross-reactivity with either meat (beef and pork) or soybean meal samples and had low intra-assay (%CV ≤ 3.5) and interassay variability (%CV ≤ 3.3), with low detection limits for bovine MBP (6.4 ppb) and bovine CNT spiked in both meat (0.05%) and feed (0.0125%) samples. This assay is therefore suitable for the quantitative detection of trace amounts of contaminated animal CNT in processed food and feed products. PMID:27109117

  10. Analysis of Tetracyclines in Medicated Feed for Food Animal Production by HPLC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Gavilán, Rosa Elvira; Nebot, Carolina; Miranda, Jose Manuel; Martín-Gómez, Yolanda; Vázquez-Belda, Beatriz; Franco, Carlos Manuel; Cepeda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The use of medicated feed is a common practice in animal food production to improve animal health. Tetracyclines and β-Lactams are the groups that are most frequently added to this type of feed. The measurement of the concentration of the analytes in these types of samples is sometimes due to the matrix characteristic, and manufacturers are demanding fast, precise and reproducible methods. A rapid confirmatory method based on a simple extraction protocol using acidified methanol and followed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer for the quantification of four tetracyclines in feed is presented. Validation was performed following the guidelines of Decision 2002/657/EC. Results indicated that the four tetracyclines can be identified and quantified in a concentration range between 50 and 500 mg/kg with recoveries between 84% and 109% and RSD for precision under reproducible conditions between 12% and 16%. Satisfactory results were also obtained with interlaboratory studies and by comparing the method with an HPLC-Fluorescent method. PMID:27025516

  11. Analysis of Tetracyclines in Medicated Feed for Food Animal Production by HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Gavilán, Rosa Elvira; Nebot, Carolina; Miranda, Jose Manuel; Martín-Gómez, Yolanda; Vázquez-Belda, Beatriz; Franco, Carlos Manuel; Cepeda, Alberto

    2015-12-24

    The use of medicated feed is a common practice in animal food production to improve animal health. Tetracyclines and β-Lactams are the groups that are most frequently added to this type of feed. The measurement of the concentration of the analytes in these types of samples is sometimes due to the matrix characteristic, and manufacturers are demanding fast, precise and reproducible methods. A rapid confirmatory method based on a simple extraction protocol using acidified methanol and followed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer for the quantification of four tetracyclines in feed is presented. Validation was performed following the guidelines of Decision 2002/657/EC. Results indicated that the four tetracyclines can be identified and quantified in a concentration range between 50 and 500 mg/kg with recoveries between 84% and 109% and RSD for precision under reproducible conditions between 12% and 16%. Satisfactory results were also obtained with interlaboratory studies and by comparing the method with an HPLC-Fluorescent method.

  12. Ethanol production, corn gluten feed, and EC trade. Agriculture information bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.

    1993-07-01

    The profitability of ethanol depends not only on sales of ethanol, but on sales of several coproducts of corn wet-milling such as corn gluten feed (CGF). CGF demand and supply are affected by several European Community (EC) and US policies, such as EC grain price supports and US energy policies. Changes in existing policies and programs could have a significant effect on the CGF market and, consequently, on the profitability of ethanol production. The report examines the implications of several policy options on demand, supply, and price of CGF and on the profitability of ethanol production. The policy changes examined include: (1) the effect of proposed changes in EC farm and trade policies, and (2) the effect of increased ethanol production due to proposed US environmental policies, such as the reauthorization of the Clean Air Act.

  13. Epidemiology of Trichinella infection in the horse: the risk from animal product feeding practices.

    PubMed

    Murrell, K D; Djordjevic, M; Cuperlovic, K; Sofronic, Lj; Savic, M; Djordjevic, M; Damjanovic, S

    2004-09-01

    A discovery in 2002 of a Trichinella spiralis-infected horse in Serbia offered an opportunity to conduct needed epidemiological studies on how horses, considered herbivores, acquire a meat-borne parasite. This enigma has persisted since the first human outbreaks from infected horse meat occurred in then 1970s. The trace back of the infected horse to a farm owner was carried out. Interviews and investigations on the farm led to the conclusion that the owner had fed the horse food waste in order to condition the horse prior to sale. Further investigations were then carried out to determine the frequency of such practices among horse owners. Based on interviews of horse producers at local horse markets, it was revealed that the feeding of animal products to horses was a common practice. Further, it was alleged that many horses, particularly those in poor nutritional condition would readily consume meat. A subsequent series of trials involving the experimental feeding of 219 horses demonstrated that 32% would consume meat patties. To confirm that horses would eat infected meat under normal farm conditions, three horses were offered infected ground pork balls containing 1100 larvae. All three became infected, and at necropsy at 32 weeks later, were still positive by indirect IFA testing, but not by ELISA using an excretory-secretory (ES) antigen. This result indicates that further study is needed on the nature of the antigen(s) used for potential serological monitoring and surveillance of horse trichinellosis, especially the importance of antigenic diversity. The experimentally-infected horses also had very low infection levels (larvae per gram of muscle) at 32 weeks of infection, and although the public health consequences are unknown, the question of whether current recommended inspection procedures based on pepsin digestion of selected muscle samples require sufficient quantities of muscle should be addressed. It is concluded that horses are more willing to consume

  14. Composite material and method for production of improved composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A laminated composite material with improved interlaminar strength and damage tolerance having short rods distributed evenly throughout the composite material perpendicular to the laminae. Each rod is shorter than the thickness of the finished laminate, but several times as long as the thickness of each lamina. The laminate is made by inserting short rods in layers of prepreg material, and then stacking and curing prepreg material with rods inserted therethrough.

  15. Effects of feeding algal meal high in docosahexaenoic acid on feed intake, milk production, and methane emissions in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Hannah, M C; Eckard, R J; Auldist, M J; Ribaux, B E; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J

    2013-05-01

    This study examined effects on milk yield and composition, milk fatty acid concentrations and methane (CH4) emissions when dairy cows were offered diets containing different amounts of algal meal. The algal meal contained 20% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and cows were offered either 0, 125, 250, or 375 g/cow per d of algal meal corresponding to 0, 25, 50, or 75 g of DHA/cow per d. Thirty-two Holstein cows in mid lactation were allocated to 4 treatment groups, and cows in all groups were individually offered 5.9k g of dry matter (DM) per day of concentrates [683 g/kg of cracked wheat (Triticum aestivum), 250 g/kg of cold-pressed canola, 46 g/kg of granulated dried molasses, and 21 g/kg of mineral mix] and ad libitum alfalfa (Medicago sativa) hay. The algal meal supplement was added to the concentrate allowance and was fed during the morning and afternoon milking, whereas the alfalfa hay was fed individually in pens. Cows were gradually introduced to their diets over 7d and then fed their treatment diets for a further 16d. Dry matter intake and milk yield were measured daily, and milk composition was measured on a sample representative of the daily milk yield on Thursday of each week. For the last 2d of the experiment, cows were individually housed in respiration chambers to allow measurement of CH4 emissions. Dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition were also measured while cows were in the respiration chambers. Cows ate all their offered concentrates, but measured intake of alfalfa decreased with increasing dose of DHA by 16.2, 16.4, 15.1, and 14.3 kg of DM/d, respectively. Milk yield (22.6, 23.5, 22.6, and 22.6 kg/cow per d) was not affected by DHA dose, but milk fat concentrations (49.7, 37.8, 37.0, and 38.3g/kg) and, consequently, milk fat yields (1.08, 0.90, 0.83, and 0.85 kg/d) decreased with addition of DHA. The feeding of algal meal high in DHA was associated with substantial increases in the concentrations of DHA (0.04, 0.36, 0.60, and 0.91 g/100g

  16. Milk production responses to different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Auldist, M J; Marett, L C; Greenwood, J S; Wright, M M; Hannah, M; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J

    2016-01-01

    Milk production responses of grazing cows offered supplements in different ways were measured. Holstein-Friesian cows, averaging 45 d in milk, were allocated into 8 groups of 24, with 2 groups randomly assigned to each of 4 feeding strategies. These were control: cows grazed a restricted allowance of perennial ryegrass pasture supplemented with milled wheat grain fed in the milking parlor and alfalfa hay offered in the paddock; FGM: same pasture and allowance as the control supplemented with a formulated grain mix containing wheat grain, corn grain, and canola meal fed in the parlor and alfalfa hay fed in the paddock; PMRL: same pasture and allowance as the control, supplemented with a PMR consisting of the same FGM but mixed with alfalfa hay and presented on a feed pad after each milking; and PMRH: same PMR fed in the same way as PMRL but with a higher pasture allowance. For all strategies, supplements provided the same metabolizable energy and grain:forage ratio [75:25, dry matter (DM) basis]. Each group of 24 cows was further allocated into 4 groups of 6, which were randomly assigned to receive 8, 12, 14, or 16 kg of DM supplement/cow per d. Thus, 2 replicated groups per supplement amount per dietary strategy were used. The experiment had a 14-d adaptation period and a 14-d measurement period. Pasture allowance, measured to ground level, was approximately 14 kg of DM/d for control, FGM, and PMRL cows, and 28 kg of DM/d for the PMRH cows, and was offered in addition to the supplement. Positive linear responses to increasing amounts of supplement were observed for yield of milk, energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein for cows on all 4 supplement feeding strategies. Production of energy-corrected milk was greatest for PMRH cows, intermediate for FGM and PMRL cows, and lowest for control cows. Some of these differences in milk production related to differences in intake of pasture and supplement. Milk fat concentration decreased with increasing amount of supplement

  17. Milk production responses to different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Auldist, M J; Marett, L C; Greenwood, J S; Wright, M M; Hannah, M; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J

    2016-01-01

    Milk production responses of grazing cows offered supplements in different ways were measured. Holstein-Friesian cows, averaging 45 d in milk, were allocated into 8 groups of 24, with 2 groups randomly assigned to each of 4 feeding strategies. These were control: cows grazed a restricted allowance of perennial ryegrass pasture supplemented with milled wheat grain fed in the milking parlor and alfalfa hay offered in the paddock; FGM: same pasture and allowance as the control supplemented with a formulated grain mix containing wheat grain, corn grain, and canola meal fed in the parlor and alfalfa hay fed in the paddock; PMRL: same pasture and allowance as the control, supplemented with a PMR consisting of the same FGM but mixed with alfalfa hay and presented on a feed pad after each milking; and PMRH: same PMR fed in the same way as PMRL but with a higher pasture allowance. For all strategies, supplements provided the same metabolizable energy and grain:forage ratio [75:25, dry matter (DM) basis]. Each group of 24 cows was further allocated into 4 groups of 6, which were randomly assigned to receive 8, 12, 14, or 16 kg of DM supplement/cow per d. Thus, 2 replicated groups per supplement amount per dietary strategy were used. The experiment had a 14-d adaptation period and a 14-d measurement period. Pasture allowance, measured to ground level, was approximately 14 kg of DM/d for control, FGM, and PMRL cows, and 28 kg of DM/d for the PMRH cows, and was offered in addition to the supplement. Positive linear responses to increasing amounts of supplement were observed for yield of milk, energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein for cows on all 4 supplement feeding strategies. Production of energy-corrected milk was greatest for PMRH cows, intermediate for FGM and PMRL cows, and lowest for control cows. Some of these differences in milk production related to differences in intake of pasture and supplement. Milk fat concentration decreased with increasing amount of supplement

  18. Compilation of fission product yields Vallecitos Nuclear Center

    SciTech Connect

    Rider, B.F.

    1980-01-01

    This document is the ninth in a series of compilations of fission yield data made at Vallecitos Nuclear Center in which fission yield measurements reported in the open literature and calculated charge distributions have been utilized to produce a recommended set of yields for the known fission products. The original data with reference sources, as well as the recommended yields are presented in tabular form for the fissionable nuclides U-235, Pu-239, Pu-241, and U-233 at thermal neutron energies; for U-235, U-238, Pu-239, and Th-232 at fission spectrum energies; and U-235 and U-238 at 14 MeV. In addition, U-233, U-236, Pu-240, Pu-241, Pu-242, Np-237 at fission spectrum energies; U-233, Pu-239, Th-232 at 14 MeV and Cf-252 spontaneous fission are similarly treated. For 1979 U234F, U237F, Pu249H, U234He, U236He, Pu238F, Am241F, Am243F, Np238F, and Cm242F yields were evaluated. In 1980, Th227T, Th229T, Pa231F, Am241T, Am241H, Am242Mt, Cm245T, Cf249T, Cf251T, and Es254T are also evaluated.

  19. Clinical Laboratories – Production Factories or Specialized Diagnostic Centers

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Judit

    2016-01-01

    Since a large proportion of medical decisions are based on laboratory results, clinical laboratories should meet the increasing demand of clinicians and their patients. Huge central laboratories may process over 10 million tests annually; they act as production factories, measuring emergency and routine tests with sufficient speed and accuracy. At the same time, they also serve as specialized diagnostic centers where well-trained experts analyze and interpret special test results. It is essential to improve and constantly monitor this complex laboratory service, by several methods. Sample transport by pneumatic tube system, use of an advanced laboratory information system and point-of-care testing may result in decreased total turnaround time. The optimization of test ordering may result in a faster and more cost-effective laboratory service. Autovalidation can save time for laboratory specialists, when the analysis of more complex results requires their attention. Small teams of experts responsible for special diagnostic work, and their interpretative reporting according to predetermined principles, may help to minimize subjectivity of these special reports. Although laboratory investigations have become so diversely developed in the past decades, it is essential that the laboratory can provide accurate results relatively quickly, and that laboratory specialists can support the diagnosis and monitoring of patients by adequate interpretation of esoteric laboratory methods.

  20. Clinical Laboratories – Production Factories or Specialized Diagnostic Centers

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Judit

    2016-01-01

    Since a large proportion of medical decisions are based on laboratory results, clinical laboratories should meet the increasing demand of clinicians and their patients. Huge central laboratories may process over 10 million tests annually; they act as production factories, measuring emergency and routine tests with sufficient speed and accuracy. At the same time, they also serve as specialized diagnostic centers where well-trained experts analyze and interpret special test results. It is essential to improve and constantly monitor this complex laboratory service, by several methods. Sample transport by pneumatic tube system, use of an advanced laboratory information system and point-of-care testing may result in decreased total turnaround time. The optimization of test ordering may result in a faster and more cost-effective laboratory service. Autovalidation can save time for laboratory specialists, when the analysis of more complex results requires their attention. Small teams of experts responsible for special diagnostic work, and their interpretative reporting according to predetermined principles, may help to minimize subjectivity of these special reports. Although laboratory investigations have become so diversely developed in the past decades, it is essential that the laboratory can provide accurate results relatively quickly, and that laboratory specialists can support the diagnosis and monitoring of patients by adequate interpretation of esoteric laboratory methods. PMID:27683528

  1. Center for Materials Science, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Status report, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Parkin, D.M.; Boring, A.M.

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Center for Materials Science (CMS) from October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991, and is the nineth such annual report. It has been a year of remarkable progress in building the programs of the Center. The extent of this progress is described in detail. The CMS was established to enhance the contribution of materials science and technology to the Laboratory`s defense, energy and scientific missions, and the Laboratory. In carrying out these responsibilities it has accepted four demanding missions: (1) Build a core group of highly rated, established materials scientists and solid state physicists. (2) Promote and support top quality, interdisciplinary materials research programs at Los Alamos. (3) Strengthen the interactions of materials science and Los Alamos with the external materials science community. and (4) Establish and maintain modern materials research facilities in a readily accessible, central location.

  2. The compositional mosaic of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in unprocessed cereals, food and feed products in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vanheule, Adriaan; Audenaert, Kris; De Boevre, Marthe; Landschoot, Sofie; Bekaert, Boris; Munaut, Françoise; Eeckhout, Mia; Höfte, Monica; De Saeger, Sarah; Haesaert, Geert

    2014-07-01

    Global food safety depends on continuous monitoring of food contaminants such as mycotoxins in cereals and cereal-derived products. Here, we combine this type of investigation with quantitative occurrence data on Fusarium infestation of these products in extensive correlation studies. Finally, this contributes to a thorough understanding of the presence, origin and physiology of Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) related mycotoxins and the correlations within their ranks. Two hundred and thirty-seven samples were analyzed from diverse cereal matrices, representing the most important stages of the cereal food and feed chain in Belgium. Food, feed and non-processed field samples were investigated, with a strong emphasis on whole-grain food products. Two approaches were pursued to estimate the full scope of FHB and its repercussions: UPLC-MS/MS was applied to detect twelve different mycotoxins, and Q-PCR was used to measure the presence of ten Fusarium species. We found that different matrices have different characteristic contamination profiles, and extensive correlation studies identified certain mycotoxins for future assessment (e.g. moniliformin produced by the Fusarium avenaceum/Fusarium tricinctum species group). The investigated harvest year of 2012 yielded many non-processed field materials containing elevated levels of deoxynivalenol (DON), while even in a so-called DON-year less prevalent toxins such as T-2 and HT-2 might be considered problematic due to their consistent co-occurrence with related mycotoxins. Our data illustrate complex interactions between the many Fusarium species that are responsible for FHB and their mycotoxins. Correlation studies demonstrate that consistent co-occurrence of mycotoxins is not to be neglected, and pinpoint issues for future surveillance and legislation.

  3. Food, Feed, or Fuel? Phosphorus Flows Embodied in US Agricultural Production and Trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, G.; Bennett, E.; Carpenter, S.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural phosphorus (P) use is integral to sustainable food production and water quality regulation. Globalization of agricultural systems, changing diets, and increasing biofuel production pose new challenges for managing non-renewable P reserves, particularly in key agricultural producing regions such as the US. We used a detailed model of the US agricultural system to assess the quantity of mineral P fertilizers used to produce food crops, livestock, and biofuels relative to the P ultimately consumed in domestic diets. We also quantified linkages in fertilizer use between the US and its trading partners globally via agricultural trade. Feed and livestock production drove by far the largest demand for P fertilizers in the US (56% of all P use for domestic and imported products). Of the total mineral P inputs to US domestic agriculture in 2007 (1905 Gg P), 28% were retained in agricultural soils as surplus P, 40% were lost through processing and waste prior to consumption in human diets, while 10% were diverted directly to biofuel production. One quarter of P fertilizer in the US was required to produce exports, particularly major food and feed crops (corn, soybean, and wheat) that drove a large net P flux out of the country (338 Gg P) with strongly crop-specific effects on soil P imbalances nationally. However, US meat consumption involved considerable reliance on P fertilizer use in other countries to produce red meat imports linked primarily to soil P surpluses abroad. We show that changes in domestic farm management and consumer waste could together reduce the P fertilizer needed to produce food consumed in the US by half, which is comparable to the P fertilizer reduction attainable by cutting domestic meat consumption (44%). More effective distribution of P use for major crops nationally and greater recycling of all agricultural wastes is critical to using US phosphate rock reserves as efficiently as possible while maintaining export-oriented agriculture.

  4. Effect of Feeding Date Pits on Milk Production, Composition and Blood Parameters of Lactating Ardi Goats.

    PubMed

    Al-Suwaiegh, S B

    2016-04-01

    Twenty Ardi lactating goats were used to investigate the effect of substituting 10%, 15%, and 20% of concentrate feed with date pits on milk production, composition, and blood parameters. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous dietary treatments were used. Four levels (0% [control], 10%, 15%, and 20%) of date pits were used to replace concentrate feed. The forages to concentrate ratio used was 60 to 40. Dry matter intake (DMI) of goats fed diets containing 10% and 15% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those fed diets containing 0% and 20%. However, goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits were significantly (p<0.05) lower in DMI compared to those fed control diet. The protein percent was significantly higher for goats fed control diet compared to the other dietary treatments. Total solids percent was significantly the lowest for goats fed diet supplemented with 10% date pits. Goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the total protein compared to those fed a diet containing 10%. In addition, goats fed a diet containing 15% date pits exhibited no significant differences in the total protein percent compared to those fed a diet containing 20% date pits. Triglyceride was significantly higher for goats fed diets containing 10% and 20% date pits compared to those fed 15% date pits. Results obtained in the present study suggest that date pits can be added up to 20% of the concentrate feeds into lactating Ardi goat diets without negative effects on their productive performance. PMID:26949951

  5. Effect of Feeding Date Pits on Milk Production, Composition and Blood Parameters of Lactating Ardi Goats.

    PubMed

    Al-Suwaiegh, S B

    2016-04-01

    Twenty Ardi lactating goats were used to investigate the effect of substituting 10%, 15%, and 20% of concentrate feed with date pits on milk production, composition, and blood parameters. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous dietary treatments were used. Four levels (0% [control], 10%, 15%, and 20%) of date pits were used to replace concentrate feed. The forages to concentrate ratio used was 60 to 40. Dry matter intake (DMI) of goats fed diets containing 10% and 15% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those fed diets containing 0% and 20%. However, goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits were significantly (p<0.05) lower in DMI compared to those fed control diet. The protein percent was significantly higher for goats fed control diet compared to the other dietary treatments. Total solids percent was significantly the lowest for goats fed diet supplemented with 10% date pits. Goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the total protein compared to those fed a diet containing 10%. In addition, goats fed a diet containing 15% date pits exhibited no significant differences in the total protein percent compared to those fed a diet containing 20% date pits. Triglyceride was significantly higher for goats fed diets containing 10% and 20% date pits compared to those fed 15% date pits. Results obtained in the present study suggest that date pits can be added up to 20% of the concentrate feeds into lactating Ardi goat diets without negative effects on their productive performance.

  6. Effect of Feeding Date Pits on Milk Production, Composition and Blood Parameters of Lactating Ardi Goats

    PubMed Central

    AL-Suwaiegh, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    Twenty Ardi lactating goats were used to investigate the effect of substituting 10%, 15%, and 20% of concentrate feed with date pits on milk production, composition, and blood parameters. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous dietary treatments were used. Four levels (0% [control], 10%, 15%, and 20%) of date pits were used to replace concentrate feed. The forages to concentrate ratio used was 60 to 40. Dry matter intake (DMI) of goats fed diets containing 10% and 15% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those fed diets containing 0% and 20%. However, goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits were significantly (p<0.05) lower in DMI compared to those fed control diet. The protein percent was significantly higher for goats fed control diet compared to the other dietary treatments. Total solids percent was significantly the lowest for goats fed diet supplemented with 10% date pits. Goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the total protein compared to those fed a diet containing 10%. In addition, goats fed a diet containing 15% date pits exhibited no significant differences in the total protein percent compared to those fed a diet containing 20% date pits. Triglyceride was significantly higher for goats fed diets containing 10% and 20% date pits compared to those fed 15% date pits. Results obtained in the present study suggest that date pits can be added up to 20% of the concentrate feeds into lactating Ardi goat diets without negative effects on their productive performance. PMID:26949951

  7. Teaching-Material Design Center: An Ontology-Based System for Customizing Reusable e-Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hei-Chia; Hsu, Chien-Wei

    2006-01-01

    Use of electronic teaching materials (e-material) to support teaching is a trend. e-Material design is therefore an important issue. Currently, most e-material providers offer a package of solutions for different purposes. However, not all teachers and learners need everything from a single package. A preferable alternative is to find useful…

  8. Metal-centered polymers: Using controlled polymerization methodologies for the generation of responsive materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Robert Matthew

    Controlled polymerization methods were used to prepare highly modular polymeric metal complexes via convergent and divergent strategies. In these materials, the metal center provides a versatile hub for preparing diverse architectures through coordinative bonds. Moreover, the metal complex introduces various properties to the polymer such as luminescence, magnetism, or electroactivity. Suitably functionalized metal complexes have been used for the atom transfer radical polymerization of acrylate and methacrylate monomers by metalloinitiation to generate luminescent biocompatible materials through a divergent synthesis. By cleaving the tert-butyl groups from poly(tert -butyl acrylate), water soluble [Ru(bpyPAA2)3] 2+ has been prepared as well as the amphiphilic star block copolymer [Ru{bpy(PLA-PAA)2}3]2+ (PLA = poly(lactic acid), PAA = poly(acrylic acid) Bipyridine-centered polymeric macroligands may be chelated to a variety of metal salts. The polymer size greatly influences the formation of [Fe(bpy) 3]2+ centered polymers. As the molecular weight increases (> ˜25 kDa) tris complex formation decreases. Tris(bpy) synthesis is also impacted by chemical composition. BpyPtBA2 (PtBA = poly(tert-butyl acrylate) generates an iron mono(bpy) complex before giving rise to the bis(bpy) iron complex; no tris complex is observed. In contrast, the combination of bpyPEG2 (3 equiv) (PEG = (poly(ethylene glycol)) results in the formation of some iron tris(bpy) compound; however, complete tris(bpy) product formation is suppressed, presumably because of the chelating ability of the PEG chains. These examples contrast with other polymeric macroligands such as bpyPS2, bpyPMMA2, bpyPCL2 and bpyPLA 2 (PS = polystyrene; PMMA = poly(methyl methacrylate); PCL = poly(epsilon-caprolactone); PLA = poly(DL-lactic acid)) for which chelation reactions are facile for low molecular weight macroligands (<15 kDa), with chelation efficiencies (defined as (epsilonPMC/epsilonbpy) x 100%) only declining

  9. Materials Down Select Decisions Made Within the Department of Energy Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Lin

    2009-11-30

    Technical report describing DOE's Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence investigation into various adsorbent and chemisorption materials and progress towards meeting DOE's hydrogen storage targets. The report presents a review of the material status as related to DOE hydrogen storage targets and explains the basis for the down select decisions.

  10. Copyright Center Will Let Colleges Pay Blanket Fees to Reuse Print Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Brock

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on an annual copyright license for colleges created by the Copyright Clearance Center, a nonprofit group that manages licenses for the reuse of published material, that will allow institutions to pay a blanket fee to use copyrighted material instead of securing the rights to such content on a case-by-case basis. The blanket…

  11. Libraries and Instructional Materials Centers. Educational Facilities Review Series Number 13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baas, Alan M.

    The concept of the instructional materials center (IMC) has evolved in response to the limitations of the traditional single-resource library. The IMC is an organizational solution for integrating traditional library services with the variety of multimedia devices and materials necessary to contemporary educational practice. The concept grew from…

  12. Effect of By-product Feed-based Silage Feeding on the Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (a Field Study)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y. I.; Park, J. M.; Lee, Y. H.; Lee, M.; Choi, D. Y.; Kwak, W. S.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on the performance, blood metabolite parameters, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. The BF-based silage was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% cut ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial additive (on a wet basis), and ensiled for over 5 d. Fifteen steers were allocated to three diets during the growing and fattening periods (3.1 and 9.8 months, respectively): a control diet (concentrate mix and free access to rice straw), a 50% BF-based silage diet (control diet+50% of maximum BF-based silage intake), and a 100% BF-based silage diet (the same amount of concentrate mix and ad libitum BF-based silage). The BF-based silage was fed during the growing and fattening periods, and was replaced with larger particles of rice straw during the finishing period. After 19.6 months of the whole period all the steers were slaughtered. Compared with feeding rice straw, feeding BF-based silage tended (p = 0.10) to increase the average daily gain (27%) and feed efficiency (18%) of the growing steers, caused by increased voluntary feed intake. Feeding BF-based silage had little effect on serum constituents, electrolytes, enzymes, or the blood cell profiles of fattening steers, except for low serum Ca and high blood urea concentrations (p<0.05). Feeding BF-based silage did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, it improved good quality grade (1+ and 1++) appearance rates (60% for the control group vs 100% for the BF-based silage-fed groups). In conclusion, cheap BF-based silage could be successfully used as a good quality roughage source for beef cattle. PMID:25557813

  13. Effect of By-product Feed-based Silage Feeding on the Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (a Field Study).

    PubMed

    Kim, Y I; Park, J M; Lee, Y H; Lee, M; Choi, D Y; Kwak, W S

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on the performance, blood metabolite parameters, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. The BF-based silage was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% cut ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial additive (on a wet basis), and ensiled for over 5 d. Fifteen steers were allocated to three diets during the growing and fattening periods (3.1 and 9.8 months, respectively): a control diet (concentrate mix and free access to rice straw), a 50% BF-based silage diet (control diet+50% of maximum BF-based silage intake), and a 100% BF-based silage diet (the same amount of concentrate mix and ad libitum BF-based silage). The BF-based silage was fed during the growing and fattening periods, and was replaced with larger particles of rice straw during the finishing period. After 19.6 months of the whole period all the steers were slaughtered. Compared with feeding rice straw, feeding BF-based silage tended (p = 0.10) to increase the average daily gain (27%) and feed efficiency (18%) of the growing steers, caused by increased voluntary feed intake. Feeding BF-based silage had little effect on serum constituents, electrolytes, enzymes, or the blood cell profiles of fattening steers, except for low serum Ca and high blood urea concentrations (p<0.05). Feeding BF-based silage did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, it improved good quality grade (1(+) and 1(++)) appearance rates (60% for the control group vs 100% for the BF-based silage-fed groups). In conclusion, cheap BF-based silage could be successfully used as a good quality roughage source for beef cattle. PMID:25557813

  14. Carbon and water footprint of pork supply chain in Catalonia: From feed to final products.

    PubMed

    Noya, Isabel; Aldea, Xavier; Gasol, Carles M; González-García, Sara; Amores, Maria José; Colón, Joan; Ponsá, Sergio; Roman, Isabel; Rubio, Miguel A; Casas, Eudald; Moreira, María Teresa; Boschmonart-Rives, Jesús

    2016-04-15

    A systematic tool to assess the Carbon Footprint (CF) and Water Footprint (WF) of pork production companies was developed and applied to representative Catalan companies. To do so, a cradle-to-gate environmental assessment was carried out by means of the LCA methodology, taking into account all the stages involved in the pork chain, from feed production to the processing of final products, ready for distribution. In this approach, the environmental results are reported based on eight different functional units (FUs) according to the main pork products obtained. With the aim of ensuring the reliability of the results and facilitating the comparison with other available reports, the Product Category Rules (PCR) for Catalan pork sector were also defined as a basis for calculations. The characterization results show fodder production as the main contributor to the global environmental burdens, with contributions higher than 76% regardless the environmental indicator or the life cycle stage considered, which is in agreement with other published data. In contrast, the results in terms of CF and WF lay above the range of values reported elsewhere. However, major discrepancies are mainly due to the differences in the co-products allocation criteria. In this sense, economic/physical allocation and/or system expansion have been mostly considered in literature. In contrast, no allocation was considered appropriate in this study, according to the characteristics of the industries and products under assessment; thus, the major impacts fall on the main product, which derives on comparatively higher environmental burdens. Finally, due to the relevance of fodder production in the overall impact assessment results, strategies to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions as well as water use associated to this stage were proposed in the pork supply chain. PMID:26861226

  15. Carbon and water footprint of pork supply chain in Catalonia: From feed to final products.

    PubMed

    Noya, Isabel; Aldea, Xavier; Gasol, Carles M; González-García, Sara; Amores, Maria José; Colón, Joan; Ponsá, Sergio; Roman, Isabel; Rubio, Miguel A; Casas, Eudald; Moreira, María Teresa; Boschmonart-Rives, Jesús

    2016-04-15

    A systematic tool to assess the Carbon Footprint (CF) and Water Footprint (WF) of pork production companies was developed and applied to representative Catalan companies. To do so, a cradle-to-gate environmental assessment was carried out by means of the LCA methodology, taking into account all the stages involved in the pork chain, from feed production to the processing of final products, ready for distribution. In this approach, the environmental results are reported based on eight different functional units (FUs) according to the main pork products obtained. With the aim of ensuring the reliability of the results and facilitating the comparison with other available reports, the Product Category Rules (PCR) for Catalan pork sector were also defined as a basis for calculations. The characterization results show fodder production as the main contributor to the global environmental burdens, with contributions higher than 76% regardless the environmental indicator or the life cycle stage considered, which is in agreement with other published data. In contrast, the results in terms of CF and WF lay above the range of values reported elsewhere. However, major discrepancies are mainly due to the differences in the co-products allocation criteria. In this sense, economic/physical allocation and/or system expansion have been mostly considered in literature. In contrast, no allocation was considered appropriate in this study, according to the characteristics of the industries and products under assessment; thus, the major impacts fall on the main product, which derives on comparatively higher environmental burdens. Finally, due to the relevance of fodder production in the overall impact assessment results, strategies to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions as well as water use associated to this stage were proposed in the pork supply chain.

