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Sample records for feeding spodoptera littoralis

  1. Direct proof of ingested food regurgitation by Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars during feeding on Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Reichelt, Michael; Mithöfer, Axel

    2012-07-01

    Oral secretions of herbivorous lepidopteran larvae contain a mixture of saliva and regurgitant from the insect gut. Different compounds from the oral secretions can be recognized by the host plants and, thus, represent elicitors that induce plant defenses against feeding herbivores. Exogenously applied oral secretions can initiate the biosynthesis of jasmonates, phytohormones involved in the regulation of plant defense. However, it is not known (a) whether or not non-manipulated insects indeed release oral secretions including gut-derived compounds into a leaf wound during the natural feeding process, or (b) whether they adjust the release of gut components to the state of plant defense. We addressed these questions by using Arabidopsis thaliana as host plant and larvae of the generalist herbivorous insect Spodoptera littoralis. We investigated the conversion of the plant-derived jasmonate precursor, cis-12-oxophytodienoic acid (cis-OPDA), to iso-OPDA by the larvae. This enzymatic reaction is mediated by a specific glutathione-S-transferase in the insect gut, but not in the plant. Any presence of iso-OPDA in plant tissue, thus, indicated that gut content had been regurgitated into the plant wound. Our study demonstrates that the plant is the only source for the substrate cis-OPDA by using aos (allene oxide synthase) mutants that are unable to synthesize OPDA. The fact that iso-OPDA accumulated over time on feeding-damaged leaves shows that the feeding larvae are constantly regurgitating on leaves. Although the larvae provided the signaling compounds that were recognized by the plant and elicited defense reactions, the larval regurgitation behavior did not depend on whether they fed on a defensive wild type plant or on a non defensive coi1-16 plant. This suggests that S. littoralis larvae do not adjust regurgitation to the state of plant defense.

  2. Herbivore-induced maize leaf volatiles affect attraction and feeding behavior of Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars.

    PubMed

    von Mérey, Georg E; Veyrat, Nathalie; D'Alessandro, Marco; Turlings, Ted C J

    2013-01-01

    Plants under herbivore attack emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can serve as foraging cues for natural enemies. Adult females of Lepidoptera, when foraging for host plants to deposit eggs, are commonly repelled by herbivore-induced VOCs, probably to avoid competition and natural enemies. Their larval stages, on the other hand, have been shown to be attracted to inducible VOCs. We speculate that this contradicting behavior of lepidopteran larvae is due to a need to quickly find a new suitable host plant if they have fallen to the ground. However, once they are on a plant they might avoid the sites with fresh damage to limit competition and risk of cannibalism by conspecifics, as well as exposure to natural enemies. To test this we studied the effect of herbivore-induced VOCs on the attraction of larvae of the moth Spodoptera littoralis and on their feeding behavior. The experiments further considered the importance of previous feeding experience on the responses of the larvae. It was confirmed that herbivore-induced VOCs emitted by maize plants are attractive to the larvae, but exposure to the volatiles decreased the growth rate of caterpillars at early developmental stages. Larvae that had fed on maize previously were more attracted by VOCs of induced maize than larvae that had fed on artificial diet. At relatively high concentrations synthetic green leaf volatiles, indicative of fresh damage, also negatively affected the growth rate of caterpillars, but not at low concentrations. In all cases, feeding by the later stages of the larvae was not affected by the VOCs. The results are discussed in the context of larval foraging behavior under natural conditions, where there may be a trade-off between using available host plant signals and avoiding competitors and natural enemies.

  3. Herbivore-induced maize leaf volatiles affect attraction and feeding behavior of Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars.

    PubMed

    von Mérey, Georg E; Veyrat, Nathalie; D'Alessandro, Marco; Turlings, Ted C J

    2013-01-01

    Plants under herbivore attack emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can serve as foraging cues for natural enemies. Adult females of Lepidoptera, when foraging for host plants to deposit eggs, are commonly repelled by herbivore-induced VOCs, probably to avoid competition and natural enemies. Their larval stages, on the other hand, have been shown to be attracted to inducible VOCs. We speculate that this contradicting behavior of lepidopteran larvae is due to a need to quickly find a new suitable host plant if they have fallen to the ground. However, once they are on a plant they might avoid the sites with fresh damage to limit competition and risk of cannibalism by conspecifics, as well as exposure to natural enemies. To test this we studied the effect of herbivore-induced VOCs on the attraction of larvae of the moth Spodoptera littoralis and on their feeding behavior. The experiments further considered the importance of previous feeding experience on the responses of the larvae. It was confirmed that herbivore-induced VOCs emitted by maize plants are attractive to the larvae, but exposure to the volatiles decreased the growth rate of caterpillars at early developmental stages. Larvae that had fed on maize previously were more attracted by VOCs of induced maize than larvae that had fed on artificial diet. At relatively high concentrations synthetic green leaf volatiles, indicative of fresh damage, also negatively affected the growth rate of caterpillars, but not at low concentrations. In all cases, feeding by the later stages of the larvae was not affected by the VOCs. The results are discussed in the context of larval foraging behavior under natural conditions, where there may be a trade-off between using available host plant signals and avoiding competitors and natural enemies. PMID:23825475

  4. Effect of the Extracts of the Spiderflower, Cleome arabica, on Feeding and Survival of Larvae of the Cotton Leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Ladhari, Afef; Laarif, Asma; Omezzine, Faten; Haouala, Rabiaa

    2013-01-01

    Aqueous and organic (hexane, chloroform, and methanol) extracts of siliquae, stems and leaves, and seeds of Cleome arabica L. (Brassicales: Capparidaceae) were evaluated in the laboratory for their antifeeding and insecticidal effect on larvae of the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), using a leaf dipping bioassay with castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), leaf discs. The polar extracts caused significant mortality. At the highest dose, C. arabica extracts exhibited significant antifeeding and phagostimulating activities against S. littoralis larvae. Under no-choice conditions, the methanol extract of siliquae was the most active, and the antifeedant index calculated over 24 hr for 3rd instar larvae varied significantly from 16 to 37%. Using nutritional indices, it was established that there was a significant decrease in growth rate concomitant with a reduction in consumption. These results suggest the presence of anti-feeding and/or toxic substances in the extracts that may be useful in developing bio-insecticides based on C. arabica extracts for use in integrated pest management of leafworm and other agricultural pests. PMID:23906290

  5. Intermediates of stigmasterol metabolism in Spodoptera littoralis

    SciTech Connect

    Svoboda, J.A.; Rees, H.H.; Thompson, M.J.; Hoggard, N. )

    1989-03-01

    Stigmasterol-24,28-epoxide, 22E-stigmasta-5,22,24(28E)-trien-3 beta-ol, and 22E-cholesta-5,22,24-trien-3 beta-ol were identified as normal metabolites of (3H)stigmasterol in Spodoptera littoralis larvae. Relative concentrations of all three of these metabolites increased when a diazasterol inhibitor was fed in combination with stigmasterol in the artificial diet. Identification of these sterols as intermediates in the conversion of stigmasterol to cholesterol in this insect indicates that intermediates analogous to fucosterol and fucosterol-24,28-epoxide in the conversion of sitosterol to cholesterol are produced in the metabolism of stigmasterol. This is the first published identification of stigmasterol-24,28-epoxide and 22E-stigmasta-5,22,24(28E)-trien-3 beta-ol as intermediates in this pathway in an insect.

  6. Quantitative and ultrastructural changes in the haemocytes of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) treated individually or in combination with Spodoptera littoralis multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV) and azadirachtin.

    PubMed

    Shaurub, El-Sayed H; Abd El-Meguid, Afaf; Abd El-Aziz, Nahla M

    2014-10-01

    The total haemocyte count (THC) and the possible ultrastructural alterations induced in the haemocytes of the fourth larval instars of the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), 96 h post-feeding on a semi-synthetic diet, treated with the LC50 of Spodoptera littoralis multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV) and the LC50 of azadirachtin alone, and the LC25 of SpliMNPV combined with the LC25 of azadirachtin were studied and compared to the control. Single treatment with the virus and azadirachtin or combined treatment significantly decreased the THC compared to the control. There are five types of haemocytes in S. littoralis: prohaemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, spherulocytes and oenocytoids. The most common symptoms in granulocytes and plasmatocytes, the main affected cell types, due to viral infection were the presence of virogenic stroma, peripheral dispersion of the chromatin and disappearance of the nucleoli. However, the most common symptoms in these two types of haemocytes due to treatment with azadirachtin were the presence of rough endoplasmic reticulum filled with fibrous materials, due to probably apoptosis, in their cisternae and disorganization of mitochondria (looped, vacuolated and swollen). In addition, the cytoplasm of granulocytes was vacuolated with the appearance of autophagic lysosomes, while plasmatocytes showed ruptured cell membrane and folded nuclear envelope. Combined treatment with the NPV and azadirachtin induced the same pathological changes which were recorded from individual treatment with the virus or azadirachtin to the same haemocytes. It can be concluded that the change in the THC and ultrastructure of granulocytes and plasmatocytes may affect the cellular-mediated immune response in S. littoralis. Moreover, it seems likely that mitochondria were the target site of azadirachtin, as they were affected in both granulocytes and plasmatocytes treated with azadirachtin alone or in

  7. Mechanism of entomotoxicity of the plant lectin from Hippeastrum hybrid (Amaryllis) in Spodoptera littoralis larvae.

    PubMed

    Caccia, Silvia; Van Damme, Els J M; De Vos, Winnok H; Smagghe, Guy

    2012-09-01

    Plant lectins have received a lot of attention because of their insecticidal properties. When orally administered in artificial diet or in transgenic plants, lectins provoke a wide range of detrimental effects, including alteration of the digestive enzyme machinery, fecundity drop, reduced feeding, changes in oviposition behavior, growth and development inhibition and mortality. Although many studies reported the entomotoxicity of lectins, only a few of them investigated the mode of action by which lectins exert toxicity. In the present paper we have studied for the first time the insecticidal potential of the plant lectin from Hippeastrum hybrid (Amaryllis) (HHA) bulbs against the larvae of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis). Bioassays on neonate larvae showed that this mannose-specific lectin affected larval growth, causing a development retardation and larval weight decrease. Using primary cell cultures from S. littoralis midguts and confocal microscopy we have elucidated FITC-HHA binding and internalization mechanisms. We found that HHA did not exert a toxic effect on S. littoralis midgut cells, but HHA interaction with the brush border of midgut cells interfered with normal nutrient absorption in the S. littoralis midgut, thereby affecting normal larval growth in vivo. This study thus confirms the potential of mannose-specific lectins as pest control agents and sheds light on the mechanism underlying lectin entomotoxicity.

  8. Appetitive and aversive learning in Spodoptera littoralis larvae.

    PubMed

    Salloum, Ali; Colson, Violaine; Marion-Poll, Frédéric

    2011-10-01

    Adult Lepidoptera are capable of associative learning. This helps them to forage flowers or to find suitable oviposition sites. Larval learning has never been seriously considered because they have limited foraging capabilities and usually depend on adults as concerns their food choices. We tested if Spodoptera littoralis larvae can learn to associate an odor with a tastant using a new classical conditioning paradigm. Groups of larvae were exposed to an unconditioned stimulus (US: fructose or quinine mixed with agar) paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS: hexanol, geraniol or pentyl acetate) in a petri dish. Their reaction to CS was subsequently tested in a petri dish at different time intervals after conditioning. Trained larvae showed a significant preference or avoidance to CS when paired with US depending on the reinforcer used. The training was more efficient when larvae were given a choice between an area where CS-US was paired and an area with no CS (or another odor). In these conditions, the memory formed could be recalled at least 24 h after pairing with an aversive stimulus and only 5 min after pairing with an appetitive stimulus. This learning was specific to CS because trained larvae were able to discriminate CS from another odor that was present during the training but unrewarded. These results suggest that Lepidoptera larvae exhibit more behavioral plasticity than previously appreciated. PMID:21653242

  9. Effect of ace inhibitors and TMOF on growth, development, and trypsin activity of larval Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Lemeire, Els; Borovsky, Dov; Van Camp, John; Smagghe, Guy

    2008-12-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is a zinc metallopeptidase capable of cleaving dipeptide or dipeptideamide moieties at the C-terminal end of peptides. ACE is present in the hemolymph and reproductive tissues of insects. The presence of ACE in the hemolymph and its broad substrate specificity suggests an important role in processing of bioactive peptides. This study reports the effects of ACE inhibitors on larval growth in the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis. Feeding ACE inhibitors ad lib decreased the growth rate, inhibited ACE activity in the larval hemolymph, and down-regulated trypsin activity in the larval gut. These results indicate that S. littoralis ACE may influence trypsin biosynthesis in the larval gut by interacting with a trypsin-modulating oostatic factor (TMOF). Injecting third instar larvae with a combination of Aea-TMOF and the ACE inhibitor captopril, down-regulated trypsin biosynthesis in the larval gut indicating that an Aea-TMOF gut receptor analogue could be present. Injecting captopril and enalapril into newly molted fifth instar larvae stopped larval feeding and decreased weight gain. Together, these results indicate that ACE inhibitors are efficacious in stunting larval growth and ACE plays an important role in larval growth and development. PMID:18949805

  10. Compartmentalization of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in the larval gut of Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Natraj; Sehnal, Frantisek

    2006-09-01

    Allelochemicals play important roles in the plant defense against herbivorous insects. They act as feeding deterrents, interfere with digestion and nutrient absorption, and cause production of potentially dangerous oxidative radicals. This study demonstrates that the distributions of oxidative radicals and of the antioxidant enzymes that eliminate them are compartmentalized in the digestive tract of Spodoptera littoralis larvae. Feeding on diets supplemented with the tannic acid (TA), alpha-solanine, and demissidine, respectively, did not affect the rate of food passage through the digestive tract of larvae but 1.25, 2.5, and 5% TA evoked a strong oxidative response. The amount of the superoxide anion in the foregut tissue and content increased up to 70-fold and the titer of total peroxides in the foregut content about 3-fold. This oxidative stress was associated with enhanced carbonyl content in the foregut tissue proteins, indicative of certain tissue deterioration. Extensive foregut damage was probably prevented by elevated activity of the glutathione S-transferase peroxidase. A complex antioxidant response was elicited in the midgut. The activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase increased significantly in the midgut tissue and content, and the activity of ascorbate peroxidase rose in the midgut tissue. The enzymes apparently eliminated oxidative radicals passing to midgut from the foregut with the food bolus and thereby prevented carbonylation of the midgut proteins. We postulate that the generation of oxidative radicals in the foregut and the induction of antioxidant defense in the midgut are controlled processes and that their compartmentalization is an important functional feature of the digestive tract. The glycoalkaloid alpha-solanine and the aglycone demissidine applied at 0.05 and 0.1% concentrations had no effect on any of the examined parameters.

  11. Candidate chemosensory genes in female antennae of the noctuid moth Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Legeai, Fabrice; Montagné, Nicolas; Monsempes, Christelle; François, Marie-Christine; Poulain, Julie; Gavory, Frédéric; Walker, William B; Hansson, Bill S; Larsson, Mattias C

    2012-01-01

    Chemical senses are crucial for all organisms to detect various environmental information. Different protein families, expressed in chemosensory organs, are involved in the detection of this information, such as odorant-binding proteins, olfactory and gustatory receptors, and ionotropic receptors. We recently reported an Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) approach on male antennae of the noctuid moth, Spodoptera littoralis, with which we could identify a large array of chemosensory genes in a species for which no genomic data are available.Here we describe a complementary EST project on female antennae in the same species. 18,342 ESTs were sequenced and their assembly with our previous male ESTs led to a total of 13,685 unigenes, greatly improving our description of the S. littoralis antennal transcriptome. Gene ontology comparison between male and female data suggested a similar complexity of antennae of both sexes. Focusing on chemosensation, we identified 26 odorant-binding proteins, 36 olfactory and 5 gustatory receptors, expressed in the antennae of S. littoralis. One of the newly identified gustatory receptors appeared as female-enriched. Together with its atypical tissue-distribution, this suggests a role in oviposition. The compilation of male and female antennal ESTs represents a valuable resource for exploring the mechanisms of olfaction in S. littoralis. PMID:22904672

  12. Candidate chemosensory Genes in Female Antennae of the Noctuid Moth Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Legeai, Fabrice; Montagné, Nicolas; Monsempes, Christelle; François, Marie-Christine; Poulain, Julie; Gavory, Frédéric; Walker III, William B.; Hansson, Bill S.; Larsson, Mattias C.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical senses are crucial for all organisms to detect various environmental information. Different protein families, expressed in chemosensory organs, are involved in the detection of this information, such as odorant-binding proteins, olfactory and gustatory receptors, and ionotropic receptors. We recently reported an Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) approach on male antennae of the noctuid moth, Spodoptera littoralis, with which we could identify a large array of chemosensory genes in a species for which no genomic data are available. Here we describe a complementary EST project on female antennae in the same species. 18,342 ESTs were sequenced and their assembly with our previous male ESTs led to a total of 13,685 unigenes, greatly improving our description of the S. littoralis antennal transcriptome. Gene ontology comparison between male and female data suggested a similar complexity of antennae of both sexes. Focusing on chemosensation, we identified 26 odorant-binding proteins, 36 olfactory and 5 gustatory receptors, expressed in the antennae of S. littoralis. One of the newly identified gustatory receptors appeared as female-enriched. Together with its atypical tissue-distribution, this suggests a role in oviposition. The compilation of male and female antennal ESTs represents a valuable resource for exploring the mechanisms of olfaction in S. littoralis. PMID:22904672

  13. Repellent and insecticide activity of Pelargonium x hortorum against Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.).

    PubMed

    Farag, Mohamed; Ahmed, Mohamed H M; Yousef, Heba; El-Badawey, Samy S; Abd El-Ghany, Melegi A; Abdel-Rahman, Adel A H

    2012-01-01

    Insecticide and repellent activity of an acetone extract and oil from fresh leaves of Pelargonium x hortorum (cv. Orangesonne) were evaluated against the 2nd and 4th instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The oil showed medium toxicity against the 2nd instar and low toxicity against the 4th instar larvae, while the extract showed high significant toxicity at all concentrations tested against the two instars. On the other hand, both oil and extract exhibited highly significant repellency against the two tested instars. Volatile constituents of the oil were also identified by GC-MS analysis.

  14. Regulation of Arabidopsis defense responses against Spodoptera littoralis by CPK-mediated calcium signaling

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plant Ca2+ signals are involved in a wide array of intracellular signaling pathways after pest invasion. Ca2+-binding sensory proteins such as Ca2+-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) have been predicted to mediate the signaling following Ca2+ influx after insect herbivory. However, until now this prediction was not testable. Results To investigate the roles CPKs play in a herbivore response-signaling pathway, we screened the characteristics of Arabidopsis CPK mutants damaged by a feeding generalist herbivore, Spodoptera littoralis. Following insect attack, the cpk3 and cpk13 mutants showed lower transcript levels of plant defensin gene PDF1.2 compared to wild-type plants. The CPK cascade was not directly linked to the herbivory-induced signaling pathways that were mediated by defense-related phytohormones such as jasmonic acid and ethylene. CPK3 was also suggested to be involved in a negative feedback regulation of the cytosolic Ca2+ levels after herbivory and wounding damage. In vitro kinase assays of CPK3 protein with a suite of substrates demonstrated that the protein phosphorylates transcription factors (including ERF1, HsfB2a and CZF1/ZFAR1) in the presence of Ca2+. CPK13 strongly phosphorylated only HsfB2a, irrespective of the presence of Ca2+. Furthermore, in vivo agroinfiltration assays showed that CPK3-or CPK13-derived phosphorylation of a heat shock factor (HsfB2a) promotes PDF1.2 transcriptional activation in the defense response. Conclusions These results reveal the involvement of two Arabidopsis CPKs (CPK3 and CPK13) in the herbivory-induced signaling network via HsfB2a-mediated regulation of the defense-related transcriptional machinery. This cascade is not involved in the phytohormone-related signaling pathways, but rather directly impacts transcription factors for defense responses. PMID:20504319

  15. Targeting the Diuretic Hormone Receptor to Control the Cotton Leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Apone, Fabio; Ruggiero, Alessandra; Tortora, Assunta; Tito, Annalisa; Grimaldi, Maria Rosaria; Arciello, Stefania; Andrenacci, Davide; Lelio, Ilaria Di; Colucci, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    The cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is one of the most devastating pests of crops worldwide. Several types of treatments have been used against this pest, but many of them failed because of the rapid development of genetic resistance in the different insect populations. G protein coupled receptors have vital functions in most organisms, including insects; thus, they are appealing targets for species-specific pest control strategies. Among the insect G protein coupled receptors, the diuretic hormone receptors have several key roles in development and metabolism, but their importance in vivo and their potential role as targets of novel pest control strategies are largely unexplored. With the goal of using DHR genes as targets to control S. littoralis, we cloned a corticotropin-releasing factor-like binding receptor in this species and expressed the corresponding dsRNA in tobacco plants to knock down the receptor activity in vivo through RNA interference. We also expressed the receptor in mammalian cells to study its signaling pathways. The results indicate that this diuretic hormone receptor gene has vital roles in S. littoralis and represents an excellent molecular target to protect agriculturallyimportant plants from this pest. PMID:25368043

  16. Distribution of neuropeptides in the antennal lobes of male Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Kromann, Sophie H; Hansson, Bill S; Ignell, Rickard

    2013-11-01

    Olfaction is an important sensory modality that regulates a plethora of behavioural expressions in insects. Processing of olfactory information takes place in the primary olfactory centres of the brain, namely the antennal lobes (ALs). Neuropeptides have been shown to be present in the olfactory system of various insect species. In the present study, we analyse the distribution of tachykinin, FMRFamide-related peptides, allatotropin, allatostatin, myoinhibitory peptides and SIFamide in the AL of the male Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis. Immunocytochemical analyses revealed that most neuropeptides were expressed in different subpopulations of AL neurons. Their arborisation patterns within the AL suggest a significant role of neuropeptide signalling in the modulation of AL processing. In addition to local interneurons, our analysis also revealed a diversity of extrinsic peptidergic neurons that connected the antennal lobe with other brain centres. Their distributions suggest that extrinsic neurons perform various types of context-related modulation. PMID:23955643

  17. The Green Gut: Chlorophyll Degradation in the Gut of Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Badgaa, Amarsanaa; Büchler, Rita; Wielsch, Natalie; Walde, Marie; Heintzmann, Rainer; Pauchet, Yannik; Svatos, Ales; Ploss, Kerstin; Boland, Wilhelm

    2015-11-01

    Chlorophylls, the most prominent natural pigments, are part of the daily diet of herbivorous insects. The spectrum of ingested and digested chlorophyll metabolites compares well to the pattern of early chlorophyll-degradation products in senescent plants. Intact chlorophyll is rapidly degraded by proteins in the front- and midgut. Unlike plants, insects convert both chlorophyll a and b into the corresponding catabolites. MALDI-TOF/MS imaging allowed monitoring the distribution of the chlorophyll catabolites along the gut of Spodoptera littoralis larvae. The chlorophyll degradation in the fore- and mid-gut is strongly pH dependent, and requires alkaline conditions. Using LC-MS/MS analysis we identified a lipocalin-type protein in the intestinal fluid of S. littoralis homolog to the chlorophyllide a binding protein from Bombyx mori. Widefield and high-resolution autofluorescence microscopy revealed that the brush border membranes are covered with the chlorophyllide binding protein tightly bound via its GPI-anchor to the gut membrane. A function in defense against gut microbes is discussed. PMID:26467450

  18. Combinatorial effect of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki and Photorhabdus luminescens against Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Benfarhat-Touzri, Dalel; Ben Amira, Amal; Ben khedher, Saoussen; Givaudan, Alain; Jaoua, Samir; Tounsi, Slim

    2014-11-01

    Spodoptera littoralis, one of the major pests of many important crop plants, is more susceptible to Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai delta-endotoxins than to those of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki. Within the framework of the development of efficient bioinsecticides and the prevention against insect resistance, we tested the effect of mixing B. thuringiensis kurstaki delta-endotoxins and Photorhabdus luminescens cells on S. littoralis growth. The obtained results showed that the growth inhibition of this insect was more effective when B. thuringiensis kurstaki spore-crystal mixture and Photorhabdus luminescens cells were used in combination. Furthermore, this synergism is mainly due to the presence of Cry1Ac, which is one of the three delta-endotoxins that form the crystal of B. thuringiensis kurstaki strain BNS3 in addition to Cry1Aa and Cry2Aa. This work shows a possibility to use B. thuringiensis as a delivery means for Photorhabdus bacteria in order to infect the insect hemocoel and to reduce the risk of developing resistance in the target organism.

  19. The Green Gut: Chlorophyll Degradation in the Gut of Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Badgaa, Amarsanaa; Büchler, Rita; Wielsch, Natalie; Walde, Marie; Heintzmann, Rainer; Pauchet, Yannik; Svatos, Ales; Ploss, Kerstin; Boland, Wilhelm

    2015-11-01

    Chlorophylls, the most prominent natural pigments, are part of the daily diet of herbivorous insects. The spectrum of ingested and digested chlorophyll metabolites compares well to the pattern of early chlorophyll-degradation products in senescent plants. Intact chlorophyll is rapidly degraded by proteins in the front- and midgut. Unlike plants, insects convert both chlorophyll a and b into the corresponding catabolites. MALDI-TOF/MS imaging allowed monitoring the distribution of the chlorophyll catabolites along the gut of Spodoptera littoralis larvae. The chlorophyll degradation in the fore- and mid-gut is strongly pH dependent, and requires alkaline conditions. Using LC-MS/MS analysis we identified a lipocalin-type protein in the intestinal fluid of S. littoralis homolog to the chlorophyllide a binding protein from Bombyx mori. Widefield and high-resolution autofluorescence microscopy revealed that the brush border membranes are covered with the chlorophyllide binding protein tightly bound via its GPI-anchor to the gut membrane. A function in defense against gut microbes is discussed.

  20. Combinatorial effect of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki and Photorhabdus luminescens against Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Benfarhat-Touzri, Dalel; Ben Amira, Amal; Ben khedher, Saoussen; Givaudan, Alain; Jaoua, Samir; Tounsi, Slim

    2014-11-01

    Spodoptera littoralis, one of the major pests of many important crop plants, is more susceptible to Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai delta-endotoxins than to those of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki. Within the framework of the development of efficient bioinsecticides and the prevention against insect resistance, we tested the effect of mixing B. thuringiensis kurstaki delta-endotoxins and Photorhabdus luminescens cells on S. littoralis growth. The obtained results showed that the growth inhibition of this insect was more effective when B. thuringiensis kurstaki spore-crystal mixture and Photorhabdus luminescens cells were used in combination. Furthermore, this synergism is mainly due to the presence of Cry1Ac, which is one of the three delta-endotoxins that form the crystal of B. thuringiensis kurstaki strain BNS3 in addition to Cry1Aa and Cry2Aa. This work shows a possibility to use B. thuringiensis as a delivery means for Photorhabdus bacteria in order to infect the insect hemocoel and to reduce the risk of developing resistance in the target organism. PMID:23908000

  1. Induction of an inactivation pathway for ecdysteroids in larvae of the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Chen, J H; Kabbouh, M; Fisher, M J; Rees, H H

    1994-07-01

    Treatment of the last-instar larvae of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) with ecdysteroids (moulting hormones) results in the induction of an ecdysteroid-inactivation pathway. Administration of ecdysone, 20-hydroxyecdysone or an ecdysteroid agonist, RH 5849, leads to induction of an ecdysteroid 26-hydroxylase activity. This induction occurred in both early sixth-instar larvae and in older larvae which had been head-ligated to prevent the normal developmental increase in ecdysone 20-mono-oxygenase activity. The induction of 26-hydroxylase activity requires both RNA and protein synthesis, as demonstrated by experiments involving actinomycin D and cycloheximide. The 26-aldehyde derivative of ecdysone and ecdyson-26-oic acid were also formed from ecdysone in the RH 5849-induced systems. Formation of the aldehyde and the corresponding 26-oic acid (ecdysonoic acid) from 26-hydroxyecdysone was directly demonstrated in a cell-free system, thus establishing the following inactivation pathway: Ecdysteroid-->26-hydroxyecdysteroid-->ecdysteroid 26-aldehyde-->ecdysteroid 26-oic acid.

  2. Functional analysis of an immune gene of Spodoptera littoralis by RNAi.

    PubMed

    Di Lelio, Ilaria; Varricchio, Paola; Di Prisco, Gennaro; Marinelli, Adriana; Lasco, Valentina; Caccia, Silvia; Casartelli, Morena; Giordana, Barbara; Rao, Rosa; Gigliotti, Silvia; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Insect immune defences rely on cellular and humoral responses targeting both microbial pathogens and metazoan parasites. Accumulating evidence indicates functional cross-talk between these two branches of insect immunity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown. We recently described, in the tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens, the presence of amyloid fibers associated with melanogenesis in immune capsules formed by hemocytes, and identified a protein (P102) involved in their assembly. Non-self objects coated by antibodies directed against this protein escaped hemocyte encapsulation, suggesting that P102 might coordinate humoral and cellular defence responses at the surface of foreign invaders. Here we report the identification of a cDNA coding for a protein highly similar to P102 in a related Lepidoptera species, Spodoptera littoralis. Its transcript was abundant in the hemocytes and the protein accumulated in large cytoplasmic compartments, closely resembling the localization pattern of P102 in H. virescens. RNAi-mediated gene silencing provided direct evidence for the role played by this protein in the immune response. Oral delivery of dsRNA molecules directed against the gene strongly suppressed the encapsulation and melanization response, while hemocoelic injections did not result in evident phenotypic alterations. Shortly after their administration, dsRNA molecules were found in midgut cells, en route to the hemocytes where the target gene was significantly down-regulated. Taken together, our data demonstrate that P102 is a functionally conserved protein with a key role in insect immunity. Moreover, the ability to target this gene by dsRNA oral delivery may be exploited to develop novel technologies of pest control, based on immunosuppression as a strategy for enhancing the impact of natural antagonists. PMID:24662467

  3. Identification and expression profile of Halloween genes involved in ecdysteroid biosynthesis in Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Iga, Masatoshi; Smagghe, Guy

    2010-03-01

    20-Hydroxyecdyone (20E), an active form of ecdysteroid, is the key hormone in insect growth and development. The biosynthesis of ecdysteroid is triggered and under the control of the neuropeptide, prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH). To date, five cytochrome P450 enzymes, namely Spook (Spo), Phantom (Phm), Disembodied (Dib), Shadow (Sad) and Shade (Shd) related to ecdysteroid biosynthesis, are identified and the character of last four enzymes is well studied in Drosophila melanogaster, Bombyx mori and Manduca sexta. These genes are called Halloween genes and mediate the biosynthesis of 20E from cholesterol. In this study, we extended these works to a major pest insect in agriculture, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). We identified the sequence of five Halloween genes, and the converted amino acid sequences were compared with those of other insects. The phylogenetic analysis clearly showed separated clusters of each gene and the evolutional conservation in insects with a high similarity in Lepidoptera. Spo, phm, dib and sad were predominantly expressed in prothoracic glands, and shd was expressed in fat body and Malpighian tubules at the last instar larvae. Spo expression was kept high level between day 2 and day 4 after ecdysis. The expression of phm and dib peaked at day 2, and sad and shd expressions peaked at day 2 and day 4 after ecdysis. In addition, the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer showed a small peak at day 2 and a large peak at day 4 after ecdysis. These results suggest the importance of Halloween genes in ecdysone biosynthesis by prothoracic glands and conversion of ecdysone into 20E by fat body in larval-pupal metamorphosis. PMID:19682519

  4. In Vivo Pyro-SIP Assessing Active Gut Microbiota of the Cotton Leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yongqi; Arias-Cordero, Erika; Guo, Huijuan; Bartram, Stefan; Boland, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota is of crucial importance for the host with considerable metabolic activity. Although great efforts have been made toward characterizing microbial diversity, measuring components' metabolic activity surprisingly hasn't kept pace. Here we combined pyrosequencing of amplified 16S rRNA genes with in vivo stable isotope probing (Pyro-SIP) to unmask metabolically active bacteria in the gut of cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis), a polyphagous insect herbivore that consumes large amounts of plant material in a short time, liberating abundant glucose in the alimentary canal as a most important carbon and energy source for both host and active gut bacteria. With 13C glucose as the trophic link, Pyro-SIP revealed that a relatively simple but distinctive gut microbiota co-developed with the host, both metabolic activity and composition shifting throughout larval stages. Pantoea, Citrobacter and Clostridium were particularly active in early-instar, likely the core functional populations linked to nutritional upgrading. Enterococcus was the single predominant genus in the community, and it was essentially stable and metabolically active in the larval lifespan. Based on that Enterococci formed biofilm-like layers on the gut epithelium and that the isolated strains showed antimicrobial properties, Enterococcus may be able to establish a colonization resistance effect in the gut against potentially harmful microbes from outside. Not only does this establish the first in-depth inventory of the gut microbiota of a model organism from the mostly phytophagous Lepidoptera, but this pilot study shows that Pyro-SIP can rapidly gain insight into the gut microbiota's metabolic activity with high resolution and high precision. PMID:24475063

  5. Identification and expression profile of Halloween genes involved in ecdysteroid biosynthesis in Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Iga, Masatoshi; Smagghe, Guy

    2010-03-01

    20-Hydroxyecdyone (20E), an active form of ecdysteroid, is the key hormone in insect growth and development. The biosynthesis of ecdysteroid is triggered and under the control of the neuropeptide, prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH). To date, five cytochrome P450 enzymes, namely Spook (Spo), Phantom (Phm), Disembodied (Dib), Shadow (Sad) and Shade (Shd) related to ecdysteroid biosynthesis, are identified and the character of last four enzymes is well studied in Drosophila melanogaster, Bombyx mori and Manduca sexta. These genes are called Halloween genes and mediate the biosynthesis of 20E from cholesterol. In this study, we extended these works to a major pest insect in agriculture, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). We identified the sequence of five Halloween genes, and the converted amino acid sequences were compared with those of other insects. The phylogenetic analysis clearly showed separated clusters of each gene and the evolutional conservation in insects with a high similarity in Lepidoptera. Spo, phm, dib and sad were predominantly expressed in prothoracic glands, and shd was expressed in fat body and Malpighian tubules at the last instar larvae. Spo expression was kept high level between day 2 and day 4 after ecdysis. The expression of phm and dib peaked at day 2, and sad and shd expressions peaked at day 2 and day 4 after ecdysis. In addition, the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer showed a small peak at day 2 and a large peak at day 4 after ecdysis. These results suggest the importance of Halloween genes in ecdysone biosynthesis by prothoracic glands and conversion of ecdysone into 20E by fat body in larval-pupal metamorphosis.

  6. In vivo Pyro-SIP assessing active gut microbiota of the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yongqi; Arias-Cordero, Erika; Guo, Huijuan; Bartram, Stefan; Boland, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiota is of crucial importance for the host with considerable metabolic activity. Although great efforts have been made toward characterizing microbial diversity, measuring components' metabolic activity surprisingly hasn't kept pace. Here we combined pyrosequencing of amplified 16S rRNA genes with in vivo stable isotope probing (Pyro-SIP) to unmask metabolically active bacteria in the gut of cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis), a polyphagous insect herbivore that consumes large amounts of plant material in a short time, liberating abundant glucose in the alimentary canal as a most important carbon and energy source for both host and active gut bacteria. With (13)C glucose as the trophic link, Pyro-SIP revealed that a relatively simple but distinctive gut microbiota co-developed with the host, both metabolic activity and composition shifting throughout larval stages. Pantoea, Citrobacter and Clostridium were particularly active in early-instar, likely the core functional populations linked to nutritional upgrading. Enterococcus was the single predominant genus in the community, and it was essentially stable and metabolically active in the larval lifespan. Based on that Enterococci formed biofilm-like layers on the gut epithelium and that the isolated strains showed antimicrobial properties, Enterococcus may be able to establish a colonization resistance effect in the gut against potentially harmful microbes from outside. Not only does this establish the first in-depth inventory of the gut microbiota of a model organism from the mostly phytophagous Lepidoptera, but this pilot study shows that Pyro-SIP can rapidly gain insight into the gut microbiota's metabolic activity with high resolution and high precision. PMID:24475063

  7. Characterization of an Antennal Carboxylesterase from the Pest Moth Spodoptera littoralis Degrading a Host Plant Odorant

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Nicolas; Carot-Sans, Gerard; Chertemps, Thomas; Bozzolan, Françoise; Party, Virginie; Renou, Michel; Debernard, Stéphane; Rosell, Gloria; Maïbèche-Coisne, Martine

    2010-01-01

    Background Carboxyl/cholinesterases (CCEs) are highly diversified in insects. These enzymes have a broad range of proposed functions, in neuro/developmental processes, dietary detoxification, insecticide resistance or hormone/pheromone degradation. As few functional data are available on purified or recombinant CCEs, the physiological role of most of these enzymes is unknown. Concerning their role in olfaction, only two CCEs able to metabolize sex pheromones have been functionally characterized in insects. These enzymes are only expressed in the male antennae, and secreted into the lumen of the pheromone-sensitive sensilla. CCEs able to hydrolyze other odorants than sex pheromones, such as plant volatiles, have not been identified. Methodology In Spodoptera littoralis, a major crop pest, a diversity of antennal CCEs has been previously identified. We have employed here a combination of molecular biology, biochemistry and electrophysiology approaches to functionally characterize an intracellular CCE, SlCXE10, whose predominant expression in the olfactory sensilla suggested a role in olfaction. A recombinant protein was produced using the baculovirus system and we tested its catabolic properties towards a plant volatile and the sex pheromone components. Conclusion We showed that SlCXE10 could efficiently hydrolyze a green leaf volatile and to a lesser extent the sex pheromone components. The transcript level in male antennae was also strongly induced by exposure to this plant odorant. In antennae, SlCXE10 expression was associated with sensilla responding to the sex pheromones and to plant odours. These results suggest that a CCE-based intracellular metabolism of odorants could occur in insect antennae, in addition to the extracellular metabolism occurring within the sensillar lumen. This is the first functional characterization of an Odorant-Degrading Enzyme active towards a host plant volatile. PMID:21124773

  8. Histopathological effects and determination of the putative receptor of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Da toxin in Spodoptera littoralis midgut.

    PubMed

    BenFarhat-Touzri, Dalel; Saadaoui, Marwa; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Saadaoui, Imen; Azzouz, Hichem; Tounsi, Slim

    2013-02-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai strain HD133, known by its effectiveness against Spodoptera species, produces many insecticidal proteins including Cry1Ab, Cry1Ca and Cry1Da. In the present study, the insecticidal activity of Cry1Da against Spodoptera littoralis was investigated. It showed toxicity with an LC(50) of 224.4 ng/cm(2) with 95% confidence limits of (178.61-270.19) and an LC(90) of 467.77 ng/cm(2) with 95% confidence limits of (392.89-542.65). The midgut histopathology of Cry1Da fed larvae showed vesicle formation in the apical region, vacuolization and destruction of epithelial cells. Biotinylated-activated Cry1Da toxin bound protein of about 65 kDa on blots of S. littoralis brush border membrane preparations. This putative receptor differs in molecular size from those recognized by Cry1C and Vip3A which are active against this polyphagous insect. This difference in midgut receptors strongly supports the use of Cry1Da as insecticidal agent, particularly in case of Cry and/or Vip-resistance management. PMID:23220238

  9. Histopathological and combinatorial effects of the metalloprotease InhA1 and Cry proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis against Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Dammak, Ines; Dammak, Mariam; Tounsi, Slim

    2015-11-01

    The zinc metalloprotease (InhA) of Bacillus thuringiensis specifically hydrolyzes cecropins and attacins, two antibacterial peptides in the immune hemolymph of insects, leading to a high resistance of the bacteria to the humoral defense system of its host. In the present study, the inhA gene of B. thuringiensis strain BUPM28 was cloned and the nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that it was identical to that of B. thuringiensis 8010. The expressed InhA1 protein in Escherichia coli showed toxicity to neonate Spodoptera littoralis larvae with a LC50 of 2.07±0.72μg/cm(2). Study of the effect of combining Cry proteins with InhA1 showed that one improves the toxicity of the other one against S. littoralis. Investigation of the histopathological effect of this metalloprotease showed an extensive damage of S. littoralis epithelium tissue. These results provide an insight to the use of InhA as supplement to Cry toxins to improve the efficacy of B. thuringiensis formulations and to overcome possible resistance problems.

  10. Modulation of the temporal pattern of calling behavior of female Spodoptera littoralis by exposure to sex pheromone.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Medhat M; von Wowern, Germund; Löfstedt, Christer; Rosén, Wen-Qi; Anderson, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We have examined the timing of calling behavior in the female Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis and its modification by exposure to sex pheromone. The calling rhythm of the female moth was found to be circadian, persistent for at least 4 days once it has been entrained, and could be phase shifted by altering the light:dark regime. We also found that female exposure to pheromone affected the rate and duration of calling. A brief exposure to pheromone gland extract increased the proportion of females calling in a constant dim light and this effect persisted for at least 2 days. In response to pheromone exposure, significantly more females also called late into scotophase when most unexposed control females had ceased calling. The adaptive significance of responding to conspecific sex pheromone is discussed. PMID:22001286

  11. The impact of the Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant on the midgut histology of Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and determination of its putative receptor.

    PubMed

    Ghribi, Dhouha; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Boukedi, Hanen; Elleuch, Mouna; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Tounsi, Slim

    2012-02-01

    SPB1 is a Bacillus subtilis strain producing a lipopeptide biosurfactant. The insecticidal activity of this biosurfactant was evaluated against the Egyptian cotton leaf worm (Spodoptera littoralis). It displayed toxicity with an LC(50) of 251 ng/cm(2). The histopathological changes occurred in the larval midgut of S. littoralis treated with B. subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant were vesicle formation in the apical region, cellular vacuolization and destruction of epithelial cells and their boundaries. Ligand-blotting experiments with S. littoralis brush border membrane vesicles showed binding of SPB1 biosurfactant to a protein of 45 kDa corresponding to its putative receptor. The latter differs in molecular size from those recognized by Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3A and Cry1C toxins, commonly known by their activity against S. littoralis. This result wires the application of B. subtilis biosurfactant for effective control of S. littoralis larvae, particularly in the cases where S. littoralis will develop resistance against B. thuringiensis toxins. PMID:22079884

  12. Elevated atmospheric CO(2) affects the chemical quality of brassica plants and the growth rate of the specialist, Plutella xylostella, but not the generalist, Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Tossavainen, Paula; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2004-06-30

    Cabbage, Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata (cv. Lennox and Rinda), and oilseed rape, Brassica rapa subsp. oleifera (cv. Valo and Tuli), plants were grown under ambient CO(2) (360 ppm) or elevated CO(2) (720 ppm) at 23/18 degrees C and under a photoperiod of 22/2 h light (250 micromol m(-)(2) s(-)(1))/dark regime for up to 5 weeks. Afterward, the performance of the crucifer specialist Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and the generalist Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on those plants was studied. The mean relative growth rate (RGR) of P. xylostella larvae, feeding on both cultivars of oilseed rape or on the Lennox cultivar of cabbage leaves grown at an elevated CO(2) concentration, was significantly reduced as compared to ambient CO(2). A negative larval growth rate at elevated CO(2) was observed for P. xylostella on both oilseed rape cultivars, but the growth rate was reduced but positive on cabbage. Conversely, the RGR of S. littoralis on either plant species was not affected by CO(2) treatment but was lower on cabbage cv. Rinda than on cv. Lennox. The mortality of the larvae was not affected by CO(2) treatment either. At the same time, elevated CO(2) significantly decreased the concentrations of leaf phytochemical constituents in oilseed rape, i.e., total phenolics and total nitrogen, but not in cabbage. The effect of elevated CO(2) on the leaf glucosinolate concentrations of both plant species was marginal. In addition, the observed significant changes in individual glucosinolate concentrations of oilseed rape leaves were not consistent among cultivars. However, our results demonstrate for the first time quite strong effects of CO(2) enrichment on the larval performance of P. xylostella, which is an important pest of Brassica plants around the world. Further studies are still required to increase our understanding of why elevated CO(2) differently affects the performance of specialist and generalist insect herbivores on Brassica

  13. Efficacy of some plant oils alone and/or combined with different insecticides on the cotton leaf-worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mesbah, H A; Mourad, A K; Rokaia, A Z M

    2006-01-01

    The present work was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of two essential oils ((Flax or "Linseed" and Sesame ), five volatile plant oils ( Camphor, Red basil, Rose, Menthol and Clove ), four pesticides (Methoxyfenozide; Permethrin; Profenofos and Spinosad) and their mixtures on the cotton leaf-worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.). This study was also devoted to minimize the usage of conventional insecticides, reduce the environmental pollution, and protect human-beings and domestic animals from hazards due to pesticides applications. In the meantime, the delayed effect of these tested plant oils on the developing immatures and moths of the cotton leaf-worm, Spodoptera littoralis was determined. Most of the evaluated plant oils were found to have an insecticidal effect on the 4th instar larvae of the cotton leaf-worm, S. littoralis. Both the essential Sesame oil and Clove volatile oil showed rather weak toxic effect corresponding to the same concentrations and periods of the bioassay tests. Comparing the toxicity of the tested plant oils, it was affirmed that both Rose and Red basil volatile oils were the highest efficient natural phytocompounds against the treated larvae and alternatively ranked either the 1st and/or the 2nd rank, throughout the different periods of the bioassay tests, followed by the other three tested oils which were more or less efficient phytocompounds. According to the toxicity index, all the tested oils were less toxic than the superior Red basil volatile oil after 48 h. post treatment followed by the gradual decrease in toxicity of Rose, Flax and Menthol, respectively. The development of the treated 4th larval instar was blocked due to treatment with the tested plant oils. With no exception, all the efficiently tested essential and/or volatile oils acted principally as Insect Growth Inhibitors (IGIs) rather than antifeedants causing disruption of the insect development, abnormal larvae, pupae and adults that were lead finally to death. The

  14. Characterization of an Egyptian Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus and a possible use of a highly conserved region from polyhedrin gene for nucleopolyhedrovirus detection

    PubMed Central

    Seufi, AlaaEddeen M

    2008-01-01

    An Egyptian isolate of Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliNPV) was tested for its potential as biocontrol agent in comparison to Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). Comparative assays of SpliNPV and AcMNPV against 2nd instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis revealed 4-fold greater susceptibility of S. littoralis to AcMNPV than to SpliNPV based on LC50 values for the two viruses. The LT50s determined for SpliNPV and AcMNPV using LC50 of the virus against 2nd instar larvae were 4.2 and 5.8 days, respectively. A DNA segment of 405 bp containing highly conserved region from polyhedrin gene of SpliNPV (Polh-cr) was successfully amplified by PCR. Subsequently, this DNA segment was cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence and its deduced amino acid sequence were compared to all available sequences in GenBank. Sequence alignment results revealed that Polh-cr showed significant similarities with 91 different baculovirus isolates. The percentage of homology ranged from 78% for Plusia orichalcea NPV to 99% for SpliNPV. This highly conserved region provides a candidate that could be used in easy, fast and economic prospective systems for virus detection as well as in biological control strategies. PMID:18215282

  15. Study on ecdysteroid levels and gene expression of enzymes related to ecdysteroid biosynthesis in the larval testis of Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Iga, Masatoshi; Blais, Catherine; Smagghe, Guy

    2013-01-01

    We investigated here the ecdysteroid titers and the expression of six genes coding for known enzymes of the ecdysteroid biosynthesis in the testes of last instar larvae of the pest cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis. We showed that the timing of the ecdysteroid profile was the same in testes and in hemolymph, with a small peak at day 2 and a large one at day 4 after ecdysis. Ecdysone and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) were detected in both tissues. 20E was the major ecdysteroid in testes and in hemolymph from day 4. Interestingly, the gene expression of the steroidogenetic enzymes, Neverland, and the five cytochrome P450 enzymes encoded by the Halloween genes was confirmed in the testes, and varied during the instar. However, from the data obtained so far, we cannot conclude that the measured ecdysteroids in the testes result from the activity of the genes under study. Indeed, it is suggested that the ecdysone produced centrally in the prothoracic glands, could have been transformed into 20E in the testes, where Sl-shade is well expressed. PMID:23007959

  16. Genome-wide In Silico Analysis, Characterization and Identification of Microsatellites in Spodoptera littoralis Multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV).

    PubMed

    Atia, Mohamed A M; Osman, Gamal H; Elmenofy, Wael H

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we undertook a survey to analyze the distribution and frequency of microsatellites or Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) in Spodoptera littoralis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV) genome (isolate AN-1956). Out of the 55 microsatellite motifs, identified in the SpliMNPV-AN1956 genome using in silico analysis (inclusive of mono-, di-, tri- and hexa-nucleotide repeats), 39 were found to be distributed within coding regions (cSSRs), whereas 16 were observed to lie within intergenic or noncoding regions. Among the 39 motifs located in coding regions, 21 were located in annotated functional genes whilst 18 were identified in unknown functional genes (hypothetical proteins). Among the identified motifs, trinucleotide (80%) repeats were found to be the most abundant followed by dinucleotide (13%), mononucleotide (5%) and hexanucleotide (2%) repeats. The 39 motifs located within coding regions were further validated in vitro by using PCR analysis, while the 21 motifs located within known functional genes (15 genes) were characterized using nucleotide sequencing. A comparison of the sequence analysis data of the 21 sequenced cSSRs with the published sequences is presented. Finally, the developed SSR markers of the 39 motifs were further mapped/localized onto the SpliMNPV-AN1956 genome. In conclusion, the SSR markers specific to SpliMNPV, developed in this study, could be a useful tool for the identification of isolates and analysis of genetic diversity and viral evolutionary status. PMID:27650818

  17. Development of insect resistant maize plants expressing a chitinase gene from the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Gamal H.; Assem, Shireen K.; Alreedy, Rasha M.; El-Ghareeb, Doaa K.; Basry, Mahmoud A.; Rastogi, Anshu; Kalaji, Hazem M.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the importance of chitinolytic enzymes for insect, nematode and fungal growth, they are receiving attention concerning their development as biopesticides or chemical defense proteins in transgenic plants and as microbial biocontrol agents. Targeting chitin associated with the extracellular matrices or cell wall by insect chitinases may be an effective approach for controlling pest insects and pathogenic fungi. The ability of chitinases to attack and digest chitin in the peritrophic matrix or exoskeleton raises the possibility to use them as insect control method. In this study, an insect chitinase cDNA from cotton leaf worm (Spodoptera littoralis) has been synthesized. Transgenic maize plant system was used to improve its tolerance against insects. Insect chitinase transcripts and proteins were expressed in transgenic maize plants. The functional integrity and expression of chitinase in progenies of the transgenic plants were confirmed by insect bioassays. The bioassays using transgenic corn plants against corn borer (Sesamia cretica) revealed that ~50% of the insects reared on transgenic corn plants died, suggesting that transgenic maize plants have enhanced resistance against S. cretica. PMID:26658494

  18. Biodiversity and Activity of the Gut Microbiota across the Life History of the Insect Herbivore Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bosheng; Teh, Beng-Soon; Sun, Chao; Hu, Sirui; Lu, Xingmeng; Boland, Wilhelm; Shao, Yongqi

    2016-01-01

    Microbes that live inside insects play critical roles in host nutrition, physiology, and behavior. Although Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) are one of the most diverse insect taxa, their microbial symbionts are little-studied, particularly during metamorphosis. Here, using ribosomal tag pyrosequencing of DNA and RNA, we investigated biodiversity and activity of gut microbiotas across the holometabolous life cycle of Spodoptera littoralis, a notorious agricultural pest worldwide. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes dominate but undergo a structural "metamorphosis" in tandem with its host. Enterococcus, Pantoea and Citrobacter were abundant and active in early-instar, while Clostridia increased in late-instar. Interestingly, only enterococci persisted through metamorphosis. Female adults harbored high proportions of Enterococcus, Klebsiella and Pantoea, whereas males largely shifted to Klebsiella. Comparative functional analysis with PICRUSt indicated that early-instar larval microbiome was more enriched for genes involved in cell motility and carbohydrate metabolism, whereas in late-instar amino acid, cofactor and vitamin metabolism increased. Genes involved in energy and nucleotide metabolism were abundant in pupae. Female adult microbiome was enriched for genes relevant to energy metabolism, while an increase in the replication and repair pathway was observed in male. Understanding the metabolic activity of these herbivore-associated microbial symbionts may assist the development of novel pest-management strategies. PMID:27389097

  19. Biodiversity and Activity of the Gut Microbiota across the Life History of the Insect Herbivore Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bosheng; Teh, Beng-Soon; Sun, Chao; Hu, Sirui; Lu, Xingmeng; Boland, Wilhelm; Shao, Yongqi

    2016-01-01

    Microbes that live inside insects play critical roles in host nutrition, physiology, and behavior. Although Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) are one of the most diverse insect taxa, their microbial symbionts are little-studied, particularly during metamorphosis. Here, using ribosomal tag pyrosequencing of DNA and RNA, we investigated biodiversity and activity of gut microbiotas across the holometabolous life cycle of Spodoptera littoralis, a notorious agricultural pest worldwide. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes dominate but undergo a structural “metamorphosis” in tandem with its host. Enterococcus, Pantoea and Citrobacter were abundant and active in early-instar, while Clostridia increased in late-instar. Interestingly, only enterococci persisted through metamorphosis. Female adults harbored high proportions of Enterococcus, Klebsiella and Pantoea, whereas males largely shifted to Klebsiella. Comparative functional analysis with PICRUSt indicated that early-instar larval microbiome was more enriched for genes involved in cell motility and carbohydrate metabolism, whereas in late-instar amino acid, cofactor and vitamin metabolism increased. Genes involved in energy and nucleotide metabolism were abundant in pupae. Female adult microbiome was enriched for genes relevant to energy metabolism, while an increase in the replication and repair pathway was observed in male. Understanding the metabolic activity of these herbivore-associated microbial symbionts may assist the development of novel pest-management strategies. PMID:27389097

  20. Study on ecdysteroid levels and gene expression of enzymes related to ecdysteroid biosynthesis in the larval testis of Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Iga, Masatoshi; Blais, Catherine; Smagghe, Guy

    2013-01-01

    We investigated here the ecdysteroid titers and the expression of six genes coding for known enzymes of the ecdysteroid biosynthesis in the testes of last instar larvae of the pest cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis. We showed that the timing of the ecdysteroid profile was the same in testes and in hemolymph, with a small peak at day 2 and a large one at day 4 after ecdysis. Ecdysone and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) were detected in both tissues. 20E was the major ecdysteroid in testes and in hemolymph from day 4. Interestingly, the gene expression of the steroidogenetic enzymes, Neverland, and the five cytochrome P450 enzymes encoded by the Halloween genes was confirmed in the testes, and varied during the instar. However, from the data obtained so far, we cannot conclude that the measured ecdysteroids in the testes result from the activity of the genes under study. Indeed, it is suggested that the ecdysone produced centrally in the prothoracic glands, could have been transformed into 20E in the testes, where Sl-shade is well expressed.

  1. Development of insect resistant maize plants expressing a chitinase gene from the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Osman, Gamal H; Assem, Shireen K; Alreedy, Rasha M; El-Ghareeb, Doaa K; Basry, Mahmoud A; Rastogi, Anshu; Kalaji, Hazem M

    2015-01-01

    Due to the importance of chitinolytic enzymes for insect, nematode and fungal growth, they are receiving attention concerning their development as biopesticides or chemical defense proteins in transgenic plants and as microbial biocontrol agents. Targeting chitin associated with the extracellular matrices or cell wall by insect chitinases may be an effective approach for controlling pest insects and pathogenic fungi. The ability of chitinases to attack and digest chitin in the peritrophic matrix or exoskeleton raises the possibility to use them as insect control method. In this study, an insect chitinase cDNA from cotton leaf worm (Spodoptera littoralis) has been synthesized. Transgenic maize plant system was used to improve its tolerance against insects. Insect chitinase transcripts and proteins were expressed in transgenic maize plants. The functional integrity and expression of chitinase in progenies of the transgenic plants were confirmed by insect bioassays. The bioassays using transgenic corn plants against corn borer (Sesamia cretica) revealed that ~50% of the insects reared on transgenic corn plants died, suggesting that transgenic maize plants have enhanced resistance against S. cretica. PMID:26658494

  2. Genome-wide In Silico Analysis, Characterization and Identification of Microsatellites in Spodoptera littoralis Multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV)

    PubMed Central

    Atia, Mohamed A. M.; Osman, Gamal H.; Elmenofy, Wael H.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we undertook a survey to analyze the distribution and frequency of microsatellites or Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) in Spodoptera littoralis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV) genome (isolate AN–1956). Out of the 55 microsatellite motifs, identified in the SpliMNPV-AN1956 genome using in silico analysis (inclusive of mono-, di-, tri- and hexa-nucleotide repeats), 39 were found to be distributed within coding regions (cSSRs), whereas 16 were observed to lie within intergenic or noncoding regions. Among the 39 motifs located in coding regions, 21 were located in annotated functional genes whilst 18 were identified in unknown functional genes (hypothetical proteins). Among the identified motifs, trinucleotide (80%) repeats were found to be the most abundant followed by dinucleotide (13%), mononucleotide (5%) and hexanucleotide (2%) repeats. The 39 motifs located within coding regions were further validated in vitro by using PCR analysis, while the 21 motifs located within known functional genes (15 genes) were characterized using nucleotide sequencing. A comparison of the sequence analysis data of the 21 sequenced cSSRs with the published sequences is presented. Finally, the developed SSR markers of the 39 motifs were further mapped/localized onto the SpliMNPV-AN1956 genome. In conclusion, the SSR markers specific to SpliMNPV, developed in this study, could be a useful tool for the identification of isolates and analysis of genetic diversity and viral evolutionary status. PMID:27650818

  3. A Comparison of the Olfactory Gene Repertoires of Adults and Larvae in the Noctuid Moth Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Poivet, Erwan; Gallot, Aurore; Montagné, Nicolas; Glaser, Nicolas; Legeai, Fabrice; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the olfactory mechanisms in a lepidopteran pest model species, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, we have recently established a partial transcriptome from adult antennae. Here, we completed this transcriptome using next generation sequencing technologies, namely 454 and Illumina, on both adult antennae and larval tissues, including caterpillar antennae and maxillary palps. All sequences were assembled in 77,643 contigs. Their analysis greatly enriched the repertoire of chemosensory genes in this species, with a total of 57 candidate odorant-binding and chemosensory proteins, 47 olfactory receptors, 6 gustatory receptors and 17 ionotropic receptors. Using RT-PCR, we conducted the first exhaustive comparison of olfactory gene expression between larvae and adults in a lepidopteran species. All the 127 candidate olfactory genes were profiled for expression in male and female adult antennae and in caterpillar antennae and maxillary palps. We found that caterpillars expressed a smaller set of olfactory genes than adults, with a large overlap between these two developmental stages. Two binding proteins appeared to be larvae-specific and two others were adult-specific. Interestingly, comparison between caterpillar antennae and maxillary palps revealed numerous organ-specific transcripts, suggesting the complementary involvement of these two organs in larval chemosensory detection. Adult males and females shared the same set of olfactory transcripts, except two male-specific candidate pheromone receptors, two male-specific and two female-specific odorant-binding proteins. This study identified transcripts that may be important for sex-specific or developmental stage-specific chemosensory behaviors. PMID:23565215

  4. Biopotency of serine protease inhibitors from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds on digestive proteases and the development of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval).

    PubMed

    Abd El-latif, Ashraf Oukasha

    2015-05-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (PIs) have been described in many plant species and are universal throughout the plant kingdom, where trypsin inhibitors is the most common type. In the present study, trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity was detected in the seed flour extracts of 13 selected cultivars/accessions of cowpea. Two cowpea cultivars, Cream7 and Buff, were found to have higher trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory potential compared to other tested cultivars for which they have been selected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Cream7-purified proteins showed two bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) corresponding to molecular mass of 17.10 and 14.90 kDa, while the purified protein from Buff cultivar showed a single band corresponding mass of 16.50 kDa. The purified inhibitors were stable at temperature below 60°C and were active at wide range of pH from 2 to 12. The kinetic analysis revealed noncompetitive type of inhibition for both inhibitors against both enzymes. The inhibitor constant (Ki ) values suggested high affinity between inhibitors and enzymes. Purified inhibitors were found to have deep and negative effects on the mean larval weight, larval mortality, pupation, and mean pupal weight of Spodoptera littoralis, where Buff PI was more effective than Cream7 PI. It may be concluded that cowpea PI gene(s) could be potential insect control protein for future studies in developing insect-resistant transgenic plants. PMID:25524889

  5. Biopotency of serine protease inhibitors from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) seeds on digestive proteases and the development of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval).

