Khadem, Ali-Akbar; Sharifi, Majid; Afzalzadeh, Ahmad; Rezaeian, Mohammad
The effects of barley flour on the fermentation parameters of alfalfa silage and on the productivity of dairy cows were investigated. Alfalfa forage was ensiled either with or without barley flour. Barley flour was soaked in water for 24 h before being mixed with alfalfa (12 kg: 100 kg dry matter bases) at ensiling. Eighteen multi-parous cows were assigned to three equal treatment groups using a completely randomized design. Three isocaloric and isonitrogenous total mixed rations containing alfalfa hay, ordinary alfalfa silage or barley flour mixed alfalfa silage were then prepared. The concentrations of ammonia nitrogen, acetic acid and butyric acid were lower in barley flour mixed alfalfa silage compared to that in ordinary alfalfa silage but the concentration of lactic acid was lower in the ordinary alfalfa silage. Feeding behavior, milk yield and composition, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites were measured. Although dry matter intake and milk production were not affected, the effect of preparation of alfalfa influenced feeding behavior and rumen fermentation parameters. Cows on alfalfa silage diets spent longer ruminating compared to those fed alfalfa hay. The ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea were affected by ensiling (alfalfa hay versus alfalfa silages) while both parameters were lower in cows fed on barley flour mixed alfalfa silage than those fed on ordinary silage. Although similar blood glucose was recorded for cows fed on alfalfa silages, it was higher in cows fed on alfalfa hay. It is concluded that the addition of barely flour when making alfalfa silage may improve both the fermentation process during ensilage and the ruminal ammonia nitrogen utilization with no significant effects on productivity.
The objective was to assess the effect of two additives on alfalfa silage and on in vitro ruminal fermentation when using ruminal inocula prepared from high feed-efficient (HE) and low feed-efficient (LE) lactating cows. Second and third cut alfalfa was harvested at 40% bloom stage, treated with con...
Some silage inoculants promote an increase in milk production, possibly through altering the rumen microflora. In this study, dairy cows fed alfalfa silage treated with the inoculant, Lactobacillus plantarum MTD/1 (LPS), were compared to cows fed untreated silage (Ctrl) with the objectives: 1) to de...
In mini-silo trials, silages treated with a Lactobacillus plantarum silage inoculant (Ecosyl, Yorkshire, UK) had increased in vitro rumen microbial biomass production compared to untreated. Our objective was to determine if alfalfa silage treated with this inoculant could produce a milk production r...
According to recent agricultural statistics, alfalfa was planted on 0.44 million acres and harvested from 2.2 million acres and silage corn was planted and harvested from 1.0 million acres per year in Wisconsin. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn pla...
According to recent agricultural statistics, alfalfa was planted on 0.44 million acres and harvested from 2.2 million acres, and corn silage was planted and harvested from 1.0 million acres per year in Wisconsin. Because both crops are often grown in rotation, alfalfa could be interseeded at corn pl...
Rajabi, R; Tahmasbi, R; Dayani, O; Khezri, A
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding ensiled alfalfa with waste date on ruminal fermentation characteristics, microbial protein synthesis, protozoa population and blood parameters in sheep. Eight rams were used in a 2 × 2 change over design. Each experimental period consisted of 21 days including 16 days for adaptation and 5 days for sampling. For ensiling, fresh alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) with different levels of waste date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) were mixed together and ensiled in 100-l containers for 45 days. Chemical composition of silages such as dry matter (DM), crude protein, NH3 -N, organic matter, NDF, ADF and pH were determined. Then, it was used as 30% (DM basis) in diets. The experimental diets were as follows: (i) control (diet containing alfalfa silage without waste date), (ii) diet containing alfalfa silage with 5 g waste date/95 g DM, (iii) diet containing alfalfa silage with 10 g waste date/90 g DM, and (iv) diet containing alfalfa silage with 15 g waste date/85 g DM. The results of this experiment showed that adding waste date to alfalfa during ensiling, improved silage quality, DM and energy level. Total protozoa population and all of holotrich, cellulolytic and entodinia in rumen fluid were increased linearly by increasing the level of waste date. Nitrogen (N) intake, urinary N excretion and nitrogen retention were affected by dietary treatments. Also, allantoin, uric acid, total purine derivatives, microbial protein synthesis, cholesterol level and blood urea nitrogen were significantly different. In conclusion, direct ensilage of alfalfa can be attained by mixing 15 g waste date/85 g DM and positive associative effects such as increased metabolizable energy (ME) and silage quality occurred. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Brito, A F; Broderick, G A; Olmos Colmenero, J J; Reynal, S M
Eight ruminally cannulated Holstein cows that were part of a larger lactation trial were blocked by days in milk and randomly assigned to replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares to quantify effects of nonprotein N (NPN) content of alfalfa silage (AS) and red clover silage (RCS) on omasal nutrient flows. Diets, fed as total mixed rations, contained 50% dry matter from control AS (CAS), ammonium tetraformate-treated AS (TAS), late maturity RCS (RCS1), or early maturity RCS (RCS2). Silages differed in NPN and acid detergent insoluble N (% of total N): 50 and 4% (CAS); 45 and 3% (TAS); 27 and 8% (RCS1); 29 and 4% (RCS2). The CAS, TAS, and RCS2 diets had 36% high-moisture shelled corn and 3% soybean meal, and the RCS1 diet had 31% high-moisture shelled corn and 9% soybean meal. All diets contained 10% corn silage, 27% neutral detergent fiber, and 17 to 18% crude protein. Compared with RCS, feeding AS increased the supply of rumen-degraded protein and omasal flows of nonammonia N and microbial protein, which may explain the improved milk yield observed in the companion lactation trial. However, omasal flow of rumen-undegraded protein was 34% greater on RCS. Except for Arg, omasal flows of individual AA, branched-chain AA, nonessential AA, essential AA, and total AA did not differ between cows fed AS vs. RCS. Within AS diets, no differences in omasal AA flows were observed. However, omasal flows of Asp, Ser, Glu, Cys, Val, Ile, Tyr, Lys, total nonessential AA, and total AA all were higher in cows fed RCS1 vs. cows fed RCS2. In this trial, there was no advantage to reducing NPN content of hay-crop silage.
Two lactation trials were conducted to assess the feeding value of silage made from populations of birdsfoot trefoil (BFT, Lotus corniculatus L.) that had been selected for low (BFTL), medium (BFTM), and high (BFTH) levels of condensed tannins (CT). These silages were compared to an alfalfa silage (...
Mader, T L; Britton, R A; Krause, V E; Pankaskie, D E
In each of two trials four large plastic bags were filled with approximately 72 mt of first cutting, early bloom alfalfa (35% dry matter). Fresh alfalfa in two bags was treated with .5 kg/metric ton of a commercial silage additive (Silo-Best). Two bags were left untreated. When compared with steers fed untreated alfalfa silage, weight gains, intakes, and feed efficiencies were not significantly (P greater than .05) altered for steers fed treated silage. However, laboratory analysis showed silage treatment increased in vitro dry matter digestibility (57.0 versus 60.6%) and decreased silage pH (4.98 versus 4.83). Concentrations of propionic and butyric acid were decreased by the additive. Data suggest that anaerobic fermentation was enhanced with the additive. Slight but significant improvements of silage in vitro dry matter digestibility, obtained by treating alfalfa silage with the inoculant-type preservative, did not result in improved performance in feeding trials.
The objective of this study was to compare effects of feeding silage made from birdsfoot trefoil (BFT), selected for low (LBFT), normal (NBFT) and high (HBFT) levels of condensed tannins (CT), to feeding silage made from alfalfa (AL) or red clover (RC) on milk production and nutrient utilization in ...
Non-feed uses for alfalfa such as biomass energy and phytoremediation could increase alfalfa acreage and improve farm profitability. The new bio-energy alfalfa and production system increased forage yield and ethanol production. New alfalfas with enhanced nitrogen cycling capacities would protect wa...
Many dairy farms in the USA are growing and feeding more corn silage (CS) and less alfalfa silage (AS) to reduce feed costs. More corn grain (CG)-based concentrates are also being promoted to reduce enteric methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Whole farm simulations illustrate that growing more CS and ...
Broderick, G A; Koegel, R G; Walgenbach, R P; Kraus, T J
Renewed interest exists in using grass forages to dilute the higher crude protein (CP) and lower digestible fiber present in legumes fed to lactating dairy cows. A 3 x 3 Latin square feeding study with 4-wk periods was conducted with 24 Holstein cows to compare ryegrass silage, either untreated control or macerated (intensively conditioned) before ensiling, with alfalfa silage as the sole dietary forage. Ryegrass silages averaged [dry matter (DM) basis] 18.4% CP, 50% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 10% indigestible acid detergent fiber (ADF) (control) and 16.6% CP, 51% NDF, and 12% indigestible ADF (macerated). Alfalfa silage was higher in CP (21.6%) and lower in NDF (44%) but higher in indigestible ADF (26%). A lower proportion of the total N in macerated ryegrass silage was present as nonprotein N than in control ryegrass and alfalfa silages. Diets were formulated to contain 41% DM from either rye-grass silage, or 51% DM from alfalfa silage, plus high moisture corn, and protein concentrates. Diets averaged 17.5% CP and 28 to 29% NDF. The shortfall in CP on ryegrass was made up by feeding 7.6% more soybean meal. Intake and milk yields were similar on control and macerated ryegrass; however, DM intake was 8.3 kg/d greater on the alfalfa diet. Moreover, feeding the alfalfa diet increased BW gain (0.48 kg/d) and yield of milk (6.1 kg/d), FCM (6.8 kg/d), fat (0.26 kg/d), protein (0.25 kg/d), lactose (0.35 kg/d), and SNF (0.65 kg/d) versus the mean of the two ryegrass diets. Both DM efficiency (milk/DM intake) and N efficiency (milk-N/N-intake) were 27% greater, and apparent digestibility was 16% greater for DM and 53% greater for NDF and ADF, on the ryegrass diets. However, apparent digestibility of digestible ADF was greater on alfalfa (96%) than on ryegrass (average = 91%). Also, dietary energy content (estimated as net energy of lactation required for maintenance, milk yield, and weight gain) per unit of digested DM was similar for all three diets. Results of
The action of polyphenol oxidase reduces NPN formation in red clover silage (RCS). In seven previous trials, RCS averaged (% of total N) 36% NPN vs. 54% NPN in alfalfa silage (AS). Feeding RCS has been found to increase intestinal protein absorption but with no improvement in N utilization, suggesti...
Broderick, G A; Walgenbach, R P; Sterrenburg, E
Three Latin square trials, with 20 (two trials) or 24 (one trial) multiparous lactating Holstein cows (four in each trial with ruminal cannulae), compared the feeding value of red clover and alfalfa silages harvested over 3 yr. Overall, the forages contained similar amounts of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber; however, red clover silage contained more hemicellulose, less ash and crude protein (CP), and only 67% as much nonprotein N, as a proportion of total N, as did alfalfa silage. Diets were formulated with equal dry matter (DM) from alfalfa or red clover silage and contained on average 65% forage, 33 or 30% ground high moisture ear corn, and 0 or 3% low soluble fishmeal (DM basis). Diets fed in the Latin squares contained (mean dietary CP): 1) alfalfa (17.8% CP); 2) red clover (15.1% CP); 3) alfalfa plus fishmeal (19.6% CP); and 4) red clover plus fishmeal (16.9% CP). Although performance varied somewhat among trials, overall statistical analysis showed that replacing alfalfa with red clover reduced yields of milk, fat-corrected milk, fat, protein, lactose, and SNF; these effects were related to the 1.2 kg/d lower DM intake for cows fed red clover. Replacing alfalfa with red clover improved body weight gain and reduced concentrations of milk and blood urea and ruminal NH3. Apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and hemicellulose all were greater when red clover was fed. There were no significant forage x fishmeal interactions for DM intake and yield of milk and milk components, indicating that supplementation with rumen undegradable protein gave similar increases in production on both forages. Net energy of lactation (NE(L)), estimated from maintenance, mean milk yield, and body weight change, in alfalfa and red clover silage were, respectively, 1.25 and 1.38 Mcal NE(L)/kg of DM, indicating 10% greater NE(L) in red clover.
Enteric methane and carbon dioxide emissions measured using respiration chambers, the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique, and a GreenFeed head-chamber system from beef heifers fed alfalfa silage at three allowances and four feeding frequencies.
Jonker, A; Molano, G; Antwi, C; Waghorn, G C
The objective of this study was to determine methane (CH) and carbon dioxide (CO) emissions from 8 beef heifers (approximately 20 mo of age and 382 ± 24.3 kg BW) measured by respiration chambers and the sulfur hexafluoride (SF) tracer technique and a mobile head-chamber, spot-sampling system (GreenFeed; C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD) when fed alfalfa silage at 3 feeding levels and 4 feeding frequencies. Feeding frequency may affect CH yield (g/kg DMI), and measurement systems (such as GreenFeed or SF) are needed to obtain accurate estimates of CH emissions from individual cattle under grazing where new pasture is provided once or twice daily. The Hereford × Friesian heifers were used in 5 consecutive periods (P1 to P5) of 14 d with CH and CO emissions measured with the SF technique in wk 1 (5-6 d), with chambers in wk 2 (2 d), and with the GreenFeed system when not in chambers (8 d) of each period. Alfalfa silage was restricted to 6, 8, 8, and 8 kg DM/d in P1, P2, P3, and P4, respectively, and provided ad libitum (10.9-12.2 kg DM/d) in P5. Silage was fed in 2, 2, 3, and 4 meals per day in P1, P2, P3, and P4, respectively, and was continuously available (refilled twice daily) in P5. Methane production increased from 141 to 265 g/d as DMI doubled ( < 0.001), but average CH yields measured in respiration chambers (24.5 g/kg DMI) and by the SF technique (22.8 g CH/kg DMI) and the GreenFeed system (26.2 g/kg DMI) were unaffected by feeding management ( = 0.6 for chambers and SF and = 0.06 for GreenFeed). The CH yields estimated by the GreenFeed system did not differ from CH yields estimated by the chambers in P1, P2, P3, and P5 but were greater ( < 0.02) than CH yields estimated by the SF technique in P2, P3, P4, and P5. Yields of CO (g/kg DMI) decreased with increasing DMI ( < 0.04) and CO production (g/d) increased from 5,293 to 9,167 g/d as DMI increased ( < 0.001). In general, the SF technique and the GreenFeed system provided means for CH yield that were not
Sheperd, A C; Maslanka, M; Quinn, D; Kung, L
First-cutting alfalfa was wilted, harvested from alternate rows, left untreated or treated with additives containing lactic acid bacteria and enzymes (cellulase, amylase, and pectinase), and ensiled in bag silos. Inoculation increased lactic acid bacteria from 5 x 10(4) to 1 x 10(6) cfu/g of forage. Because treatments were bagged consecutively, the DM of treated silages was higher than that of untreated silage. However, after 4 d of ensiling, the pH of treated silage, about 4.3, was lower than that of untreated silage, 4.7, and remained lower throughout the ensiling period. After 177 d of ensiling, total lactate was about 25% higher, and ammonia N was about 40% lower, in treated silage. In addition, NDF and ADF contents were lower in treated than in untreated silage. Between 51 and 177 d of storage, glucose content increased in treated silage, but not in untreated silage, suggesting that some plant cell-wall hydrolysis occurred during prolonged storage. In vitro digestion of NDF did not differ among treatments during early incubation, but the extent of digestion after 36 and 48 h was lower in treated than in untreated silage. The microbial and enzyme silage additives used in this study improved fermentation characteristics and reduced fiber content of silage but decreased the in vitro digestibility of fiber.
Alfalfa hay is a major crop that supports Idaho's dairy industry. Several cellulosic feedstocks will be needed to meet current ethanol production goals. Alfalfa has considerable potential as a feedstock for production of ethanol and other industrial materials because of its high biomasss production...
Holt, M S; Eun, J-S; Thacker, C R; Young, A J; Dai, X; Nestor, K E
This experiment was conducted to test a hypothesis that lactating dairy cows fed 35% brown midrib (BMR) corn silage and 25% alfalfa hay (dry matter (DM) basis) would consume more DM around peak lactation compared with those fed conventional corn silage (CS), resulting in longer peak milk production. Twenty-eight multiparous Holstein cows were used starting at the onset of lactation through 180 d in milk (DIM). Treatments were formulated to maintain a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 60:40, differing only in the CS hybrids used. Two dietary treatments were assessed in a completely randomized design: total mixed ration based on conventional CS (CCS) and total mixed ration based on BMR silage. Through peak lactation (1-60 DIM), DM intake was not different between dietary treatments, whereas DM intake post-peak lactation (61-180 DIM) tended to increase by feeding the BMR diet compared with the CCS diet (25.8 vs. 24.7 kg/d). Cows fed the BMR diet tended to lose less body weight through peak lactation compared with those fed the CCS diet (-0.22 vs. -0.52 kg/d). Although milk yield was not different between dietary treatments through peak lactation, milk yield post-peak lactation increased by feeding the BMR diet compared with the CCS diet (41.0 vs. 38.8 kg/d). Yield of 3.5% fat-corrected milk was similar between dietary treatments throughout the experiment (41.4 kg/d, on average), but milk fat concentration decreased by feeding the BMR diet compared with the CCS diet post-peak lactation (3.47 vs. 3.80%). Overall milk protein concentration was similar between dietary treatments throughout the experiment (2.96%, on average), whereas milk protein yield tended to be higher for the BMR diet post-peak lactation compared with the CCS diet (1.19 vs.1.13 kg/d). Feeding BMR silage with a high dietary concentration of alfalfa hay maintained more body weight, but did not affect milk production through peak lactation; however, cows fed the BMR diet post-peak lactation consumed more
Kung, L; Craig, W M; Satter, L D
Alfalfa was treated (3.3% of forage wet weight) with an aqua-NH3 (14% N) mix prior to ensiling in 2 consecutive yr. In the 1st yr, NH3-treated silage containing 30.5% DM was higher in pH, N, NH3N, acetic acid and butyric acid contents, and lower in amino acids, soluble carbohydrates, and lactic acid than two untreated silages having 32.8 and 47.5% DM. Milk composition and DM intake did not differ among treatments when these silages constituted 50% of the dietary DM and were fed to lactating cows. In situ and in vitro, but not in vivo, digestion of NDF was greater for NH3 silage. Dry matter content of NH3-treated silage in the 2nd yr was 36.1% and that of the two untreated silages was 37.8 and 54.9%. Silage N, NH3N, and acetic acid content were greater in treated silage. However, pH and butyric acid content were similar among treatments and lactic acid was greater for treated silage. Similar to findings in the 1st yr, milk production and DM intake were not different among treatments. Adding NH3 to alfalfa decreased proteolysis; however, when DM was low (30.5%), the buffering effect of NH3 apparently resulted in increased clostridial fermentation. This did not occur when silage DM was increased to 36.1%, presumably due to higher osmotic pressure. Ammonia addition enhanced fiber digestibility but had no effect on milk production.
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and corn (Zea mays) silage are commonly grown in rotation in dairy forage production systems throughout the northern regions of the USA. Alfalfa interseeded into silage corn could potentially serve two purposes: as a cover crop during the silage corn production year, and as...
Filya, I; Muck, R E; Contreras-Govea, F E
The effect of 14 microbial inoculants on the fermentation and nutritive value of alfalfa silages was studied under laboratory conditions. The first cut (477 g of dry matter/kg) and second cut (393 g of dry matter/kg) of a second-year alfalfa stand were ensiled in 2 trials. In both trials alfalfa was harvested with standard field equipment. All inoculants were applied at 1.0 x 10(6) cfu/g of crop. Uninoculated silages served as controls. After inoculants were added, the chopped forages were ensiled in 1.0- and 0.5-L anaerobic glass jars, respectively, at a density of 500 g/L. Each trial had 15 treatments (uninoculated control and 14 inoculants), with 4 silos per treatment. Silos were stored for a minimum of 30 d at room temperature (approximately 22 degrees C). In first-cut silage, all inoculants but one reduced pH relative to the uninoculated control, and all but 2 of the homofermentative strains shifted fermentation toward lactic acid. In second-cut silage, the epiphytic lactic acid bacterial population was 2.7 x 10(7) cfu/g, and only commercial inoculants produced significant shifts in fermentation. Overall, microbial inoculants generally had a positive effect on alfalfa silage characteristics in terms of lower pH and shifting fermentation toward lactic acid with homofermentative lactic acid bacteria or toward acetic acid with heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus buchneri. These effects were stronger in the commercial products tested. In spite of the positive effects on silage fermentation, 48-h in vitro true DM digestibility was not improved by inoculation with lactic acid bacteria.
The objective of this study was to determine whether production and nutrient utilization differed when lactating cows were fed diets based on 1 of 3 sources of alfalfa silage (AS) and whether performance was altered by feeding rumen-protected Met (RPM; fed as Mepron). Thirty-six lactating Holstein c...
A study was conducted to determine if feeding roasted corn as principal concentrate source, would improve production and nutrient utilization when supplemented to lactating cows fed one of 3 different alfalfa silages (AS). Forty-two lactating Holstein cows, including 6 fitted with ruminal cannulas, ...
The objective of this study was to determine if feeding roasted corn as principal concentrate source, would improve production and nutrient utilization when supplemented to lactating cows fed one of 3 different alfalfa silages (AS). Forty-two lactating Holstein cows (6 fitted with ruminal cannulas) ...
Kammes, K L; Heemink, G B H; Albrecht, K A; Combs, D K
The mixture of kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) has proven to be extremely persistent in the northern United States, but information about dairy cow performance on this mixture is lacking. Twenty lactating Holstein cows were used in a crossover design to compare dry matter (DM) intake and milk production from diets containing kura clover-reed canarygrass silage (KRS) or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage (AS). Forages were cut, wilted, ensiled in horizontal plastic bags, and allowed to ferment for at least 50 d before beginning the feeding experiment. The KRS was approximately 40% kura clover and 60% reed canarygrass. Treatments were total mixed rations formulated with either 57% of total DM from 1) AS or 2) KRS. Experimental periods were 28 d, with the first 14 d for diet adaptation and the last 14 d for measurement of intake and milk production. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations of AS and KRS were 37.3 and 47.3%, respectively. The fermentation analyses indicated that both silages underwent a restricted fermentation, producing primarily lactic acid and some acetic acid. Dry matter intake (24.2 vs. 22.8 kg) and 4% fat-corrected milk (32.8 vs. 30.9 kg) were significantly higher for cows fed AS than for cows fed KRS. Cows consumed less NDF (6.7 vs. 8.0 kg) and less digestible NDF (3.0 vs. 4.4 kg) when fed AS diets compared with KRS diets, but the pool of ruminally undegraded NDF was similar (3.7 kg) between diets. Cows produced 1.5 kg of milk/kg of DM consumed regardless of the diet, indicating that digestible NDF of KRS was utilized with similar efficiency as the cell wall constituents of AS, but the intake of cows fed KRS may have been limited by rumen fill. Milk fat concentration tended to be higher for cows fed AS, but the milk true protein concentration and yields of fat and protein did not differ by treatment. Milk urea nitrogen content was higher when cows consumed AS (16.4 mg/ d
Onetti, S G; Shaver, R D; McGuire, M A; Palmquist, D L; Grummer, R R
A study was conducted to investigate the response to supplemental tallow of lactating cows fed basal diets with different alfalfa silage:corn silage ratios. We postulated that supplemental tallow will have decreasing negative effects on rumen fermentation, dry matter intake (DMI), and milk fat percentage as the dietary ratio of alfalfa silage:corn silage is increased. Eighteen Holstein cows averaging 134 +/- 14 d in milk were used in a replicated 6 x 6 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 3 factorial with 0 or 2% tallow (DM basis) and three forage treatments: 1) 50% of diet DM as corn silage, 2) 37.5% corn silage and 12.5% alfalfa silage, and 3) 25% corn silage and 25% alfalfa silage. Cows were allowed ad libitum consumption of a total mixed ration. Diets were formulated to contain 18% crude protein and 32% neutral detergent fiber. No fat x forage treatment interactions were observed. Fat supplemented cows had lower DMI and produced more milk with less milk fat content relative to non-supplemented cows. Concentration of trans-octadecenoic acids was higher in milk fat of tallow-supplemented cows. Tallow supplementation had no effect on ruminal pH and acetate:propionate ratio, but tended to decrease total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration in the rumen. Increasing the proportion of alfalfa silage increased DMI, milk fat percentage, and milk fat yield regardless of the fat content of the diet. Total VFA concentration and acetate:propionate ratio in the rumen were increased in response to higher levels of alfalfa in the diets. These results suggest that replacing corn silage with alfalfa silage did not alleviate the negative response of dairy cows to tallow supplementation at 2% of diet DM.
Onetti, S G; Reynal, S M; Grummer, R R
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of including alfalfa preserved either as silage or long-stem or chopped hay on DMI and milk fat production of dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets with supplemental tallow (T). Fifteen Holstein cows that averaged 117 DIM were used in a replicated 5 x 5 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments (DM basis) were: 1) 50% corn silage:50% concentrate without T (CS); 2) 50% corn silage:50% concentrate with 2% T (CST); 3) 25% corn silage:25% short-cut alfalfa hay:50% concentrate with 2% T (SAHT); 4) 25% corn silage:25% long-cut alfalfa hay:50% concentrate with 2% T (LAHT); and 5) 25% corn silage:25% alfalfa silage:50% concentrate with 2% T (AST). Cows were allowed ad libitum consumption of a TMR fed 4 times daily. Diets averaged 16.4% CP and 30.3% NDF. Including 2% T in diets with corn silage as the sole forage source decreased DMI and milk fat percentage and yield. Replacing part of corn silage with alfalfa in diets with 2% T increased milk fat percentage and yield. The milk fat of cows fed CST was higher in trans-10 C18:1 than that of cows fed diets with alfalfa. No effect of alfalfa preservation method or hay particle length was observed on DMI and milk production. The milk fat percentage and yield were lower, and the proportion of trans-10 C18:1 in milk fat was higher for cows fed LAHT than for cows fed SAHT. Alfalfa preservation method had no effect on milk fat yield. Ruminal pH was higher for cows fed alfalfa in the diets, and it was higher for cows fed LAHT than SAHT. Feeding alfalfa silage or chopped hay appears to be more beneficial than long hay in sustaining milk fat production when 2% T is fed with diets high in corn silage. These results support the role of trans fatty acids in milk fat depression.
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of varying alfalfa silage (AS) to corn silage (CS) ratios in a total mixed ration on performance of lactating cows and methane (CH4) emission. Sixteen multiparous Holstein cows (mean±SD; 77±35 days in milk and 640±84 kg body weight) housed in a...
The objective was to determine the effect of varying alfalfa silage (AS) to corn silage (CS) ratio in a 55:45 forage:concentrate ratio (% DM) total mixed ration on performance of lactating cows and ammonia N emission. Sixteen multiparous Holstein cows were blocked by DIM and randomly assigned to bal...
Ogunade, I M; Kim, D H; Jiang, Y; Weinberg, Z G; Jeong, K C; Adesogan, A T
This study was conducted to examine if adding microbial inoculants or propionic acid to alfalfa silages contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 would inhibit the growth of the pathogen during or after ensiling. Alfalfa forage was harvested at the early bloom stage, wilted to a dry matter concentration of 54%, chopped to 19-mm lengths, and ensiled after treatment with one of the following: (1) distilled water (control); (2) 1×10(5) cfu/g of E. coli O157:H7 (EC); (3) EC and 1×10(6) cfu/g of Lactobacillus plantarum (EC+LP); (4) EC and 1×10(6) cfu/g of Lactobacillus buchneri (EC+LB); and (5) EC and 2.2g/kg of propionic acid (EC+PA). Each treatment was ensiled in quadruplicate in laboratory silos for 0, 3, 7, 16, and 100d and analyzed for EC counts, pH, and organic acids. In addition, samples from d 100 were analyzed for chemical composition, ammonia-N, counts of yeasts and molds, and aerobic stability. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was detected in all silages until d 7, but by d 16 it was not detected in those treated with EC+LB and EC+LP, though it was still detected in EC and EC+PA silages. However, by d 100, the pathogen was not detected in any silage. The rate of pH decrease to 5.0 was fastest for the EC+LP silage (7d), followed by the EC+LB silage (16d). Nevertheless, all silages had attained a pH of or less than 5.0 by d 100. The rapid decrease in pH in EC+LP and EC+LB silages was observed due to higher lactate and acetate concentrations, respectively, relative to the other silages during the early fermentation phase (d 3-16). Propionic acid was only detected in the EC+PA silage. Yeast counts were lowest in EC+LB and EC+PA silages. Subsamples of all d-100 silages were reinoculated with 1×10(5) cfu/g of EC immediately after silo opening. When the pathogen was subsequently enumerated after 168h of aerobic exposure, it was not detected in silages treated with EC+PA, EC+LB, or EC+LP, which all had pH values less than 5.0. Whereas the EC silage had a pH value of 5
Broderick, G A; Grabber, J H; Muck, R E; Hymes-Fecht, U C
Two lactation trials were conducted comparing the feeding value of silages made from birdsfoot trefoil (BFT, Lotus corniculatus L.) that had been selected for low (BFTL), medium (BFTM), and high (BFTH) levels of condensed tannins (CT) to an alfalfa silage (AS) when fed as the principal forage in total mixed rations. Diets also included corn silage, high-moisture shelled corn, soybean meal, soy hulls, and supplemental fat. In trial 1, 32 lactating Holstein cows were blocked by days in milk, assigned to treatment sequences in 8 balanced 4 × 4 Latin squares, and fed 50% dietary dry matter from AS or 1 of 3 BFT silages containing 0.6, 1.2, or 1.7% CT. Diets averaged 17.5 to 19.5% crude protein and 26% neutral detergent fiber on a dry matter basis. Data were collected over the last 2 wk of each 4-wk period. Intakes were 1.3 to 2.8 kg of dry matter/d greater on BFT than on AS and cows gained 0.5 kg of body weight/d on BFT diets while losing 0.14 kg of body weight/d on the AS diet; this resulted in greater milk per dry matter intake (DMI) on AS. Linear effects indicated true protein yield and milk urea nitrogen declined with increasing CT concentration and quadratic effects indicated DMI, energy-corrected milk, and fat yield were increased at intermediate CT concentration. True protein yield and apparent N-efficiency were greater, and milk urea nitrogen lower, on all BFT diets than on AS. In trial 2, 50 lactating Holstein cows were fed a covariate AS diet for 2 wk and then blocked by parity and days in milk and randomly assigned to 1 of 5 diets that were fed continuously for 12 wk. Diets contained (dry matter basis) 48% AS, 16% AS plus 32% of 1 of 3 BFT silages with 0.5, 0.8, or 1.5% CT, or 48% of an equal mixture of each BFT silage. Diets averaged 16.5% crude protein and 30% neutral detergent fiber. Intake and milk yield tended to be lower on AS than BFT, but body weight gains averaged 0.6 kg/d on all diets. Cows fed any of the BFT silages had reduced milk urea nitrogen
Wang, Xiaofen; Haruta, Shin; Wang, Pu; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo; Cui, Zongjun
Alfalfa is a kind of forage that is difficult to ensile for good quality. Therefore, inoculants are always used to enhance the preservation of alfalfa silage. Through continuous restricted subcultivation, a lactic acid bacteria community (Al2) was selected from well-fermented alfalfa silage, which sharply decreased the pH level and produced a large amount of lactic acid. The adding of Al2 to alfalfa at ensiling resulted in a more rapid drop in pH and higher levels of lactic acid, and it also reduced the ammonia-nitrogen content significantly (P < 0.01). Plate isolation, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and the construction of a 16S rRNA gene clone library were used to identify the composition diversity of the Al2 community; seven strains were detected in the community, the predominant strain belonging to Lactobacillus plantarum. Samples of alfalfa silages of duration 0, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 30 days were studied with DGGE analysis. The DGGE band patterns of Al2-treated and non inoculated were rather different, and the components of Al2 were the dominant bacteria in Al2-treated silages, especially L. plantarum, while Pediococcus pentosaceaus was predominant in naturally fermented alfalfa silage.
Ensiling is the primary means of preserving moist forages for feeding livestock. In ensiling, the crop is stored anaerobically, and sugars in the crop are fermented by lactic acid bacteria naturally on the crop. The crop is preserved by the combination of the acids produced by the lactic acid bacter...
Wu, B; Nishino, N
To gain insights into the bacterial species associated with anaerobic storage and aerobic stability of alfalfa silage. Wilted alfalfa silage (498 g dry matter kg(-1) ) was prepared with and without the addition of molasses. Aerobic spoilage tests were conducted at 5, 10 and 60 days after ensiling. The composition of fermentation products and the bacterial communities of silage were determined at 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after silo opening. Silage without molasses had small amounts of lactic and acetic acids detectable at silo opening but resisted deterioration due to aerobic spoilage for at least 5 days after opening. Resistance to aerobic deterioration in silage increased with the addition of molasses. The predominant bacterial species in molasses-added silage was Lactobacillus fructivorans, which was detected by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. Different bacterial growth media were used for Lact. fructivorans isolation from alfalfa silage with added molasses: isolation was successful using liver infusion sake medium, but was unsuccessful when de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe medium was used. A nonconventional lactic acid bacterium (LAB) species may be involved in the high aerobic stability of alfalfa silage. The findings demonstrate that culture-independent microbiota analysis may be useful in the isolation and identification of nonconventional LAB species involved in fermentation and the aerobic stability of silage. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Ding, W R; Long, R J; Guo, X S
This experiment studied the contribution of plant enzymes and microbial activity on lipolysis and proteolysis in ensiled alfalfa. Before ensiling, the wilted alfalfa was treated with plant enzyme inactivation by autoclaving or with sterilization by γ-ray irradiation. The treated alfalfa was then inoculated with commercial lactic acid bacteria inoculants and ensiled for 40 d. Alfalfa without treatment was ensiled as the control. The content of total fatty acid (FA) after ensiling decreased 43% in the control silage and 28% in the γ-ray-treated silage, but did not change in the autoclave-treated silage. Among the major FA (C16:0, C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3), a considerable increase was observed in proportion of C16:0 in the control silage as compared with fresh alfalfa; conversely, decreases in proportions of C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 occurred during ensilage. Silage treated with γ-ray radiation at ensiling had a smaller proportion of C16:0 and greater proportions of C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 than control silage. Autoclave treatment further decreased proportions of C16:0 and most of the other FA, and increased C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 proportions in comparison with γ-ray treatment. Proportions of C16:0, C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3 and other detected FA (except for the proportion of C15:0) did not differ between fresh forage and autoclave-treated silage. Remarkably, smaller nonprotein nitrogen content was observed in the autoclave-treated silage compared with the γ ray-treated silage or the control silage. These results indicated that an extensive lipolysis occurred during ensiling of alfalfa, and plant enzymes played a major role in lipolysis and proteolysis.
Baled silage production provides benefits to farmers because it reduces leaf losses, and requires a shorter wilting time, thereby limiting risks of exposure to rain compared with making hay. Our objective was to investigate the correlation of alfalfa silage fermentation parameters with intake and di...
Baled silages are an attractive forage conservation option, especially for small and mid-sized beef and dairy producers. Our objectives were to test the effects of delayed wrapping on the nutritive value of baled alfalfa silages on a pre- and post-storage basis. A secondary objective was to evaluate...
Interseeded alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) could serve as a dual-purpose crop to provide groundcover for silage corn (Zea mays L.) and forage during subsequent years of production, but interspecific competition often leads to poor stands of alfalfa and unsatisfactory yields of corn. Four experiments e...
Dairy producers frequently ask questions about the risks associated with applying dairy slurry onto growing alfalfa. Our objectives were to determine the effects of dairy-slurry application on the subsequent nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silages. Dairy slurry was applie...
This popular press article briefly describes the potential benefits of using prohexadione-calcium for enhancing the establishment of alfalfa interseeded into silage corn. Prohexadione sprayed in June with drop nozzles at 10 to 14 oz ai/A typically reduced alfalfa top growth by about 20% in July and ...
Santos, M C; Kung, L
During the ensiling of feeds, various processes result in chemical changes that can affect their ultimate nutritive value at feed out. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of prolonged ensiling times on potential changes in in vitro digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF-D) of alfalfa ensiled at about 33% [low dry matter (DM), LDM] or 45% (high DM, HDM) whole-plant DM. Alfalfa from the same field (direct chopped or wilted) was chopped with a conventional forage harvester set for a theoretical length of cut of 0.95 cm and ensiled in mini silos for 45, 180, 270, and 360 d. Fresh forages and silages were analyzed for nutrient content, fermentation end-products, and 30-h NDF-D. The pH of the fresh forages ranged from 6.1 to 6.2 and decreased to approximately 4.7 and 4.3 in HDM and LDM silages, respectively. Production of acids and alcohols were less in HDM compared with LDM as expected. Concentrations of soluble protein and NH3-N also increased with time of storage as expected but soluble protein was greater, whereas NH3-N was lower in HDM compared with LDM silage. The effect of length of storage and DM on hemicellulose and NDF concentrations were very small, whereas DM content at harvest tended to slightly increase the concentration of acid detergent fiber in HDM compared with LDM up to 270 d of storage. The NDF-D was greater in fresh forage compared with corresponding silages. However, time of storage between 45 and 360 d had no effect on the NDF-D of alfalfa silage, regardless of DM concentration at ensiling.
Ruppert, L D; Drackley, J K; Bremmer, D R; Clark, J H
Six multiparous Holstein cows (average 31 days in milk; 36.3 kg/d of milk) fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a 6 x 6 Latin square with 21-d periods to investigate the effects of diets that varied in forage source and amount of supplemental tallow. Isonitrogenous diets in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement were based on either high corn silage (40:10 corn silage to alfalfa silage, % of dry matter) or high alfalfa silage (10:40 corn silage to alfalfa silage, % of dry matter) and contained 0, 2, or 4% tallow. Intakes of dry matter and total fatty acids were lower when cows were fed the high corn silage diet. Tallow supplementation linearly decreased dry matter intake. Milk yield was unaffected by diet; yields of milk fat and 3.5% fat-corrected milk were higher for the high alfalfa silage diet but were unaffected by tallow. Milk fat percentage was higher for the high alfalfa silage and tended to decrease when tallow was added to the high corn silage diet. Contents of trans-C18:1 isomers in milk fat were increased by high corn silage and tallow, and tended to be increased more when tallow was fed in the high corn silage diet. Ruminal pH and acetate:propionate were lower when high corn silage was fed. Ruminal acetate:propionate decreased linearly as tallow increased; the molar proportion of acetate was decreased more when tallow was added to the high corn silage diet. Ruminal liquid dilution rates were higher for the alfalfa silage diet; ruminal volume and solid passage rates were similar among diets. Total tract apparent digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, starch, energy, and total fatty acids were unaffected by diet. Digestibilities of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose, and cellulose were lower when high corn silage was fed. The high alfalfa silage diet increased intakes of metabolizable energy and N, and increased milk energy and productive N. Tallow decreased the amount of N absorbed but had few other effects on
Dairy slurry is used commonly as a fertilizer in agriculture. However, residual effects of slurry application on intake and digestibility of alfalfa silage from subsequent harvests are not well known. The objective of this study was to determine if moisture concentration of alfalfa silage and timing...
Glenn, B P
Alfalfa was harvested as second-cutting regrowth herbage, ensiled either at low DM (direct-cut) or high DM (wilted), untreated or treated with .82 or .66% anhydrous NH3 (percentage of DM), respectively, and offered to four Holstein heifers. Silages low in DM had more gross energy and more NDF in DM than silages high in DM. Ammonia treatment increased total, soluble, rumen-insoluble, and NH3 N fractions in treated silages compared with those fractions in untreated silages. Ammonia treatment of low DM silage reduced digestible energy intake but increased intake of high DM silage. Digestibility of DM was lower by heifers fed low than high DM silages, but hemicellulose digestibility was higher. Tissue N retention was lower by heifers fed low than high DM silage. Dry matter and cell solubles digestibilities decreased for NH3-treated silages compared with digestibilities for untreated silages. Digested DM contained more digested NDF and cellulose for NH3-treated silages compared with untreated silages. Retained N was higher for heifers fed NH3-treated alfalfa than untreated alfalfa, particularly for the low DM silages. Wilting alfalfa was more effective in improving nutrient use by heifers than treatment with NH3, which improved preservation of plant protein through ensiling.
Tabacco, E; Borreani, G; Crovetto, G M; Galassi, G; Colombo, D; Cavallarin, L
Two experiments were conducted on alfalfa to investigate the effects of the addition of commercial chestnut hydrolyzable tannin at ensiling on 1) silage fermentation quality in lab-scale silos and protein degradation in the rumen, and 2) silage fermentation quality and proteolysis in bale silages. Wilted alfalfa was prepared with 4 tannin levels (0, 2, 4, and 6% on a dry matter (DM) basis; T0, T1, T2, T3, respectively) and ensiled in lab-scale silos. Silages (33% DM) were analyzed for fermentation quality, protein rumen degradability in situ, and organic matter digestibility in vitro through gas production after 120 d of conservation. Wilted alfalfa containing 0 and 4% tannin (T0 and T2) was harvested at 40% DM (wilting level I) and 53% DM (wilting level II) for bale (600 mm diameter) silage. Silages were analyzed for fermentation quality after 78 d of conservation. All the silages were well fermented with no butyric acid. Lab-scale silages showed reductions in ammonia, nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) and DM losses in T2 and T3 treatments, while the fermentation acid profiles were unaffected. In experiment 1, the untreated silage (T0) had the highest protein degradability after being incubated in the rumen. The addition of tannin reduced crude protein ruminal disappearance in a dose-dependent manner. However, the tannin reduced the organic matter digestibility by 5.1% for all of the tannin addition levels. The tannin positively affected the silage quality in the round bale silages, in particular reducing ammonia and NPN in the lowest wilting level. In both experiments, T2 treatment reduced proteolysis without any influence of DM on the binding reaction and reduced the NPN by 15% in comparison to the control.
Yuan, XianJun; Wen, AiYou; Desta, Seare T.; Wang, Jian; Shao, Tao
Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sodium diacetate (SDA) on fermentation profile, chemical composition and aerobic stability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage. Methods Fresh alfalfa was ensiled with various concentrations of SDA (0, 3, 5, 7, and 9 g/kg of fresh forage). After 60 days of the ensiling, the samples were collected to examine the fermentative quality, chemical composition and aerobic stability. Results The application of SDA significantly (p<0.05) decreased silage pH with the lowest value in silage with 7 g/kg of SDA. The proliferations of enterobacteria, yeasts, molds and clostridia were inhibited by SDA, resulted in lower ethanol, propionic and butyric acid concentrations and dry matter loss in SDA treated silages than control. The increasing SDA linearly decreased free amino acid N (p<0.001), ammonia N (p = 0.018) and non-protein N (p<0.001), while linearly increased water soluble carbohydrate (p<0.001) and peptide N (p<0.001). It is speculated that SDA accelerated the shift from homofermentative to heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria during the silage fermentation, indicated by lower lactic acid production in SDA-9 than SDA-7 silages after 60 days of ensiling. Alfalfa silages treated with SDA at 7 g/kg had highest Flieg’s point and remained stable more than 9 d during aerobic exposure under humid and hot conditions in southern China. Conclusion SDA may be used as an additive for alfalfa silages at a level of 7 g/kg. PMID:28111451
Charmley, E; Veira, D M
Heat treatment at harvest was used to investigate the effects of proteolysis on silage composition and digestion by sheep. Four alfalfa (Medicago sativa) silages were prepared, two from mid-bloom and two from pre-bloom crops from the same field. Mid-bloom alfalfa was conserved with formic acid as two unwilted silages, either without (unwilted control; UWC) or after heat treatment (unwilted heated; UWH) applied as steam for 1 min. Pre-bloom alfalfa was ensiled either after 24 h wilting (wilted control; WC) or after heating in a crop dehydrator for 2 min (wilted control; WH). Heated treatments were inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum. Eight wethers, cannulated in the rumen and duodenum, were given the silages to determine the effects of heat treatment on digestion. Heat treatment inhibited protease activity and reduced protein catabolism in the silo. In unwilted silages, heat treatment had no effects (P greater than .05) on OM or N digestion, but it reduced (P less than .05) CP degradability in the rumen. In wilted silages, heat treatment reduced (P less than .05) apparent OM digestion in the rumen and increased (P less than .05) the proportion of N intake flowing to the intestines as non-ammonia N (NAN). Efficiency of microbial protein synthesis also was increased (P less than .01). Absorption of N posterior to the duodenum was increased (P less than .05) in WH compared to WC, but there was no effect (P greater than .05) of heat treatment on apparent total tract N digestibility.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Whiter, A G; Kung, L
Alfalfa was wilted to 30 and 54% dry matter and was untreated or treated with Lactobacillus plantarum MTD1 applied either as a liquid or dry inoculant to determine whether form of inoculation affected silage fermentation. In silages with 30% dry matter, both forms of inoculation resulted in silages with more lactic acid and a lower pH than in untreated silage after 2 d of ensiling. In addition, both forms of inoculation resulted in silages with lower concentrations of acetic acid between 8 and 45 d of ensiling than in untreated silage. The ammonia-N content was also lower in silages that had been treated with both forms of inoculation during the early and intermediate stages of ensiling, but not after 45 d of ensiling. In silages containing 54% dry matter, dry and liquid inoculation produced a more rapid decrease in pH from d 4 to 14 when compared with untreated silage, but the effect was greater when the inoculant was applied in water. In contrast to findings from 30% silages, the inoculated silages with 54% dry matter had lower concentrations of ammonia-N than untreated silage from d 8 to 45, and both forms of inoculation were equally effective. The results of this study agree with previous research that shows that microbial inoculation can improve the fermentation of alfalfa silage. However, this report shows that a microbial inoculant was more effective when applied in a liquid- rather than a dry-form to alfalfa with a high DM content.
Two areas of silage management are addressed: silage inoculants and plastic film quality. Inoculants are the most common silage additives in the United States. These products contain lactic acid bacteria to supplement the lactic acid bacteria naturally on the crop and help insure a consistent fermen...
Nadeau, E M; Russell, J R; Buxton, D R
The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of a cellulase (from Trichoderma longibrachiatum) alone or combined with a bacterial inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus cerevisiae) or formic acid on composition, intake, and digestibility of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silages. Orchardgrass and alfalfa were harvested at the early heading stage and at the early bloom stage of maturity and wilted to approximately 22 and 32% DM, respectively. Forages were then ensiled in 100-L sealed barrels for at least 60 d before they were fed to lambs. Silage treated with cellulase had lower (P < .001) pH and lower (P < .001) acetic acid and NH3 N concentrations than untreated silage of both plant species and a higher (P = .004) lactic acid concentration than the control treatment of alfalfa silage. Fermentation characteristics of cellulase-treated silages, especially of alfalfa, were further enhanced by use of inoculant. Formic acid addition increased (P < .001), reducing sugar concentration of cellulase-treated orchardgrass and alfalfa silage by 90 and 154%, respectively, and decreased (P < .001) NH3 N concentration of cellulase-treated alfalfa silage by 19%. Averaged across plant species, cellulase, combined with inoculant or formic acid, resulted in 8 and 13% greater (P = .03) DMI, respectively, than the control silage. Extensive enzymatic cell-wall degradation during ensiling decreased (P = .003) NDF intake of cellulase-treated orchardgrass silage by 25% and decreased (P = .001) cellulose intake by 23%, when averaged across plant species. Addition of formic acid increased (P = .003) NDF intake of cellulase-treated orchardgrass silage by 19%. Averaged across species, cellulase application decreased (P < .05) silage NDF digestibility by 18%. Greater sugar and lower acetic acid, NH3 N, and NDF concentrations resulted in greater DMI of cellulase-treated silage than of control silage, when cellulase was combined
Nadeau, E M; Buxton, D R; Russell, J R; Allison, M J; Young, J W
We evaluated the effects of cellulase (from Trichoderma longibrachiatum) application rates on neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration and fermentation products of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silages harvested with decreasing dry matter (DM) digestibility. Additionally, the impacts of inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus cerevisiae), pectinase (from Aspergillus niger), or formic acid on silage composition were studied. Forages wilted to a DM content of about 320 g/kg were ensiled in laboratory silos for 60 d. Cellulase, combined with inoculant, was applied at 2, 10, and 20 ml/kg of herbage (at least 2500 IU/ml). Cellulase at 10 ml/kg was also applied alone or in combination with pectinase and inoculant or formic acid. The NDF concentration of orchardgrass silage decreased with increasing cellulase up to 20 ml/kg, at which NDF content was decreased by 30%. The NDF concentration of alfalfa silage decreased with increasing cellulase application up to 10 ml/kg, at which NDF content was decreased by 13%. Immature plants were more responsive to cellulase treatment than mature plants. Cellulase at 2 ml/kg combined with inoculant improved fermentation characteristics of the silages but generally, there was no effect on silage fermentation by higher cellulase applications, resulting in an accumulation of sugar. The improved fermentation of orchardgrass treated with cellulase and inoculant was mostly related to the effect of inoculant, whereas cellulase alone improved fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silage and this effect was enhanced by addition of inoculant. Decreased NDF and increased sugar concentrations did not improve the in vitro DM digestibility of cellulase-treated silages.
Alfalfa and corn silage are widely planted for dairy forage production systems throughout the northern regions of the USA, accounting for about 0.8 and 1.9 million hectares per year, respectively. Much of this area could benefit from strategies to reduce soil erosion and nutrient losses. Because the...
Prohexadione-Ca (PHD) can enhance establishment of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, L.) interseeded into silage corn (Zea mays, L.), but optimal application rates and timing for this growth regulator are unknown. Two experiments examined how single or split applications of 0.25 to 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 of PHD o...
The objective of this study was to determine the relative partitioning of nitrogen (N) in alfalfa silage (AS), corn silage (CS), corn grain (CG) and soybean meal (SBM) in milk, urinary and fecal N in lactating dairy cows. For eleven days, twelve multiparous late-lactation Holstein cows (means ± SD; ...
Two trials were conducted simultaneously to study the effect of alfalfa silage (AS) to corn silage (CS) ratio in the diet of lactating dairy cows on performance, digestibility, ruminal parameters, nitrogen (N) balance, manure production and composition, and gaseous emissions [carbon dioxide (CO2), ...
Muck, R E; Filya, I; Contreras-Govea, F E
Alfalfa silages from 2 similar trials were analyzed for in vitro ruminal gas production. In both trials, there were 15 treatments: alfalfa treated at ensiling with 1 of 14 lactic acid bacterial inoculants or untreated alfalfa. First-cut (477 g of dry matter/kg) and second-cut (393 g of dry matter/kg) alfalfa were ensiled in glass jars for a minimum of 35 d at room temperature (approximately 22 degrees C). At opening, a portion of each silage was wet-ground with a mixer. Each silage was then assessed for in vitro ruminal gas production in 3 replicate runs with the wet-ground silage, 1 on the fresh silage and 2 on frozen and thawed silage. In vitro gas production was measured in 160-mL sealed serum vials incubated at 39 degrees C. One gram of silage was incubated with 17.1 mL of nutrient solution, 0.9 mL of reducing solution, and 12 mL of ruminal inoculum (1:2 vol/vol mixture of rumen fluid and buffer). Gas production was measured manually by using a pressure gauge at 3, 6, 9, 24, 48, and 96 h. At 96 h, the rumen fluid was analyzed for pH and volatile fatty acids. In the 2 trials, the untreated control silage produced either numerically the highest or one of the highest levels of gas production per unit of dry matter incubated. In first-cut silage, 9 of the inoculant treatments at 9 h and 4 treatments at 96 h had reduced gas production compared with the control. In second-cut silage, 10 inoculant treatments at both 9 and 96 h had reduced gas production compared with the control. Furthermore, in first-cut silage, the fraction of total gas production at 3, 6, and 9 h was numerically the highest for the control, and only 4 treatments were not significantly lower than the control at 9 h. In second-cut silage, 2 of 14 inoculated treatments produced faster fractional rates of gas production than the control, but most inoculated treatments had numerically slower fractional rates (4 significant) in the first 9 h. The in vitro fermented wet-ground control silages had one of
Many dairy farmers rely increasingly on corn silage to meet their forage needs. While the efficiencies associated with the production, harvest, and storage of corn silage are attractive, a less-desirable corollary of this management trend is the increased linkage of manure distribution with producti...
Erdman, R A; Piperova, L S; Kohn, R A
Corn silage (CS) has replaced alfalfa hay (AH) and haylage as the major forage fed to lactating dairy cows, yet many dairy producers believe that inclusion of small amounts of alfalfa hay or haylage improves feed intake and milk production. Alfalfa contains greater concentrations of K and Ca than corn silage and has an inherently higher dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD). Supplemental dietary buffers such as NaHCO(3) and K(2)CO(3) increase DCAD and summaries of studies with these buffers showed improved performance in CS-based diets but not in AH-based diets. We speculated that improvements in performance with AH addition to CS-based diets could be due to differences in mineral and DCAD concentrations between the 2 forages. The objective of this experiment was to test the effects of forage (CS vs. AH) and mineral supplementation on production responses using 45 lactating Holstein cows during the first 20 wk postpartum. Dietary treatments included (1) 50:50 mixture of AH and CS as the forage (AHCS); (2) CS as the sole forage; and (3) CS fortified with mineral supplements (CaCO(3) and K(2)CO(3)) to match the Ca and K content of the AHCS diet (CS-DCAD). Feed intake and milk production were equivalent or greater for cows fed the CS and CS-DCAD diets compared with those fed the AHCS diet. Fat percentage was greater in cows fed the CS compared with the AHCS diet. Fat-corrected milk (FCM; 3.5%) tended to be greater in cows fed the CS and CS-DCAD diets compared with the AHCS diet. Feed efficiencies measured as FCM/dry matter intake were 1.76, 1.80, and 1.94 for the AHCS, CS, and CS-DCAD diets, respectively. The combined effects of reduced feed intake and increased FCM contributed to increased feed efficiency with the CS-DCAD diet, which contained 1.41% K compared with 1.18% K in the CS diet, and we speculate that this might be the result of added dietary K and DCAD effects on digestive efficiency. These results indicate no advantage to including AH in CS-based diets
Charmley, E; Veira, D M
The effects of proteolysis on digestion and animal performance were studied using heat to inhibit proteolysis at ensiling. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) was ensiled either after wilting for 24 h (control; C) or after heating (100 degrees C) in a crop dehydrator for 2 min (heated; H). In Exp. 1, eight wethers, cannulated in the rumen and duodenum, were given the silages to determine the effects of heat treatment of alfalfa on the digestion of silage. In Exp. 2, growing lambs had ad libitum access to the silages to determine the effects of heat treatment on intake, animal performance and body composition. Heat treatment inhibited protease activity; protein N accounted for 33.5 and 61.3% and ammonia N 15.5 and 5.1% of total N in C and H silages, respectively. Heat treatment reduced mean post-feeding ruminal ammonia N concentration (P less than .05), ruminal pH (P less than .05) and the acetate: propionate ratio (P less than .001) in ruminal fluid. Heat treatment increased duodenal flow of non-ammonia N (P less than .05) and amino acids (P less than .05), the amount of N absorbed (P less than .05) in the small plus large intestine and also increased the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (P less than .05). In Exp. 2, although intake and gain were higher (P less than .001) for H-fed than for C-fed lambs, there were no differences (P greater than .05) in empty body composition. The results indicated that inhibition of proteolysis by heat treatment at ensiling can increase utilization of silage N within the rumen, increase voluntary intake and result in a higher rate of gain by lambs fed alfalfa silage.
Dong, Zhihao; Yuan, Xianjun; Wen, Aiyou; Desta, Seare T.; Shao, Tao
Objective To assess the potency of calcium propionate (CAP) used as silage additive, an experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of CAP on the nitrogen transformation, fermentation quality and aerobic stability of alfalfa silages. Methods Alfalfa was ensiled with four levels of CAP (5, 10, 15, and 20 g/kg of fresh weight [FW]) in laboratory silos for 30 days. After opening, the silages were analyzed for the chemical and microbiological characteristics, and subjected to an aerobic stability test. Results The increasing proportion of CAP did not affect pH, lactic acid (LA) concentrations and yeast counts, while linearly decreased counts of enterobacteria (p = 0.029), molds (p<0.001) and clostridia (p<0.001), and concentrations of acetic acid (p<0.001), propionic acid (p<0.001), butyric acid (p<0.001), and ethanol (p = 0.007), and quadratically (p = 0.001) increased lactic acid bacteria counts. With increasing the proportion of CAP, the dry matter (DM) loss (p<0.001), free amino acid N (p<0.001), ammonia N (p = 0.004), and non-protein N (p<0.001) contents were linearly reduced, whereas DM (p = 0.048), water soluble carbohydrate (p<0.001) and peptide N (p<0.001) contents were linearly increased. The highest Flieg’s point was found in CAP10 (75.9), represented the best fermentation quality. All silages treated with CAP improved aerobic stability as indicated by increased stable hours compared with control. Conclusion The addition of CAP can suppress the undesirable microorganisms during ensiling and exposure to air, thereby improving the fermentation quality and aerobic stability as well as retarding the proteolysis of alfalfa silage. It is suggested that CAP used as an additive is recommended at a level of 10 g/kg FW. PMID:28423881
Li, Ping; Ji, Shuren; Hou, Chen; Tang, Haiyang; Wang, Qian; Shen, Yixin
In order to better utilize the last cut alfalfa harvested before killing frost in a high moisture environment, the effects of chemical additives on the quality of alfalfa silage were studied in south of China. The alfalfa was freshly harvested at branching stage, and wilted by dry matter content of about 300 g/kg (fresh matter basis). Silage was prepared by using a small-scale silage fermentation system, where sucrose, potassium citrate, sodium carbonate, formic acid, acetic acid and propionic acid were used as silage additives, and no additives served as control. These silos were stored at ambient temperature (5-20°C), and the silage qualities were analyzed after 120 days of fermentation. All additive treatments affected the chemical composition and N distribution, increased the water-soluble content and crude protein contents, decreased non-protein nitrogen (NPN) content, and enhanced the in vitro ruminal dry matter digestibility (except for sodium carbonate). Silages treated with organic acids were preserved with significantly (P < 0.05) lower pH value, ethanol content and NPN content compared with control. When the fermentation quality, chemical composition and N distribution were considered, the treatment with sucrose or organic acids resulted in high quality of alfalfa silage ensiled before killing frost, with formic acid having the best effect. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Chen, Peng-Fei; Rong, Yu-Ping; Han, Jian-Guo; Wang, Ji-Hua; Zhang, Lu-Da; Xu, Xiao-Jie
It is very important to evaluate the fresh sample of alfalfa silage using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy technology (NIRS) for animal production. The nutrient content of forage means the contents of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) in the forage. Because of the high moisture content, it is difficult to make uniform samples for fresh forage and to get useful information from the spectrum. Therefore, it is hard to use NIRS analysis. In order to evaluate the feasibility of using NIRS to analyse the fresh alfalfa silage, the DM, CP, NDF and ADF contents of fresh alfalfa silage were evaluated by the near infrared reflectance spectroscopy model in this experiment using partial least square regression (PLS), Fourier transform technology and sample preparation with liquid nitrogen technology. The analysis samples were obtained through different cultivars, maturity, cuttings and ensiling method. The cross validation was determined between 0.884 6-0. 989 8. The standard error of cross validation was between 3.9 and 9.7 g x kg(-1) fresh weight. Fifty samples were used to test the performance of the models. The coefficients of correlation between the chemical value and the NIRS value are between 0.939 7 and 0.994 9, and the root mean square errors of prediction are between 1.9 and 8.3 g x kg(-1) fresh weight. The results showed that NIRS could be used to evaluate the nutrition of fresh forage.
Krizsan, S J; Broderick, G A; Muck, R E; Promkot, C; Colombini, S; Randby, A T
The objective of this study was to determine if feeding roasted corn would improve production and nutrient utilization when supplemented to lactating cows fed 1 of 3 different alfalfa silages (AS). Forty-two lactating Holstein cows (6 fitted with ruminal cannulas) averaging 77 d in milk and 43 kg of milk/d pretrial were assigned to 2 cyclic changeover designs. Treatments were AS ensiled in bag, bunker, or O2-limiting tower silos and supplemented with ground shelled corn (GSC) or roasted GSC (RGSC). Silages were prepared from second-cutting alfalfa, field-wilted an average of 24 h, and ensiled over 2 d. Production and N utilization were evaluated in 36 cows during four 28-d periods, and ruminal fermentation was evaluated with 6 cows during five 21-d periods. Experimental diets contained 40% AS, 15% corn silage, and 35% of either GSC or RGSC on a dry matter basis. No significant interactions between AS and corn sources were detected for any production trait. Although the chemical composition of the 3 AS was similar, feeding AS from the O2-limited tower silo elicited positive production responses. Yields of 3.5% fat-corrected milk and fat were increased 1.7 kg/ d and 150 g/d, and milk fat content was increased 0.3% when cows were fed diets based on AS from the O2-limiting silo compared with the other 2 silages. The responses in milk fat were paralleled by an average increase in acid detergent fiber digestibility of 270 g/d for cows fed AS from the O2-limiting tower silo. However, ruminal concentrations of lipogenic volatile fatty acids were unchanged with AS source. Cows fed RGSC consumed 0.6 kg/d more dry matter and yielded 30 g/ d more protein and 50 g/d more lactose than cows fed GSC diets. There was no evidence of increased total tract digestibility of organic matter or starch, or reduced ruminal NH(3) concentration, when feeding RGSC. Free amino acids increased, and isovalerate decreased in rumen fluid from cows fed RGSC diets. However, responses in production
Benchaar, C; Petit, H V; Berthiaume, R; Ouellet, D R; Chiquette, J; Chouinard, P Y
Four Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design (28-d periods) with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to investigate the effects of addition of a specific mixture of essential oil compounds (MEO; 0 vs. 750 mg/d) and silage source [alfalfa silage (AS) vs. corn silage (CS)] on digestion, ruminal fermentation, rumen microbial populations, milk production, and milk composition. Total mixed rations containing either AS or CS as the sole forage source were balanced to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. In general, no interactions between MEO addition and silage source were observed. Except for ruminal pH and milk lactose content, which were increased by MEO supplementation, no changes attributable to the administration of MEO were observed for feed intake, nutrient digestibility, end-products of ruminal fermentation, microbial counts, and milk performance. Dry matter intake and milk production were not affected by replacing AS with CS in the diet. However, cows fed CS-based diets produced milk with lower fat and higher protein and urea N concentrations than cows fed AS-based diets. Replacing AS with CS increased the concentration of NH(3)-N and reduced the acetate-to-propionate ratio in ruminal fluid. Total viable bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria, and protozoa were not influenced by MEO supplementation, but the total viable bacteria count was higher with CS- than with AS-based diets. The apparent digestibility of crude protein did not differ between the AS and CS treatments, but digestibilities of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were lower when cows were fed CS-based diets than when they were fed AS-based diets. Duodenal bacterial N flow, estimated using urinary purine derivatives and the amount of N retained, increased in cows fed CS-based diets compared with those fed AS-based diets. Feeding cows AS increased the milk fat contents of cis-9, trans-11 18:2 (conjugated linoleic acid) and 18:3 (n-3 fatty
Rangacharyulu, P V; Giri, S S; Paul, B N; Yashoda, K P; Rao, R Jagannatha; Mahendrakar, N S; Mohanty, S N; Mukhopadhyay, P K
Fermented silkworm pupae (SWP) silage or untreated fresh SWP pastes were incorporated in carp feed formulations replacing fishmeal. The feed formulations were isonitrogenous (30.2-30.9% protein) and isocaloric (ME = 2905-2935 kcal/kg). Feeding under a polyculture system consisting of 30% each of catla (Catla catla), mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) and rohu (Labeo rohita) with 10% silver carps (Hypophthalmychthys molitrix) was carried out in ponds to evaluate the nutritive quality of SWP silage. Survival rate, feed conversion ratio and specific growth rate, respectively, were 84.2%, 2.10 and 2.39 for fermented SWP silage, 65.8%, 2.98 and 2.26 for untreated SWP and 67.5%, 3.16 and 2.20 for fishmeal indicating clearly that the fermented SWP silage was nutritionally superior to untreated SWP or fishmeal. The dietary influence on the proximate composition of whole fish was marginal.
Chen, Peng-fei; Rong, Yu-ping; Han, Jian-guo
It is very important to evaluate the fermentation character of alfalfa silage using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy technology (NIRS) for animal production, including the content of NH3-N, lactic acid, acetic acid and butyric acid in silage. In order to evaluate the feasibility of using NIRS to analyze the formation character of alfalfa silage, the near infrared reflectance spectroscopy models were built for NH3-N, lactic acid, zcetic acid and butyric acid in this experiment. Partial least square regression (PLS), Fourier transform technology and sample preparation with liquid nitrogen technology were used to optimize the model. The analyzed samples were obtained with different cultivars, maturity, cuttings and ensiling method. The determination of cross validation was between 0.6024 and 0.9497. The standard errors of cross validation were between 5.59 x 10(-1) and 3.78 g x kg(-1) fresh weight. The validation samples were used to test the performance of the models. The correlation coefficients between the chemical value and the NIRS value were between 0.8826 and 0.9853, and the root mean square errors of prediction were between 5.71 x 10(-1) and 3.15 g x kg(-1) fresh weight. The results showed the NIRS could evaluate the fermentation of the fresh forage.
Third cut alfalfa, brown mid-rib (bmr) corn, and corn were chopped and inoculated with one of four different strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Uninoculated silage was the control treatment. For each crop, four mini-silos 1-L glass jars were ensiled per treatment. All silos were fermented for 60...