  16. Changing Feeding Regimes To Demonstrate Flexible Biogas Production: Effects on Process Performance, Microbial Community Structure, and Methanogenesis Pathways.

    PubMed

    Mulat, Daniel Girma; Jacobi, H Fabian; Feilberg, Anders; Adamsen, Anders Peter S; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2015-10-23

    Flexible biogas production that adapts biogas output to energy demand can be regulated by changing feeding regimes. In this study, the effect of changes in feeding intervals on process performance, microbial community structure, and the methanogenesis pathway was investigated. Three different feeding regimes (once daily, every second day, and every 2 h) at the same organic loading rate were studied in continuously stirred tank reactors treating distiller's dried grains with solubles. A larger amount of biogas was produced after feeding in the reactors fed less frequently (once per day and every second day), whereas the amount remained constant in the reactor fed more frequently (every 2 h), indicating the suitability of the former for the flexible production of biogas. Compared to the conventional more frequent feeding regimes, a methane yield that was up to 14% higher and an improved stability of the process against organic overloading were achieved by employing less frequent feeding regimes. The community structures of bacteria and methanogenic archaea were monitored by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes, respectively. The results showed that the composition of the bacterial community varied under the different feeding regimes, and the observed T-RFLP patterns were best explained by the differences in the total ammonia nitrogen concentrations, H2 levels, and pH values. However, the methanogenic community remained stable under all feeding regimes, with the dominance of the Methanosarcina genus followed by that of the Methanobacterium genus. Stable isotope analysis showed that the average amount of methane produced during each feeding event by acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was not influenced by the three different feeding regimes.

  17. Changing Feeding Regimes To Demonstrate Flexible Biogas Production: Effects on Process Performance, Microbial Community Structure, and Methanogenesis Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mulat, Daniel Girma; Jacobi, H. Fabian; Feilberg, Anders; Adamsen, Anders Peter S.; Richnow, Hans-Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Flexible biogas production that adapts biogas output to energy demand can be regulated by changing feeding regimes. In this study, the effect of changes in feeding intervals on process performance, microbial community structure, and the methanogenesis pathway was investigated. Three different feeding regimes (once daily, every second day, and every 2 h) at the same organic loading rate were studied in continuously stirred tank reactors treating distiller's dried grains with solubles. A larger amount of biogas was produced after feeding in the reactors fed less frequently (once per day and every second day), whereas the amount remained constant in the reactor fed more frequently (every 2 h), indicating the suitability of the former for the flexible production of biogas. Compared to the conventional more frequent feeding regimes, a methane yield that was up to 14% higher and an improved stability of the process against organic overloading were achieved by employing less frequent feeding regimes. The community structures of bacteria and methanogenic archaea were monitored by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes, respectively. The results showed that the composition of the bacterial community varied under the different feeding regimes, and the observed T-RFLP patterns were best explained by the differences in the total ammonia nitrogen concentrations, H2 levels, and pH values. However, the methanogenic community remained stable under all feeding regimes, with the dominance of the Methanosarcina genus followed by that of the Methanobacterium genus. Stable isotope analysis showed that the average amount of methane produced during each feeding event by acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was not influenced by the three different feeding regimes. PMID:26497462

  18. PRODUCTION OF FATAL BLACKHEAD IN TURKEYS BY FEEDING EMBRYONATED EGGS OF HETERAKIS PAPILLOSA.

    PubMed

    Graybill, H W; Smith, T

    1920-04-30

    elapsing between feeding embryonated eggs and the first signs of disease made these experiments unusually impressive. It should be stated, furthermore, that from a precise individual record of all turkeys it was possible to select birds from control flocks in which the infection had either not appeared or was very low. All but two turkeys in flocks serving as sources of this material were killed at the close of the year. None at any time had shown symptoms of disease, and no scars or other abnormalities of ceca and liver were found. Furthermore, all other control birds and those in field experiments, with the exception of two reserved for breeding, were likewise killed. As a result of these autopsies, it was determined that of all birds in which symptoms of disease had not been recorded during life, none showed abnormalities or scars at autopsy. The protozoan factor in blackhead was probably disseminated when the first spontaneous cases occurred in the stock, unless it was present and made invasive by incubation in the cultures fed. This latter theory seems at present not acceptable because of the wholly negative outcome of Experiment 8. The production of acute blackhead by feeding embryonated eggs to turkeys in whose ceca adults of Heterakis papillosa are already present seems incomprehensible at first thought. A tentative explanation to be offered is that the worms when invading the ceca in large numbers break down the resistance of the bird which is able to protect itself against a few. This may account for the very irregular occurrence of cases in contact with older recovered birds on infected grounds. The rôle of Heterakis as a preliminary agent may also account for the continuing high mortality in turkeys in which the disease has been operating for so many generations to eliminate the most susceptible. It now seems highly probable that the turkey has become relatively resistant to the invasion of the protozoan parasite acting alone and that such invasion may require

  19. Concentrations of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in feed materials in the Netherlands, 2001-11.

    PubMed

    Adamse, Paulien; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; Schoss, Stefanie; de Jong, Jacob; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to obtain insights into contamination of feed materials used in the Netherlands with dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Monitoring results from the period 2001-11, covering in total 4938 samples, were statistically analysed and evaluated against the statutory limits set at the beginning or during this period. The percentage of samples exceeding maximum levels set within the European Union for either dioxins or the sum of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs were below 1% for most feed categories, except for fish meal (4.1%), clay minerals (binders and anti-caking agents) (3.4%), and vegetable oils and byproducts (1.7%). For most feed categories, non-compliance with the action threshold (roughly 33% lower than maximum levels) for either dioxins or dioxin-like PCBs was up to three times higher than non-compliance with the respective maximum levels. Exceedance of action thresholds was just above 1% for animal fat, pre-mixtures and feed materials of plant origin excluding vegetable oils. For the categories fish meal, clay minerals, and vegetable oils and byproducts, the action thresholds were exceeded by 5.0%, 9.8% and 3.0% of the samples, respectively. In general, the percentages of samples that exceeded the action thresholds and maximum levels were lower than those reported for the European Union by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). In most of the feed materials, there seems to be a decreasing trend in concentrations of dioxins or dioxin-like PCBs over the years. However, a lowering of the limits of quantification during this period and the low concentrations in most samples precludes drawing strong conclusions.

  20. Effects of a proteolytic feed enzyme on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Eun, J-S; Beauchemin, K A

    2005-06-01

    The effects of exogenous proteolytic enzyme (EPE) on intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance were determined using 8 lactating Holstein cows in a double 4 x4 Latin square experiment with a 2 x2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets based on barley silage and alfalfa hay as the forage sources were formulated to maintain different forage to concentrate ratios [60:40 vs. 34:66, dry matter (DM) basis]. Four dietary treatments were tested: high forage (HF) without EPE (HF-EPE), HF with EPE (HF+EPE), low forage (LF) without EPE (LF-EPE), and LF with EPE (LF+EPE). The EPE, which contained proteolytic activity but negligible fibrolytic activity, was added to the concentrate portion of the diets after pelleting at a rate of 1.25 mL/kg of DM. Adding EPE to the diet increased total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, N, acid detergent fiber, and neutral detergent fiber, with larger increases in digestibility observed for cows fed LF+EPE. Effects of added EPE on in vivo digestibility were consistent with improvements in gas production and degradability of the individual components of the TMR observed in vitro. Ruminal enzymic activities of xylanase and endoglucanase increased with addition of EPE to the diet, which may have accounted for improvements in fiber digestion. However, feeding EPE unexpectedly decreased feed intake of cows, which offset the benefits of improved feed digestibility. Consequently, milk yield of cows fed high or low forage diets decreased with adding EPE. Nevertheless, dairy efficiency, expressed as milk/DM intake, was highest for the LF+EPE diet. Addition of EPE to the diet increased milk fat and milk lactose percentages, but decreased milk protein percentage of cows fed a low forage diet. For cows fed high forage diets, EPE only increased milk lactose percentage. Efficiency of N use for milk production was decreased for both the high and low forage diets when EPE was added to the diet. Mean ruminal pH was

  1. Transparent exopolymer particle removal in different drinking water production centers.

    PubMed

    Van Nevel, Sam; Hennebel, Tom; De Beuf, Kristof; Du Laing, Gijs; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2012-07-01

    Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) have recently gained interest in relation to membrane fouling. These sticky, gel-like particles consist of acidic polysaccharides excreted by bacteria and algae. The concentrations, expressed as xanthan gum equivalents L⁻¹ (μg X(eq) L⁻¹), usually reach hundred up to thousands μg X(eq) L⁻¹ in natural waters. However, very few research was performed on the occurrence and fate of TEP in drinking water, this far. This study examined three different drinking water production centers, taking in effluent of a sewage treatment plant (STP), surface water and groundwater, respectively. Each treatment step was evaluated on TEP removal and on 13 other chemical and biological parameters. An assessment on TEP removal efficiency of a diverse range of water treatment methods and on correlations between TEP and other parameters was performed. Significant correlations between particulate TEP (>0.4 μm) and viable cell concentrations were found, as well as between colloidal TEP (0.05-0.4 μm) and total COD, TOC, total cell or viable cell concentrations. TEP concentrations were very dependent on the raw water source; no TEP was detected in groundwater but the STP effluent contained 1572 μg X(eq) L⁻¹ and the surface water 699 μg X(eq) L⁻¹. Over 94% of total TEP in both plants was colloidal TEP, a fraction neglected in nearly every other TEP study. The combination of coagulation and sand filtration was effective to decrease the TEP levels by 67%, while the combination of ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis provided a total TEP removal. Finally, in none of the installations TEP reached the final drinking water distribution system at significant concentrations. Overall, this study described the presence and removal of TEP in drinking water systems.

  2. Implementation of NASA Materials and Processes Requirements at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history and current practices of the Materials Engineering Branch (MEB) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Included in the presentation is a review of the general Materials and Processes (M&P) requirements in the NASA-STD-6016. The work that the Materials Engineering Branch does to support GSFC Projects is also reviewed. The Materials Engineering Branch capabilities are listed, the expertise that is available to GSFC projects is also listed. Included in the backup slides are forms that the MEB uses to identify the materials in the spacecraft under development.

  3. Phytoremediation of aquaculture wastewater for water recycling and production of fish feed.

    PubMed

    Ghaly, A E; Kamal, M; Mahmoud, N S

    2005-01-01

    Five plants were examined for their ability to remove nutrients from aquaculture wastewater and suitability as fish feed: alfalfa, white clover, oat, fall rye, barley. The seeds were first germinated in water in a hydroponic system, and the plants were fed wastewater from Tilapia production facility. Clover and alfalfa seeds were infected with fungus shortly after germination, and their roots were completely destroyed by day 14. Oat, rye and barley had the fastest growth and showed greater tolerance to fungal disease compared with alfalfa and clover. Although substantial amounts of soluble and insoluble substances were released by the seeds during the germination period, the plants were able to remove all the pollutants in wastewater and significant portions of those released substances. The total reductions in total solids, COD, NO3-N, NO2-N, phosphate and potassium ranged from 54.7% to 91.0%, 56.0% to 91.5%, 82.9% to 98.1%, 95.9% to 99.5%, 54.5% to 93.6% and 99.6% to 99.8%, respectively. Oat, barley and rye grow well in this type of hydroponic system and can be used as a fish feed after being supplemented with fat, Ca, Na, Mn and Fe. Oil seeds and the chlorides of these elements could be added to these plants when formulating the fish feed. For a continuous operation, a two-unit system could be configured to allow for one week germination and one week cleaning and startup in one unit while the other unit is in operation. PMID:15607774

  4. Productivity through weaning of nine breeds of cattle under varying feed availabilities: I. Initial evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, T G; Ferrell, C L

    1994-11-01

    The effect of varying dry matter availability on the conversion of dry matter resources to weight of calf at weaning was evaluated for nine breeds of cattle; Angus, Braunvieh, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Poll, Pinzgauer, and Simmental were recorded for 5 yr. Within each breed, four cows were assigned to each of four feeding levels of dry matter intake: 58, 76, 93, or 111 g of DM/wt75. Cows remained on their assigned diet regimen throughout the study. Individual cow consumption, daily feed allowance adjusted for refusal, was recorded weekly. Production information included birth and weaning weight of the progeny, calving rate, and cow weights and condition scores. Cows were exposed to bulls of the same breed for 90 d. Reasons for cow replacement included failure to conceive in two successive years, injury, Caesarean section, chronic illness, and death. Response to dry matter intake (DMI) was curvilinear and differed among breeds (P < .10) for calving rate, calf survival, and weight of calf weaned per cow exposed. Significant differences occurred among the breeds for the linear response to DMI for cow weight and condition score. The response to DMI was curvilinear for birth weight (P < .10), but the response did not differ among breeds (P > .20). Red Poll exhibited more effective conversion at DMI less than 4,000 kg/yr, but breeds with greater genetic potential for growth and(or) milk production (Gelbvieh, Charolais, Braunvieh, Simmental, Pinzgauer, and Limousin) were more efficient at DMI greater than 6,000 kg/yr. Ranking for biological production efficiency (weight of calf weaned-cow exposed-1.kg DMI of cow-1) through weaning among breeds of cattle varied with dry matter intake.

  5. Project management plan, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center

    SciTech Connect

    Borgeson, M.E.

    1994-12-12

    For the next 30 years, the main activities at the Hanford Site will involve the handling and cleanup of toxic substances. Thousands of workers involved in these new activities will need systematic training appropriate to their tasks and associated risks. This project is an important part of the Hanford Site mission and will enable the US Department of Energy (DOE) to meet high standards for safety. The Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center (HAMMER) project will construct a centralized regional training center dedicated to training hazardous materials workers and emergency responders in classrooms and with hands-on, realistic training aids representing actual field conditions. The HAMMER Training Center will provide a cost-effective, high-quality way to meet the Hanford Site training needs. The training center creates a partnership among DOE; government contractors; labor; local, state, and tribal governments; and selected institutions of higher education.

  6. Nuclear Safety Information Center, Its Products and Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, J. R.

    1970-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) serves as a focal point for the collection, analysis and dissemination of information related to safety problems encountered in the design, analysis, and operation of nuclear facilities. (Author/AB)

  7. Milk production of dairy cows fed wet corn gluten feed during the dry period and lactation.

    PubMed

    Kononoff, P J; Ivan, S K; Matzke, W; Grant, R J; Stock, R A; Klopfenstein, T J

    2006-07-01

    An experiment was conducted with 36 primiparous and 40 multiparous Holstein cows to examine the effects of feeding wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) on 305-d milk production, dry matter (DM) intake, body condition score (BCS), and health. The experimental treatments included: 1) control--WCGF not fed (n = 27); 2) WCGF-L-cows received diets containing WCGF (38% DM basis) during lactation (n = 23); and 3) WCGF-DL--cows received diets containing WCGF (38% DM basis) during the dry period and lactation (n = 26). During the dry period, cows consuming WCGF were observed to have a significant gain in BCS (0.07 +/- 0.06) compared with a loss in BCS in cows fed the control diet (control = -0.11 +/- 0.06 and WCGF-L = -0.04 +/- 0.06). During lactation, there were no differences by treatment on BCS. Cows consuming WCGF during lactation consumed more feed compared with the control: 25.4, 23.8, and 21.2 +/- 0.76 kg/d for WCGF-L, WCGF-DL, and the control, respectively. Milk production was higher for cows consuming WCGF: 35.0, 34.7, and 31.1 +/- 2.1 kg/d for WCGF-L, WCGF-DL, and the control, respectively. No differences were found in either DM intake or actual milk yield between the WCGF-L and WCGF-DL treatments, indicating that prepartum diets did not influence lactational performance. The WCGF diets resulted in significant reductions in the concentration of milk fat (3.94, 3.74, and 4.15 +/- 0.08% for WCGF-L, WCGF-DL, and the control, respectively), but because total milk yield was increased, there were no differences in total milk fat yield. In addition, 3.5% of fat-corrected milk tended to be affected by diet: 38.9, 36.3, and 34.7 +/- 1.93 kg/d for WCGF-L, WCGF-DL, and the control, respectively. The increasing effect of DM intake and milk yield in cows consuming WCGF resulted in a similar efficiency of 3.5% fat-corrected milk production for all treatments, averaging 1.5 +/- 0.09. Total protein yields were significantly higher for cows consuming WCGF diets during lactation: 1.15, 1

  8. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption).

  9. 23 CFR 635.411 - Material or product selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Material or product selection. 635.411 Section 635.411 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE General Material Requirements § 635.411 Material or product selection. (a)...

  10. Prevention of Salmonella contamination of finished soybean meal used for animal feed by a Norwegian production plant despite frequent Salmonella contamination of raw soy beans, 1994–2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonella contaminated animal feed is a major source for introducing Salmonella into the animal derived food chain. Because soybeans frequently are contaminated with Salmonella, soybean meal used as animal feed material, a by-product of a “crushing plant” which produces oil from soybeans, can be important source of Salmonella in the animal feed. We report the successful control of Salmonella from 1994 to 2012 in a Norwegian crushing plant producing soybean meal from imported soy beans. The results are based on an officially supervised HACCP based program including annual testing of around 4000 samples. Results During the 19-year period, 34% of samples collected during unloading of ships delivering soybeans yielded Salmonella; the proportion of samples from ships that yielded Salmonella varied from 12-62% each year. Dust samples from all shiploads from South America yielded Salmonella. In total 94 serovars of Salmonella were isolated, including nine (90%) of the EU 2012 top ten serovars isolated from clinical cases of salmonellosis in humans, including major animal pathogenic serovars like Spp. Typhimurium and Enteritidis. The effectiveness of the HACCP based control was indicated by a low prevalence of Salmonella contamination in the clean area of the plant, which is considered to be the main reason for the successful prevention of Salmonella in the end product. Despite extensive testing, no sample from the finished soybean meal product was found to be Salmonella contaminated. Conclusions This study shows that a HAACP-based control program in a soybean crushing plant can produce Salmonella free soybean meal despite frequent Salmonella contamination of raw soybeans. That approach is suggested as an effective way to minimize the risk of Salmonella exposure of the animal feed mills and contamination of the subsequent animal feed chain. PMID:25011553

  11. Evolution of Regolith Feed Systems for Lunar ISRU 02 Production Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Townsend, Ivan I., III; Mantovani, James G.; Metzger, Philip T.

    2010-01-01

    The In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project of the NASA Constellation Program, Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) has been engaged in the design and testing of various Lunar ISRU O2 production plant prototypes that can extract chemically bound oxygen from the minerals in the lunar regolith. This work demands that lunar regolith (or simulants) shall be introduced into the O2 production plant from a holding bin or hopper and subsequently expelled from the ISRU O2 production plant for disposal. This sub-system is called the Regolith Feed System (RFS) which exists in a variety of configurations depending on the O2 production plant oxygen being used (e.g. Hydrogen Reduction, Carbothermal, Molten Oxide Electrolysis). Each configuration may use a different technology and in addition it is desirable to have heat recuperation from the spent hot regolith as an integral part of the RFS. This paper addresses the various RFS and heat recuperation technologies and system configurations that have been developed under the NASA ISRU project since 2007. In addition current design solutions and lessons learned from reduced gravity flight testing will be discussed.

  12. Feed and manure use in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J. Mark

    2014-11-01

    In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa fertilizers and feeds are costly, not readily available and used sparingly in agricultural production. In many parts of Western Europe, North America, and Oceania fertilizers and feeds are relatively inexpensive, readily available and used abundantly to maximize profitable agricultural production. A case study, dairy systems approach was used to illustrate how differences in feed and manure management in a low-N-input dairy cattle system (Niger, West Africa) and a high-N-input dairy production system (Wisconsin, USA) impact agricultural production and environmental N loss. In Niger, an additional daily feed N intake of 114 g per dairy animal unit (AU, 1000 kg live weight) could increase annual milk production from 560 to 1320 kg AU-1, and the additional manure N could greatly increase millet production. In Wisconsin, reductions in daily feed N intake of 100 g AU-1 would not greatly impact milk production but decrease urinary N excretion by 25% and ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from manure by 18% to 30%. In Niger, compared to the practice of housing livestock and applying dung only onto fields, corralling cattle or sheep on cropland (to capture urinary N) increased millet yields by 25% to 95%. The additional millet grain due to dung applications or corralling would satisfy the annual food grain requirements of 2-5 persons; the additional forage would provide 120-300 more days of feed for a typical head of cattle; and 850 to 1600 kg ha-1 more biomass would be available for soil conservation. In Wisconsin, compared to application of barn manure only, corralling heifers in fields increased forage production by only 8% to 11%. The application of barn manure or corralling increased forage production by 20% to 70%. This additional forage would provide 350-580 more days of feed for a typical dairy heifer. Study results demonstrate how different approaches to feed and manure management in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle

  13. Materials experience and selection for nuclear materials production reactor heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.E.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The primary coolant systems for the heavy-water nuclear materials production reactors at the Savannah River Site are coupled to the secondary coolant systems through shell and tube heat exchangers. The head, shell, and tube sheets of these heat exchangers are fabricated from AISI Type 304 grades of austenitic stainless steel. The 8,957 tubes in each heat exchanger were originally fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel, but service experience has lead to the use of Sea Cure tubing in newer systems. The design includes double tube sheets, core rods, and 33,410 square feet of heat transfer surface. Tubes are rolled into the tube sheets and seal welded after rolling. The tubes contain Type 304 stainless steel rods which are positioned in the center of each tube axis to increase the fraction of the cooling water contacting the heat transfer surface. Each reactor utilizes twelve heat exchangers; thus the 120+ reactor-years of operating experience provide approximately 1,440 heat exchanger-years of service. Fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, crevice corrosion, and pitting have been observed during the service life. This paper describes the observed degradation processes and uses the operational experience to recommend materials for the Heavy Water -- New Production Reactor (HW-NPR).

  14. Quantifying the Presence of Written Materials and the Use of Outside Texts in Nature Centers for Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagle, Nicolette L.

    2013-01-01

    Despite widespread distribution of nature centers across North America and Europe, the written materials available to their visitors have yet to be enumerated. To address this gap, this study quantifies the types of written materials available in 563 American nature centers and addresses how nature centers use outside texts. The survey results…

  15. Rice gluten meal as an alternative by-product feed for growing dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rohit; Thakur, Sudarshan Singh; Mahesh, M S

    2016-03-01

    This experiment aimed at studying the nutritional characteristics and feeding value of rice gluten meal (RGM, a wet-milling by-product of rice) in growing dairy calves. RGM contained 464 g/kg of crude protein with 821 and 196 g/kg nitrogen (N) of borate-phosphate insoluble N and acid detergent insoluble N, respectively, which were higher (P < 0.05) than groundnut cake (GNC). In vitro gas production, organic matter digestibility and energy values were comparable between RGM and GNC. For in vivo trial, 18 Karan-Fries calves (6-12 months) were randomly assigned into three groups based on comparable body weight and age. The first group (GP-I) was fed concentrate mixture containing mainly GNC as protein source, whilst it was replaced by RGM up to 50 and 75 % on N basis, in second (GP-II) and third (GP-III) groups, respectively. Thus, RGM constituted 140 and 210 g/kg of concentrate mixture of GP-II and GP-III, respectively. In addition, all animals were offered chopped green maize and wheat straw for the whole experimental period of 90 days. Results revealed that there was no difference in intake and digestibility of nutrients, N balance, average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency among three groups. Nevertheless, RGM-based diets produced cost-effective ADG than GP-I. Furthermore, experimental calves did not differ in haematological variables like glucose, blood urea N, plasma proteins and non-esterified fatty acids. This study demonstrated that RGM could be incorporated successfully in the concentrate mixture, replacing 75 % of GNC without any discernable compromise in the performance of growing calves.

  16. Rice gluten meal as an alternative by-product feed for growing dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rohit; Thakur, Sudarshan Singh; Mahesh, M S

    2016-03-01

    This experiment aimed at studying the nutritional characteristics and feeding value of rice gluten meal (RGM, a wet-milling by-product of rice) in growing dairy calves. RGM contained 464 g/kg of crude protein with 821 and 196 g/kg nitrogen (N) of borate-phosphate insoluble N and acid detergent insoluble N, respectively, which were higher (P < 0.05) than groundnut cake (GNC). In vitro gas production, organic matter digestibility and energy values were comparable between RGM and GNC. For in vivo trial, 18 Karan-Fries calves (6-12 months) were randomly assigned into three groups based on comparable body weight and age. The first group (GP-I) was fed concentrate mixture containing mainly GNC as protein source, whilst it was replaced by RGM up to 50 and 75 % on N basis, in second (GP-II) and third (GP-III) groups, respectively. Thus, RGM constituted 140 and 210 g/kg of concentrate mixture of GP-II and GP-III, respectively. In addition, all animals were offered chopped green maize and wheat straw for the whole experimental period of 90 days. Results revealed that there was no difference in intake and digestibility of nutrients, N balance, average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency among three groups. Nevertheless, RGM-based diets produced cost-effective ADG than GP-I. Furthermore, experimental calves did not differ in haematological variables like glucose, blood urea N, plasma proteins and non-esterified fatty acids. This study demonstrated that RGM could be incorporated successfully in the concentrate mixture, replacing 75 % of GNC without any discernable compromise in the performance of growing calves. PMID:26885987

  17. Carbon footprint and land requirement for dairy herd rations: impacts of feed production practices and regional climate variations.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, M; Cederberg, C; Swensson, C

    2014-08-01

    Feed production is a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy production and demands large arable and pasture acreage. This study analysed how regional conditions influence GHG emissions of dairy feed rations in a life cycle perspective, that is the carbon footprint (CF) and the land area required. Factors assessed included regional climate variations, grass/clover silage nutrient quality, feedstuff availability, crop yield and feed losses. Using the Nordic feed evaluation model NorFor, rations were optimised for different phases of lactation, dry and growing periods for older cows, first calvers and heifers by regional feed advisors and combined to annual herd rations. Feed production data at farm level were based on national statistics and studies. CF estimates followed standards for life cycle assessment and used emissions factors provided by IPCC. The functional unit was 'feed consumption to produce 1 kg energy corrected milk (ECM) from a cow with annual milk yield of 9 900 kg ECM including replacement animals and feed losses'. Feed ration CF varied from 417 to 531 g CO2 e/kg ECM. Grass/clover silage contributed more than 50% of total GHG emissions. Use of higher quality silage increased ration CF by up to 5% as a result of an additional cut and increased rates of synthetic N-fertiliser. Domestically produced horse bean (Vicia faba), by-products from the sugar industry and maize silage were included in the rations with the lowest CF, but horse bean significantly increased ration land requirement. Rations required between 1.4 to 2 m2 cropland and 0.1 to 0.2 m2/kg semi-natural grassland per kg ECM and year. Higher yield levels reduced ration total CF. Inclusion of GHG emissions from land use change associated with Brazilian soya feed significantly increased ration CF. Ration CF and land use depended on ration composition, which was highly influenced by the regional availability and production of feedstuffs. The impact of individual

  18. Enhancing the IGS Data and Products Infrastructure: A Data Center Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharber, Michael; Noll, Carey

    2004-01-01

    The Data Transfer and Data Centers session will present papers on current data center activities as well as various topics geared towards enhancing the availability and acquisition of International Global Positions System Service (IGS) data and products. These topics include: strategies for reducing data file latency at IGS Data Centers, standardization of data file replacement notification methods, improving the efficiency of data file transfer among IGS Data Centers, and defining a network topology for GPS data files for use in applications.

  19. Water availability and calcium propionate affect fungal population and aflatoxins production in broiler finisher feed during storage.

    PubMed

    Alam, Sahib; Shah, Hamid Ullah; Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Zeb, Alam; Shah, Abdul Sattar; Magan, Naresh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of calcium propionate, water activity (aw) and incubation time on the total fungal count and aflatoxins B₁ (AFB₁), B₂ (AFB₂), G₁ (AFG₁) and G₂ (AFG₂) production in the broiler finisher feed. The feed was added with calcium propionate (5 g kg(-1)), adjusted to 0.85, 0.90 and 0.95 aw and stored for 28 days at 25°C, analysing for mould growth and aflatoxins production every 7 days. Analysis of variance indicated that all the factors (preservative, aw and storage time) alone and in combination significantly (p < 0.001) affected the total fungal count and aflatoxins production in the feed. Minimum total fungal counts (1.99 × 10(2) CFU g(-1)) were observed in calcium propionate feed at 0.85 aw on day 1 and the highest (4.36 × 10(9) CFUs g(-1)) in control sample at 0.95 aw on day 28 of storage. During the storage period, AFB₁ content in control samples increased from 11.35 to 73.44, from 11.58 to 81.81 and from 11.54 to 102.68 ng g(-1), whereas in preserved feed the content of B₁ increased from 11.47 to 37.83, from 11.54 to 49.07 and from 11.20 to 53.14 ng g(-1) at 0.85, 0.90 and 0.95 aw, respectively. Similar patterns were noted for AFB2, AFG₁ and AFG₂ contents. All the aflatoxins readily increased over storage time; however, the increase was much slower in preserved feed that contained a lower amount of available water. This study reveals that calcium propionate addition to poultry litter along with water activity amelioration is an effective tool for controlling mould incidence and aflatoxin production in poultry feed.

  20. Life Cycle, Feeding and Production of Isoptena serricornis(Pictet, 1841)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derka, Tomá; Tierno de Figueroa, José Manuel; Krno, Il'ja

    2004-05-01

    Some aspects of the biology and ecology (life cycle, feeding and production) of a population of Isoptena serricornis in the Rudava River (Slovakia) are studied, reported and discussed. The life cycle is annual, with slow growth in autumn-winter and fast growth in late summer and spring. The growth decreased two weeks before the Fall Equinox and increased two weeks after the Spring Equinox. The flight period spans from the end of May to the beginning of July. The presence of large sand particles in the gut of all studied nymphs is of note, and indicates that I. serricornis acts as a deposit-collector species. Nymphal food is principally composed of detritus, unicellular organisms and, in nymphs of intermediate or large size, Chironomidae larvae. Adult food is composed fundamentally of different types of pollen grains. Males usually have lower food content than females. Annual production of this species (694-750 mg · m-2) is very high in relation to other previously studied Chloroperlidae. This is probably largely responsible for I. serricornis being one of the most abundant components of the macroinvertebrate community in its habitat in the Rudava River. A negative correlation between production and temperature was observed.

  1. The nutritional effect of Moringa oleifera fresh leaves as feed supplement on Rhode Island Red hen egg production and quality.

    PubMed

    Abou-Elezz Fouad Mohammed, Khaled; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald; Solorio-Sanchez, Javier Francisco

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential of Moringa oleifera fresh leaves (MOL) as feed supplement on the performance and egg quality of Rhode Island Red (RIR) hens under the tropical conditions of Yucatan, Mexico. Forty-eight RIR hens were allocated in 12 floor pen replicates each with four birds. Thereafter, the replicates were divided into three groups which were corresponded to ad libitum feed (control), ad libitum feed supplemented with MOL T1 (AL + MOL) and restricted feed amount (20% lower than control) with MOL T2 (RCD + MOL), respectively. T1 (AL + MOL) had higher egg laying rate (71.4% versus 66.6%), higher daily egg mass production (45.4 versus 41.9 g/day), lower feed intake (121.3 versus 127.5 g/day) and better feed conversion ratio (2.8 versus 3.2 g feed:g egg) versus control. T2 / (RCD + MOL) had lower values of body weight, egg laying rate, egg weight and egg mass, and recorded better feed conversion ratio than the control group. The control group recorded a higher percentage of pecked eggs versus T1 and T2 (6.5% versus 1.2% and 2.0 %). Similar intake of MOL (3.1 and 3.4 g DM/day) was recorded in T1 (AL + MOL) and T2 (RCD + MOL). Yolk color was improved significantly in T1 (AL + MOL) than both control and T2 (RCD + MOL), while T2 (RCD + MOL) had eggs with lower yolk and higher albumen percentages than the other two ad libitum groups. The results suggest that MOL could be used successfully as sustainable tropical feed resource for RIR hens.