    PubMed

    Abd El-latif, Ashraf Oukasha

    2015-05-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (PIs) have been described in many plant species and are universal throughout the plant kingdom, where trypsin inhibitors is the most common type. In the present study, trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity was detected in the seed flour extracts of 13 selected cultivars/accessions of cowpea. Two cowpea cultivars, Cream7 and Buff, were found to have higher trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory potential compared to other tested cultivars for which they have been selected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Cream7-purified proteins showed two bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) corresponding to molecular mass of 17.10 and 14.90 kDa, while the purified protein from Buff cultivar showed a single band corresponding mass of 16.50 kDa. The purified inhibitors were stable at temperature below 60°C and were active at wide range of pH from 2 to 12. The kinetic analysis revealed noncompetitive type of inhibition for both inhibitors against both enzymes. The inhibitor constant (Ki ) values suggested high affinity between inhibitors and enzymes. Purified inhibitors were found to have deep and negative effects on the mean larval weight, larval mortality, pupation, and mean pupal weight of Spodoptera littoralis, where Buff PI was more effective than Cream7 PI. It may be concluded that cowpea PI gene(s) could be potential insect control protein for future studies in developing insect-resistant transgenic plants.

  6. Degradation of Pheromone and Plant Volatile Components by a Same Odorant-Degrading Enzyme in the Cotton Leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Nicolas; Carot-Sans, Gerard; Bozzolan, Françoise; Rosell, Gloria; Siaussat, David; Debernard, Stéphane; Chertemps, Thomas; Maïbèche-Coisne, Martine

    2011-01-01

    Background Odorant-Degrading Enzymes (ODEs) are supposed to be involved in the signal inactivation step within the olfactory sensilla of insects by quickly removing odorant molecules from the vicinity of the olfactory receptors. Only three ODEs have been both identified at the molecular level and functionally characterized: two were specialized in the degradation of pheromone compounds and the last one was shown to degrade a plant odorant. Methodology Previous work has shown that the antennae of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, a worldwide pest of agricultural crops, express numerous candidate ODEs. We focused on an esterase overexpressed in males antennae, namely SlCXE7. We studied its expression patterns and tested its catalytic properties towards three odorants, i.e. the two female sex pheromone components and a green leaf volatile emitted by host plants. Conclusion SlCXE7 expression was concomitant during development with male responsiveness to odorants and during adult scotophase with the period of male most active sexual behaviour. Furthermore, SlCXE7 transcription could be induced by male exposure to the main pheromone component, suggesting a role of Pheromone-Degrading Enzyme. Interestingly, recombinant SlCXE7 was able to efficiently hydrolyze the pheromone compounds but also the plant volatile, with a higher affinity for the pheromone than for the plant compound. In male antennae, SlCXE7 expression was associated with both long and short sensilla, tuned to sex pheromones or plant odours, respectively. Our results thus suggested that a same ODE could have a dual function depending of it sensillar localisation. Within the pheromone-sensitive sensilla, SlCXE7 may play a role in pheromone signal termination and in reduction of odorant background noise, whereas it could be involved in plant odorant inactivation within the short sensilla. PMID:22216190

  7. Characterization of Multisugar-Binding C-Type Lectin (SpliLec) from a Bacterial-Challenged Cotton Leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Seufi, AlaaEddeen M.; Galal, Fatma H.; Hafez, Elsayed E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Various proteins that display carbohydrate-binding activity in a Ca2+-dependent manner are classified into the C-type lectin family. They have one or two C-type carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) composed of 110–130 amino acid residues in common. C-type lectins mediate cell adhesion, non-self recognition, and immuno-protection processes in immune responses and thus play significant roles in clearance of invaders, either as cell surface receptors for microbial carbohydrates or as soluble proteins existing in tissue fluids. The lectin of Spodoptera littoralis is still uncharacterized. Methodology A single orf encoding a deduced polypeptide consisting of an 18-residue signal peptide and a 291-residue mature peptide, termed SpliLec, was isolated from the haemolymph of the cotton leafworm, S. littoralis, after bacterial challenge using RACE-PCR. Sequence analyses of the data revealed that SpliLec consists of two CRDs. Short-form CRD1 and long-form CRD2 are stabilized by two and three highly conserved disulfide bonds, respectively. SpliLec shares homology with some dipteran lectins suggesting possible common ancestor. The purified SpliLec exhibited a 140-kDa molecular mass with a subunit molecular mass of 35 kDa. The hemagglutination assays of the SpliLec confirmed a thermally stable, multisugar-binding C-type lectin that binds different erythrocytes. The purified SpliLec agglutinated microorganisms and exhibited comparable antimicrobial activity against gram (+) and gram (−) bacteria too. Conclusions Our results suggested an important role of the SpliLec gene in cell adhesion and non-self recognition. It may cooperate with other AMPs in clearance of invaders of Spodoptera littoralis. PMID:22916161

  8. Very high-density lipoprotein and vitellin as carriers of novel biliverdins IXα with a farnesyl side-chain presumably derived from heme A in Spodoptera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Hartmut; Nimtz, Manfred; Ringler, Philippe; Müller, Shirley A

    2016-01-01

    Bilins in complex with specific proteins play key roles in many forms of life. Biliproteins have also been isolated from insects; however, structural details are rare and possible functions largely unknown. Recently, we identified a high-molecular weight biliprotein from a moth, Cerura vinula, as an arylphorin-type hexameric storage protein linked to a novel farnesyl biliverdin IXα; its unusual structure suggests formation by cleavage of mitochondrial heme A. In the present study of another moth, Spodoptera littoralis, we isolated two different biliproteins. These proteins were identified as a very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) and as vitellin, respectively, by mass spectrometric sequencing. Both proteins are associated with three different farnesyl biliverdins IXα: the one bilin isolated from C. vinula and two new structurally closely related bilins, supposed to be intermediates of heme A degradation. The different bilin composition of the two biliproteins suggests that the presumed oxidations at the farnesyl side-chain take place mainly during egg development. The egg bilins are supposedly transferred from hemolymph VHDL to vitellin in the female. Both biliproteins show strong induced circular dichroism activity compatible with a predominance of the M-conformation of the bilins. This conformation is opposite to that of the arylphorin-type biliprotein from C. vinula. Electron microscopy of the VHDL-type biliprotein from S. littoralis provided a preliminary view of its structure as a homodimer and confirmed the biochemically determined molecular mass of ∼350 kDa. Further, images of S. littoralis hexamerins revealed a 2 × 3 construction identical to that known from the hexamerin from C. vinula.

  9. Colonization of the Intestinal Tract of the Polyphagous Pest Spodoptera littoralis with the GFP-Tagged Indigenous Gut Bacterium Enterococcus mundtii

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Beng-Soon; Apel, Johanna; Shao, Yongqi; Boland, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    The alkaline gut of Lepidopterans plays a crucial role in shaping communities of bacteria. Enterococcus mundtii has emerged as one of the predominant gut microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract of the major agricultural pest, Spodoptera littoralis. Therefore, it was selected as a model bacterium to study its adaptation to harsh alkaline gut conditions in its host insect throughout different stages of development (larvae, pupae, adults, and eggs). To date, the mechanism of bacterial survival in insects' intestinal tract has been unknown. Therefore, we have engineered a GFP-tagged species of bacteria, E. mundtii, to track how it colonizes the intestine of S. littoralis. Three promoters of different strengths were used to control the expression of GFP in E. mundtii. The promoter ermB was the most effective, exhibiting the highest GFP fluorescence intensity, and hence was chosen as our main construct. Our data show that the engineered fluorescent bacteria survived and proliferated in the intestinal tract of the insect at all life stages for up to the second generation following ingestion. PMID:27379058

  10. Behavioral and metabolic effects of sublethal doses of two insecticides, chlorpyrifos and methomyl, in the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Dewer, Youssef; Pottier, Marie-Anne; Lalouette, Lisa; Maria, Annick; Dacher, Matthieu; Belzunces, Luc P; Kairo, Guillaume; Renault, David; Maibeche, Martine; Siaussat, David

    2016-02-01

    Insecticides have long been used as the main method in limiting agricultural pests, but their widespread use has resulted in environmental pollution, development of resistances, and biodiversity reduction. The effects of insecticides at low residual doses on both the targeted crop pest species and beneficial insects have become a major concern. In particular, these low doses can induce unexpected positive (hormetic) effects on pest insects, such as surges in population growth exceeding what would have been observed without pesticide application. Methomyl and chlorpyrifos are two insecticides commonly used to control the population levels of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, a major pest moth. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of sublethal doses of these two pesticides, known to present a residual activity and persistence in the environment, on the moth physiology. Using a metabolomic approach, we showed that sublethal doses of methomyl and chlorpyrifos have a systemic effect on the treated insects. We also demonstrated a behavioral disruption of S. littoralis larvae exposed to sublethal doses of methomyl, whereas no effects were observed for the same doses of chlorpyrifos. Interestingly, we highlighted that sublethal doses of both pesticides did not induce a change in acetylcholinesterase activity in head of exposed larvae.

  11. A promising HD133-like strain of Bacillus thuringiensis with dual efficiency to the two Lepidopteran pests: Spodoptera littoralis (Noctuidae) and Ephestia kuehniella (Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    BenFarhat-Touzri, Dalel; Driss, Fatma; Tounsi, Slim

    2016-08-01

    Isolation and identification of new strains with wide variety of target pests is an ever growing field. In this paper, a screening of 260 strains from Tunisian soil samples was conducted by dot-blot and PCR-sequencing analysis. The screening was done on the basis of the possession of cry1D-type genes and was followed by the evaluation of the insecticidal activity against Spodoptera littoralis. BLB250 strain showed an LC50 value (56.2 μg g(-1)) against S. littoralis lower than those of the two Bacillus thuringiensis reference strains HD1 and HD133. An interesting LC50 (167.6 μg g(-1)) was also recorded against Ephestia kuehniella larvae. The strain was, thus, selected because of its qualification to be highly toxic, at once, for both Lepidopteran insects. In vitro time course of proteolytic processing of BLB250 and HD133 protoxins by the gut juices from the two insect larvae revealed that the differences in toxicity against E. kuehniella are most likely attributed to differences in the efficiency of the activation of the corresponding protoxins into toxins. An activation comparative study using commercial proteases suggested that the intestinal proteases of E. kuehniella contain trypsin-like activities. With its high efficiency and toxicity against, at once, two Lepidopteran insects having different susceptibilities towards kurstaki and aizawai subspecies, BLB250 could be useful when developing more efficient and economical B. thuringiensis-based pesticides. PMID:27130040

  12. Expression, purification and characterization of the Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliNPV) DNA polymerase and interaction with the SpliNPV non-hr origin of DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Levin, D B

    2001-07-01

    The DNA polymerase from Spodoptera littoralis nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliNPV) was expressed in, and purified from, prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems. While less protein was obtained from the E. coli expression system, SpliNPV DNAPOL purified from E. coli displayed similar biochemical characteristics to DNAPOL expressed in, and subsequently purified from, insect cells (Sf9) using a baculovirus expression system. Biochemical analyses suggested that the DNA polymerase and the 3'-5' exonuclease activities are intrinsic to the protein. Deletion of the first 80 amino acid residues from the N terminus of the DNAPOL affected neither the DNA polymerase nor the exonuclease activities of the enzyme. Replication products from single-stranded M13 DNA demonstrated that the DNA synthesis activity of SpliNPV DNAPOL is highly processive. Transient expression assays with a set of deletion clones containing the putative SpliNPV non-hr origin of DNA replication permitted functional characterization of sequence elements within the origin fragment. Purified SpliNPV DNAPOL stimulated origin-dependent DNA replication in a cell-free replication assay.

  13. Insecticidal Effect of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. Flowers on the Pest Spodoptera littoralis Boisd and its Parasitoid Microplitis rufiventris Kok. with Identifying the Chemical Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shonouda, Mourad L.; Osman, Salah; Salama, Osama; Ayoub, Amal

    The flower extract of Chrysanthemum coronarium L. and their fractions have shown insecticidal effect on the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis. The third instar larvae fed for two days on treated leaves were more susceptible to plant extracts and to their ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions. The active lowest concentration (5%) of the flower fractions showed no significant effect on the percent reduction of emerged adult parasitoids, Microplitis rufiventris Kok. GC/MS analysis revealed that the major constituents in ethyl acetate fraction were 3-dihydro-methylene-2- (3H) furanone (17.8%), jasmolin I (15.6%), carveol 1 (13.6%), phosphoric acid, tributyl ester (11.4%) and cinerin II (11.1%), while those of chloroform fraction were 5-hydroxy-3 methyl-1H-pyrazole (42.7%) and carveol 1(24.8%). The medicinal plant C. coronarium seems to be a promising plant for application in integrated pest management due to its safety to the surrounding environment.

  14. Identification of metabolically active bacteria in the gut of the generalist Spodoptera littoralis via DNA stable isotope probing using 13C-glucose.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yongqi; Arias-Cordero, Erika M; Boland, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    Guts of most insects are inhabited by complex communities of symbiotic nonpathogenic bacteria. Within such microbial communities it is possible to identify commensal or mutualistic bacteria species. The latter ones, have been observed to serve multiple functions to the insect, i.e. helping in insect reproduction(1), boosting the immune response(2), pheromone production(3), as well as nutrition, including the synthesis of essential amino acids(4,) among others.     Due to the importance of these associations, many efforts have been made to characterize the communities down to the individual members. However, most of these efforts were either based on cultivation methods or relied on the generation of 16S rRNA gene fragments which were sequenced for final identification. Unfortunately, these approaches only identified the bacterial species present in the gut and provided no information on the metabolic activity of the microorganisms. To characterize the metabolically active bacterial species in the gut of an insect, we used stable isotope probing (SIP) in vivo employing (13)C-glucose as a universal substrate. This is a promising culture-free technique that allows the linkage of microbial phylogenies to their particular metabolic activity. This is possible by tracking stable, isotope labeled atoms from substrates into microbial biomarkers, such as DNA and RNA(5). The incorporation of (13)C isotopes into DNA increases the density of the labeled DNA compared to the unlabeled ((12)C) one. In the end, the (13)C-labeled DNA or RNA is separated by density-gradient ultracentrifugation from the (12)C-unlabeled similar one(6). Subsequent molecular analysis of the separated nucleic acid isotopomers provides the connection between metabolic activity and identity of the species. Here, we present the protocol used to characterize the metabolically active bacteria in the gut of a generalist insect (our model system), Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). The

  15. Identification of Metabolically Active Bacteria in the Gut of the Generalist Spodoptera littoralis via DNA Stable Isotope Probing Using 13C-Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Boland, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    Guts of most insects are inhabited by complex communities of symbiotic nonpathogenic bacteria. Within such microbial communities it is possible to identify commensal or mutualistic bacteria species. The latter ones, have been observed to serve multiple functions to the insect, i.e. helping in insect reproduction1, boosting the immune response2, pheromone production3, as well as nutrition, including the synthesis of essential amino acids4, among others.     Due to the importance of these associations, many efforts have been made to characterize the communities down to the individual members. However, most of these efforts were either based on cultivation methods or relied on the generation of 16S rRNA gene fragments which were sequenced for final identification. Unfortunately, these approaches only identified the bacterial species present in the gut and provided no information on the metabolic activity of the microorganisms. To characterize the metabolically active bacterial species in the gut of an insect, we used stable isotope probing (SIP) in vivo employing 13C-glucose as a universal substrate. This is a promising culture-free technique that allows the linkage of microbial phylogenies to their particular metabolic activity. This is possible by tracking stable, isotope labeled atoms from substrates into microbial biomarkers, such as DNA and RNA5. The incorporation of 13C isotopes into DNA increases the density of the labeled DNA compared to the unlabeled (12C) one. In the end, the 13C-labeled DNA or RNA is separated by density-gradient ultracentrifugation from the 12C-unlabeled similar one6. Subsequent molecular analysis of the separated nucleic acid isotopomers provides the connection between metabolic activity and identity of the species. Here, we present the protocol used to characterize the metabolically active bacteria in the gut of a generalist insect (our model system), Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). The phylogenetic analysis of the DNA

  16. Characterization of a sterol carrier protein 2/3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase from the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis): a lepidopteran mechanism closer to that in mammals than that in dipterans

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Numerous invertebrate species belonging to several phyla cannot synthesize sterols de novo and rely on a dietary source of the compound. SCPx (sterol carrier protein 2/3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase) is a protein involved in the trafficking of sterols and oxidation of branched-chain fatty acids. We have isolated SCPx protein from Spodoptera littoralis (cotton leafworm) and have subjected it to limited amino acid sequencing. A reverse-transcriptase PCR-based approach has been used to clone the cDNA (1.9 kb), which encodes a 57 kDa protein. Northern blotting detected two mRNA transcripts, one of 1.9 kb, encoding SCPx, and one of 0.95 kb, presumably encoding SCP2 (sterol carrier protein 2). The former mRNA was highly expressed in midgut and Malpighian tubules during the last larval instar. Furthermore, constitutive expression of the gene was detected in the prothoracic glands, which are the main tissue producing the insect moulting hormone. There was no significant change in the 1.9 kb mRNA in midgut throughout development, but slightly higher expression in the early stages. Conceptual translation of the cDNA and a database search revealed that the gene includes the SCP2 sequence and a putative peroxisomal targeting signal in the C-terminal region. Also a cysteine residue at the putative active site for the 3-oxoacyl-CoA thiolase is conserved. Southern blotting showed that SCPx is likely to be encoded by a single-copy gene. The mRNA expression pattern and the gene structure suggest that SCPx from S. littoralis (a lepidopteran) is evolutionarily closer to that of mammals than to that of dipterans. PMID:15149283

  17. In vivo and in vitro inhibition of Spodoptera littoralis gut-serine protease by protease inhibitors isolated from maize and sorghum seeds.

    PubMed

    El-latif, Ashraf Oukasha Abd

    2014-11-01

    Seeds of cereals (Gramineae) are a rich source of serine proteinase inhibitors of most of the several inhibitor families. In the present study, trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activities was detected in the seed flour extracts of three varieties of maize (Zea maize) and six varieties of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). The maize variety, Hi Teck 2031 and the sorghum variety, Giza 10 were found to have higher trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory potentials compared to other tested varieties for which they have been selected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE-Sephadex A-25 column. Maize and sorghum purified proteins showed a single band on SDS-PAGE corresponding to molecular mass of 20.0 and 15.2 kDa for maize and sorghum PIs respectively. The purified inhibitors were stable at temperature below 60 °C and were active at wide range of pH from 2 to 12 pH. The kinetic analysis revealed non-competitive type of inhibition for both inhibitors against both enzymes. The inhibitor constant (Ki) values suggested high affinity between inhibitors and enzymes. Purified inhibitors were found to have deep and negative effects on the mean larval weight, larval mortality, pupation and mean pupal weight of S.littoralis where maize PI was more effective than sorghum PI. It may be concluded that maize and sorghum protease inhibitor gene(s) could be potential targets for future studies in developing insect resistant transgenic plants.

  18. Diet dependent metabolic responses in three generalist insect herbivores Spodoptera spp.

    PubMed

    Roy, A; Walker, W B; Vogel, H; Chattington, S; Larsson, M C; Anderson, P; Heckel, D G; Schlyter, F

    2016-04-01

    Adaption to dietary changes is critical in the evolution of host plant ranges in polyphagous insects. We compared three taxa of lepidopteran herbivores from the predominantly generalist genus Spodoptera showing different degrees of polyphagy: Spodoptera littoralis, with a broad host range including both mono- and dicotyledonous plants, and two Spodoptera frugiperda strains [Corn (i.e. maize) (C) and Rice (R)] adapted primarily to different grass species. When feeding on maize we show a lower performance in the broad generalist taxon compared to the grass adapted taxa. Among these taxa, the maize adapted S. frugiperda C-strain generally performed better than the R-strain on maize leaves. On artificial pinto diet, all taxa performed well. Our RNA-Seq analysis of midgut transcriptomes from 3rd instar larvae feeding on maize showed broader transcriptional readjustments in the generalist S. littoralis compared to grass adapted S. frugiperda strains. Substantial alteration in the expression levels of midgut physiological function related transcripts, such as digestive and detoxifying enzymes, transporters, immunity, and peritrophic membrane associated transcripts, existed in all taxa. We found high background expression of UDP-glucosyl transferases, which are known to neutralize maize leaf toxins, in the maize adapted S. frugiperda C-strain, contributing to its fitness on maize compared to the R-strain. Our findings provide evidence for divergent diet specific response of digestive physiology within these Spodoptera taxa. Unexpectedly, the C- and R-strains of S. frugiperda fed on the same diet showed large differences in expression patterns between these two closely related taxa. PMID:26908076

  19. Host plant resistance in romaine lettuce affects feeding behavior and biology of Trichoplusia ni and Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Sethi, Amit; McAuslane, Heather J; Nagata, Russell T; Nuessly, Gregg S

    2006-12-01

    Lettuce quality and yield can be reduced by feeding of several lepidopterous pests, particularly cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Hübner), and beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Host plant resistance to these insects is an environmentally sound adjunct to conventional chemical control. In this study we compared the survival, development, and feeding behavior of cabbage looper and beet armyworm on two romaine lettuce cultivars, resistant 'Valmaine' and susceptible 'Tall Guzmaine'. Larval mortality of both species was significantly higher on resistant Valmaine than on susceptible Tall Guzmaine. The average weight per larva after feeding for 1 wk on Tall Guzmaine plants was 6 times (beet armyworm) and 2 times (cabbage looper) greater than that of larvae feeding on Valmaine plants. Significant reduction in larval growth on Valmaine compared with that on Tall Guzmaine resulted in a 5.9- (beet armyworm) and 2.6-d (cabbage looper) increase in larval duration and almost a 1-d increase in pupal duration. Average pupal and adult weights and successful pupation of cabbage looper and beet armyworm were reduced on Valmaine compared with Tall Guzmaine. The sex ratio of progeny did not deviate from 1:1 when larvae were reared on either Valmaine or Tall Guzmaine. The fecundity of cabbage looper and beet armyworm adults that developed from larvae reared on Valmaine was about one-third that of adults from Tall Guzmaine, but adult longevity did not significantly differ on the two lettuce cultivars. The two insect species showed different feeding preferences for leaves of different age groups on Valmaine and Tall Guzmaine. Cabbage loopers cut narrow trenches on the leaf before actual feeding to block the flow of latex to the intended site of feeding. In contrast, beet armyworms did not trench. The different feeding behavior of the two species on Valmaine may explain the superior performance of cabbage looper compared with beet armyworm. PMID:17195688

  20. Monitoring for exotic Spodoptera species (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trapping studies were conducted in two Florida locations to determine if three Old World Spodoptera Guenée species were present. Commercially-produced lures for S. exempta (Walker), S. littoralis (Boisduval), and S. litura (F.), plus a S. litura lure made by the USDA-APHIS-CPHST laboratory at Otis ...

  1. Temperature-induced changes in fatty acid dynamics of the intertidal grazer Platychelipus littoralis (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida): Insights from a short-term feeding experiment.

    PubMed

    Werbrouck, Eva; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Vanreusel, Ann; Mensens, Christoph; De Troch, Marleen

    2016-04-01

    Dietary lipids, and in particular the essential fatty acids (EFA), EPA (20:5ω3) and DHA (22:6ω3), guarantee the well-being of animals and are recognized for their potential bottom-up control on animal populations. They are introduced in marine ecosystems through primary producers and when grazed upon, they are consumed, incorporated or modified by first-level consumers. As the availability of EFA in the ecosystem is affected by ambient temperature, the predicted rise in ocean temperature might alter the availability of these EFA at the basis of marine food webs. Despite the FA bioconversion capacity of certain benthic copepod species, their lipid (FA) response to varying temperatures is understudied. Therefore, the temperate, intertidal copepod Platychelipus littoralis was offered a mono and mixed diatom diet at 4, 15 °C (normal range) and at 24 °C (elevated temperature) to investigate the combined effects of temperature and resource availability on its FA content and composition. P. littoralis showed a flexible thermal acclimation response. Cold exposure increased the degree of FA unsaturation and the EPA%, and induced a shift towards shorter chain FA in the copepod's membranes. Furthermore, a mixed diet reduced the impact of heat stress on the copepod's membrane FA composition. Temperature affected the trophic transfer of EPA and DHA differently. While dietary resources could fully compensate for the temperature effects on total lipid and EPA content in the copepods, no such counterweigh was observed for the DHA dynamics. Heat stress lowered the DHA concentration in copepods regardless of the resources available and this implies negative effects for higher trophic levels. PMID:27033038

  2. Identification and comparative expression analysis of odorant binding protein genes in the tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shao-Hua; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Gao, Shang; Wang, Da-Hai; Li, Xian-Chun; Guo, Yu-Yuan; Zhang, Yong-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Insect odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are thought to involve in insects' olfaction perception. In the present study, we identified 38 OBP genes from the antennal transcriptomes of Spodoptera litura. Tissue expression profiles analysis revealed that 17 of the 38 SlitOBP transcripts were uniquely or primarily expressed in the antennae of both sexes, suggesting their putative role in chemoreception. The RPKM value analysis revealed that seven OBPs (SlitPBP1-3, SlitGOBP1-2, SlitOBP3 and SlitOBP5) are highly abundant in male and female antennae. Most S. litura antennal unigenes had high homology with Lepidoptera insects, especially genes of the genus Spodoptera. Phylogenetic analysis of the Lepidoptera OBPs demonstrated that the OBP genes from the genus Spodoptera (S. litura, Spodoptera littoralis and Spodoptera exigua) had a relatively close evolutionary relationship. Some regular patterns and key conserved motifs of OBPs in genus Spodoptera are identified by MEME, and their putative roles in detecting odorants are discussed here. The motif-patterns between Lepidoptera OBPs and CSPs are also compared. The SlitOBPs identified here provide a starting point to facilitate functional studies of insect OBPs at the molecular level both in vivo and in vitro. PMID:26346731

  3. Data set for diet specific differential gene expression analysis in three Spodoptera moths.

    PubMed

    Roy, A; Walker, W B; Vogel, H; Kushwaha, S K; Chattington, S; Larsson, M C; Anderson, P; Heckel, D G; Schlyter, F

    2016-09-01

    Examination of closely related species pairs is suggested for evolutionary comparisons of different degrees of polyphagy, which we did here with three taxa of lepidopteran herbivores, Spodoptera spp (S. littoralis, S. frugiperda maize (C) and rice (R) strains) for a RNAseq analysis of the midguts from the 3rd instar insect larvae for differential metabolic responses after feeding on pinto bean based artificial diet vs maize leaves. Paired-end (2×100 bp) Illumina HiSeq2500 sequencing resulted in a total of 24, 23, 24, and 21 million reads for the SF-C-Maize, SF-C-Pinto, SF-R-Maize, SF-R Pinto, and a total of 35 and 36 million reads for the SL-Maize and SL-Pinto samples, respectively. After quality control measures, a total of 62.2 million reads from SL and 71.7 million reads from SF were used for transcriptome assembly (TA). The resulting final de novo reference TA (backbone) for the SF taxa contained 37,985 contigs with a N50 contig size of 1030 bp and a maximum contig length of 17,093 bp, while for SL, 28,329 contigs were generated with a N50 contig size of 1980 bp and a maximum contig length of 18,267 bp. The data presented herein contains supporting information related to our research article Roy et al. (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibmb.2016.02.006[1]. PMID:27366783

  4. Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 regulate glucosinolate biosynthesis, insect performance, and feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Fabian; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Zander, Mark; Diez-Diaz, Monica; Fonseca, Sandra; Glauser, Gaétan; Lewsey, Mathew G; Ecker, Joseph R; Solano, Roberto; Reymond, Philippe

    2013-08-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana plants fend off insect attack by constitutive and inducible production of toxic metabolites, such as glucosinolates (GSs). A triple mutant lacking MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4, three basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that are known to additively control jasmonate-related defense responses, was shown to have a highly reduced expression of GS biosynthesis genes. The myc2 myc3 myc4 (myc234) triple mutant was almost completely devoid of GS and was extremely susceptible to the generalist herbivore Spodoptera littoralis. On the contrary, the specialist Pieris brassicae was unaffected by the presence of GS and preferred to feed on wild-type plants. In addition, lack of GS in myc234 drastically modified S. littoralis feeding behavior. Surprisingly, the expression of MYB factors known to regulate GS biosynthesis genes was not altered in myc234, suggesting that MYC2/MYC3/MYC4 are necessary for direct transcriptional activation of GS biosynthesis genes. To support this, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that MYC2 binds directly to the promoter of several GS biosynthesis genes in vivo. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid and pull-down experiments indicated that MYC2/MYC3/MYC4 interact directly with GS-related MYBs. This specific MYC-MYB interaction plays a crucial role in the regulation of defense secondary metabolite production and underlines the importance of GS in shaping plant interactions with adapted and nonadapted herbivores. PMID:23943862

  5. 'Do you remember the first time?' Host plant preference in a moth is modulated by experiences during larval feeding and adult mating.

    PubMed

    Proffit, Magali; Khallaf, Mohammed A; Carrasco, David; Larsson, Mattias C; Anderson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    In insects, like in other animals, experience-based modulation of preference, a form of phenotypic plasticity, is common in heterogeneous environments. However, the role of multiple fitness-relevant experiences on insect preference remains largely unexplored. For the multivoltine polyphagous moth Spodoptera littoralis we investigated effects of larval and adult experiences on subsequent reproductive behaviours. We demonstrate, for the first time in male and female insects, that mating experience on a plant modulates plant preference in subsequent reproductive behaviours, whereas exposure to the plant alone or plant together with sex pheromone does not affect this preference. When including larval feeding experiences, we found that both larval rearing and adult mating experiences modulate host plant preference. These findings represent the first evidence that host plant preferences in polyphagous insects are determined by a combination of innate preferences modulated by sensory feedback triggered by multiple rewarding experiences throughout their lifetime.

  6. RNAi Screening in Spodoptera frugiperda.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subhanita; Singh, Gatikrushna; Sachdev, Bindiya; Kumar, Ajit; Malhotra, Pawan; Mukherjee, Sunil K; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference is a potent and precise reverse genetic approach to carryout large-scale functional genomic studies in a given organism. During the past decade, RNAi has also emerged as an important investigative tool to understand the process of viral pathogenesis. Our laboratory has successfully generated transgenic reporter and RNAi sensor line of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf21) cells and developed a reversal of silencing assay via siRNA or shRNA guided screening to investigate RNAi factors or viral pathogenic factors with extraordinary fidelity. Here we describe empirical approaches and conceptual understanding to execute successful RNAi screening in Spodoptera frugiperda 21-cell line. PMID:27581295

  7. A synthetic cryIC gene, encoding a Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxin, confers Spodoptera resistance in alfalfa and tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Strizhov, Nicolai; Keller, Menachem; Mathur, Jaideep; Koncz-Kálmán, Zsuzsanna; Bosch, Dirk; Prudovsky, Evgenia; Schell, Jeff; Sneh, Baruch; Koncz, Csaba; Zilberstein, Aviah

    1996-01-01

    Spodoptera species, representing widespread polyphagous insect pests, are resistant to Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxins used thus far as insecticides in transgenic plants. Here we describe the chemical synthesis of a cryIC gene by a novel template directed ligation–PCR method. This simple and economical method to construct large synthetic genes can be used when routine resynthesis of genes is required. Chemically phosphorylated adjacent oligonucleotides of the gene to be synthesized are assembled and ligated on a single-stranded, partially homologous template derived from a wild-type gene (cryIC in our case) by a thermostable Pfu DNA ligase using repeated cycles of melting, annealing, and ligation. The resulting synthetic DNA strands are selectively amplified by PCR with short specific flanking primers that are complementary only to the new synthetic DNA. Optimized expression of the synthetic cryIC gene in alfalfa and tobacco results in the production of 0.01–0.2% of total soluble proteins as CryIC toxin and provides protection against the Egyptian cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) and the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua). To facilitate selection and breeding of Spodoptera-resistant plants, the cryIC gene was linked to a pat gene, conferring resistance to the herbicide BASTA. PMID:8986755

  8. Genetic and phenotypic comparisons of viral genotypes from two nucleopolyhedroviruses interacting with a common host species, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Takatsuka, Jun; Okuno, Shohei; Nakai, Madoka; Kunimi, Yasuhisa

    2016-09-01

    Nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) are known to be highly variable, both genetically and phenotypically, at several scales such as different geographic locations or a single host. A previous study using several geographic isolates indicated that two types of NPV, Spodoptera littoralis NPV (SpliNPV) and S. litura NPV (SpltNPV) types, were isolated from the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius), a polyphagous insect that causes serious damage to many forage crops and vegetables. That study also indicated that the SpliNPV type was widely distributed in Japan. Here, we investigated the genotypic and phenotypic variation of cloned NPVs that infect S. litura; such variation is an important resource for biological control agents, and may represent the genetic diversity of an NPV species. Eighteen genotypically distinct NPVs were cloned from four field-collected NPV isolates using an in vivo cloning technique. They were divided into two virus types according to the similarity of banding patterns of DNA fragments generated by restriction endonucleases, and Southern hybridization analysis. Partial polyhedrin gene sequences revealed that the two types corresponded to SpliNPV and SpltNPV. Bioassays seem to suggest that the SpliNPV virus type was, overall, more infectious and killed S. litura larvae faster, but yielded fewer viral occlusion bodies, than the SpltNPV type. These data provide a basis for explaining the distribution pattern of SpliNPV and SpltNPV types in S. litura populations in Japan. PMID:27449677

  9. Iridoids from the aerial parts of Verbena littoralis (Verbenaceae).

    PubMed

    Castro-Gamboa, Ian; Castro, Oscar

    2004-08-01

    The iridoids, 6S-hydroxy-8S-methyl-4-methylene-hexahydro-cyclopenta[c]pyran-3-one and 6S,9S-dihydroxy-8S-methyl-4-methylene-hexahydro-cyclopenta[c]pyran-3-one, were isolated from the aerial parts of Verbena littoralis. Their structures and stereochemistry were elucidated by means of NMR spectral data analysis. Both compounds showed moderate in vitro activity against gram positive and negative bacteria as well as moderate in vivo intestinal peristaltic action in mouse. The iridoids also showed moderate free radical scavenging activity against l,l-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as well as antioxidant activity, the latter being evidenced by redox properties measured using E1CD-HPLC.

  10. CML42-Mediated Calcium Signaling Coordinates Responses to Spodoptera Herbivory and Abiotic Stresses in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Reichelt, Michael; Hause, Bettina; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Boland, Wilhelm; Mithöfer, Axel

    2012-01-01

    In the interaction between Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the generalist herbivorous insect Spodoptera littoralis, little is known about early events in defense signaling and their link to downstream phytohormone pathways. S. littoralis oral secretions induced both Ca2+ and phytohormone elevation in Arabidopsis. Plant gene expression induced by oral secretions revealed up-regulation of a gene encoding a calmodulin-like protein, CML42. Functional analysis of cml42 plants revealed more resistance to herbivory than in the wild type, because caterpillars gain less weight on the mutant, indicating that CML42 negatively regulates plant defense; cml42 also showed increased aliphatic glucosinolate content and hyperactivated transcript accumulation of the jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive genes VSP2 and Thi2.1 upon herbivory, which might contribute to increased resistance. CML42 up-regulation is negatively regulated by the jasmonate receptor Coronatine Insensitive1 (COI1), as loss of functional COI1 resulted in prolonged CML42 activation. CML42 thus acts as a negative regulator of plant defense by decreasing COI1-mediated JA sensitivity and the expression of JA-responsive genes and is independent of herbivory-induced JA biosynthesis. JA-induced Ca2+ elevation and root growth inhibition were more sensitive in cml42, also indicating higher JA perception. Our results indicate that CML42 acts as a crucial signaling component connecting Ca2+ and JA signaling. CML42 is localized to cytosol and nucleus. CML42 is also involved in abiotic stress responses, as kaempferol glycosides were down-regulated in cml42, and impaired in ultraviolet B resistance. Under drought stress, the level of abscisic acid accumulation was higher in cml42 plants. Thus, CML42 might serve as a Ca2+ sensor having multiple functions in insect herbivory defense and abiotic stress responses. PMID:22570470

  11. THE EFFECTS OF LIGHT AND NUTRIENTS ON AN INVASIVE BUDDLEJA DAVIDII AND A NATIVE GRISELINIA LITTORALIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Buddleja davidii (Family: Buddlejaceae), an aggressive, highly invasive, ornamental

    shrub of Asian origin, may be suppressing slower-growing native species (e.g., Griselinia

    littoralis; Family: Griseliniaceae) on New Zealand floodplains, thus altering successional

  12. Toxicants from mangrove plants, VI. Heritonin, a new piscicide from th mangrove plant Heritiera littoralis.

    PubMed

    Miles, D H; Ly, A M; Chittawong, V; de la Cruz, A A; Gomez, E D

    1989-01-01

    The mangrove plant Heritiera littoralis has been utilized by natives of the Philippines as a fish poison. The petroleum ether extract of this plant has shown toxicity to fish (Tilapia nilotica). A new piscicide, which was assigned the name heritonin [1], has been identified as one of the compounds with ichthyotoxicity. The structure was elucidated by spectroscopic methods. PMID:2809613

  13. The biology and ecology of Necrodes littoralis, a species of forensic interest in Europe.

    PubMed

    Charabidze, Damien; Vincent, Benoît; Pasquerault, Thierry; Hedouin, Valéry

    2016-01-01

    Necrodes littoralis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Coleoptera: Silphidae), also known as the "shore sexton beetle," is a common silphid beetle that visits and breeds on large vertebrate cadavers. This study describes, for the first time, the involvement of N. littoralis on human corpses based on a large dataset of 154 French forensic cases. Various parameters regarding corpse location, decomposition stages, and entomofauna were extracted from each file. Compared to all of the forensic entomology cases analyzed between 1990 and 2013 (1028), N. littoralis was observed, on average, in one case out of eight; most of these cases occurred during spring and summer (73.5%). More than 90% of the cases were located outdoors, especially in woodlands, bushes, and fields. The decomposition stage of the corpse varied among cases, with more than 50% in the advanced decomposition stage, 36% in the early decomposition stage, and less than 10% in the fresh, mummified, or skeletonized stages. Regarding other necrophagous species sampled with N. littoralis, Calliphorid flies were found in 94% of the cases and Fanniidae/Muscidae in 65% of the cases. Chrysomya albiceps, a heliophilic species mostly located in the Mediterranean area, was present in 34% of the cases (only 20% in the whole dataset). The most common coleopteran species were Necrobia spp. (Coleoptera: Cleridae) and Creophilus maxillosus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae); these beetles were observed in 27% of the cases. The over-representation of these species is likely due to similar requirements regarding the climate and decomposition stage. As N. littoralis is frequently observed and tends to become more common, we conclude that the developmental data for this species would be a precious tool for forensic entomologists in Europe.

  14. The Arabidopsis Pep-PEPR system is induced by herbivore feeding and contributes to JA-mediated plant defence against herbivory.

    PubMed

    Klauser, Dominik; Desurmont, Gaylord A; Glauser, Gaétan; Vallat, Armelle; Flury, Pascale; Boller, Thomas; Turlings, Ted C J; Bartels, Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    A number of plant endogenous elicitors have been identified that induce pattern-triggered immunity upon perception. In Arabidopsis thaliana eight small precursor proteins, called PROPEPs, are thought to be cleaved upon danger to release eight peptides known as the plant elicitor peptides Peps. As the expression of some PROPEPs is induced upon biotic stress and perception of any of the eight Peps triggers a defence response, they are regarded as amplifiers of immunity. Besides the induction of defences directed against microbial colonization Peps have also been connected with herbivore deterrence as they share certain similarities to systemins, known mediators of defence signalling against herbivores in solanaceous plants, and they positively interact with the phytohormone jasmonic acid. A recent study using maize indicated that the application of ZmPep3, a maize AtPep-orthologue, elicits anti-herbivore responses. However, as this study only assessed the responses triggered by the exogenous application of Peps, the biological significance of these findings remained open. By using Arabidopsis GUS-reporter lines, it is now shown that the promoters of both Pep-receptors, PEPR1 and PEPR2, as well as PROPEP3 are strongly activated upon herbivore attack. Moreover, pepr1 pepr2 double mutant plants, which are insensitive to Peps, display a reduced resistance to feeding Spodoptera littoralis larvae and a reduced accumulation of jasmonic acid upon exposure to herbivore oral secretions. Taken together, these lines of evidence extend the role of the AtPep-PEPR system as a danger detection mechanism from microbial pathogens to herbivores and further underline its strong interaction with jasmonic acid signalling.

  15. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of the medicinal plant Glehnia littoralis F.Schmidt ex Miq. (Apiaceae).

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Choon; Oh Lee, Hyun; Kim, Kyunghee; Kim, Soonok; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Glehnia littoralis F. Schmidt ex Miq is an oriental medicinal herb belonging to Apiaceae family, and its dried roots and rhizomes are known to show various pharmacological effects. The complete chlorplast genome of G. littoralis was generated by de novo assembly using whole genome sequencing data. The chloroplast genome of G. littoralis was 147 467 bp in length and divided into four distinct regions: large single copy region (93 493 bp), small single copy region (17 546 bp) and a pair of inverted repeat regions (18 214 bp). A total of 114 genes including 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes and 4 rRNA genes were predicted and accounted for 57.1% of the chloroplast genome. Phylogenetic analysis with the reported chloroplast genomes revealed that G. littoralis is an herbal species closely related to Ledebouriella seseloides, an herbal medicinal plant. PMID:26367483

  16. Bioefficacy of Aristolochia tagala Cham. against Spodoptera litura Fab. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Baskar, K.; Sasikumar, S.; Muthu, C.; Kingsley, S.; Ignacimuthu, S.

    2010-01-01

    Bioefficacy of leaf and root extracts of Aristolochia tagala Cham. at different concentrations was evaluated at room temperature against Spodoptera litura Fab. Effects on feeding, larvicidal and pupicidal activities and larval–pupal duration were studied. Higher antifeedant activity (56.06%), lethal concentration for feeding inhibition (3.69%), larvicidal (40.66%), pupicidal (28%), total mortality (68.66%) and prolonged larval–pupal duration (12.04–13.08 days) were observed in ethyl acetate leaf extract at 5.0% concentration. Dose dependant effect of test extracts was observed. This plant could be used to isolate active principles and to develop a new botanical formulation in pest management programmes. PMID:23961100

  17. Genetic analysis of tolerance to the root lesion nematode Pratylenchus neglectus in the legume Medicago littoralis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The nematode Pratylenchus neglectus has a wide host range and is able to feed on the root systems of cereals, oilseeds, grain and pasture legumes. Under the Mediterranean low rainfall environments of Australia, annual Medicago pasture legumes are used in rotation with cereals to fix atmospheric nitrogen and improve soil parameters. Considerable efforts are being made in breeding programs to improve resistance and tolerance to Pratylenchus neglectus in the major crops wheat and barley, which makes it vital to develop appropriate selection tools in medics. Results A strong source of tolerance to root damage by the root lesion nematode (RLN) Pratylenchus neglectus had previously been identified in line RH-1 (strand medic, M. littoralis). Using RH-1, we have developed a single seed descent (SSD) population of 138 lines by crossing it to the intolerant cultivar Herald. After inoculation, RLN-associated root damage clearly segregated in the population. Genetic analysis was performed by constructing a genetic map using simple sequence repeat (SSR) and gene-based SNP markers. A highly significant quantitative trait locus (QTL), QPnTolMl.1, was identified explaining 49% of the phenotypic variation in the SSD population. All SSRs and gene-based markers in the QTL region were derived from chromosome 1 of the sequenced genome of the closely related species M. truncatula. Gene-based markers were validated in advanced breeding lines derived from the RH-1 parent and also a second RLN tolerance source, RH-2 (M. truncatula ssp. tricycla). Comparative analysis to sequenced legume genomes showed that the physical QTL interval exists as a synteny block in Lotus japonicus, common bean, soybean and chickpea. Furthermore, using the sequenced genome information of M. truncatula, the QTL interval contains 55 genes out of which five are discussed as potential candidate genes responsible for the mapped tolerance. Conclusion The closely linked set of SNP-based PCR markers is

  18. [Effects of P and K fertilizer on content of coumarin and yield of Glehnia littoralis].

    PubMed

    Sun, Chuang-shu; Zheng, Kan; Li, Wei; Chen, Gui-lin; Yu, Rong; Yu, Jian-guo

    2015-09-01

    By a orthogonal experiment, the influence of different ratio of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers on imperatorin, isoimperatorin and psoralen contents and yield of Glehnia littoralis were studied. The results showed that root dry weight and the yield of G. littoralis increased when reasonably applied phosphorus fertilizer combined with potassium fertilizer within a certain range. And the influence of phosphorus fertilizer was greater than that of potassium fertilizer. The optimal value of root dry weight and yield achieved at both P2O5 360 kg x hm(-2), K2O 270 kg x hm(-2) and P2O5 360 kg x hm(-2), K2O 180 kg x hm(-2). The effects of different phosphorus and potassium treatments on the content of imperatorin, isoimperatorin and psoralen in G. littoralis were determined, which shows that the content increased with the moderate increase of phosphorus and potassium. And the effects of phosphorus fertilizer were more significantly. The isoimperatorin content achieved the largest value at P2O5 360 kg x hm(-2), K2O 270 kg x hm(-2), also a larger content of imperatorin and psoralen. The imperatorin content is the largest when applied P2O5 360 kg x hm(-2), K2O 180 kg x hm(-2), and the isoimperatorin content was higher as well. So that the treatment of P2O5 360 kg x hm(-2), K2O 180 kg x hm(-2) are suitable for promote to the agricultural production, which could improve the quality and yield of G. littoralis. PMID:26983197

  19. A serologic survey of the island fox (Urocyon littoralis) on the Channel Islands, California.

    PubMed

    Garcelon, D K; Wayne, R K; Gonzales, B J

    1992-04-01

    The island fox is listed as a threatened species in California. A serologic survey of 194 island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) was conducted over the entire range of the species on the Channel Islands (California, USA). Antibody prevalence against canine adenovirus and canine parvovirus reached 97% and 59%, respectively, in some populations sampled. Antibody prevalence of canine herpesvirus, canine coronavirus, leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis were low. Antibodies against canine distemper virus were not detected.

  20. [Effects of P and K fertilizer on content of coumarin and yield of Glehnia littoralis].

    PubMed

    Sun, Chuang-shu; Zheng, Kan; Li, Wei; Chen, Gui-lin; Yu, Rong; Yu, Jian-guo

    2015-09-01

    By a orthogonal experiment, the influence of different ratio of phosphorus and potassium fertilizers on imperatorin, isoimperatorin and psoralen contents and yield of Glehnia littoralis were studied. The results showed that root dry weight and the yield of G. littoralis increased when reasonably applied phosphorus fertilizer combined with potassium fertilizer within a certain range. And the influence of phosphorus fertilizer was greater than that of potassium fertilizer. The optimal value of root dry weight and yield achieved at both P2O5 360 kg x hm(-2), K2O 270 kg x hm(-2) and P2O5 360 kg x hm(-2), K2O 180 kg x hm(-2). The effects of different phosphorus and potassium treatments on the content of imperatorin, isoimperatorin and psoralen in G. littoralis were determined, which shows that the content increased with the moderate increase of phosphorus and potassium. And the effects of phosphorus fertilizer were more significantly. The isoimperatorin content achieved the largest value at P2O5 360 kg x hm(-2), K2O 270 kg x hm(-2), also a larger content of imperatorin and psoralen. The imperatorin content is the largest when applied P2O5 360 kg x hm(-2), K2O 180 kg x hm(-2), and the isoimperatorin content was higher as well. So that the treatment of P2O5 360 kg x hm(-2), K2O 180 kg x hm(-2) are suitable for promote to the agricultural production, which could improve the quality and yield of G. littoralis.

  1. Expression and purification of recombinant nattokinase in Spodoptera frugiperda cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Xiaoli; Xiong, Shaoling; Zhang, Jing; Cai, Litao; Yang, Yanyan

    2007-10-01

    A recombinant baculovirus, rv-egfp-NK, containing a reporter gene encoding the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), was used to express nattokinase (NK), a fibrinolytic enzyme, in Spodoptera frugiperda (SF-9) cells. The recombinant protein also included a histidine tag for purification using Ni(2+) resins. The recombinant NK, approximately 30 kDa, retained fibrinolytic activity (60 U/ml). The integration of the EGFP expression cassette in the Bac-to-Bac system is thus an effective method for the expression and purification of recombinant NK protein in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells.

  2. Genomic Sequence Analysis of Granulovirus Isolated from the Tobacco Cutworm, Spodoptera litura

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Choi, Jae Young; Roh, Jong Yul; Liu, Qin; Tao, Xue Ying; Park, Jong Bin; Kim, Jae Su; Je, Yeon Ho

    2011-01-01

    Background Spodoptera litura is a noctuid moth that is considered an agricultural pest. The larvae feed on a wide range of plants and have been recorded on plants from 40 plant families (mostly dicotyledons). It is a major pest of many crops. To better understand Spodoptera litura granulovirus (SpliGV), the nucleotide sequence of the SpliGV DNA genome was determined and analyzed. Methodology/Principal Findings The genome of the SpliGV was completely sequenced. The nucleotide sequence of the SpliGV genome was 124,121 bp long with 61.2% A+T content and contained 133 putative open reading frames (ORFs) of 150 or more nucleotides. The 133 putative ORFs covered 86.3% of the genome. Among these, 31 ORFs were conserved in most completely sequenced baculovirus genomes, 38 were granulovirus (GV)-specific, and 64 were present in some nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) and/or GVs. We proved that 9 of the ORFs were SpliGV specific. Conclusions/Significance The genome of SpliGV is 124,121 bp in size. One hundred thirty-three ORFs that putatively encode proteins of 50 or more amino acid residues with minimal overlap were determined. No chitinase or cathepsin genes, which are involved in the liquefaction of the infected host, were found in the SpliGV genome, explaining why SpliGV-infected insects do not degrade in a typical manner. The DNA photolyase gene was first found in the genus Granulovirus. When phylogenic relationships were analyzed, the SpliGV was most closely related to Trichoplusia ni granulovirus (TnGV) and Xestia c-nigrum granulovirus (XecnGV), which belong to the Type I-granuloviruses (Type I-GV). PMID:22132235

  3. Baculovirus-Induced Climbing Behavior Favors Intraspecific Necrophagy and Efficient Disease Transmission in Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Rebolledo, Dulce; Guevara, Roger; Murillo, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Shortly prior to death, many species of Lepidoptera infected with nucleopolyhedrovirus climb upwards on the host plant. This results in improved dissemination of viral occlusion bodies over plant foliage and an increased probability of transmission to healthy conspecific larvae. Following applications of Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus for control of Spodoptera exigua on greenhouse-grown sweet pepper crops, necrophagy was observed by healthy S. exigua larvae that fed on virus-killed conspecifics. We examined whether this risky behavior was induced by olfactory or phagostimulant compounds associated with infected cadavers. Laboratory choice tests and olfactometer studies, involving infected and non-infected cadavers placed on spinach leaf discs, revealed no evidence for greater attraction of healthy larvae to virus-killed over non-infected cadavers. Physical contact or feeding on infected cadavers resulted in a very high incidence of transmission (82–93% lethal disease). Observations on the behavior of S. exigua larvae on pepper plants revealed that infected insects died on the uppermost 10% of foliage and closer to the plant stem than healthy conspecifics of the same stage, which we considered clear evidence of baculovirus-induced climbing behavior. Healthy larvae that subsequently foraged on the plant were more frequently observed closer to the infected than the non-infected cadaver. Healthy larvae also encountered and fed on infected cadavers significantly more frequently and more rapidly than larvae that fed on non-infected cadavers. Intraspecific necrophagy on infected cadavers invariably resulted in virus transmission and death of the necrophagous insect. We conclude that, in addition to improving the dissemination of virus particles over plant foliage, baculovirus-induced climbing behavior increases the incidence of intraspecific necrophagy in S. exigua, which is the most efficient mechanism of transmission of this lethal pathogen. PMID

  4. Toxic effects of Citrus aurantium and C. limon essential oils on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Villafañe, Emilio; Tolosa, Diego; Bardón, Alicia; Neske, Adriana

    2011-09-01

    Citrus aurantium and C. limon were selected in the search for natural plant insecticides. The essential oils of C. aurantium and C. limon and ethanol extracts of the seeds, pulp, albedo, and peel of C. aurantium were incorporated into the larval diet of the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera frugiperda. Larval and pupal mortality were quantified and adult malformation was observed. C aurantium essential oil had antifeedant action and the mixture of albedo ethanol extract and C aurantium essential oil had toxic effects on S. frugiperda larvae at early stages, when they had not yet produced major damage to the crop. Our results indicated that a mixture of ethanol extract of albedo and C. aurantium essential oil (250 microg of extract mix per g of diet) deterred feeding by 46% and had the highest larval mortality (100%) of the materials tested. The peel extract (250 microg per g of diet) produced an increment in growth rate and diet consumption. However, 40% of the larval and 45% of the pupal populations died after 96 h of treatment. The blend of essential oil and C. aurantium albedo ethanol extract showed the lowest consumption and a poor nutrient conversion into biomass. Finally, the presence of D-limonene and nootkatone in the peel ethanol extract, and C. limon and C. aurantium essential oils, may be the cause of the response in the feeding behavior and toxic effects found on S. frugiperda. PMID:21941921

  5. [Oviposition, development, and reproduction of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fed on different hosts of economic importance].

    PubMed

    Barros, Eduardo M; Torres, Jorge B; Bueno, Adeney F

    2010-01-01

    The host selection for oviposition by Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) among corn, millet, cotton and soybean, and its relationship with the biological characteristics were investigated. Free and non-choice tests for oviposition using plots containing five plants each, from each host in plastic greenhouse, resulted in similar oviposition preference among the host plants. In addition, selected biological characteristics of S. frugiperda were determined in the laboratory with larvae feeding on host leaves, and the combination of leaf and cotton boll. Neonate larvae exhibited low success of colonization on cotton boll compared to the leaves of all other hosts. Spodoptera frugiperda fed only on cotton bolls exhibited longer larval and pupal development, and longer adult life span; however with similar egg production. Larvae fed cotton leaves during six days and then transferred to cotton bolls, however, exhibited development and reproduction similar to those reared on corn or only on cotton leaves. Therefore, the variations on immature stages of S. frugiperda were not related with host selection for oviposition which was similar among the studied hosts. Based on our data, the millet as a winter, rotational, and cover crop is a potential host for S. frugiperda, while leaves and cotton bolls were diets of intermediate suitability as compared to corn and soybean leaves.

  6. Feeding deterrence and inhibitory effects of bee balm (Monarda didyma) leaves on fall armyworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)] is a serious pest of many field and horticulture crops. Because of the many advantages for the use of plant-derived pesticides, we tested whether bee balm (Monarda didyma L.) leaves could have feeding deterrence on fall armyworm. When S. frugipe...

  7. Elicitors of tansy volatiles from cotton leafworm larval oral secretion.

    PubMed

    Mack, Lienhard; Gros, Petra; Burkhardt, Jens; Seifert, Karlheinz

    2013-12-01

    The feeding of Spodoptera littoralis and Autographa gamma caterpillars on tansy leaves led to a complete different release of volatile monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and hexenyl alkanoates. Volatiles were collected from S. littoralis and A. gamma larvae damaged, mechanically wounded, and excised tansy leaves by closed loop stripping analysis. The qualitative and quantitative determination of the volatiles were done by GC-MS- and GC-measurements. The oligosaccharides sucrose, raffinose, stachyose, and verbascose have been detected in oral secretion of the caterpillars of the cotton leafworm S. littoralis. When applied to damaged leaves of tansy plants, these oligosaccharides induce the tansy leaves to emit a similar volatile blend as the feeding of S. littoralis larvae. PMID:24011527

  8. Chemical composition of volatiles from Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Opuntia prolifera growing on Catalina Island, California.

    PubMed

    Wright, Cynthia R; Setzer, William N

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from the cladodes of Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica and Opuntia prolifera growing wild on Santa Catalina Island, California, were obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Terpenoids were the dominant class of volatiles in O. littoralis, with the two main components being the furanoid forms of cis-linalool oxide (10.8%) and trans-linalool oxide (8.8%). Fatty acid-derived compounds dominated the essential oil of O. ficus-indica with linoleic acid (22.3%), palmitic acid (12.7%), lauric acid (10.5%) and myristic acid (4.2%) as major fatty acids. O. prolifera oil was composed of 46.6% alkanes and the primary hydrocarbon component was heptadecane (19.2%). Sixteen compounds were common to all the three Opuntia species.

  9. Temporal changes in elemental composition in decomposing filamentous algae (Cladophora glomerata and Pilayella littoralis) determined with PIXE and PIGE.

    PubMed

    Lill, J-O; Salovius-Laurén, S; Harju, L; Rajander, J; Saarela, K-E; Lindroos, A; Heselius, S-J

    2012-01-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission and particle-induced gamma-ray emission spectrometry were successfully applied in a study of the elemental composition of decomposing filamentous algae. Fresh brown (Pilayella littoralis) and green (Cladophora glomerata) algal materials were placed in cages at 4m depth in a water column of 8m in the Archipelago Sea, northern Baltic Sea. Every second week decaying algae were sampled from the cages to allow measurements of changes in the elemental compositions. In the study of the elemental losses the concentrations were compensated for the mass reduction. The results show that sulphur, chlorine and partly potassium were lost during decomposition of P. littoralis and C. glomerata. Most of the other elements studied were recovered in the remaining algal mass. Special attention was paid to sorption and desorption of elements, including metal binding capacity, in the decaying algal materials. The affinity order of different cations to the two algal species was established by calculation of conditional distribution coefficients, D'(M). For instance for P. littoralis the following series of binding strength (affinity) of cations were obtained: Al>Ti>Fe > Mn>Ni, Cu>Ba, Cr, Zn>Rb>K, Sr>Pb>Ca>Na>Mg. Notably is that the binding strength of strontium was more than 10 times higher for P. littoralis than for C. glomerata. Due to their high binding capacity and good affinity and selectivity for heavy metal ions these algae have great potential as biological sorbents. Large variations in elemental content during decomposition complicate the use of algae for environmental monitoring.

  10. SPODOBASE : an EST database for the lepidopteran crop pest Spodoptera

    PubMed Central

    Nègre, Vincent; Hôtelier, Thierry; Volkoff, Anne-Nathalie; Gimenez, Sylvie; Cousserans, François; Mita, Kazuei; Sabau, Xavier; Rocher, Janick; López-Ferber, Miguel; d'Alençon, Emmanuelle; Audant, Pascaline; Sabourault, Cécile; Bidegainberry, Vincent; Hilliou, Frédérique; Fournier, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Background The Lepidoptera Spodoptera frugiperda is a pest which causes widespread economic damage on a variety of crop plants. It is also well known through its famous Sf9 cell line which is used for numerous heterologous protein productions. Species of the Spodoptera genus are used as model for pesticide resistance and to study virus host interactions. A genomic approach is now a critical step for further new developments in biology and pathology of these insects, and the results of ESTs sequencing efforts need to be structured into databases providing an integrated set of tools and informations. Description The ESTs from five independent cDNA libraries, prepared from three different S. frugiperda tissues (hemocytes, midgut and fat body) and from the Sf9 cell line, are deposited in the database. These tissues were chosen because of their importance in biological processes such as immune response, development and plant/insect interaction. So far, the SPODOBASE contains 29,325 ESTs, which are cleaned and clustered into non-redundant sets (2294 clusters and 6103 singletons). The SPODOBASE is constructed in such a way that other ESTs from S. frugiperda or other species may be added. User can retrieve information using text searches, pre-formatted queries, query assistant or blast searches. Annotation is provided against NCBI, UNIPROT or Bombyx mori ESTs databases, and with GO-Slim vocabulary. Conclusion The SPODOBASE database provides integrated access to expressed sequence tags (EST) from the lepidopteran insect Spodoptera frugiperda. It is a publicly available structured database with insect pest sequences which will allow identification of a number of genes and comprehensive cloning of gene families of interest for scientific community. SPODOBASE is available from URL: PMID:16796757

  11. Endophyte-mediated interactions between cauliflower, the herbivore Spodoptera litura, and the ectoparasitoid Bracon hebetor.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Tamanreet; Singh, Bahaderjeet; Kaur, Amarjeet; Kaur, Sanehdeep

    2015-10-01

    Fungal endosymbionts in plants may influence interactions among plants, herbivores and their parasitoids through the production of secondary metabolites. We used a lepidopteran pest and its generalist parasitoid to test the effect of endophyte-infected plants on a third trophic level. Endophytic fungi, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger, isolated from Acacia arabica, were used to infect cauliflower plants. We found that the presence of the endophyte in the plants significantly extended the development period of Spodoptera litura (Fab.) larvae. Feeding of the host on endophyte-infected plants further adversely affected the development and performance of its parasitoid, Bracon hebetor (Say). A negative impact was also recorded for longevity and fecundity of endophyte-naive parasitoid females due to the parasitization of host larvae fed on endophyte-infected plants. The presence of endophytes in the diet of the host larvae significantly prolonged the development of the parasitoid. A strong detrimental effect was also recorded for larval survival and emergence of parasitoid adults. The longevity and parasitism rate of female wasps were reduced significantly due to the ingestion of endophyte-infected cauliflower plants by S. litura larvae. Overall, we found that both endophytic fungi had a negative impact on the parasitoid.