Zhang, Qing; Yu, Zhu; Wang, Xianguo; Na, Risu
The effects of pesticides and Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) on fermentation quality of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage were investigated. Chlorpyrifos and chlorantraniliprole were sprayed on the surface of alfalfa plants at 658.6 and 45.0 g active ingredient/ha, respectively. Alfalfa plants were harvested on day 5 post-application and ensiled with or without LP. Chlorpyrifos and chlorantraniliprole decreased the yeast count of alfalfa material (P < 0.05). Both pesticides increased the butyric acid content of alfalfa silage (P < 0.001). Chlorpyrifos increased pH and decreased lactic acid, acetic acid and short-chain fatty acid contents (P < 0.05). LP decreased pH and butyric acid content, and increased lactic acid and short-chain fatty acid contents of alfalfa silage treated with pesticides (P < 0.05). LP increased the concentration of chlorpyrifos residue in alfalfa silage (P < 0.05). Chlorpyrifos and chlorantraniliprole affected the microbial communities of the material before ensiling, especially coliform bacteria and yeast; the two pesticide residues were reduced after the fermentation of alfalfa silage and affected the fermentation process, whereas LP improved the fermentation quality of pesticides-contaminated alfalfa silage and slowed down the dissipation of chlorpyrifos.
Mullins, C R; Grigsby, K N; Bradford, B J
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of varying the alfalfa inclusion rate in diets containing 31% (dry matter basis) wet corn gluten feed (Sweet Bran, Cargill Inc.). Eighty primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows averaging 178 +/- 90 d in milk (mean +/- SD) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 sequences in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Treatments were diets containing 0, 7, 14, or 21% alfalfa on a dry matter basis, with corn silage, corn grain, soybean meal, expeller soybean meal, and mineral supplements varying across diets to maintain uniform nutrient densities. Diets were formulated for similar crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and nonfiber carbohydrate concentrations. Feed intake, milk production, body weight, and body condition score were monitored, and linear and quadratic effects of increasing the alfalfa inclusion rate were assessed using mixed model analysis. As the alfalfa inclusion rate increased, dry matter intake tended to increase linearly (26.7, 27.3, 27.4, and 27.5 kg/d for 0, 7, 14, and 21% alfalfa, respectively), and solids-corrected milk (29.9, 30.2, 30.8, and 30.5 kg/d) and energy-corrected milk production (32.9, 33.3, 33.8, and 33.6 kg/d) tended to increase linearly. Body weight gain decreased linearly (22.9, 18.0, 11.2, and 9.5 kg/28 d) with increasing alfalfa inclusion rate. Although increasing the inclusion rate of alfalfa increased the proportion of large particles in the diets, treatments had no effect on milk fat yield or concentration. Feeding more alfalfa (up to 21% of dry matter) tended to increase milk yield while decreasing body weight gain, suggesting that metabolizable energy utilization shifted from body weight gain to milk production in these treatments. However, adding alfalfa to the diet had only minor effects on productivity.
Bøe, K E; Dønnem, I
The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of frozen grass silage on the feed intake, feed preferences, and feeding behavior of ewes. Two experiments were conducted, each involving 8 pregnant ewes in a Latin square design with 4 treatments: 1) frozen silage; 2) partly frozen silage; 3) frozen, chopped silage; 4) and unfrozen silage (control). In Exp. 2, the ewes in square 1 were fed grass silage with low DM content (LDM) and in square 2 the ewes were fed grass silage with high DM content (HDM). In both experiments, each treatment period lasted for 14 d. A feed preference test was conducted, where the ewes could choose between 2 of the experimental feed treatments for 1 d in a changeover design so that they were exposed to all pairwise combinations of the 4 treatments. On the last day of each experimental period in Exp. 1, the feeding behavior was scored by direct observation for 4 h. In Exp. 1 ( < 0.0001) and in Exp. 2 ( = 0.03), feed intake in the first 4 h after feeding was lowest on the frozen silage treatment and highest on the control treatment. The DMI in the first 4 h after feeding was higher ( = 0.005) in the HDM treatment than in the LDM treatment. The total daily feed intake in Exp. 1 was lowest on the frozen, chopped silage treatment and highest on the unfrozen silage treatment ( = 0.02). In Exp. 2, daily feed intake did not differ ( = 0.32) among treatments. Total daily feed intake was higher ( < 0.0001) in the LDM treatment than in the HDM treatment but there was no difference in the DMI. There was no difference in the preference for the different feed treatments, when considering either the first 4 h ( = 0.12 to = 0.86) or the whole 24-h period ( = 0.25 to = 0.53). Time spent eating normally was longer on the control treatment and shorter on the frozen silage treatments ( < 0.0001) whereas time spent eating by tearing off feed from the frozen block followed the opposite pattern ( < 0.0001). We conclude that intake of frozen silage was
Methane emissions changed nonlinearly with graded substitution of alfalfa silage with corn silage and corn grain in the diet of sheep and relation with rumen fermentation characteristics in vivo and in vitro.
Jonker, A; Lowe, K; Kittelmann, S; Janssen, P H; Ledgard, S; Pacheco, D
Feeding grain and corn silage have been proposed as practices to reduce enteric methane (CH) emissions per unit of intake from ruminants, but the inclusion level required in the diet is normally not specified. The objectives of the current study were to determine the CH emission factor (g/kg DMI) of sheep fed alfalfa silage substituted with increasing levels of corn silage or corn grain at a fixed DMI level (2% of BW) and determine its relationship with rumen fermentation characteristics and microbial community composition and with in vitro fermentation characteristics of the same diets incubated using a standard laboratory method. Romney ewe hoggets (approximately 14 mo old; = 64) were randomly allocated to 8 dietary treatments, which included chaffed alfalfa silage alone or substituted with either 25, 50, 75 or 100% corn silage or 25, 50 or 65% rolled corn grain on a DM basis. After acclimatization to the diet, DMI and CH emissions were measured from individual sheep for 2 consecutive days in open-circuit respiration chambers and a rumen sample was collected at 3 h after feeding. The same diets were also incubated in an automated in vitro gas production system for 48 h using rumen liquid of fistulated nonlactating dairy cows grazing pasture. Increasing the substitution of alfalfa silage with corn silage or corn grain in the diet of sheep resulted in a quadratic response ( < 0.01) in CH emissions per unit of DMI (CH/DMI) with either supplement. For both supplements, CH/DMI increased in mixtures of up to 50% supplement inclusion and then decreased with greater supplement inclusion, especially with corn grain inclusion, but the level did not fall below that for 100% alfalfa silage. The ratio of acetate + butyrate to propionate + valerate and the propionate proportion alone in rumen liquid were the strongest single predictors for CH/DMI in the overall data set and explained 37.1 and 32.5%, respectively, of the variation in CH/DMI. Methanogens of (21.1% of total
Dairy cattle often make poor use of protein when offered diets comprised of high proportions of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay or silage because non-protein N (NPN) formed during forage conservation and ruminal fermentation exceeds requirements for rumen microbial protein synthesis; however, conde...
An experiment was conducted at the University of Kentucky Spindletop Farm in Lexington, Kentucky between October and November, 2009 to evaluate the effect of different percentages of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) as mixtures in switchgrass (Panicum virgatus) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) silages. ...
Accurately measuring soil organic C (SOC) stock changes over time is essential for verifying agronomic management effects on C sequestration. This study quantified the spatial and temporal changes in SOC stocks on adjacent 65-ha corn silage-alfalfa production fields receiving liquid dairy manure in...
Exposing ensiled forage to oxygen can result in DM deterioration and reduce silage intake by animals. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of 2 different wrapping sources and time intervals between baling and wrapping on N balance and blood urea N in gestating sheep offered alfalfa si...
Dairy heifers are typically offered high-forage diets to control weight gains; however, these forage-based diets often contain significant portions of corn silage or other high-quality forages with low fiber concentrations. Inadequate concentrations of dietary fiber can lead to greater feed and ener...
Yuan, XianJun; Wen, AiYou; Desta, Seare T; Dong, ZhiHao; Shao, Tao
Short-chain fatty salts have been widely used as food and forage preservatives because of their antimicrobial properties. This study evaluated the effects of four chemical compounds with antimicrobial properties on nitrogen transformations and intrinsic protease activity of alfalfa silage. Potassium diformate (PD) and formic acid (FA) rapidly reduced silage pH. Silages treated with sodium diacetate (SD) and calcium propionate (CAP) had higher final peptide N concentrations than other silage. The free amino acid N contents in PD and FA treated silages were lower than other silages at all intervals of ensilage. The ammonia N concentrations in FA and PD silages were the lowest, followed by SD and CAP silages. As ensiling progressed, the aminopeptidase activity was completely lost by day 5 for FA and PD silages and inactive by day 7 for SD silage, while it remained active after day 7 for control and CAP silage. The carboxypeptidase activities in FA and PD silages were already reduced below 50% by day 1 of ensiling. Potassium diformate was as effective as formic acid in depressing the proteolysis, while sodium diacetate and calcium propionate were inferior to formic acid in protecting alfalfa proteins from being hydrolysed. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Kung, L; Taylor, C C; Lynch, M P; Neylon, J M
Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 and enzymes (beta-glucanase, alpha-amylase, xylanase, and galactomannase) were applied to chopped alfalfa (39% DM) to study their effects on the fermentation and nutritive value of the silage. Alfalfa was treated with nothing, or L. buchneri 40788, for a final application rate of 1 x 10(5), 5 x 10(5), or 1 x 10(6) cfu/g of fresh forage and ensiled in laboratory silos for 2, 4, 8, and 56 d. Treatment with L. buchneri 40788 had few effects on the end products of fermentation through 8 d of ensiling. However, after 56 d of ensiling, treated silages had a higher pH (4.55 vs. 4.38) and higher concentrations of acetic acid (6.40 vs. 4.24%), propionic acid (0.18 vs. 0.06%), and ammonia-N (0.35 vs. 0.29%) when compared to untreated silage. Lactic acid was also numerically lower in treated (3.51%) than untreated (4.12%). Silages treated with the moderate and highest dose of L. buchneri 40788 also resulted in greater recoveries of DM than did untreated silage. Alfalfa (43% DM) was also untreated or treated with a commercial application of L. buchneri 40788 (4 x 10(5) cfu/g, a commercial dose) in farm-scale bag silo. Holstein cows were fed a diet comprised of 32% untreated or treated alfalfa silage, 11% corn silage, 5% chopped alfalfa hay, and 52% of concentrate (DMB) for a 6-wk treatment period. Dry matter intake and milk composition were unaffected by treatment, but cows fed silage treated with L. buchneri 40788 produced 0.8 kg more milk than did cows fed untreated silage. Treated silage had a higher concentration of acetic acid (5.67 vs. 3.35%) but lower lactic acid (3.50 vs. 4.39%) than untreated silage. When exposed to air, the total mixed ration containing treated alfalfa silage remained stable for 100 h, whereas the ration containing untreated silage spoiled after 68 h. Treating alfalfa silage with L. buchneri 40788 increased the concentration of acetic acid, and when the silage was combined into a total mixed ration and fed to lactating
Interseeded alfalfa could serve as a dual purpose crop for providing groundcover during silage corn production and forage during subsequent years of production, but this system has been unworkable because competition between the co-planted crops often leads to stand failure of interseeded alfalfa an...
Nadeau, E M; Buxton, D R; Lindgren, E; Lingvall, P
The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of cellulase (from Trichoderma longibrachiatum) combined with formic acid, applied before ensiling, on the subsequent concentration and composition of the cell wall and on the extent and rate of in situ cell-wall digestion of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Treated and control forages of both plant species were ensiled for at least 60 d before being ruminally digested by two fistulated cows. Analyses of NDF, ADF, and acid detergent lignin were conducted sequentially on original and digested samples. Data were fitted with a first-order, nonlinear model to estimate extents and rates of digestion of potentially digestible NDF, cellulose, and hemicellulose. The concentration of indigestible residue and the discrete lag time before digestion were also determined for the cell-wall components. After ensiling, the mean NDF concentration of treated silages was 19% lower than that of control silages; the effect was greater for orchardgrass than for alfalfa. The extent of digestion of NDF, cellulose, and hemicellulose, respectively, was 33, 37, and 27% lower for treated silages than for control silages. Treatment effects on the extent of digestion varied between plant species. Cellulose from treated orchardgrass was digested 19% more slowly than cellulose from the control silage. Indigestible residue concentrations of NDF, cellulose, and hemicellulose, respectively, were 7, 8, and 7% lower in treated silages than in control silages. Thus, extensive cell-wall degradation by cellulase during ensiling resulted in less digestible cell-wall material for ruminal digestion but greater total cell-wall degradation, including that during ensiling and ruminal incubation, especially during early digestion in the rumen.
Schmidt, R J; Hu, W; Mills, J A; Kung, L
This study was conducted to document the development of populations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Lactobacillus buchneri in alfalfa silage treated with various inoculants. Wilted and chopped alfalfa (45% dry matter) was treated with 1) distilled water (untreated, U), 2) Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 (4 x 10(5) cfu/g; LB), or 3) L. buchneri 40788 (4 x 10(5) cfu/g) and Pediococcus pentosaceus (1 x 10(5) cfu/g; LBPP). Forages were packed into triplicate vacuum-sealed, nylon-polyethylene bags per treatment, and ensiled for 2, 5, 45, 90, and 180 d. Viable (cfu) LAB in forage and silage were quantified by traditional plating on selective agar, and numbers of L. buchneri (cfu-equivalent, cfu-E) were quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. Fresh, untreated forage had 5.52 log cfu of LAB/g and 3.79 log cfu-E of L. buchneri/g. After 2 d of ensiling, numbers of LAB increased to >8 log cfu/g in all silages. In contrast, numbers of L. buchneri in U remained below 4 log cfu-E/g but reached approximately 7 log cfu-E/g in LB and LBPP. From d 5 onward, numbers of L. buchneri in U remained below 6 log cfu-E/g but approached 9 log cfu-E/g in LB and LBPP. The pH was lower in LBPP compared with U and LB after 2 and 5 d of ensiling, but pH was lower for U compared with LB and LBPP thereafter. Treatments LB and LBPP had more acetic acid than U at 45 d of ensiling, which coincided with detectable amounts of 1,2 propanediol. Inoculation with LBPP resulted in silage with the highest concentration of 1,2 propanediol after 180 d of ensiling. From d 45 onward, LB and LBPP silages had lower concentrations of residual water-soluble carbohydrates but had higher concentrations of ammonia-N than U. In conclusion, epiphytic L. buchneri can be detected in alfalfa but this population is unable to lead the silage fermentation. In contrast, when L. buchneri was added to silage as an inoculant, the numbers of L. buchneri (cfu-E) increased markedly but did not dictate fermentation until 45 d of
Su, Huawei; Akins, Matt S; Esser, Nancy M; Ogden, Robin; Coblentz, Wayne K; Kalscheur, Kenneth F; Hatfield, Ron
Feeding high-quality forage diets may lead to excessive weight gains and over-conditioning for dairy heifers. Restriction of energy density and dry matter intake by using low-energy forages, such as straw, is a good approach for controlling this problem. Alfalfa stems contain high fiber and moderate protein content and have the potential to be used to replace straw to reduce dietary energy. The objective of this study was to compare nutrient intakes, digestibilities, growth performance, and feeding behaviors of dairy heifers offered an alfalfa silage/corn silage high-energy diet (HE; 13.1% crude protein, 65.4% total digestible nutrients, 39.7% neutral detergent fiber) with 2 energy-diluted diets that replaced various proportions of the corn or alfalfa silages with either alfalfa stemlage (STM; 12.6% crude protein, 59.1% total digestible nutrients, 46.4% neutral detergent fiber) or chopped wheat straw (WS; 12.6% crude protein, 61.9% total digestible nutrients, 43.7% neutral detergent fiber). Seventy-two pregnant Holstein heifers (16.8 ± 1.3 mo) were stratified into 3 blocks (24 heifers/block) by initial body weight (light, 440 ± 18.0 kg; medium, 486 ± 18.6 kg; heavy, 534 ± 25.1 kg), with each block composed of 3 pens (8 heifers/pen), with diets assigned randomly to 1 pen within the block. Diets were offered in a 56-d feeding trial. Both dry matter intake and energy intake were decreased with the addition of low-energy forages to the diets, but no differences in dry matter intake were observed across diluted diets. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and apparent N were greater for HE compared with diluted diets, and for WS compared with STM. Total body weight gain (74 vs. 56 kg) and average daily gain (1.32 vs. 1.00 kg/d) were greater for heifers offered HE compared with diluted diets. Feed efficiency tended to be less for heifers offered the diluted diets compared with HE (10.7 vs. 8.6 kg of feed/kg of gain). Heifers did not
Holt, M S; Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; Nestor, K E
This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage (CS) hybrids and quality of alfalfa hay (AH) in high-forage dairy diets on N utilization, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by early-lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. The 8 cows (average days in milk = 23 ± 11.2) were surgically fitted with ruminal cannula, and the 2 squares were conducted simultaneously. Within square, cows were randomly assigned to a sequence of 4 diets: conventional CS (CCS) or brown midrib CS (BMR) was combined with fair-quality AH [FAH: 46.7% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 18.4% crude protein (CP)] or high-quality AH (HAH: 39.2% NDF and 20.7% CP) to form 4 treatments: CCS with FAH, CCS with HAH, BMR with FAH, and BMR with HAH. Diets were isonitrogenous across treatments, averaging 15.9% CP. Each period lasted a total of 21 d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 7d for data collection and sampling. Intake of DM and milk yield did not differ in response to CS hybrids or AH quality. Although feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N output by 24%, it did not affect fecal N output. Feeding HAH decreased urinary N output by 15% but increased fecal N output by 20%. Nitrogen efficiency [milk N (g/d)/intake N (g/d)] tended to increase for BMR treatments. Ruminal ammonia-N concentration was lower for cows fed BMR-based diets than for those fed CCS-based diets but was not affected by quality of AH. Feeding BMR-based diets or HAH decreased milk urea N concentration by 23 or 15%, respectively, compared with CCS-based diets or FAH. Total volatile fatty acid concentration increased with HAH but was not influenced by CS hybrids. Feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N-to-fecal N ratio (UN:FN), and it was further reduced by feeding HAH. Although cows fed the BMR-based diets tended to increase milk N-to-manure N ratio, the
Coblentz, W K; Grabber, J H
Dairy cattle often make poor use of protein when offered diets comprising high proportions of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay or silage because nonprotein N formed during forage conservation and ruminal fermentation exceeds requirements for rumen microbial protein synthesis; however, condensed tannins (CT) may reduce proteolysis in the silo and in the rumen, thereby potentially improving the efficiency of crude protein (CP) use in ruminant diets. Two harvests, yielding 12 hays and 12 silages made from alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) that varied in concentrations of CT, were evaluated for in situ disappearance kinetics of CP in 6 ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein dairy cows (627 ± 56.3 kg). Prior to conservation, alfalfa contained no detectable CT, whereas CT in fresh lyophilized birdsfoot trefoil ranged from 1.16 to 2.77% of dry matter, as determined by a modified acetone-butanol-HCl assay. Percentages of CP remaining at each incubation time were fitted to nonlinear regression models with or without a discrete lag time. Effective ruminal disappearance of CP (rumen-degradable protein, RDP) was calculated by 3 procedures that included (1) no discrete lag (RDPNL), (2) discrete lag (RDPL), and (3) discrete lag with a lag adjustment (RDPLADJ). Regardless of the calculation method, RDP declined linearly with increasing CT concentrations (R(2)=0.62 to 0.97). Generally, tests of homogeneity showed that conservation type (hay or silage) or harvest (silage only) affected intercepts, but not slopes in regressions of RDP on CT. A positive relationship between lag time and CT suggests that the RDPLADJ approach may be most appropriate for calculating RDP for legumes containing tannins. With this approach, regression intercepts were mainly affected by conservation method, and RDPLADJ averaged 77.5 and 88.7% of CP for hay and silage, respectively, when no CT was present. Greater estimates of RDP for silages were related to extensive proteolysis in
Tao, L; Guo, X S; Zhou, H; Undersander, D J; Nandety, A
The pH optimum and thermostability of both exopeptidases and endopeptidases were investigated in this study to elucidate the possible role of plant proteases in proteolysis during ensiling of alfalfa herbage. Proteolytic activities of 4 classes of endopeptidases (i.e., serine, metallo, aspartic, and cysteine peptidase) and 5 classes of exopeptidases (i.e., aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase, dipeptidyl-peptidase, and tripeptidyl-peptidase) were examined within pH values of 3 to 9, and within temperatures from 20 to 90°C. Serine and metalloproteases, the principal endopeptidases that hydrolyzed most of the protein to nonprotein nitrogen in alfalfa silage, had optimum activities at pH 4. Among the major exopeptidases contributing protein degradation in ensiled alfalfa, dipeptidase and tripeptidyl-peptidase had stable activities between pH 4 and 6, and carboxypeptidase activity was optimal at pH 5. The optimum temperature for most peptidase activities was 40°C. Proteolytic activities of both endo- and exopeptidases increased with the elevation of incubating temperature from 20 to 40°C. The pH value in well-preserved alfalfa silage is often above 4.0, and the temperatures in the ensiled mass range from 25 to 40°C. Therefore, high proteolytic activities between pH 4 and 6 and the temperature range of ensiled alfalfa suggest that plant peptidases play a role in hydrolyzing protein during prolonged storage. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ni, Kuikui; Minh, Tang Thuy; Tu, Tran Thi Minh; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Pang, Huili; Nishino, Naoki
The microbiota of pre-ensiled crop and silage were examined using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Wilted Italian ryegrass (IR), whole crop corn (WC), and wilted alfalfa (AL) silages stored for 2 months were examined. All silages contained lactic acid as a predominant fermentation product. Across the three crop species, DGGE detected 36 and 28 bands, and NGS identified 253 and 259 genera in the pre-ensiled crops and silages, respectively. The NGS demonstrated that, although lactic acid bacteria (LAB) became prevalent in all silages after 2 months of storage, the major groups were different between crops: Leuconostoc spp. and Pediococcus spp. for IR silage, Lactobacillus spp. for WC silage, and Enterococcus spp. for AL silage. The predominant silage LAB genera were also detected by DGGE, but the presence of diverse non-LAB species in pre-ensiled crops was far better detected by NGS. Likewise, good survival of Agrobacterium spp., Methylobacterium spp., and Sphingomonas spp. in IR and AL silages was demonstrated by NGS. The diversity of the microbiota described by principal coordinate analysis was similar between DGGE and NGS. Our finding that analysis of pre-ensiled crop microbiota did not help predict silage microbiota was true for both DGGE and NGS.
Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E; Mustafa, A F; Seguin, P
The objective of this study was to determine the feeding value of forage soybean silage (SS) for dairy cows relative to a fourth-cut alfalfa silage (AS). Forage soybean was harvested at full pod stage. Two isonitrogenous diets were formulated with a 48:52 forage:concentrate ratio. Soybean silage and AS constituted 72% of the forage in each diet, with corn silage constituting the remaining 28%. Twenty Holsteins cows in early lactation were used in a switchback design. Four lactating Holsteins cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used to determine the effects of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation parameters and in vivo total tract nutrient utilization. Relative to AS, SS contained 15, 28, and 25% more neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and crude protein, respectively. Dry matter intake (23.5 vs. 25.1 kg/d) and milk yield (35.5 vs. 37.2 kg/d) were lower for cows fed SS than for those fed AS. However, energy-corrected milk and milk efficiency were similar for both dietary treatments. Milk protein, lactose, and total solids concentrations were not influenced by dietary treatments (average 3.0, 4.7, and 12.6%, respectively). However, cows fed SS produced milk with greater milk fat (3.8 vs. 3.6%) and milk urea nitrogen concentrations (15.6 vs. 14.3 mg/dL) compared with cows fed AS. Ruminal pH was lower, whereas ruminal NH3-N concentration was greater in cows fed SS than in cows fed AS. Total tract digestibilities of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber were not influenced by silage type. We concluded that forage SS, when compared with AS, had a negative impact on feed intake and milk yield, whereas energy-corrected milk, milk efficiency, and total tract nutrient digestion were similar.
Keady, T W J; Hanrahan, J P
The effects of (i) medium and high feed value (MFV and HFV) maize silages and (ii) MFV and HFV grass silages, each in combination with a range of concentrate feed levels, on the performance of finishing lambs were evaluated using 280 Suffolk-X lambs (initial live weight 36.1 kg). The MFV and HFV maize silages represented crops with dry matter (DM) concentrations of 185 and 250 g/kg, respectively, at harvest, and had starch and metabolisable energy (ME) concentrations of 33 and 277 g/kg DM and 9.6 and 11.0 MJ/kg, respectively. HFV and MFV grass silages had DM and ME concentrations of 216 and 294 g/kg and 11.0 and 11.5 MJ/kg DM, respectively. A total of 13 treatments were involved. The four silages were offered ad libitum with daily concentrate supplements of 0.2, 0.5 or 0.8 kg per lamb. A final treatment consisted of concentrate offered ad libitum with 0.5 kg of the HFV grass silage daily. Increasing the feed value of grass silage increased (P < 0.001) forage intake, daily carcass and live weight gains, final live weight and carcass weight. Increasing maize silage feed value tended to increase (P = 0.07) daily carcass gain. Increasing concentrate feed level increased total food and ME intakes, and live weight and carcass gains. There was a significant interaction between silage feed value and the response to concentrate feed level. Relative to the HFV grass silage, the positive linear response to increasing concentrate feed level was greater with lambs offered the MFV grass silage for daily live weight gain (P < 0.001), daily carcass gain (P < 0.01) and final carcass weight (P < 0.01). Relative to the HFV maize silage, there was a greater response to increasing concentrate feed level from lambs offered the MFV maize silage in terms of daily carcass gain (P < 0.05) and daily live weight gain (P = 0.06). Forage type had no significant effect on the response to increased concentrate feed level. Relative to the MFV grass silage supplemented with 0.2 kg concentrate, the
Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K
An in vivo study was performed to test an in vitro procedure and model that predicts total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility for lactating dairy cattle. Corn silage (CS) and alfalfa silage (AS) were used as forages for this study. These forages had similar NDF composition, but fiber in the CS contained less indigestible NDF compared with AS (35.5 and 47.8% of indigestible NDF, respectively). The in vitro method estimated rate of digestion of alfalfa potentially digestible NDF to be approximately 2 times faster than CS fiber (6.11 and 3.21%/h, respectively). Four diets were formulated containing different proportions of CS to AS: 100CS:0AS, 67CS:33AS, 33CS:67AS, and 0CS:100AS, as percentage of diet DM basis. The objective was to construct diets that contained approximately similar levels of NDF but with different pool sizes and rates of digestion of potentially digestible NDF. Diets were fed to 8 ruminally cannulated, multiparous, lactating dairy cows in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 21-d periods. Total-tract fiber digestibility and fiber digestion kinetic parameters observed in vivo were compared with the values predicted by the in vitro assay and model. Total-tract NDF digestibility coefficients were similar (41.8 and 40.6% of total NDF) for the in vitro and in vivo methods, respectively. As the proportion of dietary alfalfa increased, the digestibility of NDF increased. The rate of digestion of potentially digestible NDF predicted from the in vitro assay was also similar to what was observed in vivo. Results suggest that the in vitro total-tract NDF digestibility model could be used to predict rate of fiber digestion and NDF digestibility for lactating dairy cattle.
Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Julien, C; Massé, D I; Lettat, A; Chouinard, P Y; Petit, H V; Benchaar, C
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing alfalfa silage (AS) with corn silage (CS) in dairy cow total mixed rations (TMR) on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, apparent total-tract digestibility, N balance, and milk production. Nine ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design (32-d period) and fed (ad libitum) a TMR [forage:concentrate ratio of 60:40; dry matter (DM) basis], with the forage portion consisting of either alfalfa silage (0% CS; 56.4% AS in the TMR), a 50:50 mixture of both silages (50% CS; 28.2% AS and 28.2% CS in the TMR), or corn silage (100% CS; 56.4% CS in the TMR). Increasing the CS proportion (i.e., at the expense of AS) in the diet was achieved by decreasing the corn grain proportion and increasing that of soybean meal. Intake of DM and milk yield increased quadratically, whereas DM digestibility increased linearly as the proportion of CS increased in the diet. Increasing the dietary CS proportion resulted in changes (i.e., lower ruminal pH and acetate:propionate ratio, reduced fiber digestibility, decreased protozoa numbers, and lower milk fat and higher milk protein contents) typical of those observed when cows are fed high-starch diets. A quadratic response in daily CH4 emissions was observed in response to increasing the proportion of CS in the diet (440, 483, and 434 g/d for 0% CS, 50% CS, and 100% CS, respectively). Methane production adjusted for intake of DM, and gross or digestible energy was unaffected in cows fed the 50% CS diet, but decreased in cows fed the 100% CS diet (i.e., quadratic effect). Increasing the CS proportion in the diet at the expense of AS improved N utilization, as reflected by the decreases in ruminal NH3 concentration and manure N excretion, suggesting low potential NH3 and N2O emissions. Results from this study, suggest that total replacement of AS with CS in dairy cow diets offers a means of decreasing CH4 output
Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark
A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.
Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark
A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.
Brown midrib (BMR) forage sorghum contains less lignin , resulting in increased NDF digestibility compared to conventional sorghum . An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of BMR forage sorghum silage in diets containing wet corn gluten feed (WCGF). The objective was to determine the e...
Mohammed, R; Stevenson, D M; Beauchemin, K A; Muck, R E; Weimer, P J
Some silage inoculants help to improve silage quality and promote an increase in milk production, possibly through altering the rumen microflora. We hypothesized that rumen bacterial community composition (BCC) would be different in cows fed alfalfa ensiled with the inoculant Lactobacillus plantarum MTD/1 (LP) compared with those fed alfalfa ensiled without the inoculant (Ctrl). Eight ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were allotted to 2 diets (Ctrl or LP) in a double crossover design with four 28-d periods. Diets were formulated to contain (% dry matter basis) 28.0% neutral detergent fiber and 16.2% crude protein, and contained alfalfa silage, 50.9; corn silage, 20.6; high-moisture shelled corn, 21.4; soy hulls, 4.7; plus minerals and vitamins, 2.4. Ruminal digesta were collected just before feeding on 3 consecutive days near the end of each period, and were separated into solid and liquid phases. Microbial DNA was extracted from each phase, amplified by PCR using domain-level bacterial primers, and subjected to automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. The pH was 4.56 and 4.86 and the lactate-to-acetate ratio 9.8 and 4.4, respectively, for the treated and untreated alfalfa silages. Dry matter intakes and milk production data were not influenced by diets but showed a cow effect. Total volatile fatty acids (mM) tended to be greater for LP compared with Ctrl. Individual volatile fatty acids were not influenced by diets but showed a significant cow effect. Ruminal acetate (mol/100 mol) and acetate-to-propionate ratio were lower and propionate (mol/100 mol) greater for the 2 milk fat-depressed (MFD; <3.2% fat content) cows compared with the other 6 cows. Correspondence analysis of the 265 peaks in the automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis profile across the 188 samples revealed that the first 2 components contributed 7.1 and 3.8% to the total variation in the profile. The ordination points representing the liquid and solid phases clustered separately
Silage (ensiled feed), as a dairy’s greatest operational cost, is its most critical feed commodity. Ensiling is the process of converting entire harvested feed plants such as corn, sorghum, or alfalfa into fermented, stable anaerobic animal feed (i.e., silage). The continued use...
Silage (ensiled feed), as a dairy’s greatest operational cost, is its most critical feed commodity. Ensiling is the process of converting entire harvested feed plants such as corn, sorghum, or alfalfa into fermented, stable anaerobic animal feed (i.e., silage). The continued use...
Waghorn, G C; Macdonald, K A; Williams, Y; Davis, S R; Spelman, R J
Selection for divergence between individuals for efficiency of feed utilization (residual feed intake, RFI) has widespread application in the beef industry and is usually undertaken when animals are fed diets based on silages with grain. The objective of this research was to develop a feeding system (using Gallagher, Hamilton, New Zealand, electronics) to measure RFI for growth in Holstein-Friesian heifers (aged 5-9 mo), and identify divergent individuals to be tested for RFI during lactation. A dry forage diet (alfalfa cubes) was fed because intakes could be measured accurately, and the New Zealand dairy industry (4.4 million milking cows in lactation) relies heavily on forage feeding. The evaluation was undertaken over 3 yr with 1,052 animals fed in a facility for 7 wk, and weighed 3 times weekly. The mean age at the start of measurements was 215 d, body weight (BW) 189 kg, and mean daily dry matter intakes averaged 6.7 kg. Body weight gain (all animals) averaged 0.88 kg/d. The RFI was determined as the residuals from the regression of mean intake on mean BW(0.75) and daily BW gain of individuals. Actual and fitted intakes were strongly related (R(2) = 0.82). In terms of gross efficiency (feed intake/BW gain), RFI+year explained 43% of the variation, BW gain+year explained 66%, and RFI+BW gain+year explained 79% of the variation (all P<0.001). Daily BW gains (kg) of the most and least efficient 10% averaged (± standard deviation) 0.88 ± 0.15 and 0.88 ± 0.12 (P = 0.568), respectively, and the divergence between mean intakes was 1.46 kg of dry matter/d. The most and least efficient animals will be tested for RFI during lactation and genetic markers will be identified for the trait.
Some silage inoculants yield an increase in milk production without increasing fiber digestibility, possibly through altering the rumen microflora. We hypothesized that silage treated with a commercial inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum, LP) would improve milk production and would alter rumen bacter...
Stevenson, David M; Muck, Richard E; Shinners, Kevin J; Weimer, Paul J
Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to quantify seven species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in alfalfa silage prepared in the presence or absence of four commercial inoculants and in uninoculated corn stover harvested and stored under a variety of field conditions. Species-specific PCR primers were designed based on recA gene sequences. Commercial inoculants improved the quality of alfalfa silage, but species corresponding to those in the inoculants displayed variations in persistence over the next 96 h. Lactobacillus brevis was the most abundant LAB (12 to 32% of total sample DNA) in all of the alfalfa silages by 96 h. Modest populations (up to 10%) of Lactobacillus plantarum were also observed in inoculated silages. Pediococcus pentosaceus populations increased over time but did not exceed 2% of the total. Small populations (0.1 to 1%) of Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactococcus lactis were observed in all silages, while Lactobacillus pentosus and Enterococcus faecium were near or below detection limits. Corn stover generally displayed higher populations of L. plantarum and L. brevis and lower populations of other LAB species. The data illustrate the utility of RT-PCR for quantifying individual species of LAB in conserved forages prepared under a wide variety of conditions.
Qu, Yongli; Jiang, Wei; Yin, Guoan; Wei, Chunbo; Bao, Jun
This study estimated the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of corn-lablab bean mixture silages relative to corn silages. The effects of feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages on nutrient apparent digestibility and milk production of dairy cows in northern China were also investigated. Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to determine the ruminal digestion kinetics and ruminal nutrient degradability of corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages. Sixty lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into two groups of 30 cows each. Two diets were formulated with a 59:41 forage: concentrate ratio. Corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages constituted 39.3% of the forage in each diet, with Chinese wildrye hay constituting the remaining 60.7%. Corn-lablab bean mixture silages had higher lactic acid, acetic acid, dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ash, Ca, ether extract concentrations and ruminal nutrient degradability than monoculture corn silage (p<0.05). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) concentrations of corn-lablab bean mixture silages were lower than those of corn silage (p<0.05). The digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF for cows fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was higher than for those fed corn silage (p<0.05). Feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield and milk protein of dairy cows when compared with feeding corn silage (p<0.05). The economic benefit for cow fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was 8.43 yuan/day/cow higher than that for that fed corn silage. In conclusion, corn-lablab bean mixture improved the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of silage compared with monoculture corn. In this study, feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield, milk protein and nutrient apparent digestibility of dairy cows compared with corn silage in northern China.
Qu, Yongli; Jiang, Wei; Yin, Guoan; Wei, Chunbo; Bao, Jun
This study estimated the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of corn-lablab bean mixture silages relative to corn silages. The effects of feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages on nutrient apparent digestibility and milk production of dairy cows in northern China were also investigated. Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to determine the ruminal digestion kinetics and ruminal nutrient degradability of corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages. Sixty lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into two groups of 30 cows each. Two diets were formulated with a 59:41 forage: concentrate ratio. Corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages constituted 39.3% of the forage in each diet, with Chinese wildrye hay constituting the remaining 60.7%. Corn-lablab bean mixture silages had higher lactic acid, acetic acid, dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ash, Ca, ether extract concentrations and ruminal nutrient degradability than monoculture corn silage (p<0.05). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) concentrations of corn-lablab bean mixture silages were lower than those of corn silage (p<0.05). The digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF for cows fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was higher than for those fed corn silage (p<0.05). Feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield and milk protein of dairy cows when compared with feeding corn silage (p<0.05). The economic benefit for cow fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was 8.43 yuan/day/cow higher than that for that fed corn silage. In conclusion, corn-lablab bean mixture improved the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of silage compared with monoculture corn. In this study, feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield, milk protein and nutrient apparent digestibility of dairy cows compared with corn silage in northern China. PMID:25049816
... your health provider.Medications that increase sensitivity to sunlight (Photosensitizing drugs)Some medications can increase sensitivity to sunlight. Large doses of alfalfa might also increase your ...
Wattiaux, M A; Karg, K L
This N balance study was completed with 48 multiparous Holstein cows (body weight [BW] = 653 kg; days in milk = 89) blocked by calving date and assigned to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. The total mixed ration included alfalfa silage (AS) or corn silage (CS) as the primary forage source (41 and 14% vs. 14 and 41% of diet dry matter (DM), respectively) and were formulated for recommended (RP) or excessive (HP) amounts of rumen degradable protein (RDP) and rumen undegradable protein (RUP) according to the guidelines of the National Research Council (NRC). Crude protein (CP) averaged 16.5, 18.0, 16.4, and 17.3% for the AS-RP; AS-HP; CS-RP; and CS-HP diet, respectively (DM basis). Regardless of primary forage source, the reduction in dietary CP to the NRC guidelines tended to improve milk yield (43.4 vs. 41.0 kg/d) but did not alter 3.5% fat-corrected milk (37.0 kg/d) or milk true protein yield (1167 g/d). In this trial, cows fed the CS-based diets consumed less DM than those fed the AS-based diets in part because of rumen acidosis. The adverse effect of low rumen pH was accompanied by an increase in urinary N (UN) as a percentage of N intake, but did not alter milk yield. Notwithstanding partial confounding, fecal N (FN) was 49 g/d lower (213 vs. 164 g/d), UN was unchanged (229 g/d), but milk N tended to be higher (194 vs. 206 g/d) when cows were fed the CS-based diets compared with AS-based diets. Compared with the HP diets, cows fed the RP diets had similar FN (189 g/d) and milk N (200 g/d), but UN and urine urea N were reduced by 41 g/d (249 vs. 208 g/d) and 40 g/d (210 vs. 171 g/d), respectively. Fecal N concentration was higher for CS-based diets, but urinary N concentration was higher for AS-based diets. The reduction in dietary CP did not influence these concentrations but lowered urine volume. The metabolic relationships between energy and protein in determining the fate of excess dietary N (primarily in the form of excess RUP in this
Kizilsimsek, M; Schmidt, R J; Kung, L
Alfalfa (approximately 31% DM) was untreated or treated with a silage inoculant containing the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum L-54, and L. plantarum Aber F1. The inoculant was added at a normal and a high dose as a freeze-dried powder that had been mixed with water just prior to application, or it was grown with nutrients the day before and added as a fresh culture. The actual application rate of lactic acid bacteria was 1.19 x 10(5) for the normal dose, 4.30 x 10(5) for the high dose, and 5.10 x 10(5) for the fresh culture. All inoculated silages showed a faster increase in the rate of lactic acid production and a decrease in the drop in pH over the first 24 h of ensiling compared with untreated silage. The effect was greatest for silage treated with the fresh culture and was supported by the fact that this treatment had numbers of lactic acid bacteria that increased faster than in other treatments. Inoculation also generally resulted in a fermentation profile that was more homolactic (more lactic acid and less acetic acid, ethanol, and NH(3)-N) than for untreated silage, but the effect was greatest for the fresh culture. Inoculation did not affect in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestion or the concentrations of neutral detergent fiber or total N in silages. The recovery of dry matter was greater in silage that was treated with a high level of the freeze-dried culture or with the fresh culture when compared with the untreated control. This study showed that application of a silage inoculant as a freeze-dried culture or as a fresh culture resulted in alfalfa silage with a more homolactic fermentation profile. The effect was greatest from addition of the fresh culture.
Dale, Nick; Valenzuela, Carolina
The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, energy and amino acid profile of dried salmon silage (DSS) for broilers. The DSS was obtained by acid digestion of salmon mortalities and subsequently co-dried with wheat bran in a 70:30 ratio (70 parts silage and 30 parts wheat bran). Samples of DSS were evaluated for chemical composition, gross energy, nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn ), mineral content, total and digestible amino acids for broilers, and amino acid score. The chemical composition of DSS was (mean ± SD): moisture (12.3 ± 0.8%), crude protein (44.0 ± 1.1%), ether extract (5.0 ± 2.4%), crude fiber (3.3 ± 0.4%) and ash (9.4 ± 0.6%). The gross energy and TMEn for broilers were 4 069 kcal/kg and 2 613 kcal/kg, respectively. The DSS mineral composition showed a high content of calcium (1.01%) and phosphorus (1.08%). The DSS had high levels of digestible methionine (0.74%), lysine (2.27%), and threonine (1.16%), and did not present limiting amino acids for broilers. Nutritional composition of DSS showed high protein content with an amino acid profile considered to be suitable as a protein source for broiler feeding.
Broderick, G A; Radloff, W J
Adding sugar to the diet has been reported to improve production in dairy cows. In each of 2 trials, 48 lactating Holsteins (8 with ruminal cannulas) were fed covariate diets for 2 wk, blocked by days in milk into 12 groups of 4, and then randomly assigned to diets based on alfalfa silage containing 4 levels of dried molasses (trial 1) or liquid molasses (trial 2). In both studies, production data were collected for 8 wk, ruminal samples were taken in wk 4 and 8, and statistical models were used that included covariate means and block. In trial 1, experimental diets contained 18% CP and 0, 4, 8, or 12% dried molasses with 2.6, 4.2, 5.6, or 7.2% total sugar. With increasing sugar, there was a linear increase in dry matter intake (DMI), and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM), but no effect on yield of milk or protein. This resulted in linear decreases in fat-corrected milk (FCM)/DMI and milk N/N-intake. There was a linear decrease in urinary N with increasing sugar, and quadratic effects on milk fat content, yield of fat and FCM, and ruminal ammonia. Mean optimum from these quadratic responses was 4.8% total sugar in these diets. In trial 2, experimental diets contained 15.6% crude protein (CP) and 0, 3, 6, or 9% liquid molasses with 2.6, 4.9, 7.4, or 10.0% total sugar, respectively. Again, there were linear declines in FCM/DMI and milk N/N-intake with increasing sugar, but quadratic responses for DMI, yield of milk, protein, and SNF, digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber, milk urea, urinary excretion of purine derivatives, and ruminal ammonia. Mean optimum from all quadratic responses in this trial was 6.3% total sugar. An estimate of an overall optimum, based on yield of fat and FCM (trial 1) and yield of milk, protein, and SNF (trial 2), was 5.0% total sugar, equivalent to adding 2.4% sugar to the basal diets. Feeding more than 6% total sugar appeared to depress production.
Silva, V P; Pereira, O G; Leandro, E S; Da Silva, T C; Ribeiro, K G; Mantovani, H C; Santos, S A
The fermentation profile, chemical composition, and microbial populations of alfalfa silages treated with microbial inoculants (MI) at different fermentation periods (T) were evaluated in tropical conditions. A 4×6 factorial arrangement was used in a randomized design with 3 replicates. Fresh alfalfa was treated with (1) no treatment (CTRL), (2) commercial inoculant (CIN), (3) Pediococcus acidilactici (strain 10.6, S1), and (4) Pediococcus pentosaceus (strain 6.16, S2). An inoculant application rate of 10(6) cfu/g of fresh forage was used. The fermentation periods were 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 d. Alfalfa was harvested 82 d after sowing at the early flowering stage, chopped into 1.5-cm particle size, and ensiled in 25 × 35 cm vacuum-sealed plastic bags. The numbers of lactic acid bacteria, enterobacteria, mold, and yeast in alfalfa before ensiling were 5.42, 5.58, 4.82, and 4.8 log cfu/g, respectively. Silage chemical composition was evaluated only at 56 d. All parameters were affected by the interaction MI × T, except the concentrations of lactic and propionic acids. Alfalfa silage treated with S1 or S2 had lower pH values than CTRL from the first day until 28 d. However, the inoculants resulted in similar pH after 56 d, and these values were lower than the CTRL. The highest concentration of lactic acid was observed in the silage treated with S1 and S2 at 7 and 14 d of ensiling. The concentration of acetic acid was lower in the silages treated with S1 and S2 than the CTRL and CIN at 3 and 28 d of fermentation. There was no effect of MI or MI × T interaction on the microbial populations. However, the number of enterobacteria decreased over the fermentation period until 14 d and increased slightly after this time point. The chemical composition of alfalfa silage was not affected by MI at 56 d of ensiling. The strain P. pentosaceus 6.16 was the most efficient in dominating the fermentation process by decreasing the pH more quickly and increasing the concentration
Baled silage is an attractive forage conservation approach for small and mid-sized dairy or beef producers, partly because it limits the risks associated with baling dry hay during wet or unstable weather conditions. Our objectives were to test the effects of delayed wrapping on silage fermentation,...
Previous studies have focused on interseeding of alfalfa into corn for use as a temporary cover crop rather than as a means of jump-starting alfalfa production after corn. In ongoing field studies, we are evaluating whether plant growth regulators (PGR) may be used to aid the establishment of inters...
Dairy producers frequently ask questions about the risks associated with applying dairy slurry to growing alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Our objectives were to determine the effects of applying dairy slurry on the subsequent nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa balage. Dairy sl...
Cooke, K M; Bernard, J K; West, J W
Forty-eight mid-lactation Holstein cows were used in a 6-wk completely randomized block design trial with a 4 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the effects of feeding different proportions of corn silage and ryegrass silage with supplemental ground corn (GC), steam-flaked corn (SFC), and hominy feed (HF) on the performance of lactating dairy cows. Forage provided 49% of the dietary dry matter in the experimental diets, which were formulated to meet National Research Council requirements. Ryegrass silage provided 100, 75, 50, or 25% of the total forage dry matter, with corn silage supplying the remainder. There were no interactions between the proportion of forage provided by ryegrass silage and energy supplement. Dry matter intake and milk protein percentage decreased linearly with increasing proportions of ryegrass silage, but milk protein yield was similar among forage treatments. There were no differences among forage treatments in milk yield, milk fat percentage and yield, and energy-corrected milk yield. Dry matter intake was higher and there was a tendency for increased milk fat percentage for GC compared with SFC or HF. No other differences were observed in milk yield or composition among energy supplements. Plasma urea nitrogen and glucose concentrations were similar among treatments. Under the conditions of this trial, our results indicate that feeding a combination of corn silage and ryegrass silage is more desirable than feeding ryegrass silage alone, whereas supplementation with GC, SFC, or HF supports similar levels of milk production.
Alfalfa hay is a major crop supporting U.S ruminant livestock industry, particularly dairy. Several cellulosic feedstocks will be needed to meet current ethanol production goals. Alfalfa has considerable potential as a feedstock for production of ethanol and other industrial materials because of i...
Höjer, A; Adler, S; Purup, S; Hansen-Møller, J; Martinsson, K; Steinshamn, H; Gustavsson, A-M
Phytoestrogens are hormone-like substances in plants that can substantially influence human health (positively or negatively), and when fed to dairy cows are partly transferred to their milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of varying the botanical composition and regrowth interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations. In one experiment, 15 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed 2- or 3-cut red clover-grass silage, or 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage. In a second experiment, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley silage with red clover or long-term ley silage with white clover, and the effects of supplementation with α-tocopherol were also tested. High concentrations of formononetin and biochanin A were found in all silage mixtures with red clover. The milk concentration of equol was highest for cows on the 2-cut red clover-grass silage diet (1,494 μg/kg of milk). Because of the metabolism of biochanin A, genistein, and prunetin, their concentrations in milk and the apparent recovery were low. Coumestrol was detected in only short-term and long-term ley silage mixtures, and its milk concentration was low. Concentrations of secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were higher in 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass and long-term ley silage mixtures, those with legume species other than red clover, and the highest grass proportions. The 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet also resulted in higher enterolactone concentration than the other diets (226 μg/kg of milk). Lengthening the regrowth interval increased the intake of secoisolariciresinol and decreased the recovery of lignans. Feeding long-term ley silage resulted in higher milk lignan concentrations but lower milk isoflavone concentrations than feeding short-term ley silage. The apparent recovery of all phytoestrogens except prunetin was highest on the 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet. No effect of α-tocopherol supplementation
Kim, Young-Il; Lee, Sang Moo; Lee, Youn Hee; Lee, Myeon; Choi, Do Young; Kwak, Wan Sup
This study investigated the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on the behavior of growing Hanwoo heifers. Twelve Hanwoo heifers (13.2 months-old, 315 kg body weight; four heifers per pen) were assigned to three diets: a rice straw (RS) diet (concentrate mix and free access to RS), a RS and BF-based silage (RSBFS) diet (concentrate mix and free access to RS and BF-based silage), and a BF-based silage (BFS) diet (concentrate mix and free access to BF-based silage). Behavior was recorded for 5 days using camcorders. Compared to the RS group, the BFS group showed 21.7% higher dry matter intake, shorter feeding, rumination, and chewing times, as well as longer resting time (p < 0.05). Although all groups exhibited similar drinking, urination, and defecation frequencies, the BFS group exhibited higher feeding rates, rumination efficiency, and chewing efficiency than the RS group (p < 0.05). Compared to the BFS group, the RSBFS group showed higher peNDF8.0 intake (15.2% vs. 25.0% dry matter intake), longer feeding and sitting times, lower defecation frequency (p < 0.05), and similar rumination efficiency. In conclusion, complete replacement of conventional RS with BF-based silage reduced rumination and chewing activity in growing Hanwoo heifers, and BF-based silage feeding with large-particle straw is an effective approach in improving heifer behavior.
Silage (ensiled feed), as a dairy’s greatest operational cost, is its most critical feed commodity. Ensiling is the process of converting entire harvested feedplants such as corn, sorghum, or alfalfa into fermented, stable anaerobic animal feed (i.e., silage). The continued...
Silage (ensiled feed), as a dairy’s greatest operational cost, is its most critical feed commodity. Ensiling is the process of converting entire harvested feedplants such as corn, sorghum, or alfalfa into fermented, stable anaerobic animal feed (i.e., silage). The continued...
Oelker, E R; Reveneau, C; Firkins, J L
Sugar supplementation can stimulate rumen microbial growth and possibly fiber digestibility; however, excess ruminal carbohydrate availability relative to rumen-degradable protein (RDP) can promote energy spilling by microbes, decrease rumen pH, or depress fiber digestibility. Both RDP supply and rumen pH might be altered by forage source and monensin. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate interactions of a sugar source (molasses) with monensin and 2 forage sources on rumen fermentation, total tract digestibility, and production and fatty acid composition of milk. Seven ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows were used in a 5 x 7 incomplete Latin square design with five 28-d periods. Four corn silage diets consisted of 1) control (C), 2) 2.6% molasses (M), 3) 2.6% molasses plus 0.45% urea (MU), or 4) 2.6% molasses plus 0.45% urea plus monensin sodium (Rumensin, at the intermediate dosage from the label, 16 g/909 kg of dry matter; MUR). Three chopped alfalfa hay diets consisted of 1) control (C), 2) 2.6% molasses (M), or 3) 2.6% molasses plus Rumensin (MR). Urea was added to corn silage diets to provide RDP comparable to alfalfa hay diets with no urea. Corn silage C and M diets were balanced to have 16.2% crude protein; and the remaining diets, 17.2% crude protein. Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment, but there was a trend for lower milk production in alfalfa hay diets compared with corn silage diets. Despite increased total volatile fatty acid and acetate concentrations in the rumen, total tract organic matter digestibility was lower for alfalfa hay-fed cows. Rumensin did not affect volatile fatty acid concentrations but decreased milk fat from 3.22 to 2.72% in corn silage diets but less in alfalfa hay diets. Medium-chain milk fatty acids (% of total fat) were lower for alfalfa hay compared with corn silage diets, and short-chain milk fatty acids tended to decrease when Rumensin was added. In whole rumen contents, concentrations of
Haagsma, J; ter Laak, E A
An outbreak of type B botulism in cattle, caused by feeding grass silage, is reported. The clinical features were completely identical with those in cases of type B botulism, which occurred when abnormal brewers' grains were fed. 36.5 mouse LD50 type B toxin was found to be present in each gramme of grass silage, the bacterial count being 10(4) Cl. botulinum type B per gramme.
Delays often occur between baling and wrapping during production of baled silage that increases exposure time of the forage to oxygen. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of two different wrapping sources and time intervals between baling and wrapping on intake and digestibility of al...
Recent field studies have identified prohexadione-calcium (PHD) as an effective plant growth regulator for enhancing the establishment of alfalfa interseeded into corn as a dual-purpose cover and forage crop. Foliar applications of PHD on seedlings doubled or tripled stand survival of interseeded al...
Touno, Eiko; Kaneko, Makoto; Uozumi, Sunao; Kawamoto, Hidenori; Deguchi, Shin
Twelve sheep were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design to evaluate the effect of substituting wheat bran with forage soybean silage in the diet on apparent digestibility and nitrogen balance. Forage soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) was cultivated in a no-till, no-herbicide cropping system with Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) as a living mulch. Forage soybean and Italian ryegrass were wilted and ensiled in round bales without additives, respectively. The experimental diets were based on corn silage supplemented with protein sources (tow silages or wheat bran). The crude protein and the acid detergent insoluble protein contents of forage soybean silage were the highest among the protein sources. The apparent digestibility of crude protein and the nitrogen balance did not significantly differ among the diets. In addition, the phytoestrogen content of forage soybean silage was below the level at which animal reproductive performance would be negatively affected. These results suggest that forage soybean silage has comparable feeding value to wheat bran, and can be given at an inclusion level of 17% (dry matter basis) as an alternative protein source to wheat bran without adverse effects on digestion or nitrogen balance in sheep fed a corn silage-based diet.
Interactive effects of molasses by homofermentative and heterofermentative inoculants on fermentation quality, nitrogen fractionation, nutritive value and aerobic stability of wilted alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) silage.
Hashemzadeh-Cigari, F; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Ghasemi, E; Taghizadeh, A; Kargar, S; Yang, W Z
The effect of adding molasses (0, UM or 50 g/kg on DM basis, M) and two types of inoculant including homofermentative (HO) and a combination of homofermentative and propionate-producing bacterial (HOPAB) inoculants on silage fermentation quality, nitrogen fractionation and aerobic stability of pre-bloom, wilted alfalfa (AS) was determined in laboratory silos. The HOPAB inoculant was more effective than HO in reducing the alfalfa silage pH but increased propionate content in the absence of M (p < 0.05). Inoculation of HOPAB reduced (p < 0.01) acid detergent fibre (ADF) and increased (p < 0.01) lactate to acetate ratio compared with uninoculated AS. Acetate concentration was lower (p < 0.01) in HOPAB-inoculated than other AS. This difference was more pronounced in M-added AS (inoculants × M interaction, p = 0.01). Both inoculants reduced (p < 0.01) ammonia-N content in AS added with M, whereas only HOPAB decreased (p < 0.01) ammonia-N concentration in silage without M. Inoculants increased (p < 0.01) B2 fraction in AS with M addition but had no effect on AS without M. Treating silages with HO-UM increased (p < 0.05) C fraction (acid-detergent insoluble-N) but HOPAB decreased C fraction at two levels of M. Treating alfalfa crop with M and HOPAB improved aerobic stability by increasing the concentration of acetate and propionate of AS respectively. Adding M tended (p < 0.10) to increase short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and cumulative gas production (CGP). HOPAB alone increased DM disappearance at 24 h post-incubation and effective degradability assuming outflow rate of 8%/h relative to untreated AS (p < 0.05). It was concluded that adding M had no pronounced effects on AS fermentation quality, but increased aerobic stability. HOPAB-inoculated AS with no addition of M improved fermentation quality and increased DM degradability compared with HO.
Mokhtarpour, A; Naserian, A A; Pourmollae, F; Ghaffari, M H
A lactation experiment was conducted to determine the influence of addition of pistachio by-products extract (PBE) to alfalfa silage (AS) on performance, rumen fermentation, milk yield and composition, and microbial nitrogen synthesis. Eight multiparous dairy goats (1.8 ± 0.25 kg of milk yield) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to compare two types of AS (supplemented with or without PBE) with two levels of dietary crude protein (14% vs. 16% CP). Dietary treatments were (i) AS with 14% CP of DM diet without PBE (14%CP-PBE), (ii) AS with 14% CP of DM diet with PBE (14%CP + PBE), (iii) AS with 16% CP of DM diet without PBE (16%CP-PBE) and (iv) AS with 16% CP of DM diet with PBE (16%CP + PBE). PBE was sprayed on fresh alfalfa at a ratio of 500 ml/kg alfalfa DM to get the final concentration of 1% tannin as tannic acid equivalent on DM basis. Intake of CP was greater (p < 0.01) in goats fed 16% CP diets than those fed 14% CP diets, regardless of PBE supplementation. Supplementation of PBE tended to decrease (p = 0.09) rumen NH3 -N concentration regardless of the level of CP in the diet. Supplementation of PBE tended (p = 0.09) to decrease total purine derivatives regardless of the level of CP in the diet with no significant change in microbial nitrogen supply. Efficiency of microbial nitrogen synthesis (EMNS) had a tendency (p = 0.07) to decrease in PBE supplemented diets. There was also a tendency (p = 0.10) for more EMNS in 14% CP fed goats than those fed 16% CP diets. Therefore, AS supplemented with PBE may lead to less concentration of ruminal NH3 -N because of decreased degradation of CP by rumen micro-organisms in response to pistachio by-products tannins.
Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro
The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using 4×4 Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the others. In the feeding trial, the intake of silage increased (p<0.05) in the cow fed with the treated silage. Among the treatments, dry matter intake was the lowest in the silage treated with cassava meal. The organic matter, crude protein and NDF digestibility of the silage treated with molasses was higher than the silage without additive and the silage treated with FJLB. The rumen parameters: ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acid (VFA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bacterial populations were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, these studies confirmed that the applying of molasses improved fermentative quality, feed intake and digestibility of Napier grass.
Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J. Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro
The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using 4×4 Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the others. In the feeding trial, the intake of silage increased (p<0.05) in the cow fed with the treated silage. Among the treatments, dry matter intake was the lowest in the silage treated with cassava meal. The organic matter, crude protein and NDF digestibility of the silage treated with molasses was higher than the silage without additive and the silage treated with FJLB. The rumen parameters: ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acid (VFA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bacterial populations were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, these studies confirmed that the applying of molasses improved fermentative quality, feed intake and digestibility of Napier grass. PMID:25049687
Gowda, Nisarani Kollurappa Shivakumar; Vallesha, Naglapura Chandrashekara; Awachat, Vaibhav Bhagvan; Anandan, Samireddypalli; Pal, Din Taran; Prasad, Cadaba Srinivasa
Pineapple is a commercially important fruit crop grown in Asian and African countries. Pineapple fruit residue (PFR) accounts for more than 65% of the processed fruits, and its disposal is a major problem due to its high moisture and sugar content predisposing it to fungal growth and spoilage. Silage technique was adopted to address this problem, and the PFR silage was evaluated for its feeding value. It was observed that on 15th day, the pH of PFR silage was 4.2-4.3 and lactic acid content was 6-8% (DM basis). Combination of 4 parts leafy crown and 1 part peels/pomace was found very ideal to achieve moisture content of 65-70% and produced a good quality silage with minimum fungal count (<3-4 colony forming units) on 15th day of ensiling. Nutritive value in terms of energy and minerals was superior to maize green fodder. Feeding trial in two groups of sheep with 10 numbers in each group fed total mixed ration (TMR) comprising 62% PFR/maize silage and 48% concentrate mixture (DM basis) for 75-day period did not show any adverse effects on nutrient utilization (DM, CP, NDF, ADF), serum biochemical (total protein, creatinine, urea nitrogen, SGOT, SGPT), and mineral profile (Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn) and supported a daily growth rate of 140 g. The overall performance was similar to those sheep fed TMR with maize green fodder silage. Feeding PFR silage replacing hybrid napier green fodder in two groups of cows with eight in each group showed an improvement in average daily milk yield by 3.0 lit per cow and fat content by 0.6 U fed PFR silage-based TMR as compared to cows fed hybrid napier green fodder-based TMR. In both studies (sheep or cows), there was no evidence of metabolic or health-related disorders indicating that PFR silage was effectively utilized. Pineapple fruit residue that was hitherto wasted was successfully converted to silage and was found to be a valuable alternative to conventional green fodder. Ensiling of PFR not only improved the economics of feeding
Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Massé, D I; Petit, H V; Benchaar, C
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of changing forage source in dairy cow diets from timothy silage (TS) to alfalfa silage (AS) on enteric CH₄ emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, digestion, milk production, and N balance. Nine ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design (32-d period) and fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (TMR; forage:concentrate ratio of 60:40, dry matter basis), with the forage portion consisting of either TS (0% AS; 0% AS and 54.4% TS in the TMR), a 50:50 mixture of both silages (50% AS; 27.2% AS and 27.2% TS in the TMR), or AS (100% AS; 54.4% AS and 0% TS in the TMR). Compared with TS, AS contained less (36.9 vs. 52.1%) neutral detergent fiber but more (20.5 vs. 13.6%) crude protein (CP). In sacco 24-h ruminal degradability of organic matter (OM) was higher for AS than for TS (73.5 vs. 66.9%). Replacement of TS with AS in the diet entailed increasing proportions of corn grain and bypass protein supplement at the expense of soybean meal. As the dietary proportion of AS increased, CP and starch concentrations increased, whereas fiber content declined in the TMR. Dry matter intake increased linearly with increasing AS proportions in the diet. Apparent total-tract digestibility of OM and gross energy remained unaffected, whereas CP digestibility increased linearly and that of fiber decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of AS in the diet. The acetate-to-propionate ratio was not affected, whereas ruminal concentration of ammonia (NH₃) and molar proportion of branched-chain VFA increased as the proportion of AS in the diet increased. Daily CH₄ emissions tended to increase (476, 483, and 491 g/d for cows fed 0% AS, 50% AS, and 100% AS, respectively) linearly as cows were fed increasing proportions of AS. Methane production adjusted for dry matter intake (average=19.8 g/kg) or gross energy intake (average=5.83%) was not affected by increasing AS inclusion
Bøe, K E; Ottosen, A M; Andersen, I L
The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effect of feeding level and type of roughage on feed intake, feeding behavior and competition of ewes. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted with amount of roughage available (ad libitum or semi restricted) and type of roughage (grass silage or hay) as main factors. Forty-eight ewes were randomly assigned to 8 groups of 6 ewes. All groups were subjected to all 4 treatments, each treatment period lasted 7 d, and the order of treatments was rotated systematically. The ewes were video recorded for the 2 last days of each treatment period and feeding and general activity were scored every 10 min. All aggressive interactions and displacement at the feed barrier were scored continuously the first 3 h after feeding. Daily feed intake (P < 0.0001) and DMI (P < 0.0001) were both greater in the silage than in the hay treatment. Ewes in the semi-restricted treatment spent less time feeding (P < 0.0001), had a greater individual variation in feeding time (P < 0.05) and spent more time queuing for feed (standing maximum 1.5 m from the feeding barrier with the head towards the feed; P < 0.0001). Individual data showed that 5 ewes fed hay and 3 ewes fed silage reduced their time spent feeding more than 50% when the feeding level was reduced. When fed hay, the level of feeding did not affect number of aggressive interactions or displacements, but when fed silage the number of aggressive interactions (P < 0.01) and the number of displacements (P < 0.05) were much greater in the semi-restricted than in the ad libitum treatment. We conclude that even a minor restriction in the level of feeding will decrease time spent feeding and increase queuing and number of aggressive interactions when feeding space is also restricted, and that the increase in aggressive interactions is mainly for ewes fed grass silage.