  2. Authentication of meat products: determination of animal feeding by parallel GC-MS analysis of three adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Sivadier, Guilhem; Ratel, Jérémy; Bouvier, Frédéric; Engel, Erwan

    2008-11-12

    Authentication of farm animal rearing conditions, especially the type of feeding, is a key issue in certification of meat quality and meat products. The purpose of this article was to analyze in parallel the volatile fraction of three adipose tissues excised from 16 lambs in order to authenticate two animal diets: pasture (n = 8) and concentrate (n = 8). On the basis of growth rate and anatomical location, three different lamb adipose tissues were analyzed: perirenal fat (PRF), caudal subcutaneous fat (CSCF), and heart fat (HF). An initial experiment was used to optimize the extraction of volatile compounds from the adipose tissues. Using a lipid liquid phase extraction, heating the ground tissue to 70 degrees C, was shown to be the best sample preparation mode before dynamic headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (DH-GC-MS) analysis to achieve a good representation of the starting material, while getting a good extraction and reproducibility. Next, the application of an instrumental drifts correction procedure to DH-GC-MS data enabled the identification of 130 volatile compounds that discriminate the two diets in one or several of the three tissues: 104 were found in PRF, 75 in CSCF, and 70 in HF. Forty-eight of these diet tracers, including 2,3-octanedione, toluene, terpenes, alkanes, alkenes, and ketones, had previously been identified as ruminant pasture-diet tracers and can be considered generic of this type of animal feeding. Moreover, 49 of the 130 compounds could identify diets in only one tissue, suggesting that complementary analysis of several tissues is superior for diet identification. Finally, multivariate discriminant analyses confirmed that the discrimination was improved when PRF, CSCF, and HF were considered simultaneously, even if HF contributed minimal information. PMID:18837504

  3. Comparing the Net Ecosystem Exchange of Two Cropping Systems for Dairy Feed Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, M. F.; Wagner-Riddle, C.; Brown, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    A three-year study was conducted from 2012 to 2014 to determine the net CO2 fluxes from corn and hay, the two main feed crops used in dairy production. The aim of this study is to better understand the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in annual and perennial cropping systems used in dairy production to benefit greenhouse gas emission model developments and the life cycle analysis of dairy production. The study was conducted on two 4-ha plots where one plot was a 5-year old hayfield and the other plot was planted in a continuous cycle corn. All plots were continuously monitored using the flux-gradient method deployed with a tunable diode laser trace gas analyzer and sonic anemometers. All plots received dairy manure as fertilizer applied according to common practice. The cumulative NEE for the three years of the study was -873.15 g C m-2 for corn and -409.36 g C m-2 for hay. Differences in respiration between the two cropping systems was found to be the larger factor compared to differences in gross ecosystem production (GEP) that resulted in the contrasting cumulative NEE where cumulative respiration for the three years for hay was 3094.23 g C m-2 as opposed to 2078.11 g C m-2 for corn. Cumulative GEP for the three years was 3503.60 and 2951.31 g C m-2 for hay and corn respectively. Inter-annual and inter-crop variability of the NEE, GEP and respiration will be discussed in relation to biomass production, climatic conditions and crop physiological characteristics.

  4. Evaluation of the Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) Program for the Aerospace Materials Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheffler, F. L.; March, J. F.

    The Aerospace Materials Information Center (AMIC) Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) program was evaluated by an interview technique after one year of operation. The data base for the SDI consists of the periodic document index records input to the AMIC system. The users are 63 engineers, scientists, and technical administrators at the…

  5. Discovering Music through Chick Corea in Early Learning Centers in Spain: Proposals and Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Jessica Perez; Malagarriga i Rovira, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    A description of a listening activity for "Children's Song," a piece by Chick Corea, is introduced and developed. The use of materials and strategies for music making in early childhood settings was developed as a result of a teacher training and consultancy program implemented in a network of early learning centers in Spain. The main lines of…

  6. Science and Mathematics Books for Elementary and Secondary Schools, A Bibliography from the Educational Materials Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Lois B.; And Others

    This is an annotated bibliography of science and mathematics textbooks and juvenile trade books received in the Educational Materials Center between January, 1969 and February, 1970. The contents are divided into two major sections: Juvenile Literature, and Textbooks for Elementary and Secondary Schools. The first section includes only those books…

  7. National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped: Policies and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Education for the Handicapped (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    The document outlines aspects of the new National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped (NCEMMH), whose establishment was approved by Public Law 91-61 in August, 1969. It will provide a setting where special education educators and educational technologists can create, design, and develop new instructional tools and…

  8. SYSTEM DESIGN FOR A CONTINUOUS PROGRESS SCHOOL--PART III, THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CENTER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COGSWELL, JOHN F.; EGBERT, ROBERT L.

    THE INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS CENTER (IMC) OF THE CONTINUOUS PROGRESS SCHOOL WAS DESCRIBED. THE CONTINUOUS PROGRESS SCHOOL PLAN WAS DEVISED BY DR. EDWIN READ AND WAS BEING DEVELOPED AT THE LABORATORY SCHOOL OF BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY. THIS REPORT DESCRIBED HOW AN IMC MIGHT OPERATE RATHER THAN HOW ONE IS OPERATING OR IS PLANNED TO OPERATE. AS…

  9. Enhancing Prospective Teachers' Coordination of Center and Spread: A Window into Teacher Education Material Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hollylynne S.; Lee, J. Todd

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a development and evaluation process used to create teacher education materials that help prepare middle and secondary mathematics teachers to teach data analysis and probability concepts with technology tools. One aspect of statistical reasoning needed for teaching is the ability to coordinate understandings of center and…

  10. Effect of age of feed restriction and microelement supplementation to control ascites on production and carcass characteristics of broilers.

    PubMed

    Camacho, M A; Suárez, M E; Herrera, J G; Cuca, J M; García-Bojalil, C M

    2004-04-01

    Three experiments were conducted, from January until September 2001, to estimate the optimized age to apply feed restriction to control mortality from ascites, with no negative effects on production and carcass characteristics of broilers. For each experiment, 1,200 1-d-old mixed Ross x Peterson chicks were reared in floor pens (50 chicks in each) and fed commercial feed. Feed restriction was applied for 8 h/d for 14 d at 21 or 28 d of age in experiment 1, 14 or 21 d in experiment 2, and 7 or 14 d in experiment 3. In experiments 2 and 3, a microelement supplement (without or with) was tested; the control groups received feed ad libitum and no supplement. Body weight gain, feed conversion, total mortality, and mortality from ascites, leg problems, and carcass characteristics were considered at the end of each experiment. The data were analyzed as a completely randomized design, or as a 2 x 2 factorial to estimate main and interaction effects (experiments 2 and 3). Additional analyses, including the control, were done; means comparisons were by orthogonal contrasts. The production and carcass characteristics of the restricted groups were lower than the control but were not statistically different in experiments 2 and 3, although the optimized age for feed restriction was at 7 d. Total mortality and mortality from ascites decreased by restriction, but leg problems increased without supplement. The results indicated that quantitative feed restriction and microelement supplementation at 7 d of age reduced mortality from ascites and leg problems and permitted compensatory growth sufficient to equal the production characteristics of the control group at 49 d of age. However, it is necessary to determine the specific microelements to be supplemented and to estimate the effects of season and genetic line. PMID:15109050

  11. Reducing GHG emissions through genetic improvement for feed efficiency: effects on economically important traits and enteric methane production.

    PubMed

    Basarab, J A; Beauchemin, K A; Baron, V S; Ominski, K H; Guan, L L; Miller, S P; Crowley, J J

    2013-06-01

    Genetic selection for residual feed intake (RFI) is an indirect approach for reducing enteric methane (CH4) emissions in beef and dairy cattle. RFI is moderately heritable (0.26 to 0.43), moderately repeatable across diets (0.33 to 0.67) and independent of body size and production, and when adjusted for off-test ultrasound backfat thickness (RFI fat) is also independent of body fatness in growing animals. It is highly dependent on accurate measurement of individual animal feed intake. Within-animal repeatability of feed intake is moderate (0.29 to 0.49) with distinctive diurnal patterns associated with cattle type, diet and genotype, necessitating the recording of feed intake for at least 35 days. In addition, direct measurement of enteric CH4 production will likely be more variable and expensive than measuring feed intake and if conducted should be expressed as CH4 production (g/animal per day) adjusted for body size, growth, body composition and dry matter intake (DMI) or as residual CH4 production. A further disadvantage of a direct CH4 phenotype is that the relationships of enteric CH4 production on other economically important traits are largely unknown. Selection for low RFI fat (efficient, -RFI fat) will result in cattle that consume less dry matter (DMI) and have an improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared with high RFI fat cattle (inefficient; +RFI fat). Few antagonistic effects have been reported for the relationships of RFI fat on carcass and meat quality, fertility, cow lifetime productivity and adaptability to stress or extensive grazing conditions. Low RFI fat cattle also produce 15% to 25% less enteric CH4 than +RFI fat cattle, since DMI is positively related to enteric methane (CH4) production. In addition, lower DMI and feeding duration and frequency, and a different rumen bacterial profile that improves rumen fermentation in -RFI fat cattle may favor a 1% to 2% improvement in dry matter and CP digestibility compared with +RFI fat cattle. Rate

  12. High hydrogen peroxide concentration in the feed-zone affects bioreactor cell productivity with liquid phase oxygen supply strategy.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Pritish; Ghosh, Kaushik; Suraishkumar, G K

    2008-06-01

    Liquid phase oxygen supply strategy (LPOS), in which hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is used to supply oxygen to the bioreactor, leads to low cell productivity despite high specific productivities of relevant metabolites. We hypothesized that high H(2)O(2) concentrations in the feed-zone led to local cell death, which in turn, lead to lower cell productivity. To test the hypothesis, a mathematical model was developed. Bacillus subtilis 168 was used as the model system in this study. The model simulations of cell concentrations in the bioreactor-zone were verified with the experimental results. The feed-zone H(2)O(2) concentrations remained 12-14 times higher than bulk bioreactor concentrations. The high local concentrations are expected to cause local cell killing, which explains the decrease in overall cell production by 50% at 300 rpm compared to conventional cultivation. Further, among the four different feed strategies studied using the model, dissolved oxygen (DO) controlled H(2)O(2) feed strategy caused least local cell killing and improved overall cell production by 34%.

  13. Upgrading the Center for Lightweighting Automotive Materials and Processing - a GATE Center of Excellence at the University of Michigan-Dearborn

    SciTech Connect

    Mallick, P. K.

    2012-08-30

    The Center for Lightweighting Materials and Processing (CLAMP) was established in September 1998 with a grant from the Department of Energy’s Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) program. The center received the second round of GATE grant in 2005 under the title “Upgrading the Center for Lightweighting Automotive Materials and Processing”. Using the two grants, the Center has successfully created 10 graduate level courses on lightweight automotive materials, integrated them into master’s and PhD programs in Automotive Systems Engineering, and offered them regularly to the graduate students in the program. In addition, the Center has created a web-based lightweight automotive materials database, conducted research on lightweight automotive materials and organized seminars/symposia on lightweight automotive materials for both academia and industry. The faculty involved with the Center has conducted research on a variety of topics related to design, testing, characterization and processing of lightweight materials for automotive applications and have received numerous research grants from automotive companies and government agencies to support their research. The materials considered included advanced steels, light alloys (aluminum, magnesium and titanium) and fiber reinforced polymer composites. In some of these research projects, CLAMP faculty have collaborated with industry partners and students have used the research facilities at industry locations. The specific objectives of the project during the current funding period (2005 – 2012) were as follows: (1) develop new graduate courses and incorporate them in the automotive systems engineering curriculum (2) improve and update two existing courses on automotive materials and processing (3) upgrade the laboratory facilities used by graduate students to conduct research (4) expand the Lightweight Automotive Materials Database to include additional materials, design case studies and make it more

  14. Milk production of Jersey and Fleckvieh × Jersey cows in a pasture-based feeding system.

    PubMed

    Goni, Sindisile; Muller, Carel Johan Christiaan; Dube, Bekezela; Dzama, Kennedy

    2015-01-01

    Milk production parameters of purebred Jersey (J) cows and Fleckvieh × Jersey (F × J) cows in a pasture-based feeding system were compared using standard milk recording procedures. Milk, fat and protein production was adjusted to 305 days per lactation and corrected for age at calving. Effects of breed, parity, month and year were estimated for milk, fat and protein yield as well as fat and protein percentage, using the general linear model procedure. Fixed effects identified as affecting milk production parameters significantly were breed, parity and year. F × J cows produced significantly more milk than J cows (6141 ± 102 and 5398 ± 95 kg milk, respectively). Similarly, fat and protein yields were significantly higher in F × J (272 ± 4 and 201 ± 3 kg, respectively) than in Jersey cows (246 ± 3 and 194 ± 2 kg, respectively). Fat and protein percentages only differed slightly in absolute terms being 4.61 ± 0.04% fat in the Jersey compared to 4.47 ± 0.04% fat in the F × J. Protein levels for J and F × J cows were 3.62 ± 0.03 and 3.51 ± 0.03%, respectively. Despite a lower fat percentage, F × J crossbred cows may be more productive than purebred Jersey cows which may be due to heterotic effects.

  15. High-temperature production of protein-enriched feed from cassava by fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Reade, A E; Gregory, K F

    1975-01-01

    A simple, nonaseptic, low-cast process for the conversion of cassava, a starchy tropical root crop, into microbial protein for use as animal feed was sought. Screening tests culminated in the isolation of a thermotolerant, amylase-producing mold, designated I-21, which was identified as Aspergillus fumigatus. The optimum pH for protein synthesis was 3-5, but the optimum temperature was less than the desired temperature (larger than or equal to 45 C) required for a nonaseptic fermentation. A. fumigatus I-21 and its asporogenous mutant I-21A grew equally well in a medium prepared from whole cassava roots with a mean protein doubling time at 45 C and pH 3.5 of 3.5 h. In batch culture, approximately 4% carbohydrate, supplied as whole cassava, could be feremented in 20 h, giving a final yield of 24 g of dry product, containing 36.9% crude protein, per liter. The conversion of carbohydrate used to crude protein was 22.1%. When determined as amino acids, the protein content of the product, which contained cassava bark and other unfermented residues, was 27.1%. With urea as the nitrogen source, no pH control was necessary. Preliminary data indicated that medium prepared from whole cassava roots was inhibitory to the mold unless the cassava pulp was heated to 70 C immediately after being ground. Heating to 70 C was required to gelatinize the starch and permit its complete utilization. PMID:2105

  16. Effect of method of feeding protein and protein insolubility on milk production by Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Baxter, H D; Montgomery, M J; Waldo, D R; Owen, J R

    1983-10-01

    Each of two feeding trials used 32 first and second lactation Jersey cows to evaluate four methods of protein supplementation of corn silage: A) 20% crude protein grain mixture, B) 1.36 kg of soybean meal replaced an equal amount of grain mixture, C) 2.27 kg of alfalfa-orchardgrass hay daily and 16% crude protein grain mixture, and D) 2.72 kg of soybean meal mixed with the silage daily. Concentrates were fed at 1 to 4 kg fat-corrected milk for treatments A, B, and C. All cows received 1.18 kg of 16% crude protein concentrate mixture daily in the milking parlor. Protein contents, as percents of dry matter intake, for respective treatments were 12.9, 15.0, 12.7, and 17.2. Treatments did not differ significantly for milk production, fat-corrected milk, and change of body weight; however, percents milk fat for 1.36 and 2.72 kg soybean meal were higher. In trial 2, protein insolubility of ration components was determined by four extracting methods: A) autoclaved rumen fluid, B) sodium chloride solution, C) Burroughs' solution, and D) boiling water. Insoluble protein intake determined by autoclaved rumen fluid and hot water methods accounted for more of the variance of milk and fat-corrected milk production than total protein intake.

  17. Twin-belt continuous caster with containment and cooling of the exiting cast product for enabling high-speed casting of molten-center product

    DOEpatents

    Dykes, Charles D.; Daniel, Sabah S.; Wood, J. F. Barry

    1990-02-20

    In continuously casting molten metal into cast product by a twin-belt machine, it is desirable to achieve dramatic increases in speed (linear feet per minute) at which cast product exits the machine, particularly in installations where steel cast product is intended to feed a downstream regular rolling mill (as distinct from a planetary mill) operating in tandem with the twin-belt caster. Such high-speed casting produces product with a relatively thin shell and molten interior, and the shell tends to bulge outwardly due to metallostatic head pressure of the molten center. A number of cooperative features enable high-speed, twin-belt casting: (1) Each casting belt is slidably supported adjacent to the caster exit pulley for bulge control and enhanced cooling of cast product. (2) Lateral skew steering of each belt provides an effective increase in moving mold length plus a continuity of heat transfer not obtained with prior art belt steering apparatus. (3) The exiting slab is contained and supported downstream from the casting machine to prevent bulging of the shell of the cast product, and (4) spray cooling is incorporated in the exit containment apparatus for secondary cooling of cast product.

  18. Materials Characterization Center meeting on impact testing of waste forms. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, M.D.; Atteridge, D.; Dudder, G.

    1981-10-01

    A meeting was held on March 25-26, 1981 to discuss impact test methods for waste form materials to be used in nuclear waste repositories. The purpose of the meeting was to obtain guidance for the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) in preparing the MCC-10 Impact Test Method to be approved by the Materials Review Board. The meeting focused on two essential aspects of the test method, namely the mechanical process, or impact, used to effect rapid fracture of a waste form and the analysis technique(s) used to characterize particulates generated by the impact.

  19. NATIONAL CARTOGRAPHIC INFORMATION CENTER: AN INFORMATION RESOURCE ON MAPPING PRODUCTS FOR THE NATION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Alan R.

    1985-01-01

    Since its inception in 1974 the National Cartographic Information Center (NCIC), US Geological Survey, has rapidly developed to become a focal point for providing information on the availability of cartographic data, including maps/charts, aerial photographs, satellite imagery, geodetic control, digital mapping data, map materials and related cartographic products. In early years NCIC concentrated its efforts on encoding and entering several major National Mapping Division record collections into its systems. NCIC is now stressing the acquisition of data from sources outside the National Mapping Division, including 37 Federal agencies and more than a thousand State and private institutions. A critical review has recently been conducted by NCIC of its systems with the aim of improving its efficiency and levels of operation. Several activities which resulted include improving its existing networks, refinement of digital data distribution, study of new storage media and related projects.

  20. Some political issues related to future special nuclear materials production

    SciTech Connect

    Peaslee, A.T. Jr.

    1981-08-01

    The Federal Government must take action to assure the future adequate supply of special nuclear materials for nuclear weapons. Existing statutes permit the construction of advanced defense production reactors and the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel for the production of special materials. Such actions would not only benefit the US nuclear reactor manufacturers, but also the US electric utilities that use nuclear reactors.

  1. Keratin materials for new product development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Keratin from wool is a reactive, biocompatible, and biodegradable material found as pure protein in over 90% by weight of fiber. As a polymeric amide, keratin is a rich source of intermediate filament proteins (IFPs) which are being investigated for a wide range of biomaterial applications. The po...

  2. The materials processing research base of the Materials Processing Center. Report for FY 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemings, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    The work described, while involving research in the broad field of materials processing, has two common features: the problems are closed related to space precessing of materials and have both practical and fundamental significance. An interesting and important feature of many of the projects is that the interdisciplinary nature of the problem mandates complementary analytical modeling/experimental approaches. An other important aspect of many of the projects is the increasing use of mathematical modeling techniques as one of the research tools. The predictive capability of these models, when tested against measurements, plays a very important role in both the planning of experimental programs and in the rational interpretation of the results. Many of the projects described have a space experiment as their ultimate objective. Mathematical models are proving to be extremely valuable in projecting the findings of ground - based experiments to microgravity conditions.

  3. Products Available. The Clipboard Connection. Chapter I Resource Center Curriculum and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Advanced Technology, Inc., Indianapolis, IN.

    The "Clipboard Connection" is a methodology to facilitate the rapid circulation of relevant pre-existing materials from Chapter 1 Technical Assistance Centers (TACs) to their clients, teachers of educationally disadvantaged children in resource centers. Each "Clipboard Connection" consists of a lead sheet summarizing the contents of the materials…

  4. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products, and animal feed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 µg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line ...

  5. 75 FR 65565 - Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 520, 556, and 558 Animal Drugs, Feeds, and Related Products; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications; Aklomide; Levamisole...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations by removing...

  6. Lack of effect of feeding citrus by-products in reducing Salmonella in experimentally infected weanling pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the current research was to determine if feeding citrus by-products D’Limonene (DL) and citrus molasses (MOL) would reduce the concentration and prevalence of Salmonella in weanling pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. Twenty crossbred weanling pigs (avg. BW = ...

  7. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... its environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  8. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... its environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  9. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... its environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  10. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... its environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  11. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... its environmental stability and tendency to survive and be concentrated through the food chain. The... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...

  12. Algal photosynthesis as the primary driver for a sustainable development in energy, feed, and food production.

    PubMed

    Anemaet, Ida G; Bekker, Martijn; Hellingwerf, Klaas J

    2010-11-01

    High oil prices and global warming that accompany the use of fossil fuels are an incentive to find alternative forms of energy supply. Photosynthetic biofuel production represents one of these since for this, one uses renewable resources. Sunlight is used for the conversion of water and CO₂ into biomass. Two strategies are used in parallel: plant-based production via sugar fermentation into ethanol and biodiesel production through transesterification. Both, however, exacerbate other problems, including regional nutrient balancing and the world's food supply, and suffer from the modest efficiency of photosynthesis. Maximizing the efficiency of natural and engineered photosynthesis is therefore of utmost importance. Algal photosynthesis is the system of choice for this particularly for energy applications. Complete conversion of CO₂ into biomass is not necessary for this. Innovative methods of synthetic biology allow one to combine photosynthetic and fermentative metabolism via the so-called Photanol approach to form biofuel directly from Calvin cycle intermediates through use of the naturally transformable cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Beyond providing transport energy and chemical feedstocks, photosynthesis will continue to be used for food and feed applications. Also for this application, arguments of efficiency will become more and more important as the size of the world population continues to increase. Photosynthetic cells can be used for food applications in various innovative forms, e.g., as a substitute for the fish proteins in the diet supplied to carnivorous fish or perhaps--after acid hydrolysis--as a complex, animal-free serum for growth of mammalian cells in vitro.

  13. Algal Photosynthesis as the Primary Driver for a Sustainable Development in Energy, Feed, and Food Production

    PubMed Central

    Anemaet, Ida G.; Bekker, Martijn

    2010-01-01

    High oil prices and global warming that accompany the use of fossil fuels are an incentive to find alternative forms of energy supply. Photosynthetic biofuel production represents one of these since for this, one uses renewable resources. Sunlight is used for the conversion of water and CO2 into biomass. Two strategies are used in parallel: plant-based production via sugar fermentation into ethanol and biodiesel production through transesterification. Both, however, exacerbate other problems, including regional nutrient balancing and the world's food supply, and suffer from the modest efficiency of photosynthesis. Maximizing the efficiency of natural and engineered photosynthesis is therefore of utmost importance. Algal photosynthesis is the system of choice for this particularly for energy applications. Complete conversion of CO2 into biomass is not necessary for this. Innovative methods of synthetic biology allow one to combine photosynthetic and fermentative metabolism via the so-called Photanol approach to form biofuel directly from Calvin cycle intermediates through use of the naturally transformable cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Beyond providing transport energy and chemical feedstocks, photosynthesis will continue to be used for food and feed applications. Also for this application, arguments of efficiency will become more and more important as the size of the world population continues to increase. Photosynthetic cells can be used for food applications in various innovative forms, e.g., as a substitute for the fish proteins in the diet supplied to carnivorous fish or perhaps—after acid hydrolysis—as a complex, animal-free serum for growth of mammalian cells in vitro. PMID:20640935

  14. Controlling Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production in poultry feed using carvacrol and trans-cinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hsin-Bai; Chen, Chi-Hung; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup; Darre, Michael J; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic metabolites primarily produced by molds, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Contamination of poultry feed with AF is a major concern to the poultry industry due to severe economic losses stemming from poor performance, reduced egg production, and diminished egg hatchability. This study investigated the inhibitory effect of 2 generally regarded as safe (GRAS), natural plant compounds, namely carvacrol (CR) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), on A. flavus and A. parasiticus growth and AF production in potato dextrose broth (PDB) and in poultry feed. In broth culture, PDB supplemented with CR (0%, 0.02%, 0.04% and 0.08%) or TC (0%, 0.005%, 0.01% and 0.02%) was inoculated with A. flavus or A. parasiticus (6 log CFU/mL), and mold counts and AF production were determined on days 0, 1, 3, and 5. Similarly, 200 g portions of poultry feed supplemented with CR or TC (0%, 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.0%) were inoculated with each mold, and their counts and AF concentrations in the feed were determined at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 12 weeks of storage. Moreover, the effect of CR and TC on the expression of AF synthesis genes in A. flavus and A. parasiticus (aflC, nor1, norA, and ver1) was determined using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). All experiments had duplicate samples and were replicated 3 times. Results indicated that CR and TC reduced A. flavus and A. parasiticus growth and AF production in broth culture and chicken feed (P<0.05). All tested concentrations of CR and TC decreased AF production in broth culture and chicken feed by at least 60% when compared to controls (P<0.05). In addition, CR and TC down-regulated the expression of major genes associated with AF synthesis in the molds (P<0.05). Results suggest the potential use of CR and TC as feed additives to control AF contamination in poultry feed.

  15. Whole-milk feeding duration, calf growth, and profitability of group-fed calves in an organic production system.

    PubMed

    Bjorklund, E A; Heins, B J; Chester-Jones, H

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of early-life feeding duration on growth and economics of group-fed organic dairy calves. Heifer calves born during the spring of 2011 (n = 67) and the spring of 2012 (n = 57) were used to evaluate the effect of weaning age, growth, and profitability of group-fed calves fed once per day in an organic dairy production system. Calves were assigned to replicate feeding groups of 10 in super hutches by birth order, and were born at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center, Morris organic dairy. Breed groups were Holsteins (n = 15) selected for high production, Holsteins (n = 23) maintained at 1964 breed-average level, crossbreds (n = 54) including combinations of Holstein, Montbéliarde, and Swedish Red, and crossbreds (n = 32) including combinations of Holstein, New Zealand Friesian, Jersey, and Swedish Red. Groups of calves were weaned at 30 (EW, early weaning), 60 (MW, mid weaning), or 90 (LW, late weaning) d of age, and groups were fed 1.5% of birth weight of 13% total solids organic whole milk once daily and weaned when the group of 10 calves consumed an average of 0.91 kg of organic calf starter per calf per day for 4 consecutive days. Body measurements were recorded at birth, weekly during the preweaning period, at weaning, and monthly thereafter. Profitability was estimated as a function of the total cost for organic milk and organic calf starter for weaning groups to weaning and to the first 90 d of age. Preweaning group performance was weaning age, EW: 47.6d, MW: 64.5d, LW: 93.7d; weaning weight, EW: 61.8 kg, MW: 79.2 kg, LW: 108.1 kg; and gain per day, EW: 0.51 kg/d, MW: 0.63 kg/d, LW: 0.75 kg/d. Body weight (BW) did not differ among weaning groups at 90 d of age; however, MW calves had lower 120-d BW than did LW calves. The EW calves did not differ from either MW or LW calves for 120-d BW. Total feed costs to weaning for groups were $1,092.97 for EW calves, $1,871.24 for MW

  16. Ethanol, feed components and fungal biomass production from field bean (Vicia faba var. equina) seeds in an integrated process.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Witold; Kawa-Rygielska, Joanna; Król, Barbara; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-09-01

    The use of field beans, a non-food leguminous crop, was studied for ethanol, feed components and fungal biomass production. The seeds were hydrolyzed using enzymes or with combination of acid (H3PO4) and alkaline (Ca(OH)2) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with or without removal of suspended solids, yielded 38.3-42.5gL(-1) ethanol (71.3-79.2% efficiency). The filtration residues contained ca. 247-326gkg(-1) crude protein, 10.6-15.5% acid detergent fiber and 19.9-29.1% neutral detergent fiber. They were enriched in phenolics (by up to 93.4%) and depleted in condensed tannin (by up to 59.3%) in comparison to the raw material. The thin stillages were used for cultivation of edible fungus Neurospora intermedia which produced 8.5-15.9gL(-1) ethanol and 4.8-16.2gL(-1) biomass containing over 62% protein. The mass balances showed that fermentation of unfiltered mashes was more efficient yielding up to 195.9gkg(-1) ethanol and 84.4% of protein recovery. PMID:27233099

  17. Batch and continuous biogas production arising from feed varying in rice straw volumes following pre-treatment with extrusion.

    PubMed

    Menardo, S; Cacciatore, V; Balsari, P

    2015-03-01

    This paper studies the synergistic effects on biogas production obtained when different feedstocks are co-digested with varying proportions of rice straw and explores their behavior at the laboratory scale in continuously stirred digesters. Evaluative measures included methane production, volatile solids degradation, ash accumulation, and extrusion effectiveness. The effect of extrusion on the production of energy was also investigated. Results indicated that continuous stirred digesters fed with substrates composed of 10% or 30% of ensiled rice straw (on total FM) produced 146.1 and 140.0lNCH4kgDM(-1)day(-1), respectively. When extrusion was employed, organic matter degradation was promoted and methane production was significantly raised-by as much as 16%. For the feeds containing 10% rice straw, the increase in obtained energy was higher than the energy needed for the extrusion, but the energy balance was close to zero when the percentage of rice straw was the 30% of the feed.

  18. Genetically Engineered Materials for Biofuels Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Agrivida, Inc., is an agricultural biotechnology company developing industrial crop feedstocks for the fuel and chemical industries. Agrivida's crops have improved processing traits that enable efficient, low cost conversion of the crops' cellulosic components into fermentable sugars. Currently, pretreatment and enzymatic conversion of the major cell wall components, cellulose and hemicellulose, into fermentable sugars is the most expensive processing step that prevents widespread adoption of biomass in biofuels processes. To lower production costs we are consolidating pretreatment and enzyme production within the crop. In this strategy, transgenic plants express engineered cell wall degrading enzymes in an inactive form, which can be reactivated after harvest. We have engineered protein elements that disrupt enzyme activity during normal plant growth. Upon exposure to specific processing conditions, the engineered enzymes are converted into their active forms. This mechanism significantly lowers pretreatment costs and enzyme loadings (>75% reduction) below those currently available to the industry.

  19. Material and energy intensity of fullerene production.

    PubMed

    Anctil, Annick; Babbitt, Callie W; Raffaelle, Ryne P; Landi, Brian J

    2011-03-15

    Fullerenes are increasingly being used in medical, environmental, and electronic applications due to their unique structural and electronic properties. However, the energy and environmental impacts associated with their commercial-scale production have not yet been fully investigated. In this work, the life cycle embodied energy of C(60) and C(70) fullerenes has been quantified from cradle-to-gate, including the relative contributions from synthesis, separation, purification, and functionalization processes, representing a more comprehensive scope than used in previous fullerene life cycle studies. Comparison of two prevalent production methods (plasma and pyrolysis) has shown that pyrolysis of 1,4-tetrahydronaphthalene emerges as the method with the lowest embodied energy (12.7 GJ/kg of C(60)). In comparison, plasma methods require a large amount of electricity, resulting in a factor of 7-10× higher embodied energy in the fullerene product. In many practical applications, fullerenes are required at a purity >98% by weight, which necessitates multiple purification steps and increases embodied energy by at least a factor of 5, depending on the desired purity. For applications such as organic solar cells, the purified fullerenes need to be chemically modified to [6,6]-phenyl-C(61)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), thus increasing the embodied energy to 64.7 GJ/kg C(60)-PCBM for the specified pyrolysis, purification, and functionalization conditions. Such synthesis and processing effects are even more significant for the embodied energy of larger fullerenes, such as C(70), which are produced in smaller quantities and are more difficult to purify. Overall, the inventory analysis shows that the embodied energy of all fullerenes are an order of magnitude higher than most bulk chemicals, and, therefore, traditional cutoff rules by weight during life cycle assessment of fullerene-based products should be avoided.