  12. Exogenous and endogenous protease inhibitors in the gut of the fall armyworm larvae, Spodoptera frugiperda.

    PubMed

    Lwalaba, Digali; Weidlich, Sandy; Hoffmann, Klaus H; Woodring, Joseph

    2010-06-01

    A dose-dependent inhibition of endogenous trypsin and aminopeptidase occurs in the lumen of Spodoptera frugiperda after feeding L6 larvae exogenous inhibitors soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI), tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone-HCl (TLCK), or bestatin, respectively, for 3 days. TLCK inhibits trypsin in tissue extracts and in secretions more strongly than SBTI. The aminopeptidase released into the lumen (containing the peritrophic membrane) is strongly inhibited by bestatin, but the membrane-bound enzyme is not. A bound enzyme may be more resistant to an inhibitor than unbound. A cross-class elevation of aminopeptidase activity occurs in response to ingested trypsin inhibitor, but there was no cross-class effect of aminopeptidase inhibitor (bestatin) on trypsin activity. An endogenous trypsin and aminopeptidase inhibitor is present in the lumen and ventricular cells. The strength of the endogenous trypsin inhibition seems to be in the same range as that resulting from ingestion of the exogenous inhibitor SBTI. In some insect species, considerable trypsin secretion occurs in unfed as well as in fed animals, and endogenous protease inhibitors might function to protect the ventricular epithelium by inactivation of trypsin when less food is available. PMID:20513059

  13. Overexpression of Tyrosine hydroxylase and Dopa decarboxylase associated with pupal melanization in Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sisi; Wang, Mo; Li, Xianchun

    2015-01-01

    Melanism has been found in a wide range of species, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain largely elusive. In this study, we studied the molecular mechanisms of the pupal melanism in Spodoptera exigua. The full length cDNA sequences of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopa decarboxylase (DDC), two key enzymes in the biosynthesis pathway of melanin, were cloned, and their temporal expression patterns in the integument were compared during the larval-pupal metamorphosis process of the S. exigua wild type (SEW) and melanic mutant (SEM) strains. No amino acid change in the protein sequence of TH and DDC was found between the two strains. Both DDC and TH were significantly over-expressed in the integument of the SEM strain at late-prepupa and 0 h pupa, respectively, compared with those of the SEW strain. Feeding 5th instar larvae of SEM with diets incorporated with 1 mg/g of the DDC inhibitor L-α-Methyl-DOPA and 0.75 mg/g of the TH inhibitor 3-iodo-tyrosine (3-IT) resulted in 20% pupae with partially-rescued phenotype and 68.2% of pupae with partially- or fully-rescued phenotype, respectively. These results indicate that overexpressions of TH and DDC are involved in the pupal melanization of S. exigua. PMID:26084938

  14. Bioinsecticidal activity of Murraya koenigii miraculin-like protein against Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Gahloth, Deepankar; Shukla, Umesh; Birah, Ajanta; Gupta, Gorakh P; Kumar, P Ananda; Dhaliwal, Harcharan S; Sharma, Ashwani K

    2011-11-01

    Miraculin-like proteins, belonging to the Kunitz superfamily, are natural plant defense agents against pests and predators, and therefore are potential biopesticides for incorporation into pest-resistant crops. Here, a miraculin-like protein from Murraya koenigii was assessed for its in vitro and in vivo effects against two polyphagous lepidopteran insect pests, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura. M. koenigii miraculin-like protein (MKMLP) inhibited the trypsin-like activity and total protease activity of H. armigera gut proteinases (HGP) by 78.5 and 40%, respectively, and S.litura gut proteinases (SGP) by 81 and 48%, respectively. The inhibitor was stable and actively inhibited the proteolysis of both HGP and SGP enzymes for up to 72 h. Incorporation of MKMLP into artificial diet adversely affected the growth and development of pests in a dose-dependent manner. After 10 days of feeding on diets containing 200 µM MKMLP, larval weight was reduced to 69 and 44.8% and larval mortality was increased to 40 and 43.3% for H. armigera and S litura, respectively. The LC(50) of MKMLP was 0.34 and 0.22% of the diet for H.armigera and S. litura, respectively. These results demonstrate the efficacy of MKMLP as a potential plant defense agent against H. armigera and S. litura. PMID:21948662

  15. Secondary metabolites from Glycine soja and their growth inhibitory effect against Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan-Ying; Luo, Shi-Hong; Yi, Ting-Shuang; Li, Chun-Huan; Luo, Qian; Hua, Juan; Liu, Yan; Li, Sheng-Hong

    2011-06-01

    The wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc) has been reported to be relatively resistant to insect and pathogenic pests. However, the responsible secondary metabolites in the aerial part of this important plant are largely unknown. From the aerial part of G. soja, 13 compounds were isolated and identified, including seven isoflavonoids (1-7), a cyclitol (8), two sterol derivatives (9 and 10), and three triterpenoids (11-13). Compound 7 is a new isoflavonoid, and compounds 9 and 10 are reported as natural products for the first time. The growth inhibitory activity of 1, 3, 4, and 8 against the larvae of Spodoptera litura was investigated. The most abundant isoflavonoid in the aerial part of G. soja, daidzein (1), which could not be metabolized by S. litura, was found to inhibit the insect larvae growth significantly in 3 days after feeding diets containing the compound. Compounds 3, 4, and 8, which could be partially or completely metabolized, were inactive. Our results suggested that the isoflavonoid daidzein (1) might function as a constitutive defense component in G. soja against insect pests.

  16. Persistency of bioactive fractions of Indian plant, Polygonum hydropiper as an insect feeding deterrent.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, A K; Jain, D C; Singh, S C

    1999-05-01

    An improved extraction procedure resulted into a six-fold yield of bioactive fraction than the usual extraction method with a high per cent of feeding deterrence against 3rd instar larvae of Spilarctia obliqua and Spodoptera litura. The effective concentration (EC50) of PH-2 was 4321 and 4155 ppm against the two insects. No loss in feeding deterrency was recorded when the bioactive ether fraction, PH-2 was exposed to sunlight for 6 h.

  17. Efficiency of Intergeneric Recombinants Between Bacillus Thuringiensis and Bacillus Subtilis for Increasing Mortality Rate in Cotten Leaf Worm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlOtaibi, Saad Aied

    2012-12-01

    In this study , two strains of Bacillus belonging to two serotypes and four of their transconjugants were screened with respect to their toxicity against lepidopterous cotton pest. . Bacterial transconjugants isolated from conjugation between both strains were evaluated for their transconjugant efficiency caused mortality in Spodoptera littoralis larvae . Two groups of bioinsecticides ; crystals , crystals and spores have been isolated from Bacillusstrains and their transconjugants . Insecticidal crystal protein ( ICP ) was specific for lepidopteran insects because of the toxin sufficient both for insect specificity and toxicity . The toxicities of these two groups against larvae of Spodoptera littoralis was expressed as transconjugant efficiency , which related to the mean number of larvae died expressed as mortality percentage . The results showed transconjugant efficiency in reducing the mean number of Spodoptera littoralis larvae feeding on leaves of Ricinus communis sprayed with bioinsecticides of Bt transconjugants. Most values of positive transconjugant efficiency related to increasing mortality percentage are due to toxicological effects appeared in response to the treatments with crystals + endospores than that of crystals alone .This indicated that crystals + endospores was more effective for increasing mortality percentage than that resulted by crystals . Higher positive transconjugant efficiency in relation to the mid parents and better parent was appeared at 168 h of treatment . The results indicated that recombinant Bacillus thuringiensis are important control agents for lepidopteran pests , as well as , susceptibility decreased with larval development . The results also suggested a potential for the deployment of these recominant entomopathogens in the management of Spodoptera. littoralis larvae .

  18. Mitochondrial Genomes Suggest Rapid Evolution of Dwarf California Channel Islands Foxes (Urocyon littoralis)

    PubMed Central

    Hofman, Courtney A.; Rick, Torben C.; Hawkins, Melissa T. R.; Funk, W. Chris; Ralls, Katherine; Boser, Christina L.; Collins, Paul W.; Coonan, Tim; King, Julie L.; Morrison, Scott A.; Newsome, Seth D.; Sillett, T. Scott; Fleischer, Robert C.; Maldonado, Jesus E.

    2015-01-01

    Island endemics are typically differentiated from their mainland progenitors in behavior, morphology, and genetics, often resulting from long-term evolutionary change. To examine mechanisms for the origins of island endemism, we present a phylogeographic analysis of whole mitochondrial genomes from the endangered island fox (Urocyon littoralis), endemic to California’s Channel Islands, and mainland gray foxes (U. cinereoargenteus). Previous genetic studies suggested that foxes first appeared on the islands >16,000 years ago, before human arrival (~13,000 cal BP), while archaeological and paleontological data supported a colonization >7000 cal BP. Our results are consistent with initial fox colonization of the northern islands probably by rafting or human introduction ~9200–7100 years ago, followed quickly by human translocation of foxes from the northern to southern Channel Islands. Mitogenomes indicate that island foxes are monophyletic and most closely related to gray foxes from northern California that likely experienced a Holocene climate-induced range shift. Our data document rapid morphological evolution of island foxes (in ~2000 years or less). Despite evidence for bottlenecks, island foxes have generated and maintained multiple mitochondrial haplotypes. This study highlights the intertwined evolutionary history of island foxes and humans, and illustrates a new approach for investigating the evolutionary histories of other island endemics. PMID:25714775

  19. Origins and antiquity of the island fox ( Urocyon littoralis) on California's Channel Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rick, Torben C.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Vellanoweth, René L.; Braje, Todd J.; Collins, Paul W.; Guthrie, Daniel A.; Stafford, Thomas W., Jr.

    2009-03-01

    The island fox ( Urocyon littoralis) is one of few reportedly endemic terrestrial mammals on California's Channel Islands. Questions remain about how and when foxes first colonized the islands, with researchers speculating on a natural, human-assisted, or combined dispersal during the late Pleistocene and/or Holocene. A natural dispersal of foxes to the northern Channel Islands has been supported by reports of a few fox bones from late Pleistocene paleontological localities. Direct AMS 14C dating of these "fossil" fox bones produced dates ranging from ˜ 6400 to 200 cal yr BP, however, postdating human colonization of the islands by several millennia. Although one of these specimens is the earliest securely dated fox from the islands, these new data support the hypothesis that Native Americans introduced foxes to all the Channel Islands in the early to middle Holocene. However, a natural dispersal for the original island colonization cannot be ruled out until further paleontological, archaeological, and genetic studies (especially aDNA [ancient DNA]) are conducted.

  20. Nests, eggs, and nestlings of the Restinga Antwren Formicivora littoralis (Aves: Thamnophilidae).

    PubMed

    Chaves, Flávia G; Vecchi, Maurício B; Laurindo, Thiago F S; Alves, Maria Alice S

    2013-01-01

    We describe the nest, eggs, and nestlings of the Restinga Antwren (Formicivora littoralis), an endangered bird of Restinga ecosystem (sandy coastal plain vegetation) that is endemic to Rio de Janeiro state. Twelve nests were found at the edges of trails or natural gaps at Massambaba Restinga region, in different supporting plants and heights from the ground (X ± SD 1.27 ± 0.97 m, range 0.27 to 3.45 m). Nests were cup-shaped and were in horizontal forks attached to branches at three to five points with whitish, soft, and thin cotton-like vegetable fiber. The nests' cup shape and measurements were similar to congeneric species, but nest material was different. Eggs were white with brown spots concentrated on the large end or around the middle, giving the appearance of a rough brown ring. Their mean (± SD) minimum diameter was 13.1 ± 0.34 mm, with maximum diameter of 18.0 ± 0.38 mm, and mass of 1.7 ± 0.18 g (n = 8). We found two nestlings completely naked on their first day after hatching. PMID:23828345

  1. Haplosporidium littoralis sp. nov.: a crustacean pathogen within the Haplosporida (Cercozoa, Ascetosporea).

    PubMed

    Stentiford, G D; Bateman, K S; Stokes, N A; Carnegie, R B

    2013-09-01

    Previously, we described the pathology and ultrastructure of an apparently asporous haplosporidian-like parasite infecting the common shore crab Carcinus maenas from the European shoreline. In the current study, extraction of genomic DNA from the haemolymph, gill or hepatopancreas of infected C. maenas was carried out and the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) of the pathogen was amplified by PCR before cloning and sequencing. All 4 crabs yielded an identical 1736 bp parasite sequence. BLAST analysis against the NCBI GenBank database identified the sequence as most similar to the protistan pathogen group comprising the order Haplosporida within the class Ascetosporea of the phylum Cercozoa Cavalier-Smith, 1998. Parsimony analysis placed the crab pathogen within the genus Haplosporidium, sister to the molluscan parasites H. montforti, H. pickfordi and H. lusitanicum. The parasite infecting C. maenas is hereby named as Haplosporidium littoralis sp. nov. The presence of a haplosporidian parasite infecting decapod crustaceans from the European shoreline with close phylogenetic affinity to previously described haplosporidians infecting molluscs is intriguing. The study provides important phylogenetic data for this relatively understudied, but commercially significant, pathogen group.

  2. Mitochondrial genomes suggest rapid evolution of dwarf California Channel Islands foxes (Urocyon littoralis).

    PubMed

    Hofman, Courtney A; Rick, Torben C; Hawkins, Melissa T R; Funk, W Chris; Ralls, Katherine; Boser, Christina L; Collins, Paul W; Coonan, Tim; King, Julie L; Morrison, Scott A; Newsome, Seth D; Sillett, T Scott; Fleischer, Robert C; Maldonado, Jesus E

    2015-01-01

    Island endemics are typically differentiated from their mainland progenitors in behavior, morphology, and genetics, often resulting from long-term evolutionary change. To examine mechanisms for the origins of island endemism, we present a phylogeographic analysis of whole mitochondrial genomes from the endangered island fox (Urocyon littoralis), endemic to California's Channel Islands, and mainland gray foxes (U. cinereoargenteus). Previous genetic studies suggested that foxes first appeared on the islands >16,000 years ago, before human arrival (~13,000 cal BP), while archaeological and paleontological data supported a colonization >7000 cal BP. Our results are consistent with initial fox colonization of the northern islands probably by rafting or human introduction ~9200-7100 years ago, followed quickly by human translocation of foxes from the northern to southern Channel Islands. Mitogenomes indicate that island foxes are monophyletic and most closely related to gray foxes from northern California that likely experienced a Holocene climate-induced range shift. Our data document rapid morphological evolution of island foxes (in ~2000 years or less). Despite evidence for bottlenecks, island foxes have generated and maintained multiple mitochondrial haplotypes. This study highlights the intertwined evolutionary history of island foxes and humans, and illustrates a new approach for investigating the evolutionary histories of other island endemics.

  3. Haplosporidium littoralis sp. nov.: a crustacean pathogen within the Haplosporida (Cercozoa, Ascetosporea).

    PubMed

    Stentiford, G D; Bateman, K S; Stokes, N A; Carnegie, R B

    2013-09-01

    Previously, we described the pathology and ultrastructure of an apparently asporous haplosporidian-like parasite infecting the common shore crab Carcinus maenas from the European shoreline. In the current study, extraction of genomic DNA from the haemolymph, gill or hepatopancreas of infected C. maenas was carried out and the small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) of the pathogen was amplified by PCR before cloning and sequencing. All 4 crabs yielded an identical 1736 bp parasite sequence. BLAST analysis against the NCBI GenBank database identified the sequence as most similar to the protistan pathogen group comprising the order Haplosporida within the class Ascetosporea of the phylum Cercozoa Cavalier-Smith, 1998. Parsimony analysis placed the crab pathogen within the genus Haplosporidium, sister to the molluscan parasites H. montforti, H. pickfordi and H. lusitanicum. The parasite infecting C. maenas is hereby named as Haplosporidium littoralis sp. nov. The presence of a haplosporidian parasite infecting decapod crustaceans from the European shoreline with close phylogenetic affinity to previously described haplosporidians infecting molluscs is intriguing. The study provides important phylogenetic data for this relatively understudied, but commercially significant, pathogen group. PMID:23999708

  4. Systemic Amyloid A Amyloidosis in Island Foxes (Urocyon littoralis): Severity and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, P M; Witte, C; Clifford, D L; Imai, D M; O'Brien, T D; Trejo, M; Liberta, F; Annamalai, K; Fändrich, M; Masliah, E; Munson, L; Sigurdson, C J

    2016-05-01

    Systemic amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is highly prevalent (34%) in endangered island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) and poses a risk to species recovery. Although elevated serum AA (SAA) from prolonged or recurrent inflammation predisposes to AA amyloidosis, additional risk factors are poorly understood. Here we define the severity of glomerular and medullary renal amyloid and identify risk factors for AA amyloidosis in 321 island foxes necropsied from 1987 through 2010. In affected kidneys, amyloid more commonly accumulated in the medullary interstitium than in the glomeruli (98% [n= 78 of 80] vs 56% [n= 45], respectively;P< .0001), and medullary deposition was more commonly severe (19% [n= 20 of 105]) as compared with glomeruli (7% [n= 7];P= .01). Univariate odds ratios (ORs) of severe renal AA amyloidosis were greater for short- and long-term captive foxes as compared with free-ranging foxes (ORs = 3.2, 3.7, respectively; overall P= .05) and for females as compared with males (OR = 2.9;P= .05). Multivariable logistic regression revealed that independent risk factors for amyloid development were increasing age class (OR = 3.8;P< .0001), San Clemente Island subspecies versus San Nicolas Island subspecies (OR = 5.3;P= .0003), captivity (OR = 5.1;P= .0001), and nephritis (OR = 2.3;P= .01). The increased risk associated with the San Clemente subspecies or captivity suggests roles for genetic as well as exogenous risk factors in the development of AA amyloidosis. PMID:26419399

  5. Phenolic Compounds from Atriplex littoralis and Their Radiation-Mitigating Activity.

    PubMed

    Gođevac, Dejan; Stanković, Jovana; Novaković, Miroslav; Anđelković, Boban; Dajić-Stevanović, Zora; Petrović, Milica; Stanković, Miroslava

    2015-09-25

    From the aerial parts of Atriplex littoralis, three new flavonoid glycosides named atriplexins I-III (1-3), a known flavonoid glycoside, spinacetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (4), arbutin (5), and 4-hydroxybenzyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (6) were isolated. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, NOESY, TOCSY, HSQC, HMBC) and HRESITOF MS data. The compounds were tested for in vitro protective effects on chromosome aberrations in peripheral human lymphocytes using a cytochalasin-B-blocked micronucleus (MN) assay in a concentration range of 0.8-7.4 μM of final culture solution. Chromosomal damage was induced by 2 Gy of γ-radiation on binucleated human lymphocytes, and the effects of the compounds were tested 2 to 19 h after irradiation. The frequency of micronuclei (MNi) was scored in binucleated cells, and the nuclear proliferation index was calculated. The highest prevention of in vitro biochemical and cytogenetic damage of human lymphocytes induced by γ-radiation was exhibited by 3 (reduction of MN frequency by 31%), followed by 4 and 6. PMID:26290401

  6. Nests, eggs, and nestlings of the Restinga Antwren Formicivora littoralis (Aves: Thamnophilidae).

    PubMed

    Chaves, Flávia G; Vecchi, Maurício B; Laurindo, Thiago F S; Alves, Maria Alice S

    2013-01-01

    We describe the nest, eggs, and nestlings of the Restinga Antwren (Formicivora littoralis), an endangered bird of Restinga ecosystem (sandy coastal plain vegetation) that is endemic to Rio de Janeiro state. Twelve nests were found at the edges of trails or natural gaps at Massambaba Restinga region, in different supporting plants and heights from the ground (X ± SD 1.27 ± 0.97 m, range 0.27 to 3.45 m). Nests were cup-shaped and were in horizontal forks attached to branches at three to five points with whitish, soft, and thin cotton-like vegetable fiber. The nests' cup shape and measurements were similar to congeneric species, but nest material was different. Eggs were white with brown spots concentrated on the large end or around the middle, giving the appearance of a rough brown ring. Their mean (± SD) minimum diameter was 13.1 ± 0.34 mm, with maximum diameter of 18.0 ± 0.38 mm, and mass of 1.7 ± 0.18 g (n = 8). We found two nestlings completely naked on their first day after hatching.

  7. Use of benzimidazole agar plates to assess fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) feeding on excised maize and sorghum leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an economically significant pest of sorghum and maize. To screen sorghum and maize germplasm for resistance to fall armyworm feeding, field, greenhouse, or lab bioassays are often utilized individually or in combinatio...

  8. Susceptibility, mechanisms of response and resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis toxins in Spodoptera spp.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Salvador; Bel, Yolanda; Hernández-Martínez, Patricia; Ferré, Juan

    2016-06-01

    Bioinsecticides based on Bacillus thuringiensis have long been used as an alternative to synthetic insecticides to control insect pests. In this review, we focus on insects of the genus Spodoptera, including relevant polyphagous species that are primary and secondary pests of many crops, and how B. thuringiensis toxins can be used for Spodoptera spp. pest management. We summarize the main findings related to susceptibility, midgut binding specificity, mechanisms of response and resistance of this insect genus to B. thuringiensis toxins. PMID:27436737

  9. Ruta graveolens Extracts and Metabolites against Spodoptera frugiperda.

    PubMed

    Ayil-Gutiérrez, Benjamin A; Villegas-Mendoza, Jesús M; Santes-Hernndez, Zuridai; Paz-González, Alma D; Mireles-Martínez, Maribel; Rosas-García, Ninfa M; Rivera, Gildardo

    2015-11-01

    The biological activity of Ruta graveolens leaf tissue extracts obtained with different solvents (ethyl acetate, ethanol, and water) and metabolites (psoralen, 2- undecanone and rutin) against Spodoptera frugiperda was evaluated. Metabolites levels in extracts were quantified by HPLC and GC. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts showed 94% and 78% mortality, respectively. Additionally, psoralen metabolite showed a high mortality as cypermethrin. Metabolite quantification in extracts shows the presence of 2-undecanone (87.9 µmoles mg(-1) DW), psoralen (3.6 µmoles mg(-1) DW) and rutin (0.001 pmoles mg(-1) DW). We suggest that these concentrations of 2-undecanone and psoralen in R. graveolens leaf tissue extracts could be responsible for S. frugiperda mortality.

  10. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K. D.; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda. PMID:26098422

  11. Induction of apoptosis by the tropical seaweed Pylaiella littoralis in HT-29 cells via the mitochondrial and MAPK pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Bo-Ram; Kim, Junseong; Kim, Min-Sun; Jang, Jiyi; Oh, Chulhong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Qian, Zhong-Ji; Jung, Won-Kyo; Choi, Il-Whan; Heo, Soo-Jin

    2013-12-01

    We demonstrated that an extract from Pylaiella littoralis, collected from the Federate States of Micronesia (FSM), could inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells. P. littoralis extract (PLE) showed anti-proliferative activities in the tumorigenic cells tested, ranging from 20.2% to 67.9%. The highest inhibitory activity, in HT-29 cells, was selected for further experiments. PLE showed no cytotoxic effect in normal cells and inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells depending on concentration and incubation time. PLE-treated HT-29 cells showed the typical morphological characteristics of apoptosis, such as apoptotic body formation and DNA fragmentation. PLE also induced mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization and resulted in increased mitochondrial membrane permeability, compared with untreated cells. PLE decreased Bcl-2 protein and increased Bax protein expression, activating caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) expression via the caspase pathway. PLE also increased the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and it reduced cell viability in treatment cells with specific inhibitors such as PD98059 (a specific inhibitor of ERK), SP600125 (a specific inbibitor of JNK), and SB 203580 (a specific inbibitor of p38 MAPK). via the the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway. These results suggest that PLE inhibits the proliferation of HT-29 cells by affecting the caspase and MAPK pathways involved in the induction of apoptosis. Thus, we suggest that P. littoralis extract might be potential candidate agents for the treatment of human colorectal cancer.

  12. [The morphological structure of salt gland and salt secretion in Aeluropus littoralis var. sinensis Debeaux].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Shi, Li-Ran; Zhao, Ke-Fu

    2006-08-01

    The leaves of Aeluropus littoralis var. sinensis Debeaux were scanned with a scanning electron microscope, it showed that the upper-epidermis had almost the same number of salt glands as the lower-epidermis (Plate I-1, 2), and the salt gland is the typical bicelluar gland, which consists of a large basal cell inlaid into the epidermis and a small cap cell (Plate I-6). These salt glands were distributed mainly on the leaf veins, which favors the rapid collection of salts from the roots. Ion X-ray microanalysis indicated that the salt glands could effectively absorb Na(+) from the epidermal cells and mesophyllous cells (Table 1), then secreted Na(+) from the cap cells (Plate I-4), which would decrease the salinity of plant. After the plants were treated with various salts for 17 d, the ion contents of the leaves and the secretion were measured, and the results implied that salt glands had different selection in absorbing and secreting Na(+) , K(+) and Ca(2+), that is, the plants first selected K(+) when absorbing ions, while first selected Na(+) when sending ions out, but Ca(2+) was fewer in both absorbed and secreted, and the order of secretion of the three ions was found to be Na(+)>K(+)>Ca(2+) (Figs. 1-6). The secretion of Na(+) or three ions were respectively higher than that of leaves within 24 h (Figs. 1, 2, 7, 8), while K(+) situation was completely opposite with them (Figs. 3, 4). At the same time, the total ion content and composition inside the leaves remained more or less constant (Fig. 8). PMID:16957392

  13. Growth Performance and Biometric Characteristics of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Different Host Plants.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Li, Nian-Jhen; Yeh, Chih-Chun

    2015-10-01

    Spodoptera litura (F.), an important polyphagous insect pest, attacks ca. 300 economic crops in dozens of countries. Investigations into its growth and development performance on different host plants can provide an understanding of the potential for increase of S. litura population in the field. We measured the development time, body weight, and head capsule width of S. litura larvae reared on cabbage, taro, peanut, and sesbania, a green manure. Larvae reared on cabbage ingested a significantly higher amount of protein and completed the immature stages in a shorter period than those reared on the other three plants. The relationship between head capsule width and larval instars on these four crops fitted well with Dyar's rule, and the Dyar's ratios ranged from 1.4554 to 1.6786, although a few supernumerary instar individuals on sesbania, peanut, and taro showed lower ratios (1.0103 to 1.1330). The head capsule width among cohorts fed on different host plants varied significantly and overlapped between late instars, which could lead to a misjudgment of instar stage in the field. The growth index of S. litura on cabbage was significantly higher than on the other host plants. Larvae fed on sesbania showed the highest feeding index and a better growth index than on taro and peanut. We therefore suggest that the area-wide pest management against S. litura should take into consideration its occurrence on sesbania in intercropping seasons. Additionally, the effective management of this pest during cropping windows between all these four plants should not be ignored. PMID:26453712

  14. Identification, structural characterisation and expression analysis of a defensin gene from the tiger beetle Calomera littoralis (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-García, María Juliana; García-Reina, Andrés; Machado, Vilmar; Galián, José

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a defensin gene (Clit-Def) has been characterised in the tiger beetle Calomera littoralis for the first time. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the gene has an open reading frame of 246bp that contains a 46 amino acid mature peptide. The phylogenetic analysis showed a high variability in the coleopteran defensins analysed. The Clit-Def mature peptide has the features to be involved in the antimicrobial function: a predicted cationic isoelectric point of 8.94, six cysteine residues that form three disulfide bonds, and the typical cysteine-stabilized α-helix β-sheet (CSαβ) structural fold. Real time quantitative PCR analysis showed that Clit-Def was upregulated in the different body parts analysed after infection with lipopolysaccharides of Escherichia coli, and also indicated that has an expression peak at 12h post infection. The expression patterns of Clit-Def suggest that this gene plays important roles in the humoral system in the adephagan beetle Calomera littoralis. PMID:27210512

  15. A Comparison of Infectivity between Polyhedra of the Spodoptera litura Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus Before and After Passage Through the Gut of the Stink Bug, Eocanthecona furcellata

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, R. K.; Gani, Mudasir; Jasrotia, P.; Srivastava, K.; Kaul, V.

    2014-01-01

    Infectivity of polyhedra of Spodoptera litura multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus before and after passage through the gut of the predatory stink bug, Eocanthecona furcellata Wolff (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) was compared through field bioassay studies. Three sets of E. furcellata were used for bioassays and these were allowed to feed on a single meal of five third instar Oriental leaf worm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), that were infected with polyhedra before passage, after passage, and healthy (control) larvae 1 day prior to the trial. The predators were subsequently released on cabbage plants that were infested with 100 healthy S. litura larvae. The median lethal dose (LD50) and survival time (ST50) values before and after passage through the gut were not significantly different. Additional mortality due to virus infection increased 13–17% before and after treatments but within these treatments the mortality did not vary significantly. It was concluded that E. furcellata disseminated the virus through their feces into the ecosystem and infectivity of the SpltMNPV was not altered after passage through the gut of the predator. PMID:25368052

  16. The Influence of an Invasive Shrub, Buddleja Davidii on a Native Shrub, Griselinia Littoralis Transplanted into a New Zealand Floodplain Chronosequence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Griselinia littoralis, a native New Zealand shrub, was planted into a chronosequence (0 to 8 yrs since flooding) dominated by the non-indigenous shrub, Buddleja davidii in three New Zealand floodplains to determine to what extent facilitation and competitive inhibition may influe...

  17. Interactions between density, home range behaviors, and contact rates in the Channel Island fox (Urocyon littoralis)

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Jessica N; Hudgens, Brian R

    2015-01-01

    Many of the mechanisms underlying density-dependent regulation of populations, including contest competition and disease spread, depend on contact among neighboring animals. Understanding how variation in population density influences the frequency of contact among neighboring animals is therefore an important aspect to understanding the mechanisms underlying, and ecological consequences of, density-dependent regulation. However, contact rates are difficult to measure in the field and may be influenced by density through multiple pathways. This study explored how local density affects contact rates among Channel Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) through two pathways: changes in home range size and changes in home range overlap. We tracked 40 radio-collared foxes at four sites on San Clemente Island, California. Fox densities at the four sites ranged from 2.8 ± 1.28 to 42.8 ± 9.43 foxes/km2. Higher fox densities were correlated with smaller home ranges (R2 = 0.526, F1,38 = 42.19, P < 0.001). Thirty foxes wore collars that also contained proximity loggers, which recorded the time and duration of occasions when collared foxes were within 5 m of one another. Contact rates between neighboring fox dyads were positively correlated with home range overlap (R2 = 0.341, P = 0.008), but not fox density (R2 = 0.012, P = 0.976). Individuals at high densities had more collared neighbors with overlapping home ranges (R2 = 0.123, P = 0.026) but not an increase in the amount of contact between individual neighbors. This study was the first time contact rates were directly measured and compared to density and home range overlap. Results suggest that foxes exhibit a threshold in their degree of tolerance for neighbors, overlap is a reliable index of the amount of direct contact between island foxes, and disease transmission rates will likely scale with fox density. PMID:26120435

  18. Enhanced resistance to Spodoptera litura in endophyte infected cauliflower plants.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Abhinay; Kaur, Sanehdeep; Kaur, Amarjeet; Singh, Varinder

    2013-04-01

    Endophytic fungi, which live within host plant tissues without causing any visible symptom of disease, are important mediators of plant-herbivore interactions. These endophytes enhance resistance of host plant against insect herbivores mainly by productions of various alkaloid based defensive compounds in the plant tissue or through alterations of plant nutritional quality. Two endophytic fungi, i.e., Nigrospora sp. and Cladosporium sp., were isolated from Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, a traditional indian medicinal plant. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) plants were inoculated with these two endophytic fungi. The effect of endophyte infected and uninfected cauliflower plants were measured on the survival and development of Spodoptera litura (Fab.), a polyphagous pest. Endophyte infected cauliflower plants showed resistance to S. litura in the form of significant increase in larval and pupal mortality in both the fungi. Inhibitory effects of endophytic fungi also were observed on adult emergence, longevity, reproductive potential, as well as hatchability of eggs. Thus, it is concluded that antibiosis to S. litura could be imparted by artificial inoculation of endophytes and this could be used to develop alternative ecologically safe control strategies.

  19. Pupal melanization is associated with higher fitness in Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sisi; Wang, Mo; Li, Xianchun

    2015-01-01

    Melanism has long been thought to be a habitat adaptation with a fitness cost. Here we reported a homozygous melanic strain (SEM) of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) established with black pupae spontaneously occurring within a typical laboratory population (SEW). The melanization is expressed globally, and only in the pupal stage. After pupation, the melanic SEM pupae gradually accumulate melanin to become completely black within 6 hours, whereas the wild-type SEW pupae gradually turn yellow-brown. The melanic SEM strain exhibits faster development in all life stages, heavier pupa weight, more mating time, higher fecundity, and accordingly, higher net reproductive rate and population trend index. While no reproductive isolation was observed between the SEM and SEW strains, the mating times per female of the reciprocal crosses and the SEM intracrosses were significantly higher than those of the SEW intracrosses. This represents a rare case of melanization that has fitness gains, rather than costs. Analysis of the life-history traits of this case and 14 previously reported cases of insect melanism indicate that none of melanization origin, stage, space and variation type determining whether melanism will cause fitness gain or cost. PMID:26039886

  20. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines

    PubMed Central

    Dowd, Patrick F.; Sattler, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. PMID:25601946

  1. Temperature Affects the Use of Storage Fatty Acids as Energy Source in a Benthic Copepod (Platychelipus littoralis, Harpacticoida)

    PubMed Central

    Werbrouck, Eva; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Vanreusel, Ann; De Troch, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of storage lipids and their associated fatty acids (FA) is an important means for organisms to cope with periods of food shortage, however, little is known about the dynamics and FA mobilization in benthic copepods (order Harpacticoida). Furthermore, lipid depletion and FA mobilization may depend on the ambient temperature. Therefore, we subjected the temperate copepod Platychelipus littoralis to several intervals (3, 6 and 14 days) of food deprivation, under two temperatures in the range of the normal habitat temperature (4, 15°C) and under an elevated temperature (24°C), and studied the changes in FA composition of storage and membrane lipids. Although bulk depletion of storage FA occurred after a few days of food deprivation under 4°C and 15°C, copepod survival remained high during the experiment, suggesting the catabolization of other energy sources. Ambient temperature affected both the degree of FA depletion and the FA mobilization. In particular, storage FA were more exhausted and FA mobilization was more selective under 15°C compared with 4°C. In contrast, depletion of storage FA was limited under an elevated temperature, potentially due to a switch to partial anaerobiosis. Food deprivation induced selective DHA retention in the copepod’s membrane, under all temperatures. However, prolonged exposure to heat and nutritional stress eventually depleted DHA in the membranes, and potentially induced high copepod mortality. Storage lipids clearly played an important role in the short-term response of the copepod P. littoralis to food deprivation. However, under elevated temperature, the use of storage FA as an energy source is compromised. PMID:26986852

  2. Temperature Affects the Use of Storage Fatty Acids as Energy Source in a Benthic Copepod (Platychelipus littoralis, Harpacticoida).

    PubMed

    Werbrouck, Eva; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Vanreusel, Ann; De Troch, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of storage lipids and their associated fatty acids (FA) is an important means for organisms to cope with periods of food shortage, however, little is known about the dynamics and FA mobilization in benthic copepods (order Harpacticoida). Furthermore, lipid depletion and FA mobilization may depend on the ambient temperature. Therefore, we subjected the temperate copepod Platychelipus littoralis to several intervals (3, 6 and 14 days) of food deprivation, under two temperatures in the range of the normal habitat temperature (4, 15 °C) and under an elevated temperature (24 °C), and studied the changes in FA composition of storage and membrane lipids. Although bulk depletion of storage FA occurred after a few days of food deprivation under 4 °C and 15 °C, copepod survival remained high during the experiment, suggesting the catabolization of other energy sources. Ambient temperature affected both the degree of FA depletion and the FA mobilization. In particular, storage FA were more exhausted and FA mobilization was more selective under 15 °C compared with 4 °C. In contrast, depletion of storage FA was limited under an elevated temperature, potentially due to a switch to partial anaerobiosis. Food deprivation induced selective DHA retention in the copepod's membrane, under all temperatures. However, prolonged exposure to heat and nutritional stress eventually depleted DHA in the membranes, and potentially induced high copepod mortality. Storage lipids clearly played an important role in the short-term response of the copepod P. littoralis to food deprivation. However, under elevated temperature, the use of storage FA as an energy source is compromised. PMID:26986852

  3. Temperature Affects the Use of Storage Fatty Acids as Energy Source in a Benthic Copepod (Platychelipus littoralis, Harpacticoida).

    PubMed

    Werbrouck, Eva; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Vanreusel, Ann; De Troch, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of storage lipids and their associated fatty acids (FA) is an important means for organisms to cope with periods of food shortage, however, little is known about the dynamics and FA mobilization in benthic copepods (order Harpacticoida). Furthermore, lipid depletion and FA mobilization may depend on the ambient temperature. Therefore, we subjected the temperate copepod Platychelipus littoralis to several intervals (3, 6 and 14 days) of food deprivation, under two temperatures in the range of the normal habitat temperature (4, 15 °C) and under an elevated temperature (24 °C), and studied the changes in FA composition of storage and membrane lipids. Although bulk depletion of storage FA occurred after a few days of food deprivation under 4 °C and 15 °C, copepod survival remained high during the experiment, suggesting the catabolization of other energy sources. Ambient temperature affected both the degree of FA depletion and the FA mobilization. In particular, storage FA were more exhausted and FA mobilization was more selective under 15 °C compared with 4 °C. In contrast, depletion of storage FA was limited under an elevated temperature, potentially due to a switch to partial anaerobiosis. Food deprivation induced selective DHA retention in the copepod's membrane, under all temperatures. However, prolonged exposure to heat and nutritional stress eventually depleted DHA in the membranes, and potentially induced high copepod mortality. Storage lipids clearly played an important role in the short-term response of the copepod P. littoralis to food deprivation. However, under elevated temperature, the use of storage FA as an energy source is compromised.

  4. Genomic diversity in European Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus isolates.

    PubMed

    Thézé, Julien; Cabodevilla, Oihana; Palma, Leopoldo; Williams, Trevor; Caballero, Primitivo; Herniou, Elisabeth A

    2014-10-01

    Key virus traits such as virulence and transmission strategies rely on genetic variation that results in functional changes in the interactions between hosts and viruses. Here, comparative genomic analyses of seven isolates of Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) with differing phenotypes were employed to pinpoint candidate genes that may be involved in host-virus interactions. These isolates obtained after vertical or horizontal transmission of infection in insects differed in virulence. Apart from one genome containing a piggyBac transposon, all European SeMNPV isolates had a similar genome size and content. Complete genome analyses of single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions/deletions identified mutations in 48 ORFs that could result in functional changes. Among these, 13 ORFs could be correlated with particular phenotypic characteristics of SeMNPV isolates. Mutations were found in all gene functional classes and most of the changes we highlighted could potentially be associated with differences in transmission. The regulation of DNA replication (helicase, lef-7) and transcription (lef-9, p47) might be important for the establishment of sublethal infection prior to and following vertical transmission. Virus-host cell interactions also appear instrumental in the modulation of viral transmission as significant mutations were detected in virion proteins involved in primary (AC150) or secondary infections (ME35) and in apoptosis inhibition (IAP2, AC134). Baculovirus populations naturally harbour high genomic variation located in genes involved at different levels of the complex interactions between virus and host during the course of an infection. The comparative analyses performed here suggest that the differences in baculovirus virulence and transmission phenotypes involve multiple molecular pathways. PMID:24854001

  5. Genomic diversity in European Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus isolates.

    PubMed

    Thézé, Julien; Cabodevilla, Oihana; Palma, Leopoldo; Williams, Trevor; Caballero, Primitivo; Herniou, Elisabeth A

    2014-10-01

    Key virus traits such as virulence and transmission strategies rely on genetic variation that results in functional changes in the interactions between hosts and viruses. Here, comparative genomic analyses of seven isolates of Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) with differing phenotypes were employed to pinpoint candidate genes that may be involved in host-virus interactions. These isolates obtained after vertical or horizontal transmission of infection in insects differed in virulence. Apart from one genome containing a piggyBac transposon, all European SeMNPV isolates had a similar genome size and content. Complete genome analyses of single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions/deletions identified mutations in 48 ORFs that could result in functional changes. Among these, 13 ORFs could be correlated with particular phenotypic characteristics of SeMNPV isolates. Mutations were found in all gene functional classes and most of the changes we highlighted could potentially be associated with differences in transmission. The regulation of DNA replication (helicase, lef-7) and transcription (lef-9, p47) might be important for the establishment of sublethal infection prior to and following vertical transmission. Virus-host cell interactions also appear instrumental in the modulation of viral transmission as significant mutations were detected in virion proteins involved in primary (AC150) or secondary infections (ME35) and in apoptosis inhibition (IAP2, AC134). Baculovirus populations naturally harbour high genomic variation located in genes involved at different levels of the complex interactions between virus and host during the course of an infection. The comparative analyses performed here suggest that the differences in baculovirus virulence and transmission phenotypes involve multiple molecular pathways.

  6. Chitosan and its quaternized derivative as effective long dsRNA carriers targeting shrimp virus in Spodoptera frugiperda 9 cells.

    PubMed

    Theerawanitchpan, Gatesara; Saengkrit, Nattika; Sajomsang, Warayuth; Gonil, Pattarapond; Ruktanonchai, Uracha; Saesoo, Somsak; Flegel, Timothy W; Saksmerprome, Vanvimon

    2012-08-31

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising strategy to combat shrimp viral pathogens at lab-scale experiments. Development of effective orally delivered agents for double-stranded (ds)RNA is necessary for RNAi application at farm level. Since continuous shrimp cell lines have not been established, we are developing a dsRNA-delivery system in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells for studying in vitro RNAi-mediated gene silencing of shrimp virus. Sf9 cells challenged with yellow head virus (YHV) were used for validating nanoparticles as effective dsRNA carriers. Inexpensive and biodegradable polymers, chitosan and its quarternized derivative (QCH4), were formulated with long dsRNA (>100 bp) targeting YHV. Their morphology and physicochemical properties were examined. When treated with chitosan- and QCH4-dsRNA complexes, at least 50% reduction in YHV infection in Sf9 cells relative to the untreated control was evident at 24h post infection with low cytoxicity. Inhibitory effects of chitosan- and QCH4-dsRNA complexes were comparable to that of dsRNA formulated with Cellfectin(®), a commercial lipid-based transfection reagent. The natural and quaternized chitosan prepared in this study can be used for shrimp virus-specific dsRNA delivery in insect cultures, and have potential for future development of dsRNA carriers in shrimp feed. PMID:22575788

  7. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration affects interactions between Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae and two host plant species outdoors

    SciTech Connect

    Caulfield, F.; Bunce, J.A. )

    1994-08-01

    Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Huebner), larvae were placed on sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) and pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus L.) plants in outdoor chambers in which the plants were growing at either the ambient ([approximately] 350 [mu]l liter[sup [minus]1]) or ambient plus 350 [mu]l liter[sup [minus]1] ([approximately] 700 [mu]l liter[sup [minus]1]) carbon dioxide concentration. A series of experiments was performed to determine if larvae reduced plant growth differently at the two carbon dioxide concentrations in either species and if the insect growth or survival differed with carbon dioxide concentration. Leaf nitrogen, water, starch, and soluble carbohydrate contents were measured to assess carbon dioxide concentration effects on leaf quality. Insect feeding significantly reduced plant growth in sugarbeet plants at 350 [mu]l liter[sup [minus]1] but not at 700 [mu]l liter[sup [minus]1] nor in pigweed at either carbon dioxide concentration. Larval survival was greater on sugarbeet plants at the elevated carbon dioxide concentration. Increased survival occurred only if the insects were at the elevated carbon dioxide concentration and consumed leaf material grown at the elevated concentration. Leaf quality was only marginally affected by growth at elevated carbon dioxide concentration in these experiments. The results indicate that in designing experiments to predict effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations on plant-insect interactions, both plants and insects should be exposed to the experimental carbon dioxide concentrations, as well as to as realistic environmental conditions as possible.

  8. Susceptibility and aversion of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Cry1F Bt maize and considerations for insect resistance management.

    PubMed

    Binning, Rachel R; Coats, Joel; Kong, Xiaoxiao; Hellmich, Richard L

    2014-02-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize was developed primarily for North American pests such as European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner)). However, most Bt maize products are also cultivated outside of North America, where the primary pests may be different and may have lower susceptibility to Bt toxins. Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda JE Smith) is an important pest and primary target of Bt maize in Central and South America. S. frugiperda susceptibility to Cry1F (expressed in event TC1507) is an example of a pest-by-toxin interaction that does not meet the high-dose definition. In this study, the behavioral and toxic response of S. frugiperda to Cry1F maize was investigated by measuring the percentage of time naive third instars spent feeding during a 3-min exposure. S. frugiperda also were exposed as third instars to Cry1F maize for 14 d to measure weight gain and survival. S. frugiperda demonstrated an initial, postingestive aversive response to Cry1F maize, and few larvae survived the 14 d exposure. The role of susceptibility and avoidance are discussed in the context of global IRM refuge strategy development for Bt products. PMID:24665722

  9. RNA interference of broad gene expression mimics antimetamorphic effect of pyriproxyfen on the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiwan; Kim, Yonggyun

    2012-12-01

    A larva-to-pupa metamorphosis is induced by a low or undetectable level of juvenile hormone (JH) during last instar in holometabolous insects. An exogenous application of JH agonist, pyriproxyfen (PYR), inhibited pupal metamorphosis of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua. Last instar larvae of S. exigua exhibited increase of body size at first 3 days along with active feeding behavior. Also, at this period, prothoracic gland increased in size, while corpora allata remained little change. Storage proteins were accumulated in hemolymph plasma from penultimate to last instars, during which two storage protein genes (SeHex and SeSP1) were actively expressed. A Broad-Complex 1 (BRC1) gene of S. exigua (SeBRC1) was partially cloned and showed a specific expression at the last instar in all tested tissues including hemocytes, fat body, epidermis, gut, nerve, and salivary gland. Knockdown of SeBRC1 expression by its specific double-strand RNA mimicked the antimetamorphic effect induced by PYR treatment. PYR treatment at early last instar inhibited expression of SeBRC1, but did not that of other nuclear receptor, βFTZ-F1. These results indicate that a transcriptional factor, SeBRC1, plays a crucial role in pupal metamorphosis of S. exigua.

  10. The replication and titration of iridescent virus type 22 in Spodoptera frugiperda cells.

    PubMed

    Brown, D A; Lescott, T; Harrap, K A; Kelly, D C

    1978-01-01

    A plaque assay for iridescent virus type 22 (from Simulium sp.) using Spodoptera frugiperda cells has been devised, and the kinetics of growth of the virus in this cell line have been determined. The virus particle/p.f.u. ratio was 75 +/- 8, and the p.f.u./TCID50 ratio was 0.56 +/- 0.11.

  11. Monitoring two native Spodoptera species using an exotic pheromone lure developed for an exotic species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pheromone lure for the exotic species Spodoptera exempta was successful at attracting two native species, S. latifascia and S. albula. Trapping was conducted in north-central Florida and in southern Texas. Large numbers of both native species were collected throughout the season....

  12. Comparative Effectiveness of Potential Elicitors of Plant Resistance against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Four Crop Plants.

    PubMed

    Gordy, John W; Leonard, B Rogers; Blouin, David; Davis, Jeffrey A; Stout, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Feeding by insect herbivores activates plant signaling pathways, resulting in the enhanced production of secondary metabolites and other resistance-related traits by injured plants. These traits can reduce insect fitness, deter feeding, and attract beneficial insects. Organic and inorganic chemicals applied as a foliar spray, seed treatment, or soil drench can activate these plant responses. Azelaic acid (AA), benzothiadiazole (BTH), gibberellic acid (GA), harpin, and jasmonic acid (JA) are thought to directly mediate plant responses to pathogens and herbivores or to mimic compounds that do. The effects of these potential elicitors on the induction of plant defenses were determined by measuring the weight gains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (FAW) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on four crop plants, cotton, corn, rice, and soybean, treated with the compounds under greenhouse conditions. Treatment with JA consistently reduced growth of FAW reared on treated cotton and soybean. In contrast, FAW fed BTH- and harpin-treated cotton and soybean tissue gained more weight than those fed control leaf tissue, consistent with negative crosstalk between the salicylic acid and JA signaling pathways. No induction or inconsistent induction of resistance was observed in corn and rice. Follow-up experiments showed that the co-application of adjuvants with JA failed to increase the effectiveness of induction by JA and that soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker)], a relative specialist on legumes, was less affected by JA-induced responses in soybean than was the polyphagous FAW. Overall, the results of these experiments demonstrate that the effectiveness of elicitors as a management tactic will depend strongly on the identities of the crop, the pest, and the elicitor involved. PMID:26332833

  13. Comparative Effectiveness of Potential Elicitors of Plant Resistance against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Four Crop Plants

    PubMed Central

    Gordy, John W.; Leonard, B. Rogers; Blouin, David; Davis, Jeffrey A.; Stout, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Feeding by insect herbivores activates plant signaling pathways, resulting in the enhanced production of secondary metabolites and other resistance-related traits by injured plants. These traits can reduce insect fitness, deter feeding, and attract beneficial insects. Organic and inorganic chemicals applied as a foliar spray, seed treatment, or soil drench can activate these plant responses. Azelaic acid (AA), benzothiadiazole (BTH), gibberellic acid (GA), harpin, and jasmonic acid (JA) are thought to directly mediate plant responses to pathogens and herbivores or to mimic compounds that do. The effects of these potential elicitors on the induction of plant defenses were determined by measuring the weight gains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (FAW) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on four crop plants, cotton, corn, rice, and soybean, treated with the compounds under greenhouse conditions. Treatment with JA consistently reduced growth of FAW reared on treated cotton and soybean. In contrast, FAW fed BTH- and harpin-treated cotton and soybean tissue gained more weight than those fed control leaf tissue, consistent with negative crosstalk between the salicylic acid and JA signaling pathways. No induction or inconsistent induction of resistance was observed in corn and rice. Follow-up experiments showed that the co-application of adjuvants with JA failed to increase the effectiveness of induction by JA and that soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker)], a relative specialist on legumes, was less affected by JA-induced responses in soybean than was the polyphagous FAW. Overall, the results of these experiments demonstrate that the effectiveness of elicitors as a management tactic will depend strongly on the identities of the crop, the pest, and the elicitor involved. PMID:26332833

  14. PGE2 induces oenocytoid cell lysis via a G protein-coupled receptor in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eicosanoids mediate cellular and humoral immune responses in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, including activation of prophenoloxidase (PPO). PPO activation begins with release of its inactive zymogen, PPO, from oenocytoids in response to prostaglandins (PGs). Based on the biomedical literatur...

  15. Insights into the physiological responses of the facultative halophyte Aeluropus littoralis to the combined effects of salinity and phosphorus availability.

    PubMed

    Talbi Zribi, Ons; Barhoumi, Zouhaier; Kouas, Saber; Ghandour, Mohamed; Slama, Ines; Abdelly, Chedly

    2015-09-15

    In this work, we investigate the physiological responses to P deficiency (5μM KH2PO4=D), salt stress (400mM NaCl=C+S), and their combination (D+S) on the facultative halophyte Aeluropus littoralis to understand how plants adapt to these combined stresses. When individually applied, both P deficiency and salinity significantly restricted whole plant growth, with a more marked effect of the latter stress. However, the effects of the two stresses were not additive in plant biomass production since the response of plants to combined salinity and P deficiency was similar to that of plants grown under salt stress alone. In addition the observed features under salinity alone are kept when plants are simultaneously subjected to the combined effects of salinity and P deficiency such as biomass partitioning; the synthesis of proline and the K(+)/Na(+) selectivity ratio. Thus, increasing P availability under saline conditions has no significant effect on salt tolerance in this species. Plants cultivated under the combined effects of salinity and P deficiency exhibited the lowest leaf water potential. This trend was associated with a high accumulation of Na(+), Cl(-) and proline in shoots of salt treated plants suggesting the involvement of these solutes in osmotic adjustment. Proline could be involved in other physiological processes such as free radical scavenging. Furthermore, salinity has no significant effect on phosphorus acquisition when combined with a low P supply and it significantly decreased this parameter when combined with a sufficient P supply. This fact was probably due to salt's effect on P transporters. In addition, shoot soluble sugars accumulation under both P deficiency treatments with and without salt likely play an important role in the adaptation of A. littoralis plants to P shortage applied alone or combined with salinity. Moreover, there was a strong correlation between shoot and root intracellular acid phosphatase activity and phosphorus use

  16. Bioactive Terpenoids and Flavonoids from Daucus littoralis Smith subsp. hyrcanicus Rech.f, an Endemic Species of Iran

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Daucus littoralis Smith subsp. hyrcanicus Rech.f. (Apiaceae) is an endemic species in northern parts of Iran where it is commonly named Caspian carrot. The fruits have been used as condiment. Methods In a series of in vitro assays, antioxidant (DPPH and FRAP assays), cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities of different extracts of roots and fruits were evaluated for the first time. The separation and purification of the compounds were carried out on the most potent extracts using various chromatographic methods and identified by spectroscopic data (1H and 13C NMR). Results The results showed that among the extracts only fruit methanol extract (FME) has significant antioxidant activity (IC50 = 145.93 μg.ml-1 in DPPH assay and 358 ± 0.02 mmol FeII/g dry extract in FRAP assay). The radical scavenging activity of FME at 400 μg.ml-1 was comparable with α-tocopherol (40 μg.ml-1) and with BHA (100 μg.ml-1) (p > 0.05). FME did not show any toxicity against cancerous and normal cell lines. Fruit ethyl acetate extract (FEE) had cytotoxic activity against breast carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma cells (IC50 168.4 and 185 μg.ml-1, respectively), while it did not possess antioxidant activity in comparison with α-tocopherol and BHA as standard compounds. Ethyl acetate and methanol extract of fruits showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC: 3.75 mg.ml-1) and Candida albicans (MIC: 15.6 and 7.8 mg.ml-1, respectively). Four terpenoids were isolated form FEE including: β-sitosterol (1), stigmasterol (2), caryophyllene oxide (3), β-amyrin (4). Also, three flavonoids namely quercetin 3-O-β-glucoside (5), quercetin 3-O-β-galactoside (6) and luteolin (7) were isolated from FME. Conclusion This study showed that FEE and FME of D. littoralis Smith subsp. hyrcanicus Rech.f. had the highest biological activities which may be correlated with in vitro cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of terpenoids and

  17. Ear Mite Removal in the Santa Catalina Island Fox (Urocyon littoralis catalinae): Controlling Risk Factors for Cancer Development

    PubMed Central

    Moriarty, Megan E.; Vickers, T. Winston; Clifford, Deana L.; Garcelon, David K.; Gaffney, Patricia M.; Lee, Kenneth W.; King, Julie L.; Duncan, Calvin L.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2015-01-01

    Ear mites (Otodectes cynotis) and ear canal tumors are highly prevalent among federally endangered Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) living on Santa Catalina Island off the coast of Southern California. Since studies began in the 1990s, nearly all foxes examined were found to be infected with ear mites, and ceruminous gland tumors (carcinomas and adenomas) were detected in approximately half of all foxes ≥ 4 years of age. We hypothesized that reduction of ear mite infection would reduce otitis externa and ceruminous gland hyperplasia, a risk factor for tumor development. In this study, we conducted a randomized field trial to assess the impact of acaricide treatment on ear mite prevalence and intensity of infection, otitis externa, ceruminous gland hyperplasia, and mite-specific IgG and IgE antibody levels. Treatment was highly effective at eliminating mites and reducing otitis externa and ceruminous gland hyperplasia, and mite-specific IgG antibody levels were significantly lower among uninfected foxes. Ceruminous gland hyperplasia increased in the chronically infected, untreated foxes during the six month study. Our results provide compelling evidence that acaricide treatment is an effective means of reducing ear mites, and that mite removal in turn reduces ear lesions and mite-specific IgG antibody levels in Santa Catalina Island foxes. This study has advanced our understanding of the underlying pathogenesis which results in ceruminous gland tumors, and has helped inform management decisions that impact species conservation. PMID:26641820

  18. Molecular evidence for the coexistence of two sibling species in Pylaiella littoralis (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) along the Brittany coast.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, Alexandre; Mauger, Stéphane; De Jode, Aurélien; Le Gall, Line; Destombe, Christophe

    2015-06-01

    The great phenotypic variability and the lack of diagnostic characters in the genus Pylaiella render the systematic study of this genus problematic. In this study, we investigated the diversity of Pylaiella littoralis along the Brittany (France) coast using a DNA barcoding multilocus approach with mitochondrial (cox1, nad1, and atp9) and chloroplastic (rbcL and atpB) markers associated with a population genetics approach using 10 microsatellite markers. In addition, spatio-temporal sampling was conducted along the Brittany coast. We sampled 140 individuals from four sites located between Saint-Malo and Concarneau (380 km) from April to October. Mitochondrial sequence data revealed the occurrence of two sibling species, with a minimum of 2.4% divergence between them. Microsatellite genotypic data congruently revealed two well-supported clusters matching the two mitochondrial clades of Pylaiella. Although gene flow is limited between species, occurrence of genetic admixtures in some populations suggested that reproductive isolation is not complete. Our study highlighted the complementarity of barcoding and population genetics approaches to shed light on the evolutionary processes that lead to speciation.

  19. Ear Mite Removal in the Santa Catalina Island Fox (Urocyon littoralis catalinae): Controlling Risk Factors for Cancer Development.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, Megan E; Vickers, T Winston; Clifford, Deana L; Garcelon, David K; Gaffney, Patricia M; Lee, Kenneth W; King, Julie L; Duncan, Calvin L; Boyce, Walter M

    2015-01-01

    Ear mites (Otodectes cynotis) and ear canal tumors are highly prevalent among federally endangered Island foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) living on Santa Catalina Island off the coast of Southern California. Since studies began in the 1990s, nearly all foxes examined were found to be infected with ear mites, and ceruminous gland tumors (carcinomas and adenomas) were detected in approximately half of all foxes ≥ 4 years of age. We hypothesized that reduction of ear mite infection would reduce otitis externa and ceruminous gland hyperplasia, a risk factor for tumor development. In this study, we conducted a randomized field trial to assess the impact of acaricide treatment on ear mite prevalence and intensity of infection, otitis externa, ceruminous gland hyperplasia, and mite-specific IgG and IgE antibody levels. Treatment was highly effective at eliminating mites and reducing otitis externa and ceruminous gland hyperplasia, and mite-specific IgG antibody levels were significantly lower among uninfected foxes. Ceruminous gland hyperplasia increased in the chronically infected, untreated foxes during the six month study. Our results provide compelling evidence that acaricide treatment is an effective means of reducing ear mites, and that mite removal in turn reduces ear lesions and mite-specific IgG antibody levels in Santa Catalina Island foxes. This study has advanced our understanding of the underlying pathogenesis which results in ceruminous gland tumors, and has helped inform management decisions that impact species conservation. PMID:26641820

  20. Molecular evidence for the coexistence of two sibling species in Pylaiella littoralis (Ectocarpales, Phaeophyceae) along the Brittany coast.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, Alexandre; Mauger, Stéphane; De Jode, Aurélien; Le Gall, Line; Destombe, Christophe

    2015-06-01

    The great phenotypic variability and the lack of diagnostic characters in the genus Pylaiella render the systematic study of this genus problematic. In this study, we investigated the diversity of Pylaiella littoralis along the Brittany (France) coast using a DNA barcoding multilocus approach with mitochondrial (cox1, nad1, and atp9) and chloroplastic (rbcL and atpB) markers associated with a population genetics approach using 10 microsatellite markers. In addition, spatio-temporal sampling was conducted along the Brittany coast. We sampled 140 individuals from four sites located between Saint-Malo and Concarneau (380 km) from April to October. Mitochondrial sequence data revealed the occurrence of two sibling species, with a minimum of 2.4% divergence between them. Microsatellite genotypic data congruently revealed two well-supported clusters matching the two mitochondrial clades of Pylaiella. Although gene flow is limited between species, occurrence of genetic admixtures in some populations suggested that reproductive isolation is not complete. Our study highlighted the complementarity of barcoding and population genetics approaches to shed light on the evolutionary processes that lead to speciation. PMID:26986664

  1. Induced changes in island fox (Urocyon littoralis) activity do not mitigate the extinction threat posed by a novel predator.