Dewhurst, R J; Evans, R T; Scollan, N D; Moorby, J M; Merry, R J; Wilkins, R J
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the basis for higher voluntary intakes and increased alpha-linolenic acid content in milk from cows offered clover silages. Six cows with rumen and duodenal cannulae were used in a four-period changeover-design experiment. Cows received 8 kg/d of dairy concentrate and had ad libitum access to one of six silage treatments: grass, red clover, white clover, alfalfa, and 50/50 (dry matter basis) mixtures of grass with red clover or white clover. The rumen fermentability of grass, red clover, white clover, and grass/red clover silages was also evaluated in a nylon bag study. Legume silages led to increased dry matter intake and milk production in comparison with grass silage. There was no significant effect of legume silages on rumen pH and volatile fatty acid concentrations, but a significant increase in rumen ammonia concentration with the legume silages, reflecting their higher protein content. The inclusion of white clover or alfalfa silage, but not red clover silage, in diets led to an increase in molar proportions of isobutyric, iso-valeric, and n-valeric acids in comparison with diets based on grass silage. Rumen fill was significantly lower, and rumen passage rates were significantly higher for cows offered alfalfa or white clover silages. However, the markedly different particle size distribution of rumen contents with these feeds suggests very different mechanisms for the high intake characteristics: high rates of particle breakdown and passage with alfalfa, and high rates of fermentation and passage with white clover. Microbial energetic efficiency (grams microbial N per kilogram organic matter apparently digested in the rumen) was highest for cows offered alfalfa silage, intermediate for clover silage, and lowest for cows offered grass silage. These differences reflect the higher rumen outflow rates for legume silages in comparison with grass silage. However, the effect of these differences on N-use efficiency
Fransen, S C; Strubi, F J
Effluent from grass silage is a threat to water quality and a loss of valuable forage nutrients from dairy farms. Absorbents potentially reduce effluent loss when weather conditions are not ideal for field wilting. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of various absorbents at reducing silage effluent. First-harvest, direct-cut, perennial grass forage was ensiled with and without absorbents in medium-sized experimental silos for 3 consecutive yr. Silos contained 4.54 kg of grass and one of the following feed quality absorbents: 10% rolled barley, 10% dried and pelleted beet pulp, or alfalfa cubes at 10, 20, or 30%. Nonfeed quality absorbents used were 1% starch grafter polymer, 1% bentonite clay, and 10% newspaper. Silage from direct-harvest control forage produced the highest effluent losses, but the wilting of grass prior to ensiling or the mixing of grass with 30% alfalfa cubes nearly eliminated effluent. Silage pH was lowest when rolled barley or beet pulp was used as the absorbent and was highest for wilted grass. Silage dry matter was increased by wilting and by the use of barley, beet pulp, newspapers, or alfalfa cubes as absorbents. The addition of 10% newspaper greatly reduced in vitro dry matter digestibility and crude protein. Increased water-soluble carbohydrate concentrations were found for silage from grass forage treated with rolled barley, beet pulp, or alfalfa cubes prior to ensiling. Although bentonite clay and newspapers reduced effluent losses, greater water-soluble carbohydrate losses were found for these treatments compared with the direct control. Alfalfa cubes were found to be effective absorbents and did not reduce grass silage quality.
Fischer, J M; Buchanan-Smith, J G; Campbell, C; Grieve, D G; Allen, O B
A 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, in which particle length of alfalfa silage in the TMR and supplementary long alfalfa-grass hay were the factors, was used to determine whether hay benefits lactating cows and whether its effects depend on fibrosity of the main forage source. Without supplementary hay, TMR contained 45% forage, including corn silage, and 26 to 27.5% NDF. When hay was fed, the amount of alfalfa silage in the corresponding TMR was reduced. In the production trial, 40 cows (20 multiparous) were fed the diets for 8 wk in early lactation. No interactions of silage length and hay occurred on any production variables except lactose concentration in the milk of multiparous cows. Addition of hay to the diet enhanced DMI, without effect on production, so efficiency of milk production was reduced. Shorter alfalfa silage enhanced DMI by multiparous cows, reduced SCM and FCM in primiparous cows, and depressed fat test in both groups. Milk composition and component production generally were unaffected. Five rumen-fistulated cows in early to midlactation each were given the four treatments during four 3-wk periods. Hay enhanced rumination when short alfalfa silage was fed but tended to reduce it on long alfalfa silage. Hay also depressed rumen pH and enhanced VFA concentrations. Alfalfa silage length had minimal effects on rumination and no effect on fermentation, and neither hay nor silage length affected digestion of silage DM or NDF in the rumen. Addition of hay to the diet may not be beneficial for cows fed TMR, but longer term feeding studies are needed.
Arndt, C; Powell, J M; Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A
Two trials were conducted simultaneously to study the effects of varying alfalfa silage (AS) to corn silage (CS) ratio in diets formulated to avoid excess protein or starch on lactating dairy cow performance, digestibility, ruminal parameters, N balance, manure production and composition, and gaseous emissions [carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and ammonia-N (NH3-N)]. In trial 1 all measurements, except gas emissions, were conducted on 8 rumen-cannulated cows in replicated 4×4 Latin squares. In trial 2, performance and emissions were measured on 16 cows randomly assigned to 1 of 4 air-flow controlled chambers in a 4×4 Latin square. Dietary treatments were fed as total mixed rations with forage-to-concentrate ratio of 55:45 [dietary dry matter (DM) basis] and AS:CS ratios of 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, and 80:20 (forage DM basis). Measurements were conducted the last 3d of each 21-d period. Treatments did not affect DM intake, DM digestibility, and milk/DM intake. However, responses were quadratic for fat-and-protein-corrected milk, fat, and protein production, which reached predicted maxima for AS:CS ratio of 50:50, 49:51, and 34:66, respectively. Nitrogen use efficiency (milk N/N intake) decreased from 31 to 24g/100g as AS:CS ratio increased from 20:80 to 80:20. Treatments did not alter NH3-N/milk-N but tended to have a quadratic effect on daily NH3-N emission. Treatments had a quadratic effect on daily CH4 emission, which was high compared with current literature; they influenced CH4 emission per unit of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake and tended to influence CO2/NDF intake. Ruminal acetate-to-propionate ratio and total-tract NDF digestibility increased linearly with increasing AS:CS ratio. In addition, as AS:CS ratio increased from 20:80 to 80:20, NDF digested increased linearly from 2.16 to 3.24kg/d, but CH4/digested NDF decreased linearly from 270 to 190g/kg. These 2 counterbalancing effects likely contributed to the observed quadratic response in daily CH4
Dewhurst, R J; Wadhwa, D; Borgida, L P; Fisher, W J
Earlier studies developed a new approach to feed evaluation, measuring the net acid load that develops during rumen fermentation. Two concentrates were formulated to be isoenergetic and isonitrogenous, with extremes of rumen acid load. A third treatment comprised a 50:50 mixture of these concentrates. These concentrates were evaluated along with ryegrass silage and corn silage. The feeds were evaluated in a continuous culture system adapted to deliver and record the quantities of acid or alkali needed to maintain a constant pH (6.2 to 6.3). This study confirmed the anticipated ranking of concentrates for rumen acid load, as well as the highly acidogenic nature of corn silage. The concentrates were formulated to balance corn silage and were offered to early-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows at 50% of dry matter intake, with either ryegrass silage or corn silage. Feed intake was lower for animals offered corn silage-based diets (17.4 vs. 22.2 kg of dry matter/d). Increasing concentrate acid load led to a large decline in dry matter intake for corn silage, although not for grass silage. Feed intake effects were reflected in significant effects on yield of milk (31.0, 29.9, and 26.9 kg/d for low-, medium-, and high-acid load concentrates, respectively) and milk solids. Milk protein concentration was unaffected by concentrate type with corn silage diets but tended to be higher when high acid load concentrates were fed with grass silage. This may reflect the effect of the high starch concentrate rectifying a shortage of glucogenic precursors or microbial protein with the grass silage-based diet.
Kung, L; Williams, P; Schmidt, R J; Hu, W
A blend of essential plant oils was evaluated for its effects on silage fermentation and animal performance. In the first experiment, the blend of essential oils was mixed with freshly chopped whole-plant corn to achieve a concentration of 0, 40, or 80 mg of active product per kilogram of fresh forage weight. Whole-plant corn was also mixed with a buffered propionic acid-based product at 0.2% of fresh forage weight. The blend of essential oils did not affect the populations of yeasts, molds, lactic acid bacteria, or enterobacteria; the fermentation end products; or the aerobic stability of the corn silage. Addition of the buffered propionic acid additive moderately reduced the production of acids during fermentation and resulted in a small reduction in the numbers of yeasts after ensiling, but did not affect aerobic stability. In a second experiment, 30 Holstein cows (4 primiparous and 26 multiparous) averaging 118 +/- 70 d in milk and producing 38 +/- 16 kg of milk/d were fed a total mixed ration, once daily, that consisted of (on a DM basis) 25% corn silage, 15% alfalfa silage, 10% alfalfa hay, and 50% concentrate. One-half of the cows were fed a blend of essential oils that was mixed directly into their total mixed ration to provide 1.2 g/cow per d for 9 wk. Cows fed the essential oils ate 1.9 kg more dry matter/d and produced 2.7 kg more 3.5% fat-corrected milk/d than did cows fed the control diet. The percentages of milk fat and protein, the somatic cell count numbers, and the concentrations of milk urea nitrogen were unaffected by treatment. Feed efficiency, change in body weight, and change in body condition scoring were also similar between treatments. After 12 h of incubation, the addition of a moderate dose and a high dose of essential oils to in vitro ruminal fermentations had no effect on the concentration of total VFA compared with the control treatment. However, they decreased the molar proportions of acetic, butyric, and valeric acids and increased
Krizsan, S J; Randby, A T
This study was designed to separate the effect of fermentation quality on voluntary intake of grass silage from other feed factors affecting intake. Variations in DMI were quantified, and the impact on intake was modeled. The relationships between individual silage components and intake were examined. A partially balanced changeover experiment with 30 Norwegian Red steers (137 +/- 16.4 kg of BW) was carried out to determine the intake of 24 silages and of hay harvested from the same parent crop within 60 h. Five forages were fed at a time in each of five 3-wk periods. Every 3-wk period was preceded by 2 wk of feeding a standard silage. Silage DMI ranged from 1.79 to 2.65, with a mean of 2.38 kg x 100 kg of BW(-1) x d(-1). Hay DMI averaged 2.43 kg x 100 kg of BW(-1) x d(-1). Ranges (mean) for the composition of silages were as follows: DM, 166 to 237 (213) g/kg; water-soluble carbohydrates, 16.3 to 70.9 (33.0) g/kg of DM; acetic acid, 11.5 to 64.7 (28.6) g/kg of DM; propionic acid, 0 to 5.2 (1.0) g/kg of DM; butyric acid, 0 to 25.1 (6.0) g/kg of DM; lactic acid, 2.2 to 102 (49.3) g/kg of DM; and NH3-N (not corrected for additive-derived N), 89.3 to 255 (153) g/kg of total N. Silage DMI was closely (P < 0.05) related to DM, ADL, VFA, lactic acid, total acids, the lactic acid:total acids ratio, ADIN, NH3-N (not corrected), histamine, tryptamine, cadaverine, and the total sum of amines (the explained variation in intake ranged from 14 to 53%). The 2 best models describing silage DMI included concentrations in the silage of propionic acid, butyric acid, and lactic acid, and these models explained 75 and 84% of the variation in DMI. The strong correlation (r = 0.84, P < 0.05) between total NH3-N and butyric acid concentrations in silages indicates that these variables described the same variation pattern. The inclusion of NH3-N in the equations describing the effect of fermentation quality on DMI of low-DM grass silage was less useful than that of butyric acid. This was
Ann Huws, Sharon; Chiariotti, Antonella; Sarubbi, Fiorella; Carfì, Francesca; Pace, Vilma
Sorghum presents a sustainable feedstock for Mediterranean buffaloes due to its reduced water and nitrogen requirements compared with maize, which is currently fed primarily. We investigated the effects of feeding sorghum as opposed to maize on Mediterranean buffalo rumen microbial diversity and milk fatty acid content. Four cannulated lactating Mediterranean buffalo cows were fed a basal diet for one month before switching either to maize or sorghum-silage based diets for a 3-month period. Buffaloes were then changed over to the contrasting diet for a further one month. Rumen and milk samples were collected at the end of each month. DGGE- and T-RFLP-based dendrograms generated from rumen samples did not show an effect of diet on rumen bacterial diversity. Milk samples also did not differ in terms of their fatty acid content post sorghum feeding as compared with maize feeding. Thus, sorghum provides an environmentally beneficial alternative to maize for feeding Mediterranean buffalo with little effect on rumen microbial diversity or milk fatty acid composition compared with maize feeding.
Petit, H V; Flipot, P M
Six Hereford steers averaging 256 kg were used in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement within a 6 x 6 Latin square design to study the effect of forage conservation (silage vs hay) and N supplementation (0, 200 g of fish meal plus 43 g of urea, or 400 g of fish meal) on ruminal characteristics, digestibility, blood urea, and in situ degradability of DM, N, and ADF. Dry matter intake of forage and total DMI did not differ among treatments (P greater than .05) and averaged 5.3 and 5.5 kg, respectively. Steers fed silage had greater (P less than .05) pH and concentrations of ammonia N, isobutyrate, isovalerate, and valerate in the rumen than in the rumen of those fed hay. Nitrogen supplementation increased (P less than .05) concentrations of total VFA and valerate in the rumen. Digestibility of N and ADF was greater (P less than .05) for silage than for hay, and N supplementation increased digestibility of N. Plasma urea concentrations were greater (P less than .05) for steers fed silage than for those fed hay. These data suggest that feed utilization is better with silage than with hay and is increased by N supplementation.
Gebrehawariat, Efrem; Tamir, Berhan; Tegegne, Azage
Thirty-six Boran × Friesian dairy cows (392 ± 12 kg; mean ± SD) in early parity were used in a randomised complete block design. Cows were blocked by parity into three blocks of 12 animals and offered normal maize (NM) stover (T1), NM silage (T2) or quality protein maize (QPM) silage (T3) basal diets supplemented with a similar concentrate mix. Feed intake, body weight and condition changes and milk yield and composition were assessed. The daily intake of DM, OM, NDF and ADF for cows fed the NM stover-based diet was higher (P<0.05) than for the cows fed the NM silage and QPM silage-based diets. However, the daily intake of DOM (9.3 kg) and ME (140.8 MJ) for cows on QPM silage-based diet was higher (P<0.05) than for cows on NM stover-based diet (8.4 kg and 124.2 MJ) and NM silage-based diet (7.9 kg and 119.1 MJ). Body weight of cows was affected (P<0.05) by the diet, but diet had no effect (P>0.05) on body condition score, milk yield and milk composition. The digestible organic matter in the NM stover-based diet (724 g/kg DM) was lower (P<0.05) than that in the NM (770 g/kg DM) and QPM silage-based diet (762 g/kg DM). It was concluded that the performances of the cows on the NM silage and QPM silage diets were similar and were not superior to that of the NM stover-based diet.
Mazahery-Laghab, H; Yazdi-Samadi, B; Bagheri, M; Bagheri, A R
Biochemical components in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), such as saponins, can act as protecting factors against bio-stresses. Saponins are also antifeedants and show oral toxicity towards higher and lower animals. Changes in saponins, such as variation in the carbon skeleton, or hydrolysis of saponin glycosides and other conjugates, may change their biological effects. The aims of this research were to study saponin variation in different growth stages of alfalfa and to investigate the biological role of saponins in the spotted alfalfa aphid, Therioaphis maculata. Saponins from alfalfa shoots in different growth stages were extracted, chemically purified and analysed by TLC. Specific saponins such as soyasaponin1 from root and shoot and two bisdesmosides of medicagenic acid, one from shoot and another from root tissues, were identified using reference compounds allowing changes in saponin composition during plant development in different shoot tissues of alfalfa to be assessed. The response of the alfalfa aphid to feeding on alfalfa in different growth stages was studied. No significant difference in the survival of aphids, from neonate to adult, was observed, but due to the antibiotic effects of saponins, two differences were found in the onset of nymph production and cumulative nymph production. The results show that the saponin composition in alfalfa changes with plant development and this, in turn, can often negatively affect the development of specific insect pests such as the spotted alfalfa aphid, suggesting a possible biological role of alfalfa saponins.
Fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of low moisture silage made from mature bermudagrass (C. dactylon) and switchgrass (P. virgatum) in mixture with alfalfa (M. sativa) or treated with urea and plantain (Musa AAB
Two experiments were conducted at the University of Kentucky Spindletop Farm in Lexington, Kentucky between October and November, 2009 to evaluate the effect of different percentages of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) as mixtures in switchgrass (Panicum virgatus) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) silage...
Witzig, M; Boguhn, J; Kleinsteuber, S; Fetzer, I; Rodehutscord, M
This study examined whether different corn silage to grass silage ratios in ruminant rations and different grinding levels of the feed affect the composition of the ruminal Bacteroides-Prevotella community in vitro. Three diets, composed of 10% soybean meal as well as of different corn silage and grass silage proportions, were ground through 1mm or 4mm screened sieves and incubated in a semi-continuous rumen simulation system. On day 14 of the incubation microbes were harvested by centrifugation from the liquid effluent of fermenter vessels. Microbial DNA was extracted for single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes followed by sequencing of single SSCP bands. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and real-time quantitative (q) PCR were used to quantify differences in the relative abundance of Bacteroides-Prevotella and Prevotella bryantii. SSCP profiles revealed a significant influence of the forage source as well as of the feed particle size on the community structure of the Bacteroides-Prevotella group. Different, phylogenetically distinct, so far uncultured Prevotella species were detected by sequence analysis of several treatment-dependent occurring SSCP bands indicating different nutritional requirements of these organisms for growth. No quantitative differences in the occurrence of Bacteroides-Prevotella-related species were detected between diets by FISH with probe BAC303. However, real-time qPCR data revealed a higher abundance of P. bryantii with increasing grass silage to corn silage ratio, thus again indicating changes within the community composition of the Bacteroides-Prevotella group. As P. bryantii possesses high proteolytic activity its higher abundance may have been caused by the higher contents of crude protein in the grass silage containing diets. To conclude, results of this study show an influence of the forage source on the ruminal community of Bacteroides-Prevotella. Furthermore, they suggest an effect of
Ebling, T L; Kung, L
We studied the effects of mechanical processing and type of hybrid on the nutritive value of corn silage for lactating cows. Treatments were brown midrib (BMR) corn silage that was unprocessed (U-BMR), BMR corn silage that was processed (P-BMR), and a conventional corn silage that was processed (P-7511). All silages were harvested at a theoretical chop length of 19 mm. The chemical compositions of the silages were similar among treatments except that BMR silages were lower in lignin and higher in protein than P-7511. Brown midrib silages had greater 30-h in situ and in vitro NDF digestion than did P-7511, and processing had no effect on 30-h in situ and in vitro fiber digestion, but it increased in situ starch digestion after 3 and 12 h of incubation. Both processed silages had a smaller proportion of particles >1.91 cm and fewer whole corn kernels compared with unprocessed silage. Lactating cows were fed a total mixed ration (TMR) consisting of 42% of each silage type, 40% concentrate, 10% alfalfa silage, and 8% alfalfa hay (DM basis). Cows fed TMR containing P-BMR ate more DM and produced more milk than cows fed P-7511. At feeding, the TMR containing U-BMR had a larger proportion of particles >1.91 cm when compared with the TMR of cows fed processed silages, and after 24 h the difference was even greater, indicating that cows fed unprocessed corn silage sorted more. Cows fed TMR with P-7511 and P-BMR had greater total tract digestibility of organic matter, crude protein, and starch compared with cows fed U-BMR. In vivo digestibility of neutral detergent fiber was greatest for cows fed P-BMR when compared with the other treatments.
Hall, Jean A.; Bobe, Gerd; Hunter, Janice K.; Vorachek, William R.; Stewart, Whitney C.; Vanegas, Jorge A.; Estill, Charles T.; Mosher, Wayne D.; Pirelli, Gene J.
Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient in cattle, and Se-deficiency can affect morbidity and mortality. Calves may have greater Se requirements during periods of stress, such as during the transitional period between weaning and movement to a feedlot. Previously, we showed that feeding Se-fertilized forage increases whole-blood (WB) Se concentrations in mature beef cows. Our current objective was to test whether feeding Se-fertilized forage increases WB-Se concentrations and performance in weaned beef calves. Recently weaned beef calves (n = 60) were blocked by body weight, randomly assigned to 4 groups, and fed an alfalfa hay based diet for 7 wk, which was harvested from fields fertilized with sodium-selenate at a rate of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha. Blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for WB-Se concentrations. Body weight and health status of calves were monitored during the 7-wk feeding trial. Increasing application rates of Se fertilizer resulted in increased alfalfa hay Se content for that cutting of alfalfa (0.07, 0.95, 1.55, 3.26 mg Se/kg dry matter for Se application rates of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha, respectively). Feeding Se-fertilized alfalfa hay during the 7-wk preconditioning period increased WB-Se concentrations (PLinear<0.001) and body weights (PLinear = 0.002) depending upon the Se-application rate. Based upon our results we suggest that soil-Se fertilization is a potential management tool to improve Se-status and performance in weaned calves in areas with low soil-Se concentrations. PMID:23536788
Redden, R R; Surber, L M M; Grove, A V; Kott, R W
The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of residual feed intake (RFI) determined under ad libitum feeding conditions on DMI and performance of yearling ewes fed either chopped or pelleted alfalfa hay. In Exp. 1, 45 ewe-lambs had ad libitum access to a pelleted grower diet for 63 d and individual DMI was determined using an electronic feed delivery system. Residual feed intake values were assigned to each ewe-lamb as a measure of feed efficiency. Sixteen ewe-lambs with the most positive RFI values were classified as high RFI (inefficient) and 16 ewe-lambs with the most negative RFI values were classified as low RFI (efficient). In Exp. 2, half of the ewes from each efficiency group were placed into 1 of 2 pens and provided ad libitum access to either pelleted or chopped alfalfa hay. Individual DMI was again determined using an electronic feed delivery system. Body weight, LM area (LMA), and 12th-rib back fat thickness (BF) were measured at the beginning and end of both experiments. In Exp. 1, DMI by ewe-lambs in the low RFI group was 9% less (P = 0.01) than by ewe-lambs in the high RFI group (2.21 vs. 2.43 kg/d); however, ADG and initial and final BW, LMA, and BF did not differ (P > 0.27) among RFI groups. In Exp. 2, there were no feed processing × RFI group interactions (P > 0.14) for any trait. By design, RFI values were lower (P < 0.01) by yearling ewes in the low than high RFI group (-0.27 vs. 0.27); however, RFI values did not differ (P = 1.0) between yearling ewes fed chopped versus pelleted alfalfa. Dry matter intake was 22% less (P < 0.01) by yearling ewes in the low than high RFI group (2.5 vs. 3.2 kg/d) and 59% less (P < 0.01) by yearling ewes fed chopped versus pelleted alfalfa (2.2 vs. 3.5 kg/d). Initial and final BW, ADG, and G:F did not differ (P > 0.45) between RFI groups but were greater (P < 0.01) by yearling ewes fed pelleted alfalfa compared to chopped alfalfa. Final LMA did not differ (P = 0.77) between RFI groups, but final
Kim, Y I; Park, J M; Lee, Y H; Lee, M; Choi, D Y; Kwak, W S
This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on the performance, blood metabolite parameters, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. The BF-based silage was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% cut ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial additive (on a wet basis), and ensiled for over 5 d. Fifteen steers were allocated to three diets during the growing and fattening periods (3.1 and 9.8 months, respectively): a control diet (concentrate mix and free access to rice straw), a 50% BF-based silage diet (control diet+50% of maximum BF-based silage intake), and a 100% BF-based silage diet (the same amount of concentrate mix and ad libitum BF-based silage). The BF-based silage was fed during the growing and fattening periods, and was replaced with larger particles of rice straw during the finishing period. After 19.6 months of the whole period all the steers were slaughtered. Compared with feeding rice straw, feeding BF-based silage tended (p = 0.10) to increase the average daily gain (27%) and feed efficiency (18%) of the growing steers, caused by increased voluntary feed intake. Feeding BF-based silage had little effect on serum constituents, electrolytes, enzymes, or the blood cell profiles of fattening steers, except for low serum Ca and high blood urea concentrations (p<0.05). Feeding BF-based silage did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, it improved good quality grade (1(+) and 1(++)) appearance rates (60% for the control group vs 100% for the BF-based silage-fed groups). In conclusion, cheap BF-based silage could be successfully used as a good quality roughage source for beef cattle.
Del Palacio, Agustina; Bettucci, Lina; Pan, Dinorah
Wheat is one of the most important cultivated cereals in Uruguay for human consumption; however, when harvest yields are low, wheat is usually used in ensiling for animal feeding. Ensiling is a forage preservation method that allows for storage during extended periods of time while maintaining nutritional values comparable to fresh pastures. Silage is vulnerable to contamination by spoilage molds and mycotoxins because ensilage materials are excellent substrates for fungal growth. The aim of the study was to identify the mycobiota composition and occurrence of aflatoxins and DON from wheat silage. A total of 220 samples of wheat were collected from four farms in the southwest region of Uruguay were silage practices are developed. The main fungi isolated were Fusarium (43%) and Aspergillus (36%), with Fusarium graminearum sensu lato and Aspergillus section Flavi being the most prevalent species. Aflatoxin concentrations in silo bags ranged from 6.1 to 23.3μg/kg, whereas DON levels ranged between 3000μg/kg and 12,400μg/kg. When evaluating aflatoxigenic capacity, 27.5% of Aspergillus section Flavi strains produced AFB1, 5% AFB2, 10% AFG1 and 17.5% AFG2. All isolates of F. graminearum sensu lato produced DON and 15-AcDON. The results from this study contribute to the knowledge of mycobiota and mycotoxins present in wheat silage.
Harper, M T; Oh, J; Giallongo, F; Lopes, J C; Roth, G W; Hristov, A N
Double cropping and increasing crop diversity could improve dairy farm economic and environmental sustainability. In this experiment, corn silage was partially replaced with 2 alternative forages, brown midrib-6 brachytic dwarf forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) or fall-grown oat (Avena sativa) silage, in the diet of lactating dairy cows. We investigated the effect on dry matter (DM) intake, milk yield (MY), milk components and fatty acid profile, apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility, N utilization, enteric methane emissions, and income over feed cost. We analyzed the in situ DM and neutral detergent fiber disappearance of the alternative forages versus corn silage and alfalfa haylage. Sorghum was grown in the summer and harvested in the milk stage. Oats were grown in the fall and harvested in the boot stage. Compared with corn silage, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber concentrations were higher in the alternative forages. Lignin content was highest for sorghum silage and similar for corn silage and oat silage. The alternative forages had less than 1% starch compared with the approximately 35% starch in the corn silage. Ruminal in situ DM effective degradability was similar, although statistically different, for corn silage and oat silage, but lower for sorghum silage. Diets with the alternative forages were fed in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design experiment with three 28-d periods and 12 Holstein cows. The control diet contained 44% (DM basis) corn silage. In the other 2 diets, sorghum or oat silages were included at 10% of dietary DM, replacing corn silage. Sorghum silage inclusion decreased DM intake, MY, and milk protein content but increased milk fat and maintained energy-corrected MY similar to the control. Oat silage had no effect on DM intake, MY, or milk components compared to the control. The oat silage diet increased apparent total-tract digestibility of dietary nutrients, except starch, whereas the sorghum diet slightly
Coblentz, W K; Muck, R E
The frustrations of forage producers attempting to conserve high-quality alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage during periods of unstable or inclement weather are widely known. Our objectives for this series of studies were to (1) assess indicators of ensilability, such as pH, buffering capacity, water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), and starch for wilting alfalfa forages receiving no rainfall or damaged by simulated or natural rainfall events; (2) use these data as inputs to calculate the threshold moisture concentration that would prohibit a clostridially dominated fermentation; and (3) further evaluate the effects of rain damage or no rain damage on measures of forage nutritive value. Rainfall events were applied to wilting forages by both simulated and natural methods over multiple studies distributed across 4 independent forage harvests. Generally, simulated rainfall was applied to alfalfa under controlled conditions in which forages were relatively wet at the time of application, and subsequently were dried to final moisture endpoints under near ideal conditions within a constant temperature/humidity environmental chamber, thereby limiting postwetting wilting time to ≤21 h. As a result, indicators of ensilability, as well as measures of nutritive value, changed only marginally as a result of treatment. Consistently, reductions in concentrations of WSC and starch occurred, but changes in WSC were relatively modest, and postwetting concentrations of WSC may have been buoyed by hydrolysis of starch. When forages were subjected to natural rainfall events followed by prolonged exposure under field conditions, indicators of ensilability were much less desirable. In one study in which alfalfa received 49.3mm of natural rainfall over a prolonged (8-d) field-exposure period, fresh pH increased from 6.48 to 7.43 within all forages exposed to these extended, moist wilting conditions. Furthermore, sharp reductions were observed in buffering capacity (410 vs. 337 meq/kg of
Hildebrand, B; Boguhn, J; Rodehutscord, M
The effect of the forage source on ruminal fermentation in vitro was investigated for fine (F) and coarse (C) milled diets, using a modified Hohenheim gas production test and a semi-continuous rumen simulation technique (Rusitec). It was hypothesised that the replacement of maize silage by grass silage might lead to associative effects and that interactions related to particle size variation could occur. Five diets with a maize silage to grass silage ratio of 100 : 0, 79 : 21, 52 : 48, 24 : 76 and 0 : 100 differed in their content of CP and carbohydrate fractions, as well as digestible crude nutrients, derived from a digestibility trial with wether sheep. For in vitro investigations, the diets were ground to pass a sieve of either 1 mm (F) or 4 mm (C) perforation. Cumulative gas production was recorded during 93 h of incubation and its capacity decreased with increasing proportion of grass silage in the diet. Across all diets, gas production was delayed in C treatments compared with F treatments. Degradation of crude nutrients and detergent fibre fractions was determined in a Rusitec system. Daily amounts of NH3-N and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were measured in the effluent. Degradation of organic matter (OM) and fibre fractions, as well as amounts of NH3-N, increased with stepwise replacement of maize silage by grass silage. Degradability of CP was unaffected by diet composition, as well as total SCFA production. In contrast to the results of the gas production test, degradation of OM and CP was higher in C than in F treatments, accompanied by higher amounts of NH3-N and SCFA. Interactions of silage ratio and particle size were rare. It was concluded that the stepwise replacement of maize silage by grass silage might lead to a linear response of most fermentation characteristics in vitro. This linear effect was also supported by total tract digestibility data. However, further investigations with silages of variable quality seem to be necessary.
Seok, J S; Kim, Y I; Lee, Y H; Choi, D Y; Kwak, W S
Literature is lacking on the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on rumen fermentation parameters, nutrient digestion and nitrogen (N) retention in sheep. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effect of replacing rye straw with BF-based silage as a roughage source on ruminal parameters, total-tract apparent nutrient digestibility, and N balance in sheep. The by-product feed silage was composed of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) (45 %), recycled poultry bedding (RPB) (21 %), rye straw (11 %), rice bran (10.8 %), corn taffy residue (10 %), protected fat (1.0 %), bentonite (0.6 %), and mixed microbial additive (0.6 %). Six sheep were assigned randomly to either the control (concentrate mix + rye straw) or a treatment diet (concentrate mix + BF-based silage). Compared with the control diet, feeding a BF-based silage diet resulted in similar ruminal characteristics (pH, acetate, propionate, and butyrate concentrations, and acetate: propionate ratio), higher (p < 0.05) ruminal NH3-N, higher (p < 0.05) ether extract digestibility, similar crude protein digestibility, lower (p < 0.05) dry matter, fiber, and crude ash digestibilities, and higher (p < 0.05) N retention (g/d). The BF-based silage showed similar energy value, higher protein metabolism and utilization, and lower fiber digestion in sheep compared to the control diet containing rye straw.
Lee, M R F; Evans, P R; Nute, G R; Richardson, R I; Scollan, N D
Sixteen Holstein-Friesian dairy cull cows were offered either ad libitum grass (G) or red clover (RC) silage for 12 weeks. Dry matter (DM), total nitrogen, and pH was higher for the RC than the G silage and organic matter, water-soluble carbohydrate, fibre, DM digestibility, ammonia-N, vitamin E and acetic acid higher for the G silage (P<0.05). Fatty acid compositions were different (P<0.05) with G silage having higher levels of C12:0, C14:0, C16:1cis-9, C18:3n-3 and total fatty acids whereas RC had higher levels of C18:0, C18:2n-6 and C20:0. Daily liveweight gain was high and not different between groups (average 1.22 kg/d). Body condition score and back fat thickness at slaughter along with conformation, fat grade and slaughter weight were not different between groups. Animals offered the G silage produced larger M. longissimus length (P<0.01) and a trend (P<0.1) for width. RC fed animals had higher proportions of C18:3n-3 (P<0.001), total n-3 fatty acids (P<0.01) and total PUFA compared to animals offered the G silage despite greater intakes of these fatty acids on G (P<0.001). Vitamin E concentration and stability of aged meat during simulated retail display, were lower (P<0.05) from animals offered RC than animals offered G. Shear force and ultimate pH, however were not different in steaks and sensory attributes were similar; the only difference being a higher score (P<0.01) for fishy in the RC steaks. The results suggest that feeding high DMD silage to dairy cull cows can result in a high standard of finish and liveweight gain. Furthermore RC silage as opposed to G silage can increase the beneficial fatty acid profile of the resultant meat.
Effects of corn silage derived from a genetically modified variety containing two transgenes on feed intake, milk production, and composition, and the absence of detectable transgenic deoxyribonucleic acid in milk in Holstein dairy cows.
Calsamiglia, S; Hernandez, B; Hartnell, G F; Phipps, R
The objectives were to compare the chemical composition, nutritive value, feed intake, milk production and composition, and presence in milk of transgenic DNA and the encoded protein Cry1Ab when corn silages containing 2 transgenes (2GM: herbicide tolerance: mepsps and insect resistance: cry1Ab) were fed as part of a standard total mixed ration (TMR) compared with a near isogenic corn silage (C) to 8 multiparous lactating Holstein dairy cows in a single reversal design study. Cows were fed a TMR ration ad libitum and milked twice daily. Diets contained [dry matter (DM) basis] 45% corn silage, 10% alfalfa hay, and 45% concentrate (1.66 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg of DM, 15.8% crude protein, 35% neutral detergent fiber, and 4.1% fat). Each period was 28-d long. During the last 4 d of each period, feed intake and milk production data were recorded and milk samples taken for compositional analysis, including the presence of transgenic DNA and Cry1Ab protein. There was no significant difference in the chemical composition between C and 2GM silages, and both were within the expected range (37.6% DM, 1.51 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg, 8.6% crude protein, 40% neutral detergent fiber, 19.6% acid detergent fiber, pH 3.76, and 62% in vitro DM digestibility). Cows fed the 2GM silage produced milk with slightly higher protein (3.09 vs. 3.00%), lactose (4.83 vs. 4.72%) and solids-not-fat (8.60 vs. 8.40%) compared with C. However, the yield (kg/d) of milk (36.5), 3.5% fat-corrected milk (34.4), fat (1.151), protein (1.106), lactose (1.738), and solids-not-fat (3.094), somatic cell count (log10: 2.11), change in body weight (+7.8 kg), and condition score (+0.09) were not affected by type of silage, indicating no overall production difference. All milk samples were negative for the presence of transgenic DNA from either trait or the Cry1Ab protein. Results indicate that the 2GM silage modified with 2 transgenes did not affect nutrient composition of the silages and
Hristozkova, Marieta; Geneva, Maria; Stancheva, Ira
The influence of foliar feeding on the nitrogen assimilation in alfalfa plants under conditions of Mo shortage was studied. It was established that foliar fertilization with 0.3% solution of Agroleaf® resulted in increase of nitrogen fixation and nitrogen assimilation in the absence of Mo. Insufficient molybdenum supply leads to significant reduction of plant Mo content and nitrogen-fixing activity, while stress induced amino acids as alanine, GABA, threonine, proline and serine increased repeatedly. The negative effect of Mo deficiency on the enzyme activities related to the primary nitrogen assimilation (NR, GS, GOGAT) and plant growth diminished due to the foliar absorbed nutrients.
Malla, B A; Rastogi, A; Sharma, R K; Ishfaq, A; Farooq, And J
Study was conducted to ascertain the quality of Kinnow mandarin waste (KMW) silage and its utilization by adult male goats. KMW was collected, dried to 30% dry matter level and ensiled in silo pit after addition of disodium hydrogen orthophosphate as source of phosphorus as KMW is deficient in phosphorus. Oat was collected at milking stage, chopped finely and ensiled in a silo pit for 2 months. Twelve nondescript local adult male goats of about 8-10 months age and mean body weight of 23.00±0.90 kg were selected. The goats were randomly allotted on body weight as per randomized block design into two equal groups, six animals in each group (n=6) namely "oat silage (OS)" and "Kinnow silage." Goats were offered weighed quantities of respective silage on ad libitum basis. The silages were evaluated for proximate principles and silage quality attributes. Differences were found between chemical composition of both silages with higher organic matter, ether extracts, nitrogen free extract (p<0.05) and lower (p<0.01) crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fibre concentration in KMW silage as compared to OS. However, silages were isonitrogenous (8.20 vs. 8.17; p>0.05 for CP) and possess comparable (2.23 vs. 2.06; p>0.05) calcium content. The pH, ammonia nitrogen (percent of total nitrogen) and soluble carbohydrate content were lower (4.20 vs. 3.30; 4.14 vs. 3.80; 2.73 vs. 1.86; p<0.05) in KMW silage, whereas, lactic acid concentration was higher (6.23 vs. 8.14; p<0.05) in KMW silage indicating its superior quality as compared to OS. Body weight (kg) of goats and silage intake (g/day), were comparable (p>0.05) among the two dietary groups. It can be concluded that KMW can be used to prepare good quality silage for feeding of goats.
A study was carried out to investigate the effect of restricting silage feeding on time of calving and calving performance in Holstein-Friesian cows. In the treatment group (n = 1,248 cows, 12 herds) silage feeding commenced in the evening (17:00 to 20:00 h), after a period of restricted access (2 to 10 h) while in the control group ad-libitum access to silage was provided over the 24 h period (n = 1,193 cows, 12 herds). Daytime and nighttime calvings were defined as calvings occurring between the hours of 06:30 and 00:29 and between 00:30 and 06:29, respectively. Restricting access to silage resulted in less calvings at night compared to cows with ad-libitum access to silage (18 vs 22%, P < 0.05). Cows with restricted access to silage had a higher percentage of difficult calvings (11 vs 7%, P < 0.001) and stillbirths (7 vs 5%, P < 0.05) compared to cows in the control group. The percentage of calvings at night was lower (13%) when access to silage was restricted for 10 h compared to 2, 4 or 6 h (22, 18, 25%, respectively) (P < 0.001). Calf sire breed, calf gender or cow parity did not influence time of calving. In conclusion, offering silage to pregnant Holstein-Friesian cows in the evening, after a period of restricted access, reduced the incidence of nighttime calvings, but increased the incidence of dystocia and stillbirth. PMID:21851689
Bernard, J K; Castro, J J; Mullis, N A; Adesogan, A T; West, J W; Morantes, G
Forty-four lactating Holstein cows (173±30 DIM, 42.5±6.8 kg of milk, 4.03±0.69% fat, 674±78 kg of body weight) were used in an 8-wk, completely randomized trial with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the effect of forage source and supplemental cellulase enzyme on performance. Treatments included 2 forage combinations (corn silage plus 12.2% dry matter, DM, from either alfalfa hay or Tifton 85 bermudagrass haylage) with or without a commercial cellulase enzyme applied to the total mixed ration at the rate of 4 g/head per day (Promote N.E.T.-L, Cargill Animal Nutrition, Minneapolis, MN). Experimental diets were formulated to provide similar concentrations of protein (16.5% of DM), energy (1.63 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg of DM), and neutral detergent fiber (41.7% of DM) and were fed once daily as a total mixed ration behind Calan doors for ad libitum intake. The cellulase enzyme provided 1,200 cellulase units of activity/g of product and was applied to the total mixed ration and allowed to mix for 5min before feeding. Before beginning the trial, all cows were trained to use Calan (American Calan, Northwood, NH) doors and then fed the alfalfa hay-based diet for 2 wk. Data collected during wk 2 were used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. At the beginning of the 6-wk experimental period, cows were assigned randomly to 1 of the 4 experimental diets. No interactions were observed between forage and enzyme for any measures. Daily DM intake; milk yield; concentrations of milk fat, true protein, lactose, and solids not fat; energy-corrected milk yield; and dairy efficiency were not different among alfalfa or Tifton 85 bermudagrass rations with or without cellulase enzyme supplementation. The results of this trial indicate that Tifton 85 bermudagrass haylage can replace alfalfa hay in diets fed to high-producing, lactating dairy cows without depressing DM intake or milk yield when rations are balanced for NDF. Although
The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of unroasted ground shelled corn (GSC) or roasted GSC (RGSC), when fed with alfalfa, ensiled in bag, bunker, or O2-limiting tower silos on ruminal digestion and microbial protein synthesis in lactating dairy cows. The roasted corn was hea...
Giang, Nguyen Thien Truong; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Kang, Sungchhang
The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of Leucaena silage (LS) feeding on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and rumen fermentation in dairy steers. Four rumen fistulated dairy steers, 167 ± 12 kg body weight (BW), were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were as follows: T1 = 100 % untreated rice straw (RS), T2 = 70 % RS + 30 % LS, T3 = 40 % RS + 60 % LS, and T4 = 100 % LS, respectively. All animals were fed rice straw and LS ad libitum with concentrate mixture supplemented at 0.2 % BW. The results found that dry matter intake and nutrient digestibility were the highest in dairy steers fed 60 % LS (P < 0.05). Ruminal temperature and pH were not affected by LS feeding (P > 0.05) while ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen concentration were linearly increased with increasing levels of LS feeding (P < 0.01). On the other hand, total volatile fatty acids and propionate (C3) were improved by LS feeding especially in steers fed 60 % LS (P < 0.05) whereas acetate (C2) production and C2/C3 ratio were decreased. Moreover, methane production was reduced together with increasing LS feeding level (P < 0.05). Based on this study, it could be concluded that 60 % LS feeding could enhance feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation end-product while reducing methane production in dairy steers. This study suggested that LS could be used as high-quality roughage for ruminant feeding in the tropical region.
Hao, X Y; Gao, H; Wang, X Y; Zhang, G N; Zhang, Y G
This experiment was conducted to investigate nutrient digestibility, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and lactation performance when a portion of alfalfa was replaced with combinations of dry corn gluten feed (DCGF) and Chinese wild rye grass in the diet of lactating cows. Six multiparous and 3 primiparous Chinese Holsteins were arranged in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square experiment for 21-d periods. The animals were fed 1 of 3 treatment diets during each period: (1) 0% DCGF (0DCGF); (2) 6.5% DCGF (7DCGF); and (3) 11% DCGF (11DCGF). Diets were isonitrogenous, and a portion of alfalfa hay was replaced with DCGF and Chinese wild rye grass, with similar concentrate mixtures and corn silage contents. The dry matter intake was greater for 11DCGF (21.9 kg/d) than for 0DCGF (20.7 kg/d) or 7DCGF (21.2 kg/d). The treatment diets did not result in difference in milk production, fat and lactose concentration, or yield. Compared with 0DCGF, the ration containing 11% DCGF improved the milk protein concentration. Dry matter and neutral detergent fiber digestibility was greater for 7DCGF (62.7% and 45.6%) and 11DCGF (63.1% and 47.2%) than for 0DCGF (59.4% and 42.3%), and the nitrogen digestibility was similar for the 3 treatments. The concentration of rumen volatile fatty acids was higher in cows fed the 11DCGF diet than in those fed the 0DCGF diet, with no difference between the 7DCGF and 11DCGF diets. The estimated microbial crude protein yield was greater for the 11DCGF diet (1985.1 g/d) than for the 0DCGF diet (1745.0 g/d), with no difference between the 0DCGF and 7DCGF diets. Thus, it appears that feeding DCGF and Chinese wild rye grass in combination can effectively replace a portion of alfalfa hay in the rations of lactating dairy cows.
Dewhurst, R J; Fisher, W J; Tweed, J K S; Wilkins, R J
Silages prepared from pure stands of ryegrass, alfalfa, white clover, and red clover over two successive year were offered to lactating dairy cows in two feeding experiments. Proportional mixtures of all cuts prepared in a yr were used to ensure that the forage treatments were representative of the crop. Additional treatments involved mixtures of grass silage with either white clover silage or red clover silage (50/50, on a DM basis). Silages were prepared in round bales, using a biological inoculant additive, and wilting for up to 48 h. Although the legumes were less suited to silage-making than grass, because of their higher buffering capacity and lower water-soluble carbohydrate content, all silages were well-fermented. A standard concentrate was offered at a flat-rate (8 kg/d in yr 1, and 4 or 8 kg/d in yr 2). All of the legume silages led to higher DM intake and milk yields than for the grass silage, with little effect on milk composition. Intake and production responses to legumes were similar at the two levels of concentrate feeding and with forage mixtures they were intermediate to those for the separate forages. An additional benefit of the clover silages, particularly red clover silage, was the increase in levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly alpha-linolenic acid, in milk. Legume silages also led to a lower palmitic acid percentage in milk. The efficiency of conversion of feed N into milk N declined with increasing levels of legume silage. White clover silage led to a higher N-use efficiency when the effect of N intake level is taken into account.
Fitzsimons, C; Kenny, D A; Fahey, A G; McGee, M
This study examined the relationship of residual feed intake (RFI) and performance with feeding behavior and ruminal fermentation variables in pregnant beef cows offered a grass silage diet. Individual grass silage DMI (dry matter digestibility = 666 g/kg) was recorded on 47 gestating (mean gestation d 166, SD = 26 d) Simmental and Simmental × Holstein-Friesian beef cows for a period of 80 d. Cow BW, BCS, skeletal measurements, ultrasonically scanned muscle and fat depth, visual muscular score, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites, and feeding behavior were measured. Phenotypic RFI was calculated as actual DMI minus expected DMI. Expected DMI was computed for each animal by regressing DMI on conceptus-adjusted mean BW(0.75) and ADG over an 80-d period. Within breed, cows were ranked by RFI into low (efficient), medium, or high groups. Overall mean (SD) values for DMI (kg/d), RFI, initial conceptus-adjusted BW, and conceptus-adjusted ADG were 8.41 (1.09) kg/d, 0.01 (0.13) kg/d, 646 (70) kg, and -0.07 (0.32) kg, respectively. High-RFI cows ate 25% and 8% more than low- and medium-RFI cows, respectively. Live weight and ADG were not correlated (P > 0.05), and DMI was positively correlated (r = 0.80; P < 0.001) with RFI. The low- and high-RFI groups had similar (P > 0.05) BW, ADG, BCS, visual muscular scores, skeletal measurements, blood metabolites, calf birth weight, and calving difficulty scores. All ultrasonic fat and muscle depth measurements were similar (P > 0.05) for low- and high-RFI cows except for back fat thickness change, where low-RFI cows gained less fat (P < 0.05) than high-RFI cows. Low-RFI cows had greater pH and lower ammonia concentrations in ruminal fluid compared to their high-RFI contemporaries. Low-RFI cows had fewer (P < 0.001) daily feeding events, but these were of longer (P < 0.001) duration (min·feed event(-1)·d(-1)). Despite this, total daily duration of feeding was shorter (P < 0.001; min/d) for low- compared to high-RFI cows. High
Keady, T W J; Hanrahan, J P
The study involved 120 crossbred ewes (sixty 1.5 years old animals and sixty 2.5 years old animals; initial liveweight 67.6 kg, condition score 3.7), that were mated in October. They were assigned to six treatments (two shearing treatments (shorn and unshorn) × two silage feed values (low and medium) and two extended grazed herbage allowances (1.0 and 1.8 kg dry matter (DM)/day)) designed to evaluate the effects of shearing at housing, grass silage feed value and extended-grazed herbage allowance on their performance and the performance of their progeny. Swards, which had silage harvested on 6 September, received fertiliser N (34 kg/ha) for extended (deferred) grazing between 19 December and lambing in mid-March. The herbage was allocated at DM allowances of 1.0 or 1.8 kg/ewe daily until 1 February. For the final 6 weeks of pregnancy, daily herbage DM allowances were 1.5, 1.6, 2.0, 2.0 and 2.0 kg for weeks 6, 5, 4, 3 and 2 to parturition, respectively. Two grass silages (low and medium feed value) were offered from housing on 19 December to lambing in mid-March. At housing, half the ewes were shorn whilst the remainder remained unshorn. Each ewe received 23.4 kg concentrate prior to lambing. For the extended-grazed herbage and the low and medium feed-value silages, DM concentrations were 132, 225 and 265 g/kg, and metabolisable energy (ME) concentrations were 10.0, 10.0 and 10.7 MJ/kg DM, respectively. Treatment did not alter (P > 0.05) litter size or number reared. Grass silage feed value did not significantly alter silage DM intake, or ewe and subsequent lamb performance. Increasing herbage allowance in mid-pregnancy decreased herbage utilisation (P < 0.05) and increased herbage intake (P < 0.05). Shearing increased silage intake (P < 0.05), lamb birth weight (P < 0.01) and tended to increase lamb weaning weight (P = 0.07). Relative to the housed shorn ewes, extended grazing did not alter (P > 0.05) ewe or subsequent lamb performance. It is concluded that
Addah, W; Baah, J; Okine, E K; McAllister, T A
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chop length and inoculation of barley silage on feeding behavior, rumen fermentation, and growth performance of finishing feedlot steers. Barley forage (22-35% DM) was chopped to a theoretical chop length (TCL) of either 1.0 (short chop; SC) or 2.0 cm (long chop; LC) and ensiled without or with an esterase-producing bacterial inoculant in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with TCL and inoculation as the main factors. The resultant silages were then incorporated into 4 finishing diets and fed to 80 feedlot steers (n = 20) housed in feedlot pens equipped with a GrowSafe system. Each pen consisted of 8 intact and 2 cannulated steers. Feeding behavior and ruminal pH were measured continuously using the GrowSafe system and ruminal indwelling pH probes, respectively. On average, inoculated silages had higher acetic acid concentrations and lower NDF concentrations. Increasing the TCL from 1.0 to 2.0 cm increased DMI by 0.5 kg/d (P = 0.001), but intake was unaffected ( P= 0.56) by inoculation. Feed efficiency and ADG were not affected (P ≥ 0.46) by TCL, inoculation, or TCL × inoculation interaction. Steers fed LC silage exhibited a reduced eating rate compared to those fed SC silage (8.6 vs. 9.2 kg DM/h) and consequently spent more time (77.5 vs. 70.2 min/(visit∙d)) at the feed bunk. Inoculation also reduced the area under the curve and duration of ruminal pH below 5.8, 5.5, and 5.2 for steers fed the LC diet but increased (P ≤ 0.003) these parameters for those fed the SC diet. It was concluded that incorporation of longer chopped silage into a finishing diet increased DMI, with responses of ruminal pH to inoculation differing between SC and LC silage. Increasing the TCL of barley silage from 1.0 to 2.0 cm may have no additional benefits to finishing feedlot operators as it did not improve rumen function or the growth performance of feedlot steers.
To better understand the transformative nature of feed nitrogen (N) on confinement dairy farms (cows fed stored feed in barns), a series of cow, laboratory, and field experiments was undertaken to quantify the relative amounts of N contained in individual ration components that are secreted in milk,...
Feeding high-quality forage diets may lead to excessive weight gains and over-conditioning for dairy heifers. Restriction of energy density and dry matter intake by using low-energy forages, such as straw, is a good approach for controlling this problem. Alfalfa ...
Vervuert, I; Voigt, K; Hollands, T; Cuddeford, D; Coenen, M
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding oats alone before or after feeding chopped alfalfa or, in admixture with the alfalfa on the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses of horses as well as post-prandial breath hydrogen and methane excretion. Horses were fed in a randomized order, chopped alfalfa as a source of dietary fibre and unprocessed oats as a source of starch. Chopped alfalfa intake was adjusted to a crude fibre intake of 0.5 g/kg bodyweight (BW) per meal and the oats intake was adjusted to a starch intake of 2 g/kg BW per meal. The feeds were offered in three different ways: (i) alfalfa followed by oats (A/O), (ii) oats followed by alfalfa (O/A) or (iii) a mixture of alfalfa and oats (A + O). Oats alone were used as a control. Blood and breath were collected after the test meal was fed at the end of a 11.5-h overnight fast following a 10-day acclimatization period. The highest glycaemic and insulinaemic responses were measured when the A/O and O/A diets orders were fed, whereas most hydrogen was produced after feeding oats alone. It was concluded that adding alfalfa chaff to a meal of oats prolonged the pre-caecal digestion of starch, but there was no evidence for any effect on pre-caecal starch digestibility.
Randby, A T; Weisbjerg, M R; Nørgaard, P; Heringstad, B
The main objective was to evaluate the potential of grass silages of very high quality to support a high milk yield with a low or moderate, or even without concentrate supplementation. Production responses to increased levels of concentrate supplementation with 3 primary growth grass silages differing in digestibility were studied using 66 Norwegian Red dairy cows. Roundbale silage was produced from a timothy-dominated sward at very early (H1), early (H2), and normal (H3) stages of crop maturity. Crops were rapidly wilted (<24h) and a formic acid-based additive was applied. All silages were restrictedly fermented. Silage digestible organic matter in dry matter (DM) values were 747, 708, and 647 g/kg of DM for H1, H2, and H3, respectively. Dietary treatments were fed in a 3×3 factorial arrangement of the 3 silages supplemented with 3 concentrate levels (4, 8, and 12 kg/d) and, additionally, H1 was offered without concentrates and H3 with 16 kg/d, giving a total of 11 diets. Cows, blocked according to parity and calving date, were introduced to the experiment before calving and kept in the experiment until wk 16 of lactation. Silage was offered ad libitum in loose housing and concentrate was available in automatic feed stations. Intake of grass silage when fed as the sole feed was 16.9 kg of DM on average for lactation wk 1 to 16. When H1 was supplemented with 4 or 8 kg of concentrates, silage DM intake did not change, but total DM intake increased to 20.6 and 23.7 kg/d, respectively. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield increased from 23.4 kg when H1 was offered without concentrate supplement to 29.1 and 32.8 kg when supplemented with 4 or 8 kg concentrate, respectively. None of the other diets equaled the yield obtained by H1 plus 8 kg of concentrate. Feed intake and yield of cows offered H3 plus 4 kg of concentrates were strongly constrained by high dietary fiber concentration. They consumed 16.5 g of neutral detergent fiber/kg of body weight and spent more time
The main objective of this trial is to determine the partitioning of nitrogen (N) from different feed ingredients in milk, feces, and urine. This abstract focuses on relative excretion of N in feces and urine. Twelve multiparous late-lactation Holstein cows (means±SD; 264±18 days in milk) were fed a...
Kang, Suk-Nam; Chu, Gyo-Moon; Kim, Da Hye; Park, Jae-Hong; Oh, Young Kyoon
The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth performance, feed intake, slaughter characteristics, meat quantity and quality characteristics of Hanwoo steers fed with Italian ryegrass (IRG) silage (TRT). IRG silage consisted 11.70% protein, 2.84% ether extract, 53.50% dry matter digestibility and 63.34% total digestible nutrients. The daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio of TRT were significantly (p<0.01) higher than that of control diet (CON; fed rice straw) in the whole periods. However, the slaughter weight, dressing percentage, quantity grade and quantity traits (marbling score, meat color, fat color, and quality grade) of either TRT or CON were similar. Meat fed TRT diet showed higher crude fat and lightness (L*) value and lower moisture content and pH value compared with the CON diet (p<0.05). Overall the carcass yield was 12.5% higher than CON diet. PMID:26761843
Donkin, S S; Velez, J C; Totten, A K; Stanisiewski, E P; Hartnell, G F
Lactating dairy cows were used to determine effects of feeding glyphosate-tolerant or insect-protected corn hybrids on feed intake, milk production, milk composition, and ruminal digestibility. Corn resistant to European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) infestation (Bt-MON810), or its nontransgenic control (Bt-CON), were planted in alternating fields during two successive years. One-half of each strip was harvested for whole plant corn silage and the remainder was allowed to mature and harvested as grain. Effects of feeding diets containing either Bt-MON810 or Bt-CON grain and silage were determined in two experiments (1 and 2) conducted during successive years. In experiment 3, glyphosate-tolerant Roundup Ready corn (RR-GA21) or its nontransgenic control (RR-CON) corn were grown in alternating fields during one cropping season. Diets contained 42 to 60% corn silage and 20 to 34% corn grain from Bt-MON810, RR-GA21, or the appropriate nontransgenic counterpart; treatments were applied using a switchback design. Cows were fed ad libitum and milked twice daily. There were no differences for nutrient composition between silage sources or between grain sources within an experiment. Data for experiments 1 and 2 indicated similar dry matter intake (DMI), 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) production, and milk composition between Bt-MON810 and Bt-CON diets. There were no differences for DMI, 4% FCM production, and milk composition between RR-GA21 and RR-CON diets. There was no difference in ruminal degradability, determined separately for corn silage and corn grain, for RR-GA21 or Bt-MON810-hybrids compared with their respective controls. These data demonstrate equivalence of nutritional value and production efficiency for corn containing Bt-MON810 compared with its control and for RR-GA21 corn compared with its control.
Alfalfa and two corn crops were ensiled with and without Lactobacillus plantarum MTD/1 silage inoculant and fermented for 4 or 60 d to assess the effect of the inoculant on in vitro rumen fermentation of the resulting silages. Water and 80% ethanol extracts of the silages with added glucose were als...
Silage microbial inoculants can enhance animal performance, but the mechanisms involved in these effects are not clear. Our hypothesis was that an extractable factor from inoculated silage enhances rumen microbial activity. One alfalfa haylage (58% DM) and two corn silages (30% and 50% DM) were made...
Ranjitkar, S; Karlsson, A H; Petersen, M A; Bredie, W L P; Petersen, J S; Engberg, R M
Two experiments were carried out in parallel with male Ross 308 broilers over 37 d. An experiment with a total of 736 broilers was performed to study the effect of dietary inclusion of crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on broiler production and meat quality. Another study with 32 broilers was carried out from 21 to 25 d to investigate the inclusion of CKMS on nutrient digestibility. In both trials, 4 dietary treatments were used: wheat-based feed (WBF), maize-based feed (MBF), maize-based feed supplemented with 15% CKMS (CKMS-15) and maize-based feed supplemented with 30% CKMS (CKMS-30). Compared with MBF, the dry matter (DM) intakes of broilers receiving CKMS-15 and CKMS-30, respectively, were numerically 7.5 and 6.2% higher and feed conversion ratio 6 and 12% poorer (significant for 30% CKMS), although there were no significant differences in AME content between the three diets. At 37 d, the body weight of birds receiving 15% CKMS was similar to birds fed with MBF. However, the inclusion of 30% CKMS decreased broiler growth. Dietary supplementation with CKMS significantly reduced the apparent digestibility of phosphorus. The fat digestibility was significantly lower for CKMS-30 than for the other three diets. Broiler mortality decreased significantly when CKMS was added to the diet. The consumption of drinking water was significantly lower in all maize-based diets as compared to WBF and was lowest in broilers fed with CKMS-30. An improved litter quality in terms of DM content and a lower frequency of foot pad lesions was observed with broilers supplemented with both dietary levels of CKMS. The addition of CKMS to maize-based diets increased juiciness, tenderness and crumbliness of the meat. In conclusion, the dietary supplementation of 15% CKMS had no negative effect on broiler growth and positively influenced bird welfare in terms of mortality and foot pad health. Therefore, the addition of 15% CKMS to maize-based diets is considered an advantageous feeding
Jung, H G; Mertens, D R; Phillips, R L
Cross-linking of lignin to arabinoxylan by ferulates limits in vitro rumen digestibility of grass cell walls. The effect of ferulate cross-linking on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and in vivo digestibility was investigated in ad libitum and restricted-intake digestion trials with lambs, and in a dairy cow performance trial using the low-ferulate sfe corn mutant. Silages of 5 inbred corn lines were fed: W23, 2 W23sfe lines (M04-4 and M04-21), B73, and B73bm3. As expected, the W23sfe silages contained fewer ferulate ether cross-links and B73bm3 silage had a lower lignin concentration than the respective genetic controls. Silages were fed as the sole ingredient to 4 lambs per silage treatment. Lambs were confined to metabolism crates and fed ad libitum for a 12-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d collection period of feed refusals and feces. Immediately following the ad libitum feeding trial, silage offered was limited to 2% of body weight. After a 2-d adaptation to restricted feeding, feed refusals and feces were collected for 5 d. Seventy Holstein cows were blocked by lactation, days in milk, body weight, and milk production and assigned to total mixed ration diets based on the 5 corn silages. Diets were fed for 28 d and data were collected on weekly DMI and milk production and composition. Fecal grab samples were collected during the last week of the lactation trial for estimation of feed digestibility using acid-insoluble ash as a marker. Silage, total mixed ration, feed refusals, and fecal samples were analyzed for crude protein, starch, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), cell wall polysaccharides, and lignin. The W23sfe silages resulted in lower DMI in the ad libitum trial than the W23 silage, but DMI did not differ in the restricted trial. No differences were observed for NDF or cell wall polysaccharide digestibility by lambs with restricted feeding, but the amount of NDF digested daily increased for lambs fed the M04-21 W23sfe silage ad libitum
Kim, Y. I.; Oh, Y. K.; Park, K. K.; Kwak, W. S.
This study was conducted to evaluate the ensiling characteristics and the in situ degradability of a by-product feed (BF)-based silage. Before ensilation, the BF-based mixture was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial inoculant on a wet basis and ensiled for up to 4 weeks. The BF-based silage contained on average 39.3% moisture, 13.4% crude protein (CP), and 52.2% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), 49% total digestible nutrient, and 37.8% physically effective NDF1.18 on a dry matter (DM) basis. Ensiling the BF-based silage for up to 4 weeks affected (p<0.01) the chemical composition to a small extent, increased (p<0.05) the lactic acid and NH3-N content, and decreased (p<0.05) both the total bacterial and lactic acid bacterial counts from 109 to 108 cfu/g when compared to that before ensiling. These parameters indicated that the silage was fermented and stored well during the 4-week ensiling period. Compared with rice or ryegrass straws, the BF-based silage had a higher (p<0.05) water-soluble and filterable fraction, a lower insoluble degradable DM and CP fraction (p<0.05), a lower digestible NDF (p<0.05) fraction, a higher (p<0.05) DM and CP disappearance and degradability rate, and a lower (p<0.05) NDF disappearance and degradability rate. These results indicated that cheap, good-quality BF-based roughage could be produced by ensiling SMS, RPB, rice bran, and a minimal amount of straw. PMID:25049944
Combs, D K; Hartnell, G F
The objective of this experiment was to assess if feeding glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa affects feed intake, milk composition, or milk production of dairy cows. One alfalfa (Medicago sativa), variety expressing the CP4 EPSPS protein and grown in southeastern Washington State was harvested at the late vegetative stage as hay. Three commercial conventional varieties of alfalfa hay of similar nutrient composition and harvested in the same geographic region were fed to cows as controls. The commercial hays were selected to be similar in crude protein [18% of dry matter (DM)] and neutral detergent fiber (40% of DM) to the glyphosate-tolerant hay. Sixteen multiparous Holstein cows were fed diets containing alfalfa hay (39.7% of diet DM) from either the glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa, or 1 of the 3 conventional varieties. Diets contained at least 15.7% crude protein and 29% neutral detergent fiber. Experimental design was a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square. Periods were 28 d and feed intake, milk yield, and milk composition were summarized over the last 14 d of each period. Daily milk yield (38.0 kg) and 4% fat-corrected milk (34.7 kg) were not affected by treatment. Milk fat (3.44%) and milk true protein (2.98%) were also not affected by source of hay. Milk lactose (4.72%) and soldis-not-fat (8.5%) did not differ due to treatment. Dry matter intake was similar across treatments (24.4 kg/d). These results are consistent with data from feeding trials with other glyphosate-tolerant crops and previously reported compositional comparisons of glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa with controls. Milk production, milk composition, feed intake, and feed efficiency were not affected by feeding diets that contained nearly 40% glyphosate-tolerant alfalfa hay to lactating dairy cows.