  20. Calorespirometric feeding control enhances bioproduction from toxic feedstocks-Demonstration for biopolymer production out of methanol.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Maria-Teresa; Paufler, Sven; Harms, Hauke; Maskow, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The sustainable production of fuels and industrial bulk chemicals by microorganisms in biotechnological processes is promising but still facing various challenges. In particular, toxic substrates require an efficient process control strategy. Methanol, as an example, has the potential to become a major future feedstock due to its availability from fossil and renewable resources. However, besides being toxic, methanol is highly volatile. To optimize its dosage during microbial cultivations, an innovative, predictive process control strategy based on calorespirometry, i.e., simultaneous measurements of heat and CO2 emission rates, was developed. This rarely used technique allows an online-estimation of growth parameters such as the specific growth rate and substrate consumption rate as well as a detection of shifts in microbial metabolism thus enabling an adapted feeding for different phases of growth. The calorespirometric control strategy is demonstrated exemplarily for growth of the methylotrophic bacterium Methylobacterium extorquens on methanol and compared to alternative control strategies. Applying the new approach, the methanol concentration could be maintained far below a critical limit, while increased growth rates of M. extorquens and higher final contents of the biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate were obtained. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2113-2121. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27043974

  1. Enzymatic production of γ-aminobutyric acid in soybeans using high hydrostatic pressure and precursor feeding.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Shigeaki; Katayama, Takumi; Watanabe, Takae; Nakajima, Kanako; Hayashi, Mayumi; Shigematsu, Toru; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2013-01-01

    The effects were investigated of the glutamic acid (Glu) substrate concentration on the generation and kinetics of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in soybeans treated under high hydrostatic pressure (HHP; 200 MPa for 10 min at 25 °C). The conversion of Glu to GABA decreased with increasing initial Glu concentration in the soybeans. The crude glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) obtained from the HHP-treated soybeans showed substrate inhibition. The GABA production rate in the HHP-treated soybeans fitted the following substrate inhibition kinetic equation: v0=(VmaxS0)/(Km+S0+(S0)2/Ki). The Km value for the HHP-treated soybeans was significantly higher than that of the untreated soybeans. The Km values in this study show the affinity between Glu and GAD, and indicate that the HHP-treated soybeans had lower affinity between Glu and GAD than the untreated soybeans. GAD extracted from the HHP-treated soybeans showed a similar value to that in the HHP-treated soybeans. The intact biochemical system was so damaged in the HHP-treated soybeans that it showed substrate inhibition kinetics similar to that of the extracted GAD. The combination of HHP and precursor feeding proved to be a novel tool that can be used to increase the concentration of a target component.

  2. Biotic and abiotic factors affect green ash volatile production and emerald ash borer adult feeding preference.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-12-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic woodborer first detected in 2002 in Michigan and Ontario and is threatening the ash resource in North America. We examined the effects of light exposure and girdling on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) volatile production, and effects of light exposure, girdling, and leaf age on emerald ash borer adult feeding preferences and phototaxis. Green ash seedlings grown under higher light exposure had lower amounts of three individual volatile compounds, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (Z,E)-alpha-farnesene, as well as the total amount of six detected volatile compounds. Girdling did not affect the levels of these volatiles. Emerald ash borer females preferred mature leaves, leaves from girdled trees, and leaves grown in the sun over young leaves, leaves from nongirdled trees, and leaves grown in the shade, respectively. These emerald ash borer preferences were most likely because of physical, nutritional, or biochemical changes in leaves in response to the different treatments. Emerald ash borer females and males showed positive phototaxis in laboratory arenas, a response consistent with emerald ash borer preference for host trees growing in sunlight.

  3. Pilot-scale production of grout with simulated double-shell slurry feed. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Whyatt, G.A.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the pilot-scale production of grout with simulated double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) waste performed in November 1988, and the subsequent thermal behavior of the grout as it cured in a large, insulated vessel. The report was issued in draft form in April 1989 and comments were subsequently received; however, the report was not finalized until 1994. In finalizing this report, references or information gained after the report was drafted in April 1989 have not been incorporated to preserve the report`s historical perspective. This report makes use of criteria from Ridelle (1987) to establish formulation criteria. This document has since been superseded by a document prepared by Reibling and Fadeef (1991). However, the reference to Riddelle (1987) and any analysis based on its content have been maintained within this report. In addition, grout is no longer being considered as the waste form for disposal of Hanford`s low-level waste. However, grout disposal is being maintained as an option in case there is an emergency need to provide additional tank space. Current plans are to vitrify low-level wastes into a glass matrix.

  4. Production of a raw material for energy production in agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellstroem, G.

    1980-04-01

    The total amount of energy in products produced by Swedish agriculture was estimated to 80 TWH: 30 TWh for cereals, 15 TWh for grass and leguminosae, and 35 TWh for straw and other agricultural wastes. Of this production a large part will be used as food even in the future. New plants that would produce more energy than the ones traditionally grown in Sweden are discussed. Also other types of energy from agriculture are discussed such as methane from manure, methanol from gasification processes, and ethanol from fermentative processes. Costs were estimated from different alternatives.

  5. Effects of different types of solid feeds on health status and performance of Swiss veal calves. I. Basic feeding with milk by-products.

    PubMed

    Räber, B; Kaufmann, T; Regula, G; von Rotz, A; Stoffel, H M; Posthaus, H; Rérat, M; Kirchhofer, M; Steiner, A; Bähler, C

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify a suitable alternative to the current practice of complementing the feeding of milk by-products with straw. The influence of 5 different types of solid feeds on health and performance of Swiss veal calves was investigated in 2 production cycles of 200 veal calves each with a mean initial age of 40 days (d). The calves were housed in groups of 40 in stalls with outside pen. Liquid feeding consisted of a milk by-product combined with an additional skim milk powder ad libitum. Groups were assigned to 1 of the 5 following experimental solid feeds provided ad libitum: mix (composition: soy flakes, corn, barley, wheat, oat, barley middling, plant oil, molasses), whole plant corn pellets, corn silage, hay, and wheat straw as control. Daily dry matter intake per calf averaged 2.25 kg of the liquid food, 0.16 kg of straw, 0.33 kg of mix, 0.47 kg of corn silage, 0.38 kg of corn pellets, and 0.39 kg of hay. No significant differences (P > 0.05) among groups were found in calf losses that amounted to 4.8 % (68 % because of gastrointestinal disorders). Four percent of the calves were slaughtered prematurely. Daily doses of antibiotics were higher in the mix (36.9 d, P < 0.01) and in the corn silage groups (35 d, P < 0.01) compared to control. Compared to the 4 other groups, calves of the straw group showed the highest prevalence of abnormal ruminal content (73 %, P < 0.05), of abnormal ruminal papillae (42 %, P < 0.05), of abomasal fundic lesions (13.5 %, P < 0.1), and the lowest number of chewing movements per bolus (45, P < 0.05). The hemoglobin concentration averaged 85 g/l at the beginning and 99 g/l at the end of the fattening period with no significant differences among groups (P > 0.1). The duration of the fattening period averaged 114 d, slaughter age 157 d, and carcass weight 122 kg. The average daily weight gain (ADG) was highest in the control group straw (1.35 kg), and lowest in the hay group (1.22 kg, P < 0.01). The

  6. The effect of concentrate feeding amount and feeding strategy on milk production, dry matter intake, and energy partitioning of autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, D C; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the milk production, dry matter intake, and energy partitioning of autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows offered a high or low amount of concentrate using 1 of 2 feeding strategies. One hundred and eight autumn-calving Holstein-Friesian cows were blocked based on milk production data from wk 3 and 4 of lactation, and were divided into low-, medium-, and high-milk yield subgroups. Cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (n=27) in a 2×2 factorial design. Treatment factors were concentrate feeding amount, high concentrate=7.0 (Hi) or low concentrate=4.0kg of DM/cow per day (Lo), and concentrate feeding strategy, flat rate (FR) or group-fed to yield (GFY). In the GFY treatments, cows were allocated concentrate based on their milk yield in the third and fourth weeks of lactation. The lowest-yielding cows (n=9) received 5.3 and 2.3kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments respectively, the highest-yielding cows (n=9) received 8.7 and 5.7kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments respectively, and the average yield cows received the same amount of concentrate as the corresponding FR group (i.e., 7.0 and 4.0kg of DM of concentrate on the Hi and Lo treatments, respectively). The proportion of forage in the diet was 63% of total dry matter intake (TDMI) for the Hi treatment and 75% of TDMI for the Lo treatment. No significant interaction was noted between concentrate feeding amount and concentrate feeding strategy for dry matter intake or milk yield. Cows on the Hi treatment had a higher TDMI (18.7±0.36kg/cow per day) compared with cows on the Lo treatment (15.8±0.36kg/cow per day). The milk yield of cows offered the Hi treatment was 1.3kg/cow per day higher than the milk yield of cows on the Lo treatment (23.8±0.31kg/cow per day). Milk solids yield was 0.10kg/cow per day higher on the Hi treatment than on the Lo treatment (1.83±0.03kg of DM/cow per day). Cows on the Hi treatment had an estimated net

  7. Increase of the phytase production by Aspergillus japonicus and its biocatalyst potential on chicken feed treatment.

    PubMed

    Maller, Alexandre; Vici, Ana Claudia; Facchini, Fernanda Del Antonio; da Silva, Tony Marcio; Kamimura, Eliana Setsuko; Rodrigues, Maria Isabel; Jorge, João Atílio; Terenzi, Hector Francisco; de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes Polizeli, Maria

    2014-07-01

    Phytase hydrolyzes phytic acid from the plant components of animal feed, releasing inorganic phosphorus. The phytase production by Aspergillus japonicus was optimized using Plackett-Burman designs (PBD), composite central rotational designs (CCRD), and response surface methodology from standard Czapek medium. The enzyme was applied in broiler chicken and laying hen foods. Analysis from PBD showed that KH2 PO2, MgSO4  · 7H2O, and yeast extract had significant influences on phytase secretion (p < 0.05). The best results from the CCRD experiments were obtained using (A) 0.040% KH2 PO4, (B) 0.050% MgSO4  · 7H2O, and (C) 0.040% yeast extract, enhancing in 49-53 U mg(-1) protein. The determination coefficient (R(2)) was 0.92 and Fcalc was 7.48 times greater than Flisted . Thus, the reduced coded model: Y (U mg-1) = 50.29 + 4.30A - 3.35(A)2 - 4.80(B)2 + 5.62C - 4.26(C)2 was considered predictive and statistically significant (p < 0.05). The optimized culture medium increased the phytase yield in 250%. A. japonicus phytase released high levels of Pi from broiler chicken and laying hen food. A. japonicus is an excellent phytase producer in a culture medium using inexpensive components and agricultural wastes. Therefore, these results provide sound arguments for the formulation of a low cost culture medium for phytase production. PMID:24026803

  8. Increase of the phytase production by Aspergillus japonicus and its biocatalyst potential on chicken feed treatment.

    PubMed

    Maller, Alexandre; Vici, Ana Claudia; Facchini, Fernanda Del Antonio; da Silva, Tony Marcio; Kamimura, Eliana Setsuko; Rodrigues, Maria Isabel; Jorge, João Atílio; Terenzi, Hector Francisco; de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes Polizeli, Maria

    2014-07-01

    Phytase hydrolyzes phytic acid from the plant components of animal feed, releasing inorganic phosphorus. The phytase production by Aspergillus japonicus was optimized using Plackett-Burman designs (PBD), composite central rotational designs (CCRD), and response surface methodology from standard Czapek medium. The enzyme was applied in broiler chicken and laying hen foods. Analysis from PBD showed that KH2 PO2, MgSO4  · 7H2O, and yeast extract had significant influences on phytase secretion (p < 0.05). The best results from the CCRD experiments were obtained using (A) 0.040% KH2 PO4, (B) 0.050% MgSO4  · 7H2O, and (C) 0.040% yeast extract, enhancing in 49-53 U mg(-1) protein. The determination coefficient (R(2)) was 0.92 and Fcalc was 7.48 times greater than Flisted . Thus, the reduced coded model: Y (U mg-1) = 50.29 + 4.30A - 3.35(A)2 - 4.80(B)2 + 5.62C - 4.26(C)2 was considered predictive and statistically significant (p < 0.05). The optimized culture medium increased the phytase yield in 250%. A. japonicus phytase released high levels of Pi from broiler chicken and laying hen food. A. japonicus is an excellent phytase producer in a culture medium using inexpensive components and agricultural wastes. Therefore, these results provide sound arguments for the formulation of a low cost culture medium for phytase production.

  9. Impact of selection for residual feed intake on production traits and behavior of mule ducks.

    PubMed

    Drouilhet, L; Monteville, R; Molette, C; Lague, M; Cornuez, A; Canario, L; Ricard, E; Gilbert, H

    2016-09-01

    A divergent selection experiment of Muscovy sires based on the residual feed intake (RFI) of their male mule progeny was initiated in 2009. Using electronic feeders, the aim of this study was to establish whether 3 generations of selection for RFI had an impact on feeding behavior traits and general behavior, and to examine its effect on liver and meat quality. Eighty mule ducks, issued from 8 Muscovy drakes per line with extreme RFI, were tested in a pen equipped with 4 electronic feeders. Feeding behaviors were recorded from 3 to 7 wk after hatching under ad libitum feeding conditions. Then animals were prepared for overfeeding with a 3-week period of restricted feeding, and overfed during 12 d before slaughter. The RFI was significantly lower in the low RFI line than in the high RFI line (-5.4 g/d, P = 0.0005) and daily feed intake was reduced both over the entire test period (-5 g/d, P = 0.049) and on a weekly basis (P = 0.006). Weekly and total feed conversion ratios were also significantly lower (-0.08, P = 0.03 and -0.06, P = 0.01, respectively). Low RFI ducks had more frequent meals, spent as much time eating as high RFI ducks, and their feeding rate was lower when analyzed at the wk level only. Additionally no significant correlation between feed efficiency and feeding behavior traits was evidenced, indicating only limited relationships between RFI and feeding patterns. Some differences in behavioral responses to stressors (open field test combined with a test measuring the response to human presence) suggested that a lower RFI is associated with less fearfulness. Selection for RFI had no effect on liver weight and quality and a slightly deleterious impact on meat quality (decreased drip loss and L*). Finally, low RFI animals had higher body weights after restricted feeding from wk 10 to wk 12 and after overfeeding than high RFI ducks. This suggests that selection for reduced RFI until 7 wk of age increases the feed efficiency up to slaughter. PMID

  10. Impact of selection for residual feed intake on production traits and behavior of mule ducks

    PubMed Central

    Drouilhet, L.; Monteville, R.; Molette, C.; Lague, M.; Cornuez, A.; Canario, L.; Ricard, E.; Gilbert, H.

    2016-01-01

    A divergent selection experiment of Muscovy sires based on the residual feed intake (RFI) of their male mule progeny was initiated in 2009. Using electronic feeders, the aim of this study was to establish whether 3 generations of selection for RFI had an impact on feeding behavior traits and general behavior, and to examine its effect on liver and meat quality. Eighty mule ducks, issued from 8 Muscovy drakes per line with extreme RFI, were tested in a pen equipped with 4 electronic feeders. Feeding behaviors were recorded from 3 to 7 wk after hatching under ad libitum feeding conditions. Then animals were prepared for overfeeding with a 3-week period of restricted feeding, and overfed during 12 d before slaughter. The RFI was significantly lower in the low RFI line than in the high RFI line (−5.4 g/d, P = 0.0005) and daily feed intake was reduced both over the entire test period (−5 g/d, P = 0.049) and on a weekly basis (P = 0.006). Weekly and total feed conversion ratios were also significantly lower (−0.08, P = 0.03 and −0.06, P = 0.01, respectively). Low RFI ducks had more frequent meals, spent as much time eating as high RFI ducks, and their feeding rate was lower when analyzed at the wk level only. Additionally no significant correlation between feed efficiency and feeding behavior traits was evidenced, indicating only limited relationships between RFI and feeding patterns. Some differences in behavioral responses to stressors (open field test combined with a test measuring the response to human presence) suggested that a lower RFI is associated with less fearfulness. Selection for RFI had no effect on liver weight and quality and a slightly deleterious impact on meat quality (decreased drip loss and L*). Finally, low RFI animals had higher body weights after restricted feeding from wk 10 to wk 12 and after overfeeding than high RFI ducks. This suggests that selection for reduced RFI until 7 wk of age increases the feed efficiency up to slaughter

  11. Effect of reduced ferulate-mediated lignin/arabinoxylan cross-linking in corn silage on feed intake, digestibility, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Jung, H G; Mertens, D R; Phillips, R L

    2011-10-01

    . Lambs were less selective against NDF and lignin when offered W23sfe silages. The B73bm3 silage did not affect DMI or digestibility of cell walls at the restricted feeding level, but total daily NDF digested was greater at ad libitum intake. Intake, milk production, and cell wall digestibility were greater for cows fed diets containing W23sfe silages than for those fed W23 silage. Although milk production was greater for the B73bm3 diet, DMI and cell wall digestibility were not altered. Cows were less selective against cell wall material when fed both W23sfe and B73bm3 silages. Reduced ferulate cross-linking in sfe corn silage is a new genetic mechanism for improving milk production.

  12. Center for Electrocatalysis, Transport Phenomena, and Materials (CETM) for Innovative Energy Storage - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Soloveichik, Grigorii

    2015-11-30

    EFRC vision. The direct use of organic hydrides in fuel cells as virtual hydrogen carriers that generate stable organic molecules, protons, and electrons upon electro-oxidation and can be electrochemically charged by re-hydrogenating the oxidized carrier was the major focus of the Center for Electrocatalysis, Transport Phenomena and Materials for Innovative Energy Storage (EFRC-ETM). Compared to a hydrogen-on-demand design that includes thermal decomposition of organic hydrides in a catalytic reactor, the proposed approach is much simpler and does not require additional dehydrogenation catalysts or heat exchangers. Further, this approach utilizes the advantages of a flow battery (i.e., separation of power and energy, ease of transport and storage of liquid fuels) with fuels that have system energy densities similar to current hydrogen PEM fuel cells. EFRC challenges. Two major EFRC challenges were electrocatalysis and transport phenomena. The electrocatalysis challenge addresses fundamental processes which occur at a single molecular catalyst (microscopic level) and involve electron and proton transfer between the hydrogen rich and hydrogen depleted forms of organic liquid fuel and the catalyst. To form stable, non-radical dehydrogenation products from the organic liquid fuel, it is necessary to ensure fast transport of at least two electrons and two protons (per double bond formation). The same is true for the reverse hydrogenation reaction. The transport phenomena challenge addresses transport of electrons to/from the electrocatalyst and the current collector as well as protons across the polymer membrane. Additionally it addresses prevention of organic liquid fuel, water and oxygen transport through the PEM. In this challenge, the transport of protons or molecules involves multiple sites or a continuum (macroscopic level) and water serves as a proton conducting medium for the majority of known sulfonic acid based PEMs. Proton transfer in the presence of

  13. Conceptual design report, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, K.E.

    1994-11-09

    For the next 30 years, the main activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will involve the management, handling, and cleanup of toxic substances. If the DOE is to meet its high standards of safety, the thousands of workers involved in these activities will need systematic training appropriate to their tasks and the risks associated with these tasks. Furthermore, emergency response for DOE shipments is the primary responsibility of state, tribal, and local governments. A collaborative training initiative with the DOE will strengthen emergency response at the Hanford Site and within the regional communities. Local and international labor has joined the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) partnership, and will share in the HAMMER Training Center core programs and facilities using their own specialized trainers and training programs. The HAMMER Training Center will provide a centralized regional site dedicated to the training of hazardous material, emergency response, and fire fighting personnel.

  14. Functional design criteria for the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, P.K.

    1995-03-10

    Within the United States, there are few hands-on training centers capable of providing integrated technical training within a practical application environment. Currently, there are no training facilities that offer both radioactive and chemical hazardous response training. There are no hands-on training centers that provide training for both hazardous material operations and emergency response that also operate as a partnership between organized labor, state agencies, tribes, and local emergency responders within the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Available facilities appear grossly inadequate for training the thousands of people at Hanford, and throughout the Pacific Northwest, who are required to qualify under nationally-mandated requirements. It is estimated that 4,000 workers at the Hanford Site alone need hands-on training. Throughout the Pacific Northwest, the potential target audience would be over 30,000 public sector emergency response personnel, as well as another 10,000 clean-up workers represented by organized labor. The HAMMER Training Center will be an interagency-sponsored training center. It will be designed, built, and operated to ensure that clean-up workers, fire fighters, and public sector management and emergency response personnel are trained to handle accidental spills of hazardous materials. Training will cover wastes at clean-up sites, and in jurisdictions along the transportation corridors, to effectively protect human life, property, and the environment.

  15. Project plan, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center: Project 95L-EWT-100

    SciTech Connect

    Borgeson, M.E.

    1994-11-09

    The Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center will provide for classroom lectures and hands-on practical training in realistic situations for workers and emergency responders who are tasked with handling and cleanup of toxic substances. The primary objective of the HAMMER project is to provide hands-on training and classroom facilities for hazardous material workers and emergency responders. This project will also contribute towards complying with the planning and training provisions of recent legislation. In March 1989 Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations Occupational Safety and Health Administration 1910 Rules and National Fire Protection Association Standard 472 defined professional requirements for responders to hazardous materials incidents. Two general types of training are addressed for hazardous materials: training for hazardous waste site workers and managers, and training for emergency response organizations.

  16. The product composition regions of azeotropic distillation columns. 2. Separability in two-feed columns and entrainer selection

    SciTech Connect

    Wahnschafft, O.M.; Westerberg, A.W. . Engineering Design Research Center and Department of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-06-01

    A method to assess the product composition regions for distillation of ternary mixtures in single-feed distillation columns, introduced in the first paper of this series, is generalized to account for the effect of introducing multiple feeds of different trays. The method relies on so-called fixed point curves which are trajectories in the compositions space. These trajectories describe the possible compositions of pinch points in each column section as functions of the energy supplied to a column, i.e., for all conceivable values of the reflux ratio. Pinch point trajectories may be determined analytically or, for ternary mixtures, can be located graphically using residue curve maps. The authors carry out a mostly graphical analysis, using pinch point trajectories to establish separation feasibility ahead of design calculations. This analysis also provides information on the minimum entrainer supply for a specified separation and visualizes the phenomenon of the occurrence of a maximum reflux ratio for separation in a column with a separate, extractive agent feed. The analysis is analogous to that for single-feed columns, only the critical pinch trajectories may be those for the extractive column section between the feeds. This analogy suggests the notion of a generalized extractive distillation process, for which new entrainer selection criteria are proposed.

  17. Space Product Development of Commercial NLO Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, Donald O.; Paley, Mark S.; Penn, Benjamin G.; Abdeldayem, Hossin A.; Smith, David D.; Witherow, William K.

    1998-01-01

    Growth on selected substrates under various processing conditions have been useful for preparing highly oriented and otherwise promising films of organic compounds for optical thin films and waveguides. The significance of processing conditions to uniformity in thickness, degree of orientation, film quality, and optical properties for a specific processing technique is the general focus of work in this area. A study on the effect of processing conditions relevant to thin-film deposition by various techniques is particularly difficult because of the possibility that convection may play a major role in some cases. It is a goal of some researchers to produce good quality anisotropic films, therefore, an important, yet understudied, requirement should be to assess the role of gravity during certain processing methods. This may be particularly true for the vapor deposition of diacetylenes where subsequent polymerization in the crystal is topochemical and occurs readily only when neighboring monomer molecules are sufficiently close and suitably oriented. Likewise, this requirement is equally viable for the vapor deposition of certain materials such as Pcs in view of the results of microgravity experiments by 3M Corporation involving the preparation of thin films of copper Pc (CuPc). Microgravity-grown CuPc had several desirable features which indicate that the vapor growth of organic films in low-g may result in better quality films for optical and electrical applications. Indeed, other materials vapor deposited onto specific substrates in microgravity produce films potentially beneficial for electro-optic applications. A novel technique, recently discovered, for growing polydiacetylene thin films involves exposing a transparent substrate, in contact with diacetylene monomer solution, to ultraviolet (LTV) light. A polymer film deposits on the side of the substrate in contact with monomer in solution, and there are distinct gravitational effects, which influence film

  18. Evaluation of a fungal collection as certified reference material producer and as a biological resource center.

    PubMed

    Forti, Tatiana; Souto, Aline da S S; do Nascimento, Carlos Roberto S; Nishikawa, Marilia M; Hubner, Marise T W; Sabagh, Fernanda P; Temporal, Rosane Maria; Rodrigues, Janaína M; da Silva, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Considering the absence of standards for culture collections and more specifically for biological resource centers in the world, in addition to the absence of certified biological material in Brazil, this study aimed to evaluate a Fungal Collection from Fiocruz, as a producer of certified reference material and as Biological Resource Center (BRC). For this evaluation, a checklist based on the requirements of ABNT ISO GUIA34:2012 correlated with the ABNT NBR ISO/IEC17025:2005, was designed and applied. Complementing the implementation of the checklist, an internal audit was performed. An evaluation of this Collection as a BRC was also conducted following the requirements of the NIT-DICLA-061, the Brazilian internal standard from Inmetro, based on ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005, ABNT ISO GUIA 34:2012 and OECD Best Practice Guidelines for BRCs. This was the first time that the NIT DICLA-061 was applied in a culture collection during an internal audit. The assessments enabled the proposal for the adequacy of this Collection to assure the implementation of the management system for their future accreditation by Inmetro as a certified reference material producer as well as its future accreditation as a Biological Resource Center according to the NIT-DICLA-061. PMID:26991280

  19. An analysis of dioxin production as a function of chlorine feed

    SciTech Connect

    Liberson, G.L.; Belanger, W.D.

    1996-12-31

    The effectiveness of decreasing dioxin emissions by reducing incinerator chlorine feeds is the subject of a continuing debate. This paper presents an analysis of the relationship between PCDD/PCDF emissions and chlorine feed at a single hazardous waste incinerator. The data used in this analysis were taken from multiple test series, conducted over a 13 month period, at a hazardous waste incinerator that employs an activated carbon injection system for supplemental control of PCDD/PCDFs. The chlorine feed rates range between 0 and 3,304 pounds per hour, and the PCDD/PCDF emission rates range between 0.7 and 39.0 ng/DSCM {at} 7% O{sub 2}. This analysis reveals that, for a modern hazardous waste incinerator using carbon injection, there is no correlation between dioxin emissions and chlorine feed.

  20. Development of feeding systems and strategies of supplementation to enhance rumen fermentation and ruminant production in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, Metha; Kang, Sungchhang; Polyorach, Sineenart

    2013-01-01

    The availability of local feed resources in various seasons can contribute as essential sources of carbohydrate and protein which significantly impact rumen fermentation and the subsequent productivity of the ruminant. Recent developments, based on enriching protein in cassava chips, have yielded yeast fermented cassava chip protein (YEFECAP) providing up to 47.5% crude protein (CP), which can be used to replace soybean meal. The use of fodder trees has been developed through the process of pelleting; Leucaena leucocephala leaf pellets (LLP), mulberry leaf pellets (MUP) and mangosteen peel and/or garlic pellets, can be used as good sources of protein to supplement ruminant feeding. Apart from producing volatile fatty acids and microbial proteins, greenhouse gases such as methane are also produced in the rumen. Several methods have been used to reduce rumen methane. However, among many approaches, nutritional manipulation using feed formulation and feeding management, especially the use of plant extracts or plants containing secondary compounds (condensed tannins and saponins) and plant oils, has been reported. This approach could help todecrease rumen protozoa and methanogens and thus mitigate the production of methane. At present, more research concerning this burning issue - the role of livestock in global warming - warrants undertaking further research with regard to economic viability and practical feasibility. PMID:23981662

  1. Protein feeding promotes redistribution of endogenous glucose production to the kidney and potentiates its suppression by insulin.

    PubMed

    Pillot, Bruno; Soty, Maud; Gautier-Stein, Amandine; Zitoun, Carine; Mithieux, Gilles

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess in rats the effect of protein feeding on the: 1) distribution of endogenous glucose production (EGP) among gluconeogenic organs, and 2) repercussion on the insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism. We used gene expression analyses, a combination of glucose tracer dilution and arteriovenous balance to quantify specific organ release, and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps to assess EGP and glucose uptake. Protein feeding promoted a dramatic induction of the main regulatory gluconeogenic genes (glucose-6 phosphatase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) in the kidney, but not in the liver. As a consequence, the kidney glucose release was markedly increased, compared with rats fed a normal starch diet. Protein feeding ameliorated the suppression of EGP by insulin and the sparing of glycogen storage in the liver but had no effect on glucose uptake. Combined with the previously reported induction of gluconeogenesis in the small intestine, the present work strongly suggests that a redistribution of glucose production among gluconeogenic organs might occur upon protein feeding. This phenomenon is in keeping with the improvement of insulin sensitivity of EGP, most likely involving the hepatic site. These data shed a new light on the improvement of glucose tolerance, previously observed upon increasing the amount of protein in the diet, in type 2 diabetic patients.

  2. Site-specific economic and ecological analysis of enhanced production, upgrade and feed-in of biomethane from organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Lindorfer, J; Schwarz, M M

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyses the cost structure and ecological performance of biomethane production and feed-in from organic wastes and manure in a site-specific approach for Upper Austria. The theoretically available quantities of biowaste and manure can feed representative biogas plant capacities resulting in relatively high biomethane full costs in the natural gas grid of at least 9.0 €-cents/kWh, which shows strong economies of scale when feed-in flows of methane from 30 to 120 Nm(3)/h are considered. From the ecological point of view small plant capacities are to be preferred since the environmental effect, i.e. the global warming potential (up to -22% of CO(2eq)), is lower in comparison to higher capacities as a consequence of reduced transport in the evaluated scenarios. To enforce the combined energetic use of the biowaste fraction, co-operation between compost facility, gas grid and biogas plant operators is necessary to use existing infrastructure, logistics and knowledge to promote the production, upgrade and feed-in of biomethane from biowastes at attractive locations in Upper Austria and in the whole of Europe. PMID:23202576

  3. Status of Solar Sail Material Characterization at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Semmel, Charles; Hovater, Mary; Nehles, Mary; Gray, Perry; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George

    2004-01-01

    Near term solar sail propelled science missions are targeting the Lagrange point 1 (Ll) as well as locations sunward of L1 as destinations. These near term missions include the Solar Polar Imager' and the L1 Diamond '. The Environmental Effects Group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to actively characterize solar sail material in preparation for these near term solar sail missions. Previous investigations indicated that space environmental effects on sail material thermo-optical properties were minimal and would not significantly affect the propulsion efficiency of the sail. These investigations also indicated that the sail material mechanical stability degrades with increasing radiation exposure. This paper will further quantify the effect of space environmental exposure on the mechanical properties of candidate sail materials. Candidate sail materials for these missions include Aluminum coated Mylar(TradeMark), Teonex(TraeMark), and CP1 (Colorless Polyimide). Experimental data will be presented on sail material response to charged particle radiation and subsequent Hypervelocity Impact (HVI). Data will also be presented indicating mechanical property variations in sail material resulting from electron exposure, proton exposure, and a combined electron and proton exposure. Tabular data consisting of areal density, thickness, thermo-optical, mechanical, and electrical properties, vacuum stability and outgassing will be presented.

  4. Center for Fundamental and Applied Research in Nanostructured and Lightweight Materials. Final Technical Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, Michael; Rogers, Tony; King, Julia; Keith, Jason; Cornilsen, Bahne; Allen, Jeffrey; Gilbert, Ryan; Holles, Joseph

    2010-09-28

    The core projects for this DOE-sponsored Center at Michigan Tech have focused on several of the materials problems identified by the NAS. These include: new electrode materials, enhanced PEM materials, lighter and more effective bipolar plates, and improvement of the carbon used as a current carrier. This project involved fundamental and applied research in the development and testing of lightweight and nanostructured materials to be used in fuel cell applications and for chemical synthesis. The advent of new classes of materials engineered at the nanometer level can produce materials that are lightweight and have unique physical and chemical properties. The grant was used to obtain and improve the equipment infrastructure to support this research and also served to fund seven research projects. These included: 1. Development of lightweight, thermally conductive bipolar plates for improved thermal management in fuel cells; 2. Exploration of pseudomorphic nanoscale overlayer bimetallic catalysts for fuel cells; 3. Development of hybrid inorganic/organic polymer nanocomposites with improved ionic and electronic properties; 4. Development of oriented polymeric materials for membrane applications; 5. Preparation of a graphitic carbon foam current collectors; 6. The development of lightweight carbon electrodes using graphitic carbon foams for battery and fuel cell applications; and 7. Movement of water in fuel cell electrodes.