    PubMed

    Hudgens, Brian R; Garcelon, David K

    2011-03-01

    Prey response to novel predators influences the impacts on prey populations of introduced predators, bio-control efforts, and predator range expansion. Predicting the impacts of novel predators on native prey requires an understanding of both predator avoidance strategies and their potential to reduce predation risk. We examine the response of island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) to invasion by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Foxes reduced daytime activity and increased night time activity relative to eagle-naïve foxes. Individual foxes reverted toward diurnal tendencies following eagle removal efforts. We quantified the potential population impact of reduced diurnality by modeling island fox population dynamics. Our model predicted an annual population decline similar to what was observed following golden eagle invasion and predicted that the observed 11% reduction in daytime activity would not reduce predation risk sufficiently to reduce extinction risk. The limited effect of this behaviorally plastic predator avoidance strategy highlights the importance of linking behavioral change to population dynamics for predicting the impact of novel predators on resident prey populations. PMID:20814698

  2. Identification and characteristics of microRNAs from army worm, Spodoptera frugiperda cell line Sf21.

    PubMed

    Kakumani, Pavan Kumar; Chinnappan, Mahendran; Singh, Ashok K; Malhotra, Pawan; Mukherjee, Sunil K; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs play important regulatory role in all intrinsic cellular functions. Amongst lepidopteran insects, miRNAs from only Bombyx mori have been studied extensively with a little focus on Spodoptera sp. In the present study, we identified a total of 226 miRNAs from Spodoptera frugiperda cell line Sf21. Of the total, 116 miRNAs were well conserved within other insects, like B. mori, Drosophila melanogaster and Tribolium castenum while the remaining 110 miRNAs were identified as novel based on comparative analysis with the insect miRNA data set. Landscape distribution analysis based on Sf21 genome assembly revealed clustering of few novel miRNAs. A total of 5 miRNA clusters were identified and the largest one encodes 5 miRNA genes. In addition, 12 miRNAs were validated using northern blot analysis and putative functional role assignment for 6 Sf miRNAs was investigated by examining their relative abundance at different developmental stages of Spodoptera litura and body parts of 6th instar larvae. Further, we identified a total of 809 potential target genes with GO terms for selected miRNAs, involved in different metabolic and signalling pathways of the insect. The newly identified miRNAs greatly enrich the repertoire of insect miRNAs and analysis of expression profiles reveal their involvement at various steps of biochemical pathways of the army worm.

  3. Identification and Characteristics of microRNAs from Army Worm, Spodoptera frugiperda Cell Line Sf21

    PubMed Central

    Kakumani, Pavan Kumar; Chinnappan, Mahendran; Singh, Ashok K.; Malhotra, Pawan; Mukherjee, Sunil K.; Bhatnagar, Raj K.

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs play important regulatory role in all intrinsic cellular functions. Amongst lepidopteran insects, miRNAs from only Bombyx mori have been studied extensively with a little focus on Spodoptera sp. In the present study, we identified a total of 226 miRNAs from Spodoptera frugiperda cell line Sf21. Of the total, 116 miRNAs were well conserved within other insects, like B. mori, Drosophila melanogaster and Tribolium castenum while the remaining 110 miRNAs were identified as novel based on comparative analysis with the insect miRNA data set. Landscape distribution analysis based on Sf21 genome assembly revealed clustering of few novel miRNAs. A total of 5 miRNA clusters were identified and the largest one encodes 5 miRNA genes. In addition, 12 miRNAs were validated using northern blot analysis and putative functional role assignment for 6 Sf miRNAs was investigated by examining their relative abundance at different developmental stages of Spodoptera litura and body parts of 6th instar larvae. Further, we identified a total of 809 potential target genes with GO terms for selected miRNAs, involved in different metabolic and signalling pathways of the insect. The newly identified miRNAs greatly enrich the repertoire of insect miRNAs and analysis of expression profiles reveal their involvement at various steps of biochemical pathways of the army worm. PMID:25693181

  4. Indica rice cultivar IRGA 424, transformed with cry genes of B. thuringiensis, provided high resistance against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Pinto, Laura Massochin Nunes; Fiuza, Lidia Mariana; Ziegler, Denize; De Oliveira, Jaime Vargas; Menezes, Valmir Gaedke; Bourrié, Isabelle; Meynard, Donaldo; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; Breitler, Jean-Christophe; Altosaar, Illimar; Gantet, Pascal

    2013-12-01

    Plant expression of the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis cry gene has reduced the damage created by insect pests in several economically important cultures. For this study, we have conducted genetic transformation of the indica rice "IRGA 424", via Agrobacterium tumefaciens, using the B. thuringiensis cry1Aa and cry1B genes, with the objective of obtaining rice plants resistant to the insect pests from this culture. The gene constructions harbor the promoters maize proteinase inhibitor and ubiquitin. The results showed that high concentration of the hormone 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and agarose as the gelling agent helped the production of embryogenic calli for the analyzed cultivar. More than 80% of the obtained transformed plants revealed the integration, using polymerase chain reaction, of the cry1Aa and cry1B genes. Analysis of the expression of the heterologous protein by Western blotting revealed the expression of the Cry1B delta-endotoxin in IRGA 424 plants transformed with the ubiquitin promoter. Data showed the production and dissemination of a high number of embryogenic calli in addition to obtaining plants transformed with the cry1Aa and cry1B genes until the reproductive phase. The feed bioassays with the transformed plants and Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) larvae indicated high rates of mortality to the insect target. The highest corrected mortality rate achieved under laboratory conditions with Bt-rice plants transformed with the cry1B and cry1Aa genes was 94 and 84%, respectively. Thus, our results demonstrated the great potential of transformed Bt-rice plants in controlling the damage caused by these insect pests in rice paddy fields.

  5. Effects of nickel exposure on testicular function, oxidative stress, and male reproductive dysfunction in Spodoptera litura Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongxia; Wu, Wenjing; Guo, Jixing; Xiao, Rong; Jiang, Fengze; Zheng, Lingyan; Zhang, Guren

    2016-04-01

    Nickel is an environmental pollutant that adversely affects the male reproductive system. In the present study, the effects of nickel exposure on Spodoptera litura Fabricius were investigated by feeding larvae artificial diets containing different doses of nickel for three generations. Damage to testes and effects on male reproduction were examined. The amount of nickel that accumulated in the testes of newly emerged males increased as the nickel dose in the diet increased during a single generation. Nickel exposure increased the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and decreased the amount of glutathione in treatment groups compared with the control. The activity levels of the antioxidant response indices superoxide dismutases, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the testes showed variable dose-dependent relationships with nickel doses and duration of exposure. Nickel doses also disrupted the development of the testes by decreasing the weight and volume of testes and the number of eupyrene and apyrene sperm bundles in treatment groups compared with the control. When the nickel-treated males mated with normal females, fecundity was inhibited by the higher nickel doses in all three generations, but fecundity significantly increased during the second generation, which received 5 mg kg(-1) nickel. Hatching rates in all treatments significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the three successive generations. The effects of nickel on these parameters correlated with the duration of nickel exposure. Results indicate assays of testes may be a novel and efficient means of evaluating the effects of heavy metals on phytophagous insects in an agricultural environment.

  6. Effects of nickel exposure on testicular function, oxidative stress, and male reproductive dysfunction in Spodoptera litura Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongxia; Wu, Wenjing; Guo, Jixing; Xiao, Rong; Jiang, Fengze; Zheng, Lingyan; Zhang, Guren

    2016-04-01

    Nickel is an environmental pollutant that adversely affects the male reproductive system. In the present study, the effects of nickel exposure on Spodoptera litura Fabricius were investigated by feeding larvae artificial diets containing different doses of nickel for three generations. Damage to testes and effects on male reproduction were examined. The amount of nickel that accumulated in the testes of newly emerged males increased as the nickel dose in the diet increased during a single generation. Nickel exposure increased the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and decreased the amount of glutathione in treatment groups compared with the control. The activity levels of the antioxidant response indices superoxide dismutases, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the testes showed variable dose-dependent relationships with nickel doses and duration of exposure. Nickel doses also disrupted the development of the testes by decreasing the weight and volume of testes and the number of eupyrene and apyrene sperm bundles in treatment groups compared with the control. When the nickel-treated males mated with normal females, fecundity was inhibited by the higher nickel doses in all three generations, but fecundity significantly increased during the second generation, which received 5 mg kg(-1) nickel. Hatching rates in all treatments significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the three successive generations. The effects of nickel on these parameters correlated with the duration of nickel exposure. Results indicate assays of testes may be a novel and efficient means of evaluating the effects of heavy metals on phytophagous insects in an agricultural environment. PMID:26807937

  7. Using Small-Scale Studies to Prioritize Threats and Guide Recovery of a Rare Hemiparasitic Plant: Cordylanthus rigidus ssp. littoralis

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Sean M.; Uhl, Melissa M.; Maurano, Stephen P.; Nuccio, Erin E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recovering endangered species would benefit from identifying and ranking of the factors that threaten them. Simply managing for multiple positive influences will often aid in recovery; however, the relative impacts of multiple threats and/or interactions among them are not always predictable. We used a series of experiments and quantitative observational studies to examine the importance of five potential limiting factors to the abundance of a state-listed endangered hemiparasitic annual forb, Cordylanthus rigidus ssp. littoralis (C.r.l., California, USA): host availability, mammalian herbivores, insect seed predators, fire suppression, and exotic species. While this initial assessment is certainly not a complete list, these factors stem from direct observation and can inform provisional recommendations for management and further research. Methodology and Principal Findings Studies were conducted at five sites and included assessments of the influence of host availability, exotic species, exclusion of mammalian herbivores and insect seed predators on C.r.l. productivity, and simulated effects of fire on seed germination. C.r.l. was limited by multiple threats: individuals with access to host species produced up to three times more inflorescences than those lacking hosts, mammalian herbivory reduced C.r.l. size and fecundity by more than 50% and moth larvae reduced seed production by up to 40%. Litter deposition and competition from exotic plant species also appears to work in conjunction with other factors to limit C.r.l. throughout its life cycle. Conclusions and Significance The work reported here highlights the contribution that a series of small-scale studies can make to conservation and restoration. Taken as a whole, the results can be used immediately to inform current management and species recovery strategies. Recovery of C.r.l. will require management that addresses competition with exotic plant species, herbivore pressure, and availability of

  8. Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... administer the TPN. Tubes Used for Enteral Feeds NG (Nasogastric Tube) A flexible tube is placed via ... down through the esophagus into the stomach. The NG tube can be used to empty the stomach ...

  9. Glehnia littoralis Root Extract Induces G0/G1 Phase Cell Cycle Arrest in the MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, Joseph Flores; Vergara, Emil Joseph Sanvictores; Cho, Yura; Hong, Hee Ok; Oyungerel, Baatartsogt; Hwang, Seong Gu

    2015-01-01

    Glehnia littoralis (GL) is widely used as an oriental medicine for cough, fever, stroke and other disease conditions. However, the anti-cancer properties of GL on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells have not been investigated. In order to elucidate anti-cancer properties and underlying cell death mechanisms, MCF-7cells (5 X 104/well) were treated with Glehnia littoralis root extract at 0-400 ug/ml. A hot water extract of GL root inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis of the cell cycle after treatment of MCF-7 cells with increasing concentrations of GL root extract for 24 hours showed significant cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis both revealed that GL root extract significantly increased the expression of p21 and p27 with an accompanyingdecrease in both CDK4 and cyclin D1. Our reuslts indicated that GL root extract arrested the proliferation of MCF-7 cells in G1 phase through inhibition of CDK4 and cyclin D1 via increased induction of p21 and p27. In summary, the current study showed that GL could serve as a potential source of chemotherapeutic or chemopreventative agents against human breast cancer.

  10. Lysozymes and lysozyme-like proteins from the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda.

    PubMed

    Chapelle, Michael; Girard, Pierre-Alain; Cousserans, François; Volkoff, Nathalie-Anne; Duvic, Bernard

    2009-12-01

    Lysozyme is an important component of the insect non-specific immune response against bacteria that is characterized by its ability to break down bacterial cell-walls. By searching an EST database from the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Negre et al., 2006), we identified five sequences encoding proteins of the lysozyme family. The deduced protein sequences corresponded to three classical c-type lysozymes Sf-Lys1, Sf-Lys2 and Sf-Lys3, and two lysozyme-like proteins, Sf-LLP1 and Sf-LLP2. Sf-Lys1 was purified from the hemolymph of Escherichia coli-challenged S. frugiperda larvae. The mature protein had a molecular mass of 13.975 Da with an isoelectric point of 8.77 and showed 98.3% and 96.7% identity with lysozymes from Spodoptera litura and Spodoptera exigua, respectively. As the other insect lysozymes, Sf-Lys1 was active against gram positive bacteria such as Micrococcus luteus but also induced a slight permeabilization of the inner membrane of E. coli. Genes encoding these five Sf-Lys or Sf-LLPs were differentially up-regulated in three immune-competent tissues (hemocytes, fat body and gut) after challenges with non-pathogenic bacteria, E. coli and M. luteus, or entomopathogenic bacterium, Photorhabdus luminescens. Sf-Lys1 and Sf-Lys2 were mainly induced in fat body in the presence of E. coli or P. luminescens. Sf-Lys3, which had an acidic isoelectric point, was found to be the most up-regulated of all five Sf-Lys or Sf-LLPs in hemocytes and gut after challenge with P. luminescens. More molecular data are now available to investigate differences in physiological functions of these different members of the lysozyme superfamily. PMID:19828200

  11. TOXICITY OF ALPINIA GALANGA (ZINGIBERACEAE) RHIZOME EXTRACTS AGAINST SPODOPTERA LITURA (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE).

    PubMed

    Puangsomchit, A; Bullangpoti, V; Pluempanupat, W

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an alternative strategy for the control of Spodoptera litura larvae by using botanical insecticides. Rhizomes of Alpinia galanga were extracted with hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol, respectively. Each crude extract was examined for toxicity against the second instars of S. litura according to a topical application method. The dichloromethane extract was found to show the highest toxicity of all the extracts, with LD50 = 3177 and 2099 ppm at 24 and 48 h post-treatment, respectively.

  12. Overexpression of the PAP1 Transcription Factor Reveals a Complex Regulation of Flavonoid and Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in Nicotiana tabacum Plants Attacked by Spodoptera litura

    PubMed Central

    Mitsunami, Tomoko; Nishihara, Masahiro; Galis, Ivan; Alamgir, Kabir Md; Hojo, Yuko; Fujita, Kohei; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Nemoto, Keichiro; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Arimura, Gen-ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanin pigments and associated flavonoids have demonstrated antioxidant properties and benefits for human health. Consequently, current plant bioengineers have focused on how to modify flavonoid metabolism in plants. Most of that research, however, does not consider the role of natural biotic stresses (e.g., herbivore attack). To understand the influence of herbivore attack on the metabolic engineering of flavonoids, we examined tobacco plants overexpressing the Arabidopsis PAP1 gene (encoding an MYB transcription factor), which accumulated anthocyanin pigments and other flavonoids/phenylpropanoids. In comparison to wild-type and control plants, transgenic plants exhibited greater resistance to Spodoptera litura. Moreover, herbivory suppressed the PAP1-induced increase of transcripts of flavonoid/phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes (e.g., F3H) and the subsequent accumulation of these genes' metabolites, despite the unaltered PAP1 mRNA levels after herbivory. The instances of down-regulation were independent of the signaling pathways mediated by defense-related jasmonates but were relevant to the levels of PAP1-induced and herbivory-suppressed transcription factors, An1a and An1b. Although initially F3H transcripts were suppressed by herbivory, after the S. litura feeding was interrupted, F3H transcripts increased. We hypothesize that in transgenic plants responding to herbivory, there is a complex mechanism regulating enriched flavonoid/phenylpropanoid compounds, via biotic stress signals. PMID:25268129

  13. Breast Feeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on breast-feeding. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, academics and professionals, health personnel and educators, and policy-makers. The contents cover health-related differences between breast and bottle milk; patterns of…

  14. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  15. 40 CFR 180.1118 - Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1118 Section 180.1118 Protection of... polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for the microbial pest control agent Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis...

  16. Lyophilization of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae yields high-quality DNA for use in AFLP genetic studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural research in the 21st century has become a collaborative effort. Research on crop pests like Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), commonly known as the fall armyworm (FAW), can involve international collaboration because it is a pest not only in the southern United States, but also in La...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1118 - Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1118 Section 180.1118 Protection of... polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for the microbial pest control agent Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis...

  18. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) mediated competition via induced resistance: Interaction between Gratiana boliviana, Spodoptera exigua and Frankliniella occidentalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Survival assays were conducted with beet armyworm (BAW) Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), a tortoise beetle Gratiana bolivana Spaeth and western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) on tropical soda apple (TSA) Solanum viarum Dunal, a relative of tomato. Both S. exigua and G. bolivia...

  19. Geographic variation in sexual attraction of Spodoptera frugiperda corn- and rice-strain males to pheromone lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The corn- and rice-strains of Spodoptera frugiperda exhibit several genetic and behavioral differences and appear to be undergoing ecological speciation in sympatry. Previous studies reported conflicting results when investigating male attraction to pheromone lures in different regions, but this cou...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1118 - Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1118 Section 180.1118 Protection of... polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for the microbial pest control agent Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1118 - Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1118 Section 180.1118 Protection of... polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for the microbial pest control agent Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1118 - Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1118 Section 180.1118 Protection of... polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for the microbial pest control agent Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis...

  3. Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Exhibits No Preference between Bt and Non-Bt Maize Fed Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Carla C.; Koch, Robert L.; Burkness, Eric C.; Meissle, Michael; Romeis, Joerg; Hutchison, William D.; Fernandes, Marcos G.

    2012-01-01

    A recent shift in managing insect resistance to genetically engineered (GE) maize consists of mixing non-GE seed with GE seed known as “refuge in a bag”, which increases the likelihood of predators encountering both prey fed Bt and prey fed non-Bt maize. We therefore conducted laboratory choice-test feeding studies to determine if a predator, Harmonia axyridis, shows any preference between prey fed Bt and non-Bt maize leaves. The prey species was Spodoptera frugiperda, which were fed Bt maize (MON-810), expressing the single Cry1Ab protein, or non-Bt maize. The predators were third instar larvae and female adults of H. axyridis. Individual predators were offered Bt and non-Bt fed prey larvae that had fed for 24, 48 or 72 h. Ten and 15 larvae of each prey type were offered to third instar and adult predators, respectively. Observations of arenas were conducted at 1, 2, 3, 6, 15 and 24 h after the start of the experiment to determine the number and type of prey eaten by each individual predator. Prey larvae that fed on non-Bt leaves were significantly larger than larvae fed Bt leaves. Both predator stages had eaten nearly all the prey by the end of the experiment. However, in all combinations of predator stage and prey age, the number of each prey type consumed did not differ significantly. ELISA measurements confirmed the presence of Cry1Ab in leaf tissue (23–33 µg/g dry weight) and S. frugiperda (2.1–2.2 µg/g), while mean concentrations in H. axyridis were very low (0.01–0.2 µg/g). These results confirm the predatory status of H. axyridis on S. frugiperda and that both H. axyridis adults and larvae show no preference between prey types. The lack of preference between Bt-fed and non-Bt-fed prey should act in favor of insect resistance management strategies using mixtures of GE and non-GE maize seed. PMID:23024772

  4. New records of the restinga antwren Formicivora littoralis Gonzaga and Pacheco (Aves, Thamnophilidae) in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: inland extended range and threats.

    PubMed

    Vecchi, M B; Alves, M A S

    2008-05-01

    The Restinga Antwren (Formicivora littoralis) has a narrow distribution range in southeastern Brazil, and it is a typical species of restinga habitat (sandy coastal plain vegetation). In this paper, we describe two new records for the species (22 degrees 51' 45" S and 42 degrees 14' 13" W; 22 degrees 51' 14" S and 42 degrees 11' 47" W) in the northern margin of the Araruama Lagoon, which represent a new inland limit for its distribution (11 km), besides assessing the current state of its habitat. We recorded supposed isolated subpopulations, most of them due the accelerated human-made fragmentation. The Massambaba Environmental Protection Area comprises the larger continuous extent of the suitable habitat for the Restinga Antwren, being essential to its long-term existence. However, the region lacks effective protected areas and, besides urgent practical measures, we recommend an accurate mapping and populational studies on this species.

  5. Angiocaulus gubernaculatus in the island fox (Urocyon littoralis) from the California Channel Islands and comments on the diagnosis of angiostrongylidae nematodes in canid and mustelid hosts.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, C T; Patton, S; Munson, L; Johnsont, E M; Coonan, T J

    2001-10-01

    Adult nematode parasites were recovered from the heart blood of a deceased island fox (Urocyon littoralis) submitted for necropsy to determine the cause of death. Examination of the recovered nematodes supported the generic diagnosis of Angiocaulus, a parasite in Angiostrongylidae found in domestic and wild canids and mustelids. Specific diagnosis of the worms from the island fox as Angiocaulus gubernaculatus is based on the morphology of the dorsal ray in the copulatory bursa of the male worm and its comparison with published descriptions of Angiocaulus raillieti and A. gubernaculatus. Although A. gubernaculatus has been typically associated with mustelid hosts, its occurrence in the island fox indicates that the host distribution for the parasite may not be as restricted as previously believed.

  6. Biliatresone, a Reactive Natural Toxin from Dysphania glomulifera and D. littoralis: Discovery of the Toxic Moiety 1,2-Diaryl-2-Propenone

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Kyung A.; Lorent, Kristin; Gong, Weilong; Windsor, Peter; Whittaker, Stephen J.; Pack, Michael; Wells, Rebecca G.; Porter, John R.

    2016-01-01

    We identified a reactive natural toxin, biliatresone, from Dysphania glomulifera and D. littoralis collected in Australia that produces extrahepatic biliary atresia in a zebrafish model. Three additional isoflavonoids, including the known isoflavone betavulgarin, were also isolated. Biliatresone is in the very rare 1,2-diaryl-2-propenone class of isoflavonoids. The α-methylene of the 1,2-diaryl-2-propenone of biliatresone spontaneously reacts via Michael addition in the formation of water and methanol adducts. The lethal dose of biliatresone in a zebrafish assay was 1 μg/mL, while the lethal dose of synthetic 1,2-diaryl-2-propen-1-one was 5 μg/mL, suggesting 1,2-diaryl-2-propenone as the toxic Michael acceptor. PMID:26175131

  7. Target and non-target toxicity of botanical insecticide derived from Couroupita guianensis L. flower against generalist herbivore, Spodoptera litura Fab. and an earthworm, Eisenia foetida Savigny

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel chemistries in botanical insecticides may provide alternatives to, or development of synthetic insecticides suitable for controlling the Lepidopteran pests, like Spodoptera litura (F.). Many botanical chemistries are biodegradable, and have lower mammalian toxicity. Eight natural chemical comp...

  8. Tracking the origins and diet of an endemic island canid (Urocyon littoralis) across 7300 years of human cultural and environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofman, Courtney A.; Rick, Torben C.; Maldonado, Jesús E.; Collins, Paul W.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Smith, Chelsea; Sillett, T. Scott; Ralls, Katherine; Teeter, Wendy; Vellanoweth, René L.; Newsome, Seth D.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how human activities have influenced the foraging ecology of wildlife is important as our planet faces ongoing and impending habitat and climatic change. We review the canine surrogacy approach (CSA)-a tool for comparing human, dog, and other canid diets in the past-and apply CSA to investigate possible ancient human resource provisioning in an endangered canid, the California Channel Islands fox (Urocyon littoralis). We conducted stable isotope analysis of bone collagen samples from ancient and modern island foxes (n = 214) and mainland gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus, n = 24). We compare these data to isotope values of ancient humans and dogs, and synthesize 29 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates that fine-tune the chronology of island foxes. AMS dates confirm that island foxes likely arrived during the early Holocene (>7300 cal BP) on the northern islands in the archipelago and during the middle Holocene (>5500 cal BP) on the southern islands. We found no evidence that island foxes were consistently using anthropogenic resources (e.g., food obtained by scavenging around human habitation sites or direct provisioning by Native Americans), except for a few individuals on San Nicolas Island and possibly on San Clemente and Santa Rosa islands. Decreases in U. littoralis carbon and nitrogen isotope values between prehistoric times and the 19th century on San Nicolas Island suggest that changes in human land use from Native American hunter-gatherer occupations to historical ranching had a strong influence on fox diet. Island foxes exhibit considerable dietary variation through time and between islands and have adapted to a wide variety of climatic and cultural changes over the last 7300 years. This generalist foraging strategy suggests that endemic island foxes may be resilient to future changes in resource availability.

  9. Pleistocene phylogeography and cryptic diversity of a tiger beetle, Calomera littoralis, in North-Eastern Mediterranean and Pontic regions inferred from mitochondrial COI gene sequences

    PubMed Central

    Rewicz, Tomasz; Płóciennik, Mateusz; Grabowski, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Background. Calomera littoralis is a Palearctic species, widely distributed in Europe; inhabiting predominantly its Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Sea coastlines. Methods. Its phylogeography on the Balkan Peninsula and on the north-western Black Sea coast was inferred using a 697 bp long portion of the mitochondrial COI gene, amplified from 169 individuals collected on 43 localities. Results. The results revealed two genetically divergent groups/lineages, the southern one inhabiting both the Balkan Peninsula and the Pontic Region and the northern one found exclusively in the Pontic Region. Species delimitation based on DNA barcoding gap suggested an interspecific level of divergence between these groups. Multivariate analysis of eight male and female morphometric traits detected no difference between the groups, implying they may represent cryptic species. The Bayesian time-calibrated reconstruction of phylogeny suggested that the lineages diverged ca. 2.3 Ma, in early Pleistocene. Discussion. The presence of the two genetically divergent groups results most likely from contemporary isolation of the Pontic basin from the Mediterranean that broke the continuous strip of coastal habitats inhabited by C. littoralis. Demographic analyses indicated that both lineages have been in demographic and spatial expansion since ca. 0.15 Ma. It coincides with the terminal stage of MIS-6, i.e., Wartanian/Saalian glaciation, and beginning of MIS-5e, i.e., Eemian interglacial, during which, due to eustatic sea level rise, a wide connection between Mediterranean and the Pontic basin was re-established. This, along with re-appearance of coastal habitats could initiate north-east expansion of the southern lineage and its secondary contact with the northern one. The isolation of the Pontic basin from the Mediterranean during the Weichselian glaciation most likely did not have any effect on their phylogeography. PMID:27547517

  10. Pleistocene phylogeography and cryptic diversity of a tiger beetle, Calomera littoralis, in North-Eastern Mediterranean and Pontic regions inferred from mitochondrial COI gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Jaskuła, Radomir; Rewicz, Tomasz; Płóciennik, Mateusz; Grabowski, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Background. Calomera littoralis is a Palearctic species, widely distributed in Europe; inhabiting predominantly its Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Sea coastlines. Methods. Its phylogeography on the Balkan Peninsula and on the north-western Black Sea coast was inferred using a 697 bp long portion of the mitochondrial COI gene, amplified from 169 individuals collected on 43 localities. Results. The results revealed two genetically divergent groups/lineages, the southern one inhabiting both the Balkan Peninsula and the Pontic Region and the northern one found exclusively in the Pontic Region. Species delimitation based on DNA barcoding gap suggested an interspecific level of divergence between these groups. Multivariate analysis of eight male and female morphometric traits detected no difference between the groups, implying they may represent cryptic species. The Bayesian time-calibrated reconstruction of phylogeny suggested that the lineages diverged ca. 2.3 Ma, in early Pleistocene. Discussion. The presence of the two genetically divergent groups results most likely from contemporary isolation of the Pontic basin from the Mediterranean that broke the continuous strip of coastal habitats inhabited by C. littoralis. Demographic analyses indicated that both lineages have been in demographic and spatial expansion since ca. 0.15 Ma. It coincides with the terminal stage of MIS-6, i.e., Wartanian/Saalian glaciation, and beginning of MIS-5e, i.e., Eemian interglacial, during which, due to eustatic sea level rise, a wide connection between Mediterranean and the Pontic basin was re-established. This, along with re-appearance of coastal habitats could initiate north-east expansion of the southern lineage and its secondary contact with the northern one. The isolation of the Pontic basin from the Mediterranean during the Weichselian glaciation most likely did not have any effect on their phylogeography. PMID:27547517

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidade).

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiu-Ning; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Dai, Li-Shang; Wang, Lei; Qian, Cen; Wei, Guo-Qing; Liu, Chao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was determined to be 15,374 bp (GenBank accession No. KF543065), including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and an A + T-rich region. It has the typical gene organization and order of mitogenomes from lepidopteran insects. The AT skew of this mitogenome was slightly positive and the nucleotide composition was also biased toward A + T nucleotides (81.03%). All PCGs were initiated by ATN codons, except for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene which was initiated by CGA. Four of the 13 PCGs harbor the incomplete termination codon by T. All the tRNA genes displayed a typical clover-leaf structure of mitochondrial tRNA, with the exception of trnS1 (AGN). The A + T-rich region of the mitogenome was 326 bp in length.

  12. Life history of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on various host plants.

    PubMed

    Azidah, A A; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2006-12-01

    The incubation period of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) was not influenced by the host plant, whereas larval development time and pupal period were affected. Larval development time was longest on shallot and lady's finger, followed by cabbage and long bean. Larvae did not develop beyond the first instar when fed on chilli. The pupal period was longer on lady's finger than on cabbage, shallot and long bean. Overall, adult longevity was not influenced by the host plant but there was a difference between female and male longevity among the host plants. Survival of S. exigua was affected by the host plant at the larval stage. The number of larval instars varied between 5 and 8 within and between the studied host plants. Long bean was found to be the most suitable host plant and provide the best food quality for S. exigua compared to the other host plants, as it allowed faster development, fewer larval instars and a higher survival rate.

  13. Monitoring of Resistance to New Chemistry Insecticides in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Mehmood, Rashid

    2015-06-01

    The armyworm Spodoptera litura (F.) is a very serious pest of many crops, vegetables, and ornamentals. Due to persistent application of insecticides, this pest has developed resistance to conventional as well as new chemistries. The present studies investigated the level of resistance to new chemistry insecticides, having novel modes of action, in the Pakistani field populations of S. litura during 1997-2010 by using a leaf-dip bioassay. Generally, a low to moderate resistance was recorded to indoxacarb, abamectin, fipronil, and methoxyfenozide; along with a very low resistance to spinosad. Resistance to emamectin benzoate, chlorfenapyr, and lufenuron was none or very low, in spite of their intensive use against S. litura. The insecticides, showing no or very low resistance, can be used in rotation in conjunction with other integrated pest management tactics to manage insecticide resistance in S. litura.

  14. Direct infection of Spodoptera litura by Photorhabdus luminescens encapsulated in alginate beads.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, R; Mohan, Sharad; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2006-09-01

    Actively growing cultures of Photorhabdus luminescens were encapsulated in sodium alginate beads and examined for their ability to infect insect hosts. These beads, containing approximately 2.5 x 10(7)Photorhabdus cells per bead, when mixed with sterilized soil and exposed to Spodoptera litura larvae resulted in 100% mortality in 48 h, while the use of alginate encapsulated Heterorhabditis nematode resulted in 40% mortality after 72 h. The bacteria were reisolated from the dead insect thus proving Koch's postulates and demonstrating the ability of P. luminescens to kill the insect host on their own, independent of the symbiont nematode. The LC(50) dose of Photorhabdus cells was estimated at 1010 cells per larva for killing S. litura 6th instar larvae in 48 h.

  15. Growth inhibitory effects on fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda of some limonoids isolated from Cedrela spp. (Meliaceae).

    PubMed

    Céspedes, C L; Calderón, J S; Lina, L; Aranda, E

    2000-05-01

    Dichloromethane extracts of Cedrela salvadorensis and Cedrela dugessi afforded a photogedunin epimeric mixture, gedunin and cedrelanolide. These compounds and the photogedunin epimeric acetates 3 and 4 at the 23-OH position were evaluated against Spodoptera frugiperda. Toosendanin, isolated from Melia azedarach, was used as a positive control. When tested for activity on neonate larvae into the no-choice bioassays, gedunin, photogedunin epimeric mixture, and photogedunin acetates mixture caused significant larval mortality with LC(50) of 39.0, 10.0, and 8.0 ppm at 7 days, respectively, as well as growth reduction. All the compounds tested inhibited larval growth, compared to the control, in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, it was possible to observe significant reduced pupal weights and adult emergence. All the tested compounds except cedrelanolide showed comparable activity to that of toosendanin. PMID:10820113

  16. Vip3Aa induces apoptosis in cultured Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kun; Mei, Si-Qi; Wang, Ting-Ting; Pan, Jin-Hua; Chen, Yue-Hua; Cai, Jun

    2016-09-15

    The vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip) secreted by many Bacillus thuringiensis strains during their vegetative growth stage are regarded as second generation insecticidal proteins, as they share no sequence or structural homology with known crystal insecticidal proteins (Cry) and have a broad insecticidal spectrum. Compared with insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs), the insecticidal mechanisms of Vips have been little studied. Here we investigated the mechanism responsible for Vip3Aa toxicity in cultured insect cells. Using, flow cytometry analyzes, TUNEL staining and DNA fragmentation assays, we show that Vip3Aa can induce apoptosis in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells and cause cells to arrest at the G2/M phase. We also show that Vip3Aa can disrupt mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), leading to the activation of Sf-caspase-1, suggesting that a mitochondrial mediated and caspase dependent pathway may be involved in Vip3Aa-induced apoptosis in Sf9 cells. PMID:27476462

  17. Projecting overwintering regions of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua in China using the CLIMEX model.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xia-Lin; Wang, Pan; Cheng, Wen-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Lei, Chao-Liang

    2012-01-01

    The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a serious agricultural pest worldwide. However, population sources of S. exigua in outbreak regions are still vague due to the lack of understanding the distribution of overwintering regions, especially in China. In the present study, the potential overwintering regions of S. exigua in China are projected using the method of Compare Location in the CLIMEX model in order to understand the population sources in outbreak regions and establish an accurate forecasting system. The results showed the southern and northern overwintering boundaries near the Tropic of Cancer (about 23.5 (°)N) and the Yangtze River valley (about 30 (°)N), respectively. Meanwhile, the projection was supported by the data of fieldwork in 14 countries/cities during winter from 2008-2010. In conclusion, results of this study indicated that the overwintering regions of S. exigua were accurately projected by the CLIMEX model.

  18. TOXICITY OF THE SEEDS OF PHASEOLUS LATHYROIDES (LEGUMINOSAE) AGAINST SPODOPTERA LITURA (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE).

    PubMed

    Pipattanaporn, P; Tharamak, S; Temyarasilp, P; Bullangpoti, V; Pluempanupat, W

    2015-01-01

    The seeds of Phaseolus lathyroides were extracted with hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol, respectively by Soxhlet apparatus. Each crude extract was examined for toxicity against the second instars of Spodoptera litura using a topical application method under laboratory conditions. The ethyl acetate extract showed the most effective mortality (LD₅₀ = 11,964 and 9,169 ppm after treated at 24 and 48 hours, respectively). Furthermore, in vivo enzyme based experiments revealed that acetylcholinesterase activity of survived S. litura (24 hours post-treatment) was increased by 12% compared to control experiments. Our result showed the possibility to develop alternative strategies by using extract from the seeds of Phaseolus lathyroides for the control of S. litura.

  19. Monitoring of Resistance to New Chemistry Insecticides in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Mehmood, Rashid

    2015-06-01

    The armyworm Spodoptera litura (F.) is a very serious pest of many crops, vegetables, and ornamentals. Due to persistent application of insecticides, this pest has developed resistance to conventional as well as new chemistries. The present studies investigated the level of resistance to new chemistry insecticides, having novel modes of action, in the Pakistani field populations of S. litura during 1997-2010 by using a leaf-dip bioassay. Generally, a low to moderate resistance was recorded to indoxacarb, abamectin, fipronil, and methoxyfenozide; along with a very low resistance to spinosad. Resistance to emamectin benzoate, chlorfenapyr, and lufenuron was none or very low, in spite of their intensive use against S. litura. The insecticides, showing no or very low resistance, can be used in rotation in conjunction with other integrated pest management tactics to manage insecticide resistance in S. litura. PMID:26470256

  20. Toxicity of selected tremorgenic mycotoxins and related compounds to Spodoptera frugiperda and Heliothis zea.

    PubMed

    Dowd, P F; Cole, R J; Vesonder, R F

    1988-12-01

    A series of tremorgenic mycotoxins and related compounds were tested for oral toxicity to the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and corn earworm (Heliothis zea) by incorporation of materials into artificial diets and examining mortality and weights after 7 days. Significant mortality to both insect species was caused with dihydroxyaflavinine and roseotoxin B, while significant mortality to H. zea was also caused by penitrem A at 25 ppm. After 7 days, weighs of larvae treated with 25 ppm penitrem A, roseotoxin B, and verruculogen were less than 50% of controls for both insect species. Weights of H. zea larvae treated with 25 ppb of penitrem A were less than 50% those of control larvae. Relative toxicities of the tremorgens and related compounds to insects compared to vertebrates are discussed. PMID:3209479

  1. Iron-sulfur protein in mitochondrial complexes of Spodoptera litura as potential site for ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Li, Liangde; Dong, Xiaolin; Shu, Benshui; Wang, Zheng; Hu, Qiongbo; Zhong, Guohua

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondrial complex I is the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, but the exact site of superoxide generation or their relative contribution is not clear. This study aims to determine the function of iron-sulfur clusters (ISCU) in the initiation of ROS generation. ISCU2 and ISCU8 were cloned from Spodoptera litura which shared the conserved amino acid sequence with other insects. The expressions of the two genes were ubiquitous throughout the whole development stages and tissues. Knockdown of ISCU2 and ISCU8 resulted in the decline of the ROS, whereas rotenone and azadirachtin treatment up-regulated ROS levels by increasing mRNA expression. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activity of SOD and POD were up-regulated by rotenone and azadirachtin treatment and then declined after ISCU was silenced. Our results suggest the possibility that the molecules of ISCU2 and ISCU8 in complex I may serve as potential sites in the initiation of ROS generation.

  2. Accumulation of silicon in cacti native to the United States: characterization of silica bodies and cyclic oligosiloxanes in Stenocereus thurberi, Opuntia littoralis, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Opuntia stricta.

    PubMed

    Wright, Cynthia R; Waddell, Emanuel A; Setzer, William N

    2014-06-01

    Four different cactus species growing in the United States, Stenocereus thurberi growing in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona, Opuntia littoralis and Opuntia ficus-indica, growing on Santa Catalina Island, California, and Opuntia stricta, growing in northern Alabama, were examined for the presence of silica bodies (opaline phytoliths). Silica bodies were found in all four of these cactus species, parallelepiped-shaped crystals in S. thurberi, and starburst-shaped crystalline structures in the three Opuntia species. In addition, the essential oils of the four cactus species were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. To our surprise, S. thurberi, O. littoralis, and O. ficus-indica (but not O. stricta) essential oils contained cyclic oligosiloxanes. To our knowledge, cyclic oligosiloxanes have not been previously found as essential oil components.

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of the SL221 Cells at the Early Stage during Spodoptera litura Nucleopolyhedrovirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qian; Xiong, Youhua; Liu, Jianliang; Wen, Dongling; Wu, Xiaohui; Yin, Hanqi

    2016-01-01

    Spodoptera litura (S. litura) is one of the most destructive agricultural pests worldwide. There is urgent need for a nuclear polyhedrosis virus that is specific to S. litura. To date, there have been no reports regarding the responses of S. litura cells to early Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpltNPV) infection due to the lack of a reference genome and transcriptome for S. litura. In this study, a cell transcriptome from the host S. litura was assembled and used for Illumina strand-specific RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to generate 99180 unigenes, representing the 18 hour infection cycle. More than 2000 S. litura genes were significant differentially regulated throughout the infection. The levels of viral mRNAs began to increase dramatically at 6 hpi, and this increase continued throughout the remainder of the infection. We focused on the expression of genes related to stress responses, apoptosis, metabolic enzymes and host cell innate immune system. A small subset of genes related to host stress response, especially for 62 ones being able to annotated as enzyme, ligand and receptor genes, were observed to be specifically differentially expressed at 6 hpi. At 18 hpi, 104 unigenes were continuously significantly changing from 0 hpi to 18 hpi, considered to be viral multiplication related genes, including 3 annotated SL221 unigenes and 81 viral genes, such as tetraspanin and iap gene. This information and further studies on the regulation of host gene expression by baculovirus infection at early stage will provide the tools needed to enhance the utility of this virus as an effective insecticide. PMID:26840182

  4. Alpha-galactosidases from the larval midgut of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Grossmann, G A; Terra, W R

    2001-01-01

    There are three midgut alpha-galactosidases (TG1, TG2, TG3) from Tenebrio molitor larvae that are partially resolved by ion-exchange chromatography. The enzymes have approximately the same pH optimum (5.0), pl value (4.6) and Mr value (46000-49000) as determined by gel filtration or native electrophoresis run in polyacrylamide gels with different concentrations. Substrate specificities and functions were proposed for the major T. molitor midgut alpha-galactosidases (TG2 and TG3) based on chromatographic, carbodiimide inactivation, Tris inhibition, and on substrate competition data. Thus, TG2 would hydrolyse alpha-1,6-galactosaccharides, exemplified by raffinose, whereas TG3 would act on melibiose and apparently also on digalactosyldiglyceride, the most important compound in the thylacoid membranes of chloroplasts. Most galactoside digestion should occur in the lumen of the first two thirds of T. molitor larval midguts, since alpha-galactosidase activity predominates there. Spodoptera frugiperda larvae have three midgut alpha-galactosidases (SG1, SG2, SG3) partially resolved by ion-exchange chromatography. The enzymes have similar pH optimum (5.8), pl value (7.2) and Mr value (46000-52000), and at least the major alpha-galactosidase must have an active carboxyl group in the active site. Based on data similar to those described for T. molitor, SG1 and SG3 should hydrolyse melibiose and SG3 should digest raffinose and, perhaps, also digalactosyldiglyceride. The midgut distribution of alpha-galactosidase activity supports the proposal that alpha-galactosidase digestion occurs at the surface of anterior midgut cells in Spodoptera frugiperda larvae.

  5. Differential Protection of Cry1Fa Toxin against Spodoptera frugiperda Larval Gut Proteases by Cadherin Orthologs Correlates with Increased Synergism

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Khalidur; Abdullah, Mohd Amir F.; Ambati, Suresh; Taylor, Milton D.

    2012-01-01

    The Cry proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are the most widely used biopesticides effective against a range of crop pests and disease vectors. Like chemical pesticides, development of resistance is the primary threat to the long-term efficacy of Bt toxins. Recently discovered cadherin-based Bt Cry synergists showed the potential to augment resistance management by improving efficacy of Cry toxins. However, the mode of action of Bt Cry synergists is thus far unclear. Here we elucidate the mechanism of cadherin-based Cry toxin synergism utilizing two cadherin peptides, Spodoptera frugiperda Cad (SfCad) and Manduca sexta Cad (MsCad), which differentially enhance Cry1Fa toxicity to Spodoptera frugiperda neonates. We show that differential SfCad- and MsCad-mediated protection of Cry1Fa toxin in the Spodoptera frugiperda midgut correlates with differential Cry1Fa toxicity enhancement. Both peptides exhibited high affinity for Cry1Fa toxin and an increased rate of Cry1Fa-induced pore formation in S. frugiperda. However, only SfCad bound the S. frugiperda brush border membrane vesicle and more effectively prolonged the stability of Cry1Fa toxin in the gut, explaining higher Cry1Fa enhancement by this peptide. This study shows that cadherin fragments may enhance B. thuringiensis toxicity by at least two different mechanisms or a combination thereof: (i) protection of Cry toxin from protease degradation in the insect midgut and (ii) enhancement of pore-forming ability of Cry toxin. PMID:22081566

  6. Comprehensive Analysis of Gene Expression Profiles of the Beet Armyworm Spodoptera exigua Larvae Challenged with Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Bel, Yolanda; Jakubowska, Agata K.; Costa, Juliana; Herrero, Salvador; Escriche, Baltasar

    2013-01-01

    Host-pathogen interactions result in complex relationship, many aspects of which are not completely understood. Vip proteins, which are Bacillus thuringensis (Bt) insecticidal toxins produced during the vegetative stage, are selectively effective against specific insect pests. This new group of Bt proteins represents an interesting alternative to the classical Bt Cry toxins because current data suggests that they do not share the same mode of action. We have designed and developed a genome-wide microarray for the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, a serious lepidopteran pest of many agricultural crops, and used it to better understand how lepidopteran larvae respond to the treatment with the insecticidal protein Vip3Aa. With this approach, the goal of our study was to evaluate the changes in gene expression levels caused by treatment with sublethal doses of Vip3Aa (causing 99% growth inhibition) at 8 and 24 h after feeding. Results indicated that the toxin provoked a wide transcriptional response, with 19% of the microarray unigenes responding significantly to treatment. The number of up- and down-regulated unigenes was very similar. The number of genes whose expression was regulated at 8 h was similar to the number of genes whose expression was regulated after 24 h of treatment. The up-regulated sequences were enriched for genes involved in innate immune response and in pathogen response such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and repat genes. The down-regulated sequences were mainly unigenes with homology to genes involved in metabolism. Genes related to the mode of action of Bt Cry proteins were found, in general, to be slightly overexpressed. The present study is the first genome-wide analysis of the response of lepidopteran insects to Vip3Aa intoxication. An insight into the molecular mechanisms and components related to Vip intoxication will allow designing of more effective management strategies for pest control. PMID:24312604

  7. The effect of the combination of two biological control agents, Mirabilis jalapa and Bacillus thuringiensis, to Spodoptera litura's immune response and their mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulina, Dina; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-01

    Biological control provides a safer alternative to reduce the population of agricultural pest. Mirabilis jalapa is one of many promising biopesticides which contains chemical substances that have a feeding deterrent property against insects. This biopesticide may not kill insect directly but will weaken their overall physiological condition. In this study, we investigated the immune response of common pestSpodoptera litura after exposure of M. jalapa extract. We also used Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) delta endotoxin (LC50) on 3 hours after exposure of M. jalapa extract to see the synergism properties of both biopesticide agents. Microscopic observation revealed that at least 5 types of haemocyte were found in S. litura. In control group, plasmatocyte were found at 59.98%, prohaemocyte 20.73%, granullar cell 12.74%, oenocytoid 3.33% and spherule cell 3.20%. These proportion was differ significantly in the treatment group. Exposure to 0.1% and 0.2%(w/v) of M. jalapa extract increased the total number of haemocytes as much as 38.08% and 64.15% respectively. In contrast, exposure to 0.4% and 0.8%(w/v) reduced the number of haemocytes to 37.02% and 51.04% respectively. In term of phagocytic activity, the proportion of phagocytosing cells were 47.62% in control group, and in 0.1% and 0.2% (w/v) M. jalapa treatment group the proportion decreased to 28% and 26.88% respectively. In the concentration of 0.4% and 0.8%, phagocytic activity did not occur. Addition of biological agents Bt (LC50 concentration) to see mortality 3 hours after M. jalapa application did not show significant differences. S. litura mortality rate were found only 50%; this suggests that the combination of M. jalapa and Bt biopesticides in 3-hour intervals within 24 hours showed no increase in mortality.

  8. Evidence of field-evolved resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt corn expressing Cry1F in Brazil that is still sensitive to modified Bt toxins.

    PubMed

    Monnerat, Rose; Martins, Erica; Macedo, Cristina; Queiroz, Paulo; Praça, Lilian; Soares, Carlos Marcelo; Moreira, Helio; Grisi, Isabella; Silva, Joseane; Soberon, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Brazil ranked second only to the United States in hectares planted to genetically modified crops in 2013. Recently corn producers in the Cerrado region reported that the control of Spodoptera frugiperda with Bt corn expressing Cry1Fa has decreased, forcing them to use chemicals to reduce the damage caused by this insect pest. A colony of S. frugiperda was established from individuals collected in 2013 from Cry1Fa corn plants (SfBt) in Brazil and shown to have at least more than ten-fold higher resistance levels compared with a susceptible colony (Sflab). Laboratory assays on corn leaves showed that in contrast to SfLab population, the SfBt larvae were able to survive by feeding on Cry1Fa corn leaves. The SfBt population was maintained without selection for eight generations and shown to maintain high levels of resistance to Cry1Fa toxin. SfBt showed higher cross-resistance to Cry1Aa than to Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac toxins. As previously reported, Cry1A toxins competed the binding of Cry1Fa to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from SfLab insects, explaining cross-resistance to Cry1A toxins. In contrast Cry2A toxins did not compete Cry1Fa binding to SfLab-BBMV and no cross-resistance to Cry2A was observed, although Cry2A toxins show low toxicity to S. frugiperda. Bioassays with Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod show that they are highly active against both the SfLab and the SfBt populations. The bioassay data reported here show that insects collected from Cry1Fa corn in the Cerrado region were resistant to Cry1Fa suggesting that resistance contributed to field failures of Cry1Fa corn to control S. frugiperda.

  9. Evidence of Field-Evolved Resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt Corn Expressing Cry1F in Brazil That Is Still Sensitive to Modified Bt Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Monnerat, Rose; Martins, Erica; Macedo, Cristina; Queiroz, Paulo; Praça, Lilian; Soares, Carlos Marcelo; Moreira, Helio; Grisi, Isabella; Silva, Joseane; Soberon, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Brazil ranked second only to the United States in hectares planted to genetically modified crops in 2013. Recently corn producers in the Cerrado region reported that the control of Spodoptera frugiperda with Bt corn expressing Cry1Fa has decreased, forcing them to use chemicals to reduce the damage caused by this insect pest. A colony of S. frugiperda was established from individuals collected in 2013 from Cry1Fa corn plants (SfBt) in Brazil and shown to have at least more than ten-fold higher resistance levels compared with a susceptible colony (Sflab). Laboratory assays on corn leaves showed that in contrast to SfLab population, the SfBt larvae were able to survive by feeding on Cry1Fa corn leaves. The SfBt population was maintained without selection for eight generations and shown to maintain high levels of resistance to Cry1Fa toxin. SfBt showed higher cross-resistance to Cry1Aa than to Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac toxins. As previously reported, Cry1A toxins competed the binding of Cry1Fa to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from SfLab insects, explaining cross-resistance to Cry1A toxins. In contrast Cry2A toxins did not compete Cry1Fa binding to SfLab-BBMV and no cross-resistance to Cry2A was observed, although Cry2A toxins show low toxicity to S. frugiperda. Bioassays with Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod show that they are highly active against both the SfLab and the SfBt populations. The bioassay data reported here show that insects collected from Cry1Fa corn in the Cerrado region were resistant to Cry1Fa suggesting that resistance contributed to field failures of Cry1Fa corn to control S. frugiperda. PMID:25830928

  10. Strong oviposition preference for Bt over non-Bt maize in Spodoptera frugiperda and its implications for the evolution of resistance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transgenic crops expressing Bt toxins have substantial benefits for growers in terms of reduced synthetic insecticide inputs, area-wide pest management and yield. This valuable technology depends upon delaying the evolution of resistance. The ‘high dose/refuge strategy’, in which a refuge of non-Bt plants is planted in close proximity to the Bt crop, is the foundation of most existing resistance management. Most theoretical analyses of the high dose/refuge strategy assume random oviposition across refugia and Bt crops. Results In this study we examined oviposition and survival of Spodoptera frugiperda across conventional and Bt maize and explored the impact of oviposition behavior on the evolution of resistance in simulation models. Over six growing seasons oviposition rates per plant were higher in Bt crops than in refugia. The Cry1F Bt maize variety retained largely undamaged leaves, and oviposition preference was correlated with the level of feeding damage in the refuge. In simulation models, damage-avoiding oviposition accelerated the evolution of resistance and either led to requirements for larger refugia or undermined resistance management altogether. Since larval densities affected oviposition preferences, pest population dynamics affected resistance evolution: larger refugia were weakly beneficial for resistance management if they increased pest population sizes and the concomitant degree of leaf damage. Conclusions Damaged host plants have reduced attractiveness to many insect pests, and crops expressing Bt toxins are generally less damaged than conventional counterparts. Resistance management strategies should take account of this behavior, as it has the potential to undermine the effectiveness of existing practice, especially in the tropics where many pests are polyvoltinous. Efforts to bring down total pest population sizes and/or increase the attractiveness of damaged conventional plants will have substantial benefits for slowing the

  11. Nasogastric feeding tube

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - nasogastric tube; NG tube; Bolus feeding; Continuous pump feeding; Gavage tube ... A nasogastric tube (NG tube) is a special tube that carries food and medicine to the stomach through the nose. It can be ...

  12. A tritrophic signal that attracts parasitoids to host-damaged plants withstands disruption by non-host herbivores

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Volatiles emitted by herbivore-infested plants are highly attractive to parasitoids and therefore have been proposed to be part of an indirect plant defense strategy. However, this proposed function of the plant-provided signals remains controversial, and it is unclear how specific and reliable the signals are under natural conditions with simultaneous feeding by multiple herbivores. Phloem feeders in particular are assumed to interfere with plant defense responses. Therefore, we investigated how attack by the piercing-sucking cicadellid Euscelidius variegatus influences signaling by maize plants in response to the chewing herbivore Spodoptera littoralis. Results The parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris strongly preferred volatiles of plants infested with its host S. littoralis. Overall, the volatile emissions induced by S. littoralis and E. variegatus were similar, but higher levels of certain wound-released compounds may have allowed the wasps to specifically recognize plants infested by hosts. Expression levels of defense marker genes and further behavioral bioassays with the parasitoid showed that neither the physiological defense responses nor the attractiveness of S. littoralis infested plants were altered by simultaneous E. variegatus attack. Conclusions Our findings imply that plant defense responses to herbivory can be more robust than generally assumed and that ensuing volatiles convey specific information about the type of herbivore that is attacking a plant, even in complex situations with multiple herbivores. Hence, the results of this study support the notion that herbivore-induced plant volatiles may be part of a plant's indirect defense stratagem. PMID:21078181

  13. Alkaloids from beach spider lily (Hymenocallis littoralis) induce apoptosis of HepG-2 cells by the fas-signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yu-Bin; Chen, Ning; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Ling, Na; Li, Wen-Lan; Song, Dong-Xue; Gao, Shi-Yong; Zhang, Wang-Cheng; Ma, Nan-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Alkaloids are the most extensively featured compounds of natural anti-tumor herbs, which have attracted much attention in pharmaceutical research. In our previous studies, a mixture of major three alkaloid components (5, 6-dihydrobicolorine, 7-deoxy-trans-dihydronarciclasine, littoraline) from Hymenocallis littoralis were extracted, analyzed and designated as AHL. In this paper, AHL extracts were added to human liver hepatocellular cells HepG-2, human gastric cancer cell SGC-7901, human breast adenocarcinoma cell MCF-7 and human umbilical vein endothelial cell EVC-304, to screen one or more AHL-sensitive tumor cell. Among these cells, HepG-2 was the most sensitive to AHL treatment, a very low dose (0.8μg/ml) significantly inhibiting proliferation . The non- tumor cell EVC-304, however, was not apparently affected. Effect of AHL on HepG-2 cells was then explored. We found that the AHL could cause HepG-2 cycle arrest at G2/M checkpoint, induce apoptosis, and interrupt polymerization of microtubules. In addition, expression of two cell cycle-regulated proteins, CyclinB1 and CDK1, was up-regulated upon AHL treatment. Up-regulation of the Fas, Fas ligand, Caspase-8 and Caspase-3 was observed as well, which might imply roles for the Fas/FsaL signaling pathway in the AHL-induced apoptosis of HepG-2 cells.

  14. Pathology and Epidemiology of Ceruminous Gland Tumors among Endangered Santa Catalina Island Foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) in the Channel Islands, USA.

    PubMed

    Vickers, T Winston; Clifford, Deana L; Garcelon, David K; King, Julie L; Duncan, Calvin L; Gaffney, Patricia M; Boyce, Walter M

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the prevalence, pathology, and epidemiology of tumors in free-ranging island foxes occurring on three islands in the California Channel Islands, USA. We found a remarkably high prevalence of ceruminous gland tumors in endangered foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) occurring on Santa Catalina Island (SCA)--48.9% of the dead foxes examined from 2001-2008 had tumors in their ears, and tumors were found in 52.2% of randomly-selected mature (≥ 4 years) foxes captured in 2007-2008, representing one of the highest prevalences of tumors ever documented in a wildlife population. In contrast, no tumors were detected in foxes from San Nicolas Island or San Clemente Island, although ear mites (Otodectes cynotis), a predisposing factor for ceruminous gland tumors in dogs and cats, were highly prevalent on all three islands. On SCA, otitis externa secondary to ear mite infection was highly correlated with ceruminous gland hyperplasia (CGH), and tumors were significantly associated with the severity of CGH, ceruminous gland dysplasia, and age group (older foxes). We propose a conceptual model for the formation of ceruminous gland tumors in foxes on SCA that is based on persistent, ubiquitous infection with ear mites, and an innate, over exuberant inflammatory and hyperplastic response of SCA foxes to these mites. Foxes on SCA are now opportunistically treated with acaricides in an attempt to reduce mite infections and the morbidity and mortality associated with this highly prevalent tumor.

  15. Pathology and Epidemiology of Ceruminous Gland Tumors among Endangered Santa Catalina Island Foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) in the Channel Islands, USA

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, T. Winston; Clifford, Deana L.; Garcelon, David K.; King, Julie L.; Duncan, Calvin L.; Gaffney, Patricia M.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the prevalence, pathology, and epidemiology of tumors in free-ranging island foxes occurring on three islands in the California Channel Islands, USA. We found a remarkably high prevalence of ceruminous gland tumors in endangered foxes (Urocyon littoralis catalinae) occurring on Santa Catalina Island (SCA)—48.9% of the dead foxes examined from 2001–2008 had tumors in their ears, and tumors were found in 52.2% of randomly-selected mature (≥ 4 years) foxes captured in 2007–2008, representing one of the highest prevalences of tumors ever documented in a wildlife population. In contrast, no tumors were detected in foxes from San Nicolas Island or San Clemente Island, although ear mites (Otodectes cynotis), a predisposing factor for ceruminous gland tumors in dogs and cats, were highly prevalent on all three islands. On SCA, otitis externa secondary to ear mite infection was highly correlated with ceruminous gland hyperplasia (CGH), and tumors were significantly associated with the severity of CGH, ceruminous gland dysplasia, and age group (older foxes). We propose a conceptual model for the formation of ceruminous gland tumors in foxes on SCA that is based on persistent, ubiquitous infection with ear mites, and an innate, over exuberant inflammatory and hyperplastic response of SCA foxes to these mites. Foxes on SCA are now opportunistically treated with acaricides in an attempt to reduce mite infections and the morbidity and mortality associated with this highly prevalent tumor. PMID:26618759

  16. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted gene mutagenesis in Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Bi, Hong-Lun; Xu, Jun; Tan, An-Jiang; Huang, Yong-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Custom-designed nuclease technologies such as the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-associated (Cas) system provide attractive genome editing tools for insect functional genetics. The targeted gene mutagenesis mediated by the CRISPR/Cas9 system has been achieved in several insect orders including Diptera, Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. However, little success has been reported in agricultural pests due to the lack of genomic information and embryonic microinjection techniques in these insect species. Here we report that the CRISPR/Cas9 system induced efficient gene mutagenesis in an important Lepidopteran pest Spodoptera litura. We targeted the S. litura Abdominal-A (Slabd-A) gene which is an important embryonic development gene and plays a significant role in determining the identities of the abdominal segments of insects. Direct injection of Cas9 messenger RNA and Slabd-A-specific single guide RNA (sgRNA) into S. litura embryos successfully induced the typical abd-A deficient phenotype, which shows anomalous segmentation and ectopic pigmentation during the larval stage. A polymerase chain reaction-based analysis revealed that the Cas9/sgRNA complex effectively induced a targeted mutagenesis in S. litura. These results demonstrate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful tool for genome manipulation in Lepidopteran pests such as S. litura. PMID:27061764

  17. Population Variation of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in the Western Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Pete L.; Molina-Ochoa, Jaime; Martinelli, Samuel; Skoda, Steven R.; Isenhour, David J.; Lee, Donald J.; Krumm, Jeffrey T.; Foster, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), the fall armyworm is the most economically important maize pest in the western hemisphere. This research focused on the genetic variability of the maize host strain because there is a lack of information in this area of S. frugiperda research. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) was used to assess the genetic variability of S. frugiperda over a large geographic area. Twenty populations were collected from the maize, one population was collected from princess tree, one population was collected from lemon tree, and one population was collected from bermudagrass. The 23 populations were from Mexico, the continental United States, Puerto Rico, Brazil, and Argentina. The objective of this research was to evaluate whether the majority of genetic variability was within populations or between populations. The AFLP results showed that the majority of the genetic variability is within populations and not between populations, indicating minor gene flow and suggesting that S. frugiperda in the Western Hemisphere are an interbreeding population. PMID:20334595

  18. Disruption of Spodoptera exigua larval development by silencing chitin synthase gene A with RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Tian, H; Zou, L; Tang, B; Hu, J; Zhang, W

    2008-12-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for rapidly analyzing gene functions. However, little is known about the possible use of dsRNA/siRNA as a pest control method. Here, we demonstrate that dsRNA/siRNA can induce the silence of chitin synthase gene A (CHSA), which is an important gene for the growth and development of cuticles and trachea in beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua. Based on the in vitro RNAi experiments in an insect cell line (Trichoplusia ni High 5), in vivo RNAi was performed by injecting synthesized dsRNA/siRNA into the 4th instar larvae of S. exigua. Significantly lower levels of CHSA transcripts were detected. In addition, the cuticle of these insects was disordered and the epithelial walls of larval trachea did not expand uniformly in injected individuals. Moreover, Injections significantly increased abnormalities relative to control larvae. These results highlighted the possibility of dsRNA/siRNA for gene function studies in lepidopteran insects and future pest control. PMID:18662430

  19. Iron-sulfur protein in mitochondrial complexes of Spodoptera litura as potential site for ROS generation.

    PubMed

    Li, Liangde; Dong, Xiaolin; Shu, Benshui; Wang, Zheng; Hu, Qiongbo; Zhong, Guohua

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondrial complex I is the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, but the exact site of superoxide generation or their relative contribution is not clear. This study aims to determine the function of iron-sulfur clusters (ISCU) in the initiation of ROS generation. ISCU2 and ISCU8 were cloned from Spodoptera litura which shared the conserved amino acid sequence with other insects. The expressions of the two genes were ubiquitous throughout the whole development stages and tissues. Knockdown of ISCU2 and ISCU8 resulted in the decline of the ROS, whereas rotenone and azadirachtin treatment up-regulated ROS levels by increasing mRNA expression. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activity of SOD and POD were up-regulated by rotenone and azadirachtin treatment and then declined after ISCU was silenced. Our results suggest the possibility that the molecules of ISCU2 and ISCU8 in complex I may serve as potential sites in the initiation of ROS generation. PMID:25257538

  20. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON APOPTOSIS INDUCTION BY AZADIRACHTIN IN Spodoptera frugiperda CULTURED CELL LINE Sf9.