Sindt, J J; Drouillard, J S; Titgemeyer, E C; Montgomery, S P; Coetzer, C M; Farran, T B; Pike, J N; Higgins, J J; Ethington, R T
One finishing trial and one digestibility trial were used to evaluate wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) and alfalfa hay (AH) combinations in steam-flaked corn (SFC) finishing diets. In Exp. 1, 631 crossbred heifers (initial BW = 284 +/- 7.9 kg) were fed SFC-based diets containing combinations of WCGF (25, 35, or 45% of diet DM) and AH (2 or 6% of dietary DM) in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. No interactions existed between WCGF and AH for heifer performance. Increasing dietary WCGF linearly decreased gain efficiency (P < 0.01), dietary NEg concentration (P < 0.05), and 12th-rib fat thickness (P = 0.10). Cattle fed 35% WCGF had the lowest occurrence of abscessed livers, resulting in a quadratic response (P < 0.05) as dietary WCGF increased. In Exp. 2, 12 ruminally cannulated Jersey steers (585 kg) were fed SFC-based diets containing combinations of WCGF (25 or 45% of diet DM) and AH (0, 2, or 6% of diet DM) in an incomplete Latin square design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Starch intake was lower (P < 0.05), but NDF intake was greater (P < 0.05) as AH and WCGF increased in the diet. Ruminal pH was increased by AH (linear, P < 0.05) and tended (P < 0.07) to increase with WCGF. Feeding 2% AH led to the greatest ruminal NH3 but the lowest total VFA and propionate (quadratic, P < 0.05). Addition of AH to diets containing 25% WCGF increased acetate to a greater extent than addition to diets containing 45% WCGF (AH x WCGF interaction, P < 0.05). Feeding 45% WCGF tended to increase passage rate (P = 0.17) and decrease (P < 0.05) total tract OM digestibility but increase (P < 0.05) in situ degradation of DM from AH and WCGF. Interactions between AH and WCGF existed (P < 0.05) for ruminal fluid volume (quadratic effect of AH x WCGF level), in situ SFC degradation (linear effect of AH x WCGF level), and in situ rate of WCGF DM disappearance (quadratic effect of AH x WCGF level). We conclude that AH levels may be decreased when WCGF is added to SFC
Kuoppala, K; Ahvenjärvi, S; Rinne, M; Vanhatalo, A
This study examined the effects of red clover or grass silages cut at 2 stages of growth on feed intake, cell wall digestion, and ruminal passage kinetics in lactating dairy cows. Five dairy cows equipped with rumen cannulas were used in a study designed as a 5 x 5 Latin square with 21-d periods. Diets consisted of early-cut and late-cut grass and red clover silages and a mixture of late-cut grass and early-cut red clover silages offered ad libitum. All diets were supplemented with 9 kg/d of concentrate. Ruminal digestion and passage kinetics were assessed by the rumen evacuation technique. Apparent total-tract digestibility was determined by total fecal collection. The silage dry matter intake was highest when the mixed forage diet was fed and lowest with the early-cut red clover diet. Delaying the harvest tended to decrease DMI of grass and increase that of red clover. The intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and potentially digestible NDF (pdNDF) was lower but the intake of indigestible NDF (iNDF) was higher for red clover diets than for grass diets. The rumen pool size of iNDF and the ratio of iNDF to pdNDF in the rumen contents were larger, and pool sizes of NDF and pdNDF were smaller for red clover than for grass silage diets. Outflow of iNDF and the ratio of iNDF to pdNDF in digesta entering the omasal canal were larger, and the outflow of pdNDF was smaller for red clover than for grass silage diets. The digestion rate (k(d)) of pdNDF was faster for red clover diets than for grass silage diets. Delaying the harvest decreased k(d) for grass but increased it for red clover silage diets. Observed differences in fiber characteristics of red clover and grass silages were reflected in ruminal digestion and passage kinetics of these forages. The low intake of early-cut red clover silage could not be explained by silage digestibility, fermentation quality, or rumen fill, but was most likely related to nutritionally suboptimal composition because inclusion of
Holt, M S; Williams, C M; Dschaak, C M; Eun, J-S; Young, A J
This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage hybrids and nonforage fiber sources (NFFS) in high forage diets formulated with high dietary proportions of alfalfa hay (AH) and corn silage (CS) on ruminal fermentation and productive performance by early lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (4 ruminally fistulated) averaging 36±6.2 d in milk were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed 1 of 4 dietary treatments during each of the four 21-d replicates. Treatments were (1) conventional CS (CCS)-based diet without NFFS, (2) CCS-based diet with NFFS, (3) brown midrib CS (BMRCS)-based diet without NFFS, and (4) BMRCS-based diet with NFFS. Diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Sources of NFFS consisted of ground soyhulls and pelleted beet pulp to replace a portion of AH and CS in the diets. In vitro 30-h neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability was greater for BMRCS than for CCS (42.3 vs. 31.2%). Neither CS hybrids nor NFFS affected intake of dry matter (DM) and nutrients. Digestibility of N, NDF, and acid detergent fiber tended to be greater for cows consuming CCS-based diets. Milk yield was not influenced by CS hybrids and NFFS. However, a tendency for an interaction between CS hybrids and NFFS occurred, with increased milk yield due to feeding NFFS with the BMRCS-based diet. Yields of milk fat and 3.5% fat-corrected milk decreased when feeding the BMRCS-based diet, and a tendency existed for an interaction between CS hybrids and NFFS because milk fat concentration further decreased by feeding NFFS with BMRCS-based diet. Although feed efficiency (milk/DM intake) was not affected by CS hybrids and NFFS, an interaction was found between CS hybrids and NFFS because feed efficiency increased when NFFS was fed only with BMRCS-based diet. Total volatile fatty acid production and individual molar proportions were not affected by diets. Dietary
Kmicikewycz, A D; Heinrichs, A J
The objectives of this experiment were to determine the effects of corn silage particle size and supplemental hay on rumen pH and feed preference in lactating dairy cows experiencing a bout of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). In this study, 12 lactating (8 ruminally cannulated), multiparous Holstein cows averaging 91±40d in milk and weighing 695±95kg (mean ± SD) were randomly assigned to a replicated 4×4 Latin square. During each of the four 21-d periods, animals were offered 1 of 4 diets that were chemically similar but varied in corn silage particle size and supplemental second cutting orchardgrass hay: short corn silage total mixed ration (TMR; ST); short corn silage TMR with 5.6% supplemental hay (SH); long corn silage TMR (L); and long corn silage TMR with 5.6% supplemental hay (LH). Cows were allowed to adapt to this feeding scheme for 14d, and cannulated cows were then subjected to a rumen challenge to induce a bout of SARA by restricting feed before the challenge and providing 4kg of ground wheat via the rumen cannula. Although baseline pH was low, the SARA challenge lowered ruminal pH further for all cows regardless of diet. Daily average rumen pH decreased from 5.44 and 5.45 to 5.33 and 5.38 for ST and SH, respectively, and from 5.64 and 5.54 to 5.47 and 5.39 for L and LH, respectively, from baseline to challenge phase. Following the rumen challenge, rumen concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and valerate increased. Decreasing corn silage particle size significantly increased TMR and total DMI during all phases of the model. Feeding short corn silage TMR increased milk, protein, and lactose yields. Cows fed supplemental hay had increased fat yield and protein concentration in the milk and responded minimally to the effects of particle size selection when challenged with SARA. Cows consuming short corn silage TMR changed feed preference for longer forage particles during the course of the SARA challenge. During the recovery phase, however
Htoo, Nay Nang; Khaing, Aung Tun; Abba, Yusuf; Htin, Nwe Nwe; Abdullah, Jesse Faez Firdaus; Kyaw, Than; Khan, Mohd Azam Khan Goriman; Lila, Mohd Azmi Mohd
This study examined the effects of creep feed (CF) supplementation (with or without Alfalfa) on the pre-weaning growth performance of nursing goat kids. A total of forty eight (48), 7 days old, single born kids (live weight 4.4±0.09 kg) were divided into three treatment groups, each containing eight males and eight females. All three groups had access to their dams' milk (DM). The kids from the first treatment group had free access to CF containing alfalfa (CFA) while those from the second group had free access to CF without alfalfa. The third treatment group (control) had access to their DM only. All three groups were kept isolated from the dams from 800 to 1200 h and from 1400 to 1800 h while having access to CF. Total weight gain and average daily gain of kids from CFA group (11.2±0.36 kg, 145.2±4.64 g) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than kids from CF (7.9±0.49 kg, 102.9±6.43 g) and DM (5.5±0.43 kg, 71.1±5.56 g) groups. The weaning weight of kids from CFA group (15.6±0.39 kg) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than those from CF (12.1±0.56 kg) and DM (9.9±0.59 kg) groups. This result shows that supplementation of CF combined with alfalfa from birth to weaning enhances growth performance of cross-bred Boer goat kids.
Htoo, Nay Nang; Khaing, Aung Tun; Abba, Yusuf; Htin, Nwe Nwe; Abdullah, Jesse Faez Firdaus; Kyaw, Than; Khan, Mohd Azam Khan Goriman; Lila, Mohd Azmi Mohd
Aim: This study examined the effects of creep feed (CF) supplementation (with or without Alfalfa) on the pre-weaning growth performance of nursing goat kids. Materials and Methods: A total of forty eight (48), 7 days old, single born kids (live weight 4.4±0.09 kg) were divided into three treatment groups, each containing eight males and eight females. All three groups had access to their dams’ milk (DM). The kids from the first treatment group had free access to CF containing alfalfa (CFA) while those from the second group had free access to CF without alfalfa. The third treatment group (control) had access to their DM only. All three groups were kept isolated from the dams from 800 to 1200 h and from 1400 to 1800 h while having access to CF. Results: Total weight gain and average daily gain of kids from CFA group (11.2±0.36 kg, 145.2±4.64 g) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than kids from CF (7.9±0.49 kg, 102.9±6.43 g) and DM (5.5±0.43 kg, 71.1±5.56 g) groups. The weaning weight of kids from CFA group (15.6±0.39 kg) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than those from CF (12.1±0.56 kg) and DM (9.9±0.59 kg) groups. Conclusion: This result shows that supplementation of CF combined with alfalfa from birth to weaning enhances growth performance of cross-bred Boer goat kids. PMID:27065636
Kälber, Tasja; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian
Fresh buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) had been shown to have the potential to improve certain milk quality traits when fed as forages to dairy cows. However, the process of ensiling might alter these properties. In the present study, two silages, prepared from mixtures of buckwheat or chicory and ryegrass, were compared with pure ryegrass silage (Lolium multiflorum) by feeding to 3 × 6 late-lactating cows. The dietary dry matter proportions realised for buckwheat and chicory were 0.46 and 0.34 accounting also for 2 kg/d of concentrate. Data and samples were collected from days 10 to 15 of treatment feeding. Buckwheat silage was richest in condensed tannins. Proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and α-linoleic acid in total fatty acids (FA) were highest in the ryegrass silage. Feed intake, milk yield and milk gross composition did not differ among the groups. Feeding buckwheat resulted in the highest milk fat concentrations (g/kg) of linoleic acid (15.7) and total PUFA (40.5; both P < 0.05 compared with ryegrass). The concentration of α-linolenic acid in milk fat was similar across treatments, but its apparent recovery in milk relative to the amounts ingested was highest with buckwheat. The same was true for the occurrence of FA biohydrogenation products in milk relative to α-linolenic acid intake. Recovery of dietary linoleic acid in milk remained unaffected. Feeding buckwheat silage shortened rennet coagulation time by 26% and tended (P < 0.1) to increase curd firmness by 29%. In conclusion, particularly buckwheat silage seems to have a certain potential to modify the transfer of FA from feed to milk and to contribute to improved cheese-making properties.
Daniel, J L P; Amaral, R C; Goulart, R S; Zopollatto, M; Santos, V P; Toledo Filho, S G; Cabezas-Garcia, E H; Lima, J R; Santos, M C; Nussio, L G
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate whether fermentation end products in silage affect intake and digestion in beef cattle. Six rumen-cannulated Nellore steers were randomly assigned to a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Each period consisted of 9 d for adaptation and 5 d for sample collection. Steers were housed in a tie-stall barn and individually fed once daily at 0800 h. The dietary treatments in Exp. 1 were as follows: 60% corn silage plus 40% concentrate (CON), 60% corn silage with added ethanol (2.8% on a DM basis) and 40% concentrate (ET), and 60% corn silage with added lactic acid (5.4% on a DM basis) and 40% concentrate (LA). The DMI was similar (P = 0.41) across treatments (average 11.7 kg/d); however, the LA treatment increased the ruminal pH (P = 0.01) and decreased the acetate:propionate ratio (P < 0.01). Diet digestibility decreased by 2.2 to 2.5 percentage units when the DM content was determined by oven drying (at 105°C) rather than by toluene distillation. The treatments in Exp. 2 were as follows: 75% sugarcane silage with no volatile fraction (oven dried at 60°C and rehydrated) and 25% concentrate (75D), 75% sugarcane silage (original moisture content) and 25% concentrate (75W), and 40% sugarcane silage and 60% concentrate (40W). Approximately 21% of the DM content of sugarcane silage consisted of volatile compounds. The presence of these compounds did not alter the DMI (P = 0.36) but did increase both the acetate:propionate ratio (P < 0.01) and the fractional absorption rates of valerate (P < 0.01) and ethanol (P = 0.02) in the empty reticulorumen. The 40W diet led to a greater DMI (40W = 9.79 vs. 75W = 6.19 kg/d; P < 0.01), which altered most of the measured variables traditionally associated with high-concentrate diets. As in Exp. 1, diet digestibility decreased by 1.5 to 5.4 units when the DM content was determined by oven drying at 105°C rather than by toluene distillation. In this short-term study, volatile
Basso, F C; Adesogan, A T; Lara, E C; Rabelo, C H S; Berchielli, T T; Teixeira, I A M A; Siqueira, G R; Reis, R A
This study aimed to examine the effects of feeding corn silage inoculated without or with either Lactobacillus buchneri (LB) alone or a combination of LB and Lactobacillus plantarum (LBLP) on the apparent digestibility, ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, and growth performance of lambs. Thirty Santa Inês×Dorper crossbred intact males lambs weighing 20.4±3.8 kg were blocked by weight into 10 groups. Lambs in each group were randomly assigned to 1 of the following 3 dietary treatments: untreated (Control), LB, and LBLP silage. Lambs were fed experimental diets for 61 d. The apparent digestibility was indirectly estimated from indigestible NDF measured on d 57 to 59. Spot urine samples were collected from all animals on d 59 to estimate microbial protein synthesis. Lambs were slaughtered for carcass evaluation on d 61 when they weighed 32.4±5.2 kg. Six additional ruminally cannulated Santa Inês×Dorper crossbred wethers weighing 40.5±1.8 kg were used to examine dietary effects on ruminal fermentation. Average daily gain was increased when lambs were fed LBLP silage (P<0.05) but not LB silage. The LBLP silage had the highest (P<0.05) lactic acid concentration and both inoculated silages had greater acetic acid concentrations than the Control silage (P<0.05). Inoculation of corn silage increased intakes of DM, OM, CP, NDF, total carbohydrate (CHO), and GE by the lambs but decreased digestibility of DM, OM, CP, total and nonstructural carbohydrates, and concentration of GE and ME. (P<0.05). Nevertheless, lambs fed inoculated silages had greater microbial N supply than those on the Control treatment (P<0.05). The acetate to propionate ratio was lower in ruminal fluid of wethers in LBLP treatment than LB and Control treatment (P<0.05) and ruminal pH tended to be greater in LB lambs than in LBLP and Control wethers (P<0.10). Finally, the inoculation with both bacteria combined enhanced the silage fermentation. The intakes of DM, OM, CP, NDF, and GE
It is unclear why bacterial silage inoculants improve milk production in lactating dairy cattle. However, recent in vitro results suggest that inoculated silage effects on milk production may be tied to greater production of rumen microorganisms. Our objective was to determine if alfalfa silage trea...
An initial volatile organic compound (VOC) emission model for silage sources, developed using experimental data from previous studies, was incorporated into the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM), a whole-farm simulation model used to assess the performance, environmental impacts, and economics of ...
Silage and silage-containing feed on dairy farms have recently been identified as a source of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. In this work, we present measurements of ethanol (a dominant silage VOC) emission from loose corn silage samples made using a wind tunnel system. Flux of ethanol f...
Wiking, Lars; Theil, Peter K; Nielsen, Jacob H; Sørensen, Martin T
The impact of fresh legume types or silage on the composition of milk fatty acids and transcription of enzymes involved in the synthesis of milk fat in cows was studied. Three groups of cows grazed high proportions of white clover, red clover and lucerne, respectively. A fourth group of cows was fed maize/grass silage. The cows grazing high proportions of legumes produced significantly more 18:1 trans-11, 18:2 cis9-trans11, 18:2 trans10-cis12 and 18:3 fatty acids than cows fed silage. White clover and lucerne grazing resulted in significantly lower output of 18:1 trans9 in milk than red clover grazing and maize/grass silages. Transcription of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in mammary tissue was significantly increased by grazing high proportions of legume whereas fatty acid synthase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase were not affected by type of feeding. Furthermore, average milk fat globule diameter was correlated to daily milk fat yield but was not affected by feeding. Although the fresh forage affected the transcription of SCD in mammary tissue, the largest effects were on the trans11-based fatty acids. It is concluded that type of forage, i.e. fresh or silage, had a greater impact on rumen fermentation pattern than on transcription of enzymes involved in the synthesis of milk fat.
Lohölter, Malte; Meyer, Ulrich; Manderscheid, Remy; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Erbs, Martin; Flachowsky, Gerhard; Dänicke, Sven
Information about the effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and drought on the feed value of maize silage and interactions with the thermal environment during feeding is limited. A free air carbon dioxide enrichment facility was operated in a maize field to generate an elevated CO2 concentration of 550 ppm. Drought was induced by the exclusion of precipitation in one half of all experimental plots. Plants were harvested, chopped and ensiled. In a balance experiment on sheep, the nutrient digestibility was determined for three climatic treatments (temperate, temperature humidity index (THI) 57-63; mild heat, THI 68-71; severe heat, THI 75-80). The CO2 concentration and drought did not alter the crude nutrient content of silage dry matter (DM) or nutrient and organic matter (OM) digestibility. Drought increased the concentration of deoxynivalenol (DON, p < 0.001). The drought-associated increase of DON was reduced by CO2 enrichment (p = 0.003). The lowest digestibility of acid detergent fibre (p = 0.024) and neutral detergent fibre (p = 0.005) was observed during the coldest climate. OM digestibility increased during mild heat (p = 0.023). This study did not indicate considerable alterations of the feed value of maize silage due to increased atmospheric CO2 and drought. Enriched CO2 may decrease DON contaminations during drought. The thermal environment during the balance experiment did not interact with feeding maize silage grown under elevated CO2, but may affect cell wall and OM digestibility.
Feeding high-quality forage diets may lead to excessive weight gains and over-conditioning for pregnant Holstein heifers. Restriction of energy density and dry matter intake (DMI) by heifers by using low-energy forages, such as straw, is a good approach for controlling this problem. Alfalfa stems co...
Steenfeldt, S; Kjaer, J B; Engberg, R M
1. An experiment was carried out to examine the suitability of using maize silage, barley-pea silage and carrots as foraging materials for egg-laying hens. Production performance, nutrient digestibility, gastrointestinal characteristics, including the composition of the intestinal microflora as well as feather pecking behaviour were the outcome variables. 2. The protein content of the foraging material (g/kg DM) was on average 69 g in carrots, 94 g in maize silage and 125 g in barley-pea silage. The starch content was highest in the maize silage (312 g/kg DM), and the content of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) varied from 196 to 390 g/kg, being lowest in carrots. Sugars were just traceable in the silages, whereas carrots contained on average 496 g/kg DM. 3. Egg production was highest in hens fed either carrots or maize silage, whereas hens fed barley-pea silage produced less (219 vs. 208). Although the consumption of foraging material was high (33, 35 and 48% of the total feed intake on 'as fed' basis for maize silage, barley-pea silage and carrots, respectively) only a minor effect on nitrogen corrected apparent metabolisable energy (AME(n)) and apparent digestibility was seen. At 53 weeks of age, hens fed maize silage had AME(n) and apparent digestibility values close to the control group (12.61 and 12.82, respectively), whereas access to barley-pea silage and carrots resulted in slightly lower values (12.36 and 12.42, respectively). Mortality was reduced dramatically in the three groups given supplements (0.5 to 2.5%) compared to the control group (15.2%). 4. Hens receiving silage had greater relative gizzard weights than the control or carrot-fed groups. At 53 weeks of age, the gizzard-content pH of hens receiving silage was about 0.7 to 0.9 units lower than that of the control or carrot-fed hens. Hens fed both types of silage had higher concentrations of lactic acid (15.6 vs. 3.2 micromoles/g) and acetic acid (3.6 vs. 6.1 micromoles/g) in the gizzard contents
Kmicikewycz, A D; Harvatine, K J; Heinrichs, A J
Two experiments (Exp.) were conducted to study effects of feeding long or short corn silage total mixed rations (TMR) on rumen pH, feed preference, and dairy cow performance and to determine the rate of recovery from grain-induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Both experiments utilized a crossover design with 12 lactating, multiparous, Holstein cows each (including 4 ruminally cannulated cows) and consisted of two 26-d periods. Each period consisted of 12d of adaptation followed by 14d of data collection. Each period was divided into 4 phases: adaptation, d 1 to 12; baseline, d 13 to 14; challenge, d 15 to 19; and recovery, d 20 to 26. Treatments in Exp. 1 were TMR based on corn silage with long (L) or short (ST) particle size in a 65:35 forage-to-concentrate (F:C) diet. Treatments in Exp. 2 were TMR based on corn silage with short (SH) or long (LH) particle size in a 65:35 F:C diet with 3.3% (DM basis) orchardgrass hay offered as a supplement to the diet. In both experiments, during the challenge phase cows received a 50:50 F:C diet to initiate SARA. Animals were housed individually, milked twice per day, and fed once per day for 10% refusal rate on an as-fed basis. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS. Feeding L and LH diets increased acetate-to-propionate ratio in the rumen, which resulted in the maintenance of a ratio >2 from the start of the SARA challenge through recovery. In Exp. 1, feeding long corn silage TMR resulted in lower milk fat concentration on the third day of the challenge, whereas cows fed short corn silage TMR had lower milk fat concentration on the final day of the challenge compared with d 13. Providing supplemental hay to cows fed TMR based on long or short corn silage in Exp. 2 prevented acidosis when cows were challenged with a high-grain diet. Milk fat concentrations substantially decreased during the challenge phase in both diets supplemented with hay, but feeding LH did not lower milk fat concentrations until d 20 compared
Undi, M; Wittenberg, K M
A study of 141-kg dairy calves evaluated their preference for alfalfa hay that contained different amounts of fungal biomass, which was estimated by the glucosamine assay. Alfalfa that was harvested at different maturities and stored at varying DM contents was chopped and blended to produce four forage treatments. The four forage treatments included hay that had 1) low NDF content and a low amount of fungal biomass, 2) high NDF and low fungal biomass, 3) high NDF and moderate fungal biomass, and 4) high NDF and high fungal biomass. Forage treatments were offered in pair combinations with two feeders per calf; treatments were switched from one feeder to the other on alternate days. The four forage treatments were offered in such a way that all six pair combinations were tested in each period. Each of the two trials was designed as a 6 x 6 Latin square. Preference data were collected for the 6-d periods and were analyzed as a split plot. Difference in intake of paired forage treatments was the response variable. Hay preference declined as either fiber content of hay or amount of fungal biomass in hay increased. Forage intake of each treatment relative to mean intake was 3.3, 0.8, -0.5 and -3.7 kg/6 d for forage treatments 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Low preference for molded hay would probably result in greater feed sorting and lower intakes when calves have a choice of feedstuffs.
Kung, L; Moulder, B M; Mulrooney, C M; Teller, R S; Schmidt, R J
A brown midrib (BMR) hybrid and a silage-specific non-BMR (7511FQ) hybrid were harvested at a normal cut height leaving 10 to 15 cm of stalk in the field. The non-BMR hybrid was also cut at a greater height leaving 45 to 50 cm of stalk. Cutting high increased the concentrations of dry matter (+4%), crude protein (+5%), net energy for lactation (+3%), and starch (+7%), but decreased the concentrations of acid detergent fiber (-9%), neutral detergent fiber (-8%), and acid detergent lignin (-13%) for 7511FQ. As expected, the BMR corn silage was 30% lower in lignin concentration than 7511FQ. After 30 h of in vitro ruminal fermentation, the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber for normal cut 7511FQ, the same hybrid cut high, and the normal cut BMR hybrid were 51.7, 51.4, and 63.5%, respectively. Twenty-seven multiparous lactating cows were fed a total mixed ration composed of the respective silages (45% of dry matter) with alfalfa haylage (5%), alfalfa hay (5%), and concentrate (45%) (to make the TMR isocaloric and isonitrogenous) in a study with a 3 x 3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Milk production was greater for cows fed the BMR hybrid (48.8 kg/d) compared with those fed the normal cut 7511FQ (46.8 kg/d) or cut high (47.7 kg/d). Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Feed efficiency for cows fed the BMR silage (1.83) was greater than for those fed high-cut 7511FQ (1.75), but was not different from cows fed the normal cut 7511FQ (1.77). Cows fed the BMR silage had milk with greater concentrations of lactose but lower milk urea nitrogen than cows on other treatments. Harvesting a silage-specific, non-BMR corn hybrid at a high harvest height improved its nutritive content, but the improvement in feeding value was not equivalent to that found when cows were fed BMR corn silage.
Schulze, A K S; Weisbjerg, M R; Nørgaard, P
The objective of this study was to assess effects of feed intake and NDF content of highly digestible grass-clover silage on chewing behavior, fecal particle size distribution and apparent digestibility in restrictively fed heifers. Four grass-clover silages (Lolium perenne, Trifolium pratense and Trifolium repens) were harvested in 2009 at different regrowth stages, resulting in silages with NDF contents of 312, 360, 371 and 446 g/kg dry matter (DM), respectively. Four rumen-fistulated Jersey heifers (343 ± 32 kg BW) were fed silage at 90% of ad libitum levels in a 4 × 4 Latin square design, replicated with further restricted feeding levels (50%, 60%, 70% or 80% of ad libitum) in a balanced 4 × 4 × 4 Greco-Latin square design. Eating activity was estimated from test meal observations, while rumination activity was estimated from jaw movements logged by a jaw recorder system. Total tract digestibility was estimated from chromic oxide marker and fecal spot sampling, and fecal particle size distribution in washed and freeze-dried particulate DM was determined by dry sieving (2.36, 1.0, 0.5, 0.212 and 0.106 mm, and bottom bowl). Higher NDF content of silage stimulated longer eating time per kg DM intake (P<0.001), while reduced feeding level caused a reduction in eating time per kg DM intake (P<0.001) and NDF (P<0.001). Rumination time per kg DM intake (P<0.01) increased with reduced feeding level, with less effect of feeding level at lower NDF contents (P<0.01) and more rumination with greater NDF content (P<0.01). Relative to NDF intake, rumination time increased with greater NDF content (P<0.01), at a higher rate with reduced feeding level (P<0.05). Digestibility of potentially digestible NDF (DNDF) decreased with greater NDF content (P<0.001) and increased with reduced feeding level (P<0.05). Increasing NDF content resulted in more particulate DM in feces (g/kg DM; P<0.05) and larger mean particle size (P<0.001). In conclusion, feeding heifers with grass
Ranjitkar, Samir; Engberg, Ricarda Margarete
An infection trial and a production trial over 35 days were conducted in parallel to study the influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on the intestinal Campylobacter jejuni colonization and broiler performance, respectively. The CKMS was used at dietary inclusion levels of 15% and 30% in maize-based diets. Broilers were orally inoculated with 2 × 10(5) log cfu/ml C. jejuni on day 14. Four birds from each pen were randomly selected and killed by cervical dislocation on days 3, 6, 9, 14 and 21 post infection and intestinal contents from ileum, caeca and rectum as well as liver samples were taken. Body weight and feed consumption of broilers were registered on days 13, 22 and 35. On day 35, litter dry matter (DM) was measured and the condition of the foot pads was evaluated. There was no significant effect of CKMS on the colonization of C. jejuni. Body weight of the broilers supplemented with 15% CKMS was comparable with the control maize-based feed, whereas addition of 30% CKMS reduced broiler body weight (P < 0.001). However, DM intake and feed conversion ratio were the same in all three dietary treatments. Furthermore, the foot pad condition of broilers significantly improved with the inclusion of CKMS on broiler diets as a result of a higher DM content in the litter material. It is concluded that CKMS did not influence intestinal Campylobacter colonization, but improved the foot pad health of broilers.
Frequently, dairy producers ask questions about the potential risks of applying dairy manure, usually in liquid or slurry form, to growing alfalfa. In many cases, this management option is considered when storage reservoirs are approaching capacity during summer months. One caution associated with t...
Barrière, Y; Vérité, R; Brunschwig, P; Surault, F; Emile, J C
A genetically modified Bt176 corn hybrid (Rh208Bt)--providing control of European corn borer damage--and the conventional isogenic hybrid (Rh208)--harvested as whole plant silage--were evaluated in three separate feeding trials to verify that the in vivo feeding value was substantially equivalent among modified and conventional hybrids. In the first trial, after a week of preexperiment, two sets of six Texel sheep, housed in digestibility crates, were fed silage sources of Rh208 and Rh208Bt hybrids, and silage of three additional control varieties of low, intermediate, and high feeding value (Rh289, Adonis, and Adonis bm3) for 1 wk. Feed offered to sheep was adjusted to maintenance requirements based on metabolic body weight. Agronomic and biochemical traits were similar among the Rh208 and Rh208Bt hybrids. Organic matter digestibility (67.1 and 67.6%), crude fiber digestibility (52.9 and 54.2%), and neutral detergent fiber digestibility (50.2 and 49.0%) were not significantly different among Rh208 and Rh208Bt hybrids. In the second trial, two sets of 24 Holstein cows were fed silage from Rh208 and Rh208Bt corn hybrids for 13 wk, 9 wk after calving, and including 2 wk of preexperiment. Fat-corrected milk yield (31.3 and 31.4 kg/d), protein content (31.7 and 31.6 g/kg) and fat content (36.7 and 37.0 g/kg) in milk of dairy cows were unaffected by hybrid source. Body weight gains of cattle were not different. However, intake was significantly higher in cows fed Rh208Bt silage. In the third trial, five midlactation multiparous Holstein cows were successively fed the silage from Rh208 and Rh208Bt corn hybrids 2 or 3 wk. Data were considered only for the last week of each period. There were no significant effects on protein fractions, fatty acid composition, or coagulation properties of milk between Rh208 and Rh208Bt fed cattle. Cattle and sheep can perform equally well with a conventional or a genetically modified Bt176 corn silage.
Miron, J; Weinberg, Z G; Chen, Y; Miron, D; Raviv, Y; Bloch, A; Yosef, E; Nikbahat, M; Zenou, A; Daklo, M; Nashef, K; Kushnir, U
, neutral detergent fiber and cellulose digestibility were slightly higher in the cows fed W-S-TMR and this was reflected in a small increase in their milk and energy-corrected milk yield (36.5 and 31.4 kg/cow per day, respectively) compared with cows fed CJ-S-TMR (35.5 and 30.4 kg/cow per day, respectively). Results demonstrate that direct-cut CJ used as is, or CJ silage can be included and ensiled in TMR bales for feeding productive ruminants as a substitute for wheat silage.
Hafner, Sasha D.; Montes, Felipe; Rotz, C. Alan; Mitloehner, Frank
Silage on dairy farms has been identified as a major source of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. However, rates of VOC emission from silage are not accurately known. In this work, we measured ethanol (a dominant silage VOC) emission from loose corn silage and exposed corn silage particles using wind tunnel systems. Flux of ethanol was highest immediately after exposing loose silage samples to moving air (as high as 220 g m -2 h -1) and declined by as much as 76-fold over 12 h as ethanol was depleted from samples. Emission rate and cumulative 12 h emission increased with temperature, silage permeability, exposed surface area, and air velocity over silage samples. These responses suggest that VOC emission from silage on farms is sensitive to climate and management practices. Ethanol emission rates from loose silage were generally higher than previous estimates of total VOC emission rates from silage and mixed feed. For 15 cm deep loose samples, mean cumulative emission was as high as 170 g m -2 (80% of initial ethanol mass) after 12 h of exposure to an air velocity of 5 m s -1. Emission rates measured with an emission isolation flux chamber were lower than rates measured in a wind tunnel and in an open setting. Results show that the US EPA emission isolation flux chamber method is not appropriate for estimating VOC emission rates from silage in the field.
Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Mjoun, K; Hall, J O
Due to the increasing cost of soybean meal and concerns of excess N being excreted into the environment, new protein supplements have been developed. Two products that have shown potential in increasing N utilization efficiency are slow-release urea (SRU; Optigen; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) and ruminal-escape protein derived from yeast (YMP; DEMP; Alltech Inc.). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of feeding these 2 supplements in alfalfa hay-based [45.7% of forage dietary dry matter (DM)] dairy diets on nutrient utilization, feed efficiency, and lactational performance of dairy cows. Twelve multiparous dairy cows were used in a triple 4 × 4 Latin square design with one square consisting of ruminally cannulated cows. Treatments included (1) control, (2) SRU-supplemented total mixed ration (SRUT), (3) YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (YMPT), and (4) SRU- and YMP-supplemented total mixed ration (SYT). The control consisted only of a mixture of soybean meal and canola meal in a 50:50 ratio. The SRU and the YMP were supplemented at 0.49 and 1.15% DM, respectively. The experiment consisted of 4 periods lasting 28 d each (21 d of adaptation and 7 d of sampling). Cows fed YMPT and SYT had decreased intake of DM, and all supplemented treatments had lower crude protein intake compared with those fed the control. Milk yield tended to have the greatest increase in YMPT compared with the control (41.1 vs. 39.7 kg/d) as well as a tendency for increased milk fat and protein yields. Feed efficiencies based on yields of milk, 3.5% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk increased at 10 to 16% due to protein supplementation. Cows fed protein supplements partitioned less energy toward body weight gain, but tended to partition more energy toward milk production. Efficiency of use of feed N to milk N increased by feeding SRUT and YMPT, and milk N-to-manure N ratio increased with YMPT. Overall results from this experiment indicate that replacing the
Realini, C E; Bianchi, G; Bentancur, O; Garibotto, G
Cross-bred lambs (n=72) were fed finishing diets using a factorial arrangement of treatments: BASAL DIET (alfalfa pellets or corn), SUPPLEMENT (none, linseed or aromatic spices), TIME ON FEED (41 or 83days). Carcass and meat quality traits, fatty acid composition, color stability and consumer liking were determined. Feeding alfalfa improved sensory ratings and fatty acid composition of lamb. However, corn or longer alfalfa feeding would be recommended if heavier and fatter carcasses are sought. Consumer liking and fatty acid composition of lamb were improved with addition of spices and linseed, respectively. But additional antioxidant strategies should be considered to delay meat color deterioration during storage if lambs are fed corn-linseed for 83days. Although alfalfa basal diet and linseed supplementation improved fatty acid composition, feeding the basal diets for at least 41days resulted in low n-3 fatty acid concentrations in muscle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cheli, Germán; Armendano, Andrea; González, Alda
The spider Misumenops pallidus (Thomisidae) is commonly found in alfalfa crops. We studied its predatory preferences on potential insect prey, particularly regarding agroecosystems pests. Two kinds of tests were done under normal laboratory conditions: simultaneous presentation of prey (n = 215) and alternative prey test (n = 45). The spiders preferred insects that were mobile, small, without defensive glands and with thin exoskeletons. According to the amount of prey consumed, we established four predation levels: high (> 55%, on adult Drosophila melanogaster flies); intermediate (30%-55% on the defoliator larvae of Rachiplusia nu and adult heteropterans: Horciasinus argentinus and Halticus spegazzinii); and low (10%-30% on the chrysomelids Colapsis sp. and Diabrotica speciosa). The pentatomid Piezodorus guildinii, the curculionid Naupactus sp. and the aphid Acyrthosiphom pisum were not accepted as food. Once the spider captured a prey item it did not accept another, independently of prey item species (82% of trials).
Ripoll, G; Albertí, P; Joy, M
One hundred and twenty-seven lambs were fed as follows: lambs and dams grazing alfalfa (Gr); the same as Gr but lambs had access to concentrate (Gr + S); ewes grazed and lambs received milk and concentrate until weaning and thereafter concentrate and straw (Rat-Gr); ewes and lambs were stall-fed (Ind). Lambs were slaughtered at 22-24 kg live weight and fat and M. rectus abdominis colour was measured instrumentally and subjectively. The evolution of the instrumental colour and texture of M. longissimus lumborum was also recorded. There were significant differences in the instrumental colour of subcutaneous fat amongst feeding systems, but no differences were observed upon visual appraisal. On average, M. rectus abdominis colour in the four feeding systems was classed as pink. Differences in longissimus thoracis colour at 0 h disappeared at 24h of air exposure and there were no differences in pH or cooking losses. At no time were any differences in instrumental texture found.
The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of Lactobacillus plantarum MTD/1 on silage and in vitro rumen fermentation on alfalfa and corn silage. Four trials were conducted in alfalfa in second (35 and 32% DM) and third harvest (38 and 31% DM), and two in forage corn, hybrids Mycogen 797...
Mc Geough, E J; O'Kiely, P; Foley, P A; Hart, K J; Boland, T M; Kenny, D A
This experiment aimed to quantify the methane emissions and intake, digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle offered maize (Zea mays) silages harvested at 1 of 4 sequential stages of maturity and to relate these values to those obtained from animals offered an ad libitum concentrate-based diet. Sixty continental crossbred steers with a mean initial BW of 531 kg (SD 23.8) were blocked (n = 12 blocks) according to BW and allocated from within block to 1 of 5 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design: maize silage harvested on September 13 (DM = 277 g/kg), maize silage harvested on September 28 (DM = 315 g/kg), maize silage harvested on October 9 (DM = 339 g/kg), maize silage harvested on October 23 (DM = 333 g/kg), and ad libitum concentrates (ALC). Diets based on maize silage were supplemented with 2.57 kg of concentrate DM daily, and ALC diets were supplemented with 1.27 kg of grass silage DM daily. Silage and total DMI were greater (P = 0.004) with maize silage harvested on September 28 than with any other treatment, which in turn did not differ. Advancing maize maturity at harvest did not affect BW or carcass gain, with the ALC diet exhibiting greater (P = 0.036) rates of carcass gain than any of the maize silage-based treatments. Apparent in vivo digestibility, determined using the AIA indigestible marker technique, was not affected by harvest maturity, with no linear or quadratic trends being identified. Digestibility of DM from the ALC diet was greater (P < 0.001) than with any of the maize silage treatments. Starch digestibility did not differ across maize silage maturities; however, a linear (P = 0.009) decrease in NDF digestibility was observed. Methane emissions, (g/d) measured using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique, were not affected by maize silage maturity. Methane emissions relative to DMI tended (P = 0.05) to decline with advancing maize silage maturity, with a similar decline observed
Yan, T; Agnew, R E; Murphy, J J; Ferris, C P; Gordon, F J
A set of data from 838 lactating dairy cows, drawn from 12 long-term feeding studies (at least 8 wk/period), was used to evaluate the energy feeding systems for dairy cows currently adopted in Australia, France, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The animals were offered mixed diets of concentrates, forage [grass silages (n = 33) and corn silages (n = 5)] ad libitum. Data used in the present evaluation were either measured [dry matter (DM) intake, milk production and live weight], measured/estimated [dietary metabolizable energy (ME) concentration] or estimated [milk energy output and live weight change (LWC)]. The mean-square prediction error (MSPE) was used for the evaluation. Total ME intake, milk yields, and LWC varied from 91 to 338 MJ/d, 7.7 to 48.9, and -1.23 to 1.73 kg/d, respectively. Australian and French systems predicted total energy requirement and milk yield relatively well, while British, Dutch and American systems underpredicted total energy requirement by proportionately 0.06, 0.04, and 0.03, respectively; and overpredicted milk yield by 0.09, 0.06, and 0.04. The Agricultural and Food Research Council (AFRC) each produced a relatively larger error of the bias (predicted - actual data) over the total MSPE for ME requirement and milk yield and a relatively smaller error of random than other systems. However, an addition of proportionately 0.05 to the total predicted ME requirement of AFRC, as suggested in this system and currently used in the UK, indicated the prediction accuracy of ME requirement and milk yield is similar to Australian and French systems. Nevertheless, all the systems had a poor prediction of LWC. For each system, the total prediction error (total MSPE) was mainly derived from the line (slope; 0.49 to 0.64 of total MSPE), while less derived from the random (0.20 to 0.48 of total MSPE), indicating a large variation between the predicted and actual LWC existed among individual cows. The residual plots of the
Kokoszyński, D; Bernacki, Z; Grabowicz, M; Stańczak, K
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of corn silage and quantitative feed restriction on BW, ADG, feed conversion, and carcass composition of White Kołuda W31 geese. Two diets were fed during the rearing period from 22 to 98 d of age: 1) a commercial diet ad libitum, and 2) restricted amounts of a commercial diet and corn silage ad libitum. Each treatment had 2 replicates of 16 birds each. From 99 to 119 d of age, all birds were fattened with whole oat grain alone. Incorporation of corn silage reduced weight gains and caused statistically significant differences in BW at the end of the rearing period (14 wk, 6,625.0 vs. 6,050.0 g; P < 0.05). Experimental geese showed compensatory growth during the oat fattening period and the BW of geese from both groups was similar at the end of the study (17 wk, 7,675.1 vs. 7,467.9 g; P > 0.05). Daily weight gains varied with week of growth, being lowest at 12 wk of age. Birds fed the commercial diet and corn silage had a significantly longer trunk (29.2 vs. 31.0 cm, P < 0.05) and shorter shanks (10.0 vs. 9.4 cm, P < 0.05) at 8 wk, and significantly smaller chest circumference (54.7 vs. 51.9 cm, P < 0.05) at the end of 14 wk. At the end of oat feeding (17 wk), geese receiving silage had significantly longer trunk and drumstick compared with geese fed commercial diets alone. The carcasses of 17-wk-old experimental geese contained more breast and leg muscles (%), and less skin with subcutaneous fat from breast and legs compared with control birds. Significant differences were only noted between the groups in dressing percentage (65.0 vs. 74.7%, P < 0.05) and proportion of skin with subcutaneous fat from breast (8.9 vs. 7.8%, P < 0.05). Dilution of the diet for young fattening geese with whole-crop corn silage had a positive effect on production economics and carcass composition. © Poultry Science Association Inc.
Xu, C C; Cai, Y; Zhang, J G; Ogawa, M
Six wethers were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square to study the fermentation quality and nutritive value of total mixed ration (TMR) silages that included wet coffee grounds (WCG). The TMR were prepared using a commercial compound feed, timothy hay, alfalfa hay, dried beet pulp, and a vitamin-mineral supplement in a ratio of 36.5:30:20:12:1.5, respectively, on a DM basis, with timothy hay and alfalfa hay being replaced by WCG at 0, 10, or 20%. All TMR silages, irrespective of WCG addition, were well preserved, with a low pH and ammonia-N content and a high lactic acid content. Intakes by wethers of TMR silages containing 0 and 10% WCG were 96.6 and 94.8 g/kg of BW(0.75), and did not differ (P > 0.05). Intake of TMR silage containing 20% WCG was 76.8 g/kg of BW(0.75), which was equal to 80% of that of the TMR silage with no WCG (quadratic: P < 0.01). Increasing concentrations of WCG in the rations decreased the digestibility of DM, CP, ADF, NDF, and energy, and increased that of ether extract (P < 0.05). The TDN and DE contents of the TMR silages with 0 and 10% WCG were similar, but the TMR silage with 20% WCG was lower (P < 0.05). With progressive increases in WCG concentrations, N intake did not differ, but fecal and urinary N increased linearly (P < 0.001), and retained N decreased linearly (P < 0.001). This study demonstrated that the proportion of WCG to be incorporated into TMR silages should not exceed 10% of the DM.
Naderi, N; Ghorbani, G R; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Nasrollahi, S M; Beauchemin, K A
The effects of substituting increasing concentrations of dried, shredded beet pulp for corn silage on dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production of lactating dairy cows was evaluated under conditions of ambient heat stress. Four multiparous (126±13d in milk) and 4 primiparous (121±11d in milk) Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 4 periods of 21d. Each period had 14d of adaptation and 7d of sampling, and parity was the square. Dietary treatments were (dry matter basis): 16% of dietary dry matter as corn silage without BP (0BP, control diet); 8% corn silage and 8% beet pulp (8BP); 4% corn silage and 12% beet pulp (12BP); and 0% corn silage and 16% beet pulp (16BP). Alfalfa hay was included in all diets (24% dietary dry matter). Dietary concentrations of forage neutral detergent fiber and nonfiber carbohydrates were 21.3 and 39.2% (0BP), 16.5 and 40.9% (8BP), 14.1 and 42.2% (12BP), and 11.7 and 43.4% (16BP), respectively (dry matter basis). The ambient temperature-humidity index indicated that the cows were in heat stress for almost the entire duration of the study. Dry matter intake and nutrient digestibilities were similar across treatments and between multi- and primiparous cows. Mean rumen pH tended to decrease with increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet. Also, increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet linearly decreased acetate and butyrate concentrations in the rumen and increased propionate concentrations, leading to a linear decrease in acetate:propionate ratio. Milk yield linearly increased (38.5, 39.3, 40.9, and 39.6kg/d for 0BP, 8BP, 12BP, and 16BP, respectively), but fat content linearly decreased (3.46, 3.47, 3.27, and 2.99), such that we observed no effect on fat-corrected milk. Substituting beet pulp for corn silage increased the neutral detergent insoluble crude protein content of the diet, leading to a decrease in rumen concentration of
Rising potassium (K) fertilizer prices in recent years have made it imperative for farmers to apply optimum K rates for alfalfa-corn rotations. However, little is understood about the effect of excess K applied to alfalfa on the subsequent corn crop's grain and silage yield. Furthermore, relatively ...
Shakeri, P; Riasi, A; Alikhani, M; Fazaeli, H; Ghorbani, G R
This study investigated physiological effects of pistachio by-products silage (PBPS) substituted in Holstein male calves diets and its effects on the growth performance. Twenty-four Holstein male calves (4-5 months of age and 155.6 ± 13.5 kg BW) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental diets (n = 6); contained 0%, 6%, 12% and 18% of PBPS (DM basis) respectively. During a 6-month experiment, dry matter intake (DMI) and weight gain were recorded and blood and urine samples were collected at different times. Results showed that mean DMI was not affected by different levels of PBPS in diets. But the calves fed 6% PBPS had the highest average daily gain (p < 0.05) and the lowest feed conversion ratio (p < 0.05). The calves fed 12% and 18% PBPS had lower albumin, white blood cell, haemoglobin and packed cell volume (p < 0.05) than those fed other diets. However, other serum metabolites, complete blood count (CBC), insulin and liver enzymes were not affected by the experimental diets. The long-term feeding of PBPS at different levels had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on pH, specific gravity, the number of white and red blood cells and epithelial cells count in urine. The animals did not show any symptom of illness or toxicity during the experimental period and all of the blood and urine parameters were in a normal range. It was concluded that substitution of PBPS up to 18% of the total diet that provide up to 18.2 g/kg DM total tannin had no adverse effects for Holstein male calves.
Mc Geough, E J; O'Kiely, P; Hart, K J; Moloney, A P; Boland, T M; Kenny, D A
This study aimed to quantify the methane emissions and feed intake, performance, carcass traits, digestibility, and rumen fermentation characteristics of finishing beef cattle offered diets based on whole-crop wheat (WCW) silages differing in grain content and to rank these relative to diets based on grass silage (GS) and ad libitum concentrates (ALC). In Exp. 1, a total of 90 continental crossbred steers [538 +/- 27.6 kg of BW (mean +/- SD)] were blocked by BW and assigned in a randomized complete block design to 1 of 6 treatments based on 4 WCW silages [grain-to-straw plus chaff ratios of 11:89 (WCW I), 21:79 (WCW II), 31:69 (WCW III), and 47:53 (WCW IV)], GS, and ALC. Increasing grain content in WCW silage resulted in a quadratic (P = 0.01) response in DMI, with a linear (P < 0.001) increase in carcass gain [CG; 577 (WCW I), 650 (WCW II), 765 (WCW III), and 757 g/d (WCW IV)]. The G:F also increased linearly (P < 0.001) in response to increasing the grain content of WCW silage. A quadratic (P < 0.01) response in daily methane output [295 (WCW I), 315 (WCW II), 322 (WCW III), and 273 g/d (WCW IV)], measured using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique, was observed in response to increasing the grain content of WCW; however, linear decreases were observed when expressed relative to DMI (P = 0.01) and CG (P < 0.001). Cattle offered GS exhibited carcass gains similar to those offered WCW silage diets and had greater methane emissions than cattle in any other treatment when expressed relative to DMI. Cattle offered ALC exhibited greater (P < 0.01) carcass gains and decreased (P < 0.001) methane emissions, irrespective of the unit of expression, compared with cattle in any of the silage-based treatments. In Exp. 2, rumen fermentation parameters were determined using 4 ruminally cannulated Rotbunde-Holstein steers (413 +/- 30.1 kg of BW) randomly allocated among WCW I, the average of WCW II and III (WCW II/III), WCW IV, and GS in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Ruminal
Leonardi, C; Armentano, L E
Twenty-four lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 6 x 6 Latin square design. Experimental periods were 6 or 7 d. Cows were housed in tie-stalls, and diets were fed ad libitum twice daily at 1100 and 1600 h. Diets contained 60% concentrate and either 40% alfalfa hay or 20% alfalfa hay and 20% alfalfa silage (dry matter basis). The effect of quantity, quality, and length of hay on sorting behavior was determined. Treatments consisted of 20% lower or higher quality long alfalfa hay, 20% lower or higher quality chopped alfalfa hay, and 40% lower or higher quality chopped alfalfa hay. Variation of sorting among cows was also determined. Particle size distribution of samples of as-fed total mixed rations and orts were determined using the Wisconsin particle size separator. Screens have square holes with diagonals of 26.9, 18, 8.98, 5.61, and 1.65 mm (screens Y1 to Y5, respectively). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each fraction expressed as a percentage ofthe predicted intake. Increasing the proportion of dry hay increased sorting. Quality of alfalfa hays that were offered did not affect sorting activity. Feeding long alfalfa hay increased selective consumption of fine particles. However, feeding long alfalfa hay also increased intake of longer particles because a higher percentage of long particles was offered. Across treatments, animals consistently sorted against longer particles in favor of finer particles. In particular, intake of Y1 as a percentage of the predicted intake was the most variable. Average Y1 intake, across the six treatments for each cow, was between 60 and 70% of predicted intake for four cows, 71 to 80% for 11 cows, 81 to 90% for five cows, 91 to 100% for two cows, and 101 to 110% for two cows. On one diet a cow failed to consume any of the Y1 portion of the total mixed ration. This variation among animals in sorting of very long feed particles may have practical significance.
Various silo types are used on dairy farms, but there is uncertainty as to how silo type affects losses and silage quality. The objective of this study was to compare three silo types, filled with alfalfa from the same fields and emptied simultaneously, relative to filling rates, dry matter (DM) los...
Coleman, S W; Gallavan, R H; Williams, C B; Phillips, W A; Volesky, J D; Rodriguez, S; Bennett, G L
The influence of energy source (silage- [S] or grain- [G] based) on organ growth, carcass quality, and meat acceptability independent of rate of gain was examined. Sixty-four Angus steers were allotted to one of the two treatments and given ad libitum access to silage or limit-fed grain for 145 d. All steers were then given ad libitum access to a grain diet for 45, 75, or 105 d. Eight steers from each treatment were slaughtered at the end of the growing phase and at each of the termination dates. The silage-based growing diet consisted (DM basis) of 55% sorghum silage (averaged 23.6% dry matter), 22% alfalfa hay, 10.8% ground shelled corn, and 10.8% soybean meal and contained 12.8% CP. Dry matter in the grain-based diet, composed of 76.5% ground shelled corn, 5% soybean meal, 13.6% cottonseed hulls, 3.5% molasses, and .4% salt and 1% limestone, contained 12.1% CP. It was limit-fed to produce rates of gain similar to the silage diet eaten ad libitum, using net energy for gain of each diet calculated from organic matter digestibility determined in digestion trials. The finishing diet was similar to the grain growing diet except that alfalfa hay replaced the cottonseed hulls. No implants or ionophores were used. High silage moisture decreased ADG the first 45 d, so steers fed grain gained faster, but thereafter gains were similar. At the end of the growing phase, steers fed grain had heavier shrunk and empty body weights and larger livers. However, liver size was not different when adjusted for growing ADG. By 45 d with ad libitum access to the finishing diet, 75% of the carcasses from steers fed both diets graded Choice. Steers fed silage had tougher (P < .05) steaks with less flavor intensity (P < .05) at the end of the growing phase; these differences diminished after 75 d on feed. These results suggest that choice beef can be produced in only 45 d in the feedlot, but tenderness and flavor among Choice carcasses remained inferior for steers fed silage for at least
Shin, J H; Wang, D; Kim, S C; Adesogan, A T; Staples, C R
The objective was to determine whether crude glycerin could partially replace concentrate ingredients in corn silage- or cottonseed hull-based diets formulated to support minimal milk fat production without reducing milk production. Multiparous, lactating Holstein cows (n=24; 116 ± 13d in milk) were assigned to dietary treatments arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial design; namely, 2 dietary roughage sources (cottonseed hulls or corn silage) and 3 dietary concentrations of glycerin [0, 5, or 10% on a dry matter (DM) basis]. Four different cows received each dietary treatment in each of 3 periods such that each diet was evaluated using 12 cows. Crude glycerin, produced using soybean oil, contained 12% water, 5% oil, 6.8% sodium chloride, and 0.4% methanol. Glycerin partially replaced ground corn, corn gluten feed, and citrus pulp. Diets of minimum fiber concentrations were fed to lactating dairy cows and resulted in low concentrations of milk fat (averaging 3.12% for cows fed diets without glycerin). The effects of glycerin on cow performance and ruminal measurements were the same for both dietary roughage sources with the exception of feed efficiency. Replacing concentrate with crude glycerin at 5% of dietary DM increased DM intake without increasing milk yield. Concentration and yield of milk fat were reduced when glycerin was fed at 10% of dietary DM. This was accompanied by a 30% reduction in apparent total-tract digestion of dietary neutral detergent fiber. Crude glycerin affected the microbial population in the rumen as evidenced by increased molar proportions of propionic, butyric, and valeric acids and decreased molar proportions of acetic acid. Efficiency of N utilization was improved as evidenced by lower concentrations of blood urea nitrogen and ruminal ammonia-N. Cows fed cottonseed hull-based diets consumed 5.3 kg/d more DM but produced only 1.7 kg/d more milk, resulting in reduced efficiency. Increased production of ruminal microbial protein, molar
Muhonen, S; Connysson, M; Lindberg, J E; Julliand, V; Bertilsson, J; Jansson, A
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of CP intake from 2 grass silage-only diets, differing in CP concentration, fed at similar DMI on the equine colon ecosystem after an abrupt feed change between the diets. Four adult right ventral colon-fistulated geldings were fed one silage-only diet high in CP (HP, 873 g of CP/d) and one diet providing recommended intakes (RP, 615 g of CP/d). An adaptation period of 15 d on either the HP or the RP diet was followed by 2 experimental periods when the diets were fed for 22 d each in a crossover design. Colon samples were taken before and at 4, 12, and 24 h, and at 7, 14, and 22 d after the feed change. During the first 24 h after the abrupt feed change, the concentrations of total anaerobic bacteria and lactobacilli were greater on the HP than the RP diet (7.1 vs. 6.7 log(10) cfu/mL, P = 0.021, 6.0 vs. 5.5 log(10) cfu/mL, P = 0.021, respectively). During the first 24 h post feed change, VFA concentrations did not differ between the diets. From 7 to 22 d, total VFA concentrations were greater on the HP diet than on the RP diet (51.8 vs. 45.1 mmol/L, P = 0.034), and colon pH was lower on the HP diet than on the RP diet (6.9 vs. 7.2, P = 0.035). After an adaptation period of 22 d, N, ammonia, and urea concentrations and osmolality of the colon fluid did not differ between diets. Fecal pH and colon and fecal DM were unchanged throughout the experiment. The results suggest that, in horses fed at the maintenance level of energy intake, a feed change between silages with different CP content may alter the colon bacterial counts within the first 24 h. Moreover, during the subsequent 3 wk, pH decreased slightly and VFA concentrations increased, but no other major alterations occurred in the composition and activities of the colon ecosystem or fecal DM.
Phuntsok, T; Froetschel, M A; Amos, H E; Zheng, M; Huang, Y W
A 4 x 4 Latin square experiment was conducted to examine abomasal passage of biogenic amines in steers fed silage and their related effects on intake, digestibility, and digestive function. Thirty percent of the dry matter (DM) in the diets consisted of alfalfa forage, which was fed as either hay or silage. The DM from alfalfa silage DM was substituted at 0, 33, 67, and 100% for DM from alfalfa hay and was fed to four ruminally and abomasally cannulated steers. The roughage component of the diet constituted 50% of the DM and consisted of 60% alfalfa silage or hay and 40% tropical corn silage. The concentrate was composed mainly of ground corn. The concentrations of putrescine and cadaverine in abomasal digesta increased as alfalfa silage in the diet increased. Abomasal recovery of biogenic amines, a product of their concentration in abomasal digesta and the passage of DM through the abomasum, was negatively correlated with intake. Abomasal recovery of most amines was 5 to 20% of intake. Abomasal recovery of cadaverine was correlated with depressed intake. Total DM intake was reduced 8.3 to 25.8% as the proportion of alfalfa silage in the diet increased. Frequency of reticular contractions, intake, ruminal DM digestibility, ruminal outflow, volatile fatty acids, and total tract DM digestibility decreased in steers fed diets that contained more alfalfa silage. Ruminal fluid pH and NH3 concentration increased in steers fed more alfalfa silage; however, mass and the DM percentage of ruminal contents decreased linearly. Postprandial insulin concentrations were quadratically related to the proportion of alfalfa hay or silage in the diet. Intraruminal metabolism of biogenic amines is extensive based on the relatively low quantities recovered in abomasal digesta; however, the amounts recovered in abomasal digesta were related to intake depression and associated physiological effects.
Baldwin, R L; Zhang, A; Fultz, S W; Abubeker, S; Harris, C; Connor, E E; Van Hekken, D L
Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB; Halyomorpha halys) is an emerging invasive species of grave concern to agriculture as a polyphagous plant pest with potential negative effects on the dairy industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of including BMSB-contaminated silage in lactating dairy cow rations. First, 6 dairies, either highly infested (n=3; 30 to 100 bugs per stalk) or not infested (n=3), were sampled to assess the prevalence of bug secretion compounds tridecane (major component) and E-2-decenal (stink odor component) in silage and milk. Second, using wild BMSB, a mini-silo dose-response experiment (adding 100, 50, 25, 10, and 1 freshly crushed bugs/0.5kg of chopped corn) was conducted to assess the effect of ensiling on BMSB stink odor compounds. Finally, synthetic BMSB stink odor compounds (10g of tridecane and 5g of E-2-decenal) were ruminally infused twice daily over 3 d, and samples of milk, urine, and rumen fluid were collected to evaluate disposition. Bug stink odor compounds were sampled by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Milk production and feed composition were unaffected when BMSB-contaminated silage was fed. Moreover, no E-2-decenal was detected in silage or milk (detection threshold = 0.00125μg/mL). The dose-response of tridecane in mini-silo samples exhibited a linear relationship (R(2)=0.78) with the amount of BMSB added; however, E-2-decenal was completely decomposed and undetectable in spiked mini-silos after ensiling. Both synthetic secretion compounds infused into rumen were undetectable in all milk and urine samples. E-2-Decenal was not detectable in rumen fluid, whereas tridecane was detected only at 15 min postinfusion but not present thereafter. Feed intake was unaffected by infusion treatment and BMSB secretion compounds (E-2-decenal and tridecane) were not observed in milk. E-2-Decenal and tridecane from the metathoracic gland of BMSB are not able to
Eun, J-S; Beauchemin, K A; Hong, S-H; Yang, W Z
Mechanical processing of whole crop barley before ensiling may be useful for improving nutrient use by dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of feeding mechanically processed barley silage as the main forage source on lactational performance. Twenty-four Holstein cows, 16 primiparous (187 +/- 52 days in milk) and 8 multiparous (87 +/- 69 days in milk) cows, were used in a completely randomized design with a 2-wk covariate period and a 6-wk treatment period. The 2 treatments were: 1) total mixed ration (TMR) containing regular barley silage (RBS-TMR), and 2) TMR containing mechanically processed barley silage (MPBS-TMR). Barley silage and alfalfa hay supplied 41 and 5% of the dietary dry matter (DM), respectively. Intake, body weight, and milk production were measured during the covariate and treatment periods. In addition, 2 multiparous cows were used for in situ measurements of the ruminal DM and fiber degradation kinetics of the barley silages and TMR. Data were analyzed with repeated measurements using a mixed model that included the covariate adjustment. Feeding MPBS-TMR had no significant effects on DM intake (DMI; 21.7 kg/d), milk yield (33.9 kg/d), or milk composition, with only 4% FCM (fat-corrected milk) yield (29.7 vs. 31.7 kg/d) and milk fat concentration (3.30 vs. 3.57%) showing a numerical improvement. Apparent digestibilities of DM and nutrients were not affected by feeding MPBS-TMR, with the exception of starch digestibility, which tended to increase. Dairy efficiencies calculated as milk yield/DMI or FCM/DMI were not different between treatments. Body weight and body condition score were not affected by treatments. Effective ruminal degradability of DM was similar for both barley silages, indicating that when the silages were ground to remove the effects of mechanical processing, the potential digestion was similar. Mechanical processing of barley silage harvested at a mid-dough stage of maturity resulted in small
McGarvey, J A; Franco, R B; Palumbo, J D; Hnasko, R; Stanker, L; Mitloehner, F M
To describe, at high resolution, the bacterial population dynamics and chemical transformations during the ensiling of alfalfa and subsequent exposure to air. Samples of alfalfa, ensiled alfalfa and silage exposed to air were collected and their bacterial population structures compared using 16S rRNA gene libraries containing approximately 1900 sequences each. Cultural and chemical analyses were also performed to complement the 16S gene sequence data. Sequence analysis revealed significant differences (P < 0·05) in the bacterial populations at each time point. The alfalfa-derived library contained mostly sequences associated with the Gammaproteobacteria (including the genera: Enterobacter, Erwinia and Pantoea); the ensiled material contained mostly sequences associated with the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (including the genera: Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Lactococcus). Exposure to air resulted in even greater percentages of LAB, especially among the genus Lactobacillus, and a significant drop in bacterial diversity. In-depth 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed significant bacterial population structure changes during ensiling and again during exposure to air. This in-depth description of the bacterial population dynamics that occurred during ensiling and simulated feed out expands our knowledge of these processes. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology No claim to US Government works.
Oliveira, André S; Weinberg, Zwi G; Ogunade, Ibukun M; Cervantes, Andres A P; Arriola, Kathy G; Jiang, Yun; Kim, Donghyeon; Li, Xujiao; Gonçalves, Mariana C M; Vyas, Diwakar; Adesogan, Adegbola T
Forages are usually inoculated with homofermentative and facultative heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to enhance lactic acid fermentation of forages, but effects of such inoculants on silage quality and the performance of dairy cows are unclear. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to examine the effects of LAB inoculation on silage quality and preservation and the performance of dairy cows. A second objective was to examine the factors affecting the response to silage inoculation with LAB. The studies that met the selection criteria included 130 articles that examined the effects of LAB inoculation on silage quality and 31 articles that investigated dairy cow performance responses. The magnitude of the effect (effect size) was evaluated using raw mean differences (RMD) between inoculated and uninoculated treatments. Heterogeneity was explored by meta-regression and subgroup analysis using forage type, LAB species, LAB application rate, and silo scale (laboratory or farm-scale) as covariates for the silage quality response and forage type, LAB species, diet type [total mixed ration (TMR) or non-TMR], and the level of milk yield of the control cows as covariates for the performance responses. Inoculation with LAB (≥10(5) cfu/g as fed) markedly increased silage fermentation and dry matter recovery in temperate and tropical grasses, alfalfa, and other legumes. However, inoculation did not improve the fermentation of corn, sorghum, or sugarcane silages. Inoculation with LAB reduced clostridia and mold growth, butyric acid production, and ammonia-nitrogen in all silages, but it had no effect on aerobic stability. Silage inoculation (≥10(5) cfu/g as fed) increased milk yield and the response had low heterogeneity. However, inoculation had no effect on diet digestibility and feed efficiency. Inoculation with LAB improved the fermentation of grass and legume silages and the performance of dairy cows but did not affect the fermentation of corn, sorghum
Keady, T W J; Hanrahan, J P
The effects of (i) herbage allowance, (ii) frequency of allocation and (iii) grass silage feed value on ewe and lamb performance were studied in mid-gestation ewes. Furthermore, the effects of (i) herbage allowance, (ii) frequency of allocation and (iii) grazing date and their interactions on subsequent herbage yield and feed value were also evaluated. Swards, which had a cut of silage removed on 6 September, received fertiliser nitrogen (34 kg/ha) for extended (deferred) grazing between 6 December and 1 February. Two grass silages differing in feed value were ensiled either precision chopped or in big bales from predominantly perennial ryegrass swards, respectively. In experiment 1, a completely randomised study involving 120 crossbred mid-gestation ewes (Belclare × Scottish Blackface) that had been mated in October was undertaken to evaluate the effects of extended grazed herbage allowance (1.0 and 1.8 kg dry matter (DM)/day), frequency of herbage allocation (daily and twice weekly) and grass silage feed value (low and medium) on ewe and subsequent lamb performance. The six diets were offered from days 63 to 120 of gestation. From day 120 of gestation to parturition all ewes were housed and offered the medium feed value silage ad libitum. All ewes received 19 kg concentrate prior to lambing. Increasing herbage allowance increased forage intake (P < 0.05), lamb birth weight (P < 0.01), weaning weight (P < 0.05) and growth rate from birth to weaning (P < 0.05), decreased herbage utilisation (P < 0.05) and tended to increase ewe condition score at lambing (P = 0.06). Frequency of herbage allocation or grass silage feed value did not alter (P > 0.05) ewe or subsequent lamb performance. In experiment 2, the effect of extended grazed herbage allowance (1.0 and 1.8 kg DM/ewe daily), frequency of allocation (daily and twice weekly) and grazing date (6 to 12 December, 27 December to 3 January and 17 to 23 January) on herbage yield at two harvest dates (27 April and 25
Grant, R J; Haddad, S G; Moore, K J; Pedersen, J F
Brown midrib sorghum silage was compared with alfalfa, corn, and normal sorghum silages for its effect on performance, ruminal metabolism, and digestive kinetics of Holstein dairy cows in midlactation. Twelve cows averaging 90 +/- 5 DIM were assigned to one of four diets in replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares with 4-wk periods. Additionally, 3 ruminally fistulated cows (95 +/- 20 DIM) were assigned to the same diets in a 3 x 4 Youden square for measurement of ruminal characteristics. Diets were fed as isonitrogenous TMR that contained 65% silage (DM basis). The DMI was greater for the corn and brown midrib sorghum (4% of BW/d) than for the alfalfa and normal sorghum diets (3.4% of BW/d). The brown midrib sorghum supported FCM production that was similar to that of cows on corn and alfalfa diets (25.8 kg/d), but cows fed normal sorghum produced less milk and fewer milk components. Source of silage had no effect on eating time, but rumination was least for the alfalfa diet. Ruminal pH and ammonia concentrations were similar for all diets. Total VFA concentrations were greatest for the corn and brown midrib sorghum diets. The brown midrib sorghum had greater in situ extent of ruminal NDF digestion than did the normal sorghum, which agreed with in vitro data. The brown midrib sorghum used in this experiment supported FCM production similar to the corn and alfalfa silages commonly fed to dairy cows in midlactation.