  5. Workshop on Production and Uses of Simulated Lunar Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A workshop entitled, Production and Uses of Simulated Lunar Materials, was convened to define the need for simulated lunar materials and examine related issues in support of extended space exploration and development. Lunar samples are a national treasure and cannot be sacrificed in sufficient quantity to test lunar resource utilization process adequately. Hence, the workshop focused on a detailed examination of the variety of potential simulants and the methods for their production.

  6. Science-Ready Data Production in the DKIST Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reardon, Kevin; Berukoff, Steven; Hays, Tony; Spiess, DJ; Watson, Fraser

    2015-08-01

    The NSO's new flagship solar observatory, the four-meter Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope is under construction on Halekalala, Hawaii and slated for first light in 2019. The facility will operate an initial suite of five complementary spectroscopic and polarimetric instruments, with up to 11 detectors running simultaneously at typical cadences of 5-30 frames per second, or more. The instruments will generate data of notable volume, dimensionality, cardinality, and diversity. The facility is expected to record several hundred million images per year, for a total data volume in excess of 4 petabytes.Beyond the crucial informatics infrastructure necessary to transport, store, and curate this deluge of data, there are significant challenges in developing the robust calibration workflows that can autonomously process the range of data to generate science-ready datasets for a heterogeneous and growing community. Efforts will be made to improve our ability to compensate for the effects of the Earth's atmosphere, to identify and assess instrument and facility contributions to the measured signal, and to use of quality and fitness-of-use metrics to characterize and advertise datasets.In this talk, we will provide an overview of the methods and tools we are using to define and evaluate the calibration workflows. We will review the type of datasets that may be made available to scientists at the time of the initial operations of DKIST, as well as the potential mechanisms for the search and delivery of those data products. We will also suggest some of the likely secondary data products that could possibly be developed successively in collaboration with the community.

  7. Chemical conversion of energetic materials to higher value products

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, A. R., LLNL

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this project is to develop new and innovative solutions for the disposal of surplus energetic materials. Disposal through open burning/open detonation (OB/OD) is less attractive today due to environmental, cost and safety concerns. We are examining the use of military high explosives as raw materials for the production of higher value products useful in civilian and military applications. We have developed scenarios where Explosive D and TNT can be used as raw materials for industrial processes to produce higher value products. 1,2 The use of Explosive D as a precursor to picramide, an intermediate potentially useful for the production of many higher value products, is illustrated in Figure 1.

  8. Process for Low Cost Domestic Production of LIB Cathode Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Thurston, Anthony

    2012-10-31

    The objective of the research was to determine the best low cost method for the large scale production of the Nickel-Cobalt-Manganese (NCM) layered cathode materials. The research and development focused on scaling up the licensed technology from Argonne National Laboratory in BASF’s battery material pilot plant in Beachwood Ohio. Since BASF did not have experience with the large scale production of the NCM cathode materials there was a significant amount of development that was needed to support BASF’s already existing research program. During the three year period BASF was able to develop and validate production processes for the NCM 111, 523 and 424 materials as well as begin development of the High Energy NCM. BASF also used this time period to provide free cathode material samples to numerous manufactures, OEM’s and research companies in order to validate the ma-terials. The success of the project can be demonstrated by the construction of the production plant in Elyria Ohio and the successful operation of that facility. The benefit of the project to the public will begin to be apparent as soon as material from the production plant is being used in electric vehicles.

  9. Production of modern functional materials based on renewable vegetable resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onishchenko, D. V.; Reva, V. P.

    2013-05-01

    An energy-saving technology for production of variously structured carbon modifications from a renewable vegetable raw material, i.e., the waste of agricultural crops and peat moss, has been developed. Promising functional materials — refractory compounds (tungsten and titanium carbides) and oil sorbents possessing a combination of high operating characteristics — have been formed on the basis of the synthesized carbon modifications.

  10. Toxicity of the pyrolysis products of spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    A number of spacecraft construction materials are evaluated for the toxic effects of their thermodegradation products on rats. Pyrolysis toxicity testing of pyrolysate fumes establish carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen cyanide as the most common intoxicating agents. Generally, COHb levels of animals expiring in the test chamber suggest higher concentrations of CO are produced with larger samples of most materials.

  11. Effects of feeding diets varying in energy and nutrient density to Hy-Line W-36 laying hens on production performance and economics.

    PubMed

    dePersio, S; Utterback, P L; Utterback, C W; Rochell, S J; O'Sullivan, N; Bregendahl, K; Arango, J; Parsons, C M; Koelkebeck, K W

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of feeding 5 different energy and nutrient dense diets to Hy-Line W-36 hens on long-term performance and economics. A total of 480 19 wk old Hy-Line W-36 Single Comb White Leghorn hens were weighed and randomly allocated to 6 replicate groups of 16 hens each (2 adjacent cages containing 8 hens per cage, 60.9×58.4 cm) per dietary treatment in a randomized complete block design. The hens were fed 5 treatment diets formulated to contain 85, 90, 95, 100, and 105% of the energy and nutrient recommendations stated in the 2009 Hy-Line Variety W-36 Commercial Management Guide. Production performance was measured for 52 wk from 19 to 70 wk age. Over the course of the trial, a significant increasing linear response to increasing energy and nutrient density was seen for hen-day egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed efficiency, energy intake, and body weight (BW). Feed intake showed no significant linear level response to increasing energy and nutrient density except during the early production cycle. No consistent responses were noted for egg quality, percent yolk, and percent egg solids throughout the study. Significant linear responses due to energy and nutrient density were seen for egg income, feed cost, and income minus feed cost. In general, as energy and nutrient density increased, egg income and feed cost per hen increased, but income minus feed cost decreased. Overall, these results indicate that feeding Hy-Line W-36 hens increasing energy and nutrient-dense diets will increase egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed efficiency, energy intake, BW, egg income, and feed cost, but decrease egg income minus feed cost. However, these benefits do not take effect in early production and seem to be most effective in later stages of the production cycle, perhaps "priming" the birds for better egg-production persistency with age. PMID:25595478

  12. Effects of feeding diets varying in energy and nutrient density to Hy-Line W-36 laying hens on production performance and economics.

    PubMed

    dePersio, S; Utterback, P L; Utterback, C W; Rochell, S J; O'Sullivan, N; Bregendahl, K; Arango, J; Parsons, C M; Koelkebeck, K W

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of feeding 5 different energy and nutrient dense diets to Hy-Line W-36 hens on long-term performance and economics. A total of 480 19 wk old Hy-Line W-36 Single Comb White Leghorn hens were weighed and randomly allocated to 6 replicate groups of 16 hens each (2 adjacent cages containing 8 hens per cage, 60.9×58.4 cm) per dietary treatment in a randomized complete block design. The hens were fed 5 treatment diets formulated to contain 85, 90, 95, 100, and 105% of the energy and nutrient recommendations stated in the 2009 Hy-Line Variety W-36 Commercial Management Guide. Production performance was measured for 52 wk from 19 to 70 wk age. Over the course of the trial, a significant increasing linear response to increasing energy and nutrient density was seen for hen-day egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed efficiency, energy intake, and body weight (BW). Feed intake showed no significant linear level response to increasing energy and nutrient density except during the early production cycle. No consistent responses were noted for egg quality, percent yolk, and percent egg solids throughout the study. Significant linear responses due to energy and nutrient density were seen for egg income, feed cost, and income minus feed cost. In general, as energy and nutrient density increased, egg income and feed cost per hen increased, but income minus feed cost decreased. Overall, these results indicate that feeding Hy-Line W-36 hens increasing energy and nutrient-dense diets will increase egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed efficiency, energy intake, BW, egg income, and feed cost, but decrease egg income minus feed cost. However, these benefits do not take effect in early production and seem to be most effective in later stages of the production cycle, perhaps "priming" the birds for better egg-production persistency with age.

  13. Application of low-cost algal nitrogen source feeding in fuel ethanol production using high gravity sweet potato medium.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu; Guo, Jin-Song; Chen, You-Peng; Zhang, Hai-Dong; Zheng, Xu-Xu; Zhang, Xian-Ming; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2012-08-31

    Protein-rich bloom algae biomass was employed as nitrogen source in fuel ethanol fermentation using high gravity sweet potato medium containing 210.0 g l(-1) glucose. In batch mode, the fermentation could not accomplish even in 120 h without any feeding of nitrogen source. While, the feeding of acid-hydrolyzed bloom algae powder (AHBAP) notably promoted fermentation process but untreated bloom algae powder (UBAP) was less effective than AHBAP. The fermentation times were reduced to 96, 72, and 72 h if 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 g l(-1) AHBAP were added into medium, respectively, and the ethanol yields and productivities increased with increasing amount of feeding AHBAP. The continuous fermentations were performed in a three-stage reactor system. Final concentrations of ethanol up to 103.2 and 104.3 g l(-1) with 4.4 and 5.3 g l(-1) residual glucose were obtained using the previously mentioned medium feeding with 20.0 and 30.0 g l(-1) AHBAP, at dilution rate of 0.02 h(-1). Notably, only 78.5 g l(-1) ethanol and 41.6 g l(-1) residual glucose were obtained in the comparative test without any nitrogen source feeding. Amino acids analysis showed that approximately 67% of the protein in the algal biomass was hydrolyzed and released into the medium, serving as the available nitrogen nutrition for yeast growth and metabolism. Both batch and continuous fermentations showed similar fermentation parameters when 20.0 and 30.0 g l(-1) AHBAP were fed, indicating that the level of available nitrogen in the medium should be limited, and an algal nitrogen source feeding amount higher than 20.0 g l(-1) did not further improve the fermentation performance.

  14. Materials characterization of dusts generated by the collapse of the World Trade Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meeker, Gregory P.; Sutley, Stephen J.; Brownfield, Isabelle; Lowers, Heather; Bern, Amy M.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Clark, Roger N.; Gent, Carol A.

    2009-01-01

    The major inorganic components of the dusts generated from the collapse of the World Trade Center buildings on September 11, 2001 were concrete materials, gypsum, and man-made vitreous fibers. These components were likely derived from lightweight Portland cement concrete floors, gypsum wallboard, and spray-on fireproofing and ceiling tiles, respectively. All of the 36 samples collected by the USGS team had these materials as the three major inorganic components of the dust. Components found at minor and trace levels include chrysotile asbestos, lead, crystalline silica, and particles of iron and zinc oxides. Other heavy metals, such as lead, bismuth, copper, molybdenum, chromium, and nickel, were present at much lower levels occurring in a variety of chemical forms. Several of these materials have health implications based on their chemical composition, morphology, and bioaccessibility.

  15. Tomato seeds as a novel by-product feed for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cassinerio, C A; Fadel, J G; Asmus, J; Heguy, J M; Taylor, S J; DePeters, E J

    2015-07-01

    Whole tomato seeds, a novel by-product feedstuff, were fed to lactating Holstein cows to determine the nutritive value of whole tomato seeds by replacing whole cottonseed in the total mixed ration. Four primiparous and 4 multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design and fed 1 of 4 total mixed rations. Whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed on a weight-to-weight basis for lipid. The proportion of whole tomato seeds to whole cottonseed in the diets were 100:0, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100 on a lipid basis. Thus, tomato seeds were 4.0, 2.4, 1.1, and 0% of the ration dry matter, respectively. Milk yield and the concentrations and yields of protein, lactose, and solids-not-fat did not differ for the effect of diet. However, milk fat concentration decreased and milk fat yield tended to decrease as whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed. Intakes of dry matter, lipid, and crude protein did not differ. Whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter and ash-free neutral detergent fiber did not differ, but digestibility of total fatty acids and crude protein decreased with increasing proportion of whole tomato seeds. Urea concentration in milk and plasma both decreased with increasing whole tomato seeds. Fecal concentration of linoleic and α-linolenic acids increased with increasing whole tomato seeds, suggesting that seeds were passing out of the digestive tract undigested. The concentrations of C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 in milk fat had small increases, but their yields were not different, suggesting that only a small amount of whole-tomato-seed lipid might have been digested postruminally. Amounts of trans C18:1 fatty acids in milk fat were higher with increasing whole cottonseed, which might suggest a shift in rumen biohydrogenation pathways. At the level of feeding used in the current study, whole tomato seeds replaced whole cottonseed in the diet of lactating dairy cows without a change in production.

  16. Feeding saponin-containing Yucca schidigera and Quillaja saponaria to decrease enteric methane production in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Holtshausen, L; Chaves, A V; Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M; McAllister, T A; Odongo, N E; Cheeke, P R; Benchaar, C

    2009-06-01

    An experiment was conducted in vitro to determine whether the addition of saponin-containing Yucca schidigera or Quillaja saponaria reduces methane production without impairing ruminal fermentation or fiber digestion. A slightly lower dose of saponin was then fed to lactating dairy cows to evaluate effects on ruminal fermentation, methane production, total-tract nutrient digestibility, and milk production and composition. A 24-h batch culture in vitro incubation was conducted in a completely randomized design with a control (no additive, CON) and 3 doses of either saponin source [15, 30, and 45 g/kg of substrate dry matter (DM)] using buffered ruminal fluid from 3 dairy cows. The in vivo study was conducted as a crossover design with 2 groups of cows, 3 treatments, and three 28-d periods. Six ruminally cannulated cows were used in group 1 and 6 intact cows in group 2 (627 +/- 55 kg of body weight and 155 +/- 28 d in milk). The treatments were 1) early lactation total mixed ration, no additive (control; CON); 2) CON diet supplemented with whole-plant Y. schidigera powder at 10 g/kg of DM (YS); and 3) CON diet supplemented with whole-plant Q. saponaria powder at 10 g/kg of DM (QS). Methane production was measured in environmental chambers and with the sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)) tracer technique. In vitro, increasing levels of both saponin sources decreased methane concentration in the headspace and increased the proportion of propionate in the buffered rumen fluid. Concentration of ammonia-N, acetate proportion, and the acetate:propionate ratio in the buffered rumen fluid as well as 24-h digestible neutral detergent fiber were reduced compared with the CON treatment. Medium and high saponin levels decreased DM digestibility compared with the CON treatment. A lower feeding rate of both saponin sources (10 g/kg of DM) was used in vivo in an attempt to avoid potentially negative effects of higher saponin levels on feed digestibility. Feeding saponin did not affect milk

  17. Products of combustion of non-metallic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Cortes L.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate methodologies for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the gaseous products of combustion of non-metallic materials of interest to the aerospace community. The goal is to develop instrumentation and analysis procedures which qualitatively and quantitatively identify gaseous products evolved by thermal decomposition and provide NASA a detailed system operating procedure.

  18. 46 CFR 340.8 - Priorities for materials and production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Administrator, in accordance with the Defense Priorities and Allocation System (15 CFR part 330 et seq. (49 FR... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Priorities for materials and production. 340.8 Section... production. (a) Vessel operators, port authorities and container and chassis suppliers may request...

  19. Application of continuous substrate feeding to the ABE fermentation: Relief of product inhibition using extraction, perstraction, stripping, and pervaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Qureshi, N.; Maddox, I.S.; Friedl, A.

    1992-09-01

    The technique of continuous substrate feeding has been applied to the batch fermentation process using freely suspended cells, for ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) production. To avoid the product inhibition which normally restricts ABE production to less than 20 g/L and sugar utilization to 60 g/L, a product removal technique has been integrated into the fermentation process. The techniques investigated were liquid-liquid extraction, perstraction, gas-stripping, and pervaporation. By using a substrate of whey permeate, the reactor productivity has been improved over that observed in a traditional batch fermentation, while equivalent lactose utilization and ABE production values of 180 g and 69 g, respectively, have been achieved in a 1-L culture volume. 17 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Chemical Conversion of Energetic Materials to Higher Value Products

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, A R; Hsu, P C; Coburn, M D; Schmidt, R D; Pagoria, P F; Lee, G S

    2005-04-19

    The objective of this program is to develop new processes for the disposal of surplus energetic materials. Disposal through open burning/open detonation (OB/OD) is considered less attractive today due to environmental, cost and safety concerns. The use of energetic materials as chemical feedstocks for higher value products can provide environmentally sound and cost-effective alternatives to OB/OD. Our recent studies on the conversion of surplus energetic materials (Explosive D, TNT) to higher value products will be described.

  1. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  2. Development Status for the Stennis Space Center LIDAR Product Characterization Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanoni, Vicki; Berglund, Judith; Ross, Kenton

    2004-01-01

    The presentation describes efforts to develop a LIDAR in-flight product characterization range at Stennis Space Center as the next phase of the NASA Verification and Validation activities. It describes the status of surveying efforts on targets of interest to LIDAR vendors as well as the potential guidelines that will be used for product characterization.

  3. The Use and Value of Defense Technical Information Center Products and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roderer, Nancy K.; And Others

    This study describes the use and value of the major information products and services provided by the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC). These products and services include technical report distribution on an on-demand basis and through the Automatic Document Distribution (ADD) program; secondary information dissemination through online…

  4. Effects of feeding rumen-degradable valine on milk production in late-lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hultquist, Kayla M; Casper, David P

    2016-02-01

    The study objective was to determine if feeding the rumen-degradable AA Val can increase milk production comparable to recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST). Eight multiparous late-lactating (255±26.4 d in milk) Holstein dairy cows were blocked by milk yield (34.1±8.25 kg/d) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods (7 d for dietary adaptation and 14 d for data collection). Treatments were control (CON), a single injection of recombinant bST (rbST), and Val fed at 40 (V40) and 80 g/d (V80). Cows were fed a total mixed ration with a distillers dried grains carrier at 113.4 g/d containing none or added AA. Dry matter intake (21.3, 22.0, 22.8, and 21.5 kg/d for CON, rbST, V40, and V80, respectively) was similar among treatments, except cows receiving V40 had greater dry matter intake than cows receiving V80. Milk yield (22.0, 26.1, 25.2, and 24.9 kg/d), 3.5% fat-corrected milk (22.1, 25.4, 24.4, and 24.3 kg/d), and energy-corrected milk (22.7, 26.1, 25.1, and 24.9 kg/d) were increased at similar amounts for cows receiving rbST, V40, and V80 compared with CON cows. Milk fat percentages (3.51, 3.36, 3.32, and 3.38%) were greatest for CON cows compared with cows receiving V40, whereas cows receiving other treatments were intermediate and similar. Milk protein percentages (3.20, 3.12, 3.15, and 3.13%) were greater for CON cows compared with cows receiving rbST and V40, whereas cows receiving V80 were intermediate and similar. Ruminal isobutyrate (1.19, 1.24, 1.44, and 1.74 mol/100 mol) concentrations were increased for cows receiving V40 and V80 compared with CON and rbST cows, with cows receiving V80 having greater concentrations than cows receiving V40. Plasma growth hormone concentrations (1.78, 1.99, 1.55, and 1.45 ng/mL) were greater for cows receiving rbST compared with cows receiving V40 and V80, whereas CON cows were intermediate and similar. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations (60.4, 106

  5. Effects of feeding rumen-degradable valine on milk production in late-lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hultquist, Kayla M; Casper, David P

    2016-02-01

    The study objective was to determine if feeding the rumen-degradable AA Val can increase milk production comparable to recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST). Eight multiparous late-lactating (255±26.4 d in milk) Holstein dairy cows were blocked by milk yield (34.1±8.25 kg/d) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21-d periods (7 d for dietary adaptation and 14 d for data collection). Treatments were control (CON), a single injection of recombinant bST (rbST), and Val fed at 40 (V40) and 80 g/d (V80). Cows were fed a total mixed ration with a distillers dried grains carrier at 113.4 g/d containing none or added AA. Dry matter intake (21.3, 22.0, 22.8, and 21.5 kg/d for CON, rbST, V40, and V80, respectively) was similar among treatments, except cows receiving V40 had greater dry matter intake than cows receiving V80. Milk yield (22.0, 26.1, 25.2, and 24.9 kg/d), 3.5% fat-corrected milk (22.1, 25.4, 24.4, and 24.3 kg/d), and energy-corrected milk (22.7, 26.1, 25.1, and 24.9 kg/d) were increased at similar amounts for cows receiving rbST, V40, and V80 compared with CON cows. Milk fat percentages (3.51, 3.36, 3.32, and 3.38%) were greatest for CON cows compared with cows receiving V40, whereas cows receiving other treatments were intermediate and similar. Milk protein percentages (3.20, 3.12, 3.15, and 3.13%) were greater for CON cows compared with cows receiving rbST and V40, whereas cows receiving V80 were intermediate and similar. Ruminal isobutyrate (1.19, 1.24, 1.44, and 1.74 mol/100 mol) concentrations were increased for cows receiving V40 and V80 compared with CON and rbST cows, with cows receiving V80 having greater concentrations than cows receiving V40. Plasma growth hormone concentrations (1.78, 1.99, 1.55, and 1.45 ng/mL) were greater for cows receiving rbST compared with cows receiving V40 and V80, whereas CON cows were intermediate and similar. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations (60.4, 106

  6. Growth performance of early-weaned pigs is enhanced by feeding epidermal growth factor-expressing Lactococcus lactis fermentation product.

    PubMed

    Bedford, Andrea; Huynh, Evanna; Fu, Molei; Zhu, Cuilan; Wey, Doug; de Lange, Cornelis; Li, Julang

    2014-03-10

    We have previously generated epidermal growth factor expressing Lactococcus lactis (EGF-LL) using bioengineering approach, and shown that feeding newly-weaned piglets EGF-LL improves digestive function. To address concerns over the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO), the objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of feeding the EGF-LL fermentation product, after removal of the genetically modified EGF-LL, on growth performance and intestine development of newly-weaned piglets. One hundred and twenty newly-weaned piglets were fed ad libitum according to a 2-phase feeding program. Four pens were assigned to each of three treatments: (1) complete EGF-LL fermentation product (Ferm), (2) supernatant of EGF-LL fermentation product, after removal of EGF-LL (Supern), or (3) blank M17GE media (Control). EGF-LL or its fermented supernatant was administrated to piglets in the first 3 weeks post-weaning; their growth performance was monitored throughout treatment, and for the following week. Daily body weight gain (254.8g vs. 200.5g) and Gain:Feed (0.541kg/kg vs. 0.454kg/kg) of pigs on the Supern group were significantly improved compared to that of Control, although no difference was observed between the Ferm and Control pigs. Intestinal sucrase activity was increased in Supern- compared to Control group (166.3±62.1 vs. 81.4±56.5nmol glucose released/mg protein; P<0.05). The lack of growth response with Ferm pigs may be attributed to an overload of bacteria (daily dose included 4.56×10(10)CFU/kg BW/day EGF-LL). These results suggest that GMO-free EGF-LL fermentation product is effective in increasing growth performance of early-weaned piglets.

  7. A High Temperature Cyclic Oxidation Data Base for Selected Materials Tested at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Charles A.

    2003-01-01

    The cyclic oxidation test results for some 1000 high temperature commercial and experimental alloys have been collected in an EXCEL database. This database represents over thirty years of research at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The data is in the form of a series of runs of specific weight change versus time values for a set of samples tested at a given temperature, cycle time, and exposure time. Included on each run is a set of embedded plots of the critical data. The nature of the data is discussed along with analysis of the cyclic oxidation process. In addition examples are given as to how a set of results can be analyzed. The data is assembled on a read-only compact disk which is available on request from Materials Durability Branch, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio.

  8. Consequences of the ban of by-products from terrestrial animals in livestock feeding in Germany and the European Union: alternatives, nutrient and energy cycles, plant production, and economic aspects.

    PubMed

    Rodehutscord, M; Abel, H J; Friedt, W; Wenk, C; Flachowsky, G; Ahlgrimm, H J; Johnke, B; Kühl, R; Breves, G

    2002-04-01

    or rotation furnace if heat is the main energy required. In contrast, the energetic efficiency of fermentation is low. (4.) Incineration or co-incineration of MBM and other by-products causes pollution gas emissions amounting to about 1.4 kg CO2 and 0.2 kg NOx per kg. The CO2 production as such is hardly disadvantageous, because heat and electrical energy can be generated by the combustion process. The prevention of dangerous gaseous emissions from MBM burning is current standard in the incineration plants in Germany and does not affect the environment inadmissibly. (5.) The effects of the MBM ban on the price for compound feed is not very significant. Obviously, substitution possibilities between different feed ingredients helped to exchange MBM without large price distortions. However, with each kg MBM not used in pig and poultry feeding economic losses of about 0.14 [symbol: see text] have to considered. In conclusion, the by far highest proportion of raw materials for MBM comes as by-products from the slaughter process. Coming this way, and assuring that further treatment is safe from the hygienic point of view, MBM and animal fat can be regarded as valuable sources of amino acids, minerals and energy in feeding pigs and poultry. Using them as feedstuffs could considerably contribute to the goal of keeping limited nutrients, phosphorus in particular, within the nutrient cycle and dealing responsible with limited resources. PMID:12389223

  9. Consequences of the ban of by-products from terrestrial animals in livestock feeding in Germany and the European Union: alternatives, nutrient and energy cycles, plant production, and economic aspects.

    PubMed

    Rodehutscord, M; Abel, H J; Friedt, W; Wenk, C; Flachowsky, G; Ahlgrimm, H J; Johnke, B; Kühl, R; Breves, G

    2002-04-01

    or rotation furnace if heat is the main energy required. In contrast, the energetic efficiency of fermentation is low. (4.) Incineration or co-incineration of MBM and other by-products causes pollution gas emissions amounting to about 1.4 kg CO2 and 0.2 kg NOx per kg. The CO2 production as such is hardly disadvantageous, because heat and electrical energy can be generated by the combustion process. The prevention of dangerous gaseous emissions from MBM burning is current standard in the incineration plants in Germany and does not affect the environment inadmissibly. (5.) The effects of the MBM ban on the price for compound feed is not very significant. Obviously, substitution possibilities between different feed ingredients helped to exchange MBM without large price distortions. However, with each kg MBM not used in pig and poultry feeding economic losses of about 0.14 [symbol: see text] have to considered. In conclusion, the by far highest proportion of raw materials for MBM comes as by-products from the slaughter process. Coming this way, and assuring that further treatment is safe from the hygienic point of view, MBM and animal fat can be regarded as valuable sources of amino acids, minerals and energy in feeding pigs and poultry. Using them as feedstuffs could considerably contribute to the goal of keeping limited nutrients, phosphorus in particular, within the nutrient cycle and dealing responsible with limited resources.

  10. Estimating daily methane production in individual cattle with irregular feed intake patterns from short-term methane emission measurements.

    PubMed

    Cottle, D J; Velazco, J; Hegarty, R S; Mayer, D G

    2015-12-01

    Spot measurements of methane emission rate (n = 18 700) by 24 Angus steers fed mixed rations from GrowSafe feeders were made over 3- to 6-min periods by a GreenFeed emission monitoring (GEM) unit. The data were analysed to estimate daily methane production (DMP; g/day) and derived methane yield (MY; g/kg dry matter intake (DMI)). A one-compartment dose model of spot emission rate v. time since the preceding meal was compared with the models of Wood (1967) and Dijkstra et al. (1997) and the average of spot measures. Fitted values for DMP were calculated from the area under the curves. Two methods of relating methane and feed intakes were then studied: the classical calculation of MY as DMP/DMI (kg/day); and a novel method of estimating DMP from time and size of preceding meals using either the data for only the two meals preceding a spot measurement, or all meals for 3 days prior. Two approaches were also used to estimate DMP from spot measurements: fitting of splines on a 'per-animal per-day' basis and an alternate approach of modelling DMP after each feed event by least squares (using Solver), summing (for each animal) the contributions from each feed event by best-fitting a one-compartment model. Time since the preceding meal was of limited value in estimating DMP. Even when the meal sizes and time intervals between a spot measurement and all feeding events in the previous 72 h were assessed, only 16.9% of the variance in spot emission rate measured by GEM was explained by this feeding information. While using the preceding meal alone gave a biased (underestimate) of DMP, allowing for a longer feed history removed this bias. A power analysis taking into account the sources of variation in DMP indicated that to obtain an estimate of DMP with a 95% confidence interval within 5% of the observed 64 days mean of spot measures would require 40 animals measured over 45 days (two spot measurements per day) or 30 animals measured over 55 days. These numbers suggest that

  11. Estimating daily methane production in individual cattle with irregular feed intake patterns from short-term methane emission measurements.

    PubMed

    Cottle, D J; Velazco, J; Hegarty, R S; Mayer, D G

    2015-12-01

    Spot measurements of methane emission rate (n = 18 700) by 24 Angus steers fed mixed rations from GrowSafe feeders were made over 3- to 6-min periods by a GreenFeed emission monitoring (GEM) unit. The data were analysed to estimate daily methane production (DMP; g/day) and derived methane yield (MY; g/kg dry matter intake (DMI)). A one-compartment dose model of spot emission rate v. time since the preceding meal was compared with the models of Wood (1967) and Dijkstra et al. (1997) and the average of spot measures. Fitted values for DMP were calculated from the area under the curves. Two methods of relating methane and feed intakes were then studied: the classical calculation of MY as DMP/DMI (kg/day); and a novel method of estimating DMP from time and size of preceding meals using either the data for only the two meals preceding a spot measurement, or all meals for 3 days prior. Two approaches were also used to estimate DMP from spot measurements: fitting of splines on a 'per-animal per-day' basis and an alternate approach of modelling DMP after each feed event by least squares (using Solver), summing (for each animal) the contributions from each feed event by best-fitting a one-compartment model. Time since the preceding meal was of limited value in estimating DMP. Even when the meal sizes and time intervals between a spot measurement and all feeding events in the previous 72 h were assessed, only 16.9% of the variance in spot emission rate measured by GEM was explained by this feeding information. While using the preceding meal alone gave a biased (underestimate) of DMP, allowing for a longer feed history removed this bias. A power analysis taking into account the sources of variation in DMP indicated that to obtain an estimate of DMP with a 95% confidence interval within 5% of the observed 64 days mean of spot measures would require 40 animals measured over 45 days (two spot measurements per day) or 30 animals measured over 55 days. These numbers suggest that

  12. Dose Imprecision and Resistance: Free-Choice Medicated Feeds in Industrial Food Animal Production in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Love, David C.; Davis, Meghan F.; Bassett, Anna; Gunther, Andrew; Nachman, Keeve E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Industrial food animal production employs many of the same antibiotics or classes of antibiotics that are used in human medicine. These drugs can be administered to food animals in the form of free-choice medicated feeds (FCMF), where animals choose how much feed to consume. Routine administration of these drugs to livestock selects for microorganisms that are resistant to medications critical to the treatment of clinical infections in humans. Objectives In this commentary, we discuss the history of medicated feeds, the nature of FCMF use with regard to dose delivery, and U.S. policies that address antimicrobial drug use in food animals. Discussion FCMF makes delivering a predictable, accurate, and intended dose difficult. Overdosing can lead to animal toxicity; underdosing or inconsistent dosing can result in a failure to resolve animal diseases and in the development of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms. Conclusions The delivery of antibiotics to food animals for reasons other than the treatment of clinically diagnosed disease, especially via free-choice feeding methods, should be reconsidered. PMID:21030337

  13. Method of heat treating a formed powder product material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Waters, W. J.; Ashbrook, R. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Heat treating a product material of prealloyed powders after shaping by superplastic deformation restores the ability of the material to resist deformation at high temperatures. Heat treating is accomplished by heating to a temperature between the solidus and liquidus with the application of isostatic pressure to close any voids. This pressure may be simultaneously applied while the material is at the heat treating temperature. The pressure may also be applied when the material cools to a temperature between that at which it is shaped and the solidus.

  14. 105-K Basin material design basis feed description for spent nuclear fuel project facilities. Volume 2: Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, K.L.

    1998-08-30

    Volume 2 provides the design feed compositions for the baseline K East and K West Basin sludge process streams expected to be generated during Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project activities. Four types of feeds are required to support evaluation of specific facility and process considerations during the development of new facilities and processes. These four design feeds provide nominal and bounding conditions for design evaluations. Volume 2 includes definition of inventories for: (1) KE and KW Basins sludge locations (pit sludges, floor sludge, canister.sludge, and wash sludge components), (2) nominal feed for each of five process feed streams, (3) shielding design feed, (4) safety/regulatory assessment feed, and (5) criticality assessment feed.

  15. Nisin production in realkalized fed-batch cultures in whey with feeding with lactose- or glucose-containing substrates.