    PubMed

    Shu, Benshui; Wang, Wenxiang; Hu, Qingbo; Huang, Jingfei; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua

    2015-07-01

    The induction of apoptosis by azadirachtin, a well-known botanical tetranortriterpenoid isolated from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and other members of the Meliaceae, was investigated in Spodoptera frugiperda cultured cell line (Sf9). Morphological changes in Sf9 cells treated by various concentrations of azadirachtin were observed at different times under light microscopy. Morphological and biochemical analysis indicated that Sf9 cells treated by 1.5 μg/mL azadirachtin showed typical morphological changes, which were indicative of apoptosis and a clear DNA ladder. The flow cytometry analysis showed the apoptosis rate reached a maximum value of 32.66% at 24 h with 1.5 μg/mL azadirachtin in Sf9 cells. The inhibition of Sf9 cell proliferation suggested that the effect of azadirachtin was dose dependent and the EC50 at 48 and 72 h was 2.727 × 10(-6) and 6.348 × 10(-9) μg/mL, respectively. The treatment of azadirachtin in Sf9 cells could significantly increase the activity of Sf caspase-1, but showed no effect on the activity of Topo I, suggesting that the apoptosis induced by azadirachtinin Sf9 cells is through caspase-dependent pathway. These results provided not only a series of morphological, biochemical, and toxicological comprehensive evidences for induction of apoptosis by azadirachtin, but also a reference model for screening insect cell apoptosis inducers from natural compounds. PMID:25828604

  1. Insecticidal potential of an endophytic Cladosporium velox against Spodoptera litura mediated through inhibition of alpha glycosidases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bahaderjeet; Kaur, Tamanreet; Kaur, Sanehdeep; Manhas, Rajesh K; Kaur, Amarjeet

    2016-07-01

    Alpha glucosidase inhibitory activity was exhibited by partially purified fractions obtained from an endophytic Cladosporium velox, isolated from Tinospora cordifolia. Taking into account the increasing importance of digestive enzyme inhibitors as insecticidal agents, the entomopathogenic potential of the fractions obtained was evaluated against Spodoptera litura (Fab.), a polyphagous pest. Considerable mortality was obtained when the larvae were fed on diet supplemented with the partially purified extract. All the concentrations of the extract significantly prolonged the overall developmental period of S. litura. At higher concentrations, the extract influenced the longevity of females as well as their reproductive potential. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenolic compounds in the active fraction. The phenolic compound responsible for the bioactivities was purified and identified to be chlorogenic acid using HPLC and MS analysis. The content of chlorogenic acid in the extract was quantified to be 250μg/ml. The purified compound also demonstrated inhibition of alpha glycosidases in vivo. The present study indicates that the endophyte imparted resistance to the insects in the plants could be mediated through chlorogenic acid targeting the alpha glycosidases present in the gut of the insect. The isolate obtained can be exploited for the production of chlorogenic acid, which has the potential to be exploited as a biocontrol agent against S. litura. PMID:27265826

  2. Development and Leaf Consumption by Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Leaves of Agroenergy Crops.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, M F; Nava, D E; Geissler, L O; Melo, M; Garcia, M S; Krüger, R

    2013-12-01

    Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous pest that threatens more than 24 species of crop plants including those used for biodiesel production such as Ricinus communis (castor bean), Jatropha curcas (Barbados nut), and Aleurites fordii (tung oil tree). The development and leaf consumption by S. cosmioides reared on leaves of these three species were studied under controlled laboratory conditions. The egg-to-adult development time of S. cosmioides was shortest when reared on castor bean leaves and longest when reared on tung oil tree leaves. Larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves had seven instars, whereas those reared on tung oil tree leaves had eight. Females originating from larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves showed greater fecundity than did females originating from larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves. Insects fed on castor bean leaves had shorter life spans than those fed on tung oil tree and Barbados nut leaves although the oviposition period did not differ significantly. The intrinsic and finite rates of increase were highest for females reared on castor bean leaves. Total leaf consumption was highest for larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves and lowest for those reared on Barbados nut leaves. We conclude that castor bean is a more appropriate host plant for the development of S. cosmioides than are Barbados nut and tung oil tree.

  3. Impact of Elevated CO2 on Tobacco Caterpillar, Spodoptera litura on Peanut, Arachis hypogea

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasa Rao, M; Manimanjari, D; Vanaja, M; Rama Rao, CA; Srinivas, K; Rao, Vum; Venkateswarlu, B

    2012-01-01

    If the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the atmosphere changes in the future, as predicted, it could influence crops and insect pests. The growth and development of the tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera), reared on peanut (Arachis hypogea L.) foliage grown under elevated CO2 (550 ppm and 700 ppm) concentrations in open top chambers at Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, India, were examined in this study. Significantly lower leaf nitrogen, higher carbon, higher relative proportion of carbon to nitrogen and higher polyphenols content expressed in terms of tannic acid equivalents were observed in the peanut foliage grown under elevated CO2 levels. Substantial influence of elevated CO2 on S. litura was noticed, such as longer larval duration, higher larval weights, and increased consumption of peanut foliage by S. litura larvae under elevated CO2 compared with ambient CO2. Relative consumption rate was significantly higher for S. litura larva fed plants grown at 550 and 700 ppm than for larvae fed plants grown at ambient condition. Decreased efficiency of conversion of ingested food, decreased efficiency of conversion of digested food, and decreased relative growth rate of larvae was observed under elevated CO2. The present results indicate that elevated CO2 levels altered the quality of the peanut foliage, resulting in higher consumption, lower digestive efficiency, slower growth, and longer time to pupation (one day more than ambient). PMID:23437971

  4. Synthetic pheromones and plant volatiles alter the expression of chemosensory genes in Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xinlong; Qian, Kai; Du, Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Pheromone and plant odorants are important for insect mating, foraging food sources and oviposition. To understand the molecular mechanisms regulating pheromone and odorant signaling, we employed qRT-PCR to study the circadian rhythms of ABP, OBP, PBP, and OR gene expression in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua and their responses after a pre-exposure to sex pheromone compounds or plant volatiles. The neuronal responses of male S. exigua to 20 chemical compounds were recorded at three specific time periods using the electroantennogram. The results showed a circadian rhythm in the expression profiles of some chemosensory genes in the antennae similar to their behavioral rhythm. The expression profiles of OR3, OR6, OR11, OR13, OR16, OR18, Orco, ABP2, OBP1, OBP7, and PBP1, and EAG responses to chemical compounds, as well as their circadian rhythm were significantly affected after exposure to synthetic sex pheromones and plant volatiles. These findings provide the first evidence that the gene expression of chemosensory genes and olfactory sensitivity to sex pheromones are affected by pre-exposing insects to pheromone compounds and plant volatiles. It helps to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying pheromone activity, and the application of sex pheromones and plant volatiles in mating disruption or mass trapping. PMID:26611815

  5. The complete sequence of the first Spodoptera frugiperda Betabaculovirus genome: a natural multiple recombinant virus.

    PubMed

    Cuartas, Paola E; Barrera, Gloria P; Belaich, Mariano N; Barreto, Emiliano; Ghiringhelli, Pablo D; Villamizar, Laura F

    2015-01-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest in maize crops in Colombia, and affects several regions in America. A granulovirus isolated from S. frugiperda (SfGV VG008) has potential as an enhancer of insecticidal activity of previously described nucleopolyhedrovirus from the same insect species (SfMNPV). The SfGV VG008 genome was sequenced and analyzed showing circular double stranded DNA of 140,913 bp encoding 146 putative ORFs that include 37 Baculoviridae core genes, 88 shared with betabaculoviruses, two shared only with betabaculoviruses from Noctuide insects, two shared with alphabaculoviruses, three copies of own genes (paralogs) and the other 14 corresponding to unique genes without representation in the other baculovirus species. Particularly, the genome encodes for important virulence factors such as 4 chitinases and 2 enhancins. The sequence analysis revealed the existence of eight homologous regions (hrs) and also suggests processes of gene acquisition by horizontal transfer including the SfGV VG008 ORFs 046/047 (paralogs), 059, 089 and 099. The bioinformatics evidence indicates that the genome donors of mentioned genes could be alpha- and/or betabaculovirus species. The previous reported ability of SfGV VG008 to naturally co-infect the same host with other virus show a possible mechanism to capture genes and thus improve its fitness.

  6. Host association of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) corn and rice strains in Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Juárez, M Laura; Murúa, M Gabriela; García, M Gabriela; Ontivero, Marta; Vera, M Teresa; Vilardi, Juan C; Groot, Astrid T; Castagnaro, Atilio P; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Willink, Eduardo

    2012-04-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) is composed of two genetically distinct strains, the so-called corn strain and the rice strain. Whether the two strains differ in their host use is unclear, because laboratory experiments have not been able to show consistent host performance or preference differences between them, and field studies showed high rates of hybridization, as well as some degree asymmetric host use. To determine the distribution of the two strains and their association with host plants, we collected fall armyworm larvae from different crops (corn, rice, alfalfa, and sorghum) and grasses in 15 different localities over 4 yr in Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay. The strain identity was analyzed using two polymorphisms in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. We identified the corn and rice haplotypes and three types of populations were characterized based on the frequencies of the individuals that belonged to any of these haplotypes: in 44% of populations the corn haplotype predominated, in 44% of populations the rice haplotype was the most frequent, and 11% of populations showed both haplotypes at similar proportions. In total, eight populations (47%) showed the expected pattern, two populations (12%) were polymorphic within the same field, and seven populations (41%) showed the inverse pattern. Taken together, there was no consistent pattern of host association between the two sympatric genotypes and their respective host plants. This investigation supports the need for additional studies to determine which other forces keep the genotypes separate, and what is the degree of genetic differentiation between these populations.

  7. An SSH library responsive to azadirachtin A constructed in Spodoptera litura Fabricius cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chao; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang; Xu, Han-Hong

    2012-05-31

    The present study revealed differentially expressed genes responsive to azadirachtin A (Aza) in Spodoptera litura cell line through suppression subtractive hybridization. In the Aza-responsive SSH library, approximately 270 sequences represent 53 different identified genes encoding proteins with various predicted functions, and the percentages of the gene clusters were 26.09% (genetic information processing), 11.41% (cell growth and death), 7.07% (metabolism), 6.52% (signal transduction/transport) and 2.72% (immunity), respectively. Eleven clones homologous to identified genes were selected to be confirmed through quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. Among the eleven clones validated, all but one transcript of lipase showed an increase in SL cell line collected from ETA, whereas the transcripts of other genes were lower in the SL cell line collected from ETA compared with that of UETA. These genes were considered to be related to the response of SL cell line to Aza. These will provide a new clue to uncover the molecular mechanisms of Aza acting on SL cell line.

  8. Identification and Characterization of Pathogen-Response Genes (repat) in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Machado, Vilmar; Serrano, Jose; Galián, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera) is one of the most important crop pests in the Americas, causing significant damage to maize, rice and sorghum. The mechanisms that determine its defences against pathogens are particularly relevant for the development of management and control strategies. We used an in silico approach to identify and characterize pathogen response genes (repat) present in different tissue libraries of S. fugiperda. The analyses revealed complete cDNA for nine repat genes; of these, repat15 and repat39 were found in libraries from a specific tissue--the midgut of larvae fed with xenobiotic substances. High expression levels of some genes were found in different libraries: 39 hits in repat30 in challenged hemocytes, 16 hits in repat31 in fat body, 10 hits in repat32 in fat body and 10 in challenged hemocytes, and 10 hits in repat38 in midgut of non-treated larvae and midgut of larvae fed with natural and xenobiotic substances. The genes corresponded to two ontology categories, stress response and immune response, and their phylogenetic relationships, nucleotide similarity, number of amino acid residues and molecular weights agree with what has been described for repat genes. It is noteworthy that proteins encoded by the repat genes of S. frugiperda have important defence functions in other tissues beyond midgut and that their functional categories are likely diverse, as they are related to cell envelope structure, energy metabolism, transport and binding. PMID:27172709

  9. Zootoxic effects of reduviid Rhynocoris marginatus (Fab.) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) venomous saliva on Spodoptera litura (Fab.).

    PubMed

    Sahayaraj, K; Muthukumar, S

    2011-10-01

    Rhynocoris marginatus is a predominant and potential reduviid predator of many economically important pests in India. The venomous saliva (VS) was collected by milking method and diluted with HPLC grade water to prepare different concentrations (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000ppm). The VS from R. marginatus was found to be toxic and the LD(50) of the VS in Spodoptera litura third instar were 768 and 929ppm at 48 and 96h for microinjection and oral toxicity studies, respectively. Level of hydrolase and detoxification enzymes significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner after treating the host with VS for 96h. A decrease in carbohydrate (21%) and lipid (46%) contents and an increase in the protein content (50%) were prominent in the experimental category. The VS reduced the relative growth rate, approximate digestibility, efficiency of conversion of ingested and digested food of S. litura in the oral toxicity study. Salivary venom inhibits the haemocytes from aggregation and affects spreading behavior of haemocytes separated from the fifth stadium larvae of S. litura. The result showed that VS toxins caused mortality, changed the nutritional indices, and altered the levels of macromolecule quantity and digestive enzymes of S. litura. We concluded that the VS of R. marginatus is venomous to a prey species, S. litura.

  10. [Realized resistance heritability and resistance risk of spodoptera exigua to cyhalothrin, fenvalerate and alpha-cypermethrin].

    PubMed

    Lan, Yiquan; Zhao, Shixi; Wu, Gang

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, Spodoptera exigua from Fuzhou of Fujian Province was continuously selected and bred to test its resistance to cyhalothrin, fenvalerate and alpha-cypermethrin, and to evaluate its realized resistance heritability (h2) and resistance risk. The results showed that after 12, 10, and 10 generations, the resistance of S. exigua to cyhalothrin, fenvalerate and alpha-cypermethrin was increased by 18.1-, 27.6-, and 45.4-fold, and the realized cyhalothrin, fenvalerate and alpha-cypermethrin was increased by 18.1-, 27.6-, and 45.4-fold, and the realized resistance heritability was 0. 2567, 0. 3571 and 0. 4239, respectively. Assuming that the h2 of field S. exigua population was half of these values, it required 9 to approximately 20 generations for cyhalothrin, 6 to approximately 14 generations for fenvalerate, and 5 to approximately12 generations for alpha-cypermethrin to obtain 10-fold increase in resistance under selective pressure of 50% to approximately 90 % mortality for each selective generation. Of the three pyrethroids, the resistance risk to cyhalothrin was smaller than that to fenvalerate and alpha-cypermethrin.

  11. Life history of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on various host plants.

    PubMed

    Azidah, A A; Sofian-Azirun, M

    2006-12-01

    The incubation period of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) was not influenced by the host plant, whereas larval development time and pupal period were affected. Larval development time was longest on shallot and lady's finger, followed by cabbage and long bean. Larvae did not develop beyond the first instar when fed on chilli. The pupal period was longer on lady's finger than on cabbage, shallot and long bean. Overall, adult longevity was not influenced by the host plant but there was a difference between female and male longevity among the host plants. Survival of S. exigua was affected by the host plant at the larval stage. The number of larval instars varied between 5 and 8 within and between the studied host plants. Long bean was found to be the most suitable host plant and provide the best food quality for S. exigua compared to the other host plants, as it allowed faster development, fewer larval instars and a higher survival rate. PMID:17201979

  12. TWO INNEXINS OF Spodoptera litura INFLUENCES HEMICHANNEL AND GAP JUNCTION FUNCTIONS IN CELLULAR IMMUNE RESPONSES.

    PubMed

    Pang, Zunyu; Li, Ming; Yu, Dongshuai; Yan, Zhang; Liu, Xinyi; Ji, Xinglai; Yang, Yang; Hu, Jiansheng; Luo, Kaijun

    2015-09-01

    Insect cellular immune responses include encapsulation, nodule formation, and phagocytosis. Hemichannels and gap junctions are involved in these cellular actions. Innexins (Inxs: analogous to the vertebrate connexins) form hemichannels and gap junctions, but the molecular mechanisms underlying their biology is still unclear. In this article, we reported a steady-state level of Inxs (SpliInxs) in hemocytes of Spodoptera litura, which formed nonfunctional hemichannels on the cell surface to maintain normal metabolism. We also reported that two innnexins (SpliInx2 and SpliInx3) were expressed significantly higher in hemocytes compared to other tissues, suggesting that they play important roles in hemocytes. Amino acid analysis found that two cysteine residues in two extracellular loops provided the capability for SpliInx2 and SpliInx3 hemichannels to dock into gap junctions. Western blotting demonstrated that both extracellular and intracellular loops of SpliInx3 and the extracellular loops of SpliInx2 might undergo posttranslational modification during the formation of a steady-state hemichannel. During hemichannel formation, SpliInx2 presented as one isoform, while SpliInx3 presented as three isoforms. These results provide fundamental knowledge for further study of how steady-state levels of SpliInxs are dynamically adjusted to perform cellular immune responses under immune challenge. PMID:25939810

  13. Suppressing the expression of a forkhead transcription factor disrupts the chitin biosynthesis pathway in Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lina; Wei, Ping; Guo, Hongshuang; Wang, Shigui; Tang, Bin

    2014-05-01

    Forkhead (Fox) transcription factors display functional diversity and are involved in various metabolic and developmental processes. The Spodoptera exigua Fox (SeFox) encodes a protein of 353 amino acids with a theoretical molecular mass of approximately 38.99 kDa and an isoelectric point of 8.86. qPCR results revealed that SeFox was expressed mainly in the brain, fat body, epidermis, midgut, Malpighian tubules, and testis. SeFox was expressed, with some changes, throughout development in the fat body and whole body. Injection of dsSeFox (SeFox dsRNA) into larvae resulted in incidences of albino plus molting deformity (4.8%), molting deformity (26.2%), and albino phenotypes (69.1%). dsSeFox injection resulted in approximately 50% knockdown of transcript levels at 36 h. Compared with control groups, hexokinase (HK) expression was reduced to approximately 40% at 48 h postinjection. Chitin synthase A (CHSA) expression was reduced to two-thirds at 24 h, but increased at 72 h. Compared with untreated control and green fluorescent protein-treated groups, Chitin synthase B (CHSB) expression decreased to 33% following dsSeFox injection by 36 h. We infer from our results that forkhead transcription factors act in chitin synthesis in S. exigua. PMID:24464395

  14. Molecular variability of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations associated to maize and cotton crops in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Samuel; Barata, Reinaldo Montrazi; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Silva-Filho, Marcio de Castro; Omoto, Celso

    2006-04-01

    The molecular variability among 10 populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), collected from maize, Zea mays L., or cotton Gossypium hirsutum L. crops located at distinctive geographical regions in Brazil, was assessed through random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In total, 208 RAPD markers were evaluated, and 98% of them were polymorphic. The mean genetic similarity was 0.6621 and 0.2499 by the Simple Matching and Jaccard matrices, respectively. In general, the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average dendrograms separated the populations into clusters related to the geographical origin of the samples. No branch of the dendrograms underpinning a molecular association of S. frugiperda has been identified to either of the two host plants. The molecular variance analysis showed that 18 and 82% of the genetic variation was distributed among and within the groups of populations, respectively. The principal coordinate analysis reinforced the pattern of population clustering found with the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average method. These results suggest the occurrence of considerable gene flow between S. frugiperda populations from maize and cotton fields located in the same region in Brazil. Therefore, for an effective management of this pest, there is an urgent need for a better understanding of the gene flow of S. frugiperda populations associated to different host plants along the distribution range of this pest over time in a specific cropping system.

  15. [BIO-INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF ALPINIA GALANGA (L.) ON LARVAL DEVELOPMENT OF SPODOPTERA LITURA (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE).

    PubMed

    Pumchan, A; Puangsomchit, A; Temyarasilp, P; Pluempanupat, W; Bullangpoti, V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the bio-efficacy of four Alpinia galanga rhizome crude extracts against the second and third instars of Spodoptera litura, an important field pest. The growth of younger larvae was significantly affected while that of the older larval stage was less influenced. In both stages, the methanol crude extract showed the greatest efficiency which caused the highest number of abnormal adults to occur and produced a large LD₅₀ value (12.816 µg/ larvae) pupicidal percentage after treatment, whereas, hexane extract caused the highest mortality during the larval-pupal stage after treatment with an LD₅₀ value of 6.354 µg/ larvae. However, the larval development was not significantly different among all treated larvae compared to the control. This study suggests that secondary larval instars of S. litura are more susceptible to the larval growth inhibitory action of Alpinia galanga extracts and these extracts could also be applied for use in the management of pests.

  16. Ultraviolet-B light induced oxidative stress: effects on antioxidant response of Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Karthi, Sengodan; Sankari, R; Shivakumar, Muthugounder S

    2014-06-01

    Ultraviolet light (UV-B), which emits radiation in the range of 280-315 nm, has been used worldwide in light trapping of insect pests. In this article, we test the hypothesis that one of the duration of UV-B exposure has a differential impact on oxidative stress marker enzymes in Spodoptera litura. Effect of UV-B exposure on total protein and antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidases (POX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were investigated in S. litura. The adults were exposed to UV-B light for various time periods (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min). We found that exposure to UV-B light for 30 and 60 min resulted in increased activities of POX. When the exposure time lasted for 60 and 90 min, the activities of SOD remained significantly higher than the control. However, the POX, CAT and GST activity decreased to control levels at 90 and 120 min. whereas relatively long duration exposure activates the xenobiotics detoxifying enzymes like GST and POX and CAT enzymes. Longer UV-B exposure may interfere with pesticide detoxification mechanism in insects, making them more susceptible to insecticides.

  17. The Complete Sequence of the First Spodoptera frugiperda Betabaculovirus Genome: A Natural Multiple Recombinant Virus

    PubMed Central

    Cuartas, Paola E.; Barrera, Gloria P.; Belaich, Mariano N.; Barreto, Emiliano; Ghiringhelli, Pablo D.; Villamizar, Laura F.

    2015-01-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest in maize crops in Colombia, and affects several regions in America. A granulovirus isolated from S. frugiperda (SfGV VG008) has potential as an enhancer of insecticidal activity of previously described nucleopolyhedrovirus from the same insect species (SfMNPV). The SfGV VG008 genome was sequenced and analyzed showing circular double stranded DNA of 140,913 bp encoding 146 putative ORFs that include 37 Baculoviridae core genes, 88 shared with betabaculoviruses, two shared only with betabaculoviruses from Noctuide insects, two shared with alphabaculoviruses, three copies of own genes (paralogs) and the other 14 corresponding to unique genes without representation in the other baculovirus species. Particularly, the genome encodes for important virulence factors such as 4 chitinases and 2 enhancins. The sequence analysis revealed the existence of eight homologous regions (hrs) and also suggests processes of gene acquisition by horizontal transfer including the SfGV VG008 ORFs 046/047 (paralogs), 059, 089 and 099. The bioinformatics evidence indicates that the genome donors of mentioned genes could be alpha- and/or betabaculovirus species. The previous reported ability of SfGV VG008 to naturally co-infect the same host with other virus show a possible mechanism to capture genes and thus improve its fitness. PMID:25609309

  18. Inhibition of the Responses to Sex Pheromone of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda

    PubMed Central

    Malo, Edi A.; Rojas, Julio C.; Gago, Rafael; Guerrero, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Trifluoromethyl ketones reversibly inhibit pheromone-degrading esterases in insect olfactory tissues, affecting pheromone detection and behavior of moth males. In this work, (Z)-9-tetradecenyl trifluoromethyl ketone (Z9-14:TFMK), a closely-related analogue of the pheromone of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was prepared and tested in electroantennogram and field tests as possible inhibitors of the pheromone action. The electroantennogram parameters, amplitude, and the repolarization time of the antennal responses of S. frugiperda males were affected by Z9-14:TFMK vapors. Exposure of male antennae to a stream of air passing through 100 ìg of the ketone produced a significant reduction of the amplitude and an increase of 2/3 repolarization time signals to the pheromone. The effect was reversible and dose-dependent. In the field, the analogue significantly decreased the number of males caught when mixed with the pheromone in 10:1 ratio. The results suggest that Z9-14:TFMK is a mating disruptant of S. frugiperda and may be a good candidate to consider in future strategies to control this pest. PMID:24766416

  19. Phenrica littoralis (Bechyné, 1955) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) a potential candidate for the biological control of alligator weed, Alternantheraphiloxeroides (Martius) Grisebach (Amaranthaceae): redescription of the adult, first description of immature stages, and biological notes.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Nora; Sosa, Alejandro J; Julien, Mic

    2013-01-01

    Flea beetles of alligator weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides (Martius) Grisebach (Amaranthaceae), were collected in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Brazil. Species in the genera Disonycha Chevrolat, Agasicles Jacoby, Systena Chevrolat and Phenrica Bechyné were frequently found on this weed. Phenrica littoralis (Bechyn6) was the most abundant within this genus. The male is described and the holotype female is redescribed adding new diagnostic characters of the mouthparts, hind wings, metendosternite, and male and female genitalia. Larva and pupa are described and illustrated for the first time providing data for future phylogenetic studies in the subtribe Disonychina.

  20. Characterization of two homologues of ChaB in Spodoptera litura multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaofei; Li, Lingling; Yu, Hang; Li, Sainan; Pang, Yi

    2006-05-10

    ChaB, a putative regulator of ChaA in Escherichia coli (E. coli), and its homologues constitute a multigene family known to occur among bacteria, archaeabacteria and baculoviruses. Distinguished from E. coli ChaB, baculoviruses ChaB proteins lack a charged loop that can bind to Ca2+ and Mg2+. The baculovirus Spodoptera litura multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpltMNPV) contains two homologues of ChaB, open reading frames (ORFs) 52 (Sl52) and 53 (Sl53). Reverse transcription-PCR and 5' Race analyses indicated that transcription of both SpltMNPV chaB genes occurs by 12 h postinfection and is initiated at a late consensus (A/T)TAAG motif. Immunoblot analysis showed that Sl52 was expressed as a doublet of 23 and 26 kDa in infected S. litura cells, while Sl53 was expressed as a 16 kDa protein. Biochemical fractionation analysis indicated that the 23 kDa form of Sl52 was distributed in both cytoplasm and nucleus of infected cells, whereas the 26 kDa form of Sl52 and Sl53 proteins were only present in nucleus. Further analysis revealed that these proteins are associated with the nucleocapsid of occlusion-derived virus. Using a histone extraction protocol, the Sl53 and 26 kDa form of Sl52 proteins were both detected in the histone H1 fraction. Additionally, column chromatography analysis showed that the Sl52 and Sl53 proteins could interact with nucleic acids. It was proposed that SpltMNPV ChaB might function as DNA binding proteins.

  1. Identification and Characterization of Candidate Chemosensory Gene Families from Spodoptera exigua Developmental Transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nai-Yong; Zhang, Ting; Ye, Zhan-Feng; Li, Fei; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Insect chemosensory genes have been considered as potential molecular targets to develop alternative strategies for pest control. However, in Spodoptera exigua, a seriously polyphagous agricultural pest, only a small part of such genes have been identified and characterized to date. Here, using a bioinformatics screen a total of 79 chemosensory genes were identified from a public transcriptomic data of different developmental stages (eggs, 1st to 5th instar larvae, pupae, female and male adults), including 34 odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 20 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 22 chemosensory receptors (10 odorant receptors (ORs), six gustatory receptors (GRs) and six ionotropic receptors (IRs)) and three sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs). Notably, a new group of lepidopteran SNMPs (SNMP3 group) was found for the first time in S. exigua, and confirmed in four other moth species. Further, reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) were employed respectively to validate the sequences and determine the expression patterns of 69 identified chemosensory genes regarding to sexes, tissues and stages. Results showed that 67 of these genes could be detected and reconstructed in at least one tissue tested. Further, 60 chemosensory genes were expressed in adult antennae and 52 in larval heads with the antennae, whereas over half of the genes were also detected in non-olfactory tissues like egg and thorax. Particularly, S. exigua OBP2 showed a predominantly larval head-biased expression, and functional studies further indicated its potentially olfactory roles in guiding food searching of larvae. This work suggests functional diversities of S. exigua chemosensory genes and could greatly facilitate the understanding of olfactory system in S. exigua and other lepidopteran species. PMID:26221071

  2. Effects of green manure cover crops on Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Li, Nian-Jhen; Yeh, Chih-Chun; Tang, Li-Cheng; Chi, Hsin

    2014-06-01

    Spodoptera litura (F.) is an important pest of numerous agro-economic crops, including green manure cover crops. In Taiwan, sesbania (Sesbanin roxburghii Merr.), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), and rapeseed (Brassicae campestris L. variety chinensis) are the most popular green manure crops; sesbania and sunn hemp are commonly planted in warm seasons, whereas rapeseed is grown in the winter. In this study, life-table data for S. litura reared on these three green manures were collected to evaluate their roles as refuges of this pest. The net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, and finite rate of increase of S. litura were the highest when reared on sesbania (1428.1 offspring, 0.2327 d(-1), 1.2621 d(-1)), followed by sunn hemp (778.4 offspring, 0.2070 d(-1), 1.2300 d(-1)) and rapeseed (737.6 offspring, 0.2040 d(-1), 1.2263 d(-1)). The high growth rates on these green manure crops show that they can serve as potential breeding sites for S. litura. Population projection demonstrated the rapid growth of S. litura on sesbania, sunn hemp, and rapeseed as well. Because most growers have traditionally ignored pest management in green manure fields, the mass emergence of S. litura in these fields may cause unexpected infestations in nearby vegetable, corn, and peanut crops. This study shows that the use of green manures as sources of nutrients should be critically reassessed and an area-wide pest management program should be instituted by taking the population of S. litura in green manure fields into consideration.

  3. Testing the joint effects hypothesis of elemental defense using Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Cheruiyot, Dorothy J; Boyd, Robert S; Moar, William

    2015-02-01

    Metal hyperaccumulation may be an elemental defense, in which high concentrations of a metal in plant tissues decrease herbivore survival or growth rate. The Joint Effects Hypothesis suggests that a combination of metals, or a combination of a metal with an organic compound, may have an enhanced defensive effect. The enhancement may be additive or synergistic: in either case the concentration of a particular metal necessary to provide a defensive benefit for the plant is lowered. We tested the Joint Effects Hypothesis using Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm) neonates fed artificial diets. Metal + metal experiments utilized diets amended with metal pairs, using four metals commonly hyperaccumulated by plants (Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn). We also conducted metal + organic compound experiments, pairing each metal with nicotine, mustard seed powder, or tannic acid. We tested for joint effects using both lethal (LC20 levels) and sublethal concentrations (10-25 % reduced larval weight) of the chemicals tested. For all experiments, either additive or synergistic effects were found. Of the metal + metal pairs tested, three (Co + Cu, Cu + Zn, and Ni + Zn) were synergistic in lethal concentration tests and only Co + Cu was synergistic in sublethal tests. For metal + organic combination lethal tests, synergism occurred for all combinations except for Co or Ni + nicotine, Ni + mustard seed powder, and Zn + nicotine. For sublethal tests, Zn + all three organic chemicals, Co + mustard seed powder or tannic acid, and Cu + nicotine, were synergistic. These results support the Joint Effects Hypothesis, suggesting that metals combined with other metals or organic compounds may be more effective against herbivores than individual metals. PMID:25712748

  4. SfDronc, an initiator caspase involved in apoptosis in the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ning; Civciristov, Srgjan; Hawkins, Christine J.; Clem, Rollie J.

    2013-01-01

    Initiator caspases are the first caspases that are activated following an apoptotic stimulus, and are responsible for cleaving and activating downstream effector caspases, which directly cause apoptosis. We have cloned a cDNA encoding an ortholog of the initiator caspase Dronc in the lepidopteran insect Spodoptera frugiperda. The SfDronc cDNA encodes a predicted protein of 447 amino acids with a molecular weight of 51 kDa. Overexpression of SfDronc induced apoptosis in Sf9 cells, while partial silencing of SfDronc expression in Sf9 cells reduced apoptosis induced by baculovirus infection or by treatment with UV or actinomycin D. Recombinant SfDronc exhibited several expected biochemical characteristics of an apoptotic initiator caspase: 1) SfDronc efficiently cleaved synthetic initiator caspase substrates, but had very little activity against effector caspase substrates; 2) mutation of a predicted cleavage site at position D340 blocked autoprocessing of recombinant SfDronc and reduced enzyme activity by approximately 10-fold; 3) SfDronc cleaved the effector caspase Sf-caspase-1 at the expected cleavage site, resulting in Sf-caspase-1 activation; and 4) SfDronc was strongly inhibited by the baculovirus caspase inhibitor SpliP49, but not by the related protein AcP35. These results indicate that SfDronc is an initiator caspase involved in caspase-dependent apoptosis in S. frugiperda, and as such is likely to be responsible for the initiator caspase activity in S. frugiperda cells known as Sf-caspase-X. PMID:23474489

  5. Toxicity of Alangium salvifolium Wang chemical constituents against the tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura Fab.

    PubMed

    Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Revathi, Kannan; Chandrasekaran, Rajamanickam; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Edwin, Edward Sam; Pradeepa, Venkatraman

    2016-01-01

    Widespread use of synthetic pesticides has resulted in the development of insecticide-resistant populations of pests and harmful effects on human health and the environment. There is a need to identify alternative pest management strategies to reduce our reliance on conventional chemical pesticides. In recent years the use of botanical pesticides for protecting crops from insect pests has assumed greater importance. Methanol extract of Alangium salvifolium (L.f.) Wang has potential insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura Fab. The active fractions were identified through chromatographic techniques as F-IV (Rf value=0.45) and F-VI (Rf value=0.63) and were subjected to GC-MS (GCMATE II). Fifty, 100 and 200ppm of active fractions were applied to fourth instar larvae and the mortality increased with higher concentrations. Relative consumption rate, relative growth rate, efficiency of conversion of ingested food and efficiency of conversion of digested food values all decreased in treated larvae, but approximate digestibility rate increased after treatment. The hydrolytic enzymes, such as acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and the glycolytic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase were inhibited in treated larvae compared with controls. The histopathology study revealed that the epithelial columnar cells were enlarged, completely atrophied; intercellular spaces were swollen, and also noted a cytoplasmic ooze of cell material that mixed with food column. The present study clearly showed the active fractions from A. salvifolium as potential botanicals to control the larvae of S. litura. This is the first report for nutritional indices, enzymatic activities and histological effects of A. salvifolium chemical constituents against S. litura. Thus probably, this will be used as an alternative for synthetic pesticides against the polyphagous pest like S. litura. PMID:26778440

  6. Seasonal Pattern of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Migration Across the Bohai Strait in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaowei; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Xie, Bingtang; Ali, Abid; Wu, Kongming

    2015-04-01

    The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura (F.), is a serious crop pest with a strong migratory ability. Previous studies on the migration of S. litura were mostly carried out in its "year-round breeding region" (YBR) or "overwintering region" (OR). However, the pattern of seasonal movements in its "summer breeding region" (SBR; i.e., northern China where they cannot overwinter) remains unknown. Here, we present data from an 11-yr study of this species made by searchlight trapping on Beihuang (BH) Island in the center of the Bohai Strait, which provides direct evidence that S. litura regularly migrates across this sea. There was considerable yearly and monthly variation in the number of S. litura trapped on BH, with the vast majority trapped in the autumn. The mean time from the earliest trapping to the latest trapping within a year was 110±12 d during 2003-2013, with the shortest time span of 40 d in 2003 and the longest of 166 d in 2012. S. litura moths had downwind displacement rather than randomly by heading toward their seasonally favorable direction (i.e. toward southwest in the four autumn migration events by prevailing northeasterly winds). Some females trapped in July showed a relatively higher proportion of having mated and a degree of ovarian development, suggesting that the migration of this species is not completely bound by the "oogenesis-flight syndrome." These findings provide a good starting point of research on S. litura migration between its OR (or YBR) and SBR, which will help us develop more effective regional management strategies against this pest.

  7. Identification and Differential Expression of a Candidate Sex Pheromone Receptor in Natural Populations of Spodoptera litura

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xinda; Zhang, Qinhui; Wu, Zhongnan; Du, Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Olfaction is primarily mediated by highly specific olfactory receptors (ORs), a subfamily of which are the pheromone receptors that play a key role in sexual communication and can contribute to reproductive isolation. Here we cloned and identified an olfactory receptor, SlituOR3 (Genbank NO. JN835270), from Spodoptera litura, to be the candidate pheromone receptor. It exhibited male-biased expression in the antennae, where they were localized at the base of sensilla trichoidea. Conserved orthologues of these receptors were found amongst known pheromone receptors within the Lepidoptera, and SlituOR3 were placed amongst a clade of candidate pheromone receptors in a phylogeny tree of insect ORs. SlituOR3 is required for the EAG responses to both Z9E11-14:OAc and Z9E12-14:OAc SlituOR3 showed differential expression in S. litura populations attracted to traps baited with a series of sex pheromone blends composed of different ratios of (9Z,11E)-tetradecadienyl acetate (Z9E11-14:OAc) and (9Z,12E)-tetradecadienyl acetate (Z9E12-14:OAc). The changes in the expression level of SlitOR3 and antennal responses after SlitOR3 silencing suggested that SlitOR3 is required for the sex pheromone signaling. We infer that variation in transcription levels of olfactory receptors may modulate sex pheromone perception in male moths and could affect both of pest control and monitoring efficiency by pheromone application after long time mass trapping with one particular ratio of blend in the field. PMID:26126192

  8. Effects of Pyriproxyfen on Female Reproduction in the Common Cutworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Qi; Tang, Bin; Zou, Qi; Zheng, Huizhen; Liu, Xiaojun; Wang, Shigui

    2015-01-01

    The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura, is a rapidly reproducing pest of numerous agricultural ecosystems worldwide. The use of pesticides remains the primary means for controlling S. litura, despite their negative ecological impact and potential threat to human health. The use of exogenous hormone analogs may represent an alternative to insecticides. Juvenile hormones (JHs) play an important role in the reproductive systems of female insects, but the effects of pyriproxyfen, a JH analog, on reproduction in S. litura were poorly understood. In this paper, we topically treated the newly emerged females with 20, 60, or 100 μg of pyriproxyfen to determine its effects on reproduction. Then, we examined the expression of vitellogenin (Vg) and three hormone receptors, USP, HR3, and EcR, using quantitative reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and found that pyriproxyfen up-regulated the expression of Vg, USP, and HR3, whereas the expression of EcR was unaffected. An analysis of fecundity showed that the peak oviposition day, lifespan, and oviposition period were progressively shortened as the pyriproxyfen dosage increased. We also found that pyriproxyfen decreased egg laying amount, whereas the number of mature eggs that remained in the ovarioles of dead females increased as the pyriproxyfen dosage increased. We examined oocytes using transmission electron microscopy and found that treatment with 100 μg of pyriproxyfen increased the metabolism by increasing the amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in the primary oocytes. Our results suggest that the topical application of pyriproxyfen on newly emerged females can efficiently reduce reproduction in S. litura and may represent an alternative to the use of insecticides for controlling the agricultural pest. PMID:26444432

  9. Genomic Analysis and Isolation of RNA Polymerase II Dependent Promoters from Spodoptera frugiperda.

    PubMed

    Bleckmann, Maren; Fritz, Markus H-Y; Bhuju, Sabin; Jarek, Michael; Schürig, Margitta; Geffers, Robert; Benes, Vladimir; Besir, Hüseyin; van den Heuvel, Joop

    2015-01-01

    The Baculoviral Expression Vector System (BEVS) is the most commonly used method for high expression of recombinant protein in insect cells. Nevertheless, expression of some target proteins--especially those entering the secretory pathway--provides a severe challenge for the baculovirus infected insect cells, due to the reorganisation of intracellular compounds upon viral infection. Therefore, alternative strategies for recombinant protein production in insect cells like transient plasmid-based expression or stable expression cell lines are becoming more popular. However, the major bottleneck of these systems is the lack of strong endogenous polymerase II dependent promoters, as the strong baculoviral p10 and polH promoters used in BEVS are only functional in presence of the viral transcription machinery during the late phase of infection. In this work we present a draft genome and a transcriptome analysis of Sf21 cells for the identification of the first known endogenous Spodoptera frugiperda promoters. Therefore, putative promoter sequences were identified and selected because of high mRNA level or in analogy to other strong promoters in other eukaryotic organism. The chosen endogenous Sf21 promoters were compared to early viral promoters for their efficiency to trigger eGFP expression using transient plasmid based transfection in a BioLector Microfermentation system. Furthermore, promoter activity was not only shown in Sf21 cells but also in Hi5 cells. The novel endogenous Sf21 promoters were ranked according to their activity and expand the small pool of available promoters for stable insect cell line development and transient plasmid expression in insect cells. The best promoter was used to improve plasmid based transient transfection in insect cells substantially.

  10. Effects of Pyriproxyfen on Female Reproduction in the Common Cutworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qi; Tang, Bin; Zou, Qi; Zheng, Huizhen; Liu, Xiaojun; Wang, Shigui

    2015-01-01

    The common cutworm, Spodoptera litura, is a rapidly reproducing pest of numerous agricultural ecosystems worldwide. The use of pesticides remains the primary means for controlling S. litura, despite their negative ecological impact and potential threat to human health. The use of exogenous hormone analogs may represent an alternative to insecticides. Juvenile hormones (JHs) play an important role in the reproductive systems of female insects, but the effects of pyriproxyfen, a JH analog, on reproduction in S. litura were poorly understood. In this paper, we topically treated the newly emerged females with 20, 60, or 100 μg of pyriproxyfen to determine its effects on reproduction. Then, we examined the expression of vitellogenin (Vg) and three hormone receptors, USP, HR3, and EcR, using quantitative reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and found that pyriproxyfen up-regulated the expression of Vg, USP, and HR3, whereas the expression of EcR was unaffected. An analysis of fecundity showed that the peak oviposition day, lifespan, and oviposition period were progressively shortened as the pyriproxyfen dosage increased. We also found that pyriproxyfen decreased egg laying amount, whereas the number of mature eggs that remained in the ovarioles of dead females increased as the pyriproxyfen dosage increased. We examined oocytes using transmission electron microscopy and found that treatment with 100 μg of pyriproxyfen increased the metabolism by increasing the amount of rough endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in the primary oocytes. Our results suggest that the topical application of pyriproxyfen on newly emerged females can efficiently reduce reproduction in S. litura and may represent an alternative to the use of insecticides for controlling the agricultural pest. PMID:26444432

  11. Molecular characterization of a ryanodine receptor gene from Spodoptera exigua and its upregulation by chlorantraniliprole.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lina; Qiu, Guisheng; Cui, Li; Ma, Chunsen; Yuan, Huizhu

    2015-09-01

    Chlorantraniliprole is a novel diamide insecticide that targets the insect ryanodine receptor, a Ca(2+) release channel. Spodoptera exigua is a significant insect pest, and chlorantraniliprole is the most popular diamide insecticide used against this pest. To better understand the effects of diamides on RyR expression and [Ca(2+)], we isolated the SeRyR cDNA and investigated changes in SeRyR expression as a result of the application of chlorantraniliprole. The full-length cDNAs of SeRyR contain an open reading frame (ORF) of 15,357 bp with a predicted protein consisting of 5118 amino acids. SeRyR shares 77-92% identity with other insect RyR isoforms and 45-47% identity with vertebrate RyR isoforms. Furthermore, the relative expression abundances of RyR mRNA extracted from S. exigua fat body cells after 24 h of culture in 0.1, 1, 10, 100 nM, 1 µM and 100 µM of chlorantraniliprole changed 1.04-, 0.89-, 1.83-, 2.58-, 4.03- and 3.12-fold compared to blank control, respectively. The regression equation for the relative expression levels of SeRyR after 24 h as a function of the chlorantraniliprole concentration was Y = 0.6455 + 0.8188LgX, R(2) = 0.97093 for the cell line IOZCAS-Spex-II. These results outline the effects of chlorantraniliprole on the expression of SeRyR and provide a basis for the discovery of a compound that may exhibit selective insect activity. PMID:26267053

  12. Demography and Consumption of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Cabbage and Taro.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Yeh, Chih-Chun; Atlihan, Remzi; Chi, Hsin; Tang, Li-Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Spodoptera litura (F.) causes considerable economic damage to multiple agro-crops annually in many countries. In this study, the demography of S. litura reared on cabbage and taro was investigated using the age-stage, two-sex life table at 25±1°C, 60±10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12: 12 (L:D) h. Our results showed that the net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate, and finite rate of population increase on cabbage (1893.1 offspring, 0.2374 d(−1), and 1.2679 d(−1)) were all not significantly different from those on taro (1361.0 offspring, 0.2298 d(−1), and 1.2584 d(−1)). The net consumption rate on cabbage (439.1 cm2) was, however, three times higher than that on taro (141.7 cm2). According to the population parameters, both cabbage and taro are suitable host plants for S. litura. When both the population growth rate and the consumption rate were taken into consideration, the finite consumption rate on cabbage (ω=3.8054) was significantly higher than that on taro (ω=1.3184). In Taiwan, taro and cabbage are commonly planted in adjacent farm plots, with taro being grown from March to November and cabbage from October to April. Because of the overlapping growth periods of the two crops, S. litura can easily propagate throughout the year by switching between the adjacent crops during the overlap periods. Pest management strategies for controlling S. litura must be thoroughly reevaluated based on ecological characteristics, including its life table and consumption rate on its major host plants. PMID:26578628

  13. [Resistance mechanisms of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) to fenvalerate and alpha-cypermethrin].

    PubMed

    Lan, Yi-Quan; Zhao, Shi-Xi

    2010-01-01

    By using synergist bioassay and biochemical analysis, this paper approached the resistance mechanisms of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) to fenvalerate and alpha-cypermethrin. The synergistic ratios of piperonyl butoxide (PBO), o, o-diethyl-o-phenyl-thiophosphate (SV1), triphenyl phosphate (TPP), and diethyl maleate (DEM) between fenvalerate-resistant strain (Fen-R) and susceptible strain were 10.2, 7.8, 12.5, and 1.1, and those between alpha-cypermethrin resistant strain (Cyp-R) and susceptible strain were 21.6, 15.5, 8.6, and 1.2, respectively. Significant synergisms of PBO, SV1, and TPP to fenvalerate and alpha-cypermethrin were observed, implying that multifunctional oxidase and carboxylesterase were involved in the resistance to fenvalerate and alpha-cypermethrin. The carboxylesterase activities in the fourth instar larvae of Cyp-R and Fen-R strains were 1.9 and 2.2 folds of the corresponding susceptible strains, respectively, but no differences were found in the glutathione-S-transferase activities between the resistant and susceptible strains, which indicated that carboxylesterase played an important role in the resistance of S. exigua to fenvalerate and alpha-cypermethrin, while glutathione-S-transferase contributed little to the resistance. There were no significant differences in the Na-K-ATPase activities between the resistant and susceptible strains, but the inhibition of fenvalerate and alpha-cypermethrin on Na-K-ATPase was higher in the susceptible strains than in the resistant strains, indicating the decreased sensitivity of Na-K-ATPase in resistant strains.

  14. Identification and functional characterization of sex pheromone receptors in beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Hübner).

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengcheng; Liu, Yang; Walker, William B; Dong, Shuanglin; Wang, Guirong

    2013-08-01

    In moths, males can detect a distinct blend of several pheromone components by specialized olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) on the antennae. Four candidate pheromone receptors (PR) with seven transmembrane domains were identified by homology cloning from the antennae of Spodoptera exigua (Sexi). Phylogenetic analyses reveal that all four odorant receptors (OR) belong to pheromone receptor subtypes. Expression patterns revealed that PRs were male-specific in the antenna except for SexiOR11, which was female antenna-biased. Functional analyses of these PRs were conducted using heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes. SexiOR13 and SexiOR16 were all broadly activated by multiple pheromone components. SexiOR13 responded robustly to the critical pheromone component, Z9, E12-14:OAc and the minor pheromone component, Z9-14:OAc at a concentration of 10(-4) M. Dose-response studies indicate that SexiOR13 was approximately 4 times more sensitive to Z9,E12-14:OAc (EC50 = 3.158 × 10(-6) M) compared to Z9-14:OAc (EC50 = 1.203 × 10(-5) M). While, SexiOR16 responded robustly to the secondary pheromone component Z9-14:OH with high sensitivity (EC50 = 9.690 × 10(-7) M). However, similar tests of the five pheromones with SexiOR6 and SexiOR11 failed to elicit any response. These results provide basic knowledge to further advance research on the molecular mechanisms of pheromone reception. PMID:23751753

  15. Effects of green manure cover crops on Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Li, Nian-Jhen; Yeh, Chih-Chun; Tang, Li-Cheng; Chi, Hsin

    2014-06-01

    Spodoptera litura (F.) is an important pest of numerous agro-economic crops, including green manure cover crops. In Taiwan, sesbania (Sesbanin roxburghii Merr.), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), and rapeseed (Brassicae campestris L. variety chinensis) are the most popular green manure crops; sesbania and sunn hemp are commonly planted in warm seasons, whereas rapeseed is grown in the winter. In this study, life-table data for S. litura reared on these three green manures were collected to evaluate their roles as refuges of this pest. The net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, and finite rate of increase of S. litura were the highest when reared on sesbania (1428.1 offspring, 0.2327 d(-1), 1.2621 d(-1)), followed by sunn hemp (778.4 offspring, 0.2070 d(-1), 1.2300 d(-1)) and rapeseed (737.6 offspring, 0.2040 d(-1), 1.2263 d(-1)). The high growth rates on these green manure crops show that they can serve as potential breeding sites for S. litura. Population projection demonstrated the rapid growth of S. litura on sesbania, sunn hemp, and rapeseed as well. Because most growers have traditionally ignored pest management in green manure fields, the mass emergence of S. litura in these fields may cause unexpected infestations in nearby vegetable, corn, and peanut crops. This study shows that the use of green manures as sources of nutrients should be critically reassessed and an area-wide pest management program should be instituted by taking the population of S. litura in green manure fields into consideration. PMID:25026645

  16. Demography and Consumption of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Cabbage and Taro.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Yeh, Chih-Chun; Atlihan, Remzi; Chi, Hsin; Tang, Li-Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Spodoptera litura (F.) causes considerable economic damage to multiple agro-crops annually in many countries. In this study, the demography of S. litura reared on cabbage and taro was investigated using the age-stage, two-sex life table at 25±1°C, 60±10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12: 12 (L:D) h. Our results showed that the net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate, and finite rate of population increase on cabbage (1893.1 offspring, 0.2374 d(−1), and 1.2679 d(−1)) were all not significantly different from those on taro (1361.0 offspring, 0.2298 d(−1), and 1.2584 d(−1)). The net consumption rate on cabbage (439.1 cm2) was, however, three times higher than that on taro (141.7 cm2). According to the population parameters, both cabbage and taro are suitable host plants for S. litura. When both the population growth rate and the consumption rate were taken into consideration, the finite consumption rate on cabbage (ω=3.8054) was significantly higher than that on taro (ω=1.3184). In Taiwan, taro and cabbage are commonly planted in adjacent farm plots, with taro being grown from March to November and cabbage from October to April. Because of the overlapping growth periods of the two crops, S. litura can easily propagate throughout the year by switching between the adjacent crops during the overlap periods. Pest management strategies for controlling S. litura must be thoroughly reevaluated based on ecological characteristics, including its life table and consumption rate on its major host plants.

  17. Analysis of Genes Expression of Spodoptera exigua Larvae upon AcMNPV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Zhen, Zou; Tao, Xue Ying; Lee, Joo Hyun; Liu, Qin; Kim, Jae Su; Shin, Sang Woon; Je, Yeon Ho

    2012-01-01

    Background The impact of Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) infection on host gene expression in Spodoptera exigua 4th instar larvae was investigated through the use of 454 sequencing-based RNA-seq of cDNA libraries developed from insects challenged with active AcMNPV or heat-inactivated AcMNPV. Methodology/Principal Findings By comparing the two cDNA libraries, we show that 201 host genes are significantly up-regulated and 234 genes are significantly down-regulated by active AcMNPV infection. Down-regulated host genes included genes encoding antimicrobial peptides, namely three gloverin isoforms and an attacin, indicating that the viral infection actively repressed the expression of a portion of the host immune gene repertoire. Another interesting group of down-regulated host genes included genes encoding two juvenile hormone binding proteins and a hexamerin, all of which are involved in juvenile hormone regulation. The expression of these genes was enhanced by the topical application of Juvenile Hormone III (JHIII) in the insects challenged with heat-inactivated AcMNPV. However, infection with the active virus strongly suppresses the expression of these three genes, regardless of the absence or presence of JHIII. Conclusions/Significance Using RNA-seq, we have identified groups of immune-regulated and juvenile hormone-regulated genes that are suppressed by infection with active AcMNPV. This information and further studies on the regulation of host gene expression by AcMNPV will provide the tools needed to enhance the utility of the virus as an effective protein expression system and as an insecticide. PMID:22860129

  18. A role for Innexin2 and Innexin3 proteins from Spodoptera litura in apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tian; Li, Ming; Zhang, Yan; Pang, Zunyu; Xiao, Wei; Yang, Yang; Luo, Kaijun

    2013-01-01

    Gap junctions formed by two hemichannels from two neighboring cells are cell-to-cell communication channels; hemichannels are communication channels between intracellular and extracellular environments. Hemichannels are hexameric proteins formed by connexins, pannexins, innexins and vinnexins. Innexin-hemichannels (innexons) exist in the lepidopteran cell surface, but their component innexins and functions have not been reported. Recent studies by others have demonstrated that hemichannels, connexons and pannexons from vertebrates serve as regulators of apoptosis via inactivating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Here, the apoptogenic properties of innexons are demonstrated using two innexin cDNAs, Spli-inx2 and Spli-inx3, which were isolated from hemocytes of lepidopteran Spodoptera litura. Alignment analysis revealed that these two genes belong to a conserved innexin family, as they contain the insect signature YYQWV motif at the beginning of the second transmembrane domain. Immunofluorescence showed that two fusion proteins, Inx2-V5 and Inx3-V5, were localized predominantly in the cell membrane, cytoplasm and also nuclei. Ectopic expression in Sf9 cells and over-expression of Inx2 and Inx3 in Spli221 cells promoted apoptosis. In the Spli221 cells, apoptotic cells presented remarkable membrane blebbing. This study also showed that Sf9 and Spli221 cells undergo low level apoptosis under normal culture conditions, but not Hi5 cells. In Hi5 stable cell lines, biotinylation was used to isolate surface proteins and confirm Inx2 and Inx3 localization in the cell membrane and also further data showed that Hi5 cells may activate the PI3K signaling pathway via phosphorylating molecular Akt downstream. This result suggests that innexon-promoted apoptosis may be involving the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. These findings will facilitate further examinations of the apoptotic regulation by the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and comparative studies of innexons, connexons, pannexons

  19. Potential of trap crops for integrated management of the tropical armyworm, Spodoptera litura in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhongshi; Chen, Zepeng; Xu, Zaifu

    2010-01-01

    The tropical armyworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important pest of tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), in South China that is becoming increasingly resistant to pesticides. Six potential trap crops were evaluated to control S. litura on tobacco. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae), and taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott (Alismatales: Araceae), hosted significantly more S. litura than peanut, Arachis hypogaea L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), sweet potato, Ipomoea batata Lam. (Solanales: Convolvulaceae) or tobacoo in a greenhouse trial, and tobacco field plots with taro rows hosted significantly fewer S. litura than those with rows of other trap crops or without trap crops, provided the taro was in a fast-growing stage. When these crops were grown along with eggplant, Solanum melongena L. (Solanales: Solanaceae), and soybean, Glycines max L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), in separate plots in a randomized matrix, tobacco plots hosted more S. litura than the other crop plots early in the season, but late in the season, taro plots hosted significantly more S. litura than tobacco, soybean, sweet potato, peanut or eggplant plots. In addition, higher rates of S. litura parasitism by Microplitis prodeniae Rao and Chandry (Hymenoptera: Bracondidae) and Campoletis chlorideae Uchida (Ichnumonidae) were observed in taro plots compared to other crop plots. Although taro was an effective trap crop for managing S. litura on tobacco, it did not attract S. litura in the seedling stage, indicating that taro should either be planted 20-30 days before tobacco, or alternative control methods should be employed during the seedling stage. PMID:20874598

  20. Natural Distribution of Parasitoids of Larvae of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Gabriela Murúa, M.; Molina-Ochoa, Jaime; Fidalgo, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    To develop a better understanding of the natural distribution of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and to update the knowledge of the incidence of its complex of parasitoids. S. frugiperda, samplings in whorl-stage corn were carried out in provinces of Argentina from 1999 to 2003. S. frugiperda larvae were collected from corn in localities of the provinces of Tucumán, Salta, Jujuy, Santiago del Estero, La Rioja, Córdoba, San Luis, Chaco and Misiones. In each locality 30 corn plants were sampled and only larvae located in those plants were collected. The parasitoids that emerged from S. frugiperda larvae were identified and counted. The abundance of the parasitoids and the parasitism rate were estimated. The S. frugiperda parasitoids collected were Campoletis grioti (Blanchard) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Chelonus insularis (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Archytas marmoratus (Townsend) (Diptera Tachinidae) and/or A. incertus (Macquart), Ophion sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Euplectrus platyhypenae Howard (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and Incamyia chilensis (Aldrich) (Diptera Tachinidae). C. grioti was the most abundant and frequent during the five-year survey. Similar diversity of parasitoids was obtained in all the provinces, with the exception of I. chilensis and E. platyhypenae that were recovered only in the province of Salta. In the Northwestern region, in Tucumán, C. grioti and species of Archytas were the most abundant and frequent parasitoids. On the contrary, in Salta and Jujuy Ch. insularis was the parasitoid most abundant and frequently recovered. The parasitism rate obtained in Tucumán, Salta and Jujuy provinces were 21.96%, 17.87% and 6.63% respectively with an average of 18.93%. These results demonstrate that hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of S. frugiperda occurred differentially throughout the Argentinian provinces and played an important role on the natural control of the S. frugiperda larval

  1. Natural populations of Spodoptera exigua are infected by multiple viruses that are transmitted to their offspring.

    PubMed

    Virto, Cristina; Navarro, David; Tellez, M Mar; Herrero, Salvador; Williams, Trevor; Murillo, Rosa; Caballero, Primitivo

    2014-10-01

    Sublethal infections by baculoviruses (Baculoviridae) are believed to be common in Lepidoptera, including Spodoptera exigua. In addition, novel RNA viruses of the family Iflaviridae have been recently identified in a laboratory population of S. exigua (S. exigua iflavirus-1: SeIV-1; S. exigua iflavirus-2: SeIV-2) that showed no overt signs of disease. We determined the prevalence of these viruses in wild populations and the prevalence of co-infection by the different viruses in shared hosts. Infection by S. exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) and iflaviruses in S. exigua adults (N=130) from horticultural greenhouses in southern Spain was determined using qPCR and RT-PCR based techniques respectively. The offspring of these insects (N=200) was reared under laboratory conditions and analyzed to determine virus transmission. Overall, 54% of field-caught adults were infected by SeMNPV, 13.1% were infected by SeIV-1 and 7.7% were infected by SeIV-2. Multiple infections were also detected, with 8.4% of individuals harboring SeMNPV and one of the iflaviruses, whereas 2.3% of adults were infected by all three viruses. All the viruses were transmitted to offspring independently of whether the parental female harbored covert infections or not. Analysis of laboratory-reared insects in the adult stage revealed that SeIV-1 was significantly more prevalent than SeMNPV or SeIV-2, suggesting high transmissibility of SeIV-1. Mixed infection involving three viruses was identified in 6.5% of laboratory-reared offspring. We conclude that interspecific interactions between these viruses in co-infected individuals are to be likely frequent, both in the field, following applications of SeMNPV-based insecticides, or in laboratory colonies used for SeMNPV mass production.