Coblentz, W K; Esser, N M; Hoffman, P C; Akins, M S
Gravid heifers consuming high-quality forage diets are susceptible to excessive weight gains and overconditioning. One approach for controlling this problem is to dilute diets with low-energy forages, such as straw, that reduce the caloric density and dry matter intake (DMI) of that diet by heifers. These diluting agents are often sortable by dairy heifers, but previous visual evidence has suggested that eastern gamagrass haylage may be a nonsortable alternative. Our objectives were (1) to compare the growth performance of dairy heifers offered a high-quality forage diet (control) with diets containing 1 of 3 diluting agents [eastern gamagrass haylage (EGH), chopped wheat straw (WS), or chopped corn fodder (CF)]; and (2) evaluate sorting behaviors of heifers offered these forage diets. Holstein heifers (n=128) were stratified (32 heifers/block) on the basis of initial body weight (heavy, 560 ± 27.7 kg; medium-heavy, 481 ± 17.7 kg; medium-light, 441 ± 22.0 kg; and light, 399 ± 14.4 kg), and then assigned to 1 of 16 identical research pens (4 pens/block; 8 heifers/pen), where each of the 4 research diets were assigned to 1 pen within each block. Diets were offered in a 118-d feeding trial with heifers crowded to 133% of capacity at the feed bunk. Inclusion of low-energy forages was effective in reducing both diet energy density and DMI. Concentrations of physically effective fiber (pef) particles did not change during the 24-h period following feeding for either the control or EGH diets; however, this response for pef particles masked the competing (and cancelling) responses for individual large and medium particles, which heifers sorted with discrimination and preference, respectively. Sorting against pef particles was detected for WS, and much more severely for the CF diet. Sorting of forage particles by heifers could not be related to heifer performance. Compared with control (1.16 kg/d), average daily gains (ADG) were reduced by dilution in all cases, but
Montgomery, S P; Drouillard, J S; Sindt, J J; Farran, T B; Pike, J N; Trater, A M; Coetzer, C M; LaBrune, H J; Hunter, R D; Stocks, R A
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of alfalfa hay (AH) and wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) combinations on ADG and gain efficiency of cattle limit-fed growing diets. In Exp. 1, crossbred beef steers (n = 220; initial BW = 262 kg) were limit-fed diets consisting of steam-flaked corn and 40% WCGF (DM basis) with 0, 10, or 20% ground AH (0AH, 10AH, and 20AH, respectively). A fourth diet containing 20% ground AH and steam-flaked corn served as a control. All diets were fed once daily at 1.8% of BW (DM basis). Growing period ADG, gain efficiency, and dietary NE calculated from performance data decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with addition of AH to diets containing WCGF. Rate of DMI increased linearly (P < 0.05) with AH addition to diets containing WCGF. Following the growing period, steers were finished on a common diet offered ad libitum. Gain efficiencies during the finishing period were higher (P < 0.05) for steers fed the 20AH diet than for steers fed the control diet. In Exp. 2, crossbred beef heifers (n = 339; initial BW = 277 kg) were limit-fed diets containing steam-flaked corn with 10, 20, or 30% ground AH and 0, 40, or 68% WCGF in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement, fed once daily at 1.6% of BW (DM basis). An AH x WCGF interaction occurred (P < 0.05) for growing period ADG and gain efficiency. Increasing AH or WCGF decreased cattle ADG, gain efficiency, and dietary NE with the exception of heifers fed 30AH/40WCGF, which had ADG that did not differ (P > 0.10) from that of heifers fed 20AH/0WCGF or 30AH/0WCGF, and which had greater gain efficiencies (P < 0.05) than heifers fed 30AH/0WCGF. Rate of DMI increased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing AH and decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing WCGF. Heifers were finished on diets containing 33% WCGF with 0 or 0.5% added urea (DM basis) offered ad libitum. Increasing WCGF in growing diets tended (linear, P < 0.10) to increase finishing ADG and gain efficiency, whereas increasing AH decreased (linear
Selim, S; Kokkonen, T; Taponen, J; Vanhatalo, A; Elo, K
Prepartal energy overfeeding may predispose cows to a state of increased insulin resistance with greater lipolysis after parturition. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of prepartal overfeeding in terms of abundant grass silage ration on the liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) gene expression around parturition. Sixteen multiparous Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were fed ad libitum either grass silage [high energy, HE; 144 MJ/d of metabolizable energy (ME) intake, n=8] or a mixture of grass silage, wheat straw, and rapeseed meal [55:40:5 (CON), 109 MJ/d of ME, n=8] during the dry period (58.2±4.89 d, mean ± standard deviation). Tissue biopsies and blood samples were collected at -14 (±4.98), 1, and 7 d relative to the actual parturition date. The HE cows had greater total dry matter intake, ME intake, and ME balance during the dry period than the CON cows. Compared with CON, the increases in body weight and body condition score were greater in HE during the dry period. Milk yield during the first 2 wk of lactation was not different between the groups. Plasma glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, glucagon, and β-hydroxybutyrate did not differ between the groups during the transition period. Dietary treatment did not affect hepatic triglyceride content; however, a delayed increase in hepatic total lipid content was observed in the HE cows at d 1 postpartum. Hepatic cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 mRNA expression was lower in HE than in CON at d 1 and 7 postpartum. Adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 mRNA abundance tended to be lower in SAT of HE than CON. Lower lipoprotein lipase, leptin, and stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase mRNA abundances were observed at d 7 postpartum in SAT of the HE cows compared with the CON cows. We concluded that prepartal ad libitum feeding of grass silage may decrease insulin sensitivity and lipogenesis in SAT during peripartal period and may attenuate the increase of hepatic gluconeogenic capacity from
Akins, M S; Shaver, R D
The primary objective of this study was to determine lactation performance by dairy cows fed nutridense (ND), dual-purpose (DP), or brown midrib (BM) corn silage hybrids at the same concentration in the diets. A secondary objective was to determine lactation performance by dairy cows fed NutriDense corn silage at a higher concentration in the diet. One hundred twenty-eight Holstein and Holstein × Jersey cows (105 ± 38 d in milk) were stratified by breed and parity and randomly assigned to 16 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments. Three treatment total mixed rations (TMR; DP40, BM40, and ND40) contained 40% of dry matter (DM) from the respective corn silage hybrid and 20% of DM from alfalfa silage. The fourth treatment TMR had ND corn silage as the sole forage at 65% of DM (ND65). A 2-wk covariate adjustment period preceded the treatment period, with all pens receiving a TMR with equal proportions of DP40, BM40, and ND40. Following the covariate period, cows were fed their assigned treatment diets for 11 wk. nutridense corn silage had greater starch and lower neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content than DP or BM, resulting in ND40 having greater energy content (73.2% of total digestible nutrients, TDN) than DP40 or BM40 (71.9 and 71.4% TDN, respectively). Cows fed BM40 had greater milk yield than DP40, whereas ND40 tended to have greater milk yield and had greater protein and lactose yields compared with DP40. No differences in intake, component-corrected milk yields, or feed efficiency were detected between DP40, BM40, and ND40. Milk yield differences may be due to increased starch intake for ND40 and increased digestible NDF intake for BM40 compared with DP40. Intake and milk yield and composition were similar for ND40 compared with BM40, possibly due to counteracting effects of higher starch intake for ND40 and higher digestible NDF intake for BM40. Feeding ND65 reduced intake, and thus milk and component yields, compared with
Eun, J-S; Kelley, A W; Neal, K; Young, A J; Hall, J O
This experiment was performed to test a hypothesis that nutritive benefits of feeding high-moisture corn (HMC) would be different when fed with different qualities of alfalfa hay (AH) due to associative effects on ruminal fermentation and nutrient utilization efficiency. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows were used; 4 were surgically fitted with ruminal cannulas. Days in milk averaged 184 ± 10.7 at the start of the experiment. The experiment was performed in a duplicate 4 × 4 Latin square design. Within each square, cows were randomly assigned to a sequence of 4 diets during each of the four 21-d periods (14 d of treatment adaptation and 7 d of data collection and sampling). A 2 × 2 factorial arrangement was used; fair-quality AH [FAH; 39.6% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 17.9% crude protein (CP)] or high-quality AH (HAH; 33.6% NDF and 21.9% CP) was combined with steam-flaked corn (SFC) or HMC to form 4 treatments: FAH with SFC, FAH with HMC, HAH with SFC, and HAH with HMC. The AH was fed at 32% dry matter (DM) content, whereas SFC or HMC was included at 17% DM content. Quality of AH did not affect DM intake, whereas feeding HMC decreased DM intake, regardless of quality of AH. Digestibility of DM was greater for cows fed HAH compared with those fed FAH (70.1 vs. 67.6%). Digestibility of NDF increased by feeding HMC (67.6 vs. 58.4%), but not by quality of AH. Under FAH, starch digestibility decreased by feeding HMC compared with SFC (85.7 vs. 95.0%), but it was similar under HAH, resulting in an interaction between quality of AH and type of corn grain (CG). Feeding different qualities of AH did not affect milk yield; however, feeding HMC decreased milk yield in FAH diet, causing an AH × CG interaction. Efficiency of milk yield/DM intake was improved due to feeding HMC, regardless of the quality of the AH. In addition, dietary N utilization for milk N tended to increase by feeding HMC, but it was not influenced by quality of AH. Yield of microbial
Kim, Dong Hyeon; Amanullah, Sardar M.; Lee, Hyuk Jun; Joo, Young Ho; Han, Ouk Kyu; Adesogan, Adegbola T.; Kim, Sam Churl
The present study evaluated the effects of different cutting height on nutritive value, fermentation quality, in vitro and in vivo digestibility of whole crop barley silage. Whole crop barley forage (Yuyeon hybrid) was harvested at height of 5, 10, and 15 cm from the ground level. Each cutting height was rolled to make round bale and ensiled for 100 days. After 100 days of ensiling, pH of silage was lower (p<0.05) in 5 cm, but no difference between 10 and 15 cm of cutting height. The content of lactate and lactate to acetate ratio were increased (p<0.05) in 5 cm of cutting height, whereas the acetate content was higher (p<0.05) in 10 and 15 cm than that of 5 cm cutting height. Aerobic stability was greater (p<0.05) in silages of 10 and 15 cm of cutting height. Three total mixed rations (TMR) were formulated with silages from the three different cutting heights (TMR5, TMR10, and TMR15) incorporated as forage at 70:30 ratio with concentrate (dry matter [DM] basis). In vitro dry matter digestibility was higher (p<0.05) in the TMR5 and TMR10 than that in TMR15, whereas in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility was higher (p<0.05) in the TMR10 and TMR15 than that in TMR5. Concentration of NH3-N was highest (p<0.05) in the TMR10 followed by TMR15 and TMR5. Total volatile fatty acid was decreased (p<0.05) with increased cutting height. The digestibility of DM and neutral detergent fiber were highest (p<0.05) in TMR15, than those in TMR5 and TMR10, whereas acid detergent fiber digestibility was higher (p<0.05) in TMR5 than that in TMR10. The results showed that increasing cutting height, at least up to 10 to 15 cm, of whole crop barley forage at harvest (Yuyeon) may be beneficial for making silage for TMR formulation and increasing digestibility of DM and NDF. PMID:27165022
Kim, Dong Hyeon; Amanullah, Sardar M; Lee, Hyuk Jun; Joo, Young Ho; Han, Ouk Kyu; Adesogan, Adegbola T; Kim, Sam Churl
The present study evaluated the effects of different cutting height on nutritive value, fermentation quality, in vitro and in vivo digestibility of whole crop barley silage. Whole crop barley forage (Yuyeon hybrid) was harvested at height of 5, 10, and 15 cm from the ground level. Each cutting height was rolled to make round bale and ensiled for 100 days. After 100 days of ensiling, pH of silage was lower (p<0.05) in 5 cm, but no difference between 10 and 15 cm of cutting height. The content of lactate and lactate to acetate ratio were increased (p<0.05) in 5 cm of cutting height, whereas the acetate content was higher (p<0.05) in 10 and 15 cm than that of 5 cm cutting height. Aerobic stability was greater (p<0.05) in silages of 10 and 15 cm of cutting height. Three total mixed rations (TMR) were formulated with silages from the three different cutting heights (TMR5, TMR10, and TMR15) incorporated as forage at 70:30 ratio with concentrate (dry matter [DM] basis). In vitro dry matter digestibility was higher (p<0.05) in the TMR5 and TMR10 than that in TMR15, whereas in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility was higher (p<0.05) in the TMR10 and TMR15 than that in TMR5. Concentration of NH3-N was highest (p<0.05) in the TMR10 followed by TMR15 and TMR5. Total volatile fatty acid was decreased (p<0.05) with increased cutting height. The digestibility of DM and neutral detergent fiber were highest (p<0.05) in TMR15, than those in TMR5 and TMR10, whereas acid detergent fiber digestibility was higher (p<0.05) in TMR5 than that in TMR10. The results showed that increasing cutting height, at least up to 10 to 15 cm, of whole crop barley forage at harvest (Yuyeon) may be beneficial for making silage for TMR formulation and increasing digestibility of DM and NDF.
Ding, Wurong; Guo, Xusheng; Ataku, Kazuo
Effects of different chemical additives on peptide composition in ensiled alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) were investigated by using gel filtration and determination of N characteristics. The alfalfa silages were prepared untreated (control) or with formic acid, formaldehyde or tannic acid as additives at ensiling. All additives reduced non-protein N (NPN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) and amino acid N (AA-N) in the ensiled forage, and the most effective reduction of NPN and AA-N was observed in the formaldehyde-treated silages. Peptides in the control silage were mainly dipeptides to peptides with five amino acid residues. Most peptides in the formic acid-treated silage contained 4-12 amino acid residues. Although most peptides in the formaldehyde-treated silages contained 4-6 amino acid residues, there was a considerable proportion of peptides with 7-11 amino acid residues. Tannic acid had little effect on peptide size of ensiled alfalfa extract in which most peptides contained 5-6 amino acid residues. Peptide size in formic acid-treated alfalfa silage was greater than that in the other treatments. Addition of formic acid and formaldehyde not only increased the peptide concentration in alfalfa silage, but enlarged the peptide size. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Bach, A; Iglesias, C; Calsamiglia, S; Devant, M
The objective was to evaluate whether the amount of concentrate offered in an automatic milking systems (AMS) would modify milking frequency, feeding behavior, and milk production. One hundred fifteen lactating cows were used in a cross-over design with 2 periods of 90 d each and 2 treatments: low concentrate (LC; up to 3 kg/d of concentrate at the AMS) or high concentrate (HC; up to 8 kg/d of concentrate at the AMS). Cows were evenly distributed in 2 symmetrical pens, each containing 1 AMS and about 50 cows at any given time. All cows received the same total ration (28% corn silage, 1.67 Mcal of net energy for lactation/kg, 16.5% crude protein, DM basis), but a different amount of concentrate from this ration was offered at the AMS depending on treatment. The concentrate at the AMS had the same composition in both treatments. Cows were fetched when time elapsed, because last milking was greater than 12 h. The amount of concentrate offered at the AMS was proportional to the time elapsed since last visit (125 and 333 g/h for LC and HC, respectively). Milk production, total number of daily milkings, number of cows fetched, or number of voluntary milkings were not affected by treatments. The consumption of basal ration was greater in LC than in HC, but this difference was compensated by a greater consumption of concentrate at the AMS in HC than LC cows. Total dry matter intake tended to be lower, therefore, in HC than in LC cows. Eating rate of the basal ration was greater in LC than in HC, but the total amount of time that cows devoted to eat was similar between treatments. Offering high amounts of concentrate to the AMS feeding a basal ration rich in corn silage did not diminish the need for fetching cows and did not increase the number of daily milkings nor milk production.
Böhme, H; Aulrich, K; Daenicke, R; Flachowsky, G
To analyse substantial equivalence of genetically modified sugar-beets and maize, in which the glufosinate-tolerant (Pat) gene is inserted, crude nutrients, the amino acid and the fatty acid profiles as well as the composition of the NDF-fraction of maize grains were determined and compared with those of the corresponding non-transgenic cultivars. Due to the genetic manipulation differences in crude nutrient contents including sugar and starch were not detected. The amino acid profile of maize grains was analysed to be the same. Fatty acid profile and composition of cell wall constituents did not show any influences as well. Digestibility of Pat-sugar-beets and maize grains for pigs did not demonstrate meaningful differences as compared to the corresponding non-transgenic cultivars. Digestibility of sugar-beet roots and sugar-beet top silage for ruminants proved to be also in the scope of natural variance. As the digestibility of the macro nutrients remained unaffected, the Pat-gene introduction into both crops did not show an influence on the energetic feeding value. For pigs the ME-content of Pat-sugar-beets was determined to be 14.1 MJ/kg DM versus 13.7 MJ of the non-transgenic cultivars. ME-content of Pat-maize grains was 16.0 MJ/kg DM versus 15.8 MJ for controls. For ruminants the feeding value of Pat-sugar-beets was found to be 8.5 MJ NEL/kg DM or 13.2 MJ ME/kg DM, regardless of whether the Pat-gene was inserted or not. The corresponding energy values of sugar-beet top silage ranged between 5.2 and 5.5 MJ NEL/kg DM or 8.6 and 9.1 MJ ME/kg DM, with differences considered in the biological range.
Hayashi, Yoshiaki; Thapa, Bhim B; Sharma, Mohan P; Sapkota, Maheshwor; Kumagai, Hajime
To identify the effects of whole crop maize silage (MS) as a substitute for rice straw (RS) on feed intake and milk production of mid-late lactating buffalo and cattle in Tarai, Nepal, eight Murrah and eight Jersey-Hariana were fed the basal diet, RS (ad libitum) with concentrate (0.68% of bodyweight [BW] on a dry matter [DM] basis). A 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment was conducted in each animal species with graded levels of MS substitution for RS (0%, T1; 33%, T2; 67%, T3 and 100%, T4). The MS had higher digestibility and total digestible nutrient (TDN) than RS. The DM intake per BW of the both species was highest in T3. The substitution of MS for RS increased the crude protein intake and the TDN intake in the both species. Although the buffalo showed the highest milking performance in T4, the cattle showed no significant differences in their milking performance among the treatments. The substitution of MS for RS improved the feed intake and milk production in the buffalo. On the other hand, the milk yield was not raised in the cattle, though the feed intake was increased by the substitution.
The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of biological and chemical silage additives on the production of volatile organic compounds (VOC) within corn silage. Recent work has shown that silage VOC can contribute to poor air quality and reduce feed intake. Silage additives may reduce VO...
Spears, J W; Lloyd, K E; Krafka, K
Chromium (Cr), in the form of Cr propionate, has been permitted for supplementation to cattle diets in the United States at levels up to 0.50 mg of Cr/kg of DM since 2009. Little is known regarding Cr concentrations naturally present in practical feed ingredients. The present study was conducted to determine Cr concentrations in feed ingredients commonly fed to ruminants. Feed ingredients were collected from dairy farms, feed mills, grain bins, and university research farms. Mean Cr concentrations in whole cereal grains ranged from 0.025 mg/kg of DM for oats to 0.041 mg/kg of DM for wheat. Grinding whole samples of corn, soybeans, and wheat through a stainless steel Wiley mill screen greatly increased analyzed Cr concentrations. Harvested forages had greater Cr concentrations than concentrates, and alfalfa hay or haylage had greater Cr concentrations than grass hay or corn silage. Chromium in alfalfa hay or haylage (n = 13) averaged 0.522 mg/kg of DM, with a range of 0.199 to 0.889 mg/kg of DM. Corn silage (n = 21) averaged 0.220 mg of Cr/kg of DM with a range of 0.105 to 0.441 mg of Cr/kg of DM. By-product feeds ranged from 0.040 mg of Cr/kg of DM for cottonseed hulls to 1.222 mg of Cr/kg of DM for beet pulp. Of the feed ingredients analyzed, feed grade phosphate sources had the greatest Cr concentration (135.0 mg/kg). Most ruminant feedstuffs and feed ingredients had less than 0.50 mg of Cr/kg of DM. Much of the analyzed total Cr in feed ingredients appears to be due to Cr contamination from soil or metal contact during harvesting, processing, or both.
Weiss, W P; Conrad, H R; Shockey, W L
In order to partition indigestible N in heat-damaged forages into its various chemical fractions, alfalfa (41.1% dry matter), stored in an upright stave silo, was not sealed, and heating was promoted. Silage was labeled as unheated silage (temperature below 20 degrees C); 35 degrees C silage (temperature near 35 degrees C, 5220 degrees C d); and 60 degrees C silage (temperature near 60 degrees C, 10,800 degrees C d). Total amino acid content of 60 degrees C silage was lower and acid detergent insoluble amino acid content was higher than in 35 degrees C or unheated silages. Apparent N digestibilities, determined using lactating dairy cows, were 47.5, 48.4, and 63.6% for 60 degrees C, 35 degrees C, and unheated silages. Estimates of true N digestibility were 76, 76, and 90%; true digestibility coefficients for amino acid N were 86, 92, and 95%; and true digestion coefficients for nonamino acid N were 67, 45, and 69% for 60 degrees C, 35 degrees C, and unheated silages. Two possible causes for depressed N digestibility of 60 degrees C silage were 1) the ratio of poorly digested nonamino acid N to highly digested amino acid N was higher in 60 degrees C silage than in 35 degrees C or unheated silage, and 2) amino acid N in 60 degrees C silage was digested less than amino acid N in 35 degrees C or unheated silage. Reasons for low digestibility of N in 35 degrees C silage are less clear, but evidence suggests formation of indigestible N complexes in digesta.
Shakeri, P; Riasi, A; Alikhani, M
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of pistachio by-product silage (PBPS) as a partial replacement for corn silage (CS) on chewing activity, nutrients digestibility and ruminal fermentation parameters in Holstein male calves over a 6-month assay. For this purpose, 24 Holstein male calves (4 to 5 months of age and 155.6±13.5 kg BW) were randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatments (n=6). In these treatments, CS was substituted with different levels of PBPS (0%, 6%, 12% and 18% of dry matter (DM)). Nutrient digestibility was measured at the end of the experimental period (days 168 to 170). Ruminal fermentation parameters were determined on days 90 and 180 and chewing activity was determined on days 15 of the 3rd and 6th month of the experiment. Results showed that calves fed rations containing 6% PBPS spent more time ruminating (P<0.05) than the control group on the 3rd and 6th months. Feeding PBPS was found to have no effects on DM, organic matter (OM), ether extract or ash digestibility, but apparent digestibility of CP, NDFom and ADFom linearly decreased (P<0.01) with increasing substitutions. On days 90 and 180, ruminal concentrations of volatile fatty acids and NH3-N linearly decreased (P<0.01) with increasing levels of PBPS in the diets; however, ruminal pH and molar proportions of acetate, propionate and butyrate were similar across the treatments. It was concluded that partial substitution of CS with PBPS (6% or 12%) would have no adverse effects on nutrient digestibility, total chewing activity and ruminal fermentation parameters.
Izumi, Kenichi; Unno, Chigusa
The influence of the feeding ratio of a non-forage fiber source and hay on ruminal mat characteristics and chewing activity was evaluated in dairy dry cows. Cows were fed four different diets: the ratios of alfalfa hay (AH) to beet pulp (BP) were 8:2 (dry matter basis, A8B2) and 2:8 (A2B8), and those of grass hay (GH) to BP were 8:2 (G8B2) and 2:8 (G2B8). Total eating time was decreased with increasing BP content (P < 0.01). Total rumination time for AH was shorter than that for GH (P < 0.01), and it decreased with increasing BP content (P < 0.01). The ruminal mat was detected by using a penetration resistance test of the rumen digesta. Penetration resistance value (PRV) of ruminal mat was highest with the G8B2 diet and PRV decreased with increasing BP content (P < 0.05) and feeding AH (P < 0.05). Thickness of the ruminal mat was greater for increasing BP content (P < 0.05). Simple linear regression of ruminal mat PRV on total rumination time resulted in a high positive correlation (r = 0.744; P < 0.001; n = 16). The results demonstrated that increasing the PRV of the ruminal mat stimulated rumination activity and a ruminal mat could be formed, although it was soft even when cows were offered a large quantity of BP.
Merchen, N R; Berger, L L; Fahey, G C
Two lamb digestion and three steer growth experiments were conducted to study the feeding value of alfalfa harvested as direct-cut silage (DCS) with grain added prior to ensiling or as low-moisture silage (LMS) or hay with grain added at feeding. In all experiments, alfalfa-grain mixtures contained approximately 50% alfalfa and 50% concentrate (dry matter [DM] basis). In Exp. 1, lambs fed DCS alone consumed less DM than lambs fed LMS or hay alone or any of the alfalfa-grain mixtures. Apparent digestibilities of DM and fiber components were higher (P less than .05) for DCS than for LMS or hay. Lambs that were fed LMS digested more (P less than .05) DM and fiber components than lambs fed hay. Addition of grain resulted in increased (P less than .05) DM digestibility and decreased (P less than .05) digestibilities of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber. In Exp. 2, growing steers (271 kg) fed DCS-grain had increased (P less than .05) weight gains compared with steers fed hay-grain. Steers fed any of the alfalfa-grain mixtures gained weight more rapidly (P less than .05) than steers fed corn silage (CS)-based diets. In a third experiment, finishing steers (283 kg) fed DCS-grain, LMS-grain, hay-grain or CS-based diets performed similarly (P greater than .05), although steers fed DCS-grain had higher (P less than .05) dressing percentages and yield grades than steers that were fed the other three diets and were fatter (P less than .05) than those fed LMS-grain or CS. In Exp. 4, lambs fed DCS-grain or LMS-grain had higher (P less than .05) apparent DM and organic matter digestibilities than lambs fed CS-based diets with similar forage:grain proportions. In Exp. 5, finishing steers (326 kg) fed DCS-grain gained similarly (P greater than .05) to steers fed LMS-grain or an 85% concentrate diet based on high-moisture corn. Steers fed CS diets had lower (P less than .05) gains and increased (P less than .05) feed per gain compared with steers fed DCS-grain, LMS
Four inoculants, B (Lactobacillus plantarum and Enterococcus faecium), C (Lactobacillus plantarum), D (Lactobacillus pentosus), E (Lactococcus lactis), were compared with an uninoculated treatment (A) on alfalfa (38% DM, AS), corn (36% DM, CS), and brown midrib corn (33% DM, BMR) silages. All inocul...
The quality of silage under reduced oxygen-permeability plastic film systems vs. standard white polyethylene film and tires was evaluated. In six trials (four in whole-plant corn, two in alfalfa), the Silostop two-step covering system (oxygen-barrier film on the side walls and top, woven plastic tar...
Interseeded alfalfa could serve as a dual purpose crop for providing groundcover during silage corn production and forage during subsequent years of production, but this system has been unworkable because competition between the co-planted crops often leads to stand failure of interseeded alfalfa. R...
Puschner, B; Chen, X; Read, D; Affolter, V K
Photosensitization, also known as photodermatitis, occurs when phototoxic or photoactive substances accumulate in the skin and interact with sunlight to result in an often severe, crusting, itching or painful dermatitis in unpigmented and/or lightly haired areas of the skin. Primary photosensitization, caused by direct ingestion of photosensitizing agents, has been reported anecdotally in horses after ingestion of alfalfa hay. Between 2004 and 2014, several large outbreaks of primary photosensitization in horses fed primarily alfalfa hay were investigated in California. Alfalfa hay samples were collected and carefully examined for the presence of known photosensitizing plants and pesticide residues but none were identified. Select hay samples were evaluated for unusual fungal infestation and for phototoxicity assay using a specific Candida albicans assay; results were negative. In the 2004 outbreak, a feeding study was conducted with three horses exclusively fed alfalfa hay that was suspected to have caused the outbreak. Two weeks after ingestion of alfalfa hay, two horses developed several lesions in non-pigmented skin characterized as chronic ulcerative and necrotizing dermatitis with superficial vasculitis, which was consistent with photosensitization. In the 2014 outbreak, seven different implicated alfalfa hay samples were analyzed for chlorophyll a and b, and pheophorbide a. These compounds had been suspected to play a role in alfalfa-induced primary photosensitization. The chlorophyll contents ranged from 0.90 to 2.30 mg/g in the alfalfa hay samples, compared to 1.37 and 2.94 mg/g in locally grown alfalfa and orchard grass hay. The pheophorbide a levels ranged from 3.36 to 89.87 µg/g in alfalfa samples compared to 81.39 and 42.33 µg/g in control alfalfa and orchard grass hay samples. These findings eliminate chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and pheophorbide a as possible causes for alfalfa-hay induced primary photosensitization.
Fustini, M; Palmonari, A; Canestrari, G; Bonfante, E; Mammi, L; Pacchioli, M T; Sniffen, G C J; Grant, R J; Cotanch, K W; Formigoni, A
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 alfalfa hays differing in undigested neutral detergent fiber content and digestibility used as the main forage source in diets fed to high producing cows for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese production. Diets were designed to have 2 different amounts of undigestible NDF [high (Hu) and low (Lu)], as determined by 240-h in vitro analysis (uNDF240). Alfalfa hay in vitro digestibility [% of amylase- and sodium sulfite-treated NDF with ash correction (aNDFom)] at 24 and 240 h was 40.2 and 31.2% and 53.6 and 45.7% for low- (LD) and high-digestibility (HD) hays, respectively. The 4 experimental diets (Hu-HD, Lu-HD, Hu-LD, and Lu-LD) contained 46.8, 36.8, 38.8, and 30.1% of alfalfa hay, respectively, 8.6% wheat straw, and 35.3% corn (50% flake and 50% meal; DM basis). Soy hulls and soybean meal were used to replace hay to balance protein and energy among diets. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (average milk production = 46.0 ± 5.2 kg/d, 101 ± 38 d in milk, and 662 ± 42 kg of average body weight) were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design, with 2 wk of adaptation and a 1-wk collection period. Dry matter and water intake, rumination time, ruminal pH, and milk production and composition were measured. Diets and feces were analyzed for NDF on an organic matter basis (aNDFom), acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin, and uNDF240 to estimate total-tract fiber digestibility. Dry matter intake and rumination times were higher in HD diets compared with LD diets, regardless of forage amount. Rumination time was constant per unit of dry matter intake but differed when expressed as a function of uNDF240, aNDFom, or physically effective NDF intake. No differences were found among treatments on average ruminal pH, but the amount of time with pH <5.8 was lower in Hu-HD diets. Milk production and components were not different among diets. Total-tract aNDFom and potentially digestible neutral detergent fiber fraction
Background Previous research indicates that bahiagrass may be successfully conserved as baleage, but nutritive value is typically low for lactating dairy cows. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adding modest amounts of alfalfa forage (22%), achieved by inter-seeding alfalfa into an existing bahiagrass pasture, on baleage nutritive value and lactation performance of Holstein cows. Forage treatments employed were monoculture bahiagrass baleage (MBB; negative control), bahiagrass-alfalfa mixture baleage (BAB) and conventional corn silage (CCS; positive control). Thirty six mid lactation Holstein cows [34.8 ± 5.8 kg 3.5% fat-corrected milk and 112 ± 19 d in milk (DIM)] were stratified according to milk yield and DIM and assigned randomly to 1 of 3 forage treatments. Cows were trained to Calan feeding gates and were offered a common CCS-based TMR in a 10-d covariance period followed by a 42-d treatment feeding period. Results The BAB contained more protein and less NDF than MBB (12.6 vs 10.3% CP and 71.8 vs 76.6% NDF). Diet DMI was similar for MBB and BAB (19.5 vs 21.6 kg/hd/d), but cows consumed more of the CCS diet (25.5 kg/hd/d) than either baleage-based diet. Cows offered BAB tended to produce more milk than cows offered MBB based TMR (28.4 vs 26.1 kg/hd/d), but both baleage diets generated less milk than CCS-based diets (33.1 kg/hd/d). Milk composition was similar across diets except for milk protein concentrations which were higher for CCS than either MBB or BAB diets; however, milk urea nitrogen (MUN) was lowest for cows fed CCS diets. Cow BW gain was higher for BAB than MBB implying that a portion of the higher energy contributed by the alfalfa was being used to replenish weight on these mid lactation cows. Conclusions Data from this study indicate that alfalfa inter-seeded in bahiagrass sod that produces BAB with as little as 22% alfalfa may improve nutritive value compared to monoculture bahiagrass baleage and marginally
Vanhatalo, A; Kuoppala, K; Ahvenjärvi, S; Rinne, M
This study investigated the effects of plant species (red clover vs. timothy-meadow fescue) and forage maturity at primary harvest (early vs. late cut silage) on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestion, and nitrogen metabolism including omasal canal AA flow and plasma AA concentration in lactating cows. Five dairy cows equipped with rumen cannulas were used in a study designed as a 5 x 5 Latin square with 21-d periods. The diets consisted of early-cut and late-cut grass and red clover silage, respectively, and a mixture of late-cut grass and early-cut red clover silages given ad libitum with 9 kg/d of a standard concentrate. Grass silage dry matter intake tended to decrease but that of red clover silages tended to increase with advancing maturity. Milk yields were unchanged among treatments, milk protein and fat concentrations being lower for red clover than for grass silage diets. Rumen fluid pH was unchanged but volatile fatty acid and ammonia concentrations were higher for red clover than for grass silage diets. Intake of N, and omasal canal flows of total nonammonia N (NAN), microbial NAN, and dietary NAN were higher for red clover than for grass silage diets but were not affected by forage maturity. However, microbial NAN flow and amount of N excreted in the feces decreased with advancing maturity for grass diets but increased for red clover diets. Apparent ruminal N degradability of the diets was unchanged, but true ruminal N degradability decreased and efficiency of microbial synthesis increased with red clover diets compared with grass silage diets. Omasal canal flows of AA, except those for Met and Cys, were on average 20% higher for red clover than grass silage diets. Omasal canal digesta concentrations of Leu, Phe, branched-chain, and essential AA were higher but those of Met lower for red clover than for grass silage diets. Plasma AA concentrations, except for His (unchanged) and Met (lower), were higher for red clover than for grass diets. However, none
Colombatto, D; Beauchemin, K A
In vitro experiments were conducted to examine the characteristics and mode of action of a protease that increased the ruminal fiber digestibility of alfalfa hay. A commercial source of protease (Protex 6L, Genencor Int., Rochester, NY), already characterized for its main activities, was further analyzed to determine protease activity in response to pH, molecular size by SDS-PAGE, specificity to degrade model or feed substrates, response to autoclaving, and action of specific protease inhibitors in the absence or presence of ruminal fluid. In addition, batch culture in vitro incubations in buffered ruminal fluid were conducted to compare the enzyme product with purified protease sources, and dose-response studies (0 to 10 microL/g of forage DM) were carried out using alfalfa hay as a substrate. The enzyme product was shown to be an alkaline protease (optimum pH >8.5) of approximately 30 kDa. Specificity in the absence of ruminal fluid showed that the enzyme was active against gelatin and casein to the same extent, whereas it had limited (21% of the total) activity on BSA. In the presence of ruminal fluid and with the use of feed substrates, the protease increased (P < 0.05) 22-h IVDMD (%) of alfalfa hay, fresh corn silage, dry-rolled corn, and a total mixed ration composed of the 3 ingredients (39.5 vs. 44.7; 50.3 vs. 54.5; 63.8 vs. 68.4; and 55.4 vs. 56.4 for control vs. protease for each feed, respectively). Inhibitor studies in the absence of ruminal fluid indicated that the enzyme was inhibited most by a serine protease inhibitor but not by cysteine- or metalloprotease inhibitors (10 vs. 1.9 and 0.1%, respectively). In the presence of ruminal fluid, the serine protease inhibitor reversed (P < 0.05) the increase in alfalfa IVDMD achieved by the enzyme product, such that IVDMD was similar to that of the control treatment. Comparisons among different proteases revealed that only pure subtilisin achieved increases in IVDMD that were similar to those with protease
Lee, M R F; Connelly, P L; Tweed, J K S; Dewhurst, R J; Merry, R J; Scollan, N D
The experiment investigated the digestion of lipids from different forage silages in beef steers. Six Hereford x Friesian steers prepared with rumen and duodenal cannulas were given ad libitum access to a high-sugar grass silage, control grass silage, red clover silage, or mixtures of the red clover and each of the grass silages (50:50, DM basis). The experiment was conducted as an incomplete 5 x 5 Latin square, with an additional randomly repeated sequence. Total fatty acid and C18:3n-3 concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) for the high-sugar grass silage than the control grass silage or the red clover silage. Dry matter and total fatty acid intake were less (P < 0.05) for steers fed the control grass silage than for steers fed the other diets. Duodenal flow of C18:3n-3 was greater (P < 0.05), and flows of C18:0 and total C18:1 trans were less (P < 0.05), for the red clover silage compared with the 2 grass silage diets, with the mixtures intermediate. These results were supported by a reduction (P < 0.05) in biohydrogenation of C18:3n-3 for the red clover silage, with the mixtures again being intermediate. Flows of total branched- and odd-chain fatty acids were greater (P < 0.05) for the high-sugar grass silage diet, possibly as a result of greater microbial flow, because these fatty acids are associated with bacterial lipid. Duodenal flows of the chlorophyll metabolite, phytanic acid, were greater (P < 0.05) for animals fed the high-sugar grass silage treatments compared with the other treatments. These results confirm the potential for modifying the fatty acid composition of ruminant products by feeding red clover silage.
Jones, B A; Muck, R E; Ricke, S C
Three strains of Streptococcus bovis, a homolactic bacterium capable of utilizing starch, were evaluated for growth kinetics and ability to decrease the pH of alfalfa silage. A selected strain was evaluated for its competitiveness as an inoculant with Enterococcus faecium, an organism used in inoculants, and for its ability to enhance the effect of a commercial inoculant. Testing was completed over three studies using wilted alfalfa (28 to 34% dry matter) ensiled into laboratory silos. Treatments were control, E. faecium, E. faecium and commercial inoculant, S. bovis, and S. bovis and commercial inoculant. Replicate silos were emptied and analyzed at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 40 days for pH, fermentation products, and nitrogen fractions. S. bovis alone lowered the pH quicker and improved silage parameters early in the fermentation compared with E. faecium, the commercial inoculant, and control treatments. When combined with a commercial inoculant, S. bovis lowered pH more quickly than the commercial inoculant alone and E. faecium plus commercial inoculant. At 40 days, S. bovis combination had lower pH and ammonia nitrogen and acetate contents than the E. faecium combination. Starch in the silage was not utilized by S. bovis as had been anticipated. Results indicate that S. bovis was more effective than E. faecium as a silage inoculant and could enhance a commercial inoculant on low-dry-matter alfalfa. PMID:1746960
Andrae, J G; Hunt, C W; Pritchard, G T; Kennington, L R; Harrison, J H; Kezar, W; Mahanna, W
A study involving a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was conducted to evaluate effects of hybrid (Pioneer 3335 and 3489), maturity (half milkline and blacklayer), and mechanical processing (field chopper with and without on-board rollers engaged) on intake and digestibility of corn silage. Forty Angus steers (322 +/- 5.2 kg BW) were assigned to the eight silage treatments (five steers per treatment) and individually fed using electronic gates. Diets consisted of 60% corn silage and 40% chopped alfalfa hay (DM basis). Following a 5-d adaptation period, intake was measured for 7 d and subsequently fecal samples were collected for 5 d. Chromic oxide (5 g/d) was fed beginning 7 d before fecal sample collection and digestibility was determined by the ratio of Cr in the feed and feces. Steers were reallocated to treatments and these procedures were repeated, providing 10 observations per treatment. In addition, all silages were ruminally incubated in six mature cows for 0, 8, 16, 24, 48, and 96 h to determine extent and rate of DM, starch, NDF, and ADF disappearance. Processing increased DMI of hybrid 3489 but did not affect DMI of hybrid 3335 (hybrid x processing; P < 0.06). Total tract digestibility of DM, starch, NDF, and ADF decreased (P < 0.01) as plant maturity increased. Maturity tended to decrease starch digestibility more for hybrid 3489 than for hybrid 3335 (hybrid x maturity; P < 0.10). Processing increased (P < 0.01) starch digestibility but decreased (P < 0.01) NDF and ADF digestibility, resulting in no processing effect on DM digestibility. There was a numerical trend for processing to increase starch digestibility more for latethan for early-maturity corn silage (maturity x processing; P = 0.11). Processing increased in situ rates of DM and starch disappearance and maturity decreased in situ disappearance rates of starch and fiber. These data indicate that hybrid, maturity, and processing all affect corn silage digestibility. Mechanical
Hu, Xiaodong; Hao, Wei; Wang, Huili; Ning, Tingting; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng
The objective of this study was to assess the use of peach pomace in total mixed ration (TMR) silages and clarify the differences in aerobic stability between TMR and TMR silages caused by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The TMR were prepared using peach pomace, alfalfa hay or Leymus chinensis hay, maize meal, soybean meal, cotton meal, limestone, a vitamin-mineral supplement, and salt in a ratio of 6.0:34.0:44.4:7.0:5.0:2.5:1.0:0.1 on a dry matter (DM) basis. Fermentation quality, microbial composition, and the predominant LAB were examined during ensiling and aerobic deterioration. The results indicated that the TMR silages with peach pomace were well fermented, with low pH and high lactic acid concentrations. The aerobic stability of TMR silages were significantly higher than that of TMR. Compared with TMR silages with alfalfa hay, TMR silage with Leymus chinensis hay was much more prone to deterioration. Although the dominant LAB were not identical in TMR, the same dominant species, Lactobacillus buchneri and Pediococcus acidilactici, were found in both types of TMR silages after 56 d of ensiling, and they may play an important role in the aerobic stability of TMR silages.
Hu, Xiaodong; Hao, Wei; Wang, Huili; Ning, Tingting; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng
The objective of this study was to assess the use of peach pomace in total mixed ration (TMR) silages and clarify the differences in aerobic stability between TMR and TMR silages caused by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The TMR were prepared using peach pomace, alfalfa hay or Leymus chinensis hay, maize meal, soybean meal, cotton meal, limestone, a vitamin-mineral supplement, and salt in a ratio of 6.0:34.0:44.4:7.0:5.0:2.5:1.0:0.1 on a dry matter (DM) basis. Fermentation quality, microbial composition, and the predominant LAB were examined during ensiling and aerobic deterioration. The results indicated that the TMR silages with peach pomace were well fermented, with low pH and high lactic acid concentrations. The aerobic stability of TMR silages were significantly higher than that of TMR. Compared with TMR silages with alfalfa hay, TMR silage with Leymus chinensis hay was much more prone to deterioration. Although the dominant LAB were not identical in TMR, the same dominant species, Lactobacillus buchneri and Pediococcus acidilactici, were found in both types of TMR silages after 56 d of ensiling, and they may play an important role in the aerobic stability of TMR silages. PMID:25656205
Schmidt, J; Szakács, G; Cenkvári, E; Sipocz, J; Urbánszki, K; Tengerdy, R P
A crude enzyme preparation, obtained by solid substrate fermentation (SSF) with a Gliocladium spp. and added at the 5% level to wilted or non-wilted alfalfa, improved the fermentation characteristics and stability of alfalfa silages as effectively as commercial preparations, Novo-Nordisk Celluclast 1.5 L and Viscozyme 120 L, applied at the 0.025% level. The effective dose of the crude enzyme costs about one-fourth of the cost of the commercial enzymes.
The biggest and most variable losses from silage during storage and feed out are caused by spoilage microorganisms. Spoilage microorganisms need oxygen. So, the keys to low silage losses are to: 1) pack to a high density, 2) seal the crop in storage with a good quality plastic film that is held tigh...
Cifuni, Giulia Francesca; Contò, Michela; Amici, Andrea; Failla, Sebastiana
The current study examines the effect of different finishing diets (hay- vs. maize-silage on meal ration) on carcass quality, physical, chemical and sensory properties, and fatty acid profiles of buffalo meat. Twenty male Italian Mediterranean buffaloes (246 ± 9.00 kg live weight) were distributed at random into two groups at the beginning of the finishing period (368 ± 20 days). The buffaloes were offered two finishing diets: a maize silage (MS) or an alfalfa hay (AH) diet. No significant differences were found between dietary treatments for live and carcass weight. Meat chemical composition was influenced by dietary treatment. A higher fat content was detected in meat from animals finished with MS than AH (P < 0.05). Overall, the data indicated differences between the fatty acid profiles of meat as a consequence of different feeding systems. The higher fat deposition in the MS group resulted in meat with a less favorable fatty acid profile (i.e. a lower polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and α-linolenic fatty acid content) in relation to human health compared with meat from animals fed the AH diet. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Three feeding trials were conducted to study the effect of alfalfa-hay in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility (IVNDFD, 48-hour laboratory incubation in rumen fluid) on Holstein dairy cow performance. Treatments (Lh, Ll, Hh, and Hl) included four alfalfa hays selected for relatively low-(L) o...
Reduced lignin alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cultivars have the potential to increase the feeding value of alfalfa for livestock by improving the forage fiber digestibility and to increase harvest management flexibility. The objectives were to compare the yield and forage nutritive value of reduced ...
Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys, is an emerging invasive species of grave concern to agriculture as a polyphagous plant pest with potential negative impact on the dairy industry. We sought to determine the risk of including BMSB contaminated silage in lactating dairy cow ratio...
In the northeastern United States, the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys, is an emerging invasive species of grave concern to agriculture. BMSB is a highly polyphagous plant pest but also has potentially negative impact to dairy industry through contamination of silage and potent...
DeFrain, J M; Shirley, J E; Titgemeyer, E C; Park, A F; Ethington, R T
We used four ruminally cannulated, multiparous Holstein cows (690 kg; 21 kg/d milk) in a 2-period crossover design to determine the impact of feeding a raw soybean hull-corn steep liquor pellet (SHSL) on induced subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in lactating cows. Cows were fed control [30% alfalfa hay, 15% corn silage, 34% corn, 9% whole cottonseed, 5% soybean meal (SBM)] or SHSL (20% of diet DM) diets as TMR. SHSL replaced 6.2% alfalfa hay, 3.7% corn silage, 6.6% corn, and 3.3% SBM. Periods were 15 d (10 d adaptation, 2 d for prechallenge measures, and 3 d of SARA challenge). Cows were fed once daily at a common DMI dictated by the cow consuming the least. Cows were fasted 12 h before the first SARA challenge. For each of the three SARA challenges, cows were offered 75% of their daily diet at 0600 h. The remaining 25% of diet DM was replaced by ground corn, which was mixed with the orts that remained 2 h after feeding and placed into the rumen. Ruminal pH declined linearly with time after feeding, and this decrease was greater during the SARA challenges. Ruminal lactate increased linearly with repeated SARA challenges. Concentrations of total ruminal VFA increased linearly after feeding, and increases were greater when cows were challenged. No differences were observed due to SHSL inclusion. The model induced SARA, but partial replacement of alfalfa, corn silage, corn, and SBM by SHSL did not influence responses to SARA challenges.
Arriola, K G; Kim, S C; Staples, C R; Adesogan, A T
This study examined the effect of applying different bacterial inoculants to corn silage at the time of ensiling on the performance of lactating dairy cows. Corn plants were harvested at 35% dry matter (DM), chopped, and ensiled in 2.4-m-wide bags after application of (1) no inoculant (CON); (2) Biotal Plus II (B2) containing Pediococcus pentosaceus and Propionibacteria freudenreichii; (3) Buchneri 40788 (BUC) containing Lactobacillus buchneri; or (4) Buchneri 500 (B500) containing Pediococcus pentosaceus and L. buchneri. All inoculants were supplied by Lallemand Animal Nutrition (Milwaukee, WI). Each of the 4 silages was included in separate total mixed rations consisting of 44% corn silage, 50% concentrate, and 6% alfalfa hay (DM basis). Fifty-two lactating Holstein cows were stratified according to milk production and parity and randomly assigned at 22 d in milk to the 4 dietary treatments. Cows were fed for ad libitum consumption and milked twice daily for 49 d. Dietary treatment did not affect intakes (kg/d) of DM (20.0), crude protein (CP; 3.7), neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 5.7), or acid detergent fiber (ADF; 3.6), or digestibility (%) of DM (73.9) or CP (72.4). However, NDF digestibility was lower in cows fed B2 compared with those fed other diets (45.3 vs. 53.0%). Consequently, cows fed B2 had lower digestible NDF intake (kg/d) than those fed other diets (2.5 vs. 3.0 kg/d). Dietary treatment did not affect milk yield (32.3 kg/d), efficiency of milk production (1.61), concentrations of milk fat (3.18%) and protein (2.79%), or yields of milk fat (1.03 kg/d) and protein (1.26 kg/d). Inoculant application to corn silage did not affect milk yield or feed intake of cows.
Roussel, J D; Thibodeaux, J K; Adkinson, R W; Toups, G M; Goodeaux, L L
Mid-lactation Holstein cows (n = 48) were equally and randomly assigned to one of four feeding treatments of sodium zeolite-A (SZA). SZA was mixed in a grain mixture (50:50 grain to forage ratio) of 0% (control), 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% SZA on a dry matter intake basis. Cows were fed alfalfa hay in the first phase and corn silage in the second phase of the study as roughage sources. Milk samples were taken three times weekly (am and pm) and analyzed for milk fat, protein and lactose with blood profiles conducted from samples collected weekly. SZA significantly (P less than .05) increased feed intake at all three levels for both diets. Milk yield was significantly (P less than .05) greater in the alfalfa diet. However, milk fat percent and percent protein were greater (P less than .05) in the corn silage diet. The addition of SZA to the corn silage diet increased (P less than .05) milk fat percent at the 1.0% level and milk protein at the 1.5% level. Calcium in milk was significantly (P less than .01) increased and respiration rates significantly lowered (P less than .05) in both diets at the 1.0% level. Serum calcium was higher (P less than .05) at the 1.0 and 1.5% level in the hay diet and the 1.5% level in the corn silage diet. Also, serum glucose and alkaline phosphate levels were significantly (P less than .05) higher in the corn silage diet.
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has the potential to be a significant contributor to America's renewable energy future. In an alfalfa biomass energy production system, alfalfa forage would be separated into stem and leave fractions. The stems would be processed to produce energy, and the leaves would be s...
Alonso, V A; Pereyra, C M; Keller, L A M; Dalcero, A M; Rosa, C A R; Chiacchiera, S M; Cavaglieri, L R
The present revision shows the early and current knowledge in the field of silage fungi and mycotoxins explaining the relevance of fungi and mycotoxins in silage. The problem does not end in animal disease or production losses as mycotoxins in feed can lead to the presence of their metabolic products in dairy products, which will be eventually affecting human health, mainly infants. Silage is green forage preserved by lactic fermentation under anaerobic conditions. This ecosystem maintains its quality and nutritional value depending on interactions among physical, chemical and biological agents. Forages used for ensilage are naturally in contact with yeasts and filamentous fungi, and the contamination often occurs in the field and can also occur during harvesting, transport, storage. Moreover, postharvest poor management can lead to a rapid spoilage. Studies on fungal contamination of dairy cattle feed have shown how corn silage influences the contamination degree of feed supplied to livestock. Increasing knowledge in this area will help elucidate the influence that this microbiota exerts on production and/or degradation of mycotoxins present in silage. Some of these fungi, although opportunist pathogens, are relevant epidemiologically and represent a high risk of contamination to farm workers who handle them improperly.
Mandell, I B; Buchanan-Smith, J G; Campbell, C P
Limousin-cross steers (n=135; 258+/-26 kg) were used to compare forage vs grain feeding on carcass composition and palatability attributes of beef when time on feed was controlled. Diets included a 95% alfalfa silage ration (AS) or a 68% high-moisture corn, 25% alfalfa silage ration (HMC). These were incorporated into six treatments to allow comparisons of end points based on similar days on feed or backfat finish. Dietary treatments included 1) HMC (4 mm), or cattle allowed ad libitum intake of HMC until slaughter at 4 mm ultrasound backfat; 2) AS (HMC-4), or cattle allowed ad libitum intake of AS until slaughter, regardless of finish, when HMC (4 mm) cattle were slaughtered; 3) AS (4 mm), or cattle allowed ad libitum intake of AS until slaughter at 4 mm backfat; 4) HMC (AS-4), or cattle allowed ad libitum intake of HMC until slaughter, regardless of finish, when AS (4 mm) cattle achieved 4 mm backfat; 5) HMC (RES), or cattle fed HMC at restricted intakes until slaughter at 4 mm backfat with feed offered at 75% of intake achieved by HMC (4 mm) and HMC (AS-4) cattle; and 6) AS (8 mm) or cattle allowed ad libitum intake of AS ration until slaughter at 8 mm backfat. Grain feeding generally increased (P < .01) ADG, carcass weight, grade fat, and intramuscular fat content when compared with forage feeding at similar times on feed. Palatability attributes of ribeye roasts and ground beef were generally unaffected (P > .10) by diet with the exception of slightly less beef flavor and more off-flavor in forage-fed vs grain-fed beef. Higher (P < .01) concentrations of linolenic acid and lower (P < .10) concentrations of oleic acid in forage-fed beef may be partially responsible for diet differences in flavor.
Lin, C; Bolsen, K K; Brent, B E; Hart, R A; Dickerson, J T; Feyerherm, A M; Aimutis, W R
Epiphytic microflora were identified and counted on four cuttings of alfalfa, each harvested at three stages of maturity, and on three whole-plant corn hybrids. Enterobacteriaceae were predominant on both crops. Yeasts and molds also were major epiphytic microorganisms on whole-plant corn. The group--including lactobacilli, pediococci, and leuconostocs, which are genera that produce lactic acid and thus are instrumental in silage preservation--constituted only a small proportion of the total population (less than .5%) on both crops. Lactate-fermenting clostridial spores were not detected on standing alfalfa, and occurrences of these spores on standing corn plants were due to soil contamination from rainfall prior to harvest. The numbers of epiphytic microorganisms, except for the lactobacilli, pediococci, and leuconostocs group, were higher on standing corn than on alfalfa. The epiphytic microflora on alfalfa increased with increasing temperature during the growing season. However, neither cutting number nor maturity affected the epiphytic microflora on standing alfalfa, and wilting following mowing had little effect on most populations. Higher temperatures during wilting increased yeast and mold counts but had no effect on other microbial counts. The chopping process tended to increase the epiphytic microflora populations compared with those on the standing crops, and the group containing lactobacilli, pediococci, and leuconostocs was most enhanced. Only yeast and mold counts on the chopped alfalfa increased with greater DM content and buffering capacity.
Lamb, J.F.S.; Samac, D.A.; Sheaffer, C.C.
This report briefly summarizes preliminary results from crossbreeding alfalfa to develop desirable characteristics for a dedicated biomass feed stock. The varieties development is part of a larger project which includes preparation and gasification of the alfalfa stems for energy production, and use of the co-product alfalfa leaves in livestock feed. The desired alfalfa traits include winter hardiness, resistance to major pathogens, resistance to foliar disease complexes, many thick, tall, solid, non-lodging stems with high lignin content, delayed flowering, and high quality leaves retained through harvest. Currently no alfalfa varieties meet these criteria. Three crosses were made using old European varieties, with thick stems, and modern resistant varieties. The crossbreeds showed some resistance to diseases, but increased resistance is needed to maximize leaf and steam yield. 1 tab.
Segers, J R; Stelzleni, A M; Pringle, T D; Froetschel, M A; Ross, C L; Stewart, R L
Corn gluten feed and dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) were evaluated as replacements for soybean meal and ground ear corn when supplemented with corn silage during 2 yr of a beef cattle stockering program. Experiment 1: In YR 1, 104 steers (initial BW = 305 ± 30 kg), and in YR 2, 56 steers and 38 heifers (initial BW = 301 ± 32 kg) were stratified by weight and assigned to 1 of 9 groups. Each group was randomly assigned to 1 of 3 corn silage-based (75% of DM) diets supplemented with: i) corn gluten feed (CGF), ii) DDGS, or iii) soybean meal and ground ear corn (CSBM) at 25% of DM. On d 0, 28, 56, and 84, BW and BCS were recorded. Additionally, ribeye area, 12th rib fat thickness, intramuscular fat, and rump fat thickness were assessed via ultrasound on 9 (YR1) and 4 (YR 2) steers per pen that were randomly assigned as observational units. Average daily gain was greater (P < 0.05) for steers fed DDGS and CSBM compared with CGF (1.08, 1.08, and 0.94 kg/d, respectively). Average DMI (P < 0.05) was less for DDGS compared with CSBM with CGF intermediate (18.1, 18.8, 20.2 g/kg BW, respectively), and the resulting G:F was greatest for DDGS (P = 0.01). Cost per kilogram of BW gain was least for DDGS (P > 0.05). Ultrasound data indicated no differences (P ≥ 0.13) in predicted carcass traits among treatments. Experiment 2: Diets from Exp. 1 were subjected to in vitro digestion for incubation times of 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, and 72 h to estimate DM degradation, gas production kinetics, and CP fractions. The potentially degradable DM fraction was greater (P = 0.01) for CSBM compared with CGF and DDG. Total gas production and rate of gas production was not different among treatments (P > 0.42). Rumen degradable protein was greatest for CSBM and least for DDG (P = 0.001). These data indicate that DDGS can be used to replace soybean meal and corn in silage-based stocker systems to decrease feed costs without compromising animal performance and CGF may decrease
Kung, L; Stough, E C; McDonell, E E; Schmidt, R J; Hofherr, M W; Reich, L J; Klingerman, C M
On 3 consecutive cuttings, alfalfa from a single field was mowed with a John Deere 946 mower-conditioner (4-m cut width; Moline, IL) to leave narrow swaths (NS) ranging from 1.2 to 1.52 m wide (30-37% of cutter bar width) and wide swaths (WS) ranging from 2.44 to 2.74 m wide (62-67% of cutter bar width). Samples were collected from windrows and dry matter (DM) was monitored during wilting until a target of 43 to 45% DM was obtained. Forage from random windrows (n=4-6) was harvested by hand, chopped through a forage harvester before being packed in replicated vacuum-sealed bags, and allowed to ensile for 65 d. There was no swath width x cutting interaction for any parameter tested. Over all cuttings, the resulting silage DM was not different between the NS silage (43.8%) and the WS silage (44.9%). However, wide swathing greatly reduced the time of wilting before making silage. The hours of wilting time needed to reach the targeted DM for the NS silage compared with the WS silage at cuttings 1, 2, and 3 were 50 versus 29, 54 versus 28, and 25 versus 6, respectively. At the time of ensiling, the WS silage had more water-soluble carbohydrates (5.1%) than did the NS silage (3.7%). The WS silage had a lower pH (4.58) than did the NS silage (4.66), but swath width did not affect fermentation end products (lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol). The NS silage had more NH(3)-N (0.26%) than did the WS silage (0.21%). Wide swathing did not affect the concentration of ash or the digestibility of NDF, but it lowered the N content (NS=3.45%; WS=3.23%) and increased the ADF content (NS=39.7%; WS=40.9%) of the resulting silage. Wide swathing can markedly reduce the time that alfalfa must wilt before it can be chopped for silage, but under good conditions, as in this study, the resulting silage quality was generally not improved. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Weiss, W P; Wyatt, D J
Corn silages were produced from a high oil corn hybrid and from its conventional hybrid counterpart and were harvested with a standard silage chopper or a chopper equipped with a kernel processing unit. High oil silages had higher concentrations of fatty acids (5.5 vs. 3.4% of dry matter) and crude protein (8.4 vs. 7.5% of dry matter) than the conventional hybrid. Processed silage had larger particle size than unprocessed silage, but more starch was found in small particles for processed silage. Dry matter intake was not influenced by treatment (18.4 kg/d), but yield of fat-corrected milk (23.9 vs. 22.6 kg/d) was increased by feeding high oil silage. Overall, processing corn silage did not affect milk production, but cows fed processed conventional silage tended to produce more milk than did cows fed unprocessed conventional silage. Milk protein percent, but not yield, was reduced with high oil silage. Milk fat percent, but not yield, was higher with processed silage. Overall, processed silage had higher starch digestibility, but the response was much greater for the conventional silage hybrid. The concentration of total digestible nutrients (TDN) tended to be higher for diets with high oil silage (71.6 vs. 69.9%) and tended to be higher for processed silage than unprocessed silage (71.7 vs. 69.8%), but an interaction between variety and processing was observed. Processing conventional corn silage increased TDN to values similar to high oil corn silage but processing high oil corn silage did not influence TDN.
Borreani, G; Tabacco, E
behind the feed-out face could offer a good indication of the health status of silage during consumption. Furthermore, this method could be useful to detect early stages of the aerobic deterioration process and to improve silage management. 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shimshoni, J A; Cuneah, O; Sulyok, M; Krska, R; Galon, N; Sharir, B; Shlosberg, A
Silage is an important feed source for intensive dairy herds worldwide. Fungal growth and mycotoxin production before and during silage storage is a well-known phenomenon, resulting in reduced nutritional value and a possible risk factor for animal health. With this in mind, a survey was conducted to determine for the first time the occurrence of mycotoxins in corn and wheat silage in Israel. A total of 30 corn and wheat silage samples were collected from many sources and analysed using a multi-mycotoxin method based on LC-MS/MS. Most mycotoxins recorded in the present study have not been reported before in Israel. Overall, 23 mycotoxins were found in corn silage; while wheat silage showed a similar pattern of mycotoxin occurrence comprising 20 mycotoxins. The most common post-harvest mycotoxins produced by the Penicillium roqueforti complex were not found in any tested samples, indicative of high-quality preparation and use of silage. Moreover, none of the European Union-regulated mycotoxins--aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin, T-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol and deoxynivalenol--were found above their limits of detection (LODs). The Alternaria mycotoxins--macrosporin, tentoxin and alternariol methyl ether--were highly prevalent in both corn and wheat silage (>80%), but at low concentrations. The most prominent (>80%) Fusarium mycotoxins in corn silage were fusaric acid, fumonisins, beauvericin, monilifomin, equisetin, zearalenone and enniatins, whereas in wheat silage only beauvericin, zearalenone and enniatins occurred in more than 80% of the samples. The high prevalence and concentration of fusaric acid (mean = 765 µg kg⁻¹) in Israeli corn silage indicates that this may be the toxin of highest potential concern to dairy cow performance. However, more data from different harvest years and seasons are needed in order to establish a more precise evaluation of the mycotoxin burden in Israeli silage.
St-Pierre, N R; Weiss, W P
A large project involving commercial dairy farms was undertaken to identify important sources of variation in composition data of common feeds and mixed diets. This information is needed to develop appropriate sampling schedules for feeds and should reduce the uncertainty associated with the nutrient composition of delivered diets. The first subproject quantified sources of variation in the composition of corn and haycrop silages over a 2-wk period. Silages from 11 commercial dairy farms in Ohio and Vermont were sampled daily over a 14-d period. Most silages were sampled in duplicate each day, and all samples were assayed in duplicate. Total variance was partitioned into analytical, sampling, farm, and true day-to-day components. Farm was the largest source of variation, but within-farm variance was our primary interest. Sampling variance comprised 30 to 81% of within-farm variance depending on nutrient and type of silage. For dry matter, true day-to-day variation was the greatest source of variance, but for most other nutrients, sampling was the largest source of within-farm variation. The second subproject consisted of sampling feeds and total mixed rations (TMR) from 47 commercial dairy farms across the United States. Feeds and TMR were sampled monthly. Because samples were not assayed in duplicate, source of variation included farm, month, and residual (sampling plus analytical). For corn and alfalfa silages, month-to-month variation over a 12-mo period comprised about twice as much of the total within-farm variation as did day-to-day variation over a 14-d period in the first subproject. Although month-to-month variation was greater than sampling variation, sampling still accounted for 9 to 37% of the total within-farm variance for those 2 feeds. For TMR, sampling plus analytical variance accounted for approximately 40 to 70% of the total within-farm variance (depending on the nutrient). Variance components were estimated for several nutrients and for several
As a precursor to smog, emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere is an environmental concern in some regions. The major source from farms is silage, with emissions coming from the silo face, mixing wagon, and feed bunk. The major compounds emitted are alcohols with other impor...