    PubMed

    Costas Malvido, Mónica; Alonso González, Elisa; Pérez Guerra, Nelson

    2016-09-01

    Nisin production by Lactococcus lactis CECT 539 was followed in batch cultures in whey supplemented with different concentrations of glucose and in two realkalized fed-batch fermentations in unsupplemented whey, which were fed, respectively, with concentrated solutions of lactose and glucose. In the batch fermentations, supplementation of whey with glucose inhibited both the growth and bacteriocin production. However, fed-batch cultures were characterized with high productions of biomass (1.34 and 1.51 g l(-1)) and nisin (50.6 and 60.3 BU ml(-1)) in comparison to the batch fermentations in unsupplemented whey (0.48 g l(-1) and 22.5 BU ml(-1)) and MRS broth (1.59 g l(-1) and 50.0 BU ml(-1)). In the two realkalized fed-batch fermentations, the increase in bacteriocin production parallels both the biomass production and pH drop generated in each realkalization and feeding cycle, suggesting that nisin was synthesized as a pH-dependent primary metabolite. A shift from homolactic to heterolactic fermentation was observed at the 108 h of incubation, and other metabolites (acetic acid and butane-2,3-diol) in addition to lactic acid accumulated in the medium. On the other hand, the feeding with glucose improved the efficiencies in glucose, nitrogen, and phosphorus consumption as compared to the batch cultures. The realkalized fed-batch fermentations showed to be an effective strategy to enhance nisin production in whey by using an appropriate feeding strategy to avoid the substrate inhibition.

  16. Potential pitfalls of relying on hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production to identify Salmonella in feed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella can be difficult to assess and isolate in poultry feed due to stress, uneven distribution and poor growth. Previous studies have shown that several strains of Salmonella can be affected by environmental changes, resulting in H2S-negative colonies. This is a major concern, as H2S productio...

  17. Vanderbilt Free-Electron Laser Center for Biomedical and Materials Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolk, Norman H.; Brau, Charles A.; Edwards, Glenn S.; Margaritondo, Giorgio; McKinley, Jim T.

    1991-12-01

    The newly commissioned Vanderbilt Free Electron Laser Center for Biomedical and Materials Research is a multidisciplinary users facility intended as an international resource. It provides extremely intense, continuously tunable, pulsed radiation in the mid-infrared (2-10 j.tm). Projects already underway include the linear and nonlinear interaction of laser radiation with optical materials, semiconductors, and mammalian tissue, the spectroscopy of species adsorbed on surfaces, measurement of vibrational energy transfer in DNA and RNA, the dynamics of proteins in cell membranes, the biomodulation of wound healing by lasers, image-guided stereotactic neurosurgery, and the use of monochromatic X-rays in medical imaging and therapy. The purpose of this article is to introduce the machine to the user community and to describe some of the new experimental opportunities that it makes possible. Details of several research projects are presented.

  18. Undergraduate Reseach in Color Center Production and Photodegradation using Retroreflecting Glass Beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysor, Everett; Harkay, Russell

    2006-03-01

    A project has been initiated at Keene State in which UV light from a Deuterium arc lamp is used to produce or bleach color centers in a wide variety of materials, including reflective glass beads used for highway marking, alkali halides, and other transparent materials. The glass beads have a very high refractive index due to the inclusion of metallic impurities. Practical applications include varying the refractive index of a material by adding or bleaching (neutralizing) color centers, which are, in themselves, in interesting manifestation of the particle-in-a-box problem encountered in modern physics. Another practical outcome of the ongoing project is to determine the overall effect of exposure to UV light on the transmission and optical parameters of materials normally exposed to sunlight. As a sidebar experiment, work was performed in which micron-size glass beads were used to simulate two-dimensional arrays with a laser playing the role of x-rays in forming diffraction patterns.

  19. Methods for high volume production of nanostructured materials

    DOEpatents

    Ripley, Edward B.; Morrell, Jonathan S.; Seals, Roland D.; Ludtka, Gerald M.

    2011-03-22

    A system and method for high volume production of nanoparticles, nanotubes, and items incorporating nanoparticles and nanotubes. Microwave, radio frequency, or infrared energy vaporizes a metal catalyst which, as it condenses, is contacted by carbon or other elements such as silicon, germanium, or boron to form agglomerates. The agglomerates may be annealed to accelerate the production of nanotubes. Magnetic or electric fields may be used to align the nanotubes during their production. The nanotubes may be separated from the production byproducts in aligned or non-aligned configurations. The agglomerates may be formed directly into tools, optionally in compositions that incorporate other materials such as abrasives, binders, carbon-carbon composites, and cermets.

  20. Pulsed feeding strategy is more favorable to medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates production from waste rapeseed oil.

    PubMed

    Możejko, Justyna; Ciesielski, Slawomir

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of production and characterization of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs) using Pseudomonas sp. Gl01. Studies have been carried out to find suitable feeding strategies for mcl-PHAs production and, for the first time, to investigate in-depth the properties of biopolyesters obtained under controlled conditions with waste rapeseed oil as a substrate. Up to 44% mcl-PHAs of cell dry weight was produced at 41 h of biofermentor culture by employing pulsed feeding of waste rapeseed oil. GC analysis showed a polymer composition with monomer length of C6 to C12 with C8 and C10 as the principal monomers. The monomeric structure of the extracted polyesters did not depend on the cultivation time and the feeding strategy. Molecular weight of the mcl-PHAs was found to be ranging from 57 to 154 kDa. Thermal analyses showed the obtained mcl-polyhydroxyalkanaotes to be semi-crystalline biopolymer with promising thermal stability, having a glass transition temperature of -38 to -50°C.

  1. Microbial protein production in activated suspension tanks manipulating C:N ratio in feed and the implications for fish culture.

    PubMed

    Azim, M E; Little, D C; Bron, J E

    2008-06-01

    The present experiment investigated the possibility of microbial protein production in 250 l indoor tanks by manipulating C:N ratio in fish feed applied. Two different levels of protein feed (35% and 22% CP) resulting in C:N ratio of 8.4 and 11.6, respectively, were applied at 25 g daily in each tank. Tanks were aerated and agitated continuously using a dome diffuser. The experiment was carried out for eight weeks. The biofloc development in terms of VSS and BOD5 was better in the low protein fed tanks than in the high protein fed tanks. An estimated biofloc productivity ranged 3-5 g Cm(-3)day(-1). A 3-D image stained with DAPI indicates that the biofloc is comprised of hundreds of bacterial nuclei, size being ranged from 100 to 200 microm. Biofloc quality was independent of the quality of feed applied and contained more than 50% crude protein, 2.5% crude lipid, 4% fibre, 7% ash and 22 kJ g(-1) energy on dry matter basis. The dietary composition and size of biofloc can be considered as appropriate for all omnivorous fish species. The underlying ecological processes are explained through factor analysis. The potential of using biofloc in fish culture is also discussed. PMID:17869097

  2. Microbial protein production in activated suspension tanks manipulating C:N ratio in feed and the implications for fish culture.

    PubMed

    Azim, M E; Little, D C; Bron, J E

    2008-06-01

    The present experiment investigated the possibility of microbial protein production in 250 l indoor tanks by manipulating C:N ratio in fish feed applied. Two different levels of protein feed (35% and 22% CP) resulting in C:N ratio of 8.4 and 11.6, respectively, were applied at 25 g daily in each tank. Tanks were aerated and agitated continuously using a dome diffuser. The experiment was carried out for eight weeks. The biofloc development in terms of VSS and BOD5 was better in the low protein fed tanks than in the high protein fed tanks. An estimated biofloc productivity ranged 3-5 g Cm(-3)day(-1). A 3-D image stained with DAPI indicates that the biofloc is comprised of hundreds of bacterial nuclei, size being ranged from 100 to 200 microm. Biofloc quality was independent of the quality of feed applied and contained more than 50% crude protein, 2.5% crude lipid, 4% fibre, 7% ash and 22 kJ g(-1) energy on dry matter basis. The dietary composition and size of biofloc can be considered as appropriate for all omnivorous fish species. The underlying ecological processes are explained through factor analysis. The potential of using biofloc in fish culture is also discussed.

  3. Impact of the lignocellulosic material on fast pyrolysis yields and product quality.

    PubMed

    Carrier, Marion; Joubert, Jan-Erns; Danje, Stephen; Hugo, Thomas; Görgens, Johann; Knoetze, Johannes Hansie

    2013-12-01

    The paper describes the fast pyrolysis conversion of lignocellulosic materials inside a bubbling fluidized bed. The impact of biopolymers distribution in the biomass feed, namely hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin, on the yields and properties of pyrolytic bio-oils and chars was investigated. Although it is not possible to deconvoluate chemical phenomena from transfer phenomena using bubbling fluidized bed reactors, the key role of hemicelluloses in biomass feedstocks was illustrated by: (i) its influence on the production of pyrolytic water, (ii) its impact on the production of organics, apparently due to its bonding relationship with the lignin and (iii) its ability to inhibit the development of chars porosity, while the cellulose appeared to be the precursor for the microporous character of the biochars. These results are of interest for the selection of suitable feedstocks aimed at producing bio-oil and char as fuels and soil amendment, respectively. PMID:24161551

  4. Intestinal surfactant-like material. A novel secretory product of the rat enterocyte.

    PubMed Central

    DeSchryver-Kecskemeti, K; Eliakim, R; Carroll, S; Stenson, W F; Moxley, M A; Alpers, D H

    1989-01-01

    Surface-active phospholipid-containing particles are traditionally considered to be the product of type II pneumocytes. We now demonstrate membrane-bound lamellar cytoplasmic organelles in adult and suckling rat enterocytes that are densely reactive with phospholipid-staining reagents. These structures were seen in the basolateral space, within the intercellular junctions, and unraveling on the lumenal surface, and were more abundant after fat feeding. Light scrapings of intestinal mucosa and lumenal washings that contained these bodies, as evidenced by morphology and biochemical analysis, lowered surface tension in a pulsating bubble assay. Production by normal enterocytes of material with surfactant-like appearance and properties demonstrates that these structures are present in extrapulmonary epithelia, and extends the possible range of their function beyond gaseous exchange, e.g., solute exchange or lubrication on membrane surfaces. Images PMID:2794067

  5. Online Catalog of Isotope Products from DOE's National Isotope Development Center

    DOE Data Explorer

    The National Isotope Development Center (NIDC) interfaces with the User Community and manages the coordination of isotope production across the facilities and business operations involved in the production, sale, and distribution of isotopes. A virtual center, the NIDC is funded by the Isotope Development and Production for Research and Applications (IDPRA) subprogram of the Office of Nuclear Physics in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science. The Isotope subprogram supports the production, and the development of production techniques of radioactive and stable isotopes that are in short supply for research and applications. Isotopes are high-priority commodities of strategic importance for the Nation and are essential for energy, medical, and national security applications and for basic research; a goal of the program is to make critical isotopes more readily available to meet domestic U.S. needs. This subprogram is steward of the Isotope Production Facility (IPF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Brookhaven Linear Isotope Producer (BLIP) facility at BNL, and hot cell facilities for processing isotopes at ORNL, BNL and LANL. The subprogram also coordinates and supports isotope production at a suite of university, national laboratory, and commercial accelerator and reactor facilities throughout the Nation to promote a reliable supply of domestic isotopes. The National Isotope Development Center (NIDC) at ORNL coordinates isotope production across the many facilities and manages the business operations of the sale and distribution of isotopes.

  6. Ethanol Production from Traditional and Emerging Raw Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolf, Andreas; Karhumaa, Kaisa; Hahn-Hägerdal, Bärbel

    The ethanol industry of today utilizes raw materials rich in saccharides, such as sugar cane or sugar beets, and raw materials rich in starch, such as corn and wheat. The concern about supply of liquid transportation fuels, which has brought the crude oil price above 100 /barrel during 2006, together with the concern about global warming, have turned the interest towards large-scale ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials, such as agriculture and forestry residues. Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the preferred fermenting microorganism for ethanol production because of its superior and well-documented industrial performance. Extensive work has been made to genetically improve S. cerevisiae to enable fermentation of lignocellulosic raw materials. Ethanolic fermentation processes are conducted in batch, fed-batch, or continuous mode, with or without cell recycling, the relative merit of which will be discussed.

  7. Toxicity of the pyrolysis products of spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, W. H.

    1976-01-01

    Data is presented which provides guides to (1) approximate temperature necessary to initiate thermodegradation of the polymeric materials tested, (2) the relative toxicity of thermodegradation products from the various materials, (3) the relative importance of carbon monoxide as the primary cause of death (as contrasted to cyanide or other toxic gases), and (4) whether or not the hazards of the fumes are confined to the time of exposure, or whether post-exposure death is likely. Two different experimental methods were employed.

  8. Toxicity of thermal degradation products of spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, W. H.; Turner, J. E.; Sanford, C.; Foster, S.; Baldwin, E.; Oconnor, J.

    1982-01-01

    Three polymeric materials were evaluated for relative toxicity of their pyrolysis products to rats by inhalation: Y-7683 (LS 200), Y-7684 (Vonar 3 on Fiberglass), and Y-7685 (Vonar 3 on N W Polyester). Criteria employed for assessing relative toxicity were (1) lethality from in-chamber pyrolysis, (2) lethality from an outside-of-chamber pyrolysis MSTL Procedure, and (3) disruption of trained rats' shock-avoidance performance during sub-lethal exposures to in-chamber pyrolysis of the materials.

  9. Direct observation of titanium-centered octahedra in titanium-antimony-tellurium phase-change material.

    PubMed

    Rao, Feng; Song, Zhitang; Cheng, Yan; Liu, Xiaosong; Xia, Mengjiao; Li, Wei; Ding, Keyuan; Feng, Xuefei; Zhu, Min; Feng, Songlin

    2015-11-27

    Phase-change memory based on Ti0.4Sb2Te3 material has one order of magnitude faster Set speed and as low as one-fifth of the Reset energy compared with the conventional Ge2Sb2Te5 based device. However, the phase-transition mechanism of the Ti0.4Sb2Te3 material remains inconclusive due to the lack of direct experimental evidence. Here we report a direct atom-by-atom chemical identification of titanium-centered octahedra in crystalline Ti0.4Sb2Te3 material with a state-of-the-art atomic mapping technology. Further, by using soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and density function theory simulations, we identify in amorphous Ti0.4Sb2Te3 the titanium atoms preferably maintain the octahedral configuration. Our work may pave the way to more thorough understanding and tailoring of the nature of the Ti-Sb-Te material, for promoting the development of dynamic random access memory-like phase-change memory as an emerging storage-class memory to reform current memory hierarchy.

  10. Building a Scholarly Communications Center: Modeling the Rutgers Experience. Frontiers of Access to Library Materials No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Boyd; Fabiano, Emily; Langschied, Linda; Toyama, Ryoko; Wilson, Myoung Chung

    The scholarly communication center is a comprehensive, technologically rich facility that provides users with access to technology, communications networks, information, and library materials within and beyond the library walls. Relating the experiences of planning the Scholarly Recallication Center at the New Brunswick campus of Rutgers, the…

  11. A Guide to the Management of Curriculum Materials Centers for the 21st Century: The Promise and the Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Jo Ann, Ed.

    Curriculum Materials Centers (CMCs), resource centers that support teacher education programs, are facing many challenges, including maintaining funding, meeting increased expectations, and coping with changes in technology. This volume covers a wide range of management issues from the perspective of 18 librarians, including practical advice on…

  12. 78 FR 27303 - Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Animal Feed and Pet Food; Electron...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... Feed and Pet Food; Electron Beam and X-Ray Sources for Irradiation of Poultry Feed and Poultry Feed... safe use of electron beam and x-ray sources for irradiation of poultry feed and poultry feed... CFR part 579) to provide for the safe use of electron beam and x-ray sources for irradiation...

  13. Feed frequency in a sequencing batch reactor strongly affects the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from volatile fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Francesco; Beccari, Mario; Fraraccio, Serena; Zanaroli, Giulio; Majone, Mauro

    2014-06-25

    The production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) by activated sludge selected in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) has been investigated. Several SBR runs were performed at the same applied organic load rate (OLR), hydraulic retention time (HRT) and feed concentration (8.5 g COD L(-1) of volatile fatty acids, VFAs) under aerobic conditions. The effect of the feeding time was only evaluated with a cycle length of 8h; for this particular cycle length, an increase in the storage response was observed by increasing the rate at which the substrate was fed into the reactor (at a fixed feeding frequency). Furthermore, a significantly stronger effect was observed by decreasing the cycle length from 8h to 6h and then to 2h, changing the feed frequency or changing the organic load given per cycle (all of the other conditions remained the same): the length of the feast phase decreased from 26 to 20.0 and then to 19.7% of the overall cycle length, respectively, due to an increase in the substrate removal rate. This removal rate was high and similar for the runs with cycle lengths of 2h and 6h in the SBR. This result was due to an increase in the selective pressure and the specific storage properties of the selected biomass. The highest polymer productivity after long-term accumulation batch tests was 1.7 g PHA L(-1)d(-1), with PHA content in the biomass of approximately 50% on a COD basis under nitrogen limitation. The DGGE profiles showed that the good storage performance correlated to the development of Lampropedia hyalina, which was only observed in the SBR runs characterized by a shorter cycle length.

  14. Effects of Three Feeding Systems on Production Performance, Rumen Fermentation and Rumen Digesta Particle Structure of Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Y. F.; Sun, F. F.; Wan, F. C.; Zhao, H. B.; Liu, X. M.; You, W.; Cheng, H. J.; Liu, G. F.; Tan, X. W.; Song, E. L.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of three different feeding systems on beef cattle production performance, rumen fermentation, and rumen digesta particle structure were investigated by using 18 Limousin (steers) with a similar body weight (575±10 kg) in a 80-d experiment. The animals were equally and randomly divided into three treatment groups, namely, total mixed ration group (cattle fed TMR), SI1 group (cattle fed concentrate firstly then roughage), and SI2 group (cattle fed roughage firstly then concentrate). The results showed that the average daily gain was significantly higher in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05). Consumption per kg weight gain of concentrate, silage, and combined net energy (NEmf) were significantly decreased when cattle received TMR, unlike when they received SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05), indicating that the feed efficiency of TMR was the highest. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was significantly decreased when cattle received TMR compared with that in cattle receiving SI1 (p<0.05), whereas there was no difference compared with that in cattle receiving SI2. Ammonia nitrogen concentration was significantly lower in cattle receiving TMR than in those receiving SI1 and SI2 (p<0.05). The rumen area of cattle that received TMR was significantly larger than that of cattle receiving SI1 (p<0.05), but there was no difference compared with that of cattle receiving SI2. Although there was no significant difference among the three feeding systems in rumen digesta particle distribution, the TMR group trended to have fewer large- and medium-sized particles and more small-sized particles than those in the SI1 and SI2 groups. In conclusion, cattle with dietary TMR showed increased weight gain and ruminal development and decreased BUN. This indicated that TMR feeding was more conducive toward improving the production performance and rumen fermentation of beef cattle. PMID:26954181

  15. Defining the needs for non-destructive assay of UF6 feed, product, and tails at gas centrifuge enrichment plants and possible next steps

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian D; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Moran, Bruce W; Lebrun, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Current safeguards approaches used by the IAEA at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to detect undeclared LEU production with adequate detection probability using non destructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and {sup 235}U enrichment of UF{sub 6} bulk material used in the process of enrichment at GCEPS. The inspectors also take destructive assay (DA) samples for analysis off-site which provide accurate, on the order of 0.1 % to 0.5% uncertainty, data on the enrichment of the UF{sub 6} feed, tails, and product. However, DA sample taking is a much more labor intensive and resource intensive exercise for the operator and inspector. Furthermore, the operator must ship the samples off-site to the IAEA laboratory which delays the timeliness of the results and contains the possibility of the loss of the continuity of knowledge of the samples during the storage and transit of the material. Use of the IAEA's inspection sampling algorithm shows that while total sample size is fixed by the total population of potential samples and its intrinsic qualities, the split of the samples into NDA or DA samples is determined by the uncertainties in the NDA measurements. Therefore, the larger the uncertainties in the NDA methods, more of the sample taken must be DA samples. Since the DA sampling is arduous and costly, improvements in NDA methods would reduce the number of DA samples needed. Furthermore, if methods of on-site analysis of the samples could be developed that have uncertainties in the 1-2% range, a lot of the problems inherent in DA sampling could be removed. The use of an unattended system that could give an overview of the entire process giving complementary data on the enrichment process as well as accurate measures of enrichment and weights of the UF{sub 6} feed, tails, and product would be a major step

  16. All Source Solution Decision Support Products Created for Stennis Space Center in Response to Hurricane Katrina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Kenton W.; Graham, William D.

    2007-01-01

    In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina and in response to the needs of SSC (Stennis Space Center), NASA required the generation of decision support products with a broad range of geospatial inputs. Applying a systems engineering approach, the NASA ARTPO (Applied Research and Technology Project Office) at SSC evaluated the Center's requirements and source data quality. ARTPO identified data and information products that had the potential to meet decision-making requirements; included were remotely sensed data ranging from high-spatial-resolution aerial images through high-temporal-resolution MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) products. Geospatial products, such as FEMA's (Federal Emergency Management Agency's) Advisory Base Flood Elevations, were also relevant. Where possible, ARTPO applied SSC calibration/validation expertise to both clarify the quality of various data source options and to validate that the inputs that were finally chosen met SSC requirements. ARTPO integrated various information sources into multiple decision support products, including two maps: Hurricane Katrina Inundation Effects at Stennis Space Center (highlighting surge risk posture) and Vegetation Change In and Around Stennis Space Center: Katrina and Beyond (highlighting fire risk posture).

  17. Methane production from and beneficiation of anaerobic digestion of aquatic plant material

    SciTech Connect

    Klass, D.L.; Ghosh, S.

    1984-01-03

    A process is disclosed for improved CH/sub 4/ production by anaerobic digestion of aquatic plant material, at least a portion or all which was grown in organically polluted water. Mixtures of aquatic plant material whose 1 portion was grown in nonpolluted and a 2nd portion comprising approximately 10 wt.% or more grown in organically polluted water can be used. The liquid effluent from the digester may be advantageously returned to the aquatic plant-growing pond to maintain the desired organic pollution. The process provides for improved CH/sub 4/ production from aquatic plant material which is, by itself, recalcitrant to anaerobic digestion. Thus, 2 digesters were operated under the same conditions, the 1st being fed with water hyacinth grown in nonorganic polluted hardwater of BOD 5 mg/l and hardness of 20 grains/gal. and the 2nd being fed with water hyacinth grown in sewage-polluted water of BOD 20 mg/l. Each digester was operated in a semicontinuous completely mixed anaerobic manner with a culture volume of 5 liters for a detention time of 12 days, a loading of 0.1 lb volatile solid/cubic feet-day, and 35/sup 0/ at pH of 6.8-7.1. The runs were contained for several detention times and exhibited stable performance. CH/sub 4/ yield increased approximately 69% and the gas-production rate increased approximately 82% by using water hyacinth feed grown in sewage-polluted water.

  18. Effects of alfalfa hay inclusion rate on productivity of lactating dairy cattle fed wet corn gluten feed-based diets.

    PubMed

    Mullins, C R; Grigsby, K N; Bradford, B J

    2009-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of varying the alfalfa inclusion rate in diets containing 31% (dry matter basis) wet corn gluten feed (Sweet Bran, Cargill Inc.). Eighty primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows averaging 178 +/- 90 d in milk (mean +/- SD) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 sequences in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Treatments were diets containing 0, 7, 14, or 21% alfalfa on a dry matter basis, with corn silage, corn grain, soybean meal, expeller soybean meal, and mineral supplements varying across diets to maintain uniform nutrient densities. Diets were formulated for similar crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and nonfiber carbohydrate concentrations. Feed intake, milk production, body weight, and body condition score were monitored, and linear and quadratic effects of increasing the alfalfa inclusion rate were assessed using mixed model analysis. As the alfalfa inclusion rate increased, dry matter intake tended to increase linearly (26.7, 27.3, 27.4, and 27.5 kg/d for 0, 7, 14, and 21% alfalfa, respectively), and solids-corrected milk (29.9, 30.2, 30.8, and 30.5 kg/d) and energy-corrected milk production (32.9, 33.3, 33.8, and 33.6 kg/d) tended to increase linearly. Body weight gain decreased linearly (22.9, 18.0, 11.2, and 9.5 kg/28 d) with increasing alfalfa inclusion rate. Although increasing the inclusion rate of alfalfa increased the proportion of large particles in the diets, treatments had no effect on milk fat yield or concentration. Feeding more alfalfa (up to 21% of dry matter) tended to increase milk yield while decreasing body weight gain, suggesting that metabolizable energy utilization shifted from body weight gain to milk production in these treatments. However, adding alfalfa to the diet had only minor effects on productivity.

  19. Animal production for efficient phosphate utilization: from optimized feed to high efficiency livestock.

    PubMed

    Kebreab, Ermias; Hansen, Anja V; Strathe, Anders B

    2012-12-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for livestock but its efficiency of utilization is below 40%, contributing to environmental issues. In this review, we summarize recent approaches to optimize P availability in livestock diets and improve its utilization efficiency. Phase feeding could potentially reduce P excretion by 20%. Addition of phytase enzymes to diets increased P availability from 42 to 95%. Low phytate transgenic plants and transgenic animals increased P availability by 14% and 52-99%, respectively. In practice, a combination of phase feeding and enzymes has the highest potential for P reduction but legislation and ethics implications will prevent using transgenic animals in the short term. Functional and nutritional genomics may provide tools to improve efficiency in the future. PMID:22796051

  20. Meat products and soil pollution caused by livestock and poultry feed additive in Liaoning, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaojun; Dong, Rongfen; Zhao, Rongming

    2011-06-01

    Contents of copper and zinc in feed, manure, meat of livestock and poultry, and soil applied with manure in Liaoning, China were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The average contents of copper in chicken and pork were exceed the maximum limit values provides by Chinese standard GB15199-94. The application of pig and chicken manure has led to a certainty extend pollution of copper and zinc in soil, which becomes severity in the release of heavy metals in plantation.

  1. Procedure for the selection of materials for use in oxygen systems at the John F. Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Coleman J.; Olsen, Melvin G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes tests used at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in the material selection procedure for evaluating materials suitable for use in oxygen systems. Special attention is given to the basic selection criteria for materials used in oxygen enriched environments. The flow chart for the material selection procedure is presented, and information that must be supplied by vendors requesting batch/lot certification support from KSC is given.

  2. Feeding ecology of Liza spp. in a tidal flat: Evidence of the importance of primary production (biofilm) and associated meiofauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpentier, Alexandre; Como, Serena; Dupuy, Christine; Lefrançois, Christel; Feunteun, Eric

    2014-09-01

    Grey mullets are unique among temperate-region fish species in their ability to feed on mudflat biofilm. In this study, we examined mullet feeding strategies on biofilm and associated meiofauna by using a diet study and stable isotope analysis to explore functional interactions between mullets and tidal flats. A stomach vacuity investigation showed that mullets did not import any materials from subtidal areas into the mudflat but exported mud, biofilm, and associated meiofauna. The results of mullet stomach content and fecal analyses, when compared to the availability of tidal flat resources, showed evidence of mullets' ability to ingest and assimilate biofilm and to concentrate major meiofauna grazers such as nematodes, copepods and, secondarily, foraminifers and ostracods. Isotopic ratios confirmed diet investigations, and as recently shown in salt marsh habitats, mullets exhibited an intermediate trophic position, supporting the hypothesis that they can assimilate both biofilm and major meiofauna grazers. The function of the tidal flat as a feeding habitat for gray mullets and the role of mullets as the main export pathway of biofilm from tidal flat ecosystems are discussed.

  3. The Effects of Power and Feeding Rate on Production of Polyurethane Nanofiber with Electrospinning Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öteyaka, Mustafa Ö.; Özel, Emre; Yıldırım, M. Mustafa

    2011-12-01

    Nowadays, nanofiber made of polymers becomes popular on biomaterials research. One of the main reasons to need of nanofiber size is to mimic extracellular matrix (ECM) that play a critical role in proliferation, cell motility and intercellular signaling in vascular graft replacement. In this study polyurethane (PU) is electrospuned for 1 hour to create a scaffold under different conditions. The average diameter of the electrospun nanofibers was determined by analyzing the SEM images using imageJ analysis program. For this purpose, a 3×3 general full factorial in completely randomized design using three levels of two factors; power (W = 20, 22 and 25 Watts) and feeding rate (V = 1.00, 1.25 and 1.50 ml/h) was used to evaluate the response pattern and to determine the combined effect of independent variables. Three replicates were performed. The collected data were analyzed by using ANOVA test. Using α = 0.05, the main effects for power (W) and feeding rate (V) and the power (W)*feeding rate (V) interaction are statistically significant. Based on the statistical results of the experiment, we recommend for finer fiber 22 W and 1.00 ml/h and for less beads a 20 W and 1.50 ml/h to made PU scaffold. SEM analysis confirms a formation of random nanofiber mats.

  4. The prevalence of Salmonella enterica in Spanish feed mills and potential feed-related risk factors for contamination.

    PubMed

    Torres, Gregorio J; Piquer, F Javier; Algarra, Leonor; de Frutos, Cristina; Sobrino, Odón J

    2011-02-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella enterica in feed mills and to identify and evaluate potential risk factors associated with feed contamination. A total of 3844 samples were collected from 523 different feed mills using a stratified sampling method. Samples were tested for the presence of Salmonella using conventional culture methods. When the presence of Salmonella was detected, samples were further characterised using serotyping at the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for animal feed. Additional data about the biosecurity and hygiene measures, feed material used and compound feed produced, were collected by official veterinarians using a questionnaire in situ. In 144 of the feed mills visited (28%), Salmonella were present. However, it was only isolated from 4.8% of samples taken from all of the feed mills (3.5% from feed materials, 3.2% from compound feed and 12.5% from dust of the feed mill facilities). Salmonella serovars of public health importance (Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Infantis, Virchow and Hadar), were detected in only 2.7% of feed mills and in 0.3% of the samples studied. Logistic regression was used to investigate potential feed-mill risk factors for the isolation of Salmonella. Feed mill intake pits were demonstrated to have an increased risk of culture-positive dust samples (OR=6.4; 95% CI: 2.7-15.1). The feed material used in the production of compound feed was associated with recovery of Salmonella. Of the feed material used, cotton seeds were identified as having the highest odds of contamination (OR=3.8; 95% CI: 1.7-8.3). Pelleting appears to reduce the chance of contamination because non-pelleted compound feed is 8 times more likely to be contaminated than pelleted compound feed (OR=8.2; 95% CI: 2.5-26.6). The role of the feed itself in the epidemiology of Salmonella seems to be of limited importance as compound feed is not frequently contaminated at the feed mill level. This should not

  5. Capabilities of the Materials Contamination Team at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, H. D.; Finckenor, M. M.; Boothe, R. E.; Albyn, K. C.; Finchum, C. A.

    2003-01-01

    The Materials Contamination Team of the Environmental Effects Group, Materials, Processes, and Manufacturing Department, has been recognized for its contribution to space flight, including space transportation, space science and flight projects, such as the reusable solid rocket motor, Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and the International Space Station. The Materials Contamination Team s realm of responsibility encompasses all phases of hardware development including design, manufacturing, assembly, test, transportation, launch-site processing, on-orbit exposure, return, and refurbishment if required. Contamination is a concern in the Space Shuttle with sensitivity bondlines and reactive fluid (liquid oxygen) compatibility as well as for sensitive optics, particularly spacecraft such as Hubble Space Telescope and Chandra X-Ray Observatory. The Materials Contamination Team has a variety of facilities and instrumentation capable of contaminant detection identification, and monitoring. The team addresses material applications dealing with environments, including production facilities, clean rooms, and on-orbit exposure. The team of engineers and technicians also develop and evaluates new surface cleanliness inspection technologies. Databases are maintained by the team for proces! materials as well as outgassing and optical compatibility test results for specific environments.