  2. Structural and Functional Analyses of a Sterol Carrier Protein in Spodoptera litura

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Rui; Zheng, Sichun; He, Hongwu; Wan, Jian; Feng, Qili

    2014-01-01

    Backgrounds In insects, cholesterol is one of the membrane components in cells and a precursor of ecdysteroid biosynthesis. Because insects lack two key enzymes, squalene synthase and lanosterol synthase, in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, they cannot autonomously synthesize cholesterol de novo from simple compounds and therefore have to obtain sterols from their diet. Sterol carrier protein (SCP) is a cholesterol-binding protein responsible for cholesterol absorption and transport. Results In this study, a model of the three-dimensional structure of SlSCPx-2 in Spodoptera litura, a destructive polyphagous agricultural pest insect in tropical and subtropical areas, was constructed. Docking of sterol and fatty acid ligands to SlSCPx-2 and ANS fluorescent replacement assay showed that SlSCPx-2 was able to bind with relatively high affinities to cholesterol, stearic acid, linoleic acid, stigmasterol, oleic acid, palmitic acid and arachidonate, implying that SlSCPx may play an important role in absorption and transport of these cholesterol and fatty acids from host plants. Site-directed mutation assay of SlSCPx-2 suggests that amino acid residues F53, W66, F89, F110, I115, T128 and Q131 are critical for the ligand-binding activity of the SlSCPx-2 protein. Virtual ligand screening resulted in identification of several lead compounds which are potential inhibitors of SlSCPx-2. Bioassay for inhibitory effect of five selected compounds showed that AH-487/41731687, AG-664/14117324, AG-205/36813059 and AG-205/07775053 inhibited the growth of S. litura larvae. Conclusions Compounds AH-487/41731687, AG-664/14117324, AG-205/36813059 and AG-205/07775053 selected based on structural modeling showed binding affinity to SlSCPx-2 protein and inhibitory effect on the growth of S. litura larvae. PMID:24454688

  3. Feeding underground: kinematics of feeding in caecilians.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Measey, G John

    2012-11-01

    Caecilians are limbless amphibians that have evolved distinct cranial and postcranial specializations associated with a burrowing lifestyle. Observations on feeding behavior are rare and restricted to above-ground feeding in laboratory conditions. Here we report data on feeding in tunnels using both external video and X-ray recordings of caecilians feeding on invertebrate prey. Our data show feeding kinematics similar to those previously reported, including the pronounced neck bending observed during above-ground feeding. Our data illustrate, however, that caecilians may be much faster than previously suspected, with lunge speeds of up to 7 cm sec(-1). Although gape cycles are often slow (0.67 ± 0.29 sec), rapid jaw closure is observed during prey capture, with cycle times and jaw movement velocities similar to those observed in other terrestrial tetrapods. Finally, our data suggest that gape angles may be large (64.8 ± 18°) and that gape profiles are variable, often lacking distinct slow and fast opening and closing phases. These data illustrate the importance of recording naturalistic feeding behavior and shed light on how these animals are capable of capturing and processing prey in constrained underground environments. Additional data on species with divergent cranial morphologies would be needed to better understand the co-evolution between feeding, burrowing, and cranial design in caecilians.

  4. Feeding underground: kinematics of feeding in caecilians.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Measey, G John

    2012-11-01

    Caecilians are limbless amphibians that have evolved distinct cranial and postcranial specializations associated with a burrowing lifestyle. Observations on feeding behavior are rare and restricted to above-ground feeding in laboratory conditions. Here we report data on feeding in tunnels using both external video and X-ray recordings of caecilians feeding on invertebrate prey. Our data show feeding kinematics similar to those previously reported, including the pronounced neck bending observed during above-ground feeding. Our data illustrate, however, that caecilians may be much faster than previously suspected, with lunge speeds of up to 7 cm sec(-1). Although gape cycles are often slow (0.67 ± 0.29 sec), rapid jaw closure is observed during prey capture, with cycle times and jaw movement velocities similar to those observed in other terrestrial tetrapods. Finally, our data suggest that gape angles may be large (64.8 ± 18°) and that gape profiles are variable, often lacking distinct slow and fast opening and closing phases. These data illustrate the importance of recording naturalistic feeding behavior and shed light on how these animals are capable of capturing and processing prey in constrained underground environments. Additional data on species with divergent cranial morphologies would be needed to better understand the co-evolution between feeding, burrowing, and cranial design in caecilians. PMID:22927194

  5. Adaptive divergence despite strong genetic drift: genomic analysis of the evolutionary mechanisms causing genetic differentiation in the island fox (Urocyon littoralis).

    PubMed

    Funk, W Chris; Lovich, Robert E; Hohenlohe, Paul A; Hofman, Courtney A; Morrison, Scott A; Sillett, T Scott; Ghalambor, Cameron K; Maldonado, Jesus E; Rick, Torben C; Day, Mitch D; Polato, Nicholas R; Fitzpatrick, Sarah W; Coonan, Timothy J; Crooks, Kevin R; Dillon, Adam; Garcelon, David K; King, Julie L; Boser, Christina L; Gould, Nicholas; Andelt, William F

    2016-05-01

    The evolutionary mechanisms generating the tremendous biodiversity of islands have long fascinated evolutionary biologists. Genetic drift and divergent selection are predicted to be strong on islands and both could drive population divergence and speciation. Alternatively, strong genetic drift may preclude adaptation. We conducted a genomic analysis to test the roles of genetic drift and divergent selection in causing genetic differentiation among populations of the island fox (Urocyon littoralis). This species consists of six subspecies, each of which occupies a different California Channel Island. Analysis of 5293 SNP loci generated using Restriction-site Associated DNA (RAD) sequencing found support for genetic drift as the dominant evolutionary mechanism driving population divergence among island fox populations. In particular, populations had exceptionally low genetic variation, small Ne (range = 2.1-89.7; median = 19.4), and significant genetic signatures of bottlenecks. Moreover, islands with the lowest genetic variation (and, by inference, the strongest historical genetic drift) were most genetically differentiated from mainland grey foxes, and vice versa, indicating genetic drift drives genome-wide divergence. Nonetheless, outlier tests identified 3.6-6.6% of loci as high FST outliers, suggesting that despite strong genetic drift, divergent selection contributes to population divergence. Patterns of similarity among populations based on high FST outliers mirrored patterns based on morphology, providing additional evidence that outliers reflect adaptive divergence. Extremely low genetic variation and small Ne in some island fox populations, particularly on San Nicolas Island, suggest that they may be vulnerable to fixation of deleterious alleles, decreased fitness and reduced adaptive potential.

  6. A novel cytochrome P450 CYP6AB14 gene in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its potential role in plant allelochemical detoxification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) play a prominent role in the adaptation of insects to host plant chemical defenses. To investigate the potential role of P450s in adaptation of the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera litura to host plant allelochemicals, an expressed sequence data set derived from 6th...

  7. F2 screen for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2-maize in field populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from the southern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South America. In 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were established usin...

  8. Metatranscriptomic Analysis of Larval Guts from Field-Collected and Laboratory-Reared Spodoptera frugiperda from the South American Subtropical Region

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Natalia A.; Virla, Eduardo G.

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study to report a high-throughput approach integrating gene expression data from Spodoptera frugiperda guts and their associated metatranscriptomes. Our datasets provide information on the potential effects of environmental conditions on the expression profile of S. frugiperda larval guts, their associated metatranscriptome, and putative interactions between them. PMID:26184938

  9. Cloning of the heat shock protein 90 and 70 genes from the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, and expression characteristics in relation to thermal stress and development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two full-length complementary DNAs (cDNAs) of heat shock protein (HSP) genes (Se-hsp90 and Se-hsp70) were cloned from the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, and their expression was investigated in relation to cold shock, heat shock, and development. The open reading frames of Se-hsp90 and Sehsp70 ar...

  10. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parks EP, Shaikhkhalil A, Groleau V, Wendel D, Stallings VA. Feeding healthy infants, children, and adolescents. In: ... 2016:chap. Stettler N, Bhatia J, Parish A, Stallings VA. Feeding healthy infants, children, and adolescents. In: ...

  11. Selection and evaluation of reference genes for expression analysis using qRT-PCR in the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xun; Yuan, Miao; Shakeel, Muhammad; Zhang, Youjun; Wang, Shaoli; Wang, Xin; Zhan, Sha; Kang, Tinghao; Li, Jianhong

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a reliable and reproducible technique for measuring and evaluating changes in gene expression. The most common method for analyzing qRT-PCR data is to normalize mRNA levels of target genes to internal reference genes. Evaluating and selecting stable reference genes on a case-by-case basis is critical. The present study aimed to facilitate gene expression studies by identifying the most suitable reference genes for normalization of mRNA expression in qRT-PCR analysis of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). For this purpose, three software tools (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) were used to investigate 10 candidate reference genes in nine developmental stages and five different tissues (epidermis, head, midgut, fat body and hemolymph) in three larval physiological stages (molting, feeding and wandering stages) of, S. exigua. With the exception of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), all other candidate genes evaluated, β-actin1(ACT1), β-actin2 (ACT2), elongation factor1(EF1), elongation factor 2 (EF2), Glyceralde hyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein L10 (L10), ribosomal protein L17A (L17A), superoxide dismutase (SOD), α-tubulin (TUB),proved to be acceptable reference genes. However, their suitability partly differed between physiological stages and different tissues. L10, EF2 and L17A ranked highest in all tissue sample sets. SOD, ACT2, GAPDH, EF1 and ACT1 were stably expressed in all developmental stage sample sets; ACT2, ACT1 and L10 for larvae sample sets; GAPDH, ACT1 and ACT2 for pupae and adults; SOD and L17A for males; and EF2 and SOD for females. The expression stability of genes varied in different conditions. The findings provided here demonstrated, with a few exceptions, the suitability of most of the 10 reference genes tested in tissues and life developmental stages. Overall, this study emphasizes the importance of validating reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis in S. exigua.

  12. Secretions from the ventral eversible gland of Spodoptera exigua caterpillars activate defense-related genes and induce emission of volatile organic compounds in tomato, Solanum lycopersicum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant induced defense against herbivory are generally associated with metabolic costs that result in the allocation of photosynthates from growth and reproduction to the synthesis of defense compounds. Therefore, it is essential that plants are capable of sensing and differentiating mechanical injury from herbivore injury. Studies have shown that oral secretions (OS) from caterpillars contain elicitors of induced plant responses. However, studies that shows whether these elicitors originated from salivary glands or from other organs associated with feeding, such as the ventral eversible gland (VEG) are limited. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the secretions from the VEG gland of Spodoptera exigua caterpillars contain elicitors that induce plant defenses by regulating the expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other defense-related genes. To test this hypothesis, we quantified and compared the activity of defense-related enzymes, transcript levels of defense-related genes and VOC emission in tomato plants damaged by S. exigua caterpillars with the VEG intact (VEGI) versus plants damaged by caterpillars with the VEG ablated (VEGA). Results The quantified defense-related enzymes (i.e. peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and lipoxigenase) were expressed in significantly higher amounts in plants damaged by VEGI caterpillars than in plants damaged by VEGA caterpillars. Similarly, the genes that encode for the key enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of jasmonic acid and terpene synthase genes that regulate production of terpene VOCs, were up-regulated in plants damaged by VEGI caterpillars. Moreover, the OS of VEGA caterpillars were less active in inducing the expression of defense genes in tomato plants. Increased emissions of VOCs were detected in the headspace of plants damaged by VEGI caterpillars compared to plants damaged by VEGA caterpillars. Conclusion These results suggest that the VEG of S. exigua

  13. Systemic cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation is activated upon wounding and herbivory in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kiep, Victoria; Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Lattke, Justus; Maaß, Jan-Peter; Boland, Wilhelm; Peiter, Edgar; Mithöfer, Axel

    2015-09-01

    Calcium ion (Ca(2+) ) signalling triggered by insect herbivory is an intricate network with multiple components, involving positive and negative regulators. Real-time, noninvasive imaging of entire Arabidopsis thaliana rosettes was employed to monitor cytosolic free calcium ([Ca(2+) ]cyt ) elevations in local and systemic leaves in response to wounding and Spodoptera littoralis feeding. Luminescence emitted by the cytosol-localized Ca(2+) reporter aequorin was imaged using a high-resolution photon-counting camera system. Spodoptera littoralis feeding on Arabidopsis induced both local and systemic [Ca(2+) ]cyt elevations. Systemic [Ca(2+) ]cyt signals were found predominantly in adjacent leaves with direct vascular connections to the treated leaf and appeared with a delay of 1 to 2 min. Simulated herbivory by wounding always induced a local [Ca(2+) ]cyt response, but a systemic one only when the midrib was wounded. This systemic [Ca(2+) ]cyt response was suppressed by the presence of insect-derived oral secretions as well as in a mutant of the vacuolar cation channel, Two Pore Channel 1 (TPC1). Our results provide evidence that in Arabidopsis insect herbivory induces both local and systemic [Ca(2+) ]cyt signals that distribute within the vascular system. The systemic [Ca(2+) ]cyt signal could play an important signalling role in systemic plant defence.

  14. SfDredd, a Novel Initiator Caspase Possessing Activity on Effector Caspase Substrates in Spodoptera frugiperda

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hao; Wu, Andong; Mei, Long; Liu, Qingzhen

    2016-01-01

    Sf9, a cell line derived from Spodoptera frugiperda, is an ideal model organism for studying insect apoptosis. The first notable study that attempted to identify the apoptotic pathway in Sf9 was performed in 1997 and included the discovery of Sf-caspase-1, an effector caspase of Sf9. However, it was not until 2013 that the first initiator caspase in Sf9, SfDronc, was discovered, and the apoptotic pathway in Sf9 became clearer. In this study, we report another caspase of Sf9, SfDredd. SfDredd is highly similar to insect initiator caspase Dredd homologs. Experimentally, recombinant SfDredd underwent autocleavage and exhibited different efficiencies in cleavage of synthetic caspase substrates. This was attributed to its caspase activity for the predicted active site mutation blocked the above autocleavage and synthetic caspase substrates cleavage activity. SfDredd was capable of not only cleaving Sf-caspase-1 in vitro but also cleaving Sf-caspase-1 and inducing apoptosis when it was co-expressed with Sf-caspase-1 in Sf9 cells. The protein level of SfDredd was increased when Sf9 cells were treated by Actinomycin D, whereas silencing of SfDredd reduced apoptosis and Sf-caspase-1 cleavage induced by Actinomycin D treatment. These results clearly indicate that SfDredd functioned as an apoptotic initiator caspase. Apoptosis induced in Sf9 cells by overexpression of SfDredd alone was not as obvious as that induced by SfDronc alone, and the cleavage sites of Sf-caspase-1 for SfDredd and SfDronc are different. In addition, despite sharing a sequence homology with initiator caspases and possessing weak activity on initiator caspase substrates, SfDredd showed strong activity on effector caspase substrates, making it the only insect caspase reported so far functioning similar to human caspase-2 in this aspect. We believe that the discovery of SfDredd, and its different properties from SfDronc, will improve the understanding of apoptosis pathway in Sf9 cells. PMID:26977926

  15. The cytotoxicology of momordicins I and II on Spodoptera litura cultured cell line SL-1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Wang, Guo-Cai; Zhang, Mao-Xin; Ling, Bing

    2015-07-01

    Momordicin I and II are secondary metabolites from bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) that are toxic to the Spodoptera litura ovary cell line (SL-1 cell). Both momordicin I and II significantly inhibited SL-1 cells proliferation. IC50 values after 24 h were 8.35 and 82.31 µg/mL, 6.11 and 77.49 µg/mL for 36 h, 4.93 and 49.42 µg/mL for 48 h for cells treated by momordicin I and II, respectively. IC50 values of the azadirachtin A control were 149.63, 54.54 and 23.66 µg/mL at 24, 36 and 48 h respectively, indicating that the cytotoxicity of momordicin I was significantly higher than that of momordicin II and azadirachtin A. Using inverted phase contrast microscopy we found that after 24 h exposure to momordicin I and II, cell shapes changed to circular, swelling increased, adherence ability declined and the cellular membrane bubbled. After 48 h exposure to momordicin I, most cells were suspended and dead; vacuole deformation and cytoplasm leakage indicated that momordicin I was more toxic to the cytoskeleton than momordicin II. Cells treated with momordicin I and II inhibited glucose absorption by 23.04 and 13.38% after 48 h and 47.60 and 20.92% after 60 h. Flow cytometry analysis suggested that SL-1 cells treated with momordicin I and II dramatically accumulated during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, and total cell protein content increased by 56.93 and 35.81% respectively after 48 h treatment. Following treatment with momordicin I and II the karyotheca dissolved, the chromatin condensed abnormally and the nucleoli were damaged, migrated, or disappeared. The PI fluorescent value by FCM showed that the relative fluorescent intensity of SL-1 cells induced by momordicin I and II increased to 521.45 and 370.17, higher than 135.04 induced by control group treatment for 48 h. This indicated significant damage to the cytomembrane. Overall, the results demonstrate that suppression of cytoskeletal function, interference of mitotic figures

  16. Life-History Traits of Spodoptera frugiperda Populations Exposed to Low-Dose Bt Maize

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Fernanda F.; Mendes, Simone M.; Santos-Amaya, Oscar F.; Araújo, Octávio G.; Oliveira, Eugenio E.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins in low- and moderate-dose transgenic crops may induce sublethal effects and increase the rate of Bt resistance evolution, potentially compromising control efficacy against target pests. We tested this hypothesis using the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, a major polyphagous lepidopteran pest relatively tolerant to Bt notorious for evolving field-relevant resistance to single-gene Bt maize. Late-instar larvae were collected from Bt Cry1Ab and non-Bt maize fields in five locations in Brazil, and their offspring was compared for survival, development, and population growth in rearing environment without and with Cry1Ab throughout larval development. Larval survival on Cry1Ab maize leaves varied from 20 to 80% among the populations. Larvae reared on Cry1Ab maize had seven-day delay in development time in relation to control larvae, and such delay was shorter in offspring of armyworms from Cry1Ab maize. Population growth rates were 50–70% lower for insects continuously exposed to Cry1Ab maize relative to controls, showing the population-level effect of Cry1Ab, which varied among the populations and prior exposure to Cry1Ab maize in the field. In three out of five populations, armyworms derived from Bt maize reared on Cry1Ab maize showed higher larval weight, faster larval development and better reproductive performance than the armyworms derived from non-Bt maize, and one of these populations showed better performance on both Cry1Ab and control diets, indicating no fitness cost of the resistance trait. Altogether, these results indicate that offspring of armyworms that developed on field-grown, single-gene Bt Cry1Ab maize had reduced performance on Cry1Ab maize foliage in two populations studied, but in other three populations, these offspring had better overall performance on the Bt maize foliage than that of the armyworms from non-Bt maize fields, possibly because of Cry1Ab resistance alleles in these populations

  17. Is gastric sham feeding really sham feeding?

    PubMed

    Sclafani, A; Nissenbaum, J W

    1985-03-01

    Rats were fitted with gastric cannulas, food deprived, and allowed to drink a sugar solution that drained out of the opened cannula; i.e., the rats sham-fed. Although this procedure is thought to prevent absorption of ingested food, it was found that the sham feeding of a 32% glucose or sucrose solution significantly elevated blood glucose levels. The addition of acarbose, a drug that inhibits the digestion of sucrose, to the 32% sucrose solution blocked the blood glucose rise, as did closing the pylorus with an inflatable pyloric cuff. Neither the drug nor the cuff, however, reduced the amount of sucrose solution consumed. These findings indicate that gastric sham feeding does not necessarily prevent the digestion and absorption of food, although absorption is not essential for the appearance of a vigorous sham-feeding response. Nevertheless the possibility that neural or hormonal feedback from the stomach contributes to the sham-feeding response cannot be excluded, and until this issue is resolved the results of gastric sham-feeding studies should be interpreted with caution.

  18. Effect of triterpenoids and limonoids isolated from Cabralea canjerana and Carapa guianensis (Meliaceae) against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith).

    PubMed

    Sarria, André L F; Soares, Márcio S; Matos, Andréia P; Fernandes, João B; Vieira, Paulo C; da Silva, M Fátima das G F

    2011-01-01

    The activities of two triterpenoids, ocotillone and cabraleadiol, and four limonoids, methyl angolensate, 3-beta-deacetylfissinolide, 7-deacetoxy-7-oxogedunin, and beta-photogedunin, isolated from arillus of Carapa guianensis and fruits and seeds of Cabralea canjerana (Meliaceae), were evaluated against the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda. Gedunin was used as a positive control. 7-Deacetoxy-7-oxogedunin and beta-photogedunin reduced the pupal weight as occurred with gedunin. Cabraleadiol, 3-beta-deacetylfissinolide, and 7-deacetoxy-7-oxogedunin prolonged the larval phase similar to the control (gedunin) of approximately 1.2 days at 50.0 mg kg(-1). The highest insecticidal activity was obtained for beta-photogedunin. PMID:21812341

  19. Radar observations of the autumn migration of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and other moths in northern China.

    PubMed

    Feng, H-Q; Wu, K-M; Cheng, D-F; Guo, Y-Y

    2003-04-01

    The autumn return migration of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua Hübner and other insects in northern China was observed with radar and with a simultaneously-operated searchlight trap and ground light-trap at a site in Langfang, near Beijing. The searchlight trap was found to be an efficient tool for trapping migrants and, operated alongside a ground light-trap, could distinguish migrant from locally-flying species. It was confirmed that S. exigua and some other species were high-altitude nocturnal windborne migrants during September and October in northern China. Maximum density of moths typically occurred below 500 m, and strong layering was often observed at about 200 m above ground level in airflows that would carry the moths towards the south. Descent of S. exigua in the vicinity of the radar site in late September was often associated with rain. PMID:12699532

  20. Citrus limonoids and their semisynthetic derivatives as antifeedant agents against Spodoptera frugiperda larvae. A structure-activity relationship study.

    PubMed

    Ruberto, Giuseppe; Renda, Agatino; Tringali, Corrado; Napoli, Edoardo M; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2002-11-01

    The antifeedant activity of Citrus-derived limonoids limonin (1), nomilin (2), and obacunone (3) and their semisynthetic derivatives 4-26 was evaluated against a commercially important pest, Spodoptera frugiperda. Simple chemical conversions were carried out on the natural limonoids obtained from seeds of Citrus limon. These conversions focused on functional groups considered to be important for the biological activity, namely the C-7 carbonyl and the furan ring. In particular, reduction at C-7 afforded the related alcohols, and from these their acetates, oximes, and methoximes were prepared. Hydrogenation of the furan ring was also performed on limonin and obacunone. The known antifeedant properties of the Citrus limonoids are confirmed. Comparison with previously reported data shows that insect species vary in their behavioral responses to these structural modifications. Highly significant antifeedant activity (P < 0.01) for two natural (1 and 3) and three semisynthetic limonoids (4, 8, and 10) was observed against S. frugiperda. PMID:12405773

  1. Breastfeeding is best feeding.

    PubMed

    Cutting, W

    1995-02-01

    The traditional practice of breast feeding is the best means to make sure infants grow up healthy. It costs nothing. Breast milk contains antibodies and other substances which defend against disease, especially those linked to poor food hygiene and inadequate water and sanitation. In developing countries, breast fed infants are at least 14 times less likely to die from diarrhea than those who are not breast fed. Urbanization and promotion of infant formula undermine breast feeding. Even though infants up to age 4-6 months should receive only breast milk to remain as healthy as possible, infants aged less than 4-6 months often receive other milks or gruels. Attendance of health workers at delivery and their contact with mother-infant pairs after delivery are ideal opportunities to encourage mothers to breast feed. In fact, if health workers provide mothers skilled support with breast feeding, mothers are more likely to breast feed well and for a longer time. Health workers need counseling skills and firm knowledge of techniques on breast feeding and of how to master common difficulties to help mothers with breast feeding. Listening skills and confidence building skills are also needed. Good family and work place support allows women in paid employment outside the home to continue breast feeding. Breast feeding is very important in emergency situations where access to water, sanitation, food, and health care is limited (e.g., refugee camps). In these situations, health workers should especially be aware of women's ability to breast feed and to support their breast feeding. HIV can be transmitted to nursing infants from HIV infected mothers. Yet one must balance this small risk against the possibility of contracting other serious infections (e.g., diarrhea) through alternative infant feeding, particularly if there is no access to potable water and sanitation.

  2. Mixed feed evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Vakil, Himanshu B.; Kosky, Philip G.

    1982-01-01

    In the preparation of the gaseous reactant feed to undergo a chemical reaction requiring the presence of steam, the efficiency of overall power utilization is improved by premixing the gaseous reactant feed with water and then heating to evaporate the water in the presence of the gaseous reactant feed, the heating fluid utilized being at a temperature below the boiling point of water at the pressure in the volume where the evaporation occurs.

  3. VLBI2010 Feed Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrachenko, Bill

    2013-01-01

    VLBI2010 requires a feed that simultaneously has high efficiency over the full 2.2-14 GHz frequency range. The simultaneity requirement implies that the feed must operate at high efficiency over the full frequency range without the need to adjust its focal position to account for frequency dependent phase centre variations. Two feeds meet this specification: The Eleven Feed developed at Chalmers University. (For more information, contact Miroslav Pantaleev, miroslav.pantaleev@chalmers.se. The Eleven Feed, integrated with LNA's in a cryogenic receiver, is available as a product from Omnisys Instruments, info@omnisys.se). The Quadruple Ridged Flared Horn (QRFH) developed at the California Institute of Technology. (For more information please contact Ahmed Akgiray, aakgiray@ieee.org or Sander Weinreb, sweinreb@caltech.edu) Although not VLBI2010 compliant, two triband S/X/Ka feeds are also being developed for the commissioning of VLBI2010 antennas, for S/X observations during the VLBI2010 transition period, and to support X/Ka CRF observations. The two feeds are: The Twin Telescopes Wettzell (TTW) triband feed developed by Mirad Microwave. (For more information please contact Gerhard Kronschnabl, Gerhard.Kronschnabl@bkg.bund.de) The RAEGE (Spain) triband feed developed at Yebes Observatory. (For more information please contact Jose Antonio Lopez Perez, ja.lopezperez@oan.es)

  4. Infectious waste feed system

    DOEpatents

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  5. Phylogenetic molecular species delimitations unravel potential new species in the pest genus Spodoptera Guenée, 1852 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Dumas, Pascaline; Barbut, Jérôme; Le Ru, Bruno; Silvain, Jean-François; Clamens, Anne-Laure; d'Alençon, Emmanuelle; Kergoat, Gael J

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays molecular species delimitation methods promote the identification of species boundaries within complex taxonomic groups by adopting innovative species concepts and theories (e.g. branching patterns, coalescence). As some of them can efficiently deal with large single-locus datasets, they could speed up the process of species discovery compared to more time consuming molecular methods, and benefit from the existence of large public datasets; these methods can also particularly favour scientific research and actions dealing with threatened or economically important taxa. In this study we aim to investigate and clarify the status of economically important moths species belonging to the genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a complex group in which previous phylogenetic analyses and integrative approaches already suggested the possible occurrence of cryptic species and taxonomic ambiguities. In this work, the effectiveness of innovative (and faster) species delimitation approaches to infer putative species boundaries has been successfully tested in Spodoptera, by processing the most comprehensive dataset (in terms of number of species and specimens) ever achieved; results are congruent and reliable, irrespective of the set of parameters and phylogenetic models applied. Our analyses confirm the existence of three potential new species clusters (for S. exigua (Hübner, 1808), S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) and S. mauritia (Boisduval, 1833)) and support the synonymy of S. marima (Schaus, 1904) with S. ornithogalli (Guenée, 1852). They also highlight the ambiguity of the status of S. cosmiodes (Walker, 1858) and S. descoinsi Lalanne-Cassou & Silvain, 1994. This case study highlights the interest of molecular species delimitation methods as valuable tools for species discovery and to emphasize taxonomic ambiguities. PMID:25853412

  6. Baculovirus p35 gene is oppositely regulated by P53 and AP-1 like factors in Spodoptera frugiperda

    SciTech Connect

    Mohareer, Krishnaveni; Sahdev, Sudhir; Hasnain, Seyed E.

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Baculovirus p35 is regulated by both viral and host factors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Baculovirus p35 is negatively regulated by SfP53-like factor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Baculovirus p35 is positively regulated by SfAP-1-like factor. -- Abstract: Baculovirus p35 belongs to the early class of genes of AcMNPV and requires viral factors like Immediate Early protein-1 for its transcription. To investigate the role of host factors in regulating p35 gene expression, the putative transcription factor binding sites were examined in silico and the role of these factors in influencing the transcription of p35 gene was assessed. We focused our studies on AP-1 and P53-like factors, which are activated under oxidative stress conditions. The AP-1 motif is located at -1401 while P53 motif is at -1912 relative to p35 translation start site. The predicted AP-1 and P53 elements formed specific complexes with Spodoptera frugiperda nuclear extracts. Both AP-1 and P53 motif binding proteins were down regulated as a function of AcMNPV infection in Spodoptera cells. To address the question whether during an oxidative outburst, the p35 transcription is enhanced; we investigated the role of these oxidative stress induced host transcription factors in influencing p35 gene transcription. Reporter assays revealed that AP-1 element enhances the transcription of p35 by a factor of two. Interestingly, P53 element appears to repress the transcription of p35 gene.

  7. Phylogenetic Molecular Species Delimitations Unravel Potential New Species in the Pest Genus Spodoptera Guenée, 1852 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Pascaline; Barbut, Jérôme; Le Ru, Bruno; Silvain, Jean-François; Clamens, Anne-Laure; d’Alençon, Emmanuelle; Kergoat, Gael J.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays molecular species delimitation methods promote the identification of species boundaries within complex taxonomic groups by adopting innovative species concepts and theories (e.g. branching patterns, coalescence). As some of them can efficiently deal with large single-locus datasets, they could speed up the process of species discovery compared to more time consuming molecular methods, and benefit from the existence of large public datasets; these methods can also particularly favour scientific research and actions dealing with threatened or economically important taxa. In this study we aim to investigate and clarify the status of economically important moths species belonging to the genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a complex group in which previous phylogenetic analyses and integrative approaches already suggested the possible occurrence of cryptic species and taxonomic ambiguities. In this work, the effectiveness of innovative (and faster) species delimitation approaches to infer putative species boundaries has been successfully tested in Spodoptera, by processing the most comprehensive dataset (in terms of number of species and specimens) ever achieved; results are congruent and reliable, irrespective of the set of parameters and phylogenetic models applied. Our analyses confirm the existence of three potential new species clusters (for S. exigua (Hübner, 1808), S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) and S. mauritia (Boisduval, 1833)) and support the synonymy of S. marima (Schaus, 1904) with S. ornithogalli (Guenée, 1852). They also highlight the ambiguity of the status of S. cosmiodes (Walker, 1858) and S. descoinsi Lalanne-Cassou & Silvain, 1994. This case study highlights the interest of molecular species delimitation methods as valuable tools for species discovery and to emphasize taxonomic ambiguities. PMID:25853412

  8. Infant Feeding and Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Mary D. Salter; Tracy, Russel L.

    This paper has two major purposes: first, to consider how infant feeding behavior may fit into attachment theory; and second, to cite some evidence to show how an infant's early interaction with his mother in the feeding situation is related to subsequent development. It was found that sucking and rooting are precursor attachment behaviors that…

  9. Tube Feeding Transition Plateaus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Marsha Dunn

    2007-01-01

    The journey children make from tube feeding to oral feeding is personal for each child and family. There is a sequence of predictable plateaus that children climb as they move toward orally eating. By better understanding this sequence, parents and children can maximize the development, learning, enjoyment and confidence at each plateau. The…

  10. Testing Feeds for Salmonella.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human salmonellosis outbreaks have been linked to contamination of animal feeds. Thus it is crucial to employ sensitive Salmonella detection methods for animal feeds. Based on a review of the literature, Salmonella sustains acid injury at about pH 4.0 to5.0. Low pH can also alter the metabolism of S...

  11. Development of Wideband Feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujihara, Hideki; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Sekido, Mamoru; Kondo, Tetsuro

    2015-08-01

    Wideband feeds have developed for Kashima 34m antenna and new 2.4m portable VLBI antennas. Prototypes of the wideband feeds are multimode horns, first one was set on 34m in the end of 2013, and then replaced next one with 6.5-15.0GHz receiving frequency. Now, a new feed for 3.2GHz-14.4GHz will be installed in 2.4m and 34m antennas in this spring, which are named NINJA feed, because of its design flexibility in beam shpae. Next, IGUANA feed is now under design and fabrication, which is aimed for 2.2-22GHz and covers VGOS(VLBI2010) specification. This has coaxial structure, the smaller "daughter feed" for 6.4-22GHz is placed in the center of the larger "Mother feed" for 2.2-6.4GHz.They are used for our project of time and frequency transfer between remote atomic clocks by wideband VLBI, named Gala-V(Garapagos VLBI), and will also be used wideband VLBI observation for astronmy and geodesy.Prototype feeds were tested in measurement of aperture efficiency, SEFD and Tsys of 34m "Super Kashima Antenna" and both 6.7/12.2GHz methanol maser detection in one reciever system, and then better one is used for wideband VLBI observations.

  12. Sublethal Effects of Essential Oils From Eucalyptus staigeriana (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiales: Laminaceae), and Foeniculum vulgare (Apiales: Apiaceae) on the Biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Lopes, F S C; Barbosa, D R S; Breda, M O; Dutra, K A; Guedes, C A; Navarro, D M A F; Teixeira, A A C

    2016-04-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L. Its control is often achieved through repeated applications per season of insecticides, which may lead to adverse effects on the ecosystem. Thus, the study of alternative methods with less environmental impact has expanded to include the use of essential oils. These oils are products of the secondary metabolism in plants, and their insecticidal activity has been widely demonstrated in populations of many pest insects. This study evaluated the insecticidal activities of essential oils from Eucalyptus staigeriana, Ocimum gratissimum, and Foeniculum vulgare on Spodoptera frugiperda. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profiles and contact toxicity of these oils as well as their sublethal effects on larvae and reproductive parameters in adults were evaluated. All three oils had sublethal effects on S. frugiperda; however, the oil of O. gratissimum showed the best results at all doses tested. These essential oils may have promise for control of S. frugiperda.

  13. Sublethal Effects of Essential Oils From Eucalyptus staigeriana (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiales: Laminaceae), and Foeniculum vulgare (Apiales: Apiaceae) on the Biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Lopes, F S C; Barbosa, D R S; Breda, M O; Dutra, K A; Guedes, C A; Navarro, D M A F; Teixeira, A A C

    2016-04-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L. Its control is often achieved through repeated applications per season of insecticides, which may lead to adverse effects on the ecosystem. Thus, the study of alternative methods with less environmental impact has expanded to include the use of essential oils. These oils are products of the secondary metabolism in plants, and their insecticidal activity has been widely demonstrated in populations of many pest insects. This study evaluated the insecticidal activities of essential oils from Eucalyptus staigeriana, Ocimum gratissimum, and Foeniculum vulgare on Spodoptera frugiperda. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profiles and contact toxicity of these oils as well as their sublethal effects on larvae and reproductive parameters in adults were evaluated. All three oils had sublethal effects on S. frugiperda; however, the oil of O. gratissimum showed the best results at all doses tested. These essential oils may have promise for control of S. frugiperda. PMID:26868417

  14. Suthi feeding: an experience.

    PubMed

    Gupta, B D; Jain, P; Mandowara, S L

    1995-06-01

    In cases in which expressed breast milk is given or breast feeding cannot be done at all, a suitable alternative to breast feeding is still in question. Bottle feeding poses many hazards. Spoon and bowl have been proposed as a reasonable alternative since users can achieve better cleanliness. Yet it is impractical for staff in health facility nurseries to feed every newborn with the spoon and bowl method since it requires so much time. On average, they need to provide oral feeds to at least 10 babies a day. In India, maternal grandparents present the family of a newborn with the traditional Sindhi silver or stainless steel utensil to provide the infant drinking water. It is called Suthi. It holds either 10 or 20 cc, making it easier to quantify the amount of milk/feed. It has a long semicircular beak and curved rounded margins. Advantages of the Suthi over other alternative feeding methods include: it is a shallow container with a broad upper surface, allowing the user to clean it thoroughly and easily; its narrow beak can go directly into the mouth of the newborn, particularly premature infants and low birth weight infants, with relative ease, reducing the likelihood of spilling milk, and the Suthi feeding procedure is less messy and faster (7-10 vs. 15-20 minutes for spoon) than other procedures. The Suthi method allows nursery staff to spend less time per feed for 8-10 babies (minimum time needed, 1 vs. 3 hours). It can also be used at home. Its use will reduce the likelihood of aspiration since it cannot be used lying down. Since it is a traditional container, the community will accept Suthi. When breast feeding is not possible, the Suthi should be used. PMID:8613348

  15. Characterization of volatiles of necrotic Stenocereus thurberi and Opuntia littoralis and toxicity and olfactory preference of Drosophila melanogster, D. mojavensis wrigleyi, and D. mojavensis sonorensis to necrotic cactus volatiles.

    PubMed

    Wright, Cynthia R; Setzer, William N

    2014-08-01

    Drosophila mojavensis wrigleyi and D. mojavensis sonorensis are geographically separated races of cactophilic fruit flies. D. mojavensis sonorensis inhabits the Sonoran Desert and utilizes necrotic rots of Stenocereus thurberi Engelm. as a food source and to oviposit while D. mojavensis wrigleyi inhabits Santa Catalina Island, California and utilizes the necrotic rots of Opuntia littoralis (Engelm.) Cockerell. The objectives of this study were to determine the volatile compositions of the necrotic cacti and to determine if the volatile components show either selective toxicity or attraction toward the fruit flies. The volatile chemical compositions of field-rot specimens of both necrotic cacti were obtained by dynamic headspace (purge-and-trap) and hydrodistillation techniques and analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. The volatile fraction of necrotic S. thurberi early rot was dominated by carboxylic acids (84.8%) and the late rot by p-cresol (32.6% in the dynamic headspace sample and 55.9% in the hydrodistilled sample). O. littoralis volatiles were dominated by carboxylic acids (86% in the dynamic headspace sample and 89.1% in the hydrodistilled sample). Fifteen compounds that were identified in the necrotic rot volatiles were used to test insecticidal activity and olfactory preference on the cactophilic Drosophila species, as well as D. melanogaster. Differences in toxicity and olfactory preference were observed between the different taxa. Both races of D. mojavensis exhibited toxicity to benzaldehyde and 2-nonanone, while butanoic acid and palmitic acid were tolerated at high concentrations. D. m. wrigleyi demonstrated a greater olfactory preference for anisole, butanoic acid, 2-heptanone, and palmitic acid than did D. m. sonorensis, while D. m. sonorensis demonstrated a greater preference for hexadecane, octanoic acid, and oleic acid than did D. m. wrigleyi.

  16. Breast-feeding multiples.

    PubMed

    Flidel-Rimon, O; Shinwell, E S

    2002-06-01

    Human breast milk is the best nutrition for human infants. Its advantages over the milk of other species, such as cows, include both a reduced risk for infections, allergies and chronic diseases, together with the full nutritional requirements for growth and development. Breast-feeding is as important for multiples as for singletons. Despite the advantages, multiples receive less breast-feeding than singletons. Common reasons for not breast-feeding multiples include the fear of not fulfilling the infants' needs and the difficulty of coping with the demands on the mother's time. In addition, many multiples are delivered prematurely and by Caesarean section. Maternal pain and discomfort together with anxiety over the infants' condition are not conducive to successful breast-feeding. During lactation, the mother needs to add calories to her daily diet. It has been recommended to add approximately 500-600 kcal/day for each infant. Thus, between eating, nursing and sleeping, life is very busy for the mother of multiples. However, there is evidence that, with appropriate nutrition, one mother can nourish more than one infant. Also, simultaneous breast-feeding can save much time. Combined efforts of parents, close family, friends and the medical team can help to make either full or partial breast-feeding of multiples possible. However, when breast-feeding is not possible, health care workers need to carefully avoid judgmental approaches that may induce feelings of guilt.

  17. Clearing obstructed feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Marcuard, S P; Stegall, K L; Trogdon, S

    1989-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating the ability of six solutions to dissolve clotted enteral feeding, which can cause feeding tube occlusion. The following clotted enteral feeding products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure Plus with added protein (Promod 20 g/liter), Osmolite, Enrich, and Pulmocare. Clot dissolution was then tested by adding Adolf's Meat Tenderizer, Viokase, Sprite, Pepsi, Coke, or Mountain Dew. Distilled water served as control. Dissolution score for each mixture was assessed blindly. Best dissolution was observed with Viokase in pH 7.9 solution (p less than 0.01). Similar results were obtained when feeding tube patency was restored in eight in vitro occluded feeding tubes (Dobbhoff, French size 8) by using first Pepsi (two/eight successful) and then Viokase in pH 7.9 (six/six successful). We also report our experience in the first 10 patients with occluded feeding tubes using this Viokase solution injected through a Drum catheter into the feeding tube. In seven patients, this method proved to be successful, and the reasons for failure in three patients include a knotted tube, impacted tablet powder, and a formula clot fo 24 hr duration and 45 cm in length. PMID:2494372

  18. Clearing obstructed feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Marcuard, S P; Stegall, K L; Trogdon, S

    1989-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating the ability of six solutions to dissolve clotted enteral feeding, which can cause feeding tube occlusion. The following clotted enteral feeding products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure Plus with added protein (Promod 20 g/liter), Osmolite, Enrich, and Pulmocare. Clot dissolution was then tested by adding Adolf's Meat Tenderizer, Viokase, Sprite, Pepsi, Coke, or Mountain Dew. Distilled water served as control. Dissolution score for each mixture was assessed blindly. Best dissolution was observed with Viokase in pH 7.9 solution (p less than 0.01). Similar results were obtained when feeding tube patency was restored in eight in vitro occluded feeding tubes (Dobbhoff, French size 8) by using first Pepsi (two/eight successful) and then Viokase in pH 7.9 (six/six successful). We also report our experience in the first 10 patients with occluded feeding tubes using this Viokase solution injected through a Drum catheter into the feeding tube. In seven patients, this method proved to be successful, and the reasons for failure in three patients include a knotted tube, impacted tablet powder, and a formula clot fo 24 hr duration and 45 cm in length.

  19. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING DL

    2008-03-19

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions.

  20. Coal feed lock

    DOEpatents

    Pinkel, I. Irving

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  1. Tube Feeding Troubleshooting Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... profile tube also has a stem length). Note: NG and NJ tubes (that go through a person’s ... Immediate Action: • Discontinue feeding. • If you have an NG or NJ tube, and the tube is curled ...

  2. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. ... for you and your baby. continue All About Breastfeeding Nursing can be a wonderful experience for both ...

  3. Feeding Your Newborn

    MedlinePlus

    ... you choose to breastfeed or formula feed. About Breastfeeding Breastfeeding your newborn has many advantages. Perhaps most ... to care for her newborn. continue Limitations of Breastfeeding With all the good things known about breastfeeding, ...

  4. Feeding tube - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube is misplaced and not in the proper position, the baby may have problems with: An abnormally slow heart rate (bradycardia) Breathing Spitting up Rarely, the feeding tube can puncture the stomach.

  5. On-Plant Larval Movement and Feeding Behavior of Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Reproductive Corn Stages.

    PubMed

    Pannuti, L E R; Baldin, E L L; Hunt, T E; Paula-Moraes, S V

    2016-02-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith (fall armyworm) is considered one of the most destructive pests of corn throughout the Americas. Although this pest has been extensively studied, little is known about its larval movement and feeding behavior on reproductive compared to vegetative corn stages. Thus, we conducted studies with two corn stages (R1 and R3) and four corn plant zones (tassel, above ear, ear zone, and below ear) in the field at Concord, NE (USA), and in the field and greenhouse at Botucatu, SP (Brazil), to investigate on-plant larval movement. The effects of different corn tissues (opened tassel, closed tassel, silk, kernel, and leaf), two feeding sequence scenarios (closed tassel-leaf-silk-kernel and leaf-silk-kernel), and artificial diet (positive control) on larval survival and development were also evaluated in the laboratory. Ear zone has a strong effect on feeding choice and survival of fall armyworm larvae regardless of reproductive corn stage. Feeding site choice is made by first-instar. Corn leaves of reproductive plants were not suitable for early instar development, but silk and kernel tissues had a positive effect on survival and development of fall armyworm larvae on reproductive stage corn.

  6. Transcriptome analysis of soybean lines reveals transcript diversity and genes involved in the response to common cutworm (Spodoptera litura Fabricius) feeding.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongli; Wang, Hui; Fan, Rui; Yang, Qing; Yu, Deyue

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between soybeans and the destructive common cutworm insect is complicated. In this paper, the time course of induced responses to common cutworm was characterized in two soybean lines, and the results showed that the induced resistance peaked at different times in the resistant (WX) and susceptible (NN) soybean lines. Two sets of transcriptome profiles from the WX and NN lines at the peak of their induced resistance were compared using microarray analysis. In total, 827 and 349 transcripts were differentially expressed in the WX and NN lines, respectively, with 80 probes common regulated and seven regulated in the opposite direction. All common- and unique-regulated genes were grouped into 10 functional categories based on sequence similarity searches, which showed that most of the genes were related to stress and defence responses. qRT-PCR analysis of 22 genes confirmed the results of the microarray analysis. The spatiotemporal expression patterns of the six genes revealed the consistency of systemic expression levels with the timing of the resistance response observed in the bioassay experiments. In summary, we described the conceptual model of induced resistance in two soybean lines and provided the first large-scale survey of common cutworm-induced defence transcripts in soybean. PMID:24506757

  7. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  8. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  9. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  10. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  11. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  12. Frequency of Cry1F Non-Recessive Resistance Alleles in North Carolina Field Populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Guoping; Reisig, Dominic; Miao, Jin; Gould, Fred; Huang, Fangneng; Feng, Hongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target species of transgenic corn (Zea mays L.) that expresses single and pyramided Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin. In 2014, S. frugiperda were collected from a light trap in North Carolina, and a total of 212 F1/F2 isofemale lines of S. frugiperda were screened for resistance to Bt and non-Bt corn. All of the 212 isolines were susceptible to corn tissue expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, and Cry1F + Cry1Ab + Vip3Aa20. Growth rate bioassays were performed to isolate non-recessive Bt resistance alleles. Seven individuals out of the 212 isofemale lines carried major non-recessive alleles conferring resistance to Cry1F. A pooled colony was created from the seven individuals. This colony was 151.21 times more resistant to Cry1F than a known-susceptible population and was also resistant to Cry1A.105, but was not resistant to Cry2Ab and Vip3Aa20. The results demonstrate that field populations of S. frugiperda collected from North Carolina are generally susceptible to Cry1F, but that some individuals carry resistant alleles. The data generated in this study can be used as baseline data for resistance monitoring. PMID:27119741

  13. Oligosaccharide processing in the expression of human plasminogen cDNA by lepidopteran insect (Spodoptera frugiperda) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, D.J.; Fraser, M.J.; Castellino, F.J. )

    1990-06-12

    A comparison has been made between the Asn{sup 289}-linked oligosaccharide structures of human plasma plasminogen and a recombinant human plasminogen, expressed in lepidopteran insect (Spodoptera frugiperda) cells, after infection of these cells with a recombinant baculovirus containing the entire human plasminogen cDNA. Using anion-exchange liquid chromatography mapping of the oligosaccharide units cleaved from the proteins by glycopeptidase F, compared with elution positions of standard oligosaccharide structures, coupled with monosaccharide compositional analysis, the authors find that the human plasma protein contained only bisialo-biantennary complex-type carbohydrate and asialo-biantennary complex carbohydrate, confirming earlier work published by this laboratory. The glycosylation pattern of the insect cell expressed recombinant human plasminogen showed considerable microheterogeneity, with identifiable high-mannose carbohydrate and truncated high-mannose oligosaccharide. Of major importance, approximately 40% of the oligosaccharide population consisted of complex carbohydrate (bisialo-biantennary), identical in structure with that of the human plasma protein. This the first direct identification of complex carbohydrate in proteins produced in insect cells and demonstrates that trimming and processing of high-mannose carbohydrate into complex-type oligosaccharide can occur. The data indicate that both normal and alternate pathways exist in these cells for incorporation and trimming of high-mannose oligosaccharides and that mannosidases, as well as galactosyl-, hexosaminidasyl-, and sialyltransferases are present, and/or can be induced, in these cells. From these observations, the authors conclude that amino acid sequences and/or protein conformational properties can control oligosaccharide processing events.

  14. Azadirachtin-induced apoptosis involves lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cathepsin L release in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Cheng, Xingan; Meng, Qianqian; Wang, Peidan; Shu, Benshui; Hu, Qiongbo; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua

    2015-07-01

    Azadirachtin as a kind of botanical insecticide has been widely used in pest control. We previously reported that azadirachtin could induce apoptosis of Spodoptera litura cultured cell line Sl-1, which involves in the up-regulation of P53 protein. However, the detailed mechanism of azadirachtin-induced apoptosis is not clearly understood in insect cultured cells. The aim of the present study was to address the involvement of lysosome and lysosomal protease in azadirachtin-induced apoptosis in Sf9 cells. The result confirmed that azadirachtin indeed inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis. The lysosomes were divided into different types as time-dependent manner, which suggested that changes of lysosomes were necessarily physiological processes in azadirachtin-induced apoptosis in Sf9 cells. Interestingly, we noticed that azadirachtin could trigger lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cathepsin L releasing to cytosol. Z-FF-FMK (a cathepsin L inhibitor), but not CA-074me (a cathepsin B inhibitor), could effectively hinder the apoptosis induced by azadirachtin in Sf9 cells. Meanwhile, the activity of caspase-3 could also be inactivated by the inhibition of cathepsin L enzymatic activity induced by Z-FF-FMK. Taken together, our findings suggest that azadirachtin could induce apoptosis in Sf9 cells in a lysosomal pathway, and cathepsin L plays a pro-apoptosis role in this process through releasing to cytosol and activating caspase-3. PMID:25849458

  15. EFFECTS OF AZADIRACHTIN ON CUTICULAR PROTEINS OF SPODOPTERA LITURA (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) VIS-A-VIS THE MODES OF APPLICATION.

    PubMed

    Yooboon, T; Pluempanupat, W; Koul, Opender; Bullangpoti, V

    2015-01-01

    Azadirachtin is a known botanical insecticide with multiple modes of action. Whether these effects have any relation with the modes of application, specifically during ecdysis process, has been the objective of the present study and accordingly the impairment, if any, among cuticular proteins of Spodoptera litura (Fab.) was determined. Azadirachtin was applied topically, via injection or oral administration. Azadirachtin administered via injection and topical applications severely impaired the ecdysis by 86.67 and 80.0%, respectively. However, this impairment via oral administration was significantly lower (73.33%). Using SDS-PAGE, the cuticular proteins were determined for treated insects under all the three modes of application. In all cases 6 protein bands (MW 9-34 kDa) were identified using markers as standard. In all treatments 3 induced proteins (MW. ~16, 20 and 23 kDa) and 1 reduced protein (~19 kDa) were observed. In case of the topical treatment a different induced protein of ~18 kDa was identified. The change in cuticular proteins, their possible role in ecdysis impairment vis-a-vis the mode of application of azadirachtin is being correlated. This will help in understanding the mode-of-action at cuticular level and also will allow developing a suitable application strategy under field conditions in insect pest management. PMID:27145582

  16. Resistance to dual-gene Bt maize in Spodoptera frugiperda: selection, inheritance, and cross-resistance to other transgenic events

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Amaya, Oscar F.; Rodrigues, João V. C.; Souza, Thadeu C.; Tavares, Clébson S.; Campos, Silverio O.; Guedes, Raul N.C.; Pereira, Eliseu J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic crop “pyramids” producing two or more Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins active against the same pest are used to delay evolution of resistance in insect pest populations. Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were performed with fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, to characterize resistance to Bt maize producing Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab and test some assumptions of the “pyramid” resistance management strategy. Selection of a field-derived strain of S. frugiperda already resistant to Cry1F maize with Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab maize for ten generations produced resistance that allowed the larvae to colonize and complete the life cycle on these Bt maize plants. Greenhouse experiments revealed that the resistance was completely recessive (Dx = 0), incomplete, autosomal, and without maternal effects or cross-resistance to the Vip3Aa20 toxin produced in other Bt maize events. This profile of resistance supports some of the assumptions of the pyramid strategy for resistance management. However, laboratory experiments with purified Bt toxin and plant leaf tissue showed that resistance to Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab2 maize further increased resistance to Cry1Fa, which indicates that populations of fall armyworm have high potential for developing resistance to some currently available pyramided maize used against this pest, especially where resistance to Cry1Fa was reported in the field. PMID:26675246

  17. Induction of Autophagy and Apoptosis via PI3K/AKT/TOR Pathways by Azadirachtin A in Spodoptera litura Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Xuehua; Lai, Duo; Zhang, Ling; Xu, Hanhong

    2016-01-01

    Azadirachtin is one of the most effective botanical insecticides and has been widely used in pest control. Toxicological reports show that azadirachtin can induce apoptosis in various insect cell lines. However, studies of azadirachtin-induced autophagy in cultured insect cells are lacking. This study reports that azadirachtin A significantly inhibits cell proliferation by inducing autophagic and apoptotic cell death in Spodoptera litura cultured cell line (SL-1 cell). Characteristic autophagolysosome and Atg8-PE (phosphatidylethanolamine) accumulation were observed by electron microscopy and western blotting, indicating that azadirachtin triggered autophagy in SL-1 cell. Furthermore, azadirachtin inhibited survival signaling by blocking the activation of PI3K, AKT and the down-stream target of rapamycin. Similar to the positive control of starvation, azadirachtin induced the activation of insulin receptor (InR) via a cellular feedback mechanism. In addition, the autophagy-related 5 (Atg5), a molecular switch of autophagy and apoptosis, was truncated (tAtg5) to trigger cytochrome c release into the cytoplasm under azadirachtin stress, which indicated that azadirachtin induced apoptosis through autophagy. Our findings suggest that azadirachtin primarily induced autophagy in SL-1 cell by dysregulating InR- and PI3K/AKT/TOR pathways, then stimulated apoptosis by activating tAtg5. PMID:27752103

  18. Disentangling dispersal, vicariance and adaptive radiation patterns: a case study using armyworms in the pest genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Kergoat, Gael J; Prowell, Dorothy P; Le Ru, Bruno P; Mitchell, Andrew; Dumas, Pascaline; Clamens, Anne-Laure; Condamine, Fabien L; Silvain, Jean-François

    2012-12-01

    Thanks to the recent development of integrative approaches that combine dated phylogenies with models of biogeographic evolution, it is becoming more feasible to assess the roles of dispersal and vicariance in creating complex patterns of geographical distribution. However, the historical biogeography of taxa with good dispersal abilities, like birds or flying insects, still remains largely unknown because of the lack of complete phylogenies accompanied by robust estimates of divergence times. In this study, we investigate the evolution and historical biogeography of the globally distributed pest genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) using complete taxon sampling and an extensive set of analyses. Through the analysis of a combined morphological and molecular dataset, we provide the first robust phylogenetic framework for this widespread and economically important group of moths. Historical biogeography approaches indicate that dispersal events have been the driving force in the biogeographic history of the group. One of the most interesting findings of this study is the probable occurrence of two symmetric long-distance dispersal events between the Afrotropical and the Neotropical region, which appear to have occurred in the late Miocene. Even more remarkably, our dated phylogenies reveal that the diversification of the clade that includes specialist grass feeders has followed closely the expansion of grasslands in the Miocene, similar to the adaptive radiation of specialist grazing mammals during the same period.

  19. Larval and pupal stage of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in sweet and field corn genotypes.

    PubMed

    Santos, L M; Redaelli, L R; Diefenbach, L M G; Efrom, C F S

    2003-11-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm, is a very significant polyphagous pest due to the damages it causes, and control difficulties. Lack of information about its impact on sweet corn motivated a comparison of its biology, with respect to the larval and pupal stages, among the genotypes ELISA, BR 400 (sweet corns), and BR PAMPA (field corn). In laboratory conditions (25 +/- 1 masculine C; 70 +/- 10% RH; photophase 12 hours), 35 caterpillars were individualized and fed daily with 3.14 cm(2) sections of corn leaves from the referred-to genotypes, cultivated in plots in the experimental area of the Departament of Fitossanidade, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS from October to November 2000. The caterpillars were weighed daily; after each molt, the cephalic capsules were collected and measured (in width), to establish growth rate; pupae were weighed and sexed when 24 hours old. The duration of the larval instars, the pupal sex ratio, and the mortality of larvae and pupae were evaluated. In the first three instars there were no differences registered in capsule width. In the fourth and fifth instars, capsules of caterpillars kept in BR 400 were smaller. The weight of caterpillars and pupae, instar duration and sex ratio did not differ among the genotypes. Pupal phase duration was less in females kept in BR 400. Mortality was greater in the larval phase in ELISA and in the pupal phase in BR PAMPA. PMID:15029373

  20. Homologs to Cry toxin receptor genes in a de novo transcriptome and their altered expression in resistant Spodoptera litura larvae.

    PubMed

    Gong, Liang; Wang, Huidong; Qi, Jiangwei; Han, Lanzhi; Hu, Meiying; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2015-07-01

    Insect resistance threatens sustainability of insecticides based on Cry proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Since high levels of resistance to Cry proteins involve alterations in Cry-binding midgut receptors, their identification is needed to develop resistance management strategies. Through Illumina sequencing we generated a transcriptome containing 16,161 annotated unigenes for the Oriental leafworm (Spodoptera litura). Transcriptome mining identified 6 contigs with identity to reported lepidopteran Cry toxin receptors. Using PCR we confirmed their expression during the larval stage and compared their quantitative expression in larvae from susceptible and a field-derived Cry1Ca resistant strain of S. litura. Among reduced transcript levels detected for most tested contigs in the Cry1Ca-resistant S. litura larvae, the most dramatic reduction (up to 99%) was detected for alkaline phosphatase contigs. This study significantly expands S. litura transcriptomic resources and provides preliminary identification of putative receptor genes with altered expression in S. litura resistant to Cry1Ca toxin. PMID:25981133

  1. Assessment of electron beam-induced abnormal development and DNA damage in Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Seon-Woo; Koo, Hyun-Na; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2014-03-01

    The armyworm, Spodoptera litura (F.) is a polyphagous and important agricultural pest worldwide. In this study, we examined the effect of electron beam irradiation on developmental stages, reproduction, and DNA damage of S. litura. Eggs (0-24 h old), larvae (3rd instar), pupae (3 days old after pupation), and adults (24 h after emergence) were irradiated with electron beam irradiation of six levels between 30 and 250 Gy. When eggs were irradiated with 100 Gy, egg hatching was completely inhibited. When the larvae were irradiated, the larval period was significantly delayed, depending on the doses applied. At 150 Gy, the fecundity of adults that developed from irradiated pupae was entirely inhibited. However, electron beam irradiation did not induce the instantaneous death of S. litura adults. Reciprocal crosses between irradiated and unirradiated moths demonstrated that females were more radiosensitive than males. We also conducted the comet assay immediately after irradiation and over the following 5 days period. Severe DNA fragmentation in S. litura cells was observed just after irradiation and the damage was repaired during the post-irradiation period in a time-dependent manner. However, at more than 100 Gy, DNA damage was not fully recovered.