Pérez-Ramírez, E; Peyraud, J L; Delagarde, R
The aim of this study was to compare the n-alkanes and the ytterbium (Yb)/faecal index techniques as two methods for estimating the herbage intake of dairy cows fed indoors on different herbage : supplement ratios and feeding levels. The supplement was a mixture of maize silage and soyabean meal (ratio of 87 : 13 on a dry matter (DM) basis). In all, four treatments were studied. The herbage : supplement ratio in the diet was 25 : 75, 50 : 50, 75 : 25 and 50 : 50 for treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Animals were offered for treatments 1, 2 and 3, 100% of ad libitum intake measured before the experiment and 70% of ad libitum intake for treatment 4. Cows were fed herbage in the morning and supplement in the evening. A total of six lactating Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square with four 14-day periods. Herbage and supplement intakes, faecal output (FO), in vivo organic matter (OM) digestibility and faecal recovery of markers were measured on the last 5 days of each period. Intake was estimated with the two methods and from two faecal sampling techniques, that is, total faecal collection v. grab sampling during milking. Mean herbage intake as fed, or estimated from n-alkanes or from the Yb/faecal index was 7.7, 8.1 and 10.2 kg DM, respectively. The mean prediction error, expressed as a fraction of actual herbage intake, was 0.10 and 0.50 for the n-alkanes and Yb/faecal index methods, respectively. The n-alkanes method clearly showed much better accuracy than the Yb/faecal index method for estimating intake, irrespective of the faecal sampling method, herbage : silage proportion or feeding level. For the n-alkanes method, herbage intake was slightly overestimated (7%) when herbage proportion in the diet was high, due to a ratio of faecal C33 : C32 recovery >1. The high bias for the Yb/faecal index was due to the cumulative effect of overestimation of FO (mean recovery of Yb = 0.92) and underestimation of the diet indigestible fraction (-8
McReynolds, J; Kubena, L; Byrd, J; Anderson, R; Ricke, S; Nisbet, D
The method most commonly used to induce molting and stimulate multiple egg-laying cycles in laying hens for commercial egg production is to fast the hens. Unfortunately, increased risk of Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infection may result from the use of this method. Methods to stimulate multiple egg-laying cycles without increasing the risk of SE infection are needed. Hens over 50 wk of age were divided into 12 groups of 11 hens each and placed in individual laying cages. One week prior to dietary changes, hens were placed on an 8-h light and 16-h dark photoperiod that continued for the 9-d molt. All hens were challenged orally with 10(6) cfu of SE on the fourth day of the molt. Treatments were nonfed hens with distilled water (NFD), nonfed hens with the experimental chlorate product (ECP, which provided 15 mM chlorate ion) water (NFECP), alfalfa diets with distilled water (ALD), and alfalfa diets with ECP water (ALECP). In the NFD hens, 67% (log10 2.74) of the crops and 94% (log10 5.62) of the ceca were colonized, whereas for the NFECP hens significant reductions to 22% (log10 1.05) of the crops and 61% (log10 2.44) of the ceca were observed. In the ALD hens, 61% (log10 2.52) of the crops and 94% (log10 4.06) of the ceca were colonized. In the ALECP hens, highly significant reductions to 11% (log10 1.26) of the crops and 39% (log10 1.12) of the ceca were observed. When compared with the NFD hens, significant reductions in SE invasion of the ovary, liver, and spleen occurred in all other treatments, except the ovary in the ALD hens. The low alfalfa intake is probably a factor in our lowered protection against SE when compared with previous results. For several parameters, these results suggest that ECP or the combination of ECP and alfalfa may be a useful tool to reduce the risk of SE during an induced molt.
Lenssen, A W; Blodgett, S L; Higgins, R A; Nagaraja, T G; Posler, G L; Broce, A B
Blister beetles (Coleoptera:Meloidae) containing the toxin cantharidin can be incorporated with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) during forage conservation. Cantharidin inadvertently ingested with animal feed may cause illness or death. Little information is available on the effects of cantharidin on ruminant microbial digestion. The objective of our study was to determine cantharidin effects on digestibility of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss) by measuring in vitro digestible dry matter (IVDDM) and cell wall digestion (CWD). Alfalfa dry matter digestibility, measured after IVDDM at 48 and 96 h fermentation periods, decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. Increasing cantharidin concentration also significantly reduced IVDDM of smooth bromegrass at 24 and 96 h digestion time. The CWD of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. These results indicate that ingestion of cantharidin by ruminants may decrease microbial digestion of fibrous feeds and therefore may decrease the efficiency of feed utilization by ruminants.
Seip, Katharina; Breves, Gerhard; Isselstein, Johannes; Daş, Gürbüz; Abel, Hansjörg
The investigation aimed at examining if the composition of grassland silage affects the microbial nitrogen assimilation in the rumen of sheep. The silages were made of vegetative summer re-growths consisting of 48% grasses, 28% legumes and 24% other forbs (GCF) or of pure grass (G). Silage GCF contained more intermediately degradable non-structural and less slowly degradable carbohydrates, more crude protein (CP), a narrower ratio between slow and very slow degradable nitrogen (N), and exhibited higher in situ degradability of organic matter and CP than Silage G. Four adult wethers equipped with rumen fistulae were used in a two factorial trial. Feed was offered either as silage alone or as a mixture of silage and barley (60:40). Microbial N was estimated using continuous intraruminal 15N infusion and measurement of 15N-enrichment in microbes isolated from rumen liquor samples. With the exception of trends for ruminal butyrate concentrations, no interactions were detected between silage and barley feeding. Sheep receiving Silage GCF exhibited larger diurnal fluctuations of ammonia, and produced more microbial N (p < 0.05) than sheep on Silage G. Feeding the silages with barley decreased ruminal pH and elevated the concentrations of butyrate (p < 0.05). The 15N incorporation into microbial N was reduced by barley feeding (p < 0.05) along with a trend to accelerated rumen fluid turnover, resulting in similar microbial N yields as found in sheep receiving silage without barley. It is concluded that the larger and better balanced amounts of intermediately degradable carbohydrate- and N-containing fractions favoured the ruminal microbial protein synthesis in sheep consuming Silage GCF instead of Silage G.
Negri, Marco; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fiala, Marco; Bocchi, Stefano
In this study, the degradation efficiency and the biogas and digestate production during anaerobic digestion were evaluated for the cereal silages most used to feed biogas plants. To this purpose, silages of: maize from the whole plant, maize from the ear, triticale and wheat were digested, inside of nylon bags, in laboratory scale digesters, for 75days. Overall, the test involved 288 nylon bags. After 75days of digestion, the maize ear silage shows the highest degradation efficiency (about 98%) while wheat silage the lowest (about 83%). The biogas production ranges from 438 to 852Nm(3)/t of dry matter for wheat and ear maize silage, respectively. For all the cereal silages, the degradation as well as the biogas production are faster at the beginning of the digestion time. Digestate mass, expressed as percentage of the fresh matter, ranges from 38% to 84% for wheat and maize ear silage, respectively.
Hintz, R W; Koegel, R G; Kraus, T J; Mertens, D R
Maceration is an intensive forage-conditioning process that can increase field drying rates by as much as 300%. Because maceration shreds the forage and reduces its rigidity, improvements in bulk density, silage compaction, and ensiling characteristics have been observed. Macerating forage also increases the surface area available for microbial attachment in the rumen, thereby increasing forage digestibility and animal performance. Feeding trials with sheep have shown increases in DMI of 5 to 31% and increases in DM digestibility of from 14 to 16 percentage units. Lactation studies have demonstrated increases in milk production and BW gain for lactating Holstein cows; however, there is a consistent decrease in milk fat percentage when dairy cattle are fed macerated forage. In vitro studies have shown that maceration decreases lag time associated with NDF digestion and increases rate of NDF digestion. In situ digestibility studies have shown that maceration increases the size of the instantly soluble DM pool and decreases lag time associated with NDF digestion, but it may not consistently alter the rate or extent of DM and NDF digestion.
Mangan, J L; Harrison, F A; Vetter, R L
In four experiments with ryegrass and alfalfa, cut herbage was wilted in the field and silage made in 1- or 200-L silos. Direct-cut (mean DM, 20.3%), low wilt (mean DM, 26.0%), medium wilt (mean DM, 36.2%) and high wilt (mean DM, 47.7%) herbages were used. Fraction 1, the most abundant leaf protein, was measured by crossed immunoelectrophoresis using rabbit anti-Fraction 1 serum. In two ryegrass and one alfalfa experiments in which weather conditions allowed rapid drying to high wilt herbage in 24 h, there was no significant loss of Fraction 1 protein. In the second alfalfa experiment, in which wilting was prolonged to 3 d by adverse weather, there was a 70% loss of Fraction 1. Ensiling proceeded normally in the four experiments, with rapid fall in pH and production of VFA, lactate, and NPN; the extent and rates of production were inversely related to DM content. In alfalfa and ryegrass, pH fell below the isoelectric point of Fraction 1 within 8 d. In each ryegrass experiment, a high proportion (58 to 100%) of Fraction 1 in medium and high wilt silages survived fermentation for 28 and 68 d, with lesser amounts in other silages. With alfalfa, however, almost all Fraction 1 protein was degraded at all DM concentrations during fermentation. Fiber-associated protein increased markedly with increases in DM during wilting, and these differences were present in the mature silage of both ryegrass and alfalfa. Digestibility studies with fistulated sheep showed that appreciable amounts of immunoreactive Fraction 1 protein in ryegrass silages were undegraded in the rumen.
Coleman, S W; Gallavan, R H; Phillips, W A; Volesky, J D; Rodriguez, S
The influence of energy source (silage- or grain-based) on empty body and carcass composition and adipocyte cellularity independent of rate of gain was tested. Sixty-four Angus steers were allotted to either a forage (ad libitum) or grain (limit-fed) diet for a growing phase (145 d) followed by 45, 75, or 105 d of ad libitum access to a grain-based diet. Eight steers were slaughtered initially and eight from each treatment were slaughtered at the end of the growing phase, and at each of the termination dates. The silage growing diet consisted (DM basis) of 55% sorghum silage (approximately 24% dry matter), 22% alfalfa hay, 11% ground shelled corn, and 11% soybean meal. The grain-based growing diet was composed of 77% ground shelled corn, 5% soybean meal, 14% cottonseed hulls, 3% molasses, and 1% salt and mineral; it was limit-fed to produce the same rate of gain as the silage diet. No implants or ionophores were used. At the end of the growing phase, the steers fed grain were heavier and had a higher percentage of fat in the empty body (24 vs 19% fat) and the carcass (26 vs 21% fat) than did steers fed forage. Rate of gain during the growth phase was related positively to percentage of carcass fat; when corrected for fill, data for both diets fit one regression line for fat vs rate of gain. When adjusted for gain during the growing phase, fat content was not different in empty body or carcass, but internal fat was higher (P < .10) for steers fed grain. After 45 d on the finishing diet, carcass fat remained low (23%), but after 75 and 105 d, fat content reached 27%. Source of energy did not detectably affect carcass composition independent of rate of gain. Cell size of adipocytes from four adipose depots increased with time on feed but were not affected by diet during the growing phase. Lean Choice beef can be produced in only 45 d in the feedlot with medium-framed Angus cattle.
This paper treats the most important plant bugs, or Miridae, found on alfalfa in North America. It is estimated that more than 10 species of plant bugs have the potential to develop on this important forage legume. Of these, the alfalfa plant bug (Adelphocoris lineolatus), pale legume bug (Lygus e...
Many managers of crop-livestock operations could, or need to, utilize alfalfa fields in their manure management plans. The advantages to manure application on alfalfa need to be considered in the context of some potential concerns – plant damage from manure or wheel traffic, pathogen transmission in...
Alfalfa witches'-broom was first reported in 1969 in Australia and later in South Africa, Canada, and Saudi Arabia. More recently, specific phytoplasmas associated with alfalfa witches'-broom have been identified from symptomatic plants in the United States (Wisconsin), Italy, Lithuania, Oman, Ira...
Manure application to alfalfa is often necessary because of limited application windows during the year and limited land-to-livestock ratios to meet Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plan requirements. Manure applied before alfalfa planting or during production can improve yield and performance of t...
Roundup Ready (RR) alfalfa is the first forage species commercially released with a genetically modified trait. While not needed by all farmers who grow alfalfa, RR alfalfa may allow some farmers to more effectively establish alfalfa and control certain weed problems. Gene flow potential in alfalf...
Heller, Martin C; Keoleian, Gregory A
Feed production constitutes a major portion of the energy and water resource inputs in modern livestock production. Schemes to reduce these inputs may include local sourcing of animal feed. However, in water stressed regions where irrigation of feed crops is necessary, a trade-off between local sourcing (with high water stress) and transport from less water stressed regions can occur. We demonstrate this trade-off in the U.S. by combining state-level irrigation water use and pumping energy demand from USDA surveys with fertilizer and transportation energy demands for producing major feed crops (corn grain, soybean, alfalfa hay, corn silage) in each state and delivering them to two hypothetical dairy farms located in Kersey, CO and Rosendale, WI. A back-up technology approach is employed to express freshwater resource depletion in units of energy, allowing direct comparison with other energy resource demands. Corn grain, soybean, and alfalfa hay delivered to CO demonstrate a clear trade-off between transportation energy (proportional to the distance between CO and the production state) and water stress. On the other hand, transportation burdens dominate for corn silage, making local production most attractive, even in water stressed regions. All crops delivered to WI (a region of low water stress and minimal irrigation) are dominated by transportation burdens, making local production preferable, but this is clearly not a universal principal, as other cases show. This paper quantitatively elucidates the water-energy trade-off in sourcing feed for livestock and the method is expected to be applicable in managing supply chain logistics of other farm commodities.
Extensive degradation of crude protein (CP) in ensiled legumes impairs N utilization when these silages are fed to dairy cattle. Previously, we reported that feeding birdsfoot trefoil (BFT; Lotus corniculatus) with elevated levels of condensed tannin (CT) reduced silage nonprotein N and was associat...
The objective of this study was to determine the influence of biological silage additive (Bonsilage) on the hygiene quality and nutritive value of maize and grass-legume silages. The experiments were conducted on FAO 240 maize (Zea mays L.) and a mixture of italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.), 50% with alfalfa (Medicago media Pers.), 50%. Group 1 was a control and comprised silage without any additives, group 2 was ensiled with the addition of 4 cm3 kg(-1) biological silage additive. After 60 days of silage process individual silages were subjected to microbiological composition, and chemical analyses of silages were also determined. Similar analyses were repeated at day 7 following exposure to oxygen. The applied biological silage additive was found to reduce (P<0.05) numbers of Clostridium, Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts and mold fungi cells, and increase (P<0.05) the number of LAB (lactic acid bacteria) in comparison with the control in both silages. Chemical analysis of the maize silage showed that the biological additive caused an increase (P<0.05) in DM (dry matter), CP (crude protein), WSC (water soluble carbohydrates), LA (lactic acid), AA (acetic acid), ethanol, and a decrease (P<0.05) in the concentration of BA (butyric acid), N-NH3 and pH value in comparison with the control. Chemical analysis of silage samples from the grass-legume mixture showed that the additive caused an increase (P<0.05) in the content of DM, CP, WSC, LA and AA in comparison with the control. Samples of silage with the addition of an inoculant were characterized by a lower (P<0.05) content of BA, N-NH3, ethanol and pH value. The biological additive impoved the aerobic stability of silages in the aerobic phase.
This final report provides technical information on the development of a near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) system for the analysis of alfalfa hay. The purpose of the system is to provide consistent quality for processing alfalfa stems for fuel and alfalfa leaf meal products for livestock feed. Project tasks were to: (1) develop an NIRS driven analytical system for analysis of alfalfa hay and processed alfalfa products; (2) assist in hiring a qualified NIRS technician and recommend changes in testing equipment necessary to provide accurate analysis; (3) calibrate the NIRS instrument for accurate analyses; and (4) develop prototype equipment and sampling procedures as a first step towards development of a totally automated sampling system that would rapidly sample and record incoming feedstock and outbound product. An accurate hay testing program was developed, along with calibration equations for analyzing alfalfa hay and sun-cured alfalfa pellets. A preliminary leaf steam calibration protocol was also developed. 7 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.
Moya, D; Holtshausen, L; Marti, S; Gibb, D G; McAllister, T A; Beauchemin, K A; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K
Seventy-nine continental crossbred beef heifers (524.4 ± 41.68 kg BW), 16 of which were ruminally cannulated, were used in a 53-d experiment with a generalized randomized block design to assess the effects of barley grain (BG), corn silage (CS), and corn distillers' grain (DG) offered in a free-choice diet on feeding behavior and ruminal fermentation. Treatments were total mixed ration (TMR) consisting of 85% BG, 10% CS, and 5% supplement or free-choice (i.e., self-selection) diets of BG and CS (BGCS), BG and corn dry DG (BGDG), or CS and corn DG (CSDG). Heifers were housed in groups of 9 or 10 in 8 pens and weighed 2 h before feed delivery at d 0, 21, 42, and 52 of the study. Pens were equipped with an electronic feed bunk monitoring system enabling feed intake and feeding behavior to be continuously monitored. Each of these pens was randomly allocated 2 cannulated heifers equipped with indwelling pH probes for continuous measurement of ruminal pH during wk 1, 2, 4, and 7. Blood and rumen contents were taken from cannulated heifers 2 h after feed delivery on d -3, 0, 7, 8, 42, and 49. Cattle fed either TMR or free-choice diets had similar (P > 0.10) ruminal fermentation, blood profile, and growth performance, with the exception of the CSDG diet, for which ruminal pH levels were consistently greater (P < 0.01) and performance was lower (P < 0.01). When DG was a component in free-choice diets, heifers reduced its inclusion in the diet (P < 0.05) over the experiment without affecting growth rate or ruminal fluid pH. Finishing feedlot cattle fed BG and CS separately selected a diet with a greater proportion of BG (85% DMI) compared to the TMR with no signs of acidosis. When cattle were given free-choice access to corn dry DG as an alternative to CS, they consumed levels up to 30% of their total daily DMI. Under the conditions of our experiment cattle can effectively self-select diets without increasing the risk of subclinical acidosis and still maintain similar
Venkataramanan, Ragothaman; Sreekumar, Chirukandoth; Anilkumar, Rishipal; Selvaraj, P; Vidhya, Nainar M; Mathagowder, Iyue
Silage, which is anaerobically fermented green fodder, is valued throughout the world as a source of animal feed during lean months. Several farms in India use carbohydrate sources like jaggery or molasses at 2% for preparation of silage, and this increases cost of production. The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of jaggery on quality and intake of maize silage, with an objective to find out whether additional carbohydrate source is essential in preparation of silage using green maize. Three silage types, one without jaggery (A), the second with 1% jaggery (B), and the third with 2% jaggery (C) were prepared in cylindrical bins under similar conditions. They were compared for colour, pH, lactic acid bacteria count, lactic acid content, proximate composition and silage intake by sheep. Silage type C with 2% jaggery was significantly different from the other two types with values of 3.98 and 805.66 g for pH and mean silage intake, respectively. Even though the values of pH and dry matter intake for all three silage types were within normal levels, silage type C was significantly superior in terms of fermentation and palatability. The method of preparation followed could be ideal for small holder farmers requiring less quantity of silage.
There are no published reports on the direct effects of fall manure application on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) N credits to first-year corn (Zea mays L.) grown as grain or silage. Therefore, on-farm experiments were conducted at eight locations in Minnesota to test whether manure applied during fal...
Fu, Chunxiang; Hernandez, Timothy; Zhou, Chuanen; Wang, Zeng-Yu
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is a high-quality forage crop widely grown throughout the world. This chapter describes an efficient protocol that allows for the generation of large number of transgenic alfalfa plants by sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Binary vectors carrying different selectable marker genes that confer resistance to phosphinothricin (bar), kanamycin (npt II), or hygromycin (hph) were used to generate transgenic alfalfa plants. Intact trifoliates collected from clonally propagated plants in the greenhouse were sterilized with bleach and then inoculated with Agrobacterium strain EHA105. More than 80 % of infected leaf pieces could produce rooted transgenic plants in 4-5 months after Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.
The combination of excellent winter hardiness, persistence, and nutritive value of both kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) suggest that intercropping these two crops could represent a good replacement for alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage where...
Castagnino, D S; Kammes, K L; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L
Effects of particle length of silages on apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS) and postruminal supply of B vitamins were evaluated in 2 feeding trials. Diets containing alfalfa (trial 1) or orchardgrass (trial 2) silages, chopped to either 19mm (long cut, LC) or 10mm (short cut, SC) theoretical particle length, as the sole forage were offered to ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows in crossover design experiments. Forages chopped to a theoretical particle length of 19 and 10mm had mean particles sizes of 14.1 and 8.1mm, respectively, in trial 1, and 15.3 and 11.3mm, respectively, in trial 2. Trial 1 was conducted with 13 multiparous cows in two 19-d treatment periods; both diets contained approximately 20% forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF), 25% total NDF, and forage-to-concentrate ratios were approximately 47:53. Trial 2 was conducted with 15 cows in two 18-d treatment periods; both diets contained approximately 23% forage NDF, 28% total NDF, and had a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 50:50. Thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates, and vitamin B12 were measured in feed and duodenal content. Daily ARS was calculated as the duodenal flow minus the intake. In trial 1, daily intake of individual B vitamins was increased with the LC diet, but ARS of thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and folates was reduced. In trial 2, except for folates, intakes of the other B vitamins were decreased with the LC diets, whereas ARS of riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin B6 was increased. Daily ARS of thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin B6 were correlated negatively with their intake, suggesting that ruminal bacteria reduced their synthesis when dietary supply increased. Microbial activity could have also reduced degradation of thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin, which is supported by (1) the negative correlation between ARS of these vitamins and ruminal pH or microbial N duodenal flow; and (2) the positive correlation between ARS and ruminal concentrations
Ning, Tingting; Wang, Huili; Zheng, Mingli; Niu, Dongze; Zuo, Sasa; Xu, Chuncheng
Objective This study investigated the association of enzyme-producing microbes and their enzymes with starch and hemicellulose degradation during fermentation of total mixed ration (TMR) silage. Methods The TMRs were prepared with soybean curd residue, alfalfa hay (ATMR) or Leymus chinensis hay (LTMR), corn meal, soybean meal, vitamin-mineral supplements, and salt at a ratio of 25:40:30:4:0.5:0.5 on a dry matter basis. Laboratory-scale bag silos were randomly opened after 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 days of ensiling and subjected to analyses of fermentation quality, carbohydrates loss, microbial amylase and hemicellulase activities, succession of dominant amylolytic or hemicellulolytic microbes, and their microbial and enzymatic properties. Results Both ATMR and LTMR silages were well preserved, with low pH and high lactic acid concentrations. In addition to the substantial loss of water soluble carbohydrates, loss of starch and hemicellulose was also observed in both TMR silages with prolonged ensiling. The microbial amylase activity remained detectable throughout the ensiling in both TMR silages, whereas the microbial hemicellulase activity progressively decreased until it was inactive at day 14 post-ensiling in both TMR silages. During the early stage of fermentation, the main amylase-producing microbes were Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (B. amyloliquefaciens), B. cereus, B. licheniformis, and B. subtilis in ATMR silage and B. flexus, B. licheniformis, and Paenibacillus xylanexedens (P. xylanexedens) in LTMR silage, whereas Enterococcus faecium was closely associated with starch hydrolysis at the later stage of fermentation in both TMR silages. B. amyloliquefaciens, B. licheniformis, and B. subtilis and B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, and P. xylanexedens were the main source of microbial hemicellulase during the early stage of fermentation in ATMR and LTMR silages, respectively. Conclusion The microbial amylase contributes to starch hydrolysis during the ensiling process
Wickersham, E E; Shirley, J E; Titgemeyer, E C; Brouk, M J; DeFrain, J M; Park, A F; Johnson, D E; Ethington, R T
We evaluated effects of wet corn gluten feed (WCGF) and a novel product (SHSL) containing raw soybean hulls and corn steep liquor on performance and digestion in lactating dairy cows. In Experiment 1, 46 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to control (C), WCGF (20% of diet DM), or SHSL (20% of diet DM). Diets were fed as a total mixed ration beginning after calving. The C diet contained (dry matter [DM] basis) 30% alfalfa hay, 15% corn silage, 32% corn, 9.3% whole cottonseed, 4.4% solvent soybean meal (SBM), and 3.3% expeller SBM. The WCGF replaced 10% alfalfa hay, 5% corn silage, and 5% corn grain, while expeller SBM replaced solvent SBM to maintain diet rumen undegradable protein. The SHSL replaced 10% alfalfa hay, 5% corn silage, 3% solvent SBM, and 2% corn. Dietary crude protein averaged 18.4%. Milk, energy-corrected milk (ECM), DM intake (DMI), and ECM/DMI were similar among diets during the first 13 wk of lactation. During wk 14 through 30 postpartum, WCGF and SHSL improved milk, ECM, milk component yield, and ECM/DMI. In Experiment 2, 6 cows were used to evaluate digestibility and rumen traits. Dry matter intake and total tract digestibilities of DM, fiber, and crude protein were not different among diets. Diets did not affect ruminal liquid dilution rate, pH, or concentrations of total volatile fatty acids or ammonia, but acetate:propionate was higher for C (3.38) than for WCGF (2.79) or SHSL (2.89). The WCGF and SHSL products can serve as alternative feedstuffs in diets fed to lactating dairy cattle.
Robinson, P H; Swanepoel, N; Heguy, J M; Price, T; Meyer, D M
Silage 'shrink' (i.e., loss of fresh chopped crop between ensiling and feedout) represents a nutrient loss which can degrade air quality as volatile carbon compounds, degrade surface waterways due to seepage, or degrade aquifers due to seepage. Virtually no research has documented shrink in large silage piles. The term 'shrink' is often ill defined, but can be expressed as losses of wet weight (WW), oven dry matter (oDM), and oDM corrected for volatiles lost in the drying oven (vcoDM). Corn silage piles (4 wedge, 2 rollover/wedge, 1 bunker) from 950 to 12,204 tonnes as built, on concrete (4), soil (2) and a combination (1) in California's San Joaquin Valley, using a bacterial inoculant, covered within 24 h with an oxygen barrier inner film and black/white outer plastic, fed out using large front end loaders through an electronic feed tracking system, and from the 2013 crop year, were used. Shrink as WW, oDM and vcoDM were 90±17, 68±18 and 28±21 g/kg, suggesting that much WW shrink is water and much oDM shrink is volatiles lost during analytical oven drying. Most shrink occurred in the silage mass with losses from exposed silage faces, as well as between exposed face silage removal and the total mixed ration mixer, being low. Silage bulk density, exposed silage face management and face use rate did not have obvious impacts on any shrink measure, but age of the silage pile during silage feedout impacted shrink losses ('older' silage piles being higher), but most strongly for WW shrink. Real shrink losses (i.e., vcoDM) of large well managed corn silage piles are low, the exposed silage face is a small portion of losses, and many proposed shrink mitigations appeared ineffective, possibly because shrink was low overall and they are largely directed at the exposed silage face.
Part 7.3 -- LEGUMES , of the US ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS WILDLIFE RESOURCES . MANAGEMENT MANUAL. Each section of the manual is published as a separate...birds and small mammals. Alfalfa is used for grazing on rangelands and farm pastures and serves as winter forage in the form of hay or silage . Leaves...and can often be grown on apparently unsuitable sites if properly cultured. DESCRIPTION Alfalfa is a long-lived, herbaceous, perennial legume composed
Silage, fermented cattle feed, has recently been identified as a significant source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted to the atmosphere. A small number of studies have measured VOC emission from silage, but not enough is known about the processes involved to accurately quantify emission r...
Brouk, M J; Cvetkovic, B; Rice, D W; Smith, B L; Hinds, M A; Owens, F N; Iiams, C; Sauber, T E
The nutritional equivalency of grain plus whole plant silage from genetically modified corn plants containing the DAS-59122-7 (59122) event expressing the Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins to grain and silage from a near-isogenic corn hybrid without this trait (control) was assessed using lactating dairy cows. Corn plants with event 59122 are resistant to western corn rootworm and tolerant to the herbicide active ingredient glufosinate-ammonium. Effects on feed intake, milk production, and milk composition were determined. The 59122 grain and the control grain were produced in 2005 from isolated plots in Richland, Iowa. Whole plant corn silage for the 59122 and control treatments were grown in isolated plots at the Kansas State University Dairy Center and ensiled in Ag-Bags. Thirty lactating Holstein cows blocked by lactation number, day of lactation, and previous energy-corrected milk production were used in a switchback design. All cows were fed diets that contained 22.7% grain plus 21.3% whole plant silage from either the 59122 or the control hybrid, in addition to 21% wet corn gluten feed, 12.3% protein mix, 8.0% whole cottonseed, and 14.7% alfalfa hay. Each period of the switchback trial included 2 wk for diet adjustment followed by 4 wk for data and sample collection. Milk samples (a.m. and p.m.) collected from 2 consecutive milkings of each collection wk were analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, solids-not-fat, milk urea nitrogen, and somatic cell count. Percentages of milk fat, protein, lactose, and solids-not-fat were not affected by dietary treatment. Yields of milk, 4% fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, solids-corrected milk, and the concentrations and yields of milk fat, milk protein, milk solids, and milk lactose were not significantly different between treatments. Efficiencies of milk, fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, and solids-corrected milk production also were not different when cows were fed crops from 59122 than when they were fed
Oladosu, Yusuff; Magaji, Usman; Hussin, Ghazali; Ramli, Asfaliza; Miah, Gous
Rice cultivation generates large amount of crop residues of which only 20% are utilized for industrial and domestic purposes. In most developing countries especially southeast Asia, rice straw is used as part of feeding ingredients for the ruminants. However, due to its low protein content and high level of lignin and silica, there is limitation to its digestibility and nutritional value. To utilize this crop residue judiciously, there is a need for improvement of its nutritive value to promote its utilization through ensiling. Understanding the fundamental principle of ensiling is a prerequisite for successful silage product. Prominent factors influencing quality of silage product include water soluble carbohydrates, natural microbial population, and harvesting conditions of the forage. Additives are used to control the fermentation processes to enhance nutrient recovery and improve silage stability. This review emphasizes some practical aspects of silage processing and the use of additives for improvement of fermentation quality of rice straw. PMID:27429981
Khan, Nazir A; Yu, Peiqiang; Ali, Mubarak; Cone, John W; Hendriks, Wouter H
of the dairy cows, notably, the concentration of the cis-unsaturated FAs, C18:3n-3 and n-3/n-6 ratio decreased in milk fat. Despite variation in nutritive value, maize silage is rich in metabolizable energy and supports higher DMI and milk yield. Harvesting maize silages at a DM content between 300 and 350 g kg(-1) and feeding in combination with grass silage results in a higher milk yield of dairy cows. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
: The alfalfa leaf cutting bee, Megachile rotundata, is the world’s most intensively managed solitary bee for commercial pollination. It is the primary pollinator of seed alfalfa, a valuable crop for dairy cow feed. Overwintering bees emerge in the spring during alfalfa bloom to mate an...
Mir, Z; Mir, P S
The effects of adding yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 5 x 10(9) live organisms/g of growth medium) at 10 g/steer daily to three diets consisting of 75% alfalfa silage and 25% barley, 96% corn silage and 4.0% soybean meal, or 75% dry-rolled barley and 25% alfalfa hay on performance of growing and finishing steers and carcass characteristics, feed digestibility, and degradability in the rumen were determined. In separate trials over 2 yr, the performance of steers fed the three diets with no supplementary live yeast (control; C) or with live yeast (Y) was determined using 72 Hereford steer calves in eight pens each year in a randomized complete block design. The diets were fed sequentially and the steers were randomized before diets were switched. Each year at the end of the high-grain feeding segment of the trial, the steers were slaughtered when ultrasound backfat was such that the carcass would grade A1 or A2 (Canadian grades). The digestibility of feed DM, CP, and NDF of the three diets was determined sequentially using six and eight mature, ruminally cannulated steers in 2 yr, respectively. The degradation characteristics of the three diets in the rumen were determined using the nylon bag technique in two steers for each additive treatment. In the 1st yr, the feed efficiency of the corn silage diet was lower (P < .05) for C than for Y steers (5.9 vs 6.8). Differences (P < .05) were not observed between C and Y steers for any of the performance or carcass characteristics.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Jung, Min-Woong; Kim, Da Hye; Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Jane, Mariamichael; Park, Hyung Su; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Jeon, Byong Tae; Choi, Ki Choon
The present study was aimed to investigate the nutritive profiles, microbial counts and fermentation metabolites in rye, Italian rye-grass (IRG) and barley supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum under the field condition, and its probiotic properties. After preparation of silage, the content of crude protein (CP), crude ash, acid detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), microbes such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB), yeast and fungi counts, and fermentation metabolites lactic acid, acetic acid and butyric acid was assessed. Results indicated that the content of ADF and NDF were significantly varied between rye, IRG and barley mediated silages. The content of CP was increased in L. plantarum supplemented with IRG, but slightly decreased in rye and barley mediated silages. The maximum LAB count was recorded at 53.10 × 10(7) cfu/g in rye, 16.18 × 10(7) cfu/g in IRG and 2.63 × 10(7) cfu/g in barley silages respectively. A considerable number of the yeasts were observed in the IRG silages than the rye silages (P < 0.05). The amount of lactic acid production is higher in L. plantarum supplemented silages as compared with control samples (P < 0.05). It was confirmed that higher amount of lactic acid produced only due to more number of LAB found in the silages. L. plantarum was able to survive at low pH and bile salt and the duodenum passage with the highest percentage of hydrophobicity. Furthermore, the strain was sensitive towards the antibiotics commonly used to maintain the microbes in food industrial setups. In conclusion, supplementation of L. plantarum is most beneficial in rye, IRG and barley silage preparations and probiotic characteristics of L. plantarum was an intrinsic feature for the application in the preparation of animal feeds and functional foods.
Keady, T W J; Lively, F O; Kilpatrick, D J; Moss, B W
A randomised design involving 66 continental cross beef steers (initial live weight 523 kg) was undertaken to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of maize or whole-crop wheat silages in grass silage-based diets on animal performance, carcass composition, and meat quality of beef cattle. Grass silage was offered either as the sole forage or in addition to either maize or whole-crop wheat silages at a ratio of 40:60, on a dry matter (DM) basis, alternative forage: grass silage. For the grass, maize, and whole-crop wheat silages, DM concentrations were 192, 276, and 319 g/kg, ammonia-nitrogen concentrations were 110, 90, and 150 g/kg nitrogen, starch concentrations were not determined, 225, and 209 g/kg DM and in vivo DM digestibilities were 0.69, 0.69, and 0.58; respectively. The forages were offered ad libitum following mixing in a paddle type complete diet mixer wagon once per day, supplemented with either 3 or 5 kg concentrates per steer per day, in two equal feeds, for 92 days. For the grass, grass plus maize and grass plus whole-crop wheat silage-based diets food intakes were 8.38, 9.08, and 9.14 kg DM per day, estimated carcass gains were 514, 602, and 496 g/day and carcass weights were 326, 334, and 325 kg; respectively. Altering the silage component of the diet did not influence carcass composition or meat eating quality. Increasing concentrate feed level tended ( P = 0.09) to increase estimated carcass fat concentration and increased sarcomere length ( P < 0.05), and lean a* ( P < 0.01), b* ( P < 0.05), and chroma ( P < 0.01). There were no significant silage type by concentrate feed level interactions for food intake, steer performance, carcass characteristics or meat eating quality. It is concluded that replacing grass silage with maize silage increased carcass gain, and weight due to higher intakes, and improved utilisation of metabolisable energy. Whilst replacing grass silage with whole-crop wheat silage increased live
Usefulness of alfalfa for livestock feeding and production of lignocellulose-derived ethanol would be improved by genetic alteration of stem cell wall concentration and composition. This could be accomplished through selective breeding and transgenic technologies. However, development of alfalfa cel...
Alfalfa, traditionally used for animal feed, has attracted attention as a potential feedstock for biofuels and the viability of the process would be enhanced by co-products with value-added uses. This study describes extraction of protein from dried alfalfa leaves and the functional properties of th...
The concept of co-production of liquid fuel (ethanol) along with animal feed on farm was proposed. The strategy of using ambient-temperature acid pretreatment, ensiling, and washing to improve ethanol production from alfalfa stems was investigated. Alfalfa stems were separated and pretreated with su...
Cai, Yimin; Kumai, Sumio; Ogawa, Masuhiro; Benno, Yoshimi; Nakase, Takashi
Pediococcus species isolated from forage crops were characterized, and their application to silage preparation was studied. Most isolates were distributed on forage crops at low frequency. These isolates could be divided into three (A, B, and C) groups by their sugar fermentation patterns. Strains LA 3, LA 35, and LS 5 are representative isolates from groups A, B, and C, respectively. Strains LA 3 and LA 35 had intragroup DNA homology values above 93.6%, showing that they belong to the species Pediococcus acidilactici. Strain LS 5 belonged to Pediococcus pentosaceus on the basis of DNA-DNA relatedness. All three of these strains and strain SL 1 (Lactobacillus casei, isolated from a commercial inoculant) were used as additives to alfalfa and Italian ryegrass silage preparation at two temperatures (25 and 48°C). When stored at 25°C, all of the inoculated silages were well preserved and exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) reduced fermentation losses compared to that of their control in alfalfa and Italian ryegrass silages. When stored at 48°C, silages inoculated with strains LA 3 and LA 35 were also well preserved, with a significantly (P < 0.05) lower pH, butyric acid and ammonia-nitrogen content, gas production, and dry matter loss and significantly (P < 0.05) higher lactate content than the control, but silages inoculated with LS 5 and SL 1 were of poor quality. P. acidilactici LA 3 and LA 35 are considered suitable as potential silage inoculants. PMID:10388681
Pang, Huili; Qin, Guangyong; Tan, Zhongfang; Li, Zongwei; Wang, Yanping; Cai, Yimin
One hundred and fifty-six strains isolated from corn (Zea mays L.), forage paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silages prepared on dairy farms were screened, of which 110 isolates were considered to be lactic acid bacteria (LAB) according to their Gram-positive and catalase-negative characteristics and, mainly, the lactic acid metabolic products. These isolates were divided into eight groups (A-H) based on the following properties: morphological and biochemical characteristics, γ-aminobutyric acid production capacity, and 16S rRNA gene sequences. They were identified as Weissella cibaria (36.4%), Weissella confusa (9.1%), Leuconostoc citreum (5.3%), Leuconostoc lactis (4.9%), Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (8.0%), Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (4.5%), Lactobacillus paraplantarum (4.5%) and Lactobacillus plantarum (27.3%). W. cibaria and W. confusa were mainly present in corn silages, and L. plantarum was dominant on sorghum and forage paddy rice silages, while L. pseudomesenteroides, L. plantarum and L. paraplantarum were the dominant species in alfalfa silage. The corn, sorghum and forage paddy rice silages were well preserved with lower pH values and ammonia-N concentrations, but had higher lactic acid content, while the alfalfa silage had relatively poor quality with higher pH values and ammonia-N concentrations, and lower lactic acid content. The present study confirmed the diversity of LAB species inhabiting silages. It showed that the differing natural populations of LAB on these silages might influence fermentation quality. These results will enable future research on the relationship between LAB species and silage fermentation quality, and will enhance the screening of appropriate inoculants aimed at improving such quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Recent advances in our understanding of silage microbiology are reviewed. The ability to extract microbial DNA from silages, amplify portions of DNA, and use the amplified regions to identify strains of microorganisms is at the core of the changes occurring recently in silage microbiology. These dev...
Baled silage is an attractive management option for many forage and livestock producers. Many principles for making well-preserved baled silage are similar to those required for traditional precision-chopped silages. Generally, the overall goal is to quickly create an anaerobic environment in which ...
High quality silages are often the keystone of rations for dairy cows. Rations for dairy animals may contain 10 to 90%; therefore silage quality, which encompasses all silage characteristics that impact animal performance, is often crucial in meeting the nutrient requirements for dairy production. N...
Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Higdon, S.; Balonek, T. J.; Haynes, M. P.; Giovanelli, R.
The Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team is a consortium of 16 institutions engaged in an NSF-sponsored program to promote undergraduate research within the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind survey project. In the first two years of the program, more than three dozen undergraduate students have been closely involved in ALFALFA science, observing, and data analysis. A total of 34 students have attended the annual undergraduate workshops at Arecibo Observatory, interacting with faculty, their peers, ALFALFA experts, and Arecibo staff in lectures, group activities, tours, and observing runs. Team faculty have supervised 26 summer research projects and 14 academic year (e.g., senior thesis) projects. Students and faculty have traveled to Arecibo Observatory for observing runs and to national meetings to present their results. Eight Team schools have joined to work collaboratively to analyze HI properties of galaxy groups within the ALFALFA volume. (See O'Brien et al., O'Malley et al., and Odekon et al. posters, this meeting.) Students involved in this program are learning how science is accomplished in a large collaboration while contributing to the scientific goals of a major legacy survey. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918, AST-0725267, and AST-0725380.
Tennant, Richard K.; Sambles, Christine M.; Diffey, Georgina E.; Moore, Karen A.; Love, John
Metagenomics is defined as the direct analysis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) purified from environmental samples and enables taxonomic identification of the microbial communities present within them. Two main metagenomic approaches exist; sequencing the 16S rRNA gene coding region, which exhibits sufficient variation between taxa for identification, and shotgun sequencing, in which genomes of the organisms that are present in the sample are analyzed and ascribed to "operational taxonomic units"; species, genera or families depending on the extent of sequencing coverage. In this study, shotgun sequencing was used to analyze the microbial community present in cattle silage and, coupled with a range of bioinformatics tools to quality check and filter the DNA sequence reads, perform taxonomic classification of the microbial populations present within the sampled silage, and achieve functional annotation of the sequences. These methods were employed to identify potentially harmful bacteria that existed within the silage, an indication of silage spoilage. If spoiled silage is not remediated, then upon ingestion it could be potentially fatal to the livestock. PMID:28117801
Han, H; Takase, S; Nishino, N
To determine the survival rate of silage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the ruminant gastrointestinal tract. Wilted Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) silage (containing 1·9×10(6) CFU LAB g(-1)) was fed ad libitum to three goats equipped with rumen cannulae. Silage was given alone or with concentrates at a 1:1 ratio on a dry matter basis. Rumen fluid was then obtained 2, 4 and 8h after the morning feeding. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was performed to compare LAB communities in silage, rumen fluid and faeces. The LAB detected in the wilted silage included Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus murinus and Lactobacillus sakei. Bands indicative of Lact. murinus were detected in either the rumen fluid or faeces, whereas the bands indicative of Lact. plantarum, Lact. brevis and Lact. sakei were not. Although the rumen fluid LAB counts and volatile fatty acid concentrations were higher in goats fed silage plus concentrates compared with those fed silage alone, the LAB communities themselves remained unaffected. Sampling times and goat-to-goat variations did not affect the LAB communities found in the rumen fluid. LAB communities found in the gut are not remarkably affected by the consumption of silage LAB, even when the silage is accompanied by concentrates that facilitate gut fermentation. Although silage can improve probiotic function, it may be difficult for silage LAB to survive the digestive process in the ruminant gastrointestinal tract. © 2012 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Herrmann, Christiane; Idler, Christine; Heiermann, Monika
The effects of air stress during storage, exposure to air at feed-out, and treatment with silage additives to enhance aerobic stability on methane production from maize silage were investigated at laboratory scale. Up to 17% of the methane potential of maize without additive was lost during seven days exposure to air on feed-out. Air stress during storage reduced aerobic stability and further increased methane losses. A chemical additive containing salts of benzoate and propionate, and inoculants containing heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria were effective to increase aerobic stability and resulted in up to 29% higher methane yields after exposure to air. Exclusion of air to the best possible extent and high aerobic stabilities should be primary objectives when ensiling biogas feedstocks.
Rodríguez, T; Montilla, J J; Bello, R A
The purpose of this study was the nutritional evaluation of proteins in fish silage. A biological test was conducted in chicks (broilers) to evaluate two levels of inclusion of fish silage (2.5% and 5%, respectively) in diets normally used for feeding them. Chicks were evaluated in weight gain, food consumption, and feeding conversion index. Finally, flavor and acceptability tests of meat from broilers fed the experimental diet were conducted. Results of the biological assay indicated that the best biological response was that of the animals fed the 5% fish silage diet. Sensory tests revealed that the meat of chicks fed the experimental diets had favorable acceptance by the consumers.
Kristensen, N B; Storm, A; Raun, B M L; Røjen, B A; Harmon, D L
Dairy cows fed silage are subjected to various alcohols and low molecular weight esters. Four lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the hepatic portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and mesenteric artery were used to study the absorption of alcohols into portal blood and the metabolism of feed alcohols in the rumen and splanchnic tissues. The cows were allocated to 4 experimental treatments in a Latin square design. All treatments were formulated as total mixed rations with the same overall nutrient composition, differing by the source of corn silage. Treatments were a control silage and 3 qualities of problematic corn silage (silage with Fusarium toxin, Penicillium-infected silage, and silage with a high propanol content). Feeding was followed by a decreasing ruminal pH, as well as decreasing molar proportions of ruminal acetate and isobutyrate. The ruminal concentrations of total VFA, ethanol, propanol, 2-butanol, ethyl acetate, propyl acetate, glucose, and L-lactate, and molar proportions of propionate, butyrate, isovalerate, valerate, and caproate increased after feeding. Treatments affected ruminal concentrations of propanol, propyl acetate, and butyrate and a strong correlation was observed between ruminal propyl acetate and the molar proportion of butyrate (r = -0.79). Arterial concentrations of ethanol, propanol, propanal, acetone (sum of acetone and acetoacetate), 3-hydroxybutyrate, L-lactate, glutamate, and glutamine increased, and the arterial concentration of glucose decreased after feeding, but no effects of treatment were observed for arterial variables. The postprandial increase in arterial ethanol was maintained for 5 h. The net portal release of ethanol tended to decrease with the treatment with the lowest ethanol content, and the net splanchnic release of ethanol increased after feeding, but overall, the net splanchnic flux of ethanol was not different from zero, in agreement with the
Dal Bosco, A; Mugnai, C; Roscini, V; Mattioli, S; Ruggeri, S; Castellini, C
The objective of the study was to analyse and increase the quality of rabbit meat by increasing the levels of natural bioactive compounds through providing fresh alfalfa to rabbits as complementary feed. At 50 days of age, forty rabbits were divided into two homogeneous groups and fed pelleted feed (control group) or pelleted feed plus fresh alfalfa (alfalfa group). The lipid content of meat was significantly higher in the control group likely due to the higher feed consumption observed in this group. The same trend was observed in the contents of myristic, palmitoleic, oleic and linoleic acid. On the contrary, the supplementation of fresh alfalfa increased the stearic, linolenic, eicosatrienoic, eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic and total polyunsaturated fatty acid contents; also the total monounsaturated fatty acids and the α- and γ-tocopherol content was significantly lower. Moreover, alfalfa ingestion decreased the n-6 content, n-6/n-3 ratio and thrombogenicity index.
Acosta Aragón, Y; Jatkauskas, J; Vrotniakienė, V
The effect of inoculation on nutrient content, fermentation, aerobic stability, and beef cattle performance for whole-plant corn silage treated with a commercial product (blend of homo- and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, BSM, blend of Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis, DSM numbers 3530, 19457, and 23231, resp.), was compared to a control treatment with no silage additives (CT). The material had a DM of 323 g/kg, crude protein, and water-soluble carbohydrate concentrations of 87.9 and 110.5 g/kg DM, respectively. BSM increased the fermentation rate with a significantly deeper pH (P < 0.01), a significant increase in the total organic acids concentration (P < 0.05), more lactic acid (P < 0.01), and numerically more acetic acid compared to CT. BSM significantly decreased the concentrations of butyric acid (P < 0.01), ethanol, and ammonia-N compared to the CT. BSM-treated silage decreased DM by 3.0 % (P < 0.01) and had a higher digestible energy and a higher metabolizable energy concentration by 2.3 (P < 0.01) and 1.00 % (P < 0.05), respectively, compared to untreated silage. Aerobic stability improved by more than 2 days in BSM silage. The DM intake of silage treated with BSM increased by 6.14 %, and improved weight gain and the feed conversion by 8.0 (P < 0.01) and 3.4%.
Acosta Aragón, Y.; Jatkauskas, J.; Vrotniakienė, V.
The effect of inoculation on nutrient content, fermentation, aerobic stability, and beef cattle performance for whole-plant corn silage treated with a commercial product (blend of homo- and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, BSM, blend of Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis, DSM numbers 3530, 19457, and 23231, resp.), was compared to a control treatment with no silage additives (CT). The material had a DM of 323 g/kg, crude protein, and water-soluble carbohydrate concentrations of 87.9 and 110.5 g/kg DM, respectively. BSM increased the fermentation rate with a significantly deeper pH (P < 0.01), a significant increase in the total organic acids concentration (P < 0.05), more lactic acid (P < 0.01), and numerically more acetic acid compared to CT. BSM significantly decreased the concentrations of butyric acid (P < 0.01), ethanol, and ammonia-N compared to the CT. BSM-treated silage decreased DM by 3.0 % (P < 0.01) and had a higher digestible energy and a higher metabolizable energy concentration by 2.3 (P < 0.01) and 1.00 % (P < 0.05), respectively, compared to untreated silage. Aerobic stability improved by more than 2 days in BSM silage. The DM intake of silage treated with BSM increased by 6.14 %, and improved weight gain and the feed conversion by 8.0 (P < 0.01) and 3.4%. PMID:23738122
Ávila, C L S; Carvalho, B F; Pinto, J C; Duarte, W F; Schwan, R F
Sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) is a forage crop widely used in animal feed because of its high dry matter (DM) production (25 to 40 t/ha) and high energy concentration. The ensiling of sugar cane often incurs problems with the growth of yeasts, which leads to high losses of DM throughout the fermentative process. The selection of specific inoculants for sugar cane silage can improve the quality of the silage. The present study aimed to select strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from sugar cane silage and to assess their effects when used as additives on the same type of silage. The LAB strains were inoculated into sugar cane broth to evaluate their production of metabolites. The selected strains produced higher concentrations of acetic and propionic acids and resulted in better silage characteristics, such as low yeast population, lower ethanol content, and lesser DM loss. These data confirmed that facultative heterofermentative strains are not good candidates for sugar cane silage inoculation and may even worsen the quality of the silage fermentation by increasing DM losses throughout the process. Lactobacillus hilgardii strains UFLA SIL51 and UFLA SIL52 resulted in silage with the best characteristics in relation to DM loss, low ethanol content, higher LAB population, and low butyric acid content. Strains UFLA SIL51 and SIL52 are recommended as starter cultures for sugar cane silage.
Vicini, J L; Bateman, H G; Bhat, M K; Clark, J H; Erdman, R A; Phipps, R H; Van Amburgh, M E; Hartnell, G F; Hintz, R L; Hard, D L
Two trials were conducted to evaluate effects of feeding supplemental fibrolytic enzymes or soluble sugars and malic acid on milk production. In trial 1, 257 cows at four sites were fed a basal diet consisting of no more than 60% of forage DM as corn silage and less than 40% as alfalfa hay. Cows were assigned randomly within site, parity, and two stages of lactation to: 1) control; 2) enzyme A; 3) enzyme B; and 4) soluble sugars and malic acid. There was a 14-d pretreatment and an 84-d treatment period. Enzyme solutions were sprayed on either the forage component or the TMR each day while mixing feed. Trial 2 was similar, except 122 cows at one site in the United Kingdom were fed diets containing forage that was 75% corn silage and 25% grass silage, and all cows began the study between 25 to 31 DIM. Mean milk productions for 233 cows that completed trial 1 were 32.9, 32.5, 32.4, and 32.9 kg/d for control, enzyme A, enzyme B, and soluble sugars and malic acid, respectively. Mean milk productions for 116 cows that completed trial 2 were 28.2, 27.9, 28.8, and 28.4 kg/d, respectively. In vitro analyses of the activities of enzyme solutions indicated that all major cellulose and hemicellulose degrading activities were present; however, the pH optima (approximate pH = 4 to 5) were more acidic, and the temperature optimum (approximately 50 degrees C) was greater than normal pH and temperature in the rumen. If fibrolytic activity in the rumen is a major mechanism of action of supplemental fibrolytic enzymes, it appears that considerable activity of these preparations was lost due to conditions in the rumen. In conclusion, feeding supplemental fibrolytic enzymes or malic acid with soluble sugars had no effect on milk production under the conditions used in this study.
Rossi, F; Dellaglio, F
This study evaluated the quality and possible hygiene risks related to farm-made silages by analysing the presence and number of micro-organisms that influence the preservation and safety in samples from four Italian regions. Lactic acid bacteria, clostridia, lactate-fermenting yeasts and propionibacteria (PAB) were isolated and identified by random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR, sequencing of the V2-V3 16S rRNA gene region, 5.8S-ITS rDNA RFLP and species-specific PCR. The Lactobacillus plantarum cluster was the most numerous and comprised strains mostly isolated from alfalfa silage. The Lactobacillus buchneri cluster, second in number, comprised isolates from both alfalfa and maize silage. Anaerobic spore formers were assigned to the species Clostridium baratii, Clostridium beijerinkii, Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium saccharolyticum, Clostridium tyrobutyricum and Paenibacillus macerans. Yeast isolates were identified as Candida apicola, Candida mesenterica and Pichia fermentans. PAB strains, detected only in unifeed, were all identified as Propionibacterium acidipropionici. The occurrence of spoiling micro-organisms was frequent and the possibility of contamination by potentially pathogenic clostridia was demonstrated. The results suggest the need for improved ensiling practices and appropriate control measures to safeguard the hygienic and nutritional quality of silages produced in farms.
Taheri, Mohammad Reza; Zamiri, Mohammad Javad; Rowghani, Ebrahim; Akhlaghi, Amir
Feed cost has a significant effect on the economic efficiency of feedlot lambs; therefore, the use of low-cost non-conventional feedstuffs, such as olive pulp (OP), has the potential to decrease the production costs. Because optimum inclusion of OP-treated silages has not been determined in feedlot lambs, an experiment was conducted to determine the effect of inclusion of OP ensiled with additives in the diet on the feedlot performance and carcass attributes of feedlot lambs. Ram lambs of Mehraban and Ghezel breeds (n = 50 lambs per breed) were randomly allotted to 10 groups and fed with one of the nine diets containing OP silage or a control diet. Silage treatments were: (1) OP silage without additives (OPS), (2) OP ensiled with 8 % beet molasses and 0.4 % formic acid (OP-MF), and (3) OP ensiled with 8 % beet molasses, 0.4 % formic acid and 0.5 % urea (OP-MFU). The control diet contained 50 % alfalfa hay and 50 % barley grain. Three levels from each silage were chosen to replace the barley grain (10, 20, or 30 % dry matter basis). The lambs were slaughtered after 92 days, and the average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and carcass characteristics were determined. Feeding OPS to fat-tailed lambs, at an inclusion level of 30 %, decreased the carcass dressing percentage, mainly as a result of decreased brisket percentage, but the ADG and FCR values were not adversely affected. Ghezel lambs had higher ADG than Mehraban lambs, but the visceral fat weight percentage, flap weight percentage, and back fat depth were higher in Mehraban. The crude protein content in the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle was higher in Ghezel, but the dry matter percentage was higher in Mehraban (P < 0.05). Other attributes were not significantly affected by breed (P > 0.05). Most carcass characteristics, including major cuts, were not affected by OPS feeding; therefore, feeding OPS (up to 30 %) can be economical for feedlot lambs. Most carcass characteristics, including major cuts
As a precursor to smog, emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere is an environmental concern in some regions. The major VOC emission source from farms is silage, with emissions coming from the silo face, mixing wagon, and feed bunk. The major compounds emitted are alcohols wit...
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), necessary reactants for photochemical smog formation, are emitted from numerous sources. Limited available data suggest that dairy farms emit VOCs with cattle feed, primarily silage, being the primary source. Process-based models of VOC transfer within and from si...
There is growing concern in the U.S. regarding the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from farms and their contribution to smog formation near ozone non-attainment areas. The few studies that have measured VOC emissions have identified mixed feed and the exposed silage face as major farm ...
Effects of adding food by-products mainly including noodle waste to total mixed ration silage on fermentation quality, feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization and ruminal fermentation in wethers.
Ishida, Kyohei; Yani, Srita; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime
Four wethers were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate the applicability of two types of total mixed ration (TMR) silage with food by-products. Four food by-products (i.e., potato waste, soy sauce cake, soybean curd residue and noodle waste) were obtained and mixed with commercial concentrate (CC) as TMR silage. The two types of TMR silage, T1 and T2, each contained CC, in addition to all by-products for T1 (TRE1), and soy sauce cake and noodle waste for T2 (TRE2) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The silage was well-fermented with low pH values and high lactic acid concentration. As the experimental treatments, T1, T2 and CC (CTL) were fed with a basal diet. The result showed that the digestibility of DM and organic matter (OM) were higher for T1 than for CC (P < 0.05), while crude protein digestibility was not significantly different among T1, T2 and CC. The retained nitrogen was not affected by inclusion of food by-products. Ruminal pH in TRE1 and TRE2 immediately decreased compared to that in CTL. The study suggested that the two types of TMR silage, including food by-products, might be used as a substitute for commercial concentrate. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
An alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) biomass energy production system would produce two products. Leaves would be separated from stems to produce a high protein feed for livestock while stems would be processed to produce ethanol. Therefore, maximum yields of both leaves and stems are essential for profi...
Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Wu, J L; Jiang, Y Q
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of alfalfa meal diets on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing egg-type ducks. A total of 128 healthy 7-week-old female egg-type Shaoxing ducks were selected and randomly assigned into four dietary treatments: 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal for 8 weeks. Each treatment consisted of four replicates of eight ducks each. Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to characterize the microbiota. The results showed that the DGGE fingerprints of the V6-V8 fragments of the 16S rRNA from the caeca and faeces of ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal had significantly higher microbiota species richness than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p < 0.05). The Shannon-Weiner index of the microbiota from the caeca and faeces of ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal was significantly higher than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p < 0.05). Molecular analysis of the caecal and faecal DNA extracts showed that the alfalfa meal diet promotes the intestinal microbial diversity, as indicated by their higher species richness and Shannon-Weiner index. However, the groups did not significantly differ in terms of average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio (p > 0.05), and the 3-9% alfalfa meal did not affect the growth performance of the growing egg-type ducks. The proliferation of T and B lymphocytes was significantly greater (p < 0.05) in the groups supplemented with 3%, 6% and 9% of alfalfa meal than the unsupplemented control group, and alfalfa meal promoted the lymphocytes proliferation of the growing egg-type ducks. Dietary alfalfa meal supplementation increases intestinal microbial community diversity and improves of the immune response growing egg-type ducks. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Zhou, W D; Wu, J L; Zhu, Z G; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q
A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i) Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05). ii) Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (p<0.05). iii) Villus height in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). Crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). This experiment showed that feeding of alfalfa meal to growing layer ducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks.
Jiang, J. F.; Song, X. M.; Huang, X.; Zhou, W. D.; Wu, J. L.; Zhu, Z. G.; Zheng, H. C.; Jiang, Y. Q.
A study was conducted to evaluate effects of alfalfa meal on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract development of growing layer ducks to provide evidence for application of alfalfa meal in the duck industry. Two hundred and fifty-six healthy Shaoxing 7-wk old growing layer ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments based on corn and soybean meal and containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 8 wks. Each treatment consisted of 4 replicates of 16 ducks each. Briefly, birds were raised in separate compartments, and each compartment consisted of three parts: indoor floor house, adjacent open area and a connecting water area. The results showed: i) Growing ducks fed alfalfa meal diet were not significantly different in average daily gain, feed intake and gain-to-feed ratio from those fed no alfalfa diet (p>0.05). ii) Alfalfa meal increased the ratio crop, gizzard to live weight, caecum to live weight, the caecum index of growing ducks (p<0.05). iii) Villus height in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks increased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). Crypt depth in duodenum and jejunum of growing ducks decreased significantly with the increase of alfalfa meal levels (p<0.05). This experiment showed that feeding of alfalfa meal to growing layer ducks could improve gastrointestinal tract growth and small intestinal morphology without effect on performance. This experiment provides evidence that alfalfa meal is a very valuable feedstuff for growing layer ducks. PMID:25049501
Bonifacio, H. F.; Rotz, C. A.; Hafner, S. D.; Montes, F.; Cohen, M.; Mitloehner, F. M.
Silage on dairy farms can emit large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), a precursor in the formation of tropospheric ozone. Because of the challenges associated with direct measurements, process-based modeling is another approach for estimating emissions of air pollutants from sources such as those from dairy farms. A process-based model for predicting VOC emissions from silage was developed and incorporated into the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM, v. 4.3), a whole-farm simulation of crop, dairy, and beef production systems. The performance of the IFSM silage VOC emission model was evaluated using ethanol and methanol emissions measured from conventional silage piles (CSP), silage bags (SB), total mixed rations (TMR), and loose corn silage (LCS) at a commercial dairy farm in central California. With transport coefficients for ethanol refined using experimental data from our previous studies, the model performed well in simulating ethanol emission from CSP, TMR, and LCS; its lower performance for SB could be attributed to possible changes in face conditions of SB after silage removal that are not represented in the current model. For methanol emission, lack of experimental data for refinement likely caused the underprediction for CSP and SB whereas the overprediction observed for TMR can be explained as uncertainty in measurements. Despite these limitations, the model is a valuable tool for comparing silage management options and evaluating their relative effects on the overall performance, economics, and environmental impacts of farm production. As a component of IFSM, the silage VOC emission model was used to simulate a representative dairy farm in central California. The simulation showed most silage VOC emissions were from feed lying in feed lanes and not from the exposed face of silage storages. This suggests that mitigation efforts, particularly in areas prone to ozone non-attainment status, should focus on reducing emissions during feeding. For
Hidiroglou, H; Ivan, M; Jenkins, K J
Sixteen pregnant Shorthorn cows were winter-fed either oat or barley silage, both of which were low in selenium (less than .1 ppm). Two months before calving, as well as at calving and a month later, four cows on each diet were given intramuscularly a preparation containing 1360 IU of vitamin E and 30 mg selenium as sodium selenite. Barley silage lipids contained higher linoleic (33.2 versus 22.3%) and palmitic acids (32.3 versus 23.1%), and lower oleic (6.3 versus 22.1%) and linolenic acids (20.9 versus 30.9%) than oat silage. Three calves born from the untreated dams on barley silage died from nutritional muscular dystrophy by 50 days of age whereas none of the calves either from the untreated cows on oat silage or from any of the selenium/vitamin E treated cows. Milk from untreated cows fed barley silage contained a higher proportion of linoleic acid than that from treated cows or from those on oat silage. The incidence of nutritional muscular dystrophy was associated closely with ingestion by the calves of an increased amount of dietary dienoic acid. It appears an advantage to include oat silage in winter feeding programs for beef cows to reduce the risk of development of nutritional muscular dystrophy in the offspring.
Anaya-Ortega, J P; Garduño-Castro, G; Espinoza-Ortega, A; Rojo-Rubio, R; Arriaga-Jordán, C M
Small-scale dairy systems based on grazing have dry-season herbage shortages. A repeated 3 x 3 Latin Square experiment evaluated grazing with silage from maize (MS), annual ryegrass (ARG) or a mixture (MIX) with 9 cows with 3 week periods; continuously grazed at 3.6 cows/ha with 3.6 kg DM/day of concentrate. Treatments were 7 kg DM of MS, ARG or a 2 MS:1 ARG mixture. Milk yield (MY), milk composition, live-weight, body condition, silage and concentrate intake were recorded. Herbage DM intake was estimated indirectly. Activity budgets were done for economic analysis. MY on MS (21.5 kg/cow/d) was 0.06 higher than on ARG (P < 0.09) with no differences on MIX. There were no differences for milk fat, milk protein, or body condition score. Live-weight on ARG was higher (P < 0.01) than on MS or MIX. Silage intake was higher (P < 0.01) on ARG and MS than on MIX. Herbage intake was lower (P < 0.05) on MS, compared with MIX and ARG. Total DM intake on ARG was higher than MS (P < 0.01), and MIX in between. MS resulted in 0.12 higher economic returns over ARG which had highest costs. Annual ryegrass may have a place in small-scale systems, but not as silage due to higher costs.
Bahar, Bojlul; Monahan, Frank J; Moloney, Aidan P; O'Kiely, Padraig; Scrimgeour, Charlie M; Schmidt, Olaf
This study investigated the effect of substituting grass silage (C3 photosynthetic plant product) with maize silage (C4 photosynthetic plant product) on the natural abundance carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N) stable isotope composition of bovine muscle tissue. Forty-five continental crossbred heifers were assigned to one of three diets consisting of 3 kg of a barley-based concentrate plus grass silage, maize silage or an equal mixture (dry matter basis) of grass silage and maize silage, fed ad libitum, for 167 days. Substitution resulted in less negative delta13C values (P<0.001) in lipid-free muscle and in lipid, and also a lower delta15N (P<0.001) in lipid-free muscle. Feeding of maize silage was clearly reflected in the delta13C of muscle, with each 10% difference in the dietary C4 carbon intake resulting in a 0.9 to 1.0 per thousand shift of delta13C in lipid-free muscle and a 1.0 to 1.2 per thousand in lipid. Minimum detectable mean differences (95% confidence, power 0.80, n=15) in this experiment were about 0.5 per thousand and 1.0 per thousand for delta13C of lipid-free muscle and lipid, respectively, and about 0.5 per thousand for delta15N of lipid-free muscle. The power analysis presented here is useful for estimating minimum isotopic differences that can be detected between any two groups of beef samples with a given number of replicates. It is concluded that carbon stable isotope ratio analysis of meat can be used to quantify C3/C4 dietary constituents in beef production. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sharma, P.; Moncrief, J.; Gupta, S.