  6. Improved production of recombinant ovine interferon-tau by mut(+) strain of Pichia pastoris using an optimized methanol feed profile.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Jayanta; Plantz, Bradley A; Zhang, Wenhui; Gouthro, Mark; Schlegel, Vicki; Liu, Chih-Ping; Meagher, Michael M

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant ovine interferon-tau (r-oIFN-tau) production by Pichia pastoris was studied using methanol as the sole carbon source during induction. The cells were grown on glycerol up to a certain cell density before induction of the AOX1 promoter by methanol for expression of the recombinant protein. Cell growth on methanol has been modeled using a substrate-feed equation, which served as the basis for an effective computer control of the process. The r-oIFN-tau concentration in the culture began to decline despite continued cell growth after 50 (+/- 6) h of induction, which was associated with an increase in proteolytic activity of the fermentation broth. A specific growth rate of 0.025 h(-1) was found to be optimal for r-oIFN-tau production. No significant improvement in r-oIFN-tau production was observed when the specific growth rate was stepped up before the critical point when r-oIFN-tau concentration started decreasing during fermentation. However, best results were obtained when the specific growth rate was stepped down from 0.025 to 0.02 h(-1) at 38 h of induction, whereby the active production period was prolonged until 70 h of induction and the broth protease activity was correspondingly reduced. The corresponding maximum protein yield was 391.7 mg x L(-1) after 70 h of fermentation. The proteolytic activity could be reduced by performing fermentations at specific growth rates of 0.025 h(-1) or below. The recombinant protein production can be performed at an optimal yield by directly controlling the methanol feed rate by a computer-controlled model. The production profile of r-oIFN-tau was found to be significantly different from other secreted and intracellular recombinant protein processes, which is an indication that recombinant protein production in Pichia pastoris needs to be optimized as individual processes following established principles. PMID:12790641

  7. Infectious waste feed system

    DOEpatents

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  8. NASA Glenn Research Center's Materials International Space Station Experiments (MISSE 1-7)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce a.; Dever, Joyce A.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Miller, Sharon K.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Panko, Scott R.

    2008-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (Glenn) has 39 individual materials flight experiments (>540 samples) flown as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) to address long duration environmental durability of spacecraft materials in low Earth orbit (LEO). MISSE is a series of materials flight experiments consisting of trays, called Passive Experiment Carriers (PECs) that are exposed to the space environment on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). MISSE 1-5 have been successfully flown and retrieved and were exposed to the space environment from one to four years. MISSE 6A & 6B were deployed during the STS-123 shuttle mission in March 2008, and MISSE 7A & 7B are being prepared for launch in 2009. The Glenn MISSE experiments address atomic oxygen (AO) effects such as erosion and undercutting of polymers, AO scattering, stress effects on AO erosion, and in-situ AO fluence monitoring. Experiments also address solar radiation effects such as radiation induced polymer shrinkage, stress effects on radiation degradation of polymers, and radiation degradation of indium tin oxide (ITO) coatings and spacesuit fabrics. Additional experiments address combined AO and solar radiation effects on thermal control films, paints and cermet coatings. Experiments with Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) seals and UltraFlex solar array materials are also being flown. Several experiments were designed to provide ground-facility to in-space calibration data thus enabling more accurate in-space performance predictions based on ground-laboratory testing. This paper provides an overview of Glenn s MISSE 1-7 flight experiments along with a summary of results from Glenn s MISSE 1 & 2 experiments.

  9. Growth and production performance of monosex tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed with homemade feed in earthen mini ponds.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, G U; Sultana, N; Shamsuddin, M; Hossain, M Belal

    2013-12-01

    Field experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth performance of monosex tilapia using homemade feed with Peninsula Group fish meal and commercially available feed with local fish meal in earthen mini ponds from June-September 2010. Three ponds (T1) were supplied with prepared feed and the other three ponds (T2) with commercially available fish feed. Fish were fed at the rate of 10% of their body weight for the first thirty days then gradually reduced to 6% for the next ten days, 2% for the next ten days and 3% for remaining days. The temperature were ranged from 31.5-33.0 degrees C, DO from 5.5-15 mg L(-1) in T1 and 6.5-14 mg L(-1) in T2, pH from 7.1-8.0 in T1 and 7.1-7.7 in T2, alkalinity from 105-160 mg L(-1) inT1 and 100-145 mg L(-1) in T2, nitrate was 0.06 mg L(-1) in both treatments and ammonia from 0.02 and 0.04 mg L(-1) in T1 and T2, respectively. The results of the present study showed that the best weight gain was observed as 123.48 g in T1 than T2 (111.82 g). The Specific Growth Rate (SGR) was recorded 3.09 and 2.97 and the Food Conversion Ratio (FCR) was 1.51 and 1.40 in T1 and T2, respectively. There was significant (p < 0.05) variation among the survival rate (%) of fishes which were 75.55 and 90.37% in T1 and T2, respectively. The fish productions were 19076 and 16312.11 kg ha(-1) in T1 and T2. The highest net profit (Taka/ha/70 days) of Tk. 15, 83,213 was obtained with T1 So, the prepared feed showed better performance with monosex tilapia in compared with commercial fish feed with local fish meal.

  10. Evaluation of an experimental chlorate product as a preslaughter feed supplement to reduce salmonella in meat-producing birds.

    PubMed

    Byrd, J A; Burnham, M R; McReynolds, J L; Anderson, R C; Genovese, K J; Callaway, T R; Kubena, L F; Nisbet, D J

    2008-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of experimental chlorate product (ECP) feed supplementation on Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) in the crop and ceca of market-age broilers. In trial 1, 160 market-age broilers were randomly assigned to 8 treatment groups and replicated twice, with 20 broilers per pen for 1 wk. Trial 2 used the same design, but used 80 market-age broilers with 10 broilers per pen. Treatments were as follows: 1) control feed + double-distilled drinking water (dd H(2)O); 2) control + 18.5% experimental zeolite carrier with dd H(2)O; 3 to 7) control feed supplemented with 0.5, 1.0, 5.0, 10.0, or 18.5% of a feed grade ECP + dd H(2)O; 8) control feed + 1x ECP (0.16% w/v; containing 15 mM chlorate ion equivalent) added to dd H(2)O. Seven-week-old broilers were provided experimental treatments for 7 d, killed, and then ceca and crops were removed and evaluated for ST. Broilers fed 5 to 18.5% ECP or water ECP had a significantly lower (P < 0.05) incidence of ST in the crop (36 to 38% and 14%, respectively) when compared with the control (60%). Broilers fed 10% ECP or water ECP had significantly lower ST crop concentrations (1.03 log(10) and 0.38 log(10) ST/g, respectively) when compared with broilers fed a control diet (1.54 log(10) ST/g). Crop and ceca ST incidence (32 to 48%) and concentration (1.00 to 1.82 log(10) ST/g) were significantly lower in broilers fed 5 to 18.5% ECP as compared with the control (78%; 2.84 log(10) ST/g). Broilers fed 5% or greater ECP had significantly higher water consumption (380 to 580 mL water/d) and litter moisture (31 to 56%) when compared with the control (370 mL water/d; 23% moisture). Only broilers fed 18.5% ECP had significantly lower 7-wk BW (2.77 kg of BW) when compared with the controls (3.09 kg of BW). Average daily gains were significantly depressed in broilers fed 10 or 18.5% ECP compared with the controls. These results indicate broilers supplemented with feed

  11. Raw materials in the manufacture of biotechnology products: regulatory considerations.

    PubMed

    Cordoba-Rodriguez, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration's Pharmaceutical cGMPs for the 21st Century initiative emphasizes science and risk-based approaches in the manufacture of drugs. These approaches are reflected in the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidances ICH Q8, Q9, and Q10 and encourage a comprehensive assessment of the manufacture of a biologic, including all aspects of manufacture that have the potential to affect the finished drug product. Appropriate assessment and management of raw materials are an important part of this initiative. Ideally, a raw materials program should strive to assess and minimize the risk to product quality. With this in mind, risk-assessment concepts and control strategies will be discussed and illustrated by examples, with an emphasis on the impact of raw materials on cell substrates. Finally, the life cycle of the raw material will be considered, including its potential to affect the drug product life cycle. In this framework, the supply chain and the vendor-manufacturer relationship will be explored as important parts of an adequate raw materials control strategy.

  12. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Working Reference Material Production Pla

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Amy; Thronas, Denise; Marshall, Robert

    1998-11-04

    This Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Working Reference Material Production Plan was written for LLNL by the Los Alamos National Laboratory to address key elements of producing seven Pu-diatomaceous earth NDA Working Reference Materials (WRMS). These WRMS contain low burnup Pu ranging in mass from 0.1 grams to 68 grams. The composite Pu mass of the seven WRMS was designed to approximate the maximum TRU allowable loading of 200 grams Pu. This document serves two purposes: first, it defines all the operations required to meet the LLNL Statement of Work quality objectives, and second, it provides a record of the production and certification of the WRMS. Guidance provided in ASTM Standard Guide C1128-89 was used to ensure that this Plan addressed all the required elements for producing and certifying Working Reference Materials. The Production Plan was written to provide a general description of the processes, steps, files, quality control, and certification measures that were taken to produce the WRMS. The Plan identifies the files where detailed procedures, data, quality control, and certification documentation and forms are retained. The Production Plan is organized into three parts: a) an initial section describing the preparation and characterization of the Pu02 and diatomaceous earth materials, b) middle sections describing the loading, encapsulation, and measurement on the encapsulated WRMS, and c) final sections describing the calculations of the Pu, Am, and alpha activity for the WRMS and the uncertainties associated with these quantities.

  13. Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production Using New Combinatorial Chemistry Derived Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Jaramillo, Thomas F.; Baeck, Sung-Hyeon; Kleiman-Shwarsctein, Alan; Stucky, Galen D.; McFarland, Eric W.

    2004-10-25

    Solar photoelectrochemical water-splitting has long been viewed as one of the “holy grails” of chemistry because of its potential impact as a clean, renewable method of fuel production. Several known photocatalytic semiconductors can be used; however, the fundamental mechanisms of the process remain poorly understood and no known material has the required properties for cost effective hydrogen production. In order to investigate morphological and compositional variations in metal oxides as they relate to opto-electrochemical properties, we have employed a combinatorial methodology using automated, high-throughput, electrochemical synthesis and screening together with conventional solid-state methods. This report discusses a number of novel, high-throughput instruments developed during this project for the expeditious discovery of improved materials for photoelectrochemical hydrogen production. Also described within this report are results from a variety of materials (primarily tungsten oxide, zinc oxide, molybdenum oxide, copper oxide and titanium dioxide) whose properties were modified and improved by either layering, inter-mixing, or doping with one or more transition metals. Furthermore, the morphologies of certain materials were also modified through the use of structure directing agents (SDA) during synthesis to create mesostructures (features 2-50 nm) that increased surface area and improved rates of hydrogen production.

  14. Material and Energy Requirement for Rare Earth Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talens Peiró, Laura; Villalba Méndez, Gara

    2013-10-01

    The use of rare earth metals (REMs) for new applications in renewable and communication technologies has increased concern about future supply as well as environmental burdens associated with the extraction, use, and disposal (losses) of these metals. Although there are several reports describing and quantifying the production and use of REM, there is still a lack of quantitative data about the material and energy requirements for their extraction and refining. Such information remains difficult to acquire as China is still supplying over 95% of the world REM supply. This article attempts to estimate the material and energy requirements for the production of REM based on the theoretical chemical reactions and thermodynamics. The results show the material and energy requirement varies greatly depending on the type of mineral ore, production facility, and beneficiation process selected. They also show that the greatest loss occurs during mining (25-50%) and beneficiation (10-30%) of RE minerals. We hope that the material and energy balances presented in this article will be of use in life cycle analysis, resource accounting, and other industrial ecology tools used to quantify the environmental consequences of meeting REM demand for new technology products.

  15. Materials with Adsorptive Properties from Agricultural By-Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation will summarize the use of agricultural by-products (e.g., animal manure and plant waste) as starting materials to adsorb environmental contaminants such as mercury from air, ammonia from air, metal ions from water, and chlorinated organics from water. The results show that the mat...

  16. The transgenic cloned pig population with integrated and controllable GH expression that has higher feed efficiency and meat production.

    PubMed

    Ju, Huiming; Zhang, Jiaqing; Bai, Lijing; Mu, Yulian; Du, Yutao; Yang, Wenxian; Li, Yong; Sheng, Anzhi; Li, Kui

    2015-01-01

    Sustained expression of the GH gene has been shown to have detrimental effects on the health of animals. In the current study, transgenic founder pigs, with controllable pig growth hormone (pGH) expression, were cloned via the handmade cloning method (HMC), and pGH expression levels were examined at the cellular and organismal levels. The serum pGH levels in 3 founder male pigs were found to be significantly higher after induction with intramuscular injection of doxycycline (DOX) compared to baseline. A daily dose of DOX was administered via feed to these animals for a period of 65 to 155 days. The growth rate, feed efficiency and pGH serum concentration increased in the DOX-induced transgenic group compared with the other groups. 8 numbers of animals were euthanized and the dressing percentage, loin muscle and lean meat percentage were significantly higher in the DOX-induced F1 transgenic group compared with the other groups. In this study a large population of transgenic pigs, with integrated controllable expression of a transgene, was obtained. The transgenic pigs were healthy and normal in terms of reproductive capability. At the same time, feed efficiency was improved, production processes were accelerated and meat yield was increased.

  17. Consequences of intraspecific variation in female body size in Stagmomantis limbata (Mantodea: Mantidae): feeding ecology, male attraction, and egg production.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Michael R; Frinchaboy, Caylin

    2014-02-01

    Body size is an important feature of organisms, influencing many components of life history and fitness, such as feeding success and reproductive output. Body size is considered especially salient for solitary predators, whose food intake hinges on individual predation success, which in turn is often driven by the relative sizes of predator and prey. The current study examined intraspecific variation in adult female length and its fitness consequences in a solitary predator, the praying mantid Stagmomantis limbata Hahn. Through a 5-yr integration of observational and experimental work in the field and captivity, we investigated the relationship between female pronotum length and prey size, diet breadth, male attraction, and measures of egg production (fecundity and ootheca mass). We found that longer females ate longer prey in the field and showed greater breadth of prey size than shorter females. Longer females did not necessarily feed at higher rates in the field, as measured by the rate of abdominal expansion. Female length failed to show significant effects on male attraction or on the incidence of cannibalism. Longer females had higher fecundity (mature eggs in body at death) and laid heavier oothecae than shorter females. In nature, longer females consistently emerged as adults earlier in the season than shorter females. Shorter female adults emerged when feeding rates were higher in the field, suggesting an incidental ecological benefit of shorter adult size. PMID:24341955

  18. Industrial waste materials and by-products as thermal energy storage (TES) materials: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Andrea; Miró, Laia; Gil, Antoni; Rodríguez-Aseguinolaza, Javier; Barreneche, Camila; Calvet, Nicolas; Py, Xavier; Fernández, A. Inés; Grágeda, Mario; Ushak, Svetlana; Cabeza, Luisa F.

    2016-05-01

    A wide variety of potential materials for thermal energy storage (TES) have been identify depending on the implemented TES method, Sensible, latent or thermochemical. In order to improve the efficiency of TES systems more alternatives are continuously being sought. In this regard, this paper presents the review of low cost heat storage materials focused mainly in two objectives: on the one hand, the implementation of improved heat storage devices based on new appropriate materials and, on the other hand, the valorisation of waste industrial materials will have strong environmental, economic and societal benefits such as reducing the landfilled waste amounts, reducing the greenhouse emissions and others. Different industrial and municipal waste materials and by products have been considered as potential TES materials and have been characterized as such. Asbestos containing wastes, fly ashes, by-products from the salt industry and from the metal industry, wastes from recycling steel process and from copper refining process and dross from the aluminium industry, and municipal wastes (glass and nylon) have been considered. This work shows a great revalorization of wastes and by-product opportunity as TES materials, although more studies are needed to achieve industrial deployment of the idea.

  19. A Method for User Centering Systematic Product Development Aimed at Industrial Design Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Denis A.

    2010-01-01

    Instead of limiting the introduction and stimulus for new concept creation to lists of specifications, industrial design students seem to prefer to be encouraged by ideas in context. A new method that specifically tackles human activity to foster the creation of user centered concepts of new products was developed and is presented in this article.…

  20. Potential for composting energetic material production wastes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adrian, N.R.; Stratta, J.M.; Donahue, B.A.

    1995-09-01

    U.S. Army installations that manufacture munitions generate large quantities of energetic material (EM) and solid waste contaminated with energetic material (energetic material-contaminated waste, or EMCW). Disposal of EM and EMCW by open burning or open detonation (OB/OD) has been the practice for many years, but increasingly stringent environmental regulations are curtailing OB/OD operations. Although composting has been used in some instances for explosive-contaminated soils, it has not been examined for use with munitions production wastes. A literature search showed that many explosives are biodegradable and that some explosive-contaminated soils can also be treated by composting. A potential exists to treat munition production wastes by composting or other biological treatment processes. This study concluded that further investigation is needed to determine and test: (1) the energetic compounds that can be biodegraded, and (2) the conditions under which biological treatment processes can occur.

  1. Value-Added Products From FGD Sulfite-Rich Scrubber Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Vivak M. Malhotra

    2006-09-30

    Massive quantities of sulfite-rich flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber materials are produced every year in the USA. In fact, at present, the production of wet sulfite-rich scrubber cake outstrips the production of wet sulfate-rich scrubber cake by about 6 million tons per year. However, most of the utilization focus has centered on FGD gypsum. Therefore, we have recently initiated research on developing new strategies for the economical, but environmentally-sound, utilization of sulfite-rich scrubber material. In this exploratory project (Phase I), we attempted to ascertain whether it is feasible to develop reconstituted wood replacement products from sulfite-rich scrubber material. In pursuit of this goal, we characterized two different wet sulfite-rich scrubber materials, obtained from two power plants burning Midwestern coal, for their suitability for the development of value-added products. The overall strategy adopted was to fabricate composites where the largest ingredient was scrubber material with additional crop materials as additives. Our results suggested that it may be feasible to develop composites with flexural strength as high as 40 MPa (5800 psi) without the addition of external polymers. We also attempted to develop load-bearing composites from scrubber material, natural fibers, and phenolic polymer. The polymer-to-solid ratio was limited to {le} 0.4. The formulated composites showed flexural strengths as high as 73 MPa (10,585 psi). We plan to harness the research outcomes from Phase I to develop parameters required to upscale our value-added products in Phase II.

  2. Effect of milk feed source, frequency of feeding and age at turnout on calf performance, live-weight at mating and 1st lactation milk production

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Female calves (n = 108) were assigned to 6 cold milk feeding treatments in two experiments for a 70-day period. Live-weight (LW) was measured weekly, with an additional LW taken at day 410 and post-calving for animals in experiment 1. In Experiment 1, the effect of feeding frequency and age of turnout to pasture on calf performance and 1st lactation milk yields were evaluated. The whole milk (WM) feeding treatments applied were (i) once daily feeding (OD), (ii) twice daily feeding (TD), (iii) OD feeding, outdoors at 38 days (ODO). In Experiment 2, the effects of feeding milk replacer (MR) as opposed to WM and age of turnout to pasture on calf performance were evaluated. The treatments applied were (i) OD feeding with WM (OD), (ii) OD feeding with milk replacer (MR) (ODMR), (iii) OD feeding with MR, outdoors at 38 days (ODMRO). Experiment 1: There were no differences (P > 0.05) in LW or average daily gain between TD and OD calves at day 80 or 410. ODO calves had lower LW at day 80 as compared to OD or TD (P < 0.001). Calf LW at day 80 was 86, 89 and 85 kg and at day 410 was 304, 309 and 316 kg for OD, TD and ODO, respectively. Milk feeding frequency or time of calf turnout had no effect on LW post calving, milk composition or 1st lactation milk yields. Experiment 2: Total LW at day 80 was higher (P < 0.05) for ODMR compared to OD or ODMRO calves. Calf LW was 87, 95, and 88 kg for OD, ODMR and ODMRO, respectively. However, LW at day 410 did not differ between treatments. This study showed that while some differences were observed in calf LW at day 80, these differences had no effect on LW at day 410 or 1st lactation milk yield. It can be concluded that calves can be successfully reared when fed OD with WM or MR, indoors and when turned out to pasture at 38 days of age. PMID:23078871

  3. An approach to the toxicology of combustion products of materials.

    PubMed

    Petajan, J H

    1976-10-01

    Physiological and behavioral (conditioned avoidance) responses of male Long-Evans rats were determined during exposure to combustion products produced on thermal degradation of three different polymeric materials. Arterial blood samples were obtained for determination of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and acid/base status. Material A produced a syndrome of carbon monoxide (CO)-induced anoxia, the severity of which was a function of the mass of material degraded. Material B produced grand mal seizures despite COHb levels of less than 10%. Material C produced metabolic acidosis and a mild degree of CO-induced anoxia. Loss of avoidance responses occurred at significantly lower COHb levels for materials B and C in comparison to CO alone. Using responses to COHb as a reference, it was possible to detect the presence of other toxicants present in combustion products. Compounds found in smoke in very low concentrations may have a high degree of biological activity and be responsible for impairment of survival responses. We have labeled these compounds "limiting" toxicants. They constitute a significant hazard, which is added to that of CO and anoxia.

  4. Enhancement of cell viability and alkaline polygalacturonate lyase production by sorbitol co-feeding with methanol in Pichia pastoris fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihao; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Dongxu; Li, Jianghua; Hua, Zhaozhe; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2010-02-01

    Alkaline polygalacturonate lyase (PGL) production by Pichia pastoris GS115 was used as a model to study the mechanism and strategy for enhancing heterologous protein production. In order to enhance cell viability and volumetric recombinant protein productivity, sorbitol, which had been confirmed to be a non-repressive carbon source, was added together with methanol during the induction phase. The resultant PGL activity was up to 1593 U mL(-1), which was enhanced 1.85-fold compared to the control (863 U mL(-1)) cultured with sorbitol added at a constant rate of 3.6 g h(-1)L(-1) after an induction period of 100 h. Further results revealed that an appropriate sorbitol co-feeding strategy not only decreased the cell mortality to 8.8% (the control is about 23.1%) in the end of fermentation, but also reduced the proteolytic degradation of PGL.

  5. Efficient production of l-lactic acid using co-feeding strategy based on cane molasses/glucose carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-02-01

    L-Lactic acid is an important platform chemical, which ought to be produced under cost control to meet its huge demand. Cane molasses, a waste from sugar manufacturing processes, is hopeful to be utilized as a cheap carbon source for L-lactic acid fermentation. Considering that cane molasses contains nutrients and hazardous substances, efficient production of L-lactic acid was developed by using a co-feeding strategy based on the utilization of cane molasses/glucose carbon sources. Based on the medium optimization with response surface method, 168.3g/L L-lactic acid was obtained by a Bacillus coagulans strain H-1 after 78h fed-batch fermentation, with a productivity of 2.1g/Lh and a yield of 0.88g/g. Since cane molasses is a feasible carbon source, the co-feeding fermentation might be a promising alternative for the economical production of L-lactic acid.

  6. Effect of time at pasture combined with restricted indoor feeding on production and behaviour in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, T; Oudshoorn, F; Munksgaard, L; Søegaard, K

    2007-03-01

    Extremely high nutrient loads have been reported in grazed grassland regimes compared with cutting regimes in some dairy systems that include the use of supplemental feeding. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the effects on productivity and behaviour of high-yielding dairy cows with limited access to indoor feed and restriction in the time at pasture in a continuous stocking system. During a 6-week period from the start of the grazing season 2005, an experiment was conducted with the aim of investigating the effect of restrictive indoor feeding combined with limiting the time at pasture on the productivity and behaviour of high-yielding dairy cows (31.0 ± 5.4 kg energy-corrected milk) in a system based on continuous stocking. The herd was split into three groups allocated to three treatments consisting of 4, 6.5 and 9 h at pasture, respectively. Each group of cows grazed in separate paddocks with three replicates and was separately housed in a cubicle system with slatted floor during the rest of the day. All cows were fed the same amount of supplement, adjusted daily to meet the ad libitum indoor intake of the cows at pasture for nine hours. The herbage allowance was 1650 kg dry matter (DM) per ha, and the intake of supplemental feed was 9.1 kg DM per cow daily. The limitation of the time at pasture to 4 h in combination with restrictive indoor feeding reduced the daily milk, fat and protein yield and live weight compared with 9 h of access to pasture. The proportion of time during which the cows were grazing while at pasture increased from 0.64 to 0.86 and the estimated herbage intake per h at pasture decreased from 2547 g DM to1398 g DM, when time at pasture changed from 4 to 9 h. It can be concluded, that in systems with a high herbage allowance, the cow was able to compensate for 0.8 of the reduction in time at pasture by increasing the proportion of time spent grazing and presumably also both the bite rate and mass, although the

  7. Thin film microelectronics materials production in the vacuum of space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatiev, A.; Sterling, M.; Horton, C.; Freundlich, A.; Pei, S.; Hill, R.

    1997-01-01

    The international Space Station era will open up a new dimension in the use of one of the unique attributes of space, vacuum, for the production of advanced semiconductor materials and devices for microelectronics applications. Ultra-vacuum is required for the fabrication in thin film form of high quality semiconductors. This can be accomplished behind a free flying platform similar to the current Wake Shield Facility which is specifically designed to support in-space production. The platform will require apparatus for thin film growth, a robotics interface to allow for the change out of raw materials and the harvesting of finished product, and a servicing plant incorporating Space Station that will support long-term utilization of the platform.

  8. The role of deep centers in formation of dosimetric properties of wide-gap materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiforov, S. V.; Kortov, V. S.

    2014-11-01

    The direct and indirect methods of experimental detection of deep traps in wide-gap insulators are described. The experimentally observed effects of influence of deep traps with different nature on luminescent and dosimetric properties of materials are analyzed. It is established that the most wide-spread and well-studied effects are the sensitization and superlinearity of dose response. They are interpreted in terms of the kinetic model of competitive electron traps. Taking into account the temperature dependence of capture probability by deep traps in this model allows one to explain some new effects associated with luminescence thermal quenching. The luminescence model of Al2O3:C single crystal is described. In this model the temperature dependence of competitive interaction between the main and deep traps is caused by thermal ionization of excited states of F-centers.

  9. Utilization of house fly-maggots, a feed supplement in the production of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hwangbo, J; Hong, E C; Jang, A; Kang, H K; Oh, J S; Kim, B W; Park, B S

    2009-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested the utilization of maggots as a feed supplement forenhanced broiler performance. Maggots, which are a major dietary source of protein, appear during the biodegradation of chicken droppings using house flies. The objective ofthe present study was to investigate the effect of maggot supplementation on the meat quality and growth performance of broiler chickens. A total of 600 one-day-old male commercial broiler chicks (Ross) were randomly assigned into 5 treatment groups consisting of 40 replicates of 3 birds. The birds were fed either a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0% maggots. Overall, broiler chicken performance was influenced by the optimal amino acid profile; high protein (63.99%) and essential amino acid content (29.46%), or high protein digestibility (98.50%) of the maggots. Maggot supplementation caused linear increases in live weight gain but not the feed conversion ratio. The diets of 10 and 15% maggots was the most efficient in terms of average weight gain forthe 4-5 week old broiler chickens (p<0.05). It also significantly increased dressing percentage, breast muscle, and thigh muscle (p<0.05). No differences were observed forliver abdominalfat, or meat color, and the crude protein contents of breast muscle were constant. However, in the maggot-fed broilers, breast muscle lysine and tryptophan levels increased significantly as compared to the birds fed the basal diet (p<0.05). These results indicate that feeding diets containing 10 to 15% maggots in chicken dropping after biodegradation can improve the carcass quality and growth performance of broiler chickens.

  10. PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in feeding fats obtained as co-products or by-products derived from the food chain.

    PubMed

    Abalos, M; Parera, J; Abad, E; Rivera, J

    2008-04-01

    Among the tasks included in the "Quality and safety of feeding fats obtained from co-products or by-products of the food chain" Project, supported by the European Union and included in the 6th Framework Program, a number of fats and oils collected as co- or by-products from the food chain were selected for the determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 'dioxin-like' polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs). In the majority of the cases these samples are currently employed as feed ingredients. Nevertheless, additional fats, which are forbidden for feedstuff purposes were also considered in this study. In general terms, fats and oils were classified taking into account their nature and the processes applied to obtain these co- or by-products. PCDD/F and DL-PCB levels were evaluated in a first group of samples composed of fish oils, animal fats and lecithins. As expected, fats and oils with an animal origin presented higher concentrations, expressed in pg WHO-TEQ/g, compared to the levels found in vegetable samples like lecithins. The category of fish oils had the highest values for both PCDD/Fs and the sum of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs, with some samples showing levels above the maximum established at the present legislation related to the presence of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in animal feed [Commission Directive 2006/13/EC of 3 February 2006 amending Annexes I and II to Directive 2002/32/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on undesirable substances in animal feed as regards dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. Official Journal of the European Communities L32, 44-53]. In a second group, fats and oils with a more complex composition obtained from different transformation processes or even mixtures of fats were considered; thus, acid oils from chemical refining, acid oils from physical refining, recycled cooking oils, oils extracted from exhausted bleaching earths, hydrogenated by-products, fatty acids calcium soaps and

  11. Combining node-centered parallel radiation transport and higher-order multi-material cell-centered hydrodynamics methods in three-temperature radiation hydrodynamics code TRHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sijoy, C. D.; Chaturvedi, S.

    2016-06-01

    Higher-order cell-centered multi-material hydrodynamics (HD) and parallel node-centered radiation transport (RT) schemes are combined self-consistently in three-temperature (3T) radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) code TRHD (Sijoy and Chaturvedi, 2015) developed for the simulation of intense thermal radiation or high-power laser driven RHD. For RT, a node-centered gray model implemented in a popular RHD code MULTI2D (Ramis et al., 2009) is used. This scheme, in principle, can handle RT in both optically thick and thin materials. The RT module has been parallelized using message passing interface (MPI) for parallel computation. Presently, for multi-material HD, we have used a simple and robust closure model in which common strain rates to all materials in a mixed cell is assumed. The closure model has been further generalized to allow different temperatures for the electrons and ions. In addition to this, electron and radiation temperatures are assumed to be in non-equilibrium. Therefore, the thermal relaxation between the electrons and ions and the coupling between the radiation and matter energies are required to be computed self-consistently. This has been achieved by using a node-centered symmetric-semi-implicit (SSI) integration scheme. The electron thermal conduction is calculated using a cell-centered, monotonic, non-linear finite volume scheme (NLFV) suitable for unstructured meshes. In this paper, we have described the details of the 2D, 3T, non-equilibrium, multi-material RHD code developed with a special attention to the coupling of various cell-centered and node-centered formulations along with a suite of validation test problems to demonstrate the accuracy and performance of the algorithms. We also report the parallel performance of RT module. Finally, in order to demonstrate the full capability of the code implementation, we have presented the simulation of laser driven shock propagation in a layered thin foil. The simulation results are found to be in good

  12. Operational space weather product development and validation at the joint SMC-AFRL Rapid Prototyping Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, S.

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/VSB) and Detachment 11, Space &Missile Systems Center (SMC, Det 11/CIT) have combined efforts to design, develop, test, and implement graphical products for the Air Force's space weather operations center. These products are generated to analyze, specify, and forecast the effects of the near-earth space environment on Department of Defense systems and communications. Jointly-developed products that have been, or will soon be added to real-time operations include: 1) the Operational Space Environment Network Display (OpSEND) suit - a set of four products that address HF communication, UHF satellite communication scintillation, radar auroral clutter, and GP S single- frequency errors; 2) a solar radio background and burst effects (SoRBE) product suite; and C) a meteor effects (ME) product suite. The RPC is also involved in a rather substantial "V&V" effort to produce multiple operational product verifications and validations, with an added end goal of a generalized validation software package. The presentation will provide a general overview of the RPC and each of the products mentioned above, to include background science, operational history, inputs, outputs, dissemination, and customer uses for each.

  13. Materials characterization center workshop on the irradiation effects in nuclear waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, F.P.; Turcotte, R.P.; Weber, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Workshop on Irradiation Effects in Nuclear Waste Forms sponsored by the Materials Characterization Center (MCC) brought together experts in radiation damage in materials and waste-management technology to review the problems associated with irradiation effects on waste-form integrity and to evaluate standard methods for generating data to be included in the Nuclear Waste Materials Handbook. The workshop reached the following conclusions: the concept of Standard Test for the Effects of Alpha-Decay in Nuclear Waste Solids, (MCC-6) for evaluating the effects of alpha decay is valid and useful, and as a result of the workshop, modifications to the proposed procedure will be incorpoated in a revised version of MCC-6; the MCC-6 test is not applicable to the evaluation of radiation damage in spent fuel; plutonium-238 is recommended as the dopant for transuranic and defense high-level waste forms, and when high doses are required, as in the case of commercial high-level waste forms, /sup 244/Cm can be used; among the important property changes caused by irradiation are those that lead to greater leachability, and additionally, radiolysis of the leachant may increase leach rates; research is needed in this area; ionization-induced changes in physical properties can be as important as displacement damage in some materials, and a synergism is also likely to exist from the combined effects of ionization and displacement damage; and the effect of changing the temperature and dose rates on property changes induced by radiation damage needs to be determined.