  2. Frequency of Cry1F Non-Recessive Resistance Alleles in North Carolina Field Populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guoping; Reisig, Dominic; Miao, Jin; Gould, Fred; Huang, Fangneng; Feng, Hongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target species of transgenic corn (Zea mays L.) that expresses single and pyramided Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin. In 2014, S. frugiperda were collected from a light trap in North Carolina, and a total of 212 F1/F2 isofemale lines of S. frugiperda were screened for resistance to Bt and non-Bt corn. All of the 212 isolines were susceptible to corn tissue expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, and Cry1F + Cry1Ab + Vip3Aa20. Growth rate bioassays were performed to isolate non-recessive Bt resistance alleles. Seven individuals out of the 212 isofemale lines carried major non-recessive alleles conferring resistance to Cry1F. A pooled colony was created from the seven individuals. This colony was 151.21 times more resistant to Cry1F than a known-susceptible population and was also resistant to Cry1A.105, but was not resistant to Cry2Ab and Vip3Aa20. The results demonstrate that field populations of S. frugiperda collected from North Carolina are generally susceptible to Cry1F, but that some individuals carry resistant alleles. The data generated in this study can be used as baseline data for resistance monitoring. PMID:27119741

  3. Structural and biochemical characteristics of chitin-binding protein SeCBP66 from Spodoptera exigua (Hübner).

    PubMed

    Zhao, D; Liu, B; Zhang, Y K; Guo, W; Li, S Y; Lu, X J; Li, R J

    2016-01-01

    Peritrophic membrane proteins are important components of the insect peritrophic membrane. A novel cDNA gene encoding a chitin-binding protein, named secbp66, was identified by immunization screening of the cDNA library of Spodoptera exigua. The full length of secbp66 is 1806 bp, which encodes 602 amino acids. The predicted weight of the protein is 64.2 kDa. Bioinformatic analysis showed that a signal peptide composed of 17 amino acids located at the N-terminal of SeCBP66 contained seven tandem putative Type-II functional chitin-binding domains and five potential N-glycosylation sites, but no O-linked glycosylation sites. To study the properties of SeCBP66, recombinant SeCBP66 was successfully expressed in the insect cell line BTI-Tn-5B1-4 with a Bac-to-Bac expression system. A chitin binding experiment showed that the recombinant SeCBP66 protein could bind to chitin strongly. This study of the novel chitin-binding protein SeCBP66 provides a basis for developing new control targets for S. exigua. PMID:27525954

  4. Nerium oleander indirect leaf photosynthesis and light harvesting reductions after clipping injury or Spodoptera eridania herbivory: high sensitivity to injury.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Kevin J

    2012-04-01

    Variable indirect photosynthetic rate (P(n)) responses occur on injured leaves after insect herbivory. It is important to understand factors that influence indirect P(n) reductions after injury. The current study examines the relationship between gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters with injury intensity (% single leaf tissue removal) from clipping or Spodoptera eridania Stoll (Noctuidae) herbivory on Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae). Two experiments showed intercellular [CO(2)] increases but P(n) and stomatal conductance reductions with increasing injury intensity, suggesting non-stomatal P(n) limitation. Also, P(n) recovery was incomplete at 3d post-injury. This is the first report of a negative exponential P(n) impairment function with leaf injury intensity to suggest high N. oleander leaf sensitivity to indirect P(n) impairment. Negative linear functions occurred between most other gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters with injury intensity. The degree of light harvesting impairment increased with injury intensity via lower (1) photochemical efficiency indicated lower energy transfer efficiency from reaction centers to PSII, (2) photochemical quenching indicated reaction center closure, and (3) electron transport rates indicated less energy traveling through PSII. Future studies can examine additional mechanisms (mesophyll conductance, carbon fixation, and cardenolide induction) to cause N. oleander indirect leaf P(n) reductions after injury.

  5. Microscopic analysis of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) embryonic development before and after treatment with azadirachtin, lufenuron, and deltamethrin.

    PubMed

    Correia, Alicely A; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valéria; Teixeira, Alvaro A C; Oliveira, José V; Gonçalves, Gabriel G A; Cavalcanti, MaríIia G S; Brayner, Fábio A; Alves, Luiz C

    2013-04-01

    The botanical insecticides, growth regulators, and pyrethroids have an effect on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith). However, no emphasis has been given to the effect of these insecticides on embryonic development of insects, in histological level. Thus, this research aimed to examine by light and scanning electron microscopy S. frugiperda eggs and to describe the embryonic development, before and after immersion treatment, using commercial concentrations and lower concentrations than commercial ones, of the compounds lufenuron (Match), azadirachtin (AzaMax), and deltamethrin (Decis-positive control). For light microscopy semithin sections of eggs were used, and for scanning electron microscopy, images of the surface of eggs, treated and untreated with insecticides. The morphological characteristics of S. frugiperda eggs, in general, were similar to those described in the literature for most of the insects in the order Lepidoptera. Spherical eggs slightly flattened at the poles, with chorion, yolk, vitelline membrane, and embryo formation. In both microscopic analysis, we observed that insecticides acted immediately and independent of concentration, resulting absence, or incomplete embryo, presented yolk granules widely dispersed, without vitellophage formation, chorion disintegration, disorganized blastoderm, presenting vacuoles, yolk region with amorphous cells, and formation of completely uncharacterized appendages. Thus, we conclude that the compounds lufenuron and azadirachtin interfere on S. frugiperda embryonic development. PMID:23786063

  6. [Enteral tube feeding].

    PubMed

    Haller, Alois

    2014-03-01

    Tube feeding is an integral part of medical therapies, and can be easily managed also in the outpatient setting. Tube feeding by the stomach or small intestine with nasogastral or nasojejunal tubes is common in clinical practice. Long-term nutrition is usually provided through a permanent tube, i. e. a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). Modern portable nutrition pumps are used to cover the patient's nutritional needs. Enteral nutrition is always indicated if patients can not or should not eat or if nutritional requirements cannot be covered within 3 days after an intervention, e. g. after abdominal surgery. Industrially produced tube feedings with defined substrate concentrations are being used; different compositions of nutrients, such as glutamine fish oil etc., are used dependent on the the condition of the patient. Enteral nutrition may be associated with complications of the tube, e. g. dislocation, malposition or obstruction, as well as the feeding itself, e. g.hyperglycaemia, electrolyte disturbances, refeeding syndrome diarrhea or aspiration). However, the benefit of tube feeding usually exceeds the potential harm substantially.

  7. Xanthophylls in Poultry Feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breithaupt, Diemar R.

    Since most consumers associate an intense colour of food with healthy animals and high food quality, xanthophylls are widely used as feed additives to generate products that meet consumers' demands. An important large-scale application is in poultry farming, where xanthophylls are added to feed to give the golden colour of egg yolk that is so much appreciated. Now, with numerous new applications in human food, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetic products, there is an increasing demand for xanthophylls on the international market (Volume 5, Chapter 4).

  8. High efficiency multifrequency feed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajioka, J. S.; Tsuda, G. I.; Leeper, W. A. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Antenna systems and particularly compact and simple antenna feeds which can transmit and receive simultaneously in at least three frequency bands, each with high efficiency and polarization diversity are described. The feed system is applicable for frequency bands having nominal frequency bands with the ratio 1:4:6. By way of example, satellite communications telemetry bands operate in frequency bands 0.8 - 1.0 GHz, 3.7 - 4.2 GHz and 5.9 - 6.4 GHz. In addition, the antenna system of the invention has monopulse capability for reception with circular or diverse polarization at frequency band 1.

  9. Feed Your Brain!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Failmezger, Tammie L.

    2006-01-01

    Language arts teachers and library media specialists bear the responsibility of teaching students how to properly feed their brains. In this article, the author describes how she teaches her students to make wise choices when selecting books. Furthermore, she presents the "Brain Food Pyramid" model that looks similar to the food pyramid but it…

  10. Feeding of Diarmis Proboscis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    The feeding of Diarmis proboscis is an exciting outdoor laboratory activity that demonstrates a single concept of adaptations--cryptic colorations. The students are "transformed" into D. proboscis (no Harry Potter magic needed) in order to learn how adaptations work in the natural world. Prior to beginning this activity, students should have a…

  11. Infant feeding and vision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past several years, a number of randomized controlled trials have compared the effects of breastfeeding and formula feeding and the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)–supplemented and non-supplemented formulas on visual function in both preterm and term infants. Some studies have shown b...

  12. ASDC RSS Feeds

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-08

    ... having to visit each one of them to see what's new. When you sign up, you receive breaking news on your computer as soon as it is released. How can I sign up? Select the link(s) above to view our "raw" RSS feed. In ...

  13. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - bolus; G-tube - bolus; Gastrostomy button - bolus; Bard Button - bolus; MIC-KEY - bolus ... Your child's gastrostomy tube (G-tube) is a special tube in your child's stomach that will help deliver food and medicines until your ...

  14. Dust feed mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Milliman, Edward M.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a dust feed device for delivery of a uniform supply of dust for long periods of time to an aerosolizing means for production of a dust suspension. The device utilizes at least two tandem containers having spiral brushes within the containers which transport the dust from a supply to the aerosolizer means.

  15. First Report of Outbreaks of the Fall Armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a New Alien Invasive Pest in West and Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sankung, Sagnia B.; Togola, Abou; Tamò, Manuele

    2016-01-01

    The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda is a prime noctuid pest of maize on the American continents where it has remained confined despite occasional interceptions by European quarantine services in recent years. The pest has currently become a new invasive species in West and Central Africa where outbreaks were recorded for the first time in early 2016. The presence of at least two distinct haplotypes within samples collected on maize in Nigeria and São Tomé suggests multiple introductions into the African continent. Implications of this new threat to the maize crop in tropical Africa are briefly discussed. PMID:27788251

  16. Breast feeding: religious influences.

    PubMed

    Levin, S

    1979-01-01

    In Orthodox Jewish communities, mothers are expected to breast-feed their infants and this expectation is to some extent based on religious beliefs. The degree to which this expectation promotes breast-feeding success was assessed by comparing a group of 50 Orthodox Jewish mothers with a group of 50 secular Jewish mothers in regard to infant feeding practices. All of the women lived in the Yeoville suburb of Jahannesburg, South Africa. An effort was made to interview all Orthodox mothers with at least 1 child under the age of 5 living in the area and it was assumed that the 50 mothers in the study constituted all or most of that population. A group of 50 secular mothers, comparable in age, education, and general living conditions, was also interviewed. The 50 Orthodox mothers had a total of 155 children and the secular mothers had a total of 119 children. Despite the quasi-religious motivation of the Orthodox mothers to breast-feed, there were few differences in the infant feeding practices of the 2 groups. At the age of 1 month the ratio of breast-fed to bottle-fed infants was 2.5:1 for the infants of Orthodox mothers and 2.3:1 for the infants of secular mothers. At age 6 months the ratio was 1:3 for both groups. At age 9 months the ratio was 1:6.4 for Orthodox mothers and 1:6 for secular mothers. The children of Orthodox mothers were breast-fed for an average of 5 months while the children of mothers of secular children were breast-fed for 4-1/2 months.

  17. Deleterious activity of natural products on postures of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    PubMed

    Tavares, Wagner S; Cruz, Ivan; Fonseca, Felipe G; Gouveia, Natalia L; Serrão, José E; Zanuncio, José C

    2010-01-01

    The control of Lepidoptera pests should be carried out before hatching of their caterpillars to avoid damage to the crops. The aim of this work was to assess the activity of neem (trade name: Natuneem, producer: Base Fértil, Chapadão do Sul, Brazil) and pyroligneous extracts (trade name: Biopirol 7M, producer: Biocarbo, Itabirito, Brazil) at 10 mL/L (1%) and 20 mL/L (2%) contents on egg masses of different ages of Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and of Diatraea saccharalis F. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at Embrapa Corn and Sorghum in Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The tests took place in an unbiased casualized design with 12 treatments and four replications. The insecticides were diluted in water, and 0.04 mL of the solution was applied to recently laid and one- and two-day-old eggs of S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis. Caterpillars hatching from recently laid egg masses of S. frugiperda was lower with 2% pyroligneous extract [(0.02 +/- 0.00)%]. Recently laid eggs and one- or two-day-old eggs of D. saccharalis presented lower caterpillar hatching with 1% neem extract [(0.00 +/- 0.00)%, (0.00 +/- 0.00)%, and (1.00 +/- 0.01)%] and 2% neem extract [(0.00 +/- 0.00)%], compared to 1% pyroligneous extract [(27.30 +/- 3.22)%, (28.40 +/- 3.32)%, and (37.80 +/- 4.14)%] and 2% pyroligneous extract [(42.20 +/- 4.49)%, (48.70 +/- 4.97)%, and (56.60 +/- 5.52)%], respectively. Neem and pyroligneous extracts had impact on hatching of S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis caterpillars.

  18. Cloning and characterization of three chemosensory proteins from Spodoptera exigua and effects of gene silencing on female survival and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Gong, L; Luo, Q; Rizwan-ul-Haq, M; Hu, M-Y

    2012-10-01

    Insect chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are supposed to transport hydrophobic chemicals to receptors on sensory neurons. However, CSPs are broadly expressed in various insect tissues, suggesting their involvement in the physiological processes beyond chemoreception. So, the exact physiological roles of CSPs in insects still need to be unraveled. In this study, three full-length of CSP genes from Spodoptera exigua have been cloned and characterized. The deduced amino acid sequences of SexiCSP1, SexiCSP2 and SexiCSP3 revealed open reading frames of 128, 128 and 126 amino acids, respectively, with four conserved cysteine residues. The expression patterns of the three SexiCSPs were further investigated by real-time PCR. Three SexiCSPs were expressed in antennae, heads, legs, wings, thoraxes, abdomens, testes and ovaries, with the highest expression level in female and male antennae. Furthermore, all three SexiCSPs mRNA were distributed extensively in the tested development stages with the highest expression level in pupae. RNAi-based gene silencing study resulted in a dramatic reduction of corresponding mRNA in female S. exigua after injection with dsRNA of all three SexiCSPs. Consequentially, 42.5% of mortalities, 68.3% (compare to DEPC water injected control) and 71.4% (compare to uninjected control) oviposition inhibition, and significantly effected egg hatching were observed in the female S. exigua injected with dsSexiCSP3 as compared to control treatments. On the other hand, dsSexiCSP1 and dsSexiCSP2 injected female adults did not show effects on survival and reproduction. Our study confirms the utility of RNAi approach to functional characterization of CSP genes in S. exigua and provides a starting point for further studies on female survival and reproduction in this insect. It also reveals the potential pest controlling method, as insect behavior regulation agent that disrupts the expression of chemosensory proteins. PMID:22475511

  19. Geographic Variation in Sexual Attraction of Spodoptera frugiperda Corn- and Rice-Strain Males to Pheromone Lures

    PubMed Central

    Unbehend, Melanie; Hänniger, Sabine; Vásquez, Gissella M.; Juárez, María Laura; Reisig, Dominic; McNeil, Jeremy N.; Meagher, Robert L.; Jenkins, David A.; Heckel, David G.; Groot, Astrid T.

    2014-01-01

    The corn- and rice-strains of Spodoptera frugiperda exhibit several genetic and behavioral differences and appear to be undergoing ecological speciation in sympatry. Previous studies reported conflicting results when investigating male attraction to pheromone lures in different regions, but this could have been due to inter-strain and/or geographic differences. Therefore, we investigated whether corn- and rice-strain males differed in their response to different synthetic pheromone blends in different regions in North America, the Caribbean and South America. All trapped males were strain-typed by two strain-specific mitochondrial DNA markers. In the first experiment, we found a nearly similar response of corn- and rice-strain males to two different 4-component blends, resembling the corn- and rice-strain female blend we previously described from females in Florida. This response showed some geographic variation in fields in Canada, North Carolina, Florida, Puerto Rico, and South America (Peru, Argentina). In dose-response experiments with the critical secondary sex pheromone component (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate (Z7-12:OAc), we found some strain-specific differences in male attraction. While the response to Z7-12:OAc varied geographically in the corn-strain, rice-strain males showed almost no variation. We also found that the minor compound (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:OAc) did not increase attraction of both strains in Florida and of corn-strain males in Peru. In a fourth experiment, where we added the stereo-isomer of the critical sex pheromone component, (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate, to the major pheromone component (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:OAc), we found that this compound was attractive to males in North Carolina, but not to males in Peru. Overall, our results suggest that both strains show rather geographic than strain-specific differences in their response to pheromone lures, and that regional sexual communication differences might cause geographic

  20. Proteomics of the 26S proteasome in Spodoptera frugiperda cells infected with the nucleopolyhedrovirus, AcMNPV.

    PubMed

    Lyupina, Yulia V; Zatsepina, Olga G; Serebryakova, Marina V; Erokhov, Pavel A; Abaturova, Svetlana B; Kravchuk, Oksana I; Orlova, Olga V; Beljelarskaya, Svetlana N; Lavrov, Andrey I; Sokolova, Olga S; Mikhailov, Victor S

    2016-06-01

    Baculoviruses are large DNA viruses that infect insect species such as Lepidoptera and are used in biotechnology for protein production and in agriculture as insecticides against crop pests. Baculoviruses require activity of host proteasomes for efficient reproduction, but how they control the cellular proteome and interact with the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) of infected cells remains unknown. In this report, we analyzed possible changes in the subunit composition of 26S proteasomes of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9), cells in the course of infection with the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). 26S proteasomes were purified from Sf9 cells by an immune affinity method and subjected to 2D gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and Mascot search in bioinformatics databases. A total of 34 homologues of 26S proteasome subunits of eukaryotic species were identified including 14 subunits of the 20S core particle (7 α and 7 β subunits) and 20 subunits of the 19S regulatory particle (RP). The RP contained homologues of 11 of RPN-type and 6 of RPT-type subunits, 2 deubiquitinating enzymes (UCH-14/UBP6 and UCH-L5/UCH37), and thioredoxin. Similar 2D-gel maps of 26S proteasomes purified from uninfected and AcMNPV-infected cells at 48hpi confirmed the structural integrity of the 26S proteasome in insect cells during baculovirus infection. However, subtle changes in minor forms of some proteasome subunits were detected. A portion of the α5(zeta) cellular pool that presumably was not associated with the proteasome underwent partial proteolysis at a late stage in infection.

  1. Effective dominance of resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt maize and cotton varieties: implications for resistance management

    PubMed Central

    Horikoshi, Renato J.; Bernardi, Daniel; Bernardi, Oderlei; Malaquias, José B.; Okuma, Daniela M.; Miraldo, Leonardo L.; Amaral, Fernando S. de A. e; Omoto, Celso

    2016-01-01

    The resistance of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, has been characterized to some Cry and Vip3A proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) expressed in transgenic maize in Brazil. Here we evaluated the effective dominance of resistance based on the survival of neonates from selected Bt-resistant, heterozygous, and susceptible (Sus) strains of FAW on different Bt maize and cotton varieties. High survival of strains resistant to the Cry1F (HX-R), Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab (VT-R) and Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab/Cry1F (PW-R) proteins was detected on Herculex, YieldGard VT PRO and PowerCore maize. Our Vip3A-resistant strain (Vip-R) exhibited high survival on Herculex, Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3 maize. However, the heterozygous from HX-R × Sus, VT-R × Sus, PW-R × Sus and Vip-R × Sus had complete mortality on YieldGard VT PRO, PowerCore, Agrisure Viptera, and Agrisure Viptera 3, whereas the HX-R × Sus and Vip-R × Sus strains survived on Herculex maize. On Bt cotton, the HX-R, VT-R and PW-R strains exhibited high survival on Bollgard II. All resistant strains survived on WideStrike, but only PW-R and Vip-R × Sus survived on TwinLink. Our study provides useful data to aid in the understanding of the effectiveness of the refuge strategy for Insect Resistance Management of Bt plants. PMID:27721425

  2. Haplotype identification within Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) corn and rice strains from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Hernandez, H; Saldamando-Benjumea, C I

    2011-01-01

    The fall army worm Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) is a migratory important pest of corn, sorghum, rice, grass and bermudagrass in North and South America. This species has diverged into two genetically differentiated but morphologically identical strains, "the rice" and "the corn". They have been analyzed by sequencing the genes cytochrome oxydase I, II and ITS1 from populations from the United States and Brazil. However, no such studies were performed in Colombia. In here, we identified 43 haplotypes by sequencing a fragment of the COI gene from 102 individuals, of which 40 had already been identified as the "corn" and "rice" strains or to their hybrids from Tolima, and the rest were collected from corn, cotton, sorghum, grass and rice fields in other regions of Colombia. The corn strain haplotype H1 was the most frequently found in this country, representing the main target for FAW monitoring programs. AMOVA analysis confirmed the population structure between Colombian and North American S. frugiperda haplotypes (F(ST) = 0.76812, P < 0.001), but not within the different Colombian regions, suggesting high gene flow within the country. The ML trees obtained for Tolima and for Colombia as a whole did not generate clustering amongst S. frugiperda sequences, neither via host-plant association nor by geographical areas. The minimum spanning network for Colombia corroborated our finding that the haplotype H1 has the highest frequency in the country. Our data suggest that haplotype frequency determination will be useful in the establishment of a monitoring system for this species.

  3. Dissimilar Regulation of Antimicrobial Proteins in the Midgut of Spodoptera exigua Larvae Challenged with Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins or Baculovirus.

    PubMed

    Crava, Cristina M; Jakubowska, Agata K; Escriche, Baltasar; Herrero, Salvador; Bel, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and lysozymes are the main effectors of the insect immune system, and they are involved in both local and systemic responses. Among local responses, midgut immune reaction plays an important role in fighting pathogens that reach the insect body through the oral route, as do many microorganisms used in pest control. Under this point of view, understanding how insects defend themselves locally during the first phases of infections caused by food-borne pathogens is important to further improve microbial control strategies. In the present study, we analyzed the transcriptional response of AMPs and lysozymes in the midgut of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a polyphagous pest that is commonly controlled by products based on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) or baculovirus. First, we comprehensively characterized the transcripts encoding AMPs and lysozymes expressed in S. exigua larval midgut, identifying 35 transcripts that represent the S. exigua arsenal against microbial infection. Secondly, we analyzed their expression in the midgut after ingestion of sub-lethal doses of two different pore-forming B. thuringiensis toxins, Cry1Ca and Vip3Aa, and the S. exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV). We observed that both Bt toxins triggered a similar, wide and in some cases high transcriptional activation of genes encoding AMPs and lysozymes, which was not reflected in the activation of the classical systemic immune-marker phenoloxidase in hemolymph. Baculovirus ingestion resulted in the opposed reaction: Almost all transcripts coding for AMPs and lysozymes were down-regulated or not induced 96 hours post infection. Our results shed light on midgut response to different virulence factors or pathogens used nowadays as microbial control agents and point out the importance of the midgut immune response contribution to the larval immunity.

  4. Dissimilar Regulation of Antimicrobial Proteins in the Midgut of Spodoptera exigua Larvae Challenged with Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins or Baculovirus

    PubMed Central

    Crava, Cristina M.; Jakubowska, Agata K.; Escriche, Baltasar; Herrero, Salvador; Bel, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and lysozymes are the main effectors of the insect immune system, and they are involved in both local and systemic responses. Among local responses, midgut immune reaction plays an important role in fighting pathogens that reach the insect body through the oral route, as do many microorganisms used in pest control. Under this point of view, understanding how insects defend themselves locally during the first phases of infections caused by food-borne pathogens is important to further improve microbial control strategies. In the present study, we analyzed the transcriptional response of AMPs and lysozymes in the midgut of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a polyphagous pest that is commonly controlled by products based on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) or baculovirus. First, we comprehensively characterized the transcripts encoding AMPs and lysozymes expressed in S. exigua larval midgut, identifying 35 transcripts that represent the S. exigua arsenal against microbial infection. Secondly, we analyzed their expression in the midgut after ingestion of sub-lethal doses of two different pore-forming B. thuringiensis toxins, Cry1Ca and Vip3Aa, and the S. exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV). We observed that both Bt toxins triggered a similar, wide and in some cases high transcriptional activation of genes encoding AMPs and lysozymes, which was not reflected in the activation of the classical systemic immune-marker phenoloxidase in hemolymph. Baculovirus ingestion resulted in the opposed reaction: Almost all transcripts coding for AMPs and lysozymes were down-regulated or not induced 96 hours post infection. Our results shed light on midgut response to different virulence factors or pathogens used nowadays as microbial control agents and point out the importance of the midgut immune response contribution to the larval immunity. PMID:25993013

  5. The Arabidopsis immune regulator SRFR1 dampens defences against herbivory by Spodoptera exigua and parasitism by Heterodera schachtii.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong Dung T; Pike, Sharon; Wang, Jianying; Nepal Poudel, Arati; Heinz, Robert; Schultz, Jack C; Koo, Abraham J; Mitchum, Melissa G; Appel, Heidi M; Gassmann, Walter

    2016-05-01

    Plants have developed diverse mechanisms to fine tune defence responses to different types of enemy. Cross-regulation between signalling pathways may allow the prioritization of one response over another. Previously, we identified SUPPRESSOR OF rps4-RLD1 (SRFR1) as a negative regulator of ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1)-dependent effector-triggered immunity against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 expressing avrRps4. The use of multiple stresses is a powerful tool to further define gene function. Here, we examined whether SRFR1 also impacts resistance to a herbivorous insect in leaves and to a cyst nematode in roots. Interestingly, srfr1-1 plants showed increased resistance to herbivory by the beet army worm Spodoptera exigua and to parasitism by the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii compared with the corresponding wild-type Arabidopsis accession RLD. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to measure the transcript levels of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonate/ethylene (JA/ET) pathway genes, we found that enhanced resistance of srfr1-1 plants to S. exigua correlated with specific upregulation of the MYC2 branch of the JA pathway concurrent with suppression of the SA pathway. In contrast, the greater susceptibility of RLD was accompanied by simultaneously increased transcript levels of SA, JA and JA/ET signalling pathway genes. Surprisingly, mutation of either SRFR1 or EDS1 increased resistance to H. schachtii, indicating that the concurrent presence of both wild-type genes promotes susceptibility. This finding suggests a novel form of resistance in Arabidopsis to the biotrophic pathogen H. schachtii or a root-specific regulation of the SA pathway by EDS1, and places SRFR1 at an intersection between multiple defence pathways.

  6. Effective dominance of resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt maize and cotton varieties: implications for resistance management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikoshi, Renato J.; Bernardi, Daniel; Bernardi, Oderlei; Malaquias, José B.; Okuma, Daniela M.; Miraldo, Leonardo L.; Amaral, Fernando S. De A. E.; Omoto, Celso

    2016-10-01

    The resistance of fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, has been characterized to some Cry and Vip3A proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) expressed in transgenic maize in Brazil. Here we evaluated the effective dominance of resistance based on the survival of neonates from selected Bt-resistant, heterozygous, and susceptible (Sus) strains of FAW on different Bt maize and cotton varieties. High survival of strains resistant to the Cry1F (HX-R), Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab (VT-R) and Cry1A.105/Cry2Ab/Cry1F (PW-R) proteins was detected on Herculex, YieldGard VT PRO and PowerCore maize. Our Vip3A-resistant strain (Vip-R) exhibited high survival on Herculex, Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3 maize. However, the heterozygous from HX-R × Sus, VT-R × Sus, PW-R × Sus and Vip-R × Sus had complete mortality on YieldGard VT PRO, PowerCore, Agrisure Viptera, and Agrisure Viptera 3, whereas the HX-R × Sus and Vip-R × Sus strains survived on Herculex maize. On Bt cotton, the HX-R, VT-R and PW-R strains exhibited high survival on Bollgard II. All resistant strains survived on WideStrike, but only PW-R and Vip-R × Sus survived on TwinLink. Our study provides useful data to aid in the understanding of the effectiveness of the refuge strategy for Insect Resistance Management of Bt plants.

  7. Enhancement of supercooling capacity and survival by cold acclimation, rapid cold and heat hardening in Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xialin; Cheng, Wenjie; Wang, Xiaoping; Lei, Chaoliang

    2011-12-01

    Insects can increase their resistance to cold stress by prior exposure to non-lethal cold temperatures. Here, we investigated the supercooling capacity and survival of eggs, 3rd and 5th instar larvae, and pupae of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during CA, and responses to various pre-treatment protocols, including constant temperatures, thermoperiods, and RCH, RHH, RCH+RHH and RHH+RCH combined with thermoperiods. Only acclimated eggs demonstrated a significant decrease in SCP, from -20.7±0.3 to -22.9±0.3°C, among all experimental groups compared to non-acclimated stages. Survival increased by 17.5% for eggs, 40.0% and 13.3% for 3rd and 5th instar larvae, and by 20.0% for pupae after CA. Compared to controls, survival of eggs under the conditions of thermoperiod (5:15°C), thermoperiod (5:15°C)+RHH, and thermoperiod (5:15, 10:20, and 15:25°C)+RCH significantly increased. In addition, survival of 3rd and 5th instar larvae and pupae increased under the conditions of thermoperiod (5:15°C) and thermoperiod (5:15°C)+RCH, possibly due to the induction of heat shock proteins or cryoprotectants. However, the pre-treatments of thermoperiod+RCH+RHH and thermoperiod+RHH+RCH did not significantly enhance survival of any developmental stage. These adaptive responses may allow S. exigua to enhance supercooling capacity and survival in response to seasonal or unexpected diurnal decreases in environmental temperatures. PMID:21878325

  8. Functional characterization of SlitPBP3 in Spodoptera litura by CRISPR/Cas9 mediated genome editing.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guan-Heng; Xu, Jun; Cui, Zhen; Dong, Xiao-Tong; Ye, Zhan-Feng; Niu, Dong-Juan; Huang, Yong-Ping; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2016-08-01

    Functional gene analysis by using genome editing techniques is limited only in few model insects. Here, we reported an efficient and heritable gene mutagenesis analysis in an important lepidopteran pest, Spodoptera litura, using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. By using this system, we successfully obtained the homozygous S. litura strain by targeting the pheromone binding protein 3 gene (SlitPBP3), which allowed us to elucidate the role of this gene in the olfaction of the female sex pheromones. By co-injection of Cas9 mRNA and sgRNA into S. litura eggs, highly efficient chimera mutation in SlitPBP3 loci was detected both in injected eggs (39.1%) and in the resulting individual moths (87.5%). We used the mutant moths as parents to obtain the G1 offspring and the homozygous mutant strain in G2. The function of SlitPBP3 was explored by Electroantennogram (EAG) recordings with a homozygous mutant strain. The result showed that the EAG responses were significantly decreased in mutant males than in control males when treated with the major sex pheromone component (Z9,E11-14:Ac) and a minor component (Z9-14:Ac) at higher dosages. The results demonstrate that s SlitPBP3 gene plays a minor role in the perception of the female sex pheromones. Furthermore, our study provides a useful methodology with the CRISPR/Cas9 system for gene in vivo functional study, particular for lepidopteran species in which the RNAi approach is not efficient. PMID:27192033

  9. Insect growth regulatory effects of some extracts and sterols from Myrtillocactus geometrizans (Cactaceae) against Spodoptera frugiperda and Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, Carlos L; Salazar, J Rodrigo; Martínez, Mariano; Aranda, Eduardo

    2005-10-01

    A methanol extract from the roots and aerial parts of Myrtillocactus geometrizans (Cactaceae) yielded peniocerol 1, macdougallin 2, and chichipegenin 3. The natural products 1, 2 their mixtures, MeOH and CH(2)Cl(2) extracts showed insecticidal and insect growth regulatory activity against fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)], an important insect pest of corn, and [Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera)], a pest of stored grains in Mexico. The most active compounds were 1, 2, and a mixture (M(2)) of 1 and 2 (6:4). All these extracts, compounds and the mixture had insect growth regulating (IGR) activity between 5.0 and 50.0 ppm and insecticidal effects between 50 and 300 ppm in diets. The extracts were insecticidal to larvae, with lethal doses between 100 and 200 ppm. These compounds appear to have selective effects on the pre-emergence metabolism of Coleoptera, because in all treatments of the larvae of T. molitor, pupation were shortened and this process show precociousness in relation to controls. In contrast to S. frugiperda larvae, onset of pupation was noticeably delayed. Emergence in both cases was drastically diminished. In both pupae and in the few adults that were able to emerge, many deformations were observed. The results of these assays indicated that the compounds were more active than other known natural insect growth inhibitors such as gedunin and methanol extracts of Cedrela salvadorensis and Yucca periculosa. Peniocerol, macdougallin and chichipegenin, as well as mixtures of these substances, may be useful as natural insecticidal agents.

  10. Enhancement of supercooling capacity and survival by cold acclimation, rapid cold and heat hardening in Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xialin; Cheng, Wenjie; Wang, Xiaoping; Lei, Chaoliang

    2011-12-01

    Insects can increase their resistance to cold stress by prior exposure to non-lethal cold temperatures. Here, we investigated the supercooling capacity and survival of eggs, 3rd and 5th instar larvae, and pupae of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during CA, and responses to various pre-treatment protocols, including constant temperatures, thermoperiods, and RCH, RHH, RCH+RHH and RHH+RCH combined with thermoperiods. Only acclimated eggs demonstrated a significant decrease in SCP, from -20.7±0.3 to -22.9±0.3°C, among all experimental groups compared to non-acclimated stages. Survival increased by 17.5% for eggs, 40.0% and 13.3% for 3rd and 5th instar larvae, and by 20.0% for pupae after CA. Compared to controls, survival of eggs under the conditions of thermoperiod (5:15°C), thermoperiod (5:15°C)+RHH, and thermoperiod (5:15, 10:20, and 15:25°C)+RCH significantly increased. In addition, survival of 3rd and 5th instar larvae and pupae increased under the conditions of thermoperiod (5:15°C) and thermoperiod (5:15°C)+RCH, possibly due to the induction of heat shock proteins or cryoprotectants. However, the pre-treatments of thermoperiod+RCH+RHH and thermoperiod+RHH+RCH did not significantly enhance survival of any developmental stage. These adaptive responses may allow S. exigua to enhance supercooling capacity and survival in response to seasonal or unexpected diurnal decreases in environmental temperatures.

  11. The Arabidopsis immune regulator SRFR1 dampens defences against herbivory by Spodoptera exigua and parasitism by Heterodera schachtii.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong Dung T; Pike, Sharon; Wang, Jianying; Nepal Poudel, Arati; Heinz, Robert; Schultz, Jack C; Koo, Abraham J; Mitchum, Melissa G; Appel, Heidi M; Gassmann, Walter

    2016-05-01

    Plants have developed diverse mechanisms to fine tune defence responses to different types of enemy. Cross-regulation between signalling pathways may allow the prioritization of one response over another. Previously, we identified SUPPRESSOR OF rps4-RLD1 (SRFR1) as a negative regulator of ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1)-dependent effector-triggered immunity against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 expressing avrRps4. The use of multiple stresses is a powerful tool to further define gene function. Here, we examined whether SRFR1 also impacts resistance to a herbivorous insect in leaves and to a cyst nematode in roots. Interestingly, srfr1-1 plants showed increased resistance to herbivory by the beet army worm Spodoptera exigua and to parasitism by the cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii compared with the corresponding wild-type Arabidopsis accession RLD. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to measure the transcript levels of salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonate/ethylene (JA/ET) pathway genes, we found that enhanced resistance of srfr1-1 plants to S. exigua correlated with specific upregulation of the MYC2 branch of the JA pathway concurrent with suppression of the SA pathway. In contrast, the greater susceptibility of RLD was accompanied by simultaneously increased transcript levels of SA, JA and JA/ET signalling pathway genes. Surprisingly, mutation of either SRFR1 or EDS1 increased resistance to H. schachtii, indicating that the concurrent presence of both wild-type genes promotes susceptibility. This finding suggests a novel form of resistance in Arabidopsis to the biotrophic pathogen H. schachtii or a root-specific regulation of the SA pathway by EDS1, and places SRFR1 at an intersection between multiple defence pathways. PMID:26310916

  12. Model and Scenario Variations in Predicted Number of Generations of Spodoptera litura Fab. on Peanut during Future Climate Change Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasa Rao, Mathukumalli; Swathi, Pettem; Rama Rao, Chitiprolu Anantha; Rao, K. V.; Raju, B. M. K.; Srinivas, Karlapudi; Manimanjari, Dammu; Maheswari, Mandapaka

    2015-01-01

    The present study features the estimation of number of generations of tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura. Fab. on peanut crop at six locations in India using MarkSim, which provides General Circulation Model (GCM) of future data on daily maximum (T.max), minimum (T.min) air temperatures from six models viz., BCCR-BCM2.0, CNRM-CM3, CSIRO-Mk3.5, ECHams5, INCM-CM3.0 and MIROC3.2 along with an ensemble of the six from three emission scenarios (A2, A1B and B1). This data was used to predict the future pest scenarios following the growing degree days approach in four different climate periods viz., Baseline-1975, Near future (NF) -2020, Distant future (DF)-2050 and Very Distant future (VDF)—2080. It is predicted that more generations would occur during the three future climate periods with significant variation among scenarios and models. Among the seven models, 1–2 additional generations were predicted during DF and VDF due to higher future temperatures in CNRM-CM3, ECHams5 & CSIRO-Mk3.5 models. The temperature projections of these models indicated that the generation time would decrease by 18–22% over baseline. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to partition the variation in the predicted number of generations and generation time of S. litura on peanut during crop season. Geographical location explained 34% of the total variation in number of generations, followed by time period (26%), model (1.74%) and scenario (0.74%). The remaining 14% of the variation was explained by interactions. Increased number of generations and reduction of generation time across the six peanut growing locations of India suggest that the incidence of S. litura may increase due to projected increase in temperatures in future climate change periods. PMID:25671564

  13. A Transcriptome Analysis Suggests Apoptosis-Related Signaling Pathways in Hemocytes of Spodoptera litura After Parasitization by Microplitis bicoloratus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Yu, Dongshuai; Yang, Minjun; Yang, Yang; Hu, Jiansheng; Luo, Kaijun

    2014-01-01

    Microplitis bicoloratus parasitism induction of apoptotic DNA fragmentation of host Spodoptera litura hemocytes has been reported. However, how M. bicoloratus parasitism regulates the host signaling pathways to induce DNA fragmentation during apoptosis remains unclear. To address this question, we performed a new RNAseq-based comparative analysis of the hemocytes transcriptomes of non-parasitized and parasitized S. litura. We were able to assemble a total of more than 11.63 Gbp sequence, to yield 20,571 unigenes. At least six main protein families encoded by M. bicoloratus bracovirus are expressed in the parasitized host hemocytes: Ankyrin-repeat, Ben domain, C-type lectin, Egf-like and Mucin-like, protein tyrosine phosphatase. The analysis indicated that during DNA fragmentation and cell death, 299 genes were up-regulated and 2,441 genes were down-regulated. Data on five signaling pathways related with cell death, the gap junctions, Ca2+, PI3K/Akt, NF-κB, ATM/p53 revealed that CypD, which is involved in forming a Permeability Transition Pore Complex (PTPC) to alter mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP), was dramatically up-regulated. The qRT-PCR also provided that the key genes for cell survival were down-regulated under M. bicoloratus parasitism, including those encoding Inx1, Inx2 and Inx3 of the gap junction signaling pathway, p110 subunit of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and the p50 and p65 subunit of the NF-κB signaling pathway. These findings suggest that M. bicoloratus parasitism may regulate host mitochondria to trigger internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. This study will facilitate the identification of immunosuppression-related genes and also improves our understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying polydnavirus-parasitoid-host interaction. PMID:25350281

  14. Insect growth regulatory effects of some extracts and sterols from Myrtillocactus geometrizans (Cactaceae) against Spodoptera frugiperda and Tenebrio molitor.

    PubMed

    Céspedes, Carlos L; Salazar, J Rodrigo; Martínez, Mariano; Aranda, Eduardo

    2005-10-01

    A methanol extract from the roots and aerial parts of Myrtillocactus geometrizans (Cactaceae) yielded peniocerol 1, macdougallin 2, and chichipegenin 3. The natural products 1, 2 their mixtures, MeOH and CH(2)Cl(2) extracts showed insecticidal and insect growth regulatory activity against fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)], an important insect pest of corn, and [Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera)], a pest of stored grains in Mexico. The most active compounds were 1, 2, and a mixture (M(2)) of 1 and 2 (6:4). All these extracts, compounds and the mixture had insect growth regulating (IGR) activity between 5.0 and 50.0 ppm and insecticidal effects between 50 and 300 ppm in diets. The extracts were insecticidal to larvae, with lethal doses between 100 and 200 ppm. These compounds appear to have selective effects on the pre-emergence metabolism of Coleoptera, because in all treatments of the larvae of T. molitor, pupation were shortened and this process show precociousness in relation to controls. In contrast to S. frugiperda larvae, onset of pupation was noticeably delayed. Emergence in both cases was drastically diminished. In both pupae and in the few adults that were able to emerge, many deformations were observed. The results of these assays indicated that the compounds were more active than other known natural insect growth inhibitors such as gedunin and methanol extracts of Cedrela salvadorensis and Yucca periculosa. Peniocerol, macdougallin and chichipegenin, as well as mixtures of these substances, may be useful as natural insecticidal agents. PMID:16122768

  15. Acetylcholinesterase and insect growth inhibitory activities of Gutierrezia microcephala on fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith.

    PubMed

    Calderón, J S; Céspedes, C L; Rosas, R; Gómez-Garibay, F; Salazar, J R; Lina, L; Aranda, E; Kubo, I

    2001-01-01

    From the aerial parts of Gutierrezia microcephala (Asteraceae), four oxyflavones were isolated, namely 5,7,2'-trihydroxy-3,6,8,4',5'-pentamethoxyflavone (1); 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3,6,8-trimethoxyflavone (2); 5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxy-3,6,8,5'-tetramethoxyflavone (3); 5,2'-dihydroxy-3,6,7,8,4',5'-hexamethoxyflavone (4), and an ent-clerodane, bacchabolivic acid (5). Compounds 1-5, the synthetic methyl ester (6), n-hexane and MeOH extracts were evaluated against the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda). Gedunin, a known insect growth regulator isolated from Cedrela spp. was used as a positive control. When tested for activity on neonate larvae into the no-choice artificial diet bioassay, flavone (1), clerodane (5), its methyl ester (6), MeOH and n-hexane extracts caused significant larval mortality with MC50 of 3.9, 10.7, 3.46, 7.95 and 7.5 ppm at 7 days, respectively, as well as growth reduction. They also increased the development time of surviving larvae and a significant delay in time to pupation and adult emergence. Acute toxicity against adults of S. frugiperda was also found, 5, 6, gedunin and n-hexane extract had the most potent activity with LD50 value of 6.59, 15.05, 10.78, and 12.79 ppm, respectively. In addition, MeOH, n-hexane extracts, 5, 6 and gedunin caused acetylcholinesterase inhibition with 93.7, 100, 90.2, 62.0 and 100% at 50.0 ppm, respectively; whereas 1-4 exhibited only moderate inhibitory activity. Compounds 1, 5 and 6 showed inhibitory activities comparable with gedunin. These compounds could be responsible of the insect growth inhibitory activity of this plant. PMID:11421454

  16. A new strategy for identification of highly conserved microRNAs in non-model insect, Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lu; Zuo, Hongliang; Liu, Keling; Li, Haiyi; Zhong, Guohua

    2012-01-01

    The indigenous small non-coding RNAs, known as microRNAs (miRNAs), are important regulators of gene expression and many of them are evolutionarily conserved. Whether stem-loop RT-PCR, as a sensitive method, could be utilized to clone conserved miRNAs from non-model insects lacks information. Here, three miRNAs, sli-miR-14, sli-miR-2a and sli-bantam, were cloned from Spodoptera litura by stem-loop RT-PCR. Two groups of primers were designed, and one of them performed especially well and proved stable. The sequences of two highly conserved miRNAs, sli-miR-14 and sli-miR-2a were identical to those in Drosophila melanogaster. To validate the reliability of this strategy, pre-miR-14 and pre-miR-2a in S. litura as representatives were given as well; this shared high homology with those in D. melanogaster and Bombyx mori, and both mature sequences of sli-miR-14 and sli-miR-2a in their precursors shared 100% identity to the results shown by stem-loop RT-PCR. Moreover, expression patterns of these miRNAs were investigated by real-time quantitative PCR. Sli-miR-14 and sli-miR-2a could be detected successfully and their expression patterns showed similar characteristics with those in model insects, further suggesting stem-loop RT-PCR technology can be used for identification of highly conserved miRNAs in non-model insects. These results provide a simplified and efficient strategy for studying the structure and function of highly conserved miRNAs, especially some critical miRNAs in non-model insects.

  17. A transcriptome analysis suggests apoptosis-related signaling pathways in hemocytes of Spodoptera litura after parasitization by Microplitis bicoloratus.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Pang, Zunyu; Xiao, Wei; Liu, Xinyi; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Dongshuai; Yang, Minjun; Yang, Yang; Hu, Jiansheng; Luo, Kaijun

    2014-01-01

    Microplitis bicoloratus parasitism induction of apoptotic DNA fragmentation of host Spodoptera litura hemocytes has been reported. However, how M. bicoloratus parasitism regulates the host signaling pathways to induce DNA fragmentation during apoptosis remains unclear. To address this question, we performed a new RNAseq-based comparative analysis of the hemocytes transcriptomes of non-parasitized and parasitized S. litura. We were able to assemble a total of more than 11.63 Gbp sequence, to yield 20,571 unigenes. At least six main protein families encoded by M. bicoloratus bracovirus are expressed in the parasitized host hemocytes: Ankyrin-repeat, Ben domain, C-type lectin, Egf-like and Mucin-like, protein tyrosine phosphatase. The analysis indicated that during DNA fragmentation and cell death, 299 genes were up-regulated and 2,441 genes were down-regulated. Data on five signaling pathways related with cell death, the gap junctions, Ca2+, PI3K/Akt, NF-κB, ATM/p53 revealed that CypD, which is involved in forming a Permeability Transition Pore Complex (PTPC) to alter mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP), was dramatically up-regulated. The qRT-PCR also provided that the key genes for cell survival were down-regulated under M. bicoloratus parasitism, including those encoding Inx1, Inx2 and Inx3 of the gap junction signaling pathway, p110 subunit of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, and the p50 and p65 subunit of the NF-κB signaling pathway. These findings suggest that M. bicoloratus parasitism may regulate host mitochondria to trigger internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. This study will facilitate the identification of immunosuppression-related genes and also improves our understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying polydnavirus-parasitoid-host interaction. PMID:25350281

  18. Model and scenario variations in predicted number of generations of Spodoptera litura Fab. on peanut during future climate change scenario.

    PubMed

    Rao, Mathukumalli Srinivasa; Swathi, Pettem; Rao, Chitiprolu Anantha Rama; Rao, K V; Raju, B M K; Srinivas, Karlapudi; Manimanjari, Dammu; Maheswari, Mandapaka

    2015-01-01

    The present study features the estimation of number of generations of tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura. Fab. on peanut crop at six locations in India using MarkSim, which provides General Circulation Model (GCM) of future data on daily maximum (T.max), minimum (T.min) air temperatures from six models viz., BCCR-BCM2.0, CNRM-CM3, CSIRO-Mk3.5, ECHams5, INCM-CM3.0 and MIROC3.2 along with an ensemble of the six from three emission scenarios (A2, A1B and B1). This data was used to predict the future pest scenarios following the growing degree days approach in four different climate periods viz., Baseline-1975, Near future (NF) -2020, Distant future (DF)-2050 and Very Distant future (VDF)-2080. It is predicted that more generations would occur during the three future climate periods with significant variation among scenarios and models. Among the seven models, 1-2 additional generations were predicted during DF and VDF due to higher future temperatures in CNRM-CM3, ECHams5 & CSIRO-Mk3.5 models. The temperature projections of these models indicated that the generation time would decrease by 18-22% over baseline. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to partition the variation in the predicted number of generations and generation time of S. litura on peanut during crop season. Geographical location explained 34% of the total variation in number of generations, followed by time period (26%), model (1.74%) and scenario (0.74%). The remaining 14% of the variation was explained by interactions. Increased number of generations and reduction of generation time across the six peanut growing locations of India suggest that the incidence of S. litura may increase due to projected increase in temperatures in future climate change periods.

  19. Role of a small G protein Ras in cellular immune response of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seeon; Shrestha, Sony; Prasad, Surakasi Venkata; Kim, Yonggyun

    2011-03-01

    Insect cellular immune responses accompany cytoskeletal rearrangement of hemocytes to exhibit filopodial and pseudopodial extension of their cytoplasm. Small G proteins are postulated to be implicated in the hemocyte cellular processes to perform phagocytosis, nodulation, and encapsulation behaviors. A small G protein ras gene (Se-Ras) was cloned from cDNAs prepared from hemocytes of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua. The open reading frame of Se-Ras encoded 179 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 20.0kDa, in which 114 residues at amino terminus were predicted to be a GTP binding domain. It showed high sequence similarities (86.1-92.8%) with known ras genes in other insects. Se-Ras was constitutively expressed in all developmental stages from egg to adult without any significant change in expression levels in response to bacterial challenge. A specific double strand RNA (dsRNA) could knockdown its expression in the hemocytes after 48h post-injection. While the RNA interference (RNAi) did not show any change in total or differential hemocyte counts, it impaired hemocyte behaviors. The RNAi of Se-Ras significantly suppressed hemocyte spreading, cytoskeleton extension, and nodulation behaviors in response to bacterial challenge. Release of prophenoloxidase from oenocytoids was significantly inhibited by the RNAi, which resulted in significant suppression in PO activation in response to an inducer, PGE(2). These results suggest that Se-Ras is implicated in mediating cellular processes of S. exigua hemocytes. This is the first report of Ras role in insect cellular immune response.

  20. Deletion Genotypes Reduce Occlusion Body Potency but Increase Occlusion Body Production in a Colombian Spodoptera frugiperda Nucleopolyhedrovirus Population

    PubMed Central

    Barrera, Gloria; Williams, Trevor; Villamizar, Laura; Caballero, Primitivo; Simón, Oihane

    2013-01-01

    A Colombian field isolate (SfCOL-wt) of Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV) is a mixture of different genotypes. To evaluate the insecticidal properties of the different genotypic variants, 83 plaque purified virus were characterized. Ten distinct genotypes were identified (named A through J). SfCOL-A was the most prevalent (71±2%; mean ± SE) showing a PstI restriction profile indistinguishable to that of SfCOL-wt. The remaining nine genotypes presented genomic deletions of 3.8 - 21.8 Kb located mainly between nucleotides 11,436 and 33,883 in the reference genome SfMNPV-B, affecting the region between open reading frames (ORFs) sf20 and sf33. The insecticidal activity of each genotype from SfCOL-wt and several mixtures of genotypes was compared to that of SfCOL-wt. The potency of SfCOL-A occlusion bodies (OBs) was 4.4-fold higher than SfCOL-wt OBs, whereas the speed of kill of SfCOL-A was similar to that of SfCOL-wt. Deletion genotype OBs were similarly or less potent than SfCOL-wt but six deletion genotypes were faster killing than SfCOL-wt. The potency of genotype mixtures co-occluded within OBs were consistently reduced in two-genotype mixtures involving equal proportions of SfCOL-A and one of three deletion genotypes (SfCOL-C, -D or -F). Speed of kill and OB production were improved only when the certain genotype mixtures were co-occluded, although OB production was higher in the SfCOL-wt isolate than in any of the component genotypes, or mixtures thereof. Deleted genotypes reduced OB potency but increased OB production of the SfCOL-wt population, which is structured to maximize the production of OBs in each infected host. PMID:24116220

  1. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Analysis Using Quantitative PCR in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiwu; Kang, Tinghao; Zhan, Sha; Wan, Hu; Li, Jianhong

    2013-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) has rapidly become the most sensitive and accurate method for the quantification of gene expression. To facilitate gene expression studies and obtain more accurate qRT-PCR data, normalization relative to stable housekeeping genes is required. These housekeeping genes need to show stable expression under the given experimental conditions for the qRT-PCR results to be accurate. Unfortunately, there are no studies on the stability of housekeeping genes used in Spodoptera litura. In this study, eight candidate reference genes, elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein L10 (RPL10), ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3), beta actin (ACTB), beta FTZ-F1 (FTZF1), ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase (UCCR), and arginine kinase (AK), were evaluated for their suitability as normalization genes under different experimental conditions using the statistical software programs, BestKeeper, geNorm and Normfinder, and the comparative ΔCt method. We determined the expression levels of the candidate reference genes for three biotic factors (developmental stage, tissue and population), and four abiotic treatments (temperature, insecticide, food and starvation). The results indicated that the best sets of candidates as reference genes were as follows: GAPDH and UCCR for developmental stages; RPL10, AK and EF1 for different tissues; RPL10 and EF1 for different populations in China; GAPDH and EF1 for temperature-stressed larvae; AK and ACTB for larvae treated with different insecticides; RPL10, GAPDH and UCCR for larvae fed different diets; RPS3 and ACTB for starved larvae. We believe that these results make an important contribution to gene analysis studies in S. litura and form the basis of further research on stable reference genes in S. litura and other organisms. PMID:23874494

  2. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ca-resistant Spodoptera exigua lacks expression of one of four Aminopeptidase N genes

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, Salvador; Gechev, Tsanko; Bakker, Petra L; Moar, William J; de Maagd, Ruud A

    2005-01-01

    Background Insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis bind to receptors on midgut epithelial cells of susceptible insect larvae. Aminopeptidases N (APNs) from several insect species have been shown to be putative receptors for these toxins. Here we report the cloning and expression analysis of four APN cDNAs from Spodoptera exigua. Results Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH) was used to construct cDNA libraries of genes that are up-and down-regulated in the midgut of last instar larvae of beet armyworm, S. exigua exposed to B. thuringiensis Cry1Ca toxin. Among the clones from the SSH libraries, cDNA fragments coding for two different APNs were obtained (APN2 and APN4). A similar procedure was employed to compare mRNA differences between susceptible and Cry1Ca resistant S. exigua. Among the clones from this last comparison, cDNA fragments belonging to a third APN (APN1) were detected. Using sequences obtained from the three APN cDNA fragments and degenerate primers for a fourth APN (APN3), the full length sequences of four S. exigua APN cDNAs were obtained. Northern blot analysis of expression of the four APNs showed complete absence of APN1 expression in the resistant insects, while the other three APNs showed similar expression levels in the resistant and susceptible insects. Conclusion We have cloned and characterized four different midgut APN cDNAs from S. exigua. Expression analysis revealed the lack of expression of one of these APNs in the larvae of a Cry1Ca-resistant colony. Combined with previous evidence that shows the importance of APN in the mode of action of B. thuringiensis toxins, these results suggest that the lack of APN1 expression plays a role in the resistance to Cry1Ca in this S. exigua colony. PMID:15978131

  3. Feeding gastrostomy. Assistant or assassin?

    PubMed

    Burtch, G D; Shatney, C H

    1985-04-01

    Following several deaths from pulmonary aspiration in severely ill or chronically debilitated patients receiving nasogastric tube feedings, a study was undertaken to determine the incidence of aspiration pneumonitis in patients with feeding gastrostomies. During a 15-month interval, 22 feeding gastrostomies and nine feeding jejunostomies were performed. In the former group, eight patients experienced aspiration pneumonitis, with two deaths. Six patients with Stamm gastrostomies and two patients with permanent mucosal-lined gastrostomies experienced pulmonary aspiration. In contrast, aspiration pneumonia did not occur in our small series of patients with feeding jejunostomies. The high incidence of pulmonary aspiration in patients with feeding gastrostomies strongly suggests that, for chronic enteral nutrition in patients who are unable to protect their airway, a feeding jejunostomy is preferable to a feeding gastrostomy. PMID:3920939

  4. Hydrodynamics of Choanoflagellate Feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Anders; Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Kiorboe, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Choanoflagellate filter feeding is a poorly understood process. Studies indicate that the pressure differences created by the beating of the flagellum are insufficient to produce an adequate water flow through the collar filter, the mechanism believed to ultimately transport food particles to the cell. The collar is composed of numerous microvilli arranged as a palisade, and the low porosity of the filter provides high resistance to the water flow. Additionally, ultrastructural studies often show signs of mucus-like substances in and around the collar, potentially further hampering water flow. We present high-speed video of live material showing the particle retention and the beating of the flagellum in the choanoflagellate species Diaphanoeca grandis. We use the observations as input to model the low Reynolds number fluid dynamics of the fluid force produced by the flagellum and the resulting feeding flow.

  5. Composite antenna feed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakstys, V. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A composite antenna feed subsystem concentrated in a small area at the prime focus of the parabola of a satellite parabolic reflector accomodates a plurality of frequency bands. The arrays comprising the subsystem are mounted on the top cover of a communication module. A multimode horn is arranged at the center of the subsystem axis which functions at X- And C-band frequencies, and a cross array consisting of individual elements form the S-band feed, with one arm of the S-band array containing an element mutually shared with the L-band array. Provision is also made for UHF frequencies, and a dipole arrangement for VHF frequencies is arranged around the S-band arms.

  6. Corrugated waveguide monopulse feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, R. D.; Clarricoats, P. J. B.

    1980-04-01

    The excitation coefficients of modes in a circular corrugated waveguide that arise when dominant modes are incident from a cluster of four square waveguides are calculated. Monopulse-like radiation patterns arise when modes in the input guides are appropriately phased. Factors influencing the crosspolar performance of the feed are discussed, and the dependence of the excitation coefficients on waveguide and junction parameters is predicted.

  7. Overview of FEED, the feeding experiments end-user database.

    PubMed

    Wall, Christine E; Vinyard, Christopher J; Williams, Susan H; Gapeyev, Vladimir; Liu, Xianhua; Lapp, Hilmar; German, Rebecca Z

    2011-08-01

    The Feeding Experiments End-user Database (FEED) is a research tool developed by the Mammalian Feeding Working Group at the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center that permits synthetic, evolutionary analyses of the physiology of mammalian feeding. The tasks of the Working Group are to compile physiologic data sets into a uniform digital format stored at a central source, develop a standardized terminology for describing and organizing the data, and carry out a set of novel analyses using FEED. FEED contains raw physiologic data linked to extensive metadata. It serves as an archive for a large number of existing data sets and a repository for future data sets. The metadata are stored as text and images that describe experimental protocols, research subjects, and anatomical information. The metadata incorporate controlled vocabularies to allow consistent use of the terms used to describe and organize the physiologic data. The planned analyses address long-standing questions concerning the phylogenetic distribution of phenotypes involving muscle anatomy and feeding physiology among mammals, the presence and nature of motor pattern conservation in the mammalian feeding muscles, and the extent to which suckling constrains the evolution of feeding behavior in adult mammals. We expect FEED to be a growing digital archive that will facilitate new research into understanding the evolution of feeding anatomy.

  8. Overview of FEED, the Feeding Experiments End-user Database

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Christine E.; Vinyard, Christopher J.; Williams, Susan H.; Gapeyev, Vladimir; Liu, Xianhua; Lapp, Hilmar; German, Rebecca Z.

    2011-01-01

    The Feeding Experiments End-user Database (FEED) is a research tool developed by the Mammalian Feeding Working Group at the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center that permits synthetic, evolutionary analyses of the physiology of mammalian feeding. The tasks of the Working Group are to compile physiologic data sets into a uniform digital format stored at a central source, develop a standardized terminology for describing and organizing the data, and carry out a set of novel analyses using FEED. FEED contains raw physiologic data linked to extensive metadata. It serves as an archive for a large number of existing data sets and a repository for future data sets. The metadata are stored as text and images that describe experimental protocols, research subjects, and anatomical information. The metadata incorporate controlled vocabularies to allow consistent use of the terms used to describe and organize the physiologic data. The planned analyses address long-standing questions concerning the phylogenetic distribution of phenotypes involving muscle anatomy and feeding physiology among mammals, the presence and nature of motor pattern conservation in the mammalian feeding muscles, and the extent to which suckling constrains the evolution of feeding behavior in adult mammals. We expect FEED to be a growing digital archive that will facilitate new research into understanding the evolution of feeding anatomy. PMID:21700574

  9. Identification of a novel cytochrome P450 CYP321B1 gene from tobacco cutworm moth (Spodoptera litura) and RNA interference to evaluate its role in commonly used insecticides.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Insect cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs or P450s) play an important role in detoxifying insecticides leading to resistance in insect populations. A polyphagous pest, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) has been shown to be resistant to a wide range of insecticides. In this stu...

  10. Fermented liquid feed for pigs.

    PubMed

    Missotten, Joris A M; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël A

    2010-12-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviation of the transition from the sow milk to solid feed and may also reduce the time spent to find both sources of nutrients, and secondly, that offering FLF with a low pH may strengthen the potential of the stomach as a first line of defence against possible pathogenic infections. Because of these two advantages, FLF is often stated as an ideal feed for weaned piglets. The results obtained so far are rather variable, but in general they show a better body weight gain and worse feed/gain ratio for the piglets. However, for growing-finishing pigs on average a better feed/gain ratio is found compared to pigs fed dry feed. This better performance is mostly associated with less harmful microbiota and better gut morphology. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of FLF for pigs,dealing with the FLF itself as well as its effect on the gastrointestinal tract and animal performance. PMID:21214019

  11. Fermented liquid feed for pigs.

    PubMed

    Missotten, Joris A M; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël A

    2010-12-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviation of the transition from the sow milk to solid feed and may also reduce the time spent to find both sources of nutrients, and secondly, that offering FLF with a low pH may strengthen the potential of the stomach as a first line of defence against possible pathogenic infections. Because of these two advantages, FLF is often stated as an ideal feed for weaned piglets. The results obtained so far are rather variable, but in general they show a better body weight gain and worse feed/gain ratio for the piglets. However, for growing-finishing pigs on average a better feed/gain ratio is found compared to pigs fed dry feed. This better performance is mostly associated with less harmful microbiota and better gut morphology. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of FLF for pigs,dealing with the FLF itself as well as its effect on the gastrointestinal tract and animal performance.

  12. Analysis of self-feeding in children with feeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Kristi M; Piazza, Cathleen C; Roane, Henry S; Volkert, Valerie M; Stewart, Victoria; Kadey, Heather J; Groff, Rebecca A

    2014-01-01

    In the current investigation, we evaluated a method for increasing self-feeding with 3 children with a history of food refusal. The children never (2 children) or rarely (1 child) self-fed bites of food when the choice was between self-feeding and escape from eating. When the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed an identical bite of food, self-feeding was low (2 children) or variable (1 child). Levels of self-feeding increased for 2 children when the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed multiple bites of the same food. For the 3rd child, self-feeding increased when the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed multiple bites of a less preferred food. The results showed that altering the contingencies associated with being fed increased the probability of self-feeding, but the specific manipulations that produced self-feeding were unique to each child. PMID:25311615

  13. Feeding and circadian clocks.

    PubMed

    Pardini, Lissia; Kaeffer, Bertrand

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian genome encodes at least a dozen of genes directly involved in the regulation of the feedback loops constituting the circadian clock. The circadian system is built up on a multitude of oscillators organized according to a hierarchical model in which neurons of the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus may drive the central circadian clock and all the other somatic cells may possess the molecular components allowing tissues and organs to constitute peripheral clocks. Suprachiasmatic neurons are driving the central circadian clock which is reset by lighting cues captured and integrated by the melanopsin cells of the retina and define the daily rhythms of locomotor activity and associated physiological regulatory pathways like feeding and metabolism. This central clock entrains peripheral clocks which can be synchronized by non-photic environmental cues and uncoupled from the central one depending on the nature and the strength of the circadian signal. The human circadian clock and its functioning in central or peripheral tissues are currently being explored to increase the therapeutic efficacy of timed administration of drugs or radiation, and to offer better advice on lighting and meal timing useful for frequent travelers suffering from jet lag and for night workers' comfort. However, the molecular mechanism driving and coordinating the central and peripheral clocks through a wide range of synchronizers (lighting, feeding, physical or social activities) remains a mystery.

  14. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  15. Development of Wide Band Feeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujihara, H.; Ichikawa, R.

    2012-12-01

    Wide Band feeds are being developed at NICT, NAOJ, and some universities in Japan for VLBI2010, SKA, and MARBLE. SKA, the Square Kilometre Array, will comprise thousands of radio telescopes with square kilometer aperture size for radio astronomy. MARBLE consists of small portable VLBI stations developed at NICT and GSI in Japan. They all need wide band feeds with a greater than 1:10 frequency ratio. Thus we have been studying wide band feeds with dual linear polarization for these applications.

  16. Multiple feed powder splitter

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  17. Multiple feed powder splitter

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    A device for providing uniform powder flow to the nozzles when creating solid structures using a solid fabrication system such as the directed light fabrication (DLF) process. In the DLF process, gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power laser light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention is a device providing uniform flow of gas entrained powders to the nozzles of the DLF system. The device comprises a series of modular splitters which are slidably interconnected and contain an integral flow control mechanism. The device can take the gas entrained powder from between one to four hoppers and split the flow into eight tubular lines which feed the powder delivery nozzles of the DLF system.

  18. Misaligned feeding impairs memories

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Dawn H; Jami, Shekib A; Flores, Richard E; Truong, Danny; Ghiani, Cristina A; O’Dell, Thomas J; Colwell, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Robust sleep/wake rhythms are important for health and cognitive function. Unfortunately, many people are living in an environment where their circadian system is challenged by inappropriate meal- or work-times. Here we scheduled food access to the sleep time and examined the impact on learning and memory in mice. Under these conditions, we demonstrate that the molecular clock in the master pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is unaltered while the molecular clock in the hippocampus is synchronized by the timing of food availability. This chronic circadian misalignment causes reduced hippocampal long term potentiation and total CREB expression. Importantly this mis-timed feeding resulted in dramatic deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. Our findings suggest that the timing of meals have far-reaching effects on hippocampal physiology and learned behaviour. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09460.001 PMID:26652002

  19. Misaligned feeding impairs memories.

    PubMed

    Loh, Dawn H; Jami, Shekib A; Flores, Richard E; Truong, Danny; Ghiani, Cristina A; O'Dell, Thomas J; Colwell, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Robust sleep/wake rhythms are important for health and cognitive function. Unfortunately, many people are living in an environment where their circadian system is challenged by inappropriate meal- or work-times. Here we scheduled food access to the sleep time and examined the impact on learning and memory in mice. Under these conditions, we demonstrate that the molecular clock in the master pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), is unaltered while the molecular clock in the hippocampus is synchronized by the timing of food availability. This chronic circadian misalignment causes reduced hippocampal long term potentiation and total CREB expression. Importantly this mis-timed feeding resulted in dramatic deficits in hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. Our findings suggest that the timing of meals have far-reaching effects on hippocampal physiology and learned behaviour. PMID:26652002

  20. Feeding a future world.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1998-01-01

    This article provides an overview of future prospects for feeding the world's growing population. The discussion focuses on obstacles such as limited agricultural land, degraded soil and water, and water shortages. The evidence suggests that sustainability is declining, especially in poor, food-deficit countries with growing populations. The world is segregated into the haves, the poor have-nots, and the rich have-nots. North America, Europe, and Australia have enough cropland to feed their populations. The poor have-nots are located mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, 7 countries each in the Middle East and Latin America, 6 in Oceania, and the rest in Central and South Asia. The poor have-nots amount to 3 billion out of 6 billion total population. The rich have-nots include countries such as Japan and Singapore, plus China, Indonesia, Peru, Chile, and Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states. The rich have-nots must import food. The world grain harvest is no longer tripling. Per person yields have declined. Increasing food productivity must rely on existing lands. The size of family farms has declined. Almost 2 billion hectares of crop and grazing land is degraded. Yields from irrigated land that are 33% of world food supply have declined. In 1990, 28 countries with 335 million people faced chronic water shortages or scarcity. Water is being polluted. Fish stocks are being depleted. Genetic diversity is being lost. In 182 food deficit countries, population growth must be slowed, and agriculture must be sustainable. Food is neither produced nor consumed equitably. Malnutrition is caused by poverty. Food security cannot be achieved if land and water become increasingly degraded or lost.

  1. Infant feeding. 5. Managing baby related feeding challenges.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Joyce

    2013-02-01

    'Infant feeding' is the 12th series of 'Midwifery basics' targeted at practising midwives. The aim of these articles is to inform and encourage readers to seek further information through a series of activities relating to the topic. In this fifth article Joyce Marshall considers a range of baby related issues that pose challenges for both mothers and midwives in relation to infant feeding.

  2. Biological activities of Solanum pseudocapsicum (Solanaceae) against cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hübner and armyworm, Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Lepidotera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Jeyasankar, Alagarmalai; Premalatha, Selvaraj; Elumalai, Kuppusamy

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibition activities of Solanum pseudocapsicum (S. pseudocapsicum) seed extracts against Spodoptera litura (S. litura) and Helicoverpa armigera (H. armigera). Methods Hexane, diethyl ether, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate seed extracts were prepared and tested for antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibitory activities against fourth instar larvae of S. litura and H. armigera. Results Ethyl acetate extract showed promising antifeedant and insecticidal activities against S. litura and H. armigera. Percentage of deformed larvae, pupae and adults were maximum in treatment of ethyl acetate extract. Percentage of successful adult emergence was deteriorated by seeds on extract treated larvae. Conclusions Ethyl acetate extracts of S. pseudocapsicum, showed higher efficiency of antifeedant, insecticidal and growth inhibition activities. Hence, it can be used to controll agricultural insect pests, S. litura and H. armigera. PMID:23593579

  3. Characterization of the Earwig, Doru lineare, as a Predator of Larvae of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda: A Functional Response Study

    PubMed Central

    Sueldo, Mabel Romero; Bruzzone, Octavio A.; Virla, Eduardo G.

    2010-01-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is considered as the most important pest of maize in almost all tropical America. In Argentina, the earwig Doru lineare Eschscholtz (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) has been observed preying on S. frugiperda egg masses in corn crops, but no data about its potential role as a biocontrol agent of this pest have been provided. The predation efficiency of D. lineare on newly emerged S. frugiperda larva was evaluated through a laboratory functional response study. D. lineare showed type II functional response to S. frugiperda larval density, and disc equation estimations of searching efficiency and handling time were (a) = 0.374 and (t) = 182.9 s, respectively. Earwig satiation occurred at 39.4 S. frugiperda larvae. PMID:20575739

  4. Redescription of Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron, 1886) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Campopleginae), parasitoid of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Camargo, L F; Brito, R A; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2015-11-01

    The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae) is a voracious pest of numerous crops of economic importance throughout the New World. In Brazil, its larvae are attacked by several species of parasitoid wasps, making them potential candidate as biological control agents against this pest. A survey of the parasitoid fauna on S. frugiperda in maize crops throughout Brazil reveals two species of Campoletis, which are morphologicaly very similar species. In this paper we combine these data with pictures from the type material of C. sonorensis and C. flavicincta, as well as their descriptions to provide a redescription to Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron, 1886) using for this both morphological characters and DNA Barcoding (Hebert et al., 2003) information, in an attempt to help with the correct identification of the taxa to improve biological control studies. PMID:26675917

  5. Hyperactivity and tree-top disease induced by the baculovirus AcMNPV in Spodoptera exigua larvae are governed by independent mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Houte, Stineke; Ros, Vera I. D.; van Oers, Monique M.

    2014-04-01

    Although many parasites are known to manipulate the behavior of their hosts, the mechanisms underlying such manipulations are largely unknown. Baculoviruses manipulate the behavior of caterpillar hosts by inducing hyperactivity and by inducing climbing behavior leading to death at elevated positions (tree-top disease or Wipfelkrankheit). Whether hyperactivity and tree-top disease are independent manipulative strategies of the virus is unclear. Recently, we demonstrated the involvement of the protein tyrosine phosphatase ( ptp) gene of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) in the induction of hyperactivity in Spodoptera exigua larvae. Here we show that AcMNPV ptp is not required for tree-top disease, indicating that in S. exigua baculovirus-induced hyperactivity and tree-top disease are independently induced behaviors that are governed by distinct mechanisms.

  6. Redescription of Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron, 1886) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Campopleginae), parasitoid of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Camargo, L F; Brito, R A; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2015-11-01

    The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae) is a voracious pest of numerous crops of economic importance throughout the New World. In Brazil, its larvae are attacked by several species of parasitoid wasps, making them potential candidate as biological control agents against this pest. A survey of the parasitoid fauna on S. frugiperda in maize crops throughout Brazil reveals two species of Campoletis, which are morphologicaly very similar species. In this paper we combine these data with pictures from the type material of C. sonorensis and C. flavicincta, as well as their descriptions to provide a redescription to Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron, 1886) using for this both morphological characters and DNA Barcoding (Hebert et al., 2003) information, in an attempt to help with the correct identification of the taxa to improve biological control studies.

  7. HIV and breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    1992-07-01

    Participants at a 1992 WHO/UNICEF consultation meeting on HIV transmission and breast feeding weigh the risk of death from AIDS with the risk of death from other causes. Breast feeding reduces the risk of death from diarrhea, pneumonia, and other infections. Artificial or inappropriate feeding contributes the most to the more than 3 million annual childhood deaths from diarrhea. The rising prevalence of HIV infection among women worldwide results in more and more cases of HIV-infected newborns. About 33% of infants born to HIV-infected. Some HIV transmission occurs through breast feeding, but breast feeding does not transmit HIV to most infants HIV-infected mothers. Participants recommend that, in areas where infectious diseases and malnutrition are the leading causes of death and infant mortality is high, health workers should advise all pregnant women, regardless of their HIV status, to breast feed. The infant's risk of HIV infection via breast milk tends to be lower than its risk of death from other causes and from not being breast fed. HIV-infected women who do have access to alternative feeding should talk to their health care providers to learn how to feed their infants safely. In areas where the leading cause of death is not infectious disease and infant mortality is low, participants recommend that health workers advise HIV-infected pregnant women to use a safe feeding alternative, e.g., bottle feeding. Yet, the women and their providers should not be influenced by commercial pressures to choose an alternative feeding method. Health care services in these areas should provide voluntary and confidential HIV testing and counseling. Participants stress the need to prevent women from becoming HIV-infected by providing them information about AIDS and how to protect themselves, increasing their participation in decision-making in sexual relationships, and improving their status in society. PMID:1477885

  8. Spodoptera frugiperda resistance to oral infection by Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus linked to aberrant occlusion-derived virus binding in the midgut.

    PubMed

    Haas-Stapleton, Eric J; Washburn, Jan O; Volkman, Loy E

    2005-05-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda larvae are highly resistant to oral infection by Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) (LD(50), approximately 9200 occlusions), but extremely susceptible to budded virus within the haemocoel (LD(50), <1 p.f.u.). The inability of AcMNPV occlusion-derived virus (ODV) to establish primary infections readily within midgut cells accounts for a major proportion of oral resistance. To determine whether inappropriate binding of AcMNPV ODV to S. frugiperda midgut cells contributes to lack of oral infectivity, the binding and fusion properties of AcMNPV ODV were compared with those of the ODV of a new isolate of Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV) obtained from a field-collected larva (oral LD(50), 12 occlusions). By using a fluorescence-dequenching assay conducted in vivo, it was found that AcMNPV ODV bound to the midgut epithelia of S. frugiperda larvae at approximately 15 % of the level of SfMNPV ODV, but that, once bound, the efficiencies of fusion for the two ODVs were similar: 60 % for AcMNPV and 53 % for SfMNPV. Whilst the difference in binding efficiencies was significant, it could not account entirely for the observed differences in infectivity. Competition experiments, however, revealed that, in S. frugiperda larvae, SfMNPV ODV bound to a midgut cell receptor that was not bound by AcMNPV ODV, indicating that ODV interaction with a specific receptor(s) was necessary for productive infection of midgut columnar epithelial cells. Fusion in the absence of this ligand-receptor interaction did not result in productive infections. PMID:15831946

  9. Infant Feeding: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowhurst, Christine Marie, Comp.; Kumer, Bonnie Lee, Comp.

    Intended for parents, health professionals and allied health workers, and others involved in caring for infants and young children, this annotated bibliography brings together in one selective listing a review of over 700 current publications related to infant feeding. Reflecting current knowledge in infant feeding, the bibliography has as its…

  10. Feed analyses and their interpretation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compositional analysis is central to determining the nutritional value of feedstuffs. The utility of the values and how they should be used depends on how representative the feed subsample is, the nutritional relevance of the assays, analytical variability of the analyses, and whether a feed is suit...

  11. Aquaculture feed and food safety.

    PubMed

    Tacon, Albert G J; Metian, Marc

    2008-10-01

    The ultimate objective of an aquaculture feed manufacturer and aquaculture food supplier is to ensure that the feed or food produced is both safe and wholesome. Reported food safety risks, which may be associated with the use of commercial animal feeds, including compound aquaculture feeds, usually result from the possible presence of unwanted contaminants, either within the feed ingredients used or from the external contamination of the finished feed on prolonged storage. The major animal feed contaminants that have been reported to date have included Salmonellae, mycotoxins, veterinary drug residues, persistent organic pollutants, agricultural and other chemicals (solvent residues, melamine), heavy metals (mercury, lead, cadmium) and excess mineral salts (hexavalent chromium, arsenic, selenium, flourine), and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Apart from the direct negative effect of these possible contaminants on the health of the cultured target species, there is a risk that the feed contaminants may be passed along the food chain, via contaminated aquaculture produce, to consumers. In recent years, public concern regarding food safety has increased as a consequence of the increasing prevalence of antibiotic residues, persistent organic pollutants, and chemicals in farmed seafood. The important role played by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission in the development of international standards, guidelines, and recommendations to protect the health of consumers and ensure fair practices in the food trade is discussed. PMID:18991902

  12. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  13. A History of Infant Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the advertising and safety of formula products increased their popularity and use among society. Currently, infant formula-feeding is widely practiced in the United States and appears to contribute to the development of several common childhood illnesses, including atopy, diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity. PMID:20190854

  14. Breast-feeding after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Constantinescu, Serban; Pai, Akshta; Coscia, Lisa A; Davison, John M; Moritz, Michael J; Armenti, Vincent T

    2014-11-01

    Transplantation affords recipients the potential for a full life and, for some, parenthood. Female transplant recipients must continue to take immunosuppression during pregnancy and breast-feeding. This article reviews case and series reports regarding breast-feeding in those taking transplant medications. Avoidance of breast-feeding has been the customary advice because of the potential adverse effects of immunosuppressive exposure on the infant. Subsequent studies have demonstrated that not all medication exposure translates to risk for the infant, that the exposure in utero is greater than via breast milk and that no lingering effects due to breast-feeding have been found to date in infants who were breast-fed while their mothers were taking prednisone, azathioprine, cyclosporine, and/or tacrolimus. Thus, except for those medications where clinical information is inadequate (mycophenolic acid products, sirolimus, everolimus, and belatacept), the recommendation for transplant recipients regarding breast-feeding has evolved into one that is cautiously optimistic.

  15. Feed Structure For Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A novel feed structure, for an antenna having a resonant electric field structure, comprising a patch element, an integrated circuit attached to the patch element, at least one inner conductor electrically connected to and terminating at the integrated circuit on a first end of the at least one inner conductor, wherein the at least one inner conductor extends through and is not electrically connected to the patch element, and wherein the at least one inner conductor is available for electrical connectivity on a second end of the at least one inner conductor, and an outer conductor electrically connected to and terminating at the patch element on a first end of the outer conductor, wherein the outer conductor is available for electrical connectivity on a second end of the outer conductor, and wherein the outer conductor concentrically surrounds the at least one inner conductor from the second end of the at least one inner conductor available for electrical connectivity to the first end of the outer conductor terminating at the patch element.

  16. Feeding At-Risk Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Mata B.

    1989-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists working with infants or toddlers with feeding problems should obtain a feeding history, conduct an assessment of feeding practices, set appropriate preliminary and long-range goals, and investigate treatment options and appropriate feeding techniques. Feeding techniques for premature, neurologically impaired, Down…

  17. Characterization of tapered slot antenna feeds and feed arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Young-Sik; Yngvesson, K. Sigfrid

    1990-01-01

    A class of feed antennas and feed antenna arrays used in the focal plane of paraboloid reflectors and exhibiting higher than normal levels of cross-polarized radiation in the diagonal planes is addressed. A model which allows prediction of element gain and aperture efficiency of the feed/reflector system is presented. The predictions are in good agreement with experimental results. Tapered slot antenna (TSA) elements are used an example of an element of this type. It is shown that TSA arrays used in multibeam systems with small beam spacings are competitive in terms of aperture efficiency with other, more standard types of arrays incorporating waveguide type elements.

  18. Differential activity of multiple saponins against omnivorous insects with varying feeding preferences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variety of saponin glycosides and aglycones from seven different plant families (Aquifoliaceae, Asparagaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Dioscoreaceae, Leguminosae, Rosaceae, Sapindaceae) were tested against the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. The corn earworm fe...

  19. Chlorophyll degradation in the gut of generalist and specialist Lepidopteran caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Badgaa, Amarsanaa; Jia, Aiqun; Ploss, Kerstin; Boland, Wilhelm

    2014-12-01

    Plant feeding herbivores excrete most of the ingested chlorophyll (Chl) as partly degraded derivatives lacking the phytol side chain and the central magnesium ion. An ecological role of digested and degraded Chls in the interactions between insects, their food plant and other insects has been described recently. To gain more information on common degradation patterns in plant-feeding insects, the orals secretions and frass of five Lepidopteran caterpillars covering generalists and specialists, namely Spodoptera littoralis, Spodoptera eridania, Heliothis virescens, Helicoverpa armigera, Manduca sexta, and, for comparison, of the leaf beetle larva Chrysomela lapponica were analyzed for chlorophyll catabolites. The major degradation products were determined as pheohorbide a/b and pyropheophorbide a/b by using LC-MS, LC-NMR, UV, and fluorescence spectrometry. The compounds were not present in fresh leaves of the food plants (Phaseolus lunatus, Nicotiana tabacum). The catabolite spectrum in generalists and specialists was qualitatively similar and could be attributed to the action of gut proteins and the strongly alkaline milieu in the digestive tract. Due to the anaerobic environment of the larval gut, the tetrapyrrole core of the Chl catabolites was not cleaved. Substantial amounts of Chl a/b metabolites were strongly complexed by a protein in the mid-gut.

  20. Infant feeding practices and obesity.

    PubMed

    Himes, J H

    1979-08-01

    Selected assumptions regarding associations between artificial feeding and infantile obesity are examined. Although some artificial baby foods (desserts, meats, egg yolks) have considerably greater caloric density than breast milk, a large class of baby foods and most milks and formulas are comparable to breast milk in caloric density. The intake of infant foods seems to be related more to caloric density than volume. Modern day artificial feeding in developed countries tends to produce larger weight gains than breast feeding, although no good data exist to evaluate the composition of these weight gains. Many more data from well planned studies are needed to fully elucidate possible mechanisms of infantile obesity. PMID:458075

  1. Feed analyses and their interpretation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mary Beth

    2014-11-01

    Compositional analysis is central to determining the nutritional value of feedstuffs for use in ration formulation. The utility of the values and how they should be used depends on how representative the feed subsample is, the nutritional relevance and analytical variability of the assays, and whether an analysis is suitable to be applied to a particular feedstuff. Commercial analyses presently available for carbohydrates, protein, and fats have improved nutritionally pertinent description of feed fractions. Factors affecting interpretation of feed analyses and the nutritional relevance and application of currently available analyses are discussed.

  2. HIV and infant feeding. Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    1995-02-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be passed to the infant during pregnancy, childbirth, or breast feeding. Most infants born to HIV positive mothers do not become infected with HIV. The virus is found in breast milk; available research suggests 1 out of 7 breast fed infants of HIV positive mothers will be infected from breast milk. Mothers with recent or advanced HIV infections have more virus in their body fluids, including breast milk; therefore, a baby is more likely to be infected if the mother becomes infected during pregnancy, childbirth, or breast feeding, or if she is ill with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related illnesses. If a baby is already infected, breast feeding will help the infant stay healthier longer. Health workers should discuss the benefits of breast feeding with all pregnant women. Information about the spread of HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) should be given; safe sex (condom use or abstinence) is important during pregnancy and breast feeding. If a woman's status is unknown, she should be encouraged to breast feed. In most communities, counselling and testing are unavailable. Where these services are available, the risk of infection through breast feeding should never be used to put pressure on a woman to take a test. Counselling prepares her for the possibility of being positive and allows her to make an informed choice about breast feeding. In some situations (especially if she herself is ill), a woman who knows she is HIV positive should not breast feed. However, alternatives may be unavailable, and the benefits may outweigh the risks. Health workers should assist the woman in making an informed choice. Issues to be considered include: 1) access to clean water and ability to pay for fuel or electricity to sterilize feeding utensils; 2) support from family or friends; 3) access to animal milk or shops that carry formula milk; and 4) ability to pay for formula or animal milk. To feed an infant for 6 months

  3. Feeding Tips For Your Baby with CHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... with a combination of breast- and bottle-feeding. Breast-Feeding Your Baby If your baby is diagnosed with ... use too. If your baby needs surgery after breast-feeding has been established, you can pump your breasts ...

  4. The role of abscisic acid and water stress in root herbivore-induced leaf resistance.

    PubMed

    Erb, Matthias; Köllner, Tobias G; Degenhardt, Jörg; Zwahlen, Claudia; Hibbard, Bruce E; Turlings, Ted C J

    2011-01-01

    • Herbivore-induced systemic resistance occurs in many plants and is commonly assumed to be adaptive. The mechanisms triggered by leaf-herbivores that lead to systemic resistance are largely understood, but it remains unknown how and why root herbivory also increases resistance in leaves. • To resolve this, we investigated the mechanism by which the root herbivore Diabrotica virgifera induces resistance against lepidopteran herbivores in the leaves of Zea mays. • Diabrotica virgifera infested plants suffered less aboveground herbivory in the field and showed reduced growth of Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars in the laboratory. Root herbivory did not lead to a jasmonate-dependent response in the leaves, but specifically triggered water loss and abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation. The induction of ABA by itself was partly responsible for the induction of leaf defenses, but not for the resistance against S. littoralis. Root-herbivore induced hydraulic changes in the leaves, however, were crucial for the increase in insect resistance. • We conclude that the induced leaf resistance after root feeding is the result of hydraulic changes, which reduce the quality of the leaves for chewing herbivores. This finding calls into question whether root-herbivore induced leaf-resistance is an evolved response.

  5. Rotary powder feed through apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    A device for increasing the uniformity of solids within a solids fabrication system, such as a direct light fabrication (DLF) system in which gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention provides a feed through interface wherein gas entrained powders input from stationary input lines are coupled to a rotating head of the fabrication system. The invention eliminates the need to provide additional slack in the feed lines to accommodate head rotation, and therefore reduces feed line bending movements which induce non-uniform feeding of gas entrained powder to a rotating head.

  6. Modeling Treated LAW Feed Evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    DANIEL, WE

    2004-07-08

    This task examines the potential of the treated waste feed blends to form sodium-aluminum silicate precipitates when evaporated using the zeolite database. To investigate the behavior of the blended pretreated waste feed, an OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI ESP) model of the treated low activity waste (LAW) evaporator was built. A range of waste feed compositions representative of Envelope A, B, and C were then fed into the OLI model to predict various physical and chemical properties of the evaporator concentrates. Additional runs with treated LAW evaporator were performed to compare chemical and physical property model predictions and experimental results for small-scale radioactive tests of the treated feed evaporation process.

  7. Feeding cotton products to cattle.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C

    2002-07-01

    Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities. PMID:12235661

  8. Social theory and infant feeding

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

  9. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals. PMID:755160

  10. Storage and feeding of coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenike, A. W.; Carson, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Reliable feeding of coal from storage bins to process requires the knowledge of the behavior of coal during flow. The study of the flow of bulk solids was undertaken in the 1950's and led to the development of flow ability testing equipment and of the Mass Flow concept of design for reliable flow. The theory has since been expanded to two-phase, solids-gas system, and has found world wide application in the design of storage and feeding systems.

  11. Feeding the Monster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-10-01

    Near-infrared images of the active galaxy NGC 1097, obtained with the NACO adaptive optics instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, disclose with unprecedented detail a complex central network of filamentary structure spiralling down to the centre of the galaxy. These observations provide astronomers with new insights on how super-massive black holes lurking inside galaxies get fed. "This is possibly the first time that a detailed view of the channelling process of matter, from the main part of the galaxy down to the very end in the nucleus is released," says Almudena Prieto (Max-Planck Institute, Heidelberg, Germany), lead author of the paper describing these results. Located at a distance of about 45 million light-years in the southern constellation Fornax (the Furnace), NGC 1097 is a relatively bright, barred spiral galaxy seen face-on. At magnitude 9.5, and thus just 25 times fainter than the faintest object that can be seen with the unaided eye, it appears in small telescopes as a bright, circular disc. NGC 1097 is a very moderate example of an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), whose emission is thought to arise from matter (gas and stars) falling into oblivion in a central black hole. However, NGC 1097 possesses a comparatively faint nucleus only, and the black hole in its centre must be on a very strict "diet": only a small amount of gas and stars is apparently being swallowed by the black hole at any given moment. Astronomers have been trying to understand for a long time how the matter is "gulped" down towards the black hole. Watching directly the feeding process requires very high spatial resolution at the centre of galaxies. This can be achieved by means of interferometry as was done with the VLTI MIDI instrument on the central parts of another AGN, NGC 1068 (see ESO PR 17/03), or with adaptive optics [1]. Thus, astronomers [2] obtained images of NGC 1097 with the adaptive optics NACO instrument attached to Yepun, the fourth Unit Telescope of ESO's VLT

  12. Motor control of fly feeding.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Claire E

    2016-06-01

    Following considerable progress on the molecular and cellular basis of taste perception in fly sensory neurons, the time is now ripe to explore how taste information, integrated with hunger and satiety, undergo a sensorimotor transformation to lead to the motor actions of feeding behavior. I examine what is known of feeding circuitry in adult flies from more than 250 years of work in larger flies and from newer work in Drosophila. I review the anatomy of the proboscis, its muscles and their functions (where known), its motor neurons, interneurons known to receive taste inputs, interneurons that diverge from taste circuitry to provide information to other circuits, interneurons from other circuits that converge on feeding circuits, proprioceptors that influence the motor control of feeding, and sites of integration of hunger and satiety on feeding circuits. In spite of the several neuron types now known, a connected pathway from taste inputs to feeding motor outputs has yet to be found. We are on the threshold of an era where these individual components will be assembled into circuits, revealing how nervous system architecture leads to the control of behavior. PMID:27309215

  13. Structural diversity and defensive properties of norditerpenoid alkaloids.

    PubMed

    González-Coloma, Azucena; Reina, Matías; Medinaveitia, Alberto; Guadaño, Ana; Santana, Omar; Martínez-Díaz, Rafael; Ruiz-Mesía, Lastenia; Alva, Allenger; Grandez, Maritza; Díaz, Rafael; Gavín, José A; De la Fuente, Gabriel

    2004-07-01

    We have tested the insect antifeedant and toxic activity of 43 norditerpenoid alkaloids on Spodoptera littoralis and Leptinotarsa decemlineata including eserine (physostigmine), anabasine, and atropine. Antifeedant effects of the test compounds were structure- and species-dependent. The most active antifeedants to L. decemlineata were 1,14-diacetylcardiopetaline (9) and 18-hydroxy- 14-O-methylgadesine (33), followed by 8-O-methylconsolarine (12), 14-O-acetyldelectinine (27), karakoline (7), cardiopetaline (8), 18-O-demethylpubescenine (13), 14-O-acetyldeltatsine (18), takaosamine (21), ajadine (24), and 8-O-methylcolumbianine (6) (EC50 < 1 microg/cm2). This insect showed a moderate response to atropine. S. littoralis had the strongest antifeedant response to 24, 18, 14-O-acetyldelcosine (19), and delphatine (29) (EC50 < 3 microg/cm2). None of the model substances affected the feeding behavior of this insect. The most toxic compound to L. decemlineata was aconitine (1), followed by cardiopetalidine (10) (% mortality > 60), 14-deacetylpubescenine (14), 18-O-benzoyl-18-O-demethyl-14-O-deacetylpubescenine (17), 14-O-acetyldelcosine (19), 14-deacetylajadine (25) and methyllycaconitine (30) (% mortality > 45). Orally injected S. littoralis larvae were negatively affected by 1, cardiopetaline (8), 10, 1,14-O-acetylcardiopetalidina (11), 12, 14, 1,18-O-diacetyl-19-oxo-gigactonine (41), olivimine (43), and eserine in varying degrees. Their antifeedant or insecticidal potencies did not parallel their reported nAChR binding activity, but did correlate with the agonist/antagonist insecticidal/antifeedant model proposed for nicotininc insecticides. A few compounds [14, tuguaconitine (38), 14-demethyldelboxine (40), 19, dehydrodelsoline (36), 18-O-demethylpubescenine (13), 41, 9, and delcosine (23)] had selective cytotoxic effects to ward insect-derived Sf9 cells. None were cytotoxic to mammalian CHO cells and none increased Trypanosoma cruzi mortality. The selective cytotoxic

  14. Cloning, Expression Analysis, and Molecular Modeling of the Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Receptor Alpha2 Subunit Gene from the Common Cutworm, Spodoptera litura

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Hongliang; Gao, Lu; Hu, Zhen; Liu, Haiyuan; Zhong, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Intensive research on the molecule structures of the gamma-nminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor in agricultural pests has great significance to the mechanism investigation, resistance prevention, and molecular design of novel pesticides. The GABA receptor a2 (SlGABARα2) subunit gene in Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was cloned using the technologies of reverse transcription PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The gemonic DNA sequence of SlGABARα2 has 5164 bp with 8 exons and 7 introns that were in accordance with the GT-AG splicing formula. The complete mRNA sequence of SlGABARα2 was 1965 bp, with an open reading frame of 1500 bp encoding a protein of 499 amino acids. The GABA receptor is highly conserved among insects. The conserved regions include several N-glycosylation, Oglycosylation, and phosphorylation sites, as well as 4 transmembrane domains. The identities that SlGABARα2 shared with the GABA receptor a2 subunit of Spodoptera exigua, Heliothis virescens, Chilo suppressalis, Plutella xylostella, Bombyx mori ranged from 99.2% to 87.2% at the amino acid level. The comparative 3-dimensional model of SlGABARα2 showed that its tertiary structure was composed of 4 major α-helixes located at the 4 putative transmembrane domains on one side, with some β-sheets and 1 small α-helix on the other side. SlGABARα2 may be attached to the membrane by 4 α-helixes that bind ions in other conserved domains to transport them through the membrane. The results of quantitative real time PCR demonstrated that SlGABARα2 was expressed in all developmental stages of S. litura. The relative expression level of SlGABARα2 was the lowest in eggs and increased with larval growth, while it declined slightly in pupae and reached the peak in adults. The expressions of SlGABARα2 in larvae varied among different tissues; it was extremely high in the brain but was low in the midgut, epicuticle, Malpighian tube, and fat body. PMID:23909412

  15. Cloning, expression analysis, and molecular modeling of the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor alpha2 subunit gene from the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Hongliang; Gao, Lu; Hu, Zhen; Liu, Haiyuan; Zhong, Guohua

    2013-01-01

    Intensive research on the molecule structures of the gamma-nminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor in agricultural pests has great significance to the mechanism investigation, resistance prevention, and molecular design of novel pesticides. The GABA receptor a2 (SlGABARα2) subunit gene in Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was cloned using the technologies of reverse transcription PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The gemonic DNA sequence of SlGABARα2 has 5164 bp with 8 exons and 7 introns that were in accordance with the GT-AG splicing formula. The complete mRNA sequence of SlGABARα2 was 1965 bp, with an open reading frame of 1500 bp encoding a protein of 499 amino acids. The GABA receptor is highly conserved among insects. The conserved regions include several N-glycosylation, Oglycosylation, and phosphorylation sites, as well as 4 transmembrane domains. The identities that SlGABARα2 shared with the GABA receptor a2 subunit of Spodoptera exigua, Heliothis virescens, Chilo suppressalis, Plutella xylostella, Bombyx mori ranged from 99.2% to 87.2% at the amino acid level. The comparative 3-dimensional model of SlGABARα2 showed that its tertiary structure was composed of 4 major α-helixes located at the 4 putative transmembrane domains on one side, with some β-sheets and 1 small α-helix on the other side. SlGABARα2 may be attached to the membrane by 4 α-helixes that bind ions in other conserved domains to transport them through the membrane. The results of quantitative real time PCR demonstrated that SlGABARα2 was expressed in all developmental stages of S. litura. The relative expression level of SlGABARα2 was the lowest in eggs and increased with larval growth, while it declined slightly in pupae and reached the peak in adults. The expressions of SlGABARα2 in larvae varied among different tissues; it was extremely high in the brain but was low in the midgut, epicuticle, Malpighian tube, and fat body. PMID:23909412

  16. How the pilidium larva feeds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The nemertean pilidium is a long-lived feeding larva unique to the life cycle of a single monophyletic group, the Pilidiophora, which is characterized by this innovation. That the pilidium feeds on small planktonic unicells seems clear; how it does so is unknown and not readily inferred, because it shares little morphological similarity with other planktotrophic larvae. Results Using high-speed video of trapped lab-reared pilidia of Micrura alaskensis, we documented a multi-stage feeding mechanism. First, the external ciliation of the pilidium creates a swimming and feeding current which carries suspended prey past the primary ciliated band spanning the posterior margins of the larval body. Next, the larva detects prey that pass within reach, then conducts rapid and coordinated deformations of the larval body to re-direct passing cells and surrounding water into a vestibular space between the lappets, isolated from external currents but not quite inside the larva. Once a prey cell is thus captured, internal ciliary bands arranged within this vestibule prevent prey escape. Finally, captured cells are transported by currents within a buccal funnel toward the stomach entrance. Remarkably, we observed that the prey of choice – various cultured cryptomonads – attempt to escape their fate. Conclusions The feeding mechanism deployed by the pilidium larva coordinates local control of cilia-driven water transport with sensorimotor behavior, in a manner clearly distinct from any other well-studied larval feeding mechanisms. We hypothesize that the pilidium’s feeding strategy may be adapted to counter escape responses such as those deployed by cryptomonads, and speculate that similar needs may underlie convergences among disparate planktotrophic larval forms. PMID:23927417

  17. Feed Your Head: Neurodevelopmental Control of Feeding and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daniel A.; Blackshaw, Seth

    2014-01-01

    During critical periods of development early in life, excessive or scarce nutritional environments can disrupt the development of central feeding and metabolic neural circuitry, leading to obesity and metabolic disorders in adulthood. A better understanding of the genetic networks that control the development of feeding and metabolic neural circuits, along with knowledge of how and where dietary signals disrupt this process, can serve as the basis for future therapies aimed at reversing the public health crisis that is now building as a result of the global obesity epidemic. This review of animal and human studies highlights recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that regulate the development of central feeding circuitries, the mechanisms by which gestational and early postnatal nutritional status affects this process, and approaches aimed at counteracting the deleterious effects of early over- and underfeeding. PMID:24274739

  18. Innate and Learned Prey-Searching Behavior in a Generalist Predator.

    PubMed

    Ardanuy, Agnès; Albajes, Ramon; Turlings, Ted C J

    2016-06-01

    Early colonization by Zyginidia scutellaris leafhoppers might be a key factor in the attraction and settling of generalist predators, such as Orius spp., in maize fields. In this paper, we aimed to determine whether our observations of early season increases in field populations of Orius spp. reflect a specific attraction to Z. scutellaris-induced maize volatiles, and how the responses of Orius predators to herbivore-induced volatiles (HIPVs) might be affected by previous experiences on plants infested by herbivorous prey. Therefore, we examined the innate and learned preferences of Orius majusculus toward volatiles from maize plants attacked by three potential herbivores with different feeding strategies: the leafhopper Z. scutellaris (mesophyll feeder), the lepidopteran Spodoptera littoralis (chewer), and another leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (phloem feeder). In addition, we examined the volatile profiles emitted by maize plants infested by the three herbivores. Our results show that predators exhibit a strong innate attraction to volatiles from maize plants infested with Z. scutellaris or S. littoralis. Previous predation experience in the presence of HIPVs influences the predator's odor preferences. The innate preference for plants with cell or tissue damage may be explained by these plants releasing far more volatiles than plants infested by the phloem-sucking D. maidis. However, a predation experience on D. maidis-infested plants increased the preference for D. maidis-induced maize volatiles. After O. majusculus experienced L3-L4 larvae (too large to serve as prey) on S. littoralis-infested plants, they showed reduced attraction toward these plants and an increased attraction toward D. maidis-infested plants. When offered young larvae of S. littoralis, which are more suitable prey, preference toward HIPVs was similar to that of naive individuals. The HIPVs from plants infested by herbivores with distinctly different feeding strategies showed distinguishable

  19. Innate and Learned Prey-Searching Behavior in a Generalist Predator.

    PubMed

    Ardanuy, Agnès; Albajes, Ramon; Turlings, Ted C J

    2016-06-01

    Early colonization by Zyginidia scutellaris leafhoppers might be a key factor in the attraction and settling of generalist predators, such as Orius spp., in maize fields. In this paper, we aimed to determine whether our observations of early season increases in field populations of Orius spp. reflect a specific attraction to Z. scutellaris-induced maize volatiles, and how the responses of Orius predators to herbivore-induced volatiles (HIPVs) might be affected by previous experiences on plants infested by herbivorous prey. Therefore, we examined the innate and learned preferences of Orius majusculus toward volatiles from maize plants attacked by three potential herbivores with different feeding strategies: the leafhopper Z. scutellaris (mesophyll feeder), the lepidopteran Spodoptera littoralis (chewer), and another leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (phloem feeder). In addition, we examined the volatile profiles emitted by maize plants infested by the three herbivores. Our results show that predators exhibit a strong innate attraction to volatiles from maize plants infested with Z. scutellaris or S. littoralis. Previous predation experience in the presence of HIPVs influences the predator's odor preferences. The innate preference for plants with cell or tissue damage may be explained by these plants releasing far more volatiles than plants infested by the phloem-sucking D. maidis. However, a predation experience on D. maidis-infested plants increased the preference for D. maidis-induced maize volatiles. After O. majusculus experienced L3-L4 larvae (too large to serve as prey) on S. littoralis-infested plants, they showed reduced attraction toward these plants and an increased attraction toward D. maidis-infested plants. When offered young larvae of S. littoralis, which are more suitable prey, preference toward HIPVs was similar to that of naive individuals. The HIPVs from plants infested by herbivores with distinctly different feeding strategies showed distinguishable

  20. Accumulation of 5-hydroxynorvaline in maize (Zea mays) leaves is induced by insect feeding and abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jian; Lipka, Alexander E; Schmelz, Eric A; Buckler, Edward S; Jander, Georg

    2015-02-01

    Plants produce a wide variety of defensive metabolites to protect themselves against herbivores and pathogens. Non-protein amino acids, which are present in many plant species, can have a defensive function through their mis-incorporation during protein synthesis and/or inhibition of biosynthetic pathways in primary metabolism. 5-Hydroxynorvaline was identified in a targeted search for previously unknown non-protein amino acids in the leaves of maize (Zea mays) inbred line B73. Accumulation of this compound increases during herbivory by aphids (Rhopalosiphum maidis, corn leaf aphid) and caterpillars (Spodoptera exigua, beet armyworm), as well as in response to treatment with the plant signalling molecules methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid and abscisic acid. In contrast, ethylene signalling reduced 5-hydroxynorvaline abundance. Drought stress induced 5-hydroxynorvaline accumulation to a higher level than insect feeding or treatment with defence signalling molecules. In field-grown plants, the 5-hydroxynorvaline concentration was highest in above-ground vegetative tissue, but it was also detectable in roots and dry seeds. When 5-hydroxynorvaline was added to aphid artificial diet at concentrations similar to those found in maize leaves and stems, R. maidis reproduction was reduced, indicating that this maize metabolite may have a defensive function. Among 27 tested maize inbred lines there was a greater than 10-fold range in the accumulation of foliar 5-hydroxynorvaline. Genetic mapping populations derived from a subset of these inbred lines were used to map quantitative trait loci for 5-hydroxynorvaline accumulation to maize chromosomes 5 and 7.

  1. Accumulation of 5-hydroxynorvaline in maize (Zea mays) leaves is induced by insect feeding and abiotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jian; Lipka, Alexander E.; Schmelz, Eric A.; Buckler, Edward S.; Jander, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Plants produce a wide variety of defensive metabolites to protect themselves against herbivores and pathogens. Non-protein amino acids, which are present in many plant species, can have a defensive function through their mis-incorporation during protein synthesis and/or inhibition of biosynthetic pathways in primary metabolism. 5-Hydroxynorvaline was identified in a targeted search for previously unknown non-protein amino acids in the leaves of maize (Zea mays) inbred line B73. Accumulation of this compound increases during herbivory by aphids (Rhopalosiphum maidis, corn leaf aphid) and caterpillars (Spodoptera exigua, beet armyworm), as well as in response to treatment with the plant signalling molecules methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid and abscisic acid. In contrast, ethylene signalling reduced 5-hydroxynorvaline abundance. Drought stress induced 5-hydroxynorvaline accumulation to a higher level than insect feeding or treatment with defence signalling molecules. In field-grown plants, the 5-hydroxynorvaline concentration was highest in above-ground vegetative tissue, but it was also detectable in roots and dry seeds. When 5-hydroxynorvaline was added to aphid artificial diet at concentrations similar to those found in maize leaves and stems, R. maidis reproduction was reduced, indicating that this maize metabolite may have a defensive function. Among 27 tested maize inbred lines there was a greater than 10-fold range in the accumulation of foliar 5-hydroxynorvaline. Genetic mapping populations derived from a subset of these inbred lines were used to map quantitative trait loci for 5-hydroxynorvaline accumulation to maize chromosomes 5 and 7. PMID:25271262

  2. Accumulation of 5-hydroxynorvaline in maize (Zea mays) leaves is induced by insect feeding and abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jian; Lipka, Alexander E; Schmelz, Eric A; Buckler, Edward S; Jander, Georg

    2015-02-01

    Plants produce a wide variety of defensive metabolites to protect themselves against herbivores and pathogens. Non-protein amino acids, which are present in many plant species, can have a defensive function through their mis-incorporation during protein synthesis and/or inhibition of biosynthetic pathways in primary metabolism. 5-Hydroxynorvaline was identified in a targeted search for previously unknown non-protein amino acids in the leaves of maize (Zea mays) inbred line B73. Accumulation of this compound increases during herbivory by aphids (Rhopalosiphum maidis, corn leaf aphid) and caterpillars (Spodoptera exigua, beet armyworm), as well as in response to treatment with the plant signalling molecules methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid and abscisic acid. In contrast, ethylene signalling reduced 5-hydroxynorvaline abundance. Drought stress induced 5-hydroxynorvaline accumulation to a higher level than insect feeding or treatment with defence signalling molecules. In field-grown plants, the 5-hydroxynorvaline concentration was highest in above-ground vegetative tissue, but it was also detectable in roots and dry seeds. When 5-hydroxynorvaline was added to aphid artificial diet at concentrations similar to those found in maize leaves and stems, R. maidis reproduction was reduced, indicating that this maize metabolite may have a defensive function. Among 27 tested maize inbred lines there was a greater than 10-fold range in the accumulation of foliar 5-hydroxynorvaline. Genetic mapping populations derived from a subset of these inbred lines were used to map quantitative trait loci for 5-hydroxynorvaline accumulation to maize chromosomes 5 and 7. PMID:25271262

  3. The Generalist Inside the Specialist: Gut Bacterial Communities of Two Insect Species Feeding on Toxic Plants Are Dominated by Enterococcus sp.

    PubMed Central

    Vilanova, Cristina; Baixeras, Joaquín; Latorre, Amparo; Porcar, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Some specialist insects feed on plants rich in secondary compounds, which pose a major selective pressure on both the phytophagous and the gut microbiota. However, microbial communities of toxic plant feeders are still poorly characterized. Here, we show the bacterial communities of the gut of two specialized Lepidoptera, Hyles euphorbiae and Brithys crini, which exclusively feed on latex-rich Euphorbia sp. and alkaloid-rich Pancratium maritimum, respectively. A metagenomic analysis based on high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that the gut microbiota of both insects is dominated by the phylum Firmicutes, and especially by the common gut inhabitant Enterococcus sp. Staphylococcus sp. are also found in H. euphorbiae though to a lesser extent. By scanning electron microscopy, we found a dense ring-shaped bacterial biofilm in the hindgut of H. euphorbiae, and identified the most prominent bacterium in the biofilm as Enterococcus casseliflavus through molecular techniques. Interestingly, this species has previously been reported to contribute to the immobilization of latex-like molecules in the larvae of Spodoptera litura, a highly polyphagous lepidopteran. The E. casseliflavus strain was isolated from the gut and its ability to tolerate natural latex was tested under laboratory conditions. This fact, along with the identification of less frequent bacterial species able to degrade alkaloids and/or latex, suggest a putative role of bacterial communities in the tolerance of specialized insects to their toxic diet. PMID:27446044

  4. Coplanar waveguide feeds for phased array antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1991-01-01

    The design and performance is presented of the following Coplanar Waveguides (CPW) microwave distribution networks for linear as well as circularly polarized microstrip patches and dipole arrays: (1) CPW/Microstrip Line feed; (2) CPW/Balanced Stripline feed; (3) CPW/Slotline feed; (4) Grounded CPW/Balanced coplanar stripline feed; and (5) CPW/Slot coupled feed. Typical measured radiation patterns are presented, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are compared.

  5. Apparatus for continuous feed material melting

    DOEpatents

    Surma, Jeffrey E.; Perez, Jr., Joseph M.

    1998-01-01

    The apparatus of the present invention is a melter housing having a pretreat chamber heated with a feed material heater that is partially isolated from a melter chamber. The method of the present invention has the steps of introducing feed material into a pretreat chamber and heating the feed material to a softening temperature of the feed material, and passing the pretreated feed material to a melter chamber.

  6. Beer, Breast Feeding, and Folklore

    PubMed Central

    MENNELLA, JULIE A.; BEAUCHAMP, GARY K.

    2009-01-01

    Beer consumption by nursing women altered the sensory qualities of their milk and the behavior of their infants during breast-feeding in the short term. The infants consumed significantly less milk during the 4-hr testing sessions in which their mothers drank alcoholic beer compared to when the mothers drank nonalcoholic beer; this decrease in milk intake was not due to a decrease in the number of times the babies fed. Although the infants consumed less of the alcohol-flavored milk, the mothers believed their infants had ingested enough milk, reported that they experienced a letdown during nursing, and felt they had milk remaining in their breasts at the end of the majority of feedings. Moreover, the mothers terminated the feeds the same percentage of time on both testing days. The mechanism by which the consumption of alcoholic beer by lactating women decreases milk intake by their nurslings remains to be determined. PMID:8293892

  7. The effect of leaf biopesticide Mirabilis jalapa and fungi Metarhizium anisopliae to immune response and mortality of Spodoptera exigua instar IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryani, A. Irma; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-01

    Spodoptera exigua is one of insect causing damage in agriculture sector. This insect can be controlled by a natural biopesticide by combining two agents of biological control, biopesticides Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, considered to be virulent toward a wide range of insects. The objective of research was to determine the effect of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi M. anisopliae against immune system and mortality of S. exigua. This research used a complete randomized block design with five concentrations Mirabilis jalapa and optimum dose of M. anisopliae. A high dose of M. jalapa (0.8% w/v) is the most effective one to decrease total haemocytes especially granulocyt and plasmatocyt (cellular immune) and decrease the concentration of lectin (humoral immune) from S. exigua (p < 0.05). The combination of M. jalapa (0, 8% w/v) and lethal dose of M. anisopliae 2.59 × 107 spore/ml were significant to increase mortality of S. exigua within 48 hours (p < 0.05).

  8. Impact of UV radiation on activity of linear furanocoumarins and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki against Spodoptera exigua: Implications for tritrophic interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Trumble, J.T.; Moar, W.J.; Brewer, M.J.; Carson, W.G. )

    1991-05-01

    Acidic fogs with a pH of 2.0 and duration of 2 hr did not reduce the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki. Therefore, the impact of UV radiation was investigated on the interactions between (1) levels of the antibacterial linear furanocoumarins psoralen, bergapten, and xanthotoxin in Apium graveolens (L.) occurring following a 2.0 pH acidic fog episode, (2) the noctuid Spodoptera exigua, and (3) a sublethal dosage of the microbial pathogen B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki. Mean time to pupation in the absence of UV radiation was significantly extended by the addition of either psoralens or B. thuringiensis. Larvae developing on diets containing B. thuringiensis plus psoralens required nearly 40% longer to pupate than controls, but their effects were additive as the interaction was not significant. Mean time to mortality, a weighted average time of death, was not significantly affected by any of the treatments. In a 2 {times} 2 {times} 2 factorial analysis, all main effects reduced survival significantly, as did the three-way interaction. Thus, antagonistic interactions with psoralens that would reduce the effectiveness of B. thuringiensis in the field were not observed. When pairs of main effects were nested within the two levels of the third factor, several two-way interactions were found. Interestingly, the activity of B. thuringiensis and the psoralens, individually or in combination, was enhanced by exposure to UV radiation. Implications of this research are discussed for both natural and agricultural ecosystems.

  9. Description of new mitochondrial genomes (Spodoptera litura, Noctuoidea and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, Pyraloidea) and phylogenetic reconstruction of Lepidoptera with the comment on optimization schemes.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xinlong; Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Iksoo

    2013-11-01

    We newly sequenced mitochondrial genomes of Spodoptera litura and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis belonging to Lepidoptera to obtain further insight into mitochondrial genome evolution in this group and investigated the influence of optimal strategies on phylogenetic reconstruction of Lepidoptera. Estimation of p-distances of each mitochondrial gene for available taxonomic levels has shown the highest value in ND6, whereas the lowest values in COI and COII at the nucleotide level, suggesting different utility of each gene for different hierarchical group when individual genes are utilized for phylogenetic analysis. Phylogenetic analyses mainly yielded the relationships (((((Bombycoidea + Geometroidea) + Noctuoidea) + Pyraloidea) + Papilionoidea) + Tortricoidea), evidencing the polyphyly of Macrolepidoptera. The Noctuoidea concordantly recovered the familial relationships (((Arctiidae + Lymantriidae) + Noctuidae) + Notodontidae). The tests of optimality strategies, such as exclusion of third codon positions, inclusion of rRNA and tRNA genes, data partitioning, RY recoding approach, and recoding nucleotides into amino acids suggested that the majority of the strategies did not substantially alter phylogenetic topologies or nodal supports, except for the sister relationship between Lycaenidae and Pieridae only in the amino acid dataset, which was in contrast to the sister relationship between Lycaenidae and Nymphalidae in Papilionoidea in the remaining datasets.

  10. Linking Life Table and Predation Rate for Biological Control: A Comparative Study of Eocanthecona furcellata (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Fed on Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Yeh, Chih-Chun; Atlihan, Remzi; Chi, Hsin

    2016-02-01

    To better understand the predator-prey relationship and to compare predation rates, we studied the life table and predation rate of the predator Eocanthecona furcellata Wolff (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) when reared on two major crucifer pests, Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). The net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate, and net predation rates of E. furcellata reared on P. xylostella were 292.4 offspring, 0.1389 d(-1), 1.1490 d(-1), and 644.1 third instars of P. xylostella, respectively. These values are significantly higher than those reared on S. litura, i.e., 272.3 offspring, 0.1220 d(-1), 1.1298 d(-1), and 863.1 third instars of S. litura. To evaluate the predation potential of E. furcellata fed on P. xylostella and S. litura, we combined both the growth rate and predation rate to calculate the finite predation rate (ω); our results showed that E. furcellata is an effective predator of both S. litura (ω = 1.6029) and P. xylostella (ω = 1.4277).

  11. Performance of Spodoptera litura Fabricius on different host plants: influence of nitrogen and total phenolics of plants and mid-gut esterase activity of the insect.

    PubMed

    Ghumare, S S; Mukherjee, S N

    2003-08-01

    Five host plants [castor, Ricinus communis (Carolus Linnaeus); cotton, Gossypium hirsutm (Carolus Linnaeus); tomato, Lycopersicum esculentum (Philip Miller); mint, Mentha arvensis (Carolus Linnaeus) and cabbage, Brassica oleracea (Carolus Linnaeus)] belonging to different families were used to study the performance of the Asian armyworm, Spodoptera litura larvae. Highest consumption of food and dry weight gain was observed in larvae fed on castor. Mint did not support optimum larval growth because of low digestibility and low efficiency of conversion of digested food to body matter. Dry weight gain ranged from 26.64 mg on mint to 86.80 mg in castor. These differences tend to be related to nitrogen and total phenolics content of the leaf tissues; however, the most clear-cut correlation is an inverse one between the host plant preference and the ratio of total phenolics to nitrogen in the leaf tissues. Mid-gut esterase activity in larvae showed an increasing trend with the increase in total phenolics: nitrogen ratio in the test plants and the order of mid-gut esterase activity in larvae was mint > cabbage > cotton > tomato > castor.

  12. Imperfection works: Survival, transmission and persistence in the system of Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3h (HvAV-3h), Microplitis similis and Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shun-Ji; Hopkins, Richard J.; Zhao, Yi-Pei; Zhang, Yun-Xuan; Hu, Jue; Chen, Xu-Yang; Xu, Zhi; Huang, Guo-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Ascoviruses are insect-specific large DNA viruses that mainly infect noctuid larvae, and are transmitted by parasitoids in the fields. Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3h (HvAV-3h) has been recently isolated from Spodoptera exigua, without parasitoid vector identified previously. Here we report that Microplitis similis, a solitary endoparasitoid wasp, could transmit HvAV-3h between S. exigua larvae in the laboratory. When the female parasitoid wasp acquired the virus and served as a vector, the period of virion viability on the ovipositor was 4.1 ± 1.4 days. Infected host larvae were still acceptable for egg laying by parasitoids, and the parasitoids thereafter transmitted virus to healthy hosts. Virus acquisition occurred only from donor hosts between 3 and 9 days post infection. The peak of virus acquisition (80.9 ± 6.3%) was found when M. similis wasps oviposited in larvae that had been inoculated with the virus 7 days previously. When virus infection of the host took place during the life cycle of the parasitoid wasp, it caused 1- to 4-day-old immature parasitoids death in the host, whilst a small proportion of 5- to 6-day-old and the majority of 7-day-old parasitoids larvae survived from the virus-infected hosts. Viral contamination did not reduce the life span or fecundity of female M. similis. PMID:26878829

  13. RNAi-Mediated Knockdown of Catalase Causes Cell Cycle Arrest in SL-1 Cells and Results in Low Survival Rate of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius)

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Meiying; Chen, Shaohua; Muhammad, Rizwan-ul-Haq; Dong, Xiaolin; Gong, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Deregulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production can lead to the disruption of structural and functional integrity of cells as a consequence of reactive interaction between ROS and various biological components. Catalase (CAT) is a common enzyme existing in nearly all organisms exposed to oxygen, which decomposes harmful hydrogen peroxide, into water and oxygen. In this study, the full length sequence that encodes CAT-like protein from Spodoptera litura named siltCAT (GenBank accession number: JQ_663444) was cloned and characterized. Amino acid sequence alignment showed siltCAT shared relatively high conservation with other insect, especially the conserved residues which defined heme and NADPH orientation. Expression pattern analysis showed that siltCAT mRNA was mainly expressed in the fat body, midgut, cuticle and malpighian tube, and as well as over last instar larvae, pupa and adult stages. RNA interference was used to silence CAT gene in SL-1 cells and the fourth-instar stage of S. litura larvae respectively. Our results provided evidence that CAT knockdown induced ROS generation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in SL-1 cells. It also confirmed the decrease in survival rate because of increased ROS production in experimental groups injected with double-stranded RNA of CAT (dsCAT). This study implied that ROS scavenging by CAT is important for S. litura survival. PMID:23555693

  14. Identification and Characterization of CYP9A40 from the Tobacco Cutworm Moth (Spodoptera litura), a Cytochrome P450 Gene Induced by Plant Allelochemicals and Insecticides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Long; Staehelin, Christian; Xia, Qing-Qing; Su, Yi-Juan; Zeng, Ren-Sen

    2015-09-18

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) of insects play crucial roles in the metabolism of endogenous and dietary compounds. Tobacco cutworm moth (Spodoptera litura), an important agricultural pest, causes severe yield losses in many crops. In this study, we identified CYP9A40, a novel P450 gene of S. litura, and investigated its expression profile and potential role in detoxification of plant allelochemicals and insecticides. The cDNA contains an open reading frame encoding 529 amino acid residues. CYP9A40 transcripts were found to be accumulated during various development stages of S. litura and were highest in fifth and sixth instar larvae. CYP9A40 was mainly expressed in the midgut and fat body. Larval consumption of xenobiotics, namely plant allelochemicals (quercetin and cinnamic acid) and insecticides (deltamethrin and methoxyfenozide) induced accumulation of CYP9A40 transcripts in the midgut and fat body. Injection of dsCYP9A40 (silencing of CYP9A40 by RNA interference) significantly increased the susceptibility of S. litura larvae to the tested plant allelochemicals and insecticides. These results indicate that CYP9A40 expression in S. litura is related to consumption of xenobiotics and suggest that CYP9A40 is involved in detoxification of these compounds.

  15. Occurrence of a common binding site in Mamestra brassicae, Phthorimaea operculella, and Spodoptera exigua for the insecticidal crystal proteins CryIA from Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Escriche, B; Ferré, J; Silva, F J