Dominance of row crop agriculture in rolling landscapes of western and Southwestern Minnesota is identified as a primary, non-point source of sediments and associated pollutants reaching the Minnesota River. Currently as a biomass energy project, alfalfa is being promoted in western Minnesota to harvest the leaves for animal feed and stems to generate electricity. As a perennial, leguminous crop grown with minimum inputs, introduction of alfalfa in row cropped lands has potential to improve both in-situ soil productivity and downstream water quality. A field study was initiated in 1996 to compare the volume of runoff and pollutants coming from alfalfa an com-soybean fields in western Minnesota. Two pair of alfalfa and corn-soybean watersheds were instrumented at Morris in the Fall of 1996 to measure rainfall, runoff, and sample water for sediment load, phosphorus, nitrogen, biochemical oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand. Simulated rainfall-runoff experiments were conducted on an existing crop rotation - input management study plots at Lamberton to evaluate soil quality effects of the inclusion of alfalfa in a corn-soybean rotation under manure and fertilization management schemes. Alfalfa soil water use as a function of frequency of harvest was also monitored at Morris to evaluate the effect of cutting schedule on soil water use. During the growing season of 1997, alfalfa under a two-cut management scheme used about 25-mm (an inch) more soil water than under a three-cut schedule. The mean differences between the treatments were not significant. The conclusions drawn in this report come from analysis of data collected during one winter-summer hydrologic and crop management cycle. Continued observations through a period of at least 3-5 years is recommended to improve the instrumentation robustness and discern the variability due to climate, soil, and crop management factors.
Scruggs, D W; Blue, G K
Cattle in 2 herds developed type-3 photosensitization after eating moldy alfalfa hay. Clinical signs included severe epidermal necrosis of unpigmented skin and marked decrease of milk production (herd 1). One herd had 18% mortality. Values for serum gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, and serum bilirubin were high in affected cows. Biliary epithelial degeneration and necrosis affecting the smaller bile ductules is the most consistent histologic lesion. Biliary hyperplasia, early portal fibroplasia, hepatocellular vacuolar degeneration and necrosis, and cholestasis were commonly seen. Mold growth on the alfalfa hay associated with prolonged wet weather prior to harvest was common to both herds. The cases reported here document hepatoxicosis and photosensitization associated with feeding moldy alfalfa hay grown in southeastern United States.
Greter, A M; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; McBride, B W; DeVries, T J
The objective of this study was to determine how different feeding methods may affect the learning of feeding, sorting, and competitive behavior of growing dairy heifers. We hypothesized that heifers previously fed a total mixed ration (TMR) would distribute their feeding time more evenly throughout the day, sort the new ration less, compete less for feed, maintain a more solid fecal consistency, and continue to grow rapidly compared with heifers previously fed a top-dressed ration (TDR). Thirty-two Holstein heifers (237.2+/-21.9 d of age) were divided into 8 groups of 4 and exposed to 1 of 2 treatments for 13 wk: 1) TMR or 2) TDR, with each containing 65% grass/alfalfa haylage and 35% textured concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Following this feeding period, all heifers were switched to an unfamiliar TMR containing 56.1% grass/alfalfa haylage, 21.0% corn silage, 21.0% high-moisture corn, and 1.9% mineral supplement (DM basis) for 7 wk. Group DM intakes were recorded daily throughout the experiment. Feeding behavior, recorded using time-lapse video, and sorting behavior were measured for 7 d during wk 1, 4, and 7 after the dietary change. Feeding competition was measured on d 2, 4, and 6 of each recording week. Sorting activity was determined through particle size analysis of the fresh feed and orts. The particle size separator separated feed into 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting of each fraction was calculated as actual intake expressed as a percentage of predicted intake. Animals were scored for fecal consistency twice weekly, using a scale from 1 (liquid) to 4 (solid). Heifers were weighed every 2 wk. Neither DM intake (9.0 kg/d) nor average daily gain (1.2 kg/d) differed between treatments. Sorting also did not differ between treatments. Heifers tended to spend more time feeding if they had previously been fed a TDR (198.8 vs. 186.8 min/d). As they had done before the dietary change, heifers previously fed the TDR spent more time at the
Wang, B; Mao, S Y; Yang, H J; Wu, Y M; Wang, J K; Li, S L; Shen, Z M; Liu, J X
This study was conducted to investigate the nutrient digestibility and lactation performance when alfalfa was replaced with rice straw or corn stover in the diet of lactating cows. Forty-five multiparous Holstein dairy cows were blocked based on days in milk (164 ± 24.8 d; mean ± standard deviation) and milk yield (29.7 ± 4.7 kg; mean ± standard deviation) and were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments. Diets were isonitrogenous, with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 45:55 [dry matter (DM) basis] and contained identical concentrate mixtures and 15% corn silage, with different forage sources (on a DM basis): 23% alfalfa hay and 7% Chinese wild rye hay (AH), 30% corn stover (CS), and 30% rice straw (RS). The experiment was conducted over a 14-wk period, with the first 2 wk for adaptation. The DM intake of the cows was not affected by forage source. Yield of milk, milk fat, protein, lactose, and total solids was higher in cows fed diets of AH than diets of RS or CS, with no difference between RS and CS. Contents of milk protein and total solids were higher in AH than in RS, with no difference between CS and AH or RS. Feed efficiency (milk yield/DM intake) was highest for cows fed AH, followed by RS and CS. Cows fed AH excreted more urinary purine derivatives, indicating that the microbial crude protein yield may be higher for the AH diet than for RS and CS, which may be attributed to the higher content of fermentable carbohydrates in AH than in RS and CS. Total-tract apparent digestibilities of all the nutrients were higher in cows fed the AH diet than those fed CS and RS. The concentration of rumen volatile fatty acids was higher in the AH diet than in CS or RS diets, with no difference between CS and RS diets. When the cereal straw was used to replace alfalfa as a main forage source for lactating cows, the shortage of fermented energy may have reduced the rumen microbial protein synthesis, resulting in lower milk protein yield, and lower nutrient digestibility
In 2016, many parts of the Midwest experienced far wetter than normal summer weather and by August or September, many growers were asking, “Why is my alfalfa yellow?” When all or part of an alfalfa field is yellow, it is a certain sign that something has gone wrong. In this case the problem in most ...
Hafner, Sasha D.; Howard, Cody; Muck, Richard E.; Franco, Roberta B.; Montes, Felipe; Green, Peter G.; Mitloehner, Frank; Trabue, Steven L.; Rotz, C. Alan
Silage, fermented cattle feed, has recently been identified as a significant source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. A small number of studies have measured VOC emission from silage, but not enough is known about the processes involved to accurately quantify emission rates and identify practices that could reduce emissions. Through a literature review, we have focused on identifying the most important compounds emitted from corn silage (the most common type of silage in the US) and the sources of these compounds by quantifying their production and emission potential in silage and describing production pathways. We reviewed measurements of VOC emission from silage and assessed the importance of individual silage VOCs through a quantitative analysis of VOC concentrations within silage. Measurements of VOC emission from silage and VOCs present within silage indicated that alcohols generally make the largest contribution to emission from corn silage, in terms of mass emitted and potential ozone formation. Ethanol is the dominant alcohol in corn silage; excluding acids, it makes up more than half of the mean mass of VOCs present. Acids, primarily acetic acid, may be important when emission is high and all VOCs are nearly depleted by emission. Aldehydes and esters, which are more volatile than acids and alcohols, are important when exposure is short, limiting emission of more abundant but less volatile compounds. Variability in silage VOC concentrations is very high; for most alcohols and acids, tolerance intervals indicate that 25% of silages have concentrations a factor of two away from median values, and possibly much further. This observation suggests that management practices can significantly influence VOC concentrations. Variability also makes prediction of emissions difficult. The most important acids, alcohols, and aldehydes present in silage are probably produced by bacteria (and, in the case of ethanol, yeasts) during fermentation and
Staerfl, S M; Soliva, C R; Leiber, F; Kreuzer, M
Carcass fat composition of cattle fed a forage-based diet might be inferior with maize silage compared to grass-silage based systems. This was quantified using complete diets with concentrate. To test whether supplements may influence carcass fat properties as well, the maize-silage diet was additionally supplemented either with Acacia mearnsii tannins, garlic, maca or lupines, feeds rich in secondary metabolites. The perirenal fat of 6×6 bulls fed these six diets was analysed for fatty acid profile and shelf life. The n-6/ n-3 ratio was always higher than 11 with the maize silage treatments and 2 with grass silage. The supplements did not affect the occurrence of biohydrogenation intermediates, including rumenic acid. Shelf life, being twice as long with maize compared to grass silage, was either unaffected or tended to be impaired, especially with supplementary garlic. Overall, supplementation was not efficient in improving carcass fat properties of maize-silage fed bulls. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tudisco, R; Calabrò, S; Grossi, M; Piccolo, G; Guglielmelli, A; Cutrignelli, M I; Caiazzo, C; Infascelli, F
A 150-day trial was carried out on 40 Italian Mediterranean buffalo cows that, immediately after calving, were equally divided into two homogeneous groups (M and O) based on the number of calving events and previous milk yield. The animals were fed (16 kg dry matter (DM)/head) two isoenergy/isoprotein diets (NEl: 6.39 MJ/kg DM; 15.4 CP% DM), composed of corn (diet M) or barley silage (diet O) concentrate, alfalfa hay, and a vitamin-mineral supplement. The fermentation characteristics of both silage diets were evaluated by an in vitro gas production technique, and their nutritional values were calculated as follows: NEl (MJ/kg DM) = 0.54 + 0.0959 GP + 0.0038 CP + 0.0001733 CP(2), where GP is the gas production after 24 h of incubation (ml/200 mg DM) and CP is the protein content of silage (g/kg DM). The nutritional values of the silages were slightly different (4.16 vs. 4.14 MJ/kg DM for M and O, respectively) likely due to the high content of hemicellulose in the O diet (22.0 vs. 16.9%). Average milk yield did not differ between the groups; instead, milk fat (8.39 vs. 9.06%; P < 0.01) and protein (4.41 vs. 4.60%; P < 0.01) levels were significantly higher in the O group. The results elicit great interest in southern Italy where corn cultivation is adversely affected by the high cost of irrigation.
Özyurt, Gülsün; Gökdoğan, Saadet; Şimşek, Ayşe; Yuvka, Ilknur; Ergüven, Merve; Kuley Boga, Esmeray
In the presented study, ensiling of discard fish by acidification or fermentation was evaluated. Klunzinger's ponyfish which is a discard fish was used for the production of fish silage by acidification (3% formic acid for Method FA; 1.5% formic and 1.5% sulphuric acid for Method FASA) and fermentation (Lactobacillus plantarum for Method LP and Streptococcus thermophilus for Method ST). The chemical, microbiological and nutritional properties of the differently preserved fish silages were estimated during a storage period of 60 d at ambient temperature. Compared to the raw material, a slight increase in saturated fatty acids and a slight decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed in all silages. At the end of the storage period, the aerobic bacteria counts after applying Methods FA, FASA, LP and ST amounted to 2.35, 2.39, 5.77 and 5.43 log cfu/g, respectively. The analysis of thiobarbituric acid revealed that acidification of silages accelerated the lipid oxidation. Nine biogenic amines were found in raw fish and different silages. The initial histamine concentration in raw fish was 0.17 mg/100 g and in all silages it remained at low levels during the storage period. The initial tyramine content was found to be 1.56 mg/100 g in raw fish and increased significantly in all silages. The increase of the tyramine content in fermented silages was considerably higher than in acidified silages (23-48 mg/100 g and 5-10 mg/100 g, respectively). It can be concluded that acidified or fermented fish silage should be considered as potential feed component for animals because of its high nutritional value and appropriate microbiological and chemical quality.
Driehuis, F; Spanjer, M C; Scholten, J M; Te Giffel, M C
The occurrence of mycotoxins in 140 maize silages, 120 grass silages and 30 wheat silages produced in the Netherlands between 2002 and 2004 was determined using a liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS/MS) multi-method. Deoxynivalenol (DON) was detected above the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 250 μg kg⁻¹ in 72% of maize and 10% of wheat silages. Average DON concentrations were 854 and 621 μg kg⁻¹, respectively, and maximum concentrations 3142 and 1165 μg kg⁻¹, respectively. Zearalenone was detected above the LOQ of 25 μg kg⁻¹ in 49% of maize and 6% of grass silages. Average zearalenone concentrations were 174 and 93 μg kg⁻¹, respectively, and maximum concentrations 943 and 308 μg kg⁻¹, respectively. The incidences and average concentrations of DON and zearalenone in maize silage were highest in 2004. The incidence of other mycotoxins was low: fumonisin B1 and 15-acetyl-DON were detected in 1.4 and 5% of maize silages, respectively, and roquefortin C in 0.8% of grass silages. None of the silages contained aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, T2-toxin, HT2-toxin, sterigmatocystin, diacetoxyscirpenol, fusarenon-X, ergotamine, penicillinic acid, or mycophenolic acid. This study demonstrates that maize silage is an important source of DON and zearalenone in the diet of dairy cattle. Since the carryover of these mycotoxins into milk is negligible, their occurrence in feed is not considered to be of significant concern with respect to the safety of dairy products for consumers. Potential implications for animal health are discussed.
Haerr, K J; Lopes, N M; Pereira, M N; Fellows, G M; Cardoso, F C
Foliar fungicide application to corn plants is used in corn aimed for corn silage in the dairy industry, but questions regarding frequency of application and its effect on corn silage quality and feed conversion when fed to dairy cows remain prevalent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of various foliar fungicide applications to corn on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and milk composition when fed to dairy cows. Sixty-four Holstein cows with parity 2.5±1.5, 653±80kg of body weight, and 161±51d in milk were blocked and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 corn silage treatments (total mixed ration with 35% of the dry matter as corn silage). Treatments were as follows: control (CON), corn silage with no applications of foliar fungicide; treatment 1 (1X), corn silage from corn that received 1 application of pyraclostrobin (PYR) foliar fungicide (Headline; BASF Corp.) at corn vegetative stage 5; treatment 2 (2X), corn silage from corn that received the same application as 1X plus another application of a mixture of PYR and metconazole (Headline AMP; BASF Corp.) at corn reproductive stage 1 ("silking"); and treatment 3 (3X), corn silage from corn that received the same applications as 2X as well as a third application of PYR and metconazole at reproductive stage 3 ("milky kernel"). Corn was harvested at about 32% dry matter and 3/4 milk line stage of kernel development and ensiled for 200d. Treatments were fed to cows for 5wk, with the last week being used for statistical inferences. Week -1 was used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. Dry matter intake tended to be lower for cows fed corn silage treated with fungicide than CON (23.8, 23.0, 19.5, and 21.3kg for CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X, respectively). A linear treatment effect for DMI was observed, with DMI decreasing as foliar fungicide applications increased. Treatments CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X did not differ for milk yield (34.5, 34.5, 34.2, and 34.4kg/d, respectively); however, a trend for
of the form (i : lub .. upb ) :: a = b where lwb , upb are integers and a, b expressions. Since Silage is an applicative language it has single...by the following approach for sequences INT lwb = .. , upb = .. , max= TYPE integer = int/( lwb ..upb). VAR sum := [max]( ... ), a := [max]( ... [INT i...2. .rax] CASE it/i LT in OF b’l : sum[i: sum[i-1] - a[i] ESAC; and by the following for non-sequence ELLA INT lwb - .. . upb .. ,max= TYPE integer
Felton, C A; DeVries, T J
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of water addition to a high-moisture total mixed ration (TMR) on feed temperature, feed intake, feed sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (155.8+/-60.1 DIM), individually fed once daily at 1000 h, were exposed to 3 diets in a Latin square design with 28-d treatment periods. Diets had the same ingredient composition [30.9% corn silage, 30.3% alfalfa haylage, 21.2% high-moisture corn, and 17.6% protein supplement; dry matter (DM) basis] and differed only in DM concentration, which was reduced by the addition of water. Treatment diets averaged 56.3, 50.8, and 44.1% DM. The study was conducted between May and August when environmental temperature was 18.2+/-3.6 degrees C and ambient temperature in the barn was 24.4+/-3.3 degrees C. Dry matter intake (DMI) was monitored for each animal for the last 14 d of each treatment period. For the final 7 d of each period, milk production was monitored, feed temperature and ambient temperature and humidity were recorded (daily at 1000, 1300, and 1600 h), and fresh feed and orts were sampled for determination of sorting. For the final 4 d of each period, milk samples were taken for composition analysis. Samples taken for determining sorting were separated using a Penn State Particle Separator that had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each particle size fraction expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Greater amounts of water added to the TMR resulted in greater increases in feed temperature in the hours after feed delivery, greater sorting against long particles, and decreased DMI, reducing the overall intake of starch and neutral detergent fiber. Milk production and composition were not affected by the addition of water to the TMR. Efficiency of production of milk was, however
Puhakka, L; Jaakkola, S; Simpura, I; Kokkonen, T; Vanhatalo, A
The objective of this study was to evaluate the production and physiological responses of dairy cows to the substitution of fava bean for rapeseed meal at 2 protein supplementation levels in grass silage-based diets. We used 6 primiparous and 6 multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows in a cyclic changeover trial with a 2×3 factorial arrangement of treatments. The experimental diets consisted of formic acid-treated timothy-meadow fescue silage and 3 isonitrogenous concentrates containing either rapeseed meal, fava bean, or a 1:1 mixture of rapeseed meal and fava bean at low and high inclusion rates, resulting in concentrate crude protein (CP) levels of 15.4 and 19.0% in dry matter. Silage dry matter intake decreased linearly when rapeseed meal was replaced with fava bean, the negative effect being more distinct at the high CP level than the low (-2.3 vs. -0.9kg/d, respectively). Similarly, milk and milk protein yields decreased linearly with fava bean, the change tending to be greater at the high CP level than the low. Yield of milk fat was lower for fava bean compared with rapeseed meal, the difference showing no interaction with CP level. Especially at the high CP level, milk urea concentration was higher with fava bean compared with rapeseed meal indicating better utilization of protein from the rapeseed meal. The apparent total-tract organic matter digestibility did not differ between treatments at the low CP level, but digestibility was higher for fava bean than for rapeseed meal at the high CP level. Plasma concentrations of essential amino acids, including methionine and lysine, were lower for fava bean than for rapeseed meal. Compared with rapeseed meal, the use of fava bean in dairy cow diets as the sole protein supplement decreased silage intake and milk production in highly digestible formic acid-treated grass silage-based diets. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hoffman, P C; Brehm, N M; Combs, D K; Bauman, L M; Peters, J B; Undersander, D J
Two studies were conducted to assess whether routine applications of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy could predict the effects of silage proteolysis on ruminal crude protein (CP) degradation of legume and grass silages. A preliminary study was conducted to assess the effect of laboratory drying method on ruminal CP degradation of silages. Thirty legume and grass silages were freeze-, oven-, or microwave-dried and incubated in situ in the ventral rumen of three ruminally cannulated cows for 24 h. Freeze-drying was considered least likely to alter ruminal CP degradation of the silages; therefore, oven- and microwave-drying were compared using first-order regression with freeze-drying. Oven-drying for 48 h at 55 degrees C compared favorably (R2 = 0.84) with freeze-drying. Microwave-drying resulted in a large bias (2.84 g/10(-1) kg of CP) and was poorly related (R2 = 0.48) to freeze-drying. In a second study, alfalfa and timothy were cut at three maturities and allowed to wilt for 0, 10, 24, 32, 48, and 54 h. Forages were ensiled in triplicate cylindrical mini silos and allowed to ferment for 120 d. After fermentation, silages were oven-dried, ground, and scanned on a near-infrared reflectance spectrophotometer. Duplicate, dried, 2-mm ground silage samples were incubated in the ventral rumen of three ruminally cannulated cows for 24 h. Forage species, maturity, and wilting time significantly affected 24-h ruminal CP degradation of the silages. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy accurately predicted (R2 = 0.91) 24-h ruminal CP degradation of silages. Data suggest near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy can accurately assess the effects of forage species, maturity, and wilting time (proteolysis) on 24-h ruminal CP degradation of legume and grass silages.
Pen feeding and metabolism trials were conducted to determine intake, diet digestibility and nitrogen (N) use in three hair sheep breeds with differing growth potential offered an alfalfa hay diet. For pen feeding, 24 6-mo-old wether lambs, equally representing the Barbados Blackbelly, Katahdin, an...
Schwab, E C; Shaver, R D; Shinners, K J; Lauer, J G; Coors, J G
In this experiment, we evaluated the influence of increasing chop length and mechanical processing of whole-plant brown-midrib corn silage on intake, digestion, and milk production by dairy cows. Corn silage treatments were harvested at three-quarter milk line stage of maturity at 13- and 19-mm theoretical chop length without processing, or at 19- and 32-mm theoretical chop length with processing at a 2-mm roll clearance. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows that averaged 102 +/- 17 d in milk at trial initiation were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Preplanned orthogonal contrasts were used to evaluate effects of processing (19 processed vs. 19 mm unprocessed) and chop length (13 vs. 19 mm unprocessed and 19 vs. 32 mm processed). Treatments were fed in total mixed rations containing 60% forage (67% corn silage and 33% alfalfa silage) and 40% shelled corn and soybean meal-based concentrate (dry matter basis). Milk yield was unaffected by treatment. Dry matter intake was unaffected by corn silage processing, but increasing corn silage chop length reduced dry matter intake in unprocessed (26.6 vs. 25.5 kg/d) and processed (25.9 vs. 25.1 kg/d) chop length contrasts. Processing reduced milk fat content (3.36 vs. 3.11%) and yield (1.43 vs. 1.35 kg/d), increased total-tract starch digestion (92.9 vs. 97.4%), and decreased total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestion (51.0 vs. 41.8%). Total chewing time (min/d) was unaffected by treatment. Masticate mean particle length was unaffected by chop length in unprocessed and processed corn silage treatments. In this study with brown-midrib corn silage fed to dairy cows producing 43 kg/d of milk, there were no benefits from crop processing or increasing chop length on lactation performance.
Colombari, G; Borreani, G; Crovetto, G M
The effect of alfalfa ensiled in bunker silos at high moisture [HM, 34% dry matter (DM)] and low moisture (LM, 56% DM) content on milk production and Grana Padano cheese quality was studied. Forty Italian Friesian lactating cows were allotted to two groups and fed, in a crossover design experiment, two corn silage-based diets containing 27% of the total DM as HM or LM. Each of the two periods included 10 d of adaptation and 3 experimental weeks. Forage was cut in the mid-vegetative stage with, on average, 34% neutral detergent fiber and 19% crude protein (DM basis). The two alfalfa silages showed a different fermentation pattern with 4.04 and 1.25% of lactic acid, 1.95 and 0.42% of acetic acid, 9.1 and 4.8% of total N ammonia-N for HM and LM, respectively. No butyric acid was found. Clostridial spores and yeast showed no growth in both silages except in the first 2 wk of the experiment where slight aerobic deterioration occurred. The HM treatment resulted in slightly lower DM intake (19.3 vs. 19.9 kg/d) and milk protein content (3.33 vs. 3.38%), higher milk fat content (3.56 vs. 3.37%), and 4% fat-corrected milk (25.7 vs. 24.4 kg/d). Totally, 38 cheeses obtained from over 19 tons of milk with an average yield efficiency of 6.8%, were produced. The milk renneting and microbiological properties and the cheese quality were not significantly different between treatments. However, both treatments had on average 40% of low quality (butyric fermentation) cheeses observed mainly in the first 2 wk of the experiment, when the number of clostridial spores found in alfalfa silages was significantly higher than in the subsequent weeks. The data obtained suggest that the microbial quality of milk depends more on careful management and monitoring all of the steps in milk production, from silage harvest through to cheese making, than on the moisture level of alfalfa silage, provided that the latter is in a range of 35 to 55% DM.
Ridwan, Roni; Rusmana, Iman; Widyastuti, Yantyati; Wiryawan, Komang G; Prasetya, Bambang; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Ohkuma, Moriya
Calliandra calothyrsus preserved in silage is an alternative method for improving the crude protein content of feeds for sustainable ruminant production. The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality of silage which contained different levels of C. calothyrsus by examining the fermentation characteristics and microbial diversity. Silage was made in a completely randomized design consisting of five treatments with three replications i.e.: R0, Pennisetum purpureum 100%; R1, P. purpureum 75%+C. calothyrsus 25%;, R2, P. purpureum 50%+C. calothyrsus 50%; R3, P. purpureum 25%+C. calothyrsus 75%; and R4, C. calothyrsus 100%. All silages were prepared using plastic jar silos (600 g) and incubated at room temperature for 30 days. Silages were analyzed for fermentation characteristics and microbial diversity. Increased levels of C. calothyrsus in silage had a significant effect (p<0.01) on the fermentation characteristics. The microbial diversity index decreased and activity was inhibited with increasing levels of C. calothyrsus. The microbial community indicated that there was a population of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. casei, L. brevis, Lactococcus lactis, Chryseobacterium sp., and uncultured bacteria. The result confirmed that silage with a combination of grass and C. calothyrsus had good fermentation characteristics and microbial communities were dominated by L. plantarum.
Ridwan, Roni; Rusmana, Iman; Widyastuti, Yantyati; Wiryawan, Komang G.; Prasetya, Bambang; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Ohkuma, Moriya
Calliandra calothyrsus preserved in silage is an alternative method for improving the crude protein content of feeds for sustainable ruminant production. The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality of silage which contained different levels of C. calothyrsus by examining the fermentation characteristics and microbial diversity. Silage was made in a completely randomized design consisting of five treatments with three replications i.e.: R0, Pennisetum purpureum 100%; R1, P. purpureum 75%+C. calothyrsus 25%;, R2, P. purpureum 50%+C. calothyrsus 50%; R3, P. purpureum 25%+C. calothyrsus 75%; and R4, C. calothyrsus 100%. All silages were prepared using plastic jar silos (600 g) and incubated at room temperature for 30 days. Silages were analyzed for fermentation characteristics and microbial diversity. Increased levels of C. calothyrsus in silage had a significant effect (p<0.01) on the fermentation characteristics. The microbial diversity index decreased and activity was inhibited with increasing levels of C. calothyrsus. The microbial community indicated that there was a population of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. casei, L. brevis, Lactococcus lactis, Chryseobacterium sp., and uncultured bacteria. The result confirmed that silage with a combination of grass and C. calothyrsus had good fermentation characteristics and microbial communities were dominated by L. plantarum. PMID:25656192
Spadaro, D; Bustos-Lopez, M P; Gullino, M L; Piano, S; Tabacco, E; Borreani, G
To identify cultivable filamentous fungi before ensiling, after silage conservation, in farm-silos covered with two different plastic films (polyethylene (PE) vs biodegradable (MB)), as well as after aerobic exposure of whole-crop corn silage. Molecular techniques coupled with traditional microbial counting were utilized to identify the predominant fungal species. The cultivable fungal population changed remarkably from harvesting to silo opening. Anaerobiosis and low pH reduced mould count and the presence of Fusarium species both under PE and MB film. However, in the peripheral areas of the silo, where air penetration could not be completely prevented, the fungal population did not decrease. The predominant fungal species after aerobic exposure of silage was Aspergillus fumigatus, without differences between the two plastic films. Maintenance of anaerobiosis and a low pH also in the upper layer of the silo reduce the risk of mould growth during corn silage feed-out. Even if the new MB plastic film did not completely maintain the anaerobiosis in the upper layer of silage, the overall silage quality was not compromised and was similar to that observed under PE, indicating that the development and use of MB film to cover silage is promising, but needs some improvement. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Faciola, A P; Broderick, G A
The objectives of this study were 1) to determine the level of lauric acid (LA) addition to the diet necessary to effectively suppress ruminal protozoa (RP) to the extent observed when a single dose was given directly into the rumen, 2) to assess LA effects on production and ruminal metabolism, and 3) to determine the time needed for RP to reestablish themselves after LA is withdrawn from the diet of lactating dairy cows. In Exp. 1, 2 Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulae were used in a split-plot design pilot study. Both cows consumed the same level of LA, starting with 0 g/d and increasing to 129, 270, and 438 g/d mixed into the diet. Diets were fed as total mixed ration (TMR) and contained (DM basis) 30% corn silage, 30% alfalfa silage, and 40% concentrate. Lauric acid intake linearly decreased DMI (P = 0.03), RP numbers (P < 0.01), ruminal acetate molar proportion (P = 0.03), and ruminal ammonia concentration (P = 0.03). Lauric acid intake linearly increased ruminal valerate molar proportion (P = 0.02). A quadratic response of LA consumption was observed on total ruminal VFA concentration (P < 0.01) and propionate molar proportion (P < 0.01), with maximum responses at 270 g/d of LA intake. A quadratic response of LA consumption was also observed on total ruminal free amino acid (TAA) concentration (P < 0.01), with minimum concentration at 270 g/d of LA intake. After withdrawing the greatest LA dose from the diet, RP returned to their original numbers in 12 d. In Exp. 2, 48 multiparous Holstein cows (8 with ruminal cannulae) were blocked by days in milk into 12 blocks of 4 cows (2 blocks of cannulated cows) and randomly assigned within replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares to balanced dietary treatment sequences. Diets were fed as TMR and contained (DM basis) 36% corn silage, 29% alfalfa silage, and 35% concentrate, and LA intake levels were 0, 220, 404, and 543 g/d mixed in the TMR. In Exp. 2, LA linearly reduced RP (P < 0.01), ruminal ammonia (P < 0.01), and
Norouzian, Mohammad Ali; Valizadeh, Reza; Vahmani, Payam
The consumption of solid feed is essential for successful transition from a pre-ruminant to a functional digestive tract. Lambs fed starter rations containing highly fermentable carbohydrates often experience dramatic changes in concentrations of rumen and blood metabolites. The optimal amount of roughage required in the diet of pre-ruminant animals is still unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding alfalfa hay on performance and rumen development in young Balouchi lambs. In a completely randomized design, 30 lambs were fed one of three experimental diets consisting of a control, without alfalfa hay (C), a diet containing 7.5% alfalfa hay (A1), and a diet containing 15% alfalfa hay (A2). Lambs fed A1 and A2 diets had lower dry matter intake during the pre-weaning period (P < 0.01) and overall (P = 0.02), but feed conversion ratio and average daily gain were not affected by feeding alfalfa hay. Concentration of beta-hydroxybutyric acid was higher in C compared with the A1 and A2 groups (P < 0.01). Concentrations of glucose and non-esterified fatty acids did not differ among the groups of animals. Feeding alfalfa hay reduced thickness of the rumen epithelial keratinized layer (P = 0.04) and increased thickness of muscular layer (P = 0.05). We concluded that including 15% alfalfa hay in the starter diet could reduce thickness of the keratinization layer and increase muscularity of rumen wall without adverse effects on growth and performance of newborn lambs.
Del Palacio, Agustina; Mionetto, Ana; Bettucci, Lina; Pan, Dinorah
Silage, one of the most important feed sources for cattle, is vulnerable to contamination by spoilage moulds and mycotoxins because ensilage materials are excellent substrates for fungal growth. The aim of this study was to identify the mycobiota of sorghum silages, to determine the presence of aflatoxins and fumonisins, and to correlate these results with physical parameters of the silage. A total of 275 samples of sorghum were collected from dairy farms in the south-west region of Uruguay were silage practices are developed. The presence of fungi was observed in all of the sorghum samples with values varying from 0.2 × 10(4) to 4085 × 10(4) UFC g(-1). Significant difference were detected in the total number of fungi during the storage period; at six months there is a high risk of fungal spoilage. The most frequent genera isolated from sorghum samples were Penicillium (70%), Aspergillus (65%), Absidia (40%), Fusarium (35%), Paecilomyces (35%) and Alternaria, Cladosporium, Gliocadium and Mucor (30%). The toxigenic species most frequently found were Penicillium citrinum, Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium nygamai. Only two samples were contaminated by AFB1 with levels of 1 and 14 µg kg(-1). Fumonisin was detected in 40% of freshly harvest samples with levels ranged from 533 µg kg(-1) to 933 µg kg(-1). The use of silo bags seems to be an effective tool to store sorghum. However, the presence of toxigenic fungi show that regular screening for mycotoxins levels in silages must be performed to avoid the exposure of animals to contaminated feed and the introduction of these compounds into the food chain.
This study is designed to look at the application of gas-turbine generator cogeneration to a typical Nebraska alfalfa processing mill. The practicality is examined of installing a combustion turbine generator at a plant site and modifying existing facilities for generating electricity, utilizing the electricity generated, selling excess electricity to the power company and incorporating the turbine exhaust flow as a drying medium for the alfalfa. The results of this study are not conclusive but the findings are summarized.
Ellis, J L; Hindrichsen, I K; Klop, G; Kinley, R D; Milora, N; Bannink, A; Dijkstra, J
Inoculants of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used to improve silage quality and prevent spoilage via increased production of lactic acid and other organic acids and a rapid decline in silage pH. The addition of LAB inoculants to silage has been associated with increases in silage digestibility, dry matter intake (DMI), and milk yield. Given the potential change in silage and rumen fermentation conditions accompanying these silage additives, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LAB silage inoculants on DMI, digestibility, milk yield, milk composition, and methane (CH4) production from dairy cows in vivo. Eight mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were grouped into 2 blocks of 4 cows (multiparous and primiparous) and used in a 4×4 double Latin square design with 21-d periods. Methane emissions were measured by indirect calorimetry. Treatments were grass silage (mainly ryegrass) with no inoculant (GS), with a long-term inoculant (applied at harvest; GS+L), with a short-term inoculant (applied 16h before feeding; GS+S), or with both long and short-term inoculants (GS+L+S). All diets consisted of grass silage and concentrate (75:25 on a dry matter basis). The long-term inoculant consisted of a 10:20:70 mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis, and Lactobacillus buchneri, and the short-term inoculant was a preparation of Lc. lactis. Dry matter intake was not affected by long-term or short-term silage inoculation, nor was dietary neutral detergent fiber or fat digestibility, or N or energy balance. Milk composition (except milk urea) and fat and protein-corrected milk yield were not affected by long- or short-term silage inoculation, nor was milk microbial count. However, milk yield tended to be greater with long-term silage inoculation. Methane expressed in units of grams per day, grams per kilogram of DMI, grams per kilogram of milk, or grams per kilogram of fat and protein-corrected milk yield was not affected by long- or short
Reiber, Christoph; Peters, Michael; Möhring, Jens; Schultze-Kraft, Rainer
The contribution of dry season silage feeding on daily milk yield (MY) and dairying profitability in terms of income over feed cost (IOFC) was evaluated in dual-purpose cattle production systems in Honduras. MY records of 34 farms from two milk collection centres were collected over a 2-year period. Farms were surveyed to obtain information on the type, quantity and cost of supplemented feed, breed type and number of lactating cows in each month. Farms were classified in silage farms (SF, with a short silage supplementation period), non-silage farms (NSF) and prototype farms (PF, with an extended silage supplementation period). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and a linear mixed model approach. PF had significantly higher MY than SF and NSF but, due to higher expenses for both concentrate and silage, similar IOFC compared to NSF. SF had similar MY but lower IOFC compared to NSF, due to higher feed expenses. The effect of silage feeding, particularly maize silage, on MY was significant and superior to that of other forage supplements. Silage supplementation contributed to the highest MY and IOFC on farms with crossbred cows of >62.5 % Bos taurus and to the second highest profitability on farms with >87.5 % Bos indicus share. It is concluded that silage can play an important role in drought-constrained areas of the tropics and can contribute to profitable dairying, irrespective of breed.
Growth performance, feeding behavior, and selected blood metabolites of Holstein dairy calves fed restricted amounts of milk: No interactions between sources of finely ground grain and forage provision.
Mirzaei, M; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Ghaffari, M H
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of grain sources and forage provision on growth performance, blood metabolites, and feeding behaviors of dairy calves. Sixty 3-d-old Holstein dairy calves (42.2 ± 2.5 kg of body weight) were used in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with the factors being grain sources (barley and corn) and forage provision (no forage, alfalfa hay, and corn silage). Individually housed calves were randomly assigned (n = 10 calves per treatment: 5 males and 5 females) to 6 treatments: (1) barley grain (BG) without forage supplement, (2) BG with alfalfa hay (AH) supplementation, (3) BG with corn silage (CS) supplementation, (4) corn grain (CG) without forage supplement, (5) CG with AH supplementation, and (6) CG with CS supplementation. All calves had ad libitum access to water and starter feed throughout the experiment. All calves were weaned on d 49 and remained in the study until d 63. Starter feed intake and average daily gain (ADG) was greater for calves fed barley than those fed corn during the preweaning and overall periods. Calves supplemented with CS had greater final body weight and postweaning as well as overall starter feed intake than AH and non-forage-supplemented calves. During the preweaning and overall periods, feeding of CS was found to increase ADG compared with feeding AH and nonforage diets. However, feed efficiency was not affected by dietary treatments. Calves supplemented with CS spent more time ruminating compared with AH and control groups; nonnutritive oral behaviors were the greatest in non-forage-supplemented calves. Regardless of the grain sources, the rumen pH value was greater for AH calves compared with CS and non-forage-supplemented calves. Blood concentration of BHB was greater for CS-supplemented calves compared with AH and non-forage-supplemented calves. Furthermore, body length and heart girth were greater for calves fed barley compared with those fed corn, and also in forage
Skladanka, Jiri; Adam, Vojtech; Zitka, Ondrej; Mlejnkova, Veronika; Kalhotka, Libor; Horky, Pavel; Konecna, Klara; Hodulikova, Lucia; Knotova, Daniela; Balabanova, Marie; Slama, Petr; Skarpa, Petr
In the production of fermented feed, each crop can be contaminated with a variety of microorganisms that may produce natural pollutants. Biogenic amines, mycotoxins, and undesirable organic acids can decrease health feed safety. The aim of this study was to compare the counts of microorganisms, levels of biogenic amines, and the mycotoxins in forage legumes, and also to compare the occurrence of microorganisms and levels of mycotoxins in green fodder and subsequently produced silage and the influence of additives on the content of natural harmful substances in silage. The experimental plot was located in Troubsko and Vatín, in the Czech Republic. Two varieties of Medicago sativa and one variety of Trifolium pratense were compared. Green fodder and subsequently produced silage reaching up to 23% of dry matter were evaluated and prepared using a bio-enzymatic additive and a chemical additive. Green fodder of Medicago sativa was more contaminated by Enterococci than Trifolium pratense fodder. The obvious difference was determined by the quality of silage leachate. The silage prepared from Medicago sativa fodder was more contaminated with butyric acid. Fungi were present in higher counts in the anaerobic environment of green fodder and contaminated it with zearalenone and deoxynivalenol. Lower counts of fungi were found in silage, although the zearalenone content did not change. Lower content of deoxynivalenol was detected in silage, compared with green fodder. Silages treated with a chemical additive were found not to contain butyric acid. Lower ethanol content was determined, and the tendency to reduce the risk of biogenic amines occurrence was evident. The additives proved to have no influence on the content of mycotoxins.
Skladanka, Jiri; Adam, Vojtech; Zitka, Ondrej; Mlejnkova, Veronika; Kalhotka, Libor; Horky, Pavel; Konecna, Klara; Hodulikova, Lucia; Knotova, Daniela; Balabanova, Marie; Slama, Petr; Skarpa, Petr
In the production of fermented feed, each crop can be contaminated with a variety of microorganisms that may produce natural pollutants. Biogenic amines, mycotoxins, and undesirable organic acids can decrease health feed safety. The aim of this study was to compare the counts of microorganisms, levels of biogenic amines, and the mycotoxins in forage legumes, and also to compare the occurrence of microorganisms and levels of mycotoxins in green fodder and subsequently produced silage and the influence of additives on the content of natural harmful substances in silage. The experimental plot was located in Troubsko and Vatín, in the Czech Republic. Two varieties of Medicago sativa and one variety of Trifolium pratense were compared. Green fodder and subsequently produced silage reaching up to 23% of dry matter were evaluated and prepared using a bio-enzymatic additive and a chemical additive. Green fodder of Medicago sativa was more contaminated by Enterococci than Trifolium pratense fodder. The obvious difference was determined by the quality of silage leachate. The silage prepared from Medicago sativa fodder was more contaminated with butyric acid. Fungi were present in higher counts in the anaerobic environment of green fodder and contaminated it with zearalenone and deoxynivalenol. Lower counts of fungi were found in silage, although the zearalenone content did not change. Lower content of deoxynivalenol was detected in silage, compared with green fodder. Silages treated with a chemical additive were found not to contain butyric acid. Lower ethanol content was determined, and the tendency to reduce the risk of biogenic amines occurrence was evident. The additives proved to have no influence on the content of mycotoxins. PMID:28420109
Makoni, N F; Shelford, J A; Fisher, L J
Initial rates of in vitro degradation of alfalfa proteins were studied. Fresh, 24-h wilted, and ensiled forages were homogenized before analysis for total proteins. Some of the homogenates were fractionated by differential solubility in 10 and 40% ammonium sulfate, followed by ultrafiltration of the 40% salt-saturated solution. The protein fractions obtained were chloroplast membrane proteins (fraction 3), soluble proteins from plant cell cytoplasm and the chloroplast (fraction 2), and proteins remaining soluble in the extracted 40% salt-saturated solution (fraction 2B), respectively. Total and fraction 3 silage proteins were degraded faster than the respective fresh and wilted proteins. There were no treatment effects on the rates of degradation of the soluble proteins of fractions 2 and 2B. Protein fractions from fresh and 24-h wilted alfalfa degraded, from greatest to least, in the following order: fractions 2, 2B, and 3. Degradation rates for fractions 2 and 2B of ensiled forages were similar but greater than that of fraction 3. Alfalfa proteins were degraded rapidly in the rumen, and soluble proteins were degraded faster than the chloroplast membrane proteins. Ensiling of alfalfa increased the rate of degradation of chloroplast membrane proteins, but neither wilting nor ensiling affected degradation rates of the soluble protein fractions 2 and 2B.
Eckard, Sonja; Wettstein, Felix E; Forrer, Hans-Rudolf; Vogelgsang, Susanne
Maize is frequently infected by the Fusarium species producing mycotoxins. Numerous investigations have focused on grain maize, but little is known about the Fusarium species in the entire plant used for silage. Furthermore, mycotoxins persist during the ensiling process and thus endanger feed safety. In the current study, we analyzed 20 Swiss silage maize samples from growers' fields for the incidence of Fusarium species and mycotoxins. The species spectrum was analyzed morphologically and mycotoxins were measured by LC-MS/MS. A pre-harvest visual disease rating showed few disease symptoms. In contrast, the infection rate of two-thirds of the harvest samples ranged from 25 to 75% and twelve different Fusarium species were isolated. The prevailing species were F. sporotrichioides, F. verticillioides and F. graminearum. No infection specificity for certain plant parts was observed. The trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) was found in each sample (ranging from 780 to 2990 µg kg(-1)). Other toxins detected in descending order were zearalenone, further trichothecenes (nivalenol, HT-2 and T-2 toxin, acetylated DON) and fumonisins. A generalized linear regression model containing the three cropping factors harvest date, pre-precrop and seed treatment was established, to explain DON contamination of silage maize. Based on these findings, we suggest a European-wide survey on silage maize.
Eckard, Sonja; Wettstein, Felix E.; Forrer, Hans-Rudolf; Vogelgsang, Susanne
Maize is frequently infected by the Fusarium species producing mycotoxins. Numerous investigations have focused on grain maize, but little is known about the Fusarium species in the entire plant used for silage. Furthermore, mycotoxins persist during the ensiling process and thus endanger feed safety. In the current study, we analyzed 20 Swiss silage maize samples from growers’ fields for the incidence of Fusarium species and mycotoxins. The species spectrum was analyzed morphologically and mycotoxins were measured by LC-MS/MS. A pre-harvest visual disease rating showed few disease symptoms. In contrast, the infection rate of two-thirds of the harvest samples ranged from 25 to 75% and twelve different Fusarium species were isolated. The prevailing species were F. sporotrichioides, F. verticillioides and F. graminearum. No infection specificity for certain plant parts was observed. The trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON) was found in each sample (ranging from 780 to 2990 µg kg−1). Other toxins detected in descending order were zearalenone, further trichothecenes (nivalenol, HT-2 and T-2 toxin, acetylated DON) and fumonisins. A generalized linear regression model containing the three cropping factors harvest date, pre-precrop and seed treatment was established, to explain DON contamination of silage maize. Based on these findings, we suggest a European-wide survey on silage maize. PMID:22069750
Ottati, M; Gutiérrez, M; Bello, R
Fish silage was produced by microbial means from a mixture of several fish species which are not used for human consumption, and form part of the shrimp by-catch. The fish was mixed with a carbohydrate source (molasses) and a starter culture of Lactobacillus plantarum 8014. The mixture was fermented at 30 +/- 2 degrees C. Several tests were undertaken to determine the optimal conditions and concentration of molasses (5, 10 and 15%) and Lactobacillus (0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0%). Results indicated that 1% of microorganisms and 15% of molasses were the optimal proportions to produce a stable fish silage. The production process and stability study of fish silage were followed through chemical, physical and microbiological tests. As findings revealed, the first six days of the process are related to acid production, pH reduction and microbial control, while after this period the process is basically related to protein hydrolysis. In addition, sensory tests of flavor and color were performed. The results of this study suggest the feasibility of utilizing this marine resource at present discarded, through a technological scheme, to produce fish silage for animal feed.
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L) is the world’s most important forage crop. The western United States is the most important production area for both alfalfa forage and alfalfa seed. Alfalfa was the first major perennial genetically-engineered (GE)crop and a GE trait for resistance to glypho...
Sun, Qizhong; Gao, Fengqin; Yu, Zhu; Tao, Ya; Zhao, Shufen; Cai, Yimin
Effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants and cellulase additives on fermentation quality and chemical compositions of shrub silages were studied by using a small-scale fermentation system. Two LAB inoculants of Qingbao (Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus acidilacticii, Lactobacillus casei and Clostridium phage) and Caihe (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus acidilactici) and a commercial cellulase made from Trichoderma reesei were used as additives for intermediate pea-shrub, rush bushclover, arborescent ceratoides and shrubby silage preparation. The crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and water-soluble carbohydrate contents of the four shrub materials were 10.1-14.2, 62.6-67.2 and 1.9-3.5% on a dry matter basis, respectively. All shrub silages had pH 3.40-4.43, ammonia-N 0.1-0.2% g/kg and lactic acid 1.3-2.9% on a fresh matter basis. The silage quality of LAB-inoculated silages did not have a greater effect than control silages, except shrubby silage preparation. Silages treated with the cellulase, the pH of rush bushclover and shrubby sweetvetch silage were significantly (P < 0.05) lower and the lactic acid content were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the control silages. The results confirmed that shrub contained a relatively high content of crude protein; its silages can be preserved in good quality, and they are new potential resources for livestock feed. © 2011 The Authors; Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Johnson, L M; Harrison, J H; Davidson, D; Swift, M; Mahanna, W C; Shinners, K
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of maturity and mechanical processing of two hybrids of whole plant corn silage on DM and OM digestibility, nitrogen metabolism, ruminal fermentation, and milk production and composition in lactating Holstein cows. In the first experiment, Pioneer hybrid 3845 whole plant corn was harvested at hard dough, one-third milkline, and two-thirds milkline with a theoretical length-of-cut of 6.4 mm. At each stage of maturity, corn was harvested with (1-mm roll clearance) and without (15.9-mm roll clearance) mechanical processing using a John Deere 5830 harvester with an on-board kernel processor. In the second experiment, Pioneer hybrids 3845 and Quanta were harvested at one-third milkline, two-thirds milkline, and blackline stages of maturity with and without mechanical processing. The theoretical length-of-cut was 12.7 mm. Total tract DM and OM digestibilities were lower for cows fed diets containing processed corn silage in experiment 1, and tended to be lower for cows fed diets containing unprocessed corn silage in experiment 2. Ruminal acetate concentrations were greater and ruminal propionate concentrations were lower 2 and 6 h after feeding for cows fed diets containing corn silage harvested at physiological maturity in experiment 2. This was due to decreased digestion of starch at advanced maturities in experiment 2. Ruminal pH tended to decline rapidly after feeding for cows fed hybrid Quanta (2 h) compared to hybrid 3845 (5 h) corn silage based diets. Ruminal acetate concentrations decreased and ruminal propionate concentrations increased 2 and 6 h after feeding for cows fed diets containing hybrid Quanta corn silage compared to hybrid 3845 corn silage. This was related to a greater starch concentration in the corn silage, greater starch intake, and increased rate of starch digestion for cows fed hybrid Quanta corn silage-based diets. Microbial nitrogen flow was lower and feed nitrogen flow was greater for
Zhou, Shengfei; Weimer, Paul J; Hatfield, Ronald D; Runge, Troy M; Digman, Matthew
The concept of co-production of liquid fuel (ethanol) along with animal feed on farm was proposed, and the strategy of using ambient-temperature acid pretreatment, ensiling and washing to improve ethanol production from alfalfa stems was investigated. Alfalfa stems were separated and pretreated with sulfuric acid at ambient-temperature after harvest, and following ensiling, after which the ensiled stems were subjected to simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) for ethanol production. Ethanol yield was improved by ambient-temperature sulfuric acid pretreatment before ensiling, and by washing before SSF. It was theorized that the acid pretreatment at ambient temperature partially degraded hemicellulose, and altered cell wall structure, resulted in improved cellulose accessibility, whereas washing removed soluble ash in substrates which could inhibit the SSF. The pH of stored alfalfa stems can be used to predict the ethanol yield, with a correlation coefficient of +0.83 for washed alfalfa stems.
Weinberg, Z G; Chen, Y; Volchinski, V; Sela, S; Ogunade, I M; Adesogan, A
Previous studies have shown that silages treated with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants enhance ruminants' performance. The objective of the current experiments was to develop an in vitro model to study interactions between LAB silage inoculants and inoculated silages and Escherichia coli (EC) in rumen fluid (RF). Our hypothesis was that some inoculants inhibit EC in RF. For that purpose buffered RF was incubated under anaerobic conditions at 39°C with commercial strains of LAB silage inoculants or with laboratory corn and wheat silages treated with these LAB, an EC strain and with various ruminant feed ingredients. The EC strain was originally isolated from cattle manure and tagged with a plasmid expressing the green fluorescence protein and kanamycin and streptomycin resistance. Results indicate that the LAB or the treated silages did not suppress EC numbers in the RF. When the pH of the RF decreased below 5·0 the EC disappeared. We conclude that both LAB inoculants for silage and EC survived in RF for several days; however, the inoculants and silages treated with such inoculants did not inhibit EC in RF in vitro. Forage crops, silage and hay are initial stages of the food chain for humans. Cattle harbours and sheds enterobacteria regularly, some strains of which are pathogens. These can contaminate forage crops through field fertilization with cattle manure. The objective of this study was to develop an in vitro model to test whether lactic acid bacteria, which are used in silage inoculants, alone or in treated silages can inhibit Escherichia coli in rumen fluid. This study presents safety aspects and it is also part of a broad research effort aimed at finding out how LAB silage inoculants and inoculated silages enhance ruminant performance or exert probiotic effects in ruminants. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Baled silage is an attractive management option for many forage and livestock producers. Most principles involved in making well-preserved, baled silage are similar to those required for precision-chopped silages. Generally, the overall goal is identical: create an anaerobic environment in which pla...
Alfalfa provides many benefits to cropping systems. These benefits occur both during alfalfa production and during the subsequent crops that follow. Some of the common benefits during alfalfa production are increased soil organic matter, decreased soil erosion, and decreased soil nitrate leaching lo...
The separate harvesting of alfalfa leaves and stems would provide farmers more flexibility in the harvesting and utilization of alfalfa, but a key issue is storage. In three trials, unwilted alfalfa leaves were ensiled alone or with cell wall degrading enzymes, formic acid or lactic acid bacterial i...
Kuoppala, K; Rinne, M; Ahvenjärvi, S; Nousiainen, J; Huhtanen, P
This study examined the effects of primary growth (PG) and regrowth (RG) timothy-meadow fescue silages harvested at 2 stages of growth on feed intake, cell wall digestion and ruminal passage kinetics in lactating dairy cows. Four dairy cows equipped with rumen cannulas were used in a study designed as a 4 x 4 Latin square with 21-d periods. The experimental silages were offered ad libitum with 8 kg/d of concentrate. Ruminal digestion and passage kinetics were assessed by the rumen evacuation technique. Silages of PG were on average more digestible than RG silages. The concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and indigestible NDF (iNDF) increased and the concentration of digestible organic matter in dry matter (DM) of silages decreased with advancing maturity in PG and RG. Cows consumed more feed DM, energy, and protein and produced more milk when fed PG diets rather than RG diets. Delaying the harvest decreased DM intake and milk production in PG and RG. There were no differences between PG and RG in rumen pH, ammonia N, or total volatile fatty acid concentrations. The intake of N, omasal canal flow of total nonammonia N and microbial N, excretion of N in feces, and ruminal true digestibility of N were higher for PG than for RG diets. The efficiency of microbial N synthesis was not different between PG and RG. Intake and omasal canal flow of organic matter, NDF, and potentially digestible NDF (pdNDF) were higher in PG than in RG. Whole-diet digestibility of organic matter, NDF, or pdNDF in the rumen or in the total tract was not different between PG and RG despite the higher digestibility of PG silages measured in sheep. Rumen pool sizes of crude protein and iNDF were lower for PG diets, whereas the pool size of pdNDF was higher for PG diets than for RG diets. The rate of passage of iNDF was higher for PG diets than for RG diets, with no difference between them in rate of digestion or passage of pdNDF. The lower milk production in cows fed regrowth grass
Driehuis, F; Oude Elferink, S J
This paper reviews the microbiological aspects of forage preserved by ensilage. The main principles of preservation by ensilage are a rapid achievement of a low pH by lactic acid fermentation and the maintenance of anaerobic conditions. The silage microflora consists of beneficial micro-organisms, i.e. the lactic acid bacteria responsible for the silage fermentation process, and a number of harmful micro-organisms that are involved in anaerobic or aerobic spoilage processes. Micro-organisms that can cause anaerobic spoilage are enterobacteria and clostridia. Clostridium tyrobutyricum is of particular importance because of its ability to use lactic acid as a substrate. Silage-derived spores of C. tyrobutyricum can cause problems in cheese making. Aerobic spoilage of silage is associated with penetration of oxygen into the silage during storage or feeding. Lactate-oxidizing yeasts are generally responsible for the initiation of aerobic spoilage. The secondary aerobic spoilage flora consists of moulds, bacilli, listeria, and enterobacteria. Mycotoxin-producing moulds, Bacillus cereus, and Listeria monocytogenes in aerobically deteriorated silage form a serious risk to the quality and safety of milk and to animal health.
O'Sullivan, A; O'Sullivan, K; Galvin, K; Moloney, A P; Troy, D J; Kerry, J P
The effects of three preslaughter diets on heifer beef quality were investigated. Heifers (n = 45) were divided into three groups and fed for ad libitum consumption either maize silage, grass silage, or a 50:50 mixture of maize silage and grass silage. Meat quality was determined by measuring color, lipid oxidation, alpha-tocopherol levels, and fatty acid composition. Beef from the maize silage group had poorest color stability (P < 0.05), whereas beef from the grass silage diet had best (P < 0.05) color stability. The visual panel least preferred the maize silage group after 2 or more days of display, and lipid oxidation was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in this group compared to the 50:50 maize:grass silage and grass silage groups. There was a significant (P < 0.001) difference in the alpha-tocopherol levels detected in the meat from the three dietary groups. Alpha-tocopherol levels increased in the order: maize silage < 50:50 maize:grass silage < grass silage, at levels of 2.08, 2.95, and 3.84 microg/g meat, respectively. Fatty acid analysis indicated 18:3 was significantly (P < 0.001) lower in the maize silage-fed group than in the maize:grass silage and grass silage groups. However, 18:3 was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the grass silage group than in the other two groups. There were no significant differences in all other fatty acids among the three dietary groups. It was concluded that beef from grass silage-fed animals had better overall quality in terms of color, lipid oxidation, and alpha-tocopherol levels than beef from maize silage fed animals.
Moorby, J M; Ellis, N M; Davies, D R
Twenty-four multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square changeover design experiment to test the effects of changing from corn (Zea mays) silage to red clover (Trifolium pratense) silage in graded proportions on feed intakes, milk production, and whole-body N and P partitioning. Three dietary treatments with ad libitum access to 1 of 3 forage mixtures plus a standard allowance of 4kg/d dairy concentrates were offered. The 3 treatment forage mixtures were, on a dry matter (DM) basis: (1) R10: 90% corn silage and 10% red clover silage, (2) R50: 50% corn silage and 50% red clover silage, and (3) R90: 10% corn silage and 90% red clover silage. In each of 3 experimental periods, there were 21d for adaptation to diets, and 7d for measurements. Diet crude protein intakes increased, and starch intakes decreased, as the silage mixture changed from 90% corn to 90% red clover, although the highest forage DM intakes and milk yields were achieved on diet R50. Although milk fat yields were unaffected by diet, milk protein yields were highest with the R 0250 diet. Whole-body partitioning of N was measured in a subset of cows (n=9), and both the daily amount and proportion of N consumed that was excreted in feces and urine increased as the proportion of red clover silage in the diet increased. However, the apparent efficiency of utilization of feed N for milk protein production decreased from 0.33g/g for diet R10 to 0.25g/g for diet R90. The urinary excretion of purine derivatives (sum of allantoin and uric acid) tended to increase, suggesting greater flow of microbial protein from the rumen, as the proportion of red clover silage in the diet increased, and urinary creatinine excretion was affected by diet. Fecal shedding of E. coli was not affected by dietary treatment. In conclusion, even though microbial protein flow may have been greatest from the R 0450 diet, optimum feed intakes and milk yields were achieved on a diet that contained a
Salawu, M B; Adesogan, A T; Dewhurst, R J
This study investigated the feed intake, milk production, and plasma nutrient status in dairy cows fed inter-cropped pea-wheat (bi-crop) silages comprised of contrasting ratios of pea to wheat. Spring peas (cv. Magnus) and wheat (cv. Axona) sown at either high (75:25) or low (25:75) pea inclusion rates were harvested after 13 (Cut 1) or 15 (Cut 2) wk. Eighteen Holstein-Friesian cows between wk 9 and 10 of lactation were used in a cyclical changeover design with three 28-d periods. Cows were fed the bi-crop silages and 6 kg of concentrates or second-cut grass silage supplemented with 6 (GS6) or 9 (GS9) kg/d of concentrates. Forage intakes were higher when bi-crops were fed (10.3 to 11.4 kg dry matter [DM]/d) than when grass silage was fed (8.6 kg DM/d). Total DM intake was similar among cows fed the bi-crop silages and GS9 diets, but intakes for GS6 were at least 1.7 kg DM/d lower. Increasing the pea inclusion rate increased the crude protein (CP) content of the ration, but it did not enhance forage quality or animal performance. The rate of intake of the different forages was similar, so that the higher intakes of bi-crop silages were associated with more time spent at the feedbunk and an increased number of meals. Diet digestibility ranged from 531 to 650 g/kg, and the highest value was given by the Cut 1 bi-crop silage diet. Milk yield tended to be similar for cows fed the Cut 2 bi-crop and GS9 diets, and these values were at least 1.7 kg higher than those for cows fed on other treatments. Generally, the bi-crop diets resulted in higher milk fat contents and lower polyunsaturated fatty acid contents. Milk protein content was highest for cows fed the GS9 diet. Blood metabolite content was unaffected by treatment except for blood urea nitrogen content, which was higher in cows fed the bi-crop silages, reflecting reduced N-use efficiency with these diets. The study showed that pea-wheat bi-crop silages can be used to replace moderate-quality grass silage in dairy
Yuan, Xianjun; Wen, Aiyou; Wang, Jian; Guo, Gang; Desta, Seare T; Shao, Tao
In Tibet, it is common practice to make and relocate total mixed ration (TMR) silages before feeding due to the uneven distribution of forages temporally and spatially. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum (L), molasses (M) or ethanol (E) on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of local adaptive TMR silage. After 45 days of ensiling, pH and ammonia nitrogen in inoculated TMR silages were significantly lower than control. During the first 6 days of the aerobic exposure test, a small fluctuation in lactic acid concentration for all TMR silages was observed, and then silages with ethanol continued this trend, while lactic acid in silage without ethanol sharply decreased until the end of the aerobic exposure period. Meanwhile, pH gradually increased along the aerobic exposure; silages treated with ethanol showed lower pH after 9 days of aerobic exposure. The population of yeast gradually increased during 6 days of aerobic exposure, after that an accelerated rise was observed in TMR silages without ethanol. The combinational beneficial effect of L. plantarum and ethanol was found in combined addition of ethanol and Lactobacillus plantarum silages (EL), indicated by intermediate fermentation quality and higher aerobic stability. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Rodríguez, María Luisa; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; Soldado, Ana; Argamentería, Alejandro; Peláez, Mario; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña
This study examines the relationship between subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows and the butyric acid content of the silage used in their feeding. Twenty commercial farms were monitored over a period of 12 months. The feed at each farm and the silages used in its ration were sampled monthly for proximal analysis and for volatile fatty acid analysis. A total of 2857 urine samples were taken from 1112 cows to examine the ketonuria from about 30 days prepartum to 100 postpartum. Wide variation was recorded in the quality of silages used in the preparation of diets. Approximately 80% of the urine samples analyzed had no detectable ketone bodies, 16% returned values indicative of slight SCK, and the remainder, 4%, showed symptoms of ketosis. Most of the cases of hyperkenuria were associated with the butyric acid content of the silage used (r2 = 0.56; P < 0.05). As the metabolizable energy content of the feed was similar, no relationship was observed between the proportion of cows with SCK and the energy content of the feed. In our study, the probability of dairy cows suffering SCK is higher when they are eating feed made from silage with a high butyric acid content (35.2 g/kg DM intake). PMID:25525616
Vicente, Fernando; Rodríguez, María Luisa; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; Soldado, Ana; Argamentería, Alejandro; Peláez, Mario; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña
This study examines the relationship between subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows and the butyric acid content of the silage used in their feeding. Twenty commercial farms were monitored over a period of 12 months. The feed at each farm and the silages used in its ration were sampled monthly for proximal analysis and for volatile fatty acid analysis. A total of 2857 urine samples were taken from 1112 cows to examine the ketonuria from about 30 days prepartum to 100 postpartum. Wide variation was recorded in the quality of silages used in the preparation of diets. Approximately 80% of the urine samples analyzed had no detectable ketone bodies, 16% returned values indicative of slight SCK, and the remainder, 4%, showed symptoms of ketosis. Most of the cases of hyperkenuria were associated with the butyric acid content of the silage used (r2=0.56; P<0.05). As the metabolizable energy content of the feed was similar, no relationship was observed between the proportion of cows with SCK and the energy content of the feed. In our study, the probability of dairy cows suffering SCK is higher when they are eating feed made from silage with a high butyric acid content (35.2 g/kg DM intake).
Sinclair, L A; Edwards, R; Errington, K A; Holdcroft, A M; Wright, M
In total, 20 multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows received one of four diets in each of four periods of 28-day duration in a Latin square design to test the hypothesis that the inclusion of lucerne in the ration of high-yielding dairy cows would improve animal performance and milk fatty acid (FA) composition. All dietary treatments contained 0.55 : 0.45 forage to concentrates (dry matter (DM) basis), and within the forage component the proportion of lucerne (Medicago sativa), grass (Lolium perenne) and maize silage (Zea mays) was varied (DM basis): control (C)=0.4 : 0.6 grass : maize silage; L20=0.2 : 0.2 : 0.6 lucerne : grass : maize silage; L40=0.4 : 0.6 lucerne : maize silage; and L60=0.6 : 0.4 lucerne : maize silage. Diets were formulated to contain a similar CP and metabolisable protein content, with the reduction of soya bean meal and feed grade urea with increasing content of lucerne. Intake averaged 24.3 kg DM/day and was lowest in cows when fed L60 (P0.05) by dietary treatment. Digestibility of DM, organic matter, CP and fibre decreased (P<0.01) with increasing content of lucerne in the diet, although fibre digestibility was similar in L40 and L60. It is concluded that first cut grass silage can be replaced with first cut lucerne silage without any detrimental effect on performance and an improvement in the milk FA profile, although intake and digestibility was lowest and plasma urea concentrations highest in cows when fed the highest level of inclusion of lucerne.
Storm, Ida M L Drejer; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Rasmussen, Peter Have
Maize silage is a widely used feed product for cattle worldwide, which may be contaminated with mycotoxins, pre- and post-harvest. This concerns both farmers and consumers. To assess the exposure of Danish cattle to mycotoxins from maize silage, 99 samples of whole-crop maize (ensiled and un-ensiled) were analyzed for their contents of 27 mycotoxins and other secondary fungal metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method specifically targets the majority of common pre- and post-harvest fungi associated with maize silage in Denmark. Sixty-one samples contained one or more of the 27 analytes in detectable concentrations. The most common mycotoxins were zearalenone, enniatin B nivalenol and andrastin A, found in 34%, 28%, 16% and 15% of the samples, respectively. None of the samples contained mycotoxins above the EU recommended maximum concentrations for Fusarium toxins in cereal-based roughage. Thus, the present study does not indicate that Danish maize silage in general is a cause of acute single mycotoxin intoxications in cattle. However, 31 of the samples contained multiple analytes; two samples as much as seven different fungal metabolites. Feed rations with maize silage may therefore contain complex mixtures of fungal secondary metabolites with unknown biological activity. This emphasizes the need for a thorough examination of the effects of chronic exposure and possible synergistic effects.
Storm, Ida M. L. Drejer; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Rasmussen, Peter Have
Maize silage is a widely used feed product for cattle worldwide, which may be contaminated with mycotoxins, pre- and post-harvest. This concerns both farmers and consumers. To assess the exposure of Danish cattle to mycotoxins from maize silage, 99 samples of whole-crop maize (ensiled and un-ensiled) were analyzed for their contents of 27 mycotoxins and other secondary fungal metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method specifically targets the majority of common pre- and post-harvest fungi associated with maize silage in Denmark. Sixty-one samples contained one or more of the 27 analytes in detectable concentrations. The most common mycotoxins were zearalenone, enniatin B nivalenol and andrastin A, found in 34%, 28%, 16% and 15% of the samples, respectively. None of the samples contained mycotoxins above the EU recommended maximum concentrations for Fusarium toxins in cereal-based roughage. Thus, the present study does not indicate that Danish maize silage in general is a cause of acute single mycotoxin intoxications in cattle. However, 31 of the samples contained multiple analytes; two samples as much as seven different fungal metabolites. Feed rations with maize silage may therefore contain complex mixtures of fungal secondary metabolites with unknown biological activity. This emphasizes the need for a thorough examination of the effects of chronic exposure and possible synergistic effects. PMID:25089350
Ariza, P; Bach, A; Stern, M D; Hall, M B
Eight dual-flow continuous-culture fermenters were used to evaluate the effect of neutral detergent-soluble carbohydrates (NDSC) on fermentation by ruminal microorganisms. Citrus pulp and hominy feed were added to a basal diet as sources of NDSC, with citrus pulp providing neutral detergent-soluble fiber (NDSF) in the form of pectic substances and with hominy feed in the form of starch. The basal diet contained 26.7% corn silage, 6.0% alfalfa hay and 3.8% cottonseed hulls on a DM basis. The dried citrus pulp diet contained on a DM basis 17.2% CP, 34.7% NDF, 33.7% NDSC, and 14.4% NDSF, whereas the hominy feed diet contained 17.9% CP, 33.2% NDF, 35.9% NDSC, and 8.8% NDSF. Organic matter, DM, and NDF and ADF digestion were not affected by source of carbohydrate. Ammonia N concentration was greater (P < 0.05) for the hominy feed diet (14.2 mg/100 mL) than for the dried citrus pulp diet (9.3 mg/100 mL). Total N, nonammonia N, microbial N, and dietary N flows were not affected by treatments; however, the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was greater (P = 0.055) for the dried citrus pulp diet than for the hominy feed diet (30.6 vs 27.8 g of bacterial N/kg of OM truly digested). Results from this experiment indicate that NDSF from citrus pulp can provide similar sources of energy compared with starch from hominy feed to support ruminal microbial growth.
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and Silage Corn (Zea mays) production is not sufficient in irrigated eastern areas of Jordan and so families cannot afford sufficient animal feeds. This is due to two main reasons: the first is lower crop productivity related to poor agricultural practices including no use...
Coates, J W; Holbek, N E; Beames, R M; Puls, R; O'Brien, W P
In 3 feeding trials, gastric ulceration was diagnosed in 2 of 12 lame and recumbent grower pigs fed a diet of 50% fish silage produced from the offal of farmed Atlantic salmon. Premature femoral physeal closure and elevated serum retinyl palmitate levels, features of vitamin A toxicosis, were also observed. Images Figure 1. PMID:9524722
Escarcha, Jacquelyn F; Callaway, Todd R; Byrd, J Allen; Miller, Dan N; Edrington, Tom S; Anderson, Robin C; Nisbet, David J
Reducing Salmonella in poultry has been a paramount goal of the poultry industry in order to improve food safety. Inclusion of high-fiber fermentable feedstuffs in chicken diets has been shown to reduce the incidence of Salmonella colonization in laying hens, but no work has been performed in growing birds. Therefore, the present study was designed to quantify differences in artificially inoculated cecal Salmonella Typhimurium populations in growing layer chicks (n = 60 in each of two replications) fed 0%, 25%, and 50% of their diet (w/w) replaced with alfalfa meal from day (d) 7 to d14 after hatch. Alfalfa supplementation reduced cecal populations of Salmonella by 0.95 and 1.25 log10 colony-forming unit per gram in the 25% and 50% alfalfa groups compared to controls. Alfalfa feeding reduced (p < 0.05) the number of cecal- and crop-positive birds compared to controls. Increasing levels of alfalfa increased (p < 0.05) total volatile fatty acids (VFA) and the proportion of acetate in the cecum. Surprisingly, alfalfa inclusion did not negatively impact average daily gain (ADG) in birds over the 7-d feeding period. Alfalfa inclusion at 50% of the diet increased (p < 0.05) the number of bacterial genera detected in the cecum compared to controls, and also altered proportions of the microbial population by reducing Ruminococcus and increasing Clostridia populations. Results support the idea that providing a fermentable substrate can increase gastrointestinal VFA production and bacterial diversity which in turn can reduce colonization by Salmonella via natural competitive barriers. However, further studies are obviously needed to more fully understand the impact of changes made in diet or management procedures on poultry production.
Zhang, Miao; Lv, Haoxin; Tan, Zhongfang; Li, Ya; Wang, Yanping; Pang, Huili; Li, Zongwei; Jiao, Zhen; Jin, Qingsheng
This study aimed to explore the feasible approaches to develop a silage production technique in regions with low temperatures. An effective low-temperature silage technology system was constructed and two frigostable Lactobacillus (L.) strains isolated from alpine pastures were selected and proved to be available for wheat straw silage at 5°C. The strains QZ227 and QZ887 were both identified as L. plantarum according to the phenotype, 16S rRNA, and RecA gene analysis. QZ227, QZ887 and a commercial inoculant FG1 consisting of L. plantarum were effective for improving the fermentation quality of wheat straws silage at 5°C for 30 days as indicated by the higher content of lactic acid and for 60 days by lower pH values, while the control with sterile water instead conferred reduced benefits. Additionally, silages fermented at low temperature proved to be acceptable for feeding livestock after being placed in a simulated environmental temperature of 20°C for 14 days to detect its edibility during the early spring when the temperature begins to rise. Both QZ227 and QZ887 showed potential applications of silage making in frigid areas and were effective inoculants in a low-temperature silage technology system.
Gorniak, Tobias; Meyer, Ulrich; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven
The aim of the experiment was to determine the impact of heat stress on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in sheep fed silages differing in fibre quality. The digestibility trial was conducted at three different ambient temperatures (15°C, 25°C and 35°C for 24 h/d). The tested brown-midrib maize (Bm) silage had a higher nutrient digestibility, except for ether extract (EE) and a higher metabolisable energy (ME) content than the control maize (Con) silage. Nitrogen (N) excretion with faeces was higher but N excretion with urine was lower for sheep fed Bm silage, subsequently N balance did not differ between the two silages. Temperature had no effect on nutrient digestibility, except for crude protein (CP), but N excretion with urine was lower at elevated temperatures. A diet by temperature interaction was found for dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) digestibility. When the ambient temperature increased from 15°C to 25°C, the DM and OM digestibility increased in animals fed Con silage, but decreased in animals fed Bm silage. Concomitantly, ME estimated from digestible nutrients was higher for Bm than for Con at 15°C, but no differences were found at 25°C and 35°C. Effects of diet by temperature interaction, furthermore, were observed for EE and CP digestibility. Therefore, forage quality has to be considered when feeding heat-stressed animals.
Gebrehanna, M M; Gordon, R J; Madani, A; VanderZaag, A C; Wood, J D
Silage effluent is a potent wastewater that can be produced when ensiling crops that have a high moisture content (MC). Silage effluent can cause fish-kills and eutrophication due to its high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and nutrient content, respectively. It has a high acidity (pH ≈ 3.5-5) making it corrosive to steel and damaging to concrete, which makes handling, storage and disposal a challenge. Although being recognized as a concentrated wastewater, most research has focused on preventing its production. Despite noted imprecision in effluent production models-and therefore limited ability to predict when effluent will flow-there has been little research aimed at identifying effective reactive management options, such as containment and natural treatment systems. Increasing climate variability and intensifying livestock agriculture are issues that will place a greater importance on developing comprehensive, multi-layered management strategies that include both preventative and reactive measures. This paper reviews important factors governing the production of effluent, approaches to minimize effluent flows as well as treatment and disposal options. The challenges of managing silage effluent are reviewed in the context of its chemical constituents. A multi-faceted approach should be utilized to minimize environmental risks associated with silage effluent. This includes: (i) managing crop moisture content prior to ensiling to reduce effluent production, (ii) ensuring the integrity of silos and effluent storages, and (iii) establishing infrastructure for effluent treatment and disposal. A more thorough investigation of constructed wetlands and vegetated infiltration areas for treating dilute silage effluent is needed. In particular, there should be efforts to improve natural treatment system design criteria by identifying pre-treatment processes and appropriate effluent loading rates. There is also a need for research aimed at understanding the effects of
An alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) biomass energy production system would produce two products. Leaves would be separated from stems to produce a high protein feed for livestock and stems would be processed to produce ethanol. Therefore, maximum yields of both leaves and stems are essential for profitab...
Keady, T W J; Hanrahan, J P
The effects of high and medium feed value grass silage or maize silage (MS), each offered with a range of concentrate feed levels, and ad libitum concentrate on the performance of finishing lambs, which were either shorn or unshorn, were evaluated. Three silages were used: 1 medium feed value (MFV) and 1 high feed value (HFV) grass silage (DM digestibility [DMD] of 71.3% and 74.5%, respectively) and 1 MS (DM and starch concentrations of 30.9% and 35.3% DM, respectively). The 3 silages were offered ad libitum with daily allowances of 0.4, 0.8, or 1.2 kg concentrate per lamb. Two additional treatments were: 1) MS supplemented with 0.4 kg of a low CP (LP) concentrate and 2) concentrate offered ad libitum with 0.5 kg/d of HFV grass silage. These 11 dietary treatments were offered to 264 crossbred Suffolk lambs (initial BW = 39.0 kg), half of which were unshorn and half of which were shorn, for a 54-d finishing period, resulting in 22 treatments. Shearing increased forage DMI (P < 0.001) but did not alter (P > 0.05) carcass weight, carcass gain, or ADG, and there was no interaction with dietary treatment. Reducing CP concentration of the concentrate offered with MS did not alter (P > 0.05) feed intake or lamb performance. Increasing concentrate feed level increased feed DMI and lamb performance (P < 0.001). The linear response in ADG to increased concentrate supplementation was greater (P = 0.012) for MFV than HFV grass silage, and a corresponding difference in carcass gain approached significance (P = 0.075). The linear response was greater for grass silage than for MS for ADG (P < 0.01) and carcass gain (P = 0.019). The response in lamb performance from increased concentrate supplementation was linear for HFV grass silage and MS but quadratic (P < 0.05) for the MFV grass silage, reflecting the large response for this silage when concentrate supplement was increased from 0.4 to 0.8 kg. Relative to the MFV grass silage supplemented with 0.8 kg concentrate, the potential
Malkina, Irina L; Kumar, Anuj; Green, Peter G; Mitloehner, Frank M
High ground-level ozone continues to be an important human, animal, and plant health impediment in the United States and especially in California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV). According to California state and regional air quality agencies, dairies are one of the major sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the SJV. A number of recently conducted studies reported emissions data from different dairy sources. However, limited data are currently available for silage and otherfeed storages on dairies, which could potentially contribute to ozone formation. Because the impact of different VOCs on ozone formation varies significantly from one molecular species to another, detailed characterization of VOC emissions is essential to include all the important contributors to atmospheric chemistry and especially atmospheric reactivity. The present research study identifies and quantifies the VOCs emitted from various silages and other feedstuffs. Experiments were conducted in an environmental chamber under controlled conditions. Almost 80 VOCs were identified and quantified from corn (Zea mays L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.),and cereal (wheat [Triticum aestivum L.] and oat [Avena sativava L.] grains) silages, total mixed ration (TMR), almond (Amygdalus communis L.) shells and hulls using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography. The results revealed high concentrations of emitted alcohols and other oxygenated species. Lower concentrations of highly reactive alkenes and aldehydes were also detected. Additional quantitation and monitoring of these emissions are essential for assessment of and response to the specific needs of the regional air quality in the SJV.
Wu, Jing-jing; Du, Rui-ping; Gao, Min; Sui, Yao-qiang; Xiu, Lei; Wang, Xiao
Silage making has become a significant method of forage conservation worldwide. To determine how tomato pomace (TP) may be used effectively as animal feed, it was ensilaged for 90 days and microbiology counts, fermentation characteristics and chemical composition of tomato pomace silage (TPS) were evaluated at the 30th, 60th, and 90th days, respectively. In addition, 103 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from TPS. Based on the phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, 16S rDNA sequence and carbohydrate fermentation tests, the isolates were identified as 17 species namely: Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens (0.97%), Lactobacillus pontis (0.97%), Lactobacillus hilgardii (0.97%), Lactobacillus pantheris (0.97%), Lactobacillus amylovorus (1.9%), Lactobacillus panis (1.9%), Lactobacillus vaginalis (1.9%), Lactobacillus rapi (1.9%), Lactobacillus buchneri (2.9%), Lactobacillus parafarraginis (2.9%), Lactobacillus helveticus (3.9%), Lactobacillus camelliae (3.9%), Lactobacillus fermentum (5.8%), Lactobacillus manihotivorans (6.8%), Lactobacillus plantarum (10.7%), Lactobacillus harbinensis (16.5%) and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (35.0%). This study has shown that TP can be well preserved for 90 days by ensilaging and that TPS is not only rich in essential nutrients, but that physiological and biochemical properties of the isolates could provide a platform for future design of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants aimed at improving the fermentation quality of silage. PMID:25049999
Hall, J W; Walker, I; Majak, W
Poloxalene and a mineral mixture feed supplement patented for the treatment of emphysema, polyarthritis, and other pectin related diseases were tested in two trials for their ability to prevent bloat in cattle fed fresh alfalfa. Each trial had a crossover design using three Jersey steers with rumen fistulas per group. Each trial period continued until the total number of cases of bloat reached > or = 24. Treatments were given at 0800 each day. The mineral mixture was given at 100 g/d and 190 mg/kg body weight per day in the first and second trials, respectively. Poloxalene, which was tested only in the second trial, was given at 23 mg/kg body weight per day. Each group of steers was then fed 200 kg of freshly harvested alfalfa in the vegetative to early bloom stages of growth at 0830. In the first trial, only 69% as many cases of bloat occurred on the mineral mixture as on the control treatment, but no significant difference was detected in the second trial. The potency of the alfalfa may have been higher in the second trial, when forage dry matter was lower, magnesium and soluble nitrogen were higher, and bloat occasionally occurred twice a day. Bloat did not occur when the steers were treated with poloxalene. In these trials, poloxalene was completely effective in preventing bloat, but the mineral mixture was only partially so. PMID:7866960
Khan, Sohail H; Shahzad, Muhammad Aasif; Nisa, Mahr; Sarwar, Muhammad
The experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and millet (Pennisetum americannum) silages with or without concentrate on nutrients intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and weight gain in Sipli sheep. Six experimental diets were formulated having 100% maize silage (MS), maize silage and concentrate as 50:50 (MSC), 100% sorghum silage (SS), sorghum silage and concentrate as 50:50 (SSC), 100% millet silage (MiS) and millet silage and concentrate as 50:50 (MiSC), respectively. For this purpose, 24 Sipli lambs were randomly allotted to six experimental diets in a completely randomized design for 90 days, four lambs per diet. The results indicated that among various silage diets, lambs fed MS diet consumed higher dry matter (DM) than those fed SS and MiS diets. Likewise, lambs offered MSC had higher dry matter intake than those fed SSC and MiSC diets. Crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) consumed by the lambs also followed the similar trend. Higher DM, CP and NDF digestibilities were also observed in lambs fed MS and MSC diets than those fed SS, SSC, MiS and MiSC diets. Overall digestibilities of DM, CP and NDF were higher in experimental diets containing silage with concentrate. Lambs fed MS diet had 2.79 g/day and 4.45 g/day higher N retention than those fed SS and MiS, respectively. Similarly, lambs fed MSC diet had 2.24 g/day and 5.12 g/day higher N retention than those fed SSC and MiSC diets, respectively. The results showed that lambs fed MSC gained more daily weight gain had better feed conversion ratio than those fed MS, SS, SSC, MiS and MiSC diets. The findings of the present study indicated that lambs fed MSC diet had higher nutrients intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance and weight gain.
Wang, Dan; Khurshid, Muhammad; Sun, Zhan Min; Tang, Yi Xiong; Zhou, Mei Liang; Wu, Yan Min
Alfalfa is excellent perennial legume forage for its extensive ecological adaptability, high nutrition value, palatability and biological nitrogen fixation. It plays a very important role in the agriculture, animal husbandry and ecological construction. It is cultivated in all continents. With the development of modern plant breeding and genetic engineering techniques, a large amount of work has been carried out on alfalfa. Here we summarize the recent research advances in genetic engineering of alfalfa breeding, including transformation, quality improvement, stress resistance and as a bioreactor. The review article can enables us to understand the research method, direction and achievements of genetic engineering technology of Alfalfa.
Ni, Kuikui; Wang, Yanping; Li, Dongxia; Cai, Yimin; Pang, Huili
There has been growing interest to develop forage rice as a new feed resource for livestock. This study was to characterize the natural population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and select potentially excellent strains for paddy rice silage preparation in China. One hundred and twenty-six strains were isolated and screened from paddy rice silage prepared using a small-scale fermentation system, and ninety-nine of these isolates were considered to be LAB based on their Gram-positive and catalase-negative morphology and the production of most of their metabolic products as lactic acid. These isolates were divided into eight groups (A-H) on the basis of their morphological and biochemical characteristics. The Group A to H strains were identified as Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum subsp. plantarum (species ratio: 8.1%), L. casei (5.1%), Leuconostoc (Ln.) pseudomesenteroides (11.1%), Pediococcus (P.) pentosaceus (24.2%), Enterococcus (E.) mundtii (12.1%), Lactococcus (Lc.) garvieae (15.2%), E. faecium (9.1%) and Lc. lactis subsp. lactis (15.2%) based on sequence analyses of their 16S rRNA and recA genes. P. pentosaceus was the most abundant member of the LAB population in the paddy rice silage. A selected strain, namely L. casei R 465, was found to be able to grow under low pH conditions and to improve the silage quality with low pH and a relatively high content of lactic acid. This study demonstrated that forage paddy rice silage contains abundant LAB species and its silage can be well preserved by inoculation with LAB, and that strain R 465 can be a potentially excellent inoculant for paddy rice silage.
Ni, Kuikui; Wang, Yanping; Li, Dongxia; Cai, Yimin; Pang, Huili
There has been growing interest to develop forage rice as a new feed resource for livestock. This study was to characterize the natural population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and select potentially excellent strains for paddy rice silage preparation in China. One hundred and twenty-six strains were isolated and screened from paddy rice silage prepared using a small-scale fermentation system, and ninety-nine of these isolates were considered to be LAB based on their Gram-positive and catalase-negative morphology and the production of most of their metabolic products as lactic acid. These isolates were divided into eight groups (A-H) on the basis of their morphological and biochemical characteristics. The Group A to H strains were identified as Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum subsp. plantarum (species ratio: 8.1%), L. casei (5.1%), Leuconostoc (Ln.) pseudomesenteroides (11.1%), Pediococcus (P.) pentosaceus (24.2%), Enterococcus (E.) mundtii (12.1%), Lactococcus (Lc.) garvieae (15.2%), E. faecium (9.1%) and Lc. lactis subsp. lactis (15.2%) based on sequence analyses of their 16S rRNA and recA genes. P. pentosaceus was the most abundant member of the LAB population in the paddy rice silage. A selected strain, namely L. casei R 465, was found to be able to grow under low pH conditions and to improve the silage quality with low pH and a relatively high content of lactic acid. This study demonstrated that forage paddy rice silage contains abundant LAB species and its silage can be well preserved by inoculation with LAB, and that strain R 465 can be a potentially excellent inoculant for paddy rice silage. PMID:25803578
Ali, M; de Jonge, L H; Cone, J W; van Duinkerken, G; Blok, M C; Bruinenberg, M H; Hendriks, W H
In in situ nylon bag technique, many feed evaluation systems use a washing machine method (WMM) to determine the washout (W) fraction and to wash the rumen incubated nylon bags. As this method has some disadvantages, an alternate modified method (MM) was recently introduced. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the W and non-washout (D+U) fractions of nitrogen (N) and/or starch of maize and grass silages, using the WMM and the MM. Ninety-nine maize silage and 99 grass silage samples were selected with a broad range in chemical composition. The results showed a large range in the W, soluble (S) and D+U fractions of N of maize and grass silages and the W, insoluble washout (W-S) and D+U fractions of starch of maize silages, determined by both methods, due to variation in their chemical composition. The values for N fractions of maize and grass silages obtained with both methods were found different (p < 0.001). Large differences (p < 0.001) were found in the D+U fraction of starch of maize silages which might be due to different methodological approaches, such as different rinsing procedures (washing vs. shaking), duration of rinsing (40 min vs. 60 min) and different solvents (water vs. buffer solution). The large differences (p < 0.001) in the W-S and D+U fractions of starch determined with both methods can led to different predicted values for the effective rumen starch degradability. In conclusion, the MM with one recommended shaking procedure, performed under identical and controlled experimental conditions, can give more reliable results compared to the WMM, using different washing programs and procedures. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Cooke, K M; Bernard, J K; West, J W
Twenty-four lactating Holstein cows were used in a 6-wk randomized block design trial with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to determine the effects of feeding ground corn (GC) or steam-flaked corn (SFC) in diets based on either annual ryegrass silage (RS) or a 50:50 blend of annual ryegrass and corn silages (BLEND). Experimental diets contained 49.6% forage and were fed as a total mixed ration once daily for 4 wk after a 2-wk preliminary period. No interactions were observed among treatments. Cows fed BLEND consumed more dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) than those fed RS, but total-tract digestibility of OM, NDF, and ADF was greater for RS than for BLEND. No differences in nutrient intake were observed among treatments during wk 4 when nutrient digestibility was measured, but digestibility of DM and OM was greater for SFC than for GC. Cows fed BLEND tended to produce more energy-corrected milk than those fed RS, resulting in improved efficiency (kg of milk per kg of DM intake). When diets were supplemented with SFC, cows consumed less DM and produced more milk that tended to have lower milk fat percentage. Yield of milk protein and efficiency was greatest with SFC compared with GC. Blood glucose and milk urea nitrogen concentrations were similar among treatments, but blood urea nitrogen was greater for cows fed GC compared with those fed SFC. Results of this trial indicate that feeding a blend of annual ryegrass and corn silage is more desirable than feeding diets based on RS as the sole forage. Supplementing diets with SFC improved performance and efficiency compared with GC across forage sources.
Muhonen, S; Julliand, V; Lindberg, J E; Bertilsson, J; Jansson, A
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of an abrupt change from grass hay (81% DM) to grass silage (36% DM) or grass haylage (55% DM), fed at similar DM intakes, and to compare the effects of silage and haylage on the composition and activities of the colon microflora. The forages were from the same swath harvested on the same day. Four adult colon-fistulated geldings were randomly assigned to diets in a crossover design. The study started with a preperiod when all 4 horses received the hay diet, followed by an abrupt feed change to the haylage diet for 2 horses and the silage diet for 2 horses. All 4 horses then had a new second preperiod of hay, followed by an abrupt feed change to the opposite haylage and silage diet. The periods were 21 d long, and the forage-only diets were supplemented with minerals and salt. The abrupt feed changes were made at 0800 h. Colon samples were taken before the abrupt feed change, 4 and 28 h after the feed change, and 8, 15, and 21 d after the feed change, all at 1200 h. Colon bacterial counts, VFA, pH, and DM concentrations were unchanged throughout the first 28 h after the abrupt feed change from hay to haylage and silage. Also, fecal pH and DM concentrations were unchanged during the first 28 h. During the weekly observations, colon lactobacilli counts increased (P = 0.023) in horses receiving the silage diet and were greater than on the haylage diet at 21 d. Streptococci counts decreased (P = 0.046) in horses receiving the haylage diet and were less than on the silage diet at 15 and 21 d. Total VFA concentrations and colon and fecal pH did not differ between diets and were unchanged throughout the weekly observations. The DM concentration of colon digesta and feces decreased (P = 0.030 and 0.049, respectively) on both diets during the weekly observations. The results suggest that in horses fed at the maintenance level of energy intake, an abrupt feed change from grass hay to grass silage or grass haylage from
Martinez, C M; Chung, Y-H; Ishler, V A; Bailey, K W; Varga, G A
Two experiments (Exp. 1 and 2) were conducted using a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 2 replications (n = 8) to evaluate effects of feeding Holstein dairy cows a total mixed ration containing 50 or 60% of ration dry matter (DM) from forages with or without supplementation of monensin. In Exp. 1, alfalfa silage (AS) was used as the major forage (55% forage DM), and corn silage (CS; 45% forage DM) was used to make up the rest of the forage portion of diets (55AS:45CS). In Exp. 2, CS was used as the major forage (70% forage DM) and alfalfa hay (AH; 30% forage DM) was used to make up the rest of the forage portion of diets (70CS:30AH). Experimental diets were arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial with 50 or 60% ration DM from forages and monensin supplemented at 0 or 300 mg/cow daily. In Exp. 1 (55AS:45CS), feeding 60% forage diets decreased DM intake (DMI; 27.3 vs. 29.6 kg/d) but maintained the same levels of milk (45.8 vs. 47.0 kg/d) compared with 50% forage diets. The efficiency of converting feed to milk or 3.5% fat-corrected milk was greater for cows fed 60% compared with 50% forage diets (1.7 vs. 1.6 kg milk or 3.5% fat-corrected milk/kg of DMI, respectively). Increasing dietary forage level from 50 to 60% of ration DM increased milk fat percentage (3.4 to 3.5%); however, adding monensin to the 60% forage diet inhibited the increase in milk fat percentage. Feeding 60% forage diets decreased feed cost, but this decrease ($0.5/head per day) in feed cost did not affect income over feed cost. Feeding 60% forage diets decreased fecal excretion of DM (10.6 to 9.6 kg/d) and nitrogen (N; 354 to 324 g/d) and improved apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber from 43 to 49% and apparent efficiency of feed N utilization from 32.3 to 35.9% compared with 50% forage diets. In Exp. 2 (70CS:30AH), feeding 60% forage diets decreased DMI from 29.6 to 28.2 kg but maintained the same level of milk (41.1 vs. 40.8 kg/d) and therefore increased the efficiency of converting feed to milk
Kraut-Cohen, J; Tripathi, V; Chen, Y; Gatica, J; Volchinski, V; Sela, S; Weinberg, Z; Cytryn, E
Ensiling is a feed preservation method of moist forage crops that generally depends on naturally developing lactic acid bacteria to convert water-soluble carbohydrates into organic acids. While bacterial community dynamics have been previously assessed in bench-scale and pilot ensiling facilities, almost no studies have assessed the microbiomes of large-scale silage facilities. This study analyzed bacterial community composition in mature silage from bunker silos in three commercial production centers as related to pH, organic matter, volatile fatty acid composition, and spatial distribution within the ensiling bunker. It revealed significant physicochemical differences between "preserved" regions situated in the center and along the walls of the silage bunkers that were characterized by high concentrations of lactic acid and other volatiles and pH values below 5, and "spoiled" regions in the corners (shoulders) of the bunkers that had low lactic acid concentrations and high pH values. Preserved silage was dominated (>90 %) by lactic acid bacteria and characterized by high similarity and low taxonomic diversity, whereas spoiled silage had highly diverse microbiomes with low abundances of lactic acid bacteria (<5 %) that were sometimes characterized by high levels of Enterobacteriaceae. Spatial position had a much stronger impact on the microbial community composition than feedstock type, sampling date, or production center location supporting previous studies demonstrating that ecology and not geography is a major driver of environmental microbiomes.
Rinne, M; Huhtanen, P; Jaakkola, S
The objective of this experiment was to quantify ruminal digestive processes that could help to identify factors limiting DMI when silages differing in grass maturity were fed to dairy cows. Four silages were harvested at 1-wk intervals from a primary growth of a timothy-meadow fescue sward, resulting in feeds with digestible OM content in DM (D-value) of 739, 730, 707, and 639 g/kg in the order of succeeding harvest date. Four ruminally cannulated dairy cows were given ad libitum access to these silages supplemented with 7 kg concentrate per day in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Rumen function was clearly affected by decreasing digestibility of silage fed. Passage rate of digestible NDF (DNDF) and indigestible NDF (INDF) increased, but it could not prevent the accumulation of DM, NDF, DNDF, and INDF into the rumen when silages of progressing grass maturity were fed. The greatest proportional increases in rumen pool were found in INDF and in medium particles (separated by wet sieving and measuring 315 to 2,500 microm). The passage of medium INDF particles decreased (P < 0.01) linearly (from 0.0365/h to 0.0281/h) with increasing maturity of grass ensiled, and it was slower than passage of small (80 to 315 microm) particles (on average 0.0524/h). Particle size reduction of large INDF particles to medium INDF particles was slower (P < 0.001) in the early cut silages (0.0216/h to 0.0484/h) but reduction of medium INDF particles to small INDF particles was faster (P < 0.001) in early cut silages (0.0436 to 0.0305). Passage of medium size particles and(or) rate of medium particle breakdown to small particles were potential intake-constraining properties of low digestibility forages, whereas large particle reduction to medium particles seemed not to be limiting. The increased feed intake of the early-cut silages was accompanied by decreased rumen fill, suggesting that rumen fill was not at least solely responsible for feed intake control.
Kälber, Tasja; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian
The suitability of silages containing buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) for the nutrition of dairy cows was determined. Buckwheat and chicory were sown in mixture with ryegrass (Lolium multilorum), and a pure ryegrass culture served as a control forage. Swards were harvested 55 d after sowing and were ensiled after wilting, without additives in small round bales. Finally, buckwheat and chicory made up the dietary dry matter (DM) proportions of 0.46 and 0.34, respectively. Concentrates were restricted to 2 kg/d. Diets were fed to 3 x 6 late-lactating cows for 15 d at ad libitum access. During the collection period (days 10-15) amounts of feed intake and faeces, urine and milk were recorded and samples were taken. Ensilability was good for buckwheat and ryegrass swards, but was so less for the chicory sward, which was rich in total ash. The buckwheat silage was rich in acid detergent fibre (445 g/kg DM) and lignin (75.7 g/kg DM) and contained less crude protein (135 g/kg DM) and ether extract (15.8 g/kg DM) than the other silages. Consistent with that, the apparent digestibility of the organic matter and fibre were lowest when feeding this silage. The potassium concentrations in the chicory and ryegrass silages were high (61 g/ kg) and lower in buckwheat (47 g/kg). No significant treatment effects on intake, body weight, milk yield or milk composition as well as plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids occurred. Being lowest in nitrogen (N) content, the buckwheat silage resulted in the lowest urine N losses and the most efficient N utilisation for milk protein synthesis, but this at cost of body N retention. The results show that silages containing buckwheat and chicory may be used as components of the forage part of dairy cows' diets even though they were found to have a lower feeding value than ryegrass silage.
Blackmer, J L; Rodriguez-Saona, C; Byers, J A; Shope, K L; Smith, J P
The western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight, feeds and develops on a variety of weeds in the spring, with later generations moving to alfalfa and cotton where severe damage to reproductive structures can occur. A synthetic attractant for monitoring or mass-trapping L. hesperus, or the identification of potential attractants for natural enemies, would be useful tools for integrated pest management programs. Studies investigated the response of naive and experienced fifth-instar and adult L. hesperus to odors associated with conspecifics and alfalfa, Medicago sativa L. Fifth-instar L. hesperus responded to all plant/insect combinations, whereas female L. hesperus only responded preferentially to vegetative and flowering alfalfa where conspecifics had fed for 24-72 hr, and to vegetative alfalfa where conspecifics were added approximately 30 min before the test began. Males were not attracted to headspace volatiles from any of the alfalfa treatments. Analysis of headspace volatiles showed that (E)-2-hexanal, (Z)-3-hexen-l-ol, alpha-pinene, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, limonene, (Z)-ocimene, (E)-beta-ocimene, linalool, (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, and (E, E)-alpha-farnesene are emitted from both vegetative and flowering alfalfa. Indole and (3E, 7E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene were only detected in flowering alfalfa. Damage to alfalfa by L. hesperus increased emissions of (Z)-ocimene, (E)-beta-ocimene, (E)-beta-caryophyllene, and (E, E)-alpha-farnesene, while beta-pinene, myrcene, methyl salicylate, and (3E, 7E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene were only detected from damaged plants. Thus, individual or mixtures of these alfalfa volatiles may be useful as attractants for capturing nymphs and adult females of L. hesperus in the field.
Postnikova, Olga A; Hult, Maria; Shao, Jonathan; Skantar, Andrea; Nemchinov, Lev G
Nematodes are one of the major limiting factors in alfalfa production. Root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp.) are widely distributed and economically important sedentary endoparasites of agricultural crops and they may inflict significant damage to alfalfa fields. As of today, no studies have been published on global gene expression profiling in alfalfa infected with RKN or any other plant parasitic nematode. Very little information is available about molecular mechanisms that contribute to pathogenesis and defense responses in alfalfa against these pests and specifically against RKN. In this work, we performed root transcriptome analysis of resistant (cv. Moapa 69) and susceptible (cv. Lahontan) alfalfa cultivars infected with RKN Meloidogyne incognita, widespread root-knot nematode species and a major pest worldwide. A total of 1,701,622,580 pair-end reads were generated on an Illumina Hi-Seq 2000 platform from the roots of both cultivars and assembled into 45,595 and 47,590 transcripts in cvs Moapa 69 and Lahontan, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a number of common and unique genes that were differentially expressed in susceptible and resistant lines as a result of nematode infection. Although the susceptible cultivar showed a more pronounced defense response to the infection, feeding sites were successfully established in its roots. Characteristically, basal gene expression levels under normal conditions differed between the two cultivars as well, which may confer advantage to one of the genotypes toward resistance to nematodes. Differentially expressed genes were subsequently assigned to known Gene Ontology categories to predict their functional roles and associated biological processes. Real-time PCR validated expression changes in genes arbitrarily selected for experimental confirmation. Candidate genes that contribute to protection against M. incognita in alfalfa were proposed and alfalfa-nematode interactions with respect to resistance
Chapman, G A; Bork, E W; Donkor, N T; Hudson, R J
Little information exists on the performance of deer on alternative forage species in northern temperate environments during summer and fall, the period of inherent maximum growth in deer. In performance and choice experiments, we compared live weight gain (g/kg(0.75)/day), absolute [kg/ha dry matter (DM)] and relative (% DM) herbage utilization, relative preference index (RPI) as well as plant community visitation of white-tailed deer grazing alfalfa (Medicago sativa), birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) or chicory (Cichorium intybus) in north central Alberta, Canada. Herbage phytomass and quality was also measured on the grazed pastures. Alfalfa had higher dry matter yields and crude protein concentrations than chicory and trefoil. Chicory had lower neutral detergent fiber concentrations than the other forages. Tannin concentrations were greatest in birds foot trefoil (nearly 55 g/kg DM), well above those in the other forages (<5 g/kg DM). Live weight gain was similar among deer feeding within the paddocks seeded to birds foot trefoil and chicory, and more than two times higher (p < 0.05) than deer feeding in paddocks seeded to alfalfa. Deer spent more grazing time (about 40%) on chicory pastures than on alfalfa and birds foot trefoil pastures. RPI values were greatest for birds foot trefoil at 2.11, intermediate for chicory at 1.40, and lowest for alfalfa at <0.60. Absolute herbage utilization remained similar (p > 0.05) among the three forage species. In contrast, relative herbage utilization was greater from birds foot trefoil (52% DM) than chicory (40% DM) or alfalfa (25% DM). These results suggest that the use of alfalfa with other alternative forages may prove beneficial to deer production, rather than using alfalfa pasture alone.
Akbaridoust, Ghazal; Plozza, Tim; Trenerry, Victor C; Wales, William J; Auldist, Martin J; Dunshea, Frank R; Ajlouni, Said
This study investigated the effects of different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows on the proportions of fatty acids in milk. Two hundred and sixteen cows were fed supplementary grain and forage according to one of 3 different strategies; (1) CONTROL: cows grazed perennial ryegrass pasture (14 kg dry matter/d) supplemented with milled barley grain fed in the milking parlour and pasture silage offered in the paddock; (2) Partial mixed ration 1 (PMR1): same pasture allotment and supplement as CONTROL strategy, but the supplements presented as a mixed ration after each milking in feedpad, and; (3) Partial mixed ration 2 (PMR2): same pasture allotment, supplemented with a mixed ration of milled barley grain, alfalfa hay, corn silage and crushed corn grain fed in a feedpad. Within each strategy, cows were assigned to receive either 6, 8, 10 or 12 kg dry matter supplement/cow per d. Milk fatty acid proportions from cows fed CONTROL and PMR1 strategies were similar and different from those fed PMR2, particularly at 10 to 12 kg dry matter supplement/cow per d. The reduction in milk fat yield and concentration in cows fed high amounts of supplement as CONTROL and PMR1 was coincident with 4 × increase in 10t-18:1 proportion. The composition of the partial mixed ration (PMR) and the amount offered affected milk fatty acid proportions and milk fat content, however, the method of supplementation did not.
Alfalfa is a deep-rooted plant that fixes nitrogen (N) and takes N from deep in the soil profile and brings it close to the soil surface. Alfalfa helps build soil health by giving N-rich leaves, stems, roots and root exudates to the soil. Through the action of soil microbes, the N in this organic ...
Alfalfa is often referred to as the “Queen of Forages” due to its relatively good digestibility, high protein, and ability to readily fix nitrogen. But there’s a big drawback to alfalfa – much of its protein is lost during the harvest and ensiling process, and more is lost in the rumen of livestock....
Lamp, W O; Alexander, L C; Nguyen, M
Plant tolerance to herbivory is a key approach for managing pests. In alfalfa, Medicago sativa, the potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae, is a major pest as a result of the cascade of plant responses to piercing-sucking injury. To identify tolerance to its injury based on alfalfa physiology, experiments were conducted in the field and greenhouse. In our comparison of the response of field-grown alfalfa cultivars to standardized leafhopper densities, net photosynthesis and transpiration rates of 'Geneva' leaves were reduced by 18 and 21%, respectively, by leafhopper presence compared with a rate change of <1% of resistant 'EverGreen' leaves. Under greenhouse conditions, alfalfa clones varied in their level of gas exchange (net photosynthesis and transpiration) and stem elongation responses to leafhopper injury. For example, in the comparison of seven clones, net photosynthesis declined an average of 40.7% with leafhopper injury, although individual clones varied from 26.6 to 74.3% reduction. Internode elongation after 2 d was 60.3% less on injured stems compared with healthy stems, but again, the individual clones varied from 17.3 to 91.9%. In a time-course study of selected clones, clones varied in their level of injury just after and 3 d after insect removal. Gas exchange responses of all clones recovered by 7 d after cessation of injury. In a choice test, leafhoppers spent similar amounts of time on the susceptible clone and the most tolerant clone; however, their precise feeding behaviors were not measured. Thus, the variable response of clones to injury may be either true physiological tolerance or antixenosis from a change in feeding behavior. This study showed putative tolerance to leafhopper injury among alfalfa genotypes, suggesting that tolerance could be the basis for crop protection in alfalfa from potato leafhopper injury.
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is the fourth most widely grown crop in the United States. Alfalfa crown rot is a disease complex that severely decreases alfalfa stand density and productivity in all alfalfa-producing areas. Currently, there are no viable methods of disease control. Plant defensins are sm...
Bhatti, S A; Bowman, J G P; Firkins, J L; Grove, A V; Hunt, C W
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate digestion kinetics of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) substitution for grass hay in beef cattle. In Exp. 1, forage combinations evaluated in situ consisted of 0% alfalfa-100% big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi Vitman), 25% alfalfa-75% big bluestem, 50% alfalfa-50% big bluestem, and 100% alfalfa-0% big bluestem. Nonlinear regression was used to determine the immediately soluble fraction A, the potentially degradable fraction B, the undegraded fraction C, and the disappearance rate of DM and NDF. Dry matter fraction A increased linearly (P = 0.03), and DM and NDF fraction B decreased linearly (P = 0.01) with increasing alfalfa substitution. Rate of DM and NDF disappearance increased linearly (P = 0.02) with increasing alfalfa substitution. In Exp. 2, treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial testing alfalfa substitution [none or 25% (as-fed basis)] to orchardgrass hay (Dactylis glomerata L.) and intake level [restricted to 1% of BW daily (DM basis) or ad libitum]. Nutrient intakes were lowest (P = 0.05) by steers fed restricted diets, intermediate by steers fed orchardgrass ad libitum, and greatest by steers fed orchardgrass plus alfalfa ad libitum. Intake level and forage source had no effect (P >/= 0.23) on total tract apparent digestibility of all nutrients except CP. Steers fed orchardgrass plus alfalfa had 33% greater (P = 0.01) total tract apparent digestibility for CP than those fed orchardgrass alone. Lag time of DM and NDF disappearance was not affected (P >/= 0.20) by alfalfa supplementation or intake level. Rate of DM and NDF disappearance of orchardgrass was faster (P = 0.01) in steers fed orchardgrass plus alfalfa, at both restricted and ad libitum levels of feeding, than in animals fed orchardgrass alone. Mean retention times of large and small particles of orchardgrass tended to be shorter (P = 0.06) when steers consumed ad libitum vs. restricted diets. Small orchardgrass particles tended to have a
Lengowski, Melanie B; Witzig, Maren; Möhring, Jens; Seyfang, Gero M; Rodehutscord, Markus
Here, we examined diurnal changes in the ruminal microbial community and fermentation characteristics of dairy cows fed total mixed rations containing either corn silage (CS) or grass silage (GS) as forage. The rations, which consisted of 52% concentrate and 48% GS or CS, were offered for ad libitum intake over 20 days to three ruminal-fistulated lactating Jersey cows during three consecutive feeding periods. Feed intake, ruminal pH, concentrations of short chain fatty acids and ammonia in rumen liquid, as well as abundance change in the microbial populations in liquid and solid fractions, were monitored in 4-h intervals on days 18 and 20. The abundance of total bacteria and Fibrobacter succinogenes increased in solids in cows fed CS instead of GS, and that of protozoa increased in both solid and liquid fractions. Feeding GS favored numbers of F. succinogenes and Selenomonas ruminantium in the liquid fraction as well as the numbers of Ruminobacter amylophilus, Prevotella bryantii and ruminococci in both fractions. Minor effects of silage were detected on populations of methanogens. Despite quantitative changes in the composition of the microbial community, fermentation characteristics were less affected by forage source. These results suggest a functional adaptability of the ruminal microbiota to total mixed rations containing either GS or CS as the source of forage. Diurnal changes in microbial populations were primarily affected by feed intake and differed between species and fractions, with fewer temporal fluctuations evident in the solid than in the liquid fraction. Interactions between forage source and sampling time were of minor importance to most of the microbial species examined. Thus, diurnal changes of microbial populations and fermentative activity were less affected by the two silages.
Hafner, Sasha D; Franco, Roberta B; Kung, Limin; Rotz, C Alan; Mitloehner, Frank
The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of biological and chemical silage additives on the production of volatile organic compounds (VOC; methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, methyl acetate, and ethyl acetate) within corn silage. Recent work has shown that silage VOC can contribute to poor air quality and reduce feed intake. Silage additives may reduce VOC production in silage by inhibiting the activity of bacteria or yeasts that produce them. We produced corn silage in 18.9-L bucket silos using the following treatments: (1) control (distilled water); (2) Lactobacillus buchneri 40788, with 400,000 cfu/g of wet forage; (3) Lactobacillus plantarum MTD1, with 100,000 cfu/g; (4) a commercial buffered propionic acid-based preservative (68% propionic acid, containing ammonium and sodium propionate and acetic, benzoic, and sorbic acids) at a concentration of 1 g/kg of wet forage (0.1%); (5) a low dose of potassium sorbate at a concentration of 91 mg/kg of wet forage (0.0091%); (6) a high dose of potassium sorbate at a concentration of 1g/kg of wet forage (0.1%); and (7) a mixture of L. plantarum MTD1 (100,000 cfu/g) and a low dose of potassium sorbate (91 mg/kg). Volatile organic compound concentrations within silage were measured after ensiling and sample storage using a headspace gas chromatography method. The high dose of potassium sorbate was the only treatment that inhibited the production of multiple VOC. Compared with the control response, it reduced ethanol by 58%, ethyl acetate by 46%, and methyl acetate by 24%, but did not clearly affect production of methanol or 1-propanol. The effect of this additive on ethanol production was consistent with results from a small number of earlier studies. A low dose of this additive does not appear to be effective. Although it did reduce methanol production by 24%, it increased ethanol production by more than 2-fold and did not reduce the ethyl acetate concentration. All other treatments increased ethanol production
Suess, Katherine; Darling, Jeremiah K.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo
OH megamasers (OHMs) are rare, luminous molecular masers that are typically observed in (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies and serve as markers of major galaxy mergers. In blind emission line surveys such as the ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array) survey for neutral hydrogen (HI) in the local universe, OHMs at z~0.2 can mimic z~0.05 HI lines. We present the results of optical spectroscopy of ambiguous HI detections in the ALFALFA 40% data release  detected by WISE but with uncertain optical counterparts. The optical redshifts, obtained from observations at the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m telescope, identified 127 HI optical counterparts and discovered five new OHMs. Fifty-six candidates remain ambiguous. The new OHMs are the first detected in a blind spectral line survey.The number of OHMs in ALFALFA matches predictions based on the OH luminosity function . Additionally, the OHMs found in a blind survey do not seem to differ from those found in previous targeted surveys. This provides validation of the methods used in previous IR-selected OHM surveys and indicates there is no previously unknown OHM-producing population at z~0.2. We also provide a method for future surveys to separate OH and HI lines without expensive spectral observations. This method utilizes infrared colors and magnitudes, such as WISE mid-IR data. Since the fraction of OHMs found in flux-limited HI surveys is expected to increase with the redshift of the survey , this analysis can be applied to future flux-limited high-redshift hydrogen surveys.We thank the ALFALFA team for observing and producing the survey dataset. The ALFALFA team at Cornell is supported by NSF AST-1107390 and the Brinson Foundation. Haynes, M. P., R. Giovanelli, A. M. Martin, K. M. Hess, A. Saintonge, et al. 2011, Astron J, 142, 142 Darling, J. & R. Giovanelli 2002, Astrophys J, 572, 810 Briggs, F. H. 1998, A&A, 336, 815
Bernardes, T F; do Rêgo, A C
Dairy farmers across Brazil were invited to participate in a study on silage production and utilization practices. Two hundred sixty farmers filled out a questionnaire, which was made available on a website. The questionnaire consisted of 14 questions, including information about the characteristics of the herd (n=3), the crop(s) used in the ensiling process, the use of additives, the harvest (n=3), the type of silo (n=1), aspects related to sealing (n=2), and management practices applied during feed-out (n=3). Farmers were also asked a final question about the main barriers they faced when producing and using silage. The main dairy-producing regions of Brazil had a strong influence on the number of participants. The profiles of farmers were heterogeneous and divided into 5 groups, which was considered a positive attribute of the study, allowing better analysis and assessment of current circumstances. Corn was the most widely grown crop for silage. Sorghum, tropical grasses, and sugarcane were the other species most cited. Additives were used by a small number of farmers (27.7%). Approximately 40% of farmers still depended on loaned equipment or outsourced services. The pull-type forage harvester was the main piece of equipment used on dairy farms (90.4%). Only 54.6% of respondents answered that they sharpen their harvester knives daily. Horizontal silos (bunker and stack) were the structures most commonly used to store silage. Most farmers sealed silos with double-sided plastic film (black-on-white) and with soil. However, almost one-fifth of all farmers still use black plastic. Manual removal of silage from the silos was practiced at most farms (i.e., the lack of equipment was also reflected in the stage of silage utilization). Disposal of spoiled silage before inclusion in the livestock feed was not a common practice on the farms. The main barriers encountered on the farms were lack of equipment, lack of manpower, and climatic variations. The results of this
Boguhn, J; Kluth, H; Bulang, M; Engelhard, T; Rodehutscord, M
Beet pulp contains high amounts of pectins that can reduce the risk of rumen disorders compared to using feedstuffs high in starch. The objective was to study the effects of inclusion of ensiled pressed beet pulp in total mixed rations (TMR) for high-yielding dairy cows. Two TMR containing no or about 20% (on dry matter (DM) basis) beet pulp silage were used. The beet pulp silage mainly replaced maize silage and corn cob silage. The TMR were intentionally equal in the concentrations of energy and utilisable crude protein (CP) at the duodenum. TMR were fed to 39 and 40 dairy cows, respectively, for 118 days. The average daily milk yield was about 43 kg/day. No significant differences in milk yield and milk fat or milk protein content were detected. DM intake of cows was significantly reduced by the inclusion of beet pulp silage (23.0 v. 24.5 kg/day). However, a digestibility study, separately conducted with sheep, showed a significantly higher organic matter digestibility and metabolisable energy concentration for the TMR that contained beet pulp silage. In vitro gas production kinetics indicated that the intensity of fermentation was lower in the TMR that contained beet pulp silage. In vitro production of short-chain fatty acids, studied using a Rusitec, did not differ between the TMR. However, the inclusion of beet pulp silage in the ration caused a significant reduction in the efficiency of microbial CP synthesis in vitro. The amino acid profile of microbial protein remained unchanged. It was concluded that beet pulp silage has specific effects on ruminal fermentation that may depress feed intake of cows but improve digestibility. An inclusion of beet pulp silage of up to 20% of DM in rations for high-yielding dairy cows is possible without significant effects on milk yield and milk protein or milk fat.
Chen, Xinzhu; Li, Wenyang; Gao, Chengfang; Zhang, Xiaopei; Weng, Boqi; Cai, Yimin
We studied silage fermentation of kudzu (KZ), sugarcane top (ST) and their mixtures treated with additives to be able to effectively use available local feed resources. The silages were prepared using KZ, ST, KZ 90% + ST 10%, KZ 80% + ST 20%, KZ 70% + ST 30% and KZ 60% + ST 40%, based on fresh matter (FM). These silages were treated with 10(8) colony-forming units/g epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB), 5% molasses and 0.02% cellulase of FM. The KZ contained higher crude protein (CP; 14.52%) content and lower levels of neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 62.15%) than those of ST (6.84% CP and 64.93% NDF) based on dry matter (DM). The KZ 60% + ST 40% silage fermented well with a higher (P < 0.05) lactic acid content and lower (P < 0.05) pH than those of the other mixed silages. Silages treated with molasses had lower (P < 0.05) ammonia-N, NDF, acid detergent fiber, and hemi-cellulose contents as well as pH, but higher (P < 0.05) DM, water-soluble carbohydrate, and lactic acid contents, than those of the control, LAB and cellulase treatments. The results confirmed that KZ 60% + ST 40% was the best mixing ratio to prepare silage, and molasses improved silage fermentation and fiber degradation. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.
Addah, W; Baah, J; Okine, E K; McAllister, T A
This study investigated the effects of a mixed bacterial inoculant possessing ferulic acid esterase (FAE) activity on silage fermentation characteristics, aerobic stability, and growth performance of growing feedlot steers. Whole-crop barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) forage (35% DM) was chopped and ensiled without a silage inoculant (UN) or with a mixed bacterial culture containing 1.0 × 10(11) cfu/g of Lactobacillus buchneri LN4017 that produces FAE, 2.0 × 10(10) cfu/g of Lactobacillus plantarum LP7109, and 1.0 × 10(10) cfu/g of Lactobacillus casei LC3200 at a combined rate of 1.3 × 10(5) cfu/g of fresh forage (IN) in mini and Ag-Bag (Ag-Bag Int. Ltd., Warrenton, OR) silos. Silages from the mini silos were assessed for the effect of inoculation on fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability, whereas silages from Ag-Bags were used to formulate 2 barley silage-based total mixed rations (UN and IN) that were fed to growing feedlot steers for 112 d. The IN silage exhibited a homolactic fermentation during the first 7 d of ensiling as reflected by an increased (P ≤ 0.02) lactic acid concentration and an accelerated rate (P < 0.01) of pH decline. Thereafter, fermentation of IN silage became more heterolactic, resulting in greater concentrations of acetic acid (P < 0.01) and pH (P < 0.01) but less (P < 0.01) lactic acid than UN silage. Inoculation did not affect DM losses (P = 0.52) from mini silos. The IN silage remained stable during 21 d, but temperature and yeasts counts in the UN silage increased after 5 d of aerobic exposure. Growing steers fed the IN silage diet had superior (P = 0.03) feed conversion efficiency compared with those fed UN silage. Inoculation of whole-crop barley silage with a mixed culture of homolactic lactic acid-producing bacteria and FAE-producing L. buchneri at ensiling changed fermentation from a homolactic to a heterolactic form during ensiling and improved aerobic stability of the silage and efficiency of BW gain of growing feedlot
Nishino, Naoki; Ogata, Yu; Han, Hongyan; Yamamoto, Yasunari
As a forage source for total mixed ration (TMR) silage production, locally produced crop silage is now used in addition to imported hay. This type of TMR ensiling is regarded as a two-step fermentation process; hence, a survey was carried out to determine whether the bacteria in crop silage affect the subsequent TMR ensiling. Fermentation product contents and bacterial community were determined for TMR silage and its ingredient silages collected in August, October and November. August product contained corn, sorghum and Italian ryegrass silages, October product had wheat silage exclusively and November product did not include any crop silages. Acetic acid, lactic acid, 2,3-butanediol and ethanol were predominant fermentation products in corn, sorghum, Italian ryegrass and wheat silages, respectively. Robust lactic acid fermentation was seen in TMR silage, even if acetate-type and alcohol-type silages were mixed as ingredients. The finding that bacterial community of the TMR silage appeared unrelated to those of ingredient silage supported this. Silages of various fermentation types can therefore be formulated without interfering with lactate-type fermentation in TMR silage.
Moorby, J M; Lee, M R F; Davies, D R; Kim, E J; Nute, G R; Ellis, N M; Scollan, N D
Twenty-four multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square changeover design experiment to test the effects of changing from ryegrass (Lolium perenne) silage to red clover (Trifolium pratense) silage in graded proportions on feed intakes, milk production, milk organoleptic qualities, and whole-body nitrogen partitioning. Four dietary treatments, comprising ad libitum access to 1 of 4 forage mixtures plus a standard allowance of 4 kg/d dairy concentrates, were offered. The 4 forage mixtures were, on a dry matter (DM) basis: 1) 100% grass silage, 2) 66% grass silage: 34% red clover silage, 3) 34% grass silage: 66% red clover silage, and 4) 100% red clover silage. In each of 4 experimental periods, there were 21 d for adaptation to diets and 7 d for measurements. There was an increase in both DM intakes and milk yields as the proportion of red clover in the diet increased. However, the increase in milk yield was not as great as the increase in DM intake, so that the efficiency of milk production, in terms of yield (kg) of milk per kg of DM intake, decreased. The concentrations of protein, milk fat, and the shorter chain saturated fatty acids decreased, whereas C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and long-chain PUFA (C20+) increased as the proportion of red clover in the diet increased. There was little effect of dietary treatment on the organoleptic qualities of milk as assessed by taste panel analysis. There were no effects on the aroma of milk, on aftertaste, or overall liking of the milk. Milk was thicker and creamier in color when cows were fed grass silage compared with red clover silage. The flavor of milk was largely unaffected by dietary treatment. In conclusion, increasing the proportion of red clover in the diet of dairy cows increased feed intakes and milk yields, decreased the concentration of fat and protein in milk, increased PUFA for healthiness, and had little effect on milk organoleptic characteristics.
Mahmoud, S A; Abdel-Hafez, A; Zaki, M M; Saleh, E A
The effect of wilting on the microbial and chemical composition of ensiled maize plants was studied. Wilting stimulated high densities of lactic acid bacteria, with the decrease in counts of undesirable flora, i.e., yeasts, moulds, proteolytic and saccharolytic anaerobes, causing spoilage of silage. Moreover, wilting decreased the losses of dry matter, total acidity, and butyric acid content of silage. Accordingly, wilting proved to be a favourable treatment for the production of good quality silage from maize plants.
Taghizadeh, A; Danesh Mesgaran, M; Valizadeh, R; Shahroodi, F Eftekhar; Stanford, K
The disappearance of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and amino acids (AA) in steers after rumen incubation and intestinal passage of alfalfa hay, barley hay, corn silage, barley grain, corn grain, wheat bran, meat meal, fish meal, cottonseed meal, and soybean meal were measured in 3 steers using a mobile nylon bag technique. Ruminal degradation of individual AA differed between feedstuffs. For barley hay and corn silage, the ruminal disappearance of total AA was higher and lower than the other feedstuffs, respectively. The intestinal digestibility of total AA in alfalfa hay was lower than the digestion of CP. The intestinal digestibility of Arg and His was higher than that of total AA in alfalfa hay, meat meal, cottonseed meal, soybean meal, barley hay, and wheat bran. In addition, the intestinal digestibility of Lys was higher than that of total AA in alfalfa hay, meat meal, cottonseed meal, soybean meal, barley hay, corn silage, and wheat bran. The intestinal disappearance of CP in most cases was higher than that of DM. The results indicated that feedstuffs with lower ruminal disappearance of DM, CP, total AA, essential AA, and nonessential AA generally had a higher intestinal disappearance, resulting in a relatively constant total tract disappearance. These results could be used to improve the current system of diet formulation in ruminants.
Greter, A M; Kitts, B L; Devries, T J
The objectives of this study were to examine the behavioral effects of providing limit-fed dairy heifers an increased amount of feed bunk space compared with recommended feed bunk allowance, and to determine if the effects of provision of extra bunk space would be comparable to those seen when limit-fed heifers are provided a low-nutritive feedstuff. Twelve Holstein dairy heifers (381.1 ± 44.8 d of age, 417.3 ± 47.9 kg), divided into groups of 4, were exposed to each of 3 treatments using a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 7-d periods. The treatments were (1) 0.68 m of feed bunk space/heifer (TMR-0.68), (2) 0.34 m of feed bunk space/heifer (TMR-0.34), and (3) 0.34 m of feed bunk space/heifer with an additional 0.34 m of feed bunk space available for free-choice straw (TMR-S). The total mixed ration was fed once daily at a restricted level (1.83% of body weight) and contained (dry matter basis) 19.9% alfalfa/grass haylage, 20.1% corn silage, 49.6% high-moisture corn, and 10.4% protein supplement. Group dry matter intake (DMI) was recorded daily. Behavior at the feed bunk was recorded for the last 4 d of each treatment period. Due to the provision of straw, DMI was highest on the TMR-S treatment compared with the other treatments (9.4 vs. 7.8 kg/d). Heifers spent the most time feeding when on the TMR-S treatment (147.7 min/d), with no difference in feeding time between the limit-fed TMR treatments (64.5 min/d). Within the TMR-S treatment, feeding time on the straw was 76.9 min/d; thus, the rate of consumption of only the TMR was similar across all treatments. Unrewarded time at the feed bunk (when no feed was present) did not differ between treatments. Heifers did not differ in competitive behavior when on the limit-fed TMR treatments (13.1 displacements/heifer per day). However, while on the TMR-S treatment, heifers displaced each other more frequently (23.8 displacements/heifer per day) than while on the other 2 treatments. Overall, results suggest that neither
A complex set of double stranded RNAs (dsRNA) were isolated from threecornered alfalfa hopper (Spissistilus festinus), a plant-feeding hemipteran insect pest. A subset of these dsRNAs constitute the genome of a novel, unassigned reovirus designated as Spissistilus festinus reovirus (SpFRV). Phylogen...
Onetti, S G; Shaver, R D; Bertics, S J; Grummer, R R
The objective of this study was to determine if the length of chop of processed corn silage influences the impact of supplemental fat on rumen fermentation and performance of dairy cows. We hypothesized that increasing forage particle length may alleviate the interference of fat on rumen fermentation. Sixteen Holstein cows averaging 120 d in milk were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial with 0 or 2% tallow (dry matter basis), and corn silage harvested at either 19 or 32 mm theoretical length of cut. The forage:concentrate ratio was 50:50, and diets were formulated to contain 18% crude protein and 32% neutral detergent fiber (dry matter basis). Cows were allowed ad libitum consumption of diets that were fed twice daily as a total mixed ration. Fat supplemented cows had lower dry matter intake and produced less milk fat relative to nonsupplemented cows. No effect of corn silage particle length was observed for dry matter intake and milk fat production. Proportion of trans-10 C18:1 and of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid was highest in milk fat of cows fed 2% supplemental tallow. Rumen pH was not affected by feeding tallow, and tended to be highest for cows eating the 32-mm theoretical length of chop corn silage diets. No effect of treatments was observed for rumen acetate-to-propionate ratio or rumen ammonia concentration. In this study, tallow supplementation had a negative impact on performance of dairy cows regardless of the corn silage particle length. Feeding tallow increased formation of trans-fatty acids in the rumen in the absence of significant changes in the rumen environment.
Rustas, B-O; Bertilsson, J; Martinsson, K; Elverstedt, T; Nadeau, E
The effect of maturity at harvest on the digestibility and intake of large bale silage made from whole-crop barley and wheat when fed to growing heifers was evaluated. Two crops of spring barley (Hordeum distichum cv. Filippa and Kinnan) and 1 of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Olevin) were harvested at the heading, milk, and dough stages of maturity. The silage was fed to 36 dairy heifers in a balanced crossover experiment with 3 periods and 9 treatments (diets based on 3 crops and 3 stages of maturity), organized into 6 pairs of 3 × 3 Latin squares. No clear relationship was observed between intake and stage of maturity of whole-crop cereal silage, but intake was positively correlated to silage DM content (P < 0.001, r = 0.46) and negatively correlated to NDF content (P < 0.001, r = -0.42). Organic matter digestibility decreased between the heading and milk stages of maturity in all crops (P < 0.001), did not differ between the milk and the dough stages in the 2 barley crops, but increased in the wheat silage (P = 0.034). The NDF digestibility decreased between the heading and milk stages in all crops (P < 0.001), whereas it decreased in 1 barley crop (P < 0.001), increased in the other barley (P = 0.025), and was unchanged in the wheat between the milk and dough stages of maturity. Starch digestibility was less in the 2 barley crops compared with the wheat at the dough stage of maturity (P < 0.001). The feeding value of the whole-crop barley and wheat declined between the heading and milk stages of maturity, but thereafter the effect of maturity on the feeding value was minor.
Kennington, L R; Hunt, C W; Szasz, J I; Grove, A V; Kezar, W
This research was conducted to determine the effect of corn genetics and cutting height on the composition and nutritive characteristics of corn silage. An in situ study involving eight commercially available corn hybrids indicated main effects and interactions (P < 0.01) of hybrid and cutting height on NDF, ADF, and starch content and on in situ DM and NDF degradablility. Four ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (initial BW = 378 +/- 3 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square digestion experiment with a 2 x 2 factorial treatment arrangement. Main effects and interactions of hybrid (Pioneer Hi-Bred Int., Inc., hybrids 3335 and 3223) and cutting height (LO = 20.3 cm, and HI = 61 cm) were evaluated. Dietary treatment consisted of 40% chopped alfalfa hay and 60% corn silage. Although corn silage hybrids used were of equivalent maturity at harvest (60% milkline), 3335 treatments had 37.8% starch and 34.8% NDF, whereas 3223 treatments had 33.7% starch and 38.6% NDF. The LO treatments averaged 3.1 percentage units greater in NDF and 3.45 percentage units less in starch content than the HI treatments. Intake of DM was greater for heifers fed 3335-HI than 3335-LO; however, DMI was greater by heifers fed 3223-LO than 3223-HI (hybrid x cutting height interaction, P < 0.05). Starch intake was greater (P < 0.05) and NDF intake was less (P < 0.05) by heifers fed HI vs. LO and fed 3335 vs. 3223 dietary treatments. Digestibility of DM, starch, and NDF was greater (P < 0.05) by heifers fed 3223 than 3335 dietary treatments, but digestibility differences were not observed (P > 0.10) between cutting heights. Rate of in situ DM and starch degradability was not affected (P > 0.10) by hybrid or cutting height; however DM degradability was greater (P < 0.05) for HI than LO corn silage substrates at 8, 16, and 24 h of incubation. Rate of NDF degradability tended (P = 0.08) to be greater for 3223 than for 3335, and for LO compared with HI corn silage. Degradability of NDF was greater (P < 0
Suess, Katherine A.; Darling, Jeremy; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo
OH megamasers (OHMs) are rare, luminous molecular masers that are typically observed in (ultra) luminous infrared galaxies and serve as markers of major galaxy mergers. In blind emission line surveys such as the Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-Band Feed Array (ALFALFA) survey for neutral hydrogen (H I), OHMs at z ˜ 0.2 can mimic z ˜ 0.05 H I lines. We present the results of optical spectroscopy of ambiguous H I detections in the ALFALFA 40 per cent data release detected by the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) but with uncertain optical counterparts. The optical redshifts, obtained from observations at the Apache Point Observatory, revealed five new OHMs and identified 129 H I optical counterparts. 60 candidates remain ambiguous. The new OHMs are the first detected in a blind spectral line survey. The number of OHMs in ALFALFA is consistent with predictions from the OH luminosity function. Additionally, the mid-infrared magnitudes and colours of the OHM host galaxies found in a blind survey do not seem to differ from those found in previous targeted surveys. This validates the methods used in previous IR-selected OHM surveys and indicates there is no previously unknown OHM-producing population at z ˜ 0.2. We also provide a method for future surveys to separate OH megamasers from 99 per cent of H I line emitters without optical spectroscopy by using WISE infrared colours and