  14. Production of farnesene and santalene by Saccharomyces cerevisiae using fed-batch cultivations with RQ-controlled feed.

    PubMed

    Tippmann, Stefan; Scalcinati, Gionata; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Terpenes have various applications as fragrances, cosmetics and fuels. One of the most prominent examples is the sesquiterpene farnesene, which can be used as diesel substitute in its hydrogenated form farnesane. Recent metabolic engineering efforts have enabled efficient production of several terpenes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. Plant terpene synthases take on an essential function for sesquiterpene production as they catalyze the specific conversion of the universal precursor farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) to the sesquiterpene of interest and thereby impose limitations on the overall productivity. Using farnesene as a case study, we chose three terpene synthases with distinct plant origins and compared their applicability for farnesene production in the yeast S. cerevisiae. Differences regarding the efficiency of these enzymes were observed in shake flask cultivation with maximal final titers of 4 mg/L using α-farnesene synthase from Malus domestica. By employing two existing platform strains optimized for sesquiterpene production, final titers could be raised up 170 mg/L in fed-batch fermentations with RQ-controlled exponential feeding. Based on these experiments, the difference between the selected synthases was not significant. Lastly, the same fermentation setup was used to compare these results to production of the fragrance sesquiterpene santalene, and almost equivalent titers were obtained with 163 mg/L, using the highest producing strain expressing a santalene synthase from Clausena lansium. However, a reduction of the product yield on biomass by 50% could indicate a higher catalytic efficiency of the farnesene synthase. PMID:26108688

  15. Microgravity Production of Nanoparticles of Novel Materials Using Plasma Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frenklach, Michael; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    The research goal is to study the formation in reduced gravity of high quality nanoparticulate of novel materials using plasma synthesis. Particular emphasis will be placed on the production of powders of non-oxide materials like diamond, SiC, SiN, c-BN, etc. The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of gravity on plasma synthesis of these materials, and to determine how the microgravity synthesis can improve the quality and yield of the nanoparticles. It is expected that the reduced gravity will aid in the understanding of the controlling mechanisms of plasma synthesis, and will increase the yield, and quality of the synthesized powder. These materials have properties of interest in several industrial applications, such as high temperature load bearings or high speed metal machining. Furthermore, because of the nano-meter size of the particulate produced in this process, they have specific application in the fabrication of MEMS based combustion systems, and in the development and growth of nano-systems and nano-structures of these materials. These are rapidly advancing research areas, and there is a great need for high quality nanoparticles of different materials. One of the primary systems of interest in the project will be gas-phase synthesis of nanopowder of non-oxide materials.

  16. Fly ash as a liming material for corn production

    SciTech Connect

    Tarkalson, D.D.; Hergert, G.W.; Stevens, W.B.; McCallister, D.L.; Kackman, S.D.

    2005-05-01

    Fly ash produced as a by-product of subbituminous coal combustion can potentially serve as an alternative liming material without negatively affecting corn (Zea mays L.) production in areas where use of conventional liming materials can be uneconomical due to transportation costs. A study was conducted to determine if fly ash produced from the Nebraska Public Power District Gerald Gentleman Power Station located in Sutherland, NE could be used as an alternative liming material. Combinations of dry fly ash (DFA), wet fly ash (WFA), beet lime (by-product of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) processing) (BL), and agricultural lime (AGL) were applied at rates ranging from 0.43 to 1.62 times the recommended lime rate to plots on four acidic soils (Anselmo fine sandy loam, Hord fine sandy loam, Holdrege sandy loam, and Valentine fine sand). Soil samples were collected to a depth of 0.2 m from plots and analyzed for pH before lime applications and twice periodically after lime application. The Hord and Valentine soils were analyzed for exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, Na,and Al for determination of percent Al saturation on selected treatments and sampling dates. Corn grain yields were determined annually. It is concluded that the fly ash utilized in this study and applied at rates in this study, increases soil pH comparable to agricultural lime and is an appropriate alternative liming material.

  17. Toward improved postpartum cyclicity of primiparous dairy cows: Effects of genetic merit for production traits under contrasting feeding systems.

    PubMed

    Bedere, N; Delaby, L; Ducrocq, V; Leurent-Colette, S; Disenhaus, C

    2016-02-01

    Milk genetic merit is known to affect commencement of luteal activity (C-LA) in dairy cows. This effect is considered to be due to energy exported in milk production. The present study aimed to identify and quantify the effects of genetic characteristics [breed and estimated breeding value (EBV) for milk yield and fat and protein contents] and feeding system on C-LA of primiparous cows. From 2006 to 2013, an experiment was conducted on 97 primiparous dairy (Holstein) and 97 primiparous dual-purpose (Normande) cows. Within breed, cows were classified into 2 groups: cows with high EBV for milk yield were included in a "milk group" and those with high EBV for fat and protein contents were included in a "content group." Within breed, exported energy in milk and body weight (BW) loss were similar for both genetic groups. Two grazing-based strategies were used, a high feeding system (maize silage in winter and grazing plus concentrate) and a low feeding system (grass silage in winter and grazing with no concentrate). Interval from calving to C-LA was studied performing survival analyses. Milk progesterone profile, milk yield, and body condition were analyzed using χ(2)-test and analysis of covariance. Holstein cows produced more milk (+1,810 kg in the high feeding system and +1,120 kg in the low feeding system) and lost more BW from wk 1 to 14 of lactation (-1.4 kg/wk) than Normande cows, whereas Normande cows had earlier C-LA than Holstein cows. Within breed, cows in the content group had earlier C-LA (associated hazard ratio=2.0) than cows in the milk group. Body weight at calving and loss from wk 1 to 14 of lactation tended to be associated with later C-LA. Cows in the high feeding system produced more milk (+2,040 kg for the Holstein cows and +1,350 kg for Normande cows) and lost less BW from wk 1 to 14 of lactation (+3.8 kg/wk) than cows in the low feeding system. No effect of feeding system or milk yield was observed on C-LA. Prolonged luteal phases were frequent

  18. Long-lived activation products in reactor materials

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Lepel, E.L.; Sanders, R.W.; Wilkerson, C.L.; Silker, W.; Thomas, C.W.; Abel, K.H.; Robertson, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    The purpose of this program was to assess the problems posed to reactor decommissioning by long-lived activation products in reactor construction materials. Samples of stainless steel, vessel steel, concrete, and concrete ingredients were analyzed for up to 52 elements in order to develop a data base of activatable major, minor, and trace elements. Large compositional variations were noted for some elements. Cobalt and niobium concentrations in stainless steel, for example, were found to vary by more than an order of magnitude. A thorough evaluation was made of all possible nuclear reactions that could lead to long lived activation products. It was concluded that all major activation products have been satisfactorily accounted for in decommissioning planning studies completed to date. A detailed series of calculations was carried out using average values of the measured compositions of the appropriate materials to predict the levels of activation products expected in reactor internals, vessel walls, and bioshield materials for PWR and BWR geometries. A comparison is made between calculated activation levels and regulatory guidelines for shallow land disposal according to 10 CFR 61. This analysis shows that PWR and BWR shroud material exceeds the Class C limits and is, therefore, generally unsuitable for near-surface disposal. The PWR core barrel material approaches the Class C limits. Most of the remaining massive components qualify as either Class A or B waste with the bioshield clearly Class A, even at the highest point of activation. Selected samples of activated steel and concrete were subjected to a limited radiochemical analysis program as a verification of the computer model. Reasonably good agreement with the calculations was obtained where comparison was possible. In particular, the presence of /sup 94/Nb in activated stainless steel at or somewhat above expected levels was confirmed.

  19. Effects of different strategies for feeding supplements on milk production responses in cows grazing a restricted pasture allowance.

    PubMed

    Auldist, M J; Marett, L C; Greenwood, J S; Hannah, M; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J

    2013-02-01

    Milk production responses of grazing cows offered supplements in different ways were measured. Holstein-Friesian cows, averaging 227 d in milk, were allocated into 6 groups of 36, with 2 groups randomly assigned to each of 3 feeding strategies: (1) cows grazed perennial ryegrass pasture supplemented with milled barley grain fed in the milking parlor and pasture silage offered in the paddock (control); (2) same pasture and allotment supplemented with the same amounts of milled barley grain and pasture silage, but presented as a mixed ration after each milking (PMR 1); and (3) same pasture and allotment, supplemented with a mixed ration of milled barley grain, alfalfa hay, corn silage, and crushed corn grain (PMR 2). For all strategies, supplements provided the same metabolizable energy and grain:forage ratio. [75:25, dry matter (DM) basis]. Each group of 36 cows was further allocated into 4 groups of 9, which were assigned to receive 6, 8, 10, or 12 kg of supplement DM/cow per day. Thus, there were 2 replicated groups per supplement amount per dietary strategy. The experiment had a 14-d adaptation period and an 11-d measurement period. Pasture allotment was approximately 14 kg of DM/d for all cows and was offered in addition to the supplement. Positive quadratic responses to increasing amounts of supplement were observed for yield of milk, energy-corrected milk (ECM), and fat and protein, and positive linear responses for concentrations of fat and protein for cows on all 3 supplement feeding strategies. No difference existed between feeding strategy groups in yield of milk, ECM, or protein at any amount of supplement offered, but yield and concentration of fat was higher in PMR 2 cows compared with control and PMR 1 cows at the highest amounts of supplementation. Responses in marginal ECM production per additional kilogram of supplement were also greater for PMR 2 than control and PMR 1 cows when large amounts of supplement were consumed. For all diets, marked daily

  20. Codon optimization of xylA gene for recombinant glucose isomerase production in Pichia pastoris and fed-batch feeding strategies to fine-tune bioreactor performance.

    PubMed

    Ata, Özge; Boy, Erdem; Güneş, Hande; Çalık, Pınar

    2015-05-01

    The objectives of this work are the optimization of the codons of xylA gene from Thermus thermophilus to enhance the production of recombinant glucose isomerase (rGI) in P. pastoris and to investigate the effects of feeding strategies on rGI production. Codons of xylA gene from T. thermophilus were optimized, ca. 30 % of the codons were replaced with those with higher frequencies according to the codon usage bias of P. pastoris, codon optimization resulted in a 2.4-fold higher rGI activity. To fine-tune bioreactor performance, fed-batch bioreactor feeding strategies were designed as continuous exponential methanol feeding with pre-calculated feeding rate based on the pre-determined specific growth rate, and fed-batch methanol-stat feeding. Six feeding strategies were designed, as follows: (S1) continuous exponential methanol- and pulse- sorbitol feeding; (S2) continuous exponential methanol- and peptone- feeding; (S3) continuous exponential methanol- and pulse- mannitol feeding; (S4) continuous exponential methanol- and peptone- feeding and pulse-mannitol feeding; (S5) methanol-stat feeding by keeping methanol concentration at 5 g L(-1); and, (S6) methanol-stat feeding by keeping methanol concentration at 5 g L(-1) and pulse-mannitol feeding. The highest cell and rGI activity was attained as 117 g L(-1) at t = 66 h and 32530 U L(-1) at t = 53 h, in strategy-S5. The use of the co-substrate mannitol does not increase the rGI activity in methanol-stat feeding, where 4.1-fold lower rGI activity was obtained in strategy-S6. The overall cell yield on total substrate was determined at t = 53 h as 0.21 g g(-1) in S5 strategy.

  1. Overview of Space Weather Impacts and NASA Space Weather Center Services and Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The presentation is divided into two major components. First, I will give an overview of space weather phenomenon and their associated impacts. Then I will describe the comprehensive list of products and tools that NASA Space Weather Center has developed by leveraging more than a decade long modeling experience enabled by the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) and latest scientific research results from the broad science community. In addition, a summary of the space weather activities we have been engaged in and our operational experience will be provided.

  2. Color-center production and recovery in electron-irradiated magnesium aluminate spinel and ceria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Lelong, Gérald; Guillaumet, Maxime; Weber, William J.; Takaki, Seiya; Yasuda, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-01

    Single crystals of magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) with (1 0 0) or (1 1 0) orientations and cerium dioxide or ceria (CeO2) were irradiated by 1.0 MeV and 2.5 MeV electrons in a high-fluence range. Point-defect production was studied by off-line UV–visible optical spectroscopy after irradiation. For spinel, regardless of both crystal orientation and electron energy, two characteristic broad bands centered at photon energies of 5.4 eV and 4.9 eV were assigned to F and F+ centers (neutral and singly ionized oxygen vacancies), respectively, on the basis of available literature data. No clear differences in color-center formation were observed for the two crystal orientations. Using calculations from displacement cross sections by elastic collisions, these results are consistent with a very large threshold displacement energy (200 eV) for oxygen atoms at room temperature. A third very broad band centered at 3.7 eV might be attributed either to an oxygen hole center (V-type center) or an F2 dimer center (oxygen di-vacancy). The onset of recovery of these color centers took place at 200 °C with almost full bleaching at 600 °C. Activation energies (~0.3–0.4 eV) for defect recovery were deduced from the isochronal annealing data by using a first-order kinetics analysis. For ceria, a sub-band-gap absorption feature, which peaked at ~3.1 eV, was recorded for 2.5 MeV electron irradiation only. Assuming a ballistic process, we suggest that the latter defect might result from cerium atom displacement on the basis of computed cross sections.

  3. Color-center production and recovery in electron-irradiated magnesium aluminate spinel and ceria.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Lelong, Gérald; Guillaumet, Maxime; Weber, William J; Takaki, Seiya; Yasuda, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-17

    Single crystals of magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) with (1 0 0) or (1 1 0) orientations and cerium dioxide or ceria (CeO2) were irradiated by 1.0 MeV and 2.5 MeV electrons in a high-fluence range. Point-defect production was studied by off-line UV-visible optical spectroscopy after irradiation. For spinel, regardless of both crystal orientation and electron energy, two characteristic broad bands centered at photon energies of 5.4 eV and 4.9 eV were assigned to F and F(+) centers (neutral and singly ionized oxygen vacancies), respectively, on the basis of available literature data. No clear differences in color-center formation were observed for the two crystal orientations. Using calculations from displacement cross sections by elastic collisions, these results are consistent with a very large threshold displacement energy (200 eV) for oxygen atoms at room temperature. A third very broad band centered at 3.7 eV might be attributed either to an oxygen hole center (V-type center) or an F2 dimer center (oxygen di-vacancy). The onset of recovery of these color centers took place at 200 °C with almost full bleaching at 600 °C. Activation energies (~0.3-0.4 eV) for defect recovery were deduced from the isochronal annealing data by using a first-order kinetics analysis. For ceria, a sub-band-gap absorption feature, which peaked at ~3.1 eV, was recorded for 2.5 MeV electron irradiation only. Assuming a ballistic process, we suggest that the latter defect might result from cerium atom displacement on the basis of computed cross sections. PMID:27319289

  4. Color-center production and recovery in electron-irradiated magnesium aluminate spinel and ceria.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Lelong, Gérald; Guillaumet, Maxime; Weber, William J; Takaki, Seiya; Yasuda, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-17

    Single crystals of magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) with (1 0 0) or (1 1 0) orientations and cerium dioxide or ceria (CeO2) were irradiated by 1.0 MeV and 2.5 MeV electrons in a high-fluence range. Point-defect production was studied by off-line UV-visible optical spectroscopy after irradiation. For spinel, regardless of both crystal orientation and electron energy, two characteristic broad bands centered at photon energies of 5.4 eV and 4.9 eV were assigned to F and F(+) centers (neutral and singly ionized oxygen vacancies), respectively, on the basis of available literature data. No clear differences in color-center formation were observed for the two crystal orientations. Using calculations from displacement cross sections by elastic collisions, these results are consistent with a very large threshold displacement energy (200 eV) for oxygen atoms at room temperature. A third very broad band centered at 3.7 eV might be attributed either to an oxygen hole center (V-type center) or an F2 dimer center (oxygen di-vacancy). The onset of recovery of these color centers took place at 200 °C with almost full bleaching at 600 °C. Activation energies (~0.3-0.4 eV) for defect recovery were deduced from the isochronal annealing data by using a first-order kinetics analysis. For ceria, a sub-band-gap absorption feature, which peaked at ~3.1 eV, was recorded for 2.5 MeV electron irradiation only. Assuming a ballistic process, we suggest that the latter defect might result from cerium atom displacement on the basis of computed cross sections.

  5. Color-center production and recovery in electron-irradiated magnesium aluminate spinel and ceria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, Jean-Marc; Lelong, Gérald; Guillaumet, Maxime; Weber, William J.; Takaki, Seiya; Yasuda, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-01

    Single crystals of magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) with (1 0 0) or (1 1 0) orientations and cerium dioxide or ceria (CeO2) were irradiated by 1.0 MeV and 2.5 MeV electrons in a high-fluence range. Point-defect production was studied by off-line UV-visible optical spectroscopy after irradiation. For spinel, regardless of both crystal orientation and electron energy, two characteristic broad bands centered at photon energies of 5.4 eV and 4.9 eV were assigned to F and F+ centers (neutral and singly ionized oxygen vacancies), respectively, on the basis of available literature data. No clear differences in color-center formation were observed for the two crystal orientations. Using calculations from displacement cross sections by elastic collisions, these results are consistent with a very large threshold displacement energy (200 eV) for oxygen atoms at room temperature. A third very broad band centered at 3.7 eV might be attributed either to an oxygen hole center (V-type center) or an F2 dimer center (oxygen di-vacancy). The onset of recovery of these color centers took place at 200 °C with almost full bleaching at 600 °C. Activation energies (~0.3-0.4 eV) for defect recovery were deduced from the isochronal annealing data by using a first-order kinetics analysis. For ceria, a sub-band-gap absorption feature, which peaked at ~3.1 eV, was recorded for 2.5 MeV electron irradiation only. Assuming a ballistic process, we suggest that the latter defect might result from cerium atom displacement on the basis of computed cross sections.

  6. Production of a calcium silicate cement material from alginate impression material.

    PubMed

    Washizawa, Norimasa; Narusawa, Hideaki; Tamaki, Yukimichi; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize biomaterials from daily dental waste. Since alginate impression material contains silica and calcium salts, we aimed to synthesize calcium silicate cement from alginate impression material. Gypsum-based investment material was also investigated as control. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed that although firing the set gypsum-based and modified investment materials at 1,200°C produced calcium silicates, firing the set alginate impression material did not. However, we succeeded when firing the set blend of pre-fired set alginate impression material and gypsum at 1,200°C. SEM observations of the powder revealed that the featured porous structures of diatomite as an alginate impression material component appeared useful for synthesizing calcium silicates. Experimentally fabricated calcium silicate powder was successfully mixed with phosphoric acid solution and set by depositing the brushite. Therefore, we conclude that the production of calcium silicate cement material is possible from waste alginate impression material.

  7. Effects of feeding a return chewing gum/packaging material mixture on performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Wolf, B W; Berger, L L; Fahey, G C

    1996-11-01

    Seventy-two Simmental-cross growing steers (219 +/- 2.4 kg initial BW) were used in a randomized complete block design to evaluate the effects of feeding a return chewing gum/packaging material mixture (G/P) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, sensory attributes of meat, and mineral content of beef liver and muscle. Animals were allotted by weight to 12 pens (six/pen). Each pen was assigned one of three dietary treatments: 1) 0% G/P (control), 2) 20% G/P, or 3) 30% G/P (% G/P on a DM basis). Steers were fed their respective diets for an 84-d growing phase and a 112-d finishing phase. The G/P replaced corn silage and corn in the growing and finishing phases, respectively. Eighteen steers (six/treatment) were randomly selected for slaughter at the end of the finishing phase, and carcass measurements, sensory attributes of meat, and mineral content of liver and longissimus muscle were measured. During the growing phase, steers fed G/P-containing diets had improved (P < .01) daily DMI, ADG, and gain:feed ratios (G:F) compared with controls. However, due to compensatory gain and the fact that G/P replaced corn in the finishing phase, control steers had increased (P < .01) ADG and improved (P < .05) G:F vs steers fed G/P-containing diets. Over the entire study (growing and finishing phases) steers fed diets containing G/P and the control had similar performance. Amount of G/P in the diet had no effect (P > .05) on carcass characteristics. Steaks from steers fed 20% G/P had improved (P < .01) juiciness compared with steaks from steers fed 30% G/P; no other sensory attributes were affected. Aluminum, zinc, and barium content of longissimus muscle and liver were within the normal expected ranges for all treatments. These data indicate that G/P can safely replace at least 30% of growing and finishing diets without impairing feedlot performance or carcass merit. PMID:8923170

  8. Impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms in leptin, leptin receptor, growth hormone receptor, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT1) gene loci on milk production, feed, and body energy traits of UK dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Banos, G; Woolliams, J A; Woodward, B W; Forbes, A B; Coffey, M P

    2008-08-01

    The impact of 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the leptin (LEP), leptin receptor (LEPR), growth hormone receptor (GHR), and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT1) gene loci on daily milk production, feed intake, and feed conversion, and weekly measures of live weight, BCS, and body energy traits was evaluated using genetic and phenotypic data on 571 Holstein cows raised at the Langhill Dairy Cattle Research Center in Scotland. Six SNP were typed on the LEP gene and 1 on each of the other 3 loci. Of the 6 LEP SNP, 3 were in very high linkage disequilibrium, meaning there is little gain in typing all of them in the future. Seven LEP haplotypes were identified by parsimony-based analyses. Random-regression allele-substitution models were used to assess the impact of each SNP allele or haplotype on the traits of interest. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase had a significant effect on milk yield, whereas GHR significantly affected feed intake, feed conversion, and body energy traits. There was also evidence of dominance in allelic effects on milk yield and BCS. The LEP haplotype CCGTTT (corresponding to leptin SNP C207T, C528T, A1457G, C963T, A252T, and C305T, respectively) significantly affected milk yield and feed and dry matter intake. Animals carrying this haplotype produced 3.13 kg more milk daily and consumed 4.64 kg more feed. Furthermore, they tended to preserve more energy than average. Such results may be used to facilitate genetic selection in animal breeding programs.

  9. 10 CFR 32.11 - Introduction of byproduct material in exempt concentrations into products or materials, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... concentrations into products or materials, and transfer of ownership or possession: Requirements for license. 32... TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.11 Introduction of byproduct material in exempt concentrations into products or materials, and transfer of...

  10. 10 CFR 32.11 - Introduction of byproduct material in exempt concentrations into products or materials, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... concentrations into products or materials, and transfer of ownership or possession: Requirements for license. 32... TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.11 Introduction of byproduct material in exempt concentrations into products or materials, and transfer of...

  11. 10 CFR 32.11 - Introduction of byproduct material in exempt concentrations into products or materials, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... concentrations into products or materials, and transfer of ownership or possession: Requirements for license. 32... TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.11 Introduction of byproduct material in exempt concentrations into products or materials, and transfer of...

  12. 10 CFR 32.11 - Introduction of byproduct material in exempt concentrations into products or materials, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... concentrations into products or materials, and transfer of ownership or possession: Requirements for license. 32... TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.11 Introduction of byproduct material in exempt concentrations into products or materials, and transfer of...

  13. 10 CFR 32.11 - Introduction of byproduct material in exempt concentrations into products or materials, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... concentrations into products or materials, and transfer of ownership or possession: Requirements for license. 32... TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.11 Introduction of byproduct material in exempt concentrations into products or materials, and transfer of...

  14. Oil from hydrocracking as a raw material for the production of white oils

    SciTech Connect

    Potanina, V.A.; Dremova, T.I.; Ponomareva, T.P.; Zlotnikov, V.Z.

    1984-01-01

    This article investigates the feasibility of using distillate oil from hydrocracking for white oil production. A process technology has been developed in the USSR for the manufacture of high-quality oils by hydrocracking a heavy distillate feed in high-pressure equipment. The neutral and hydrocracked oil sample and a blend of these stocks were subjected to treatment with oleum, neutralization with 65% ethyl alcohol, and contact finishing to obtain white oils. The physicochemical properties of the white oils are given. It is determined that the hydrocracked oil can be used as the raw material in manufacturing perfume oil meeting the standard GOST 4225-76, and that the blends can be used to obtain pharmaceutical white oil meeting the standard GOST 3164-78.

  15. A quantitative analysis of the benefits of mixed feeds of sorbitol and methanol for the production of recombinant avidin with Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Jungo, Carmen; Schenk, Jonas; Pasquier, Muriel; Marison, Ian William; von Stockar, Urs

    2007-08-01

    The advantages of mixed feeds of sorbitol and methanol for the production of recombinant proteins with Pichia pastoris were analyzed quantitatively. The influence of the methanol-sorbitol ratio in the feed medium was investigated on growth stoichiometry and recombinant protein productivity with a P. pastoris Mut(+) strain secreting avidin by performing a transient nutrient gradient in continuous cultivation at a dilution rate of 0.03h(-1). Results showed that mixed feeds of sorbitol and methanol instead of methanol as sole carbon source can improve the productivity in recombinant avidin due to increased biomass yields during mixed substrate growth. The highest volumetric avidin productivity was achieved at a methanol fraction of 43%C-molC-mol(-1) in the feed medium: the volumetric avidin productivity was 1.3-fold higher than during chemostat culture on methanol. The heat production and the oxygen consumption rates were reduced by about 38% for a given dry cell weight concentration at this methanol fraction, features which are very useful for high cell density cultures. Results were in good agreement with a high cell density fed-batch culture performed with a mixed feed of 43% methanol and 57% sorbitol C-molC-mol(-1) at a specific growth rate of 0.03h(-1) during the induction phase. Moreover, it was confirmed that sorbitol accumulation in the culture medium does not affect recombinant avidin productivity, which can especially be advantageous during large-scale cultures where transient substrate accumulation can result from imperfect mixing.

  16. Nuclear archaeology: Verifying declarations of fissile-material production

    SciTech Connect

    Fetter, S. )

    1993-01-01

    Controlling the production of fissile material is an essential element of nonproliferation policy. Similarly, accounting for the past production of fissile material should be an important component of nuclear disarmament. This paper describes two promising techniques that make use of physical evidence at reactors and enrichment facilities to verify the past production of plutonium and highly enriched uranium. In the first technique, the concentrations of long-lived radionuclides in permanent components of the reactor core are used to estimate the neutron fluence in various regions of the reactor, and thereby verify declarations of plutonium production in the reactor. In the second technique, the ratio of the concentration of U-235 to that of U-234 in the tails is used to determine whether a given container of tails was used in the production of low- enriched uranium, which is suitable for reactor fuel, or highly enriched uranium, which can be used in nuclear weapons. Both techniques belong to the new field of [open quotes]nuclear archaeology,[close quotes] in which the authors attempt to document past nuclear weapons activities and thereby lay a firm foundation for verifiable nuclear disarmament. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. Feeding, production, and efficiency of Holstein-Friesian, Jersey, and mixed-breed lactating dairy cows in commercial Danish herds.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, T; Jensen, C; Østergaard, S; Weisbjerg, M R; Aaes, O; Nielsen, N I

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to compare efficiency measures, milk production, and feed intake for lactating cows in commercial herds using different breeds and production and milking systems. To accomplish this, we used all feed evaluations made by the Danish extension service during the period November 2012 to April 2013 for 779 herds, of which 508 were Holstein-Friesian (HOL); 100 were Jersey (JER); and 171 herds were a mixture of these 2 breeds, other dairy breeds, and crossbreeds (OTH). The annually recorded, herd-average energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield was 8,716kg (JER) and 9,606kg (HOL); and average herd size was 197 cows (HOL) and 224 cows (JER). All cows were fed a total mixed or partial mixed ration supplemented with concentrate from feeding stations, housed in loose housing systems with a slatted floor, and milked in either a parlor milking unit or an automatic milking system. Energy efficiency was calculated as net energy efficiency defined as total energy demand as a percentage of energy intake and as residual feed intake defined as energy intake (net energy for lactation; NEL) minus energy requirement. Production efficiency was expressed as kilograms of ECM per kilogram of dry matter intake (DMI), kilograms of ECM per 10 MJ of net energy intake (NEL), kilograms of ECM per 100kg of BW, and kilograms of DMI per 100kg of BW. Environmental efficiency was expressed by the nitrogen efficiency calculated as N in milk and meat as a percentage of N in intake, and as enteric emission of methane expressed as kilograms of ECM per megajoule of CH4. Mean milk yield for lactating cows was 30.4kg of ECM in HOL and 3kg less in JER, with OTH herds in between. Mean NEL intake was 122 MJ in JER, increasing to 147 MJ in HOL, whereas ration energy density between breeds did not differ (6.4-6.5 MJ of NEL per kg of DMI). The NEL intake and DMI explained 56 and 47%, respectively, of variation in production (ECM) for HOL herds but only 44 and 27% for JER. Jersey had a

  18. Sustainable production of toxin free marine microalgae biomass as fish feed in large scale open system in the Qatari desert.

    PubMed

    Das, Probir; Thaher, Mahmoud Ibrahim; Hakim, Mohammed Abdul Quadir Mohd Abdul; Al-Jabri, Hareb Mohammed S J

    2015-09-01

    Mass cultivation of microalgae biomass for feed should be cost effective and toxin free. Evaporation loss in Qatar can be as high as 2 cm/d. Hence, production of marine microalgae biomass in Qatar would also require mitigating water loss as there was only very limited groundwater reserve. To address these issues, a combination of four growth conditions were applied to a 25,000 L raceway pond: locally isolated microalgae strain was selected which could grow in elevated salinity; strain that did not require silica and vitamins; volume of the culture would increase over time keeping denser inoculum in the beginning, and evaporation water loss would be balanced by adding seawater only. A local saline tolerant Nannochloropsis sp. was selected which did not require silica and vitamins. When the above conditions were combined in the pond, average areal biomass productivities reached 20.37 g/m(2)/d, and the culture was not contaminated by any toxic microalgae.

  19. Sustainable production of toxin free marine microalgae biomass as fish feed in large scale open system in the Qatari desert.

    PubMed

    Das, Probir; Thaher, Mahmoud Ibrahim; Hakim, Mohammed Abdul Quadir Mohd Abdul; Al-Jabri, Hareb Mohammed S J

    2015-09-01

    Mass cultivation of microalgae biomass for feed should be cost effective and toxin free. Evaporation loss in Qatar can be as high as 2 cm/d. Hence, production of marine microalgae biomass in Qatar would also require mitigating water loss as there was only very limited groundwater reserve. To address these issues, a combination of four growth conditions were applied to a 25,000 L raceway pond: locally isolated microalgae strain was selected which could grow in elevated salinity; strain that did not require silica and vitamins; volume of the culture would increase over time keeping denser inoculum in the beginning, and evaporation water loss would be balanced by adding seawater only. A local saline tolerant Nannochloropsis sp. was selected which did not require silica and vitamins. When the above conditions were combined in the pond, average areal biomass productivities reached 20.37 g/m(2)/d, and the culture was not contaminated by any toxic microalgae. PMID:26022971

  20. Biodiesel production from multi feedstock as feed with direct ultrasound assisted

    SciTech Connect

    Widayat; Satriadi, H.; Nafiega, N. Favian; Dipo, Rheza; Okvitarini; Alimin, A. J.; Ali, Mas Fawzi Mohd

    2015-12-29

    The objective of this study was to optimize of ratio oil type, ratio oil to methanol and catalyst concentration. The optimization was used Central Composite Design (CCD). Biodiesel was produced with multi stock oil as feed and conducted in direct ultrasonic radiation. Biosonic equiped with ultrasonic generator with a frequency of 28 kHz. Biodiesel produced at a pressure of 1 atm, reaction time of 60 min and temperature 60 ° C. The optimum conditions of volume ratio for Palm and Coconut oil 4:1, KOH catalyst concentration 0.3% and methanol to oil mole ratio 7:1. Biodiesel yield was determined under this condition and obtained 81.105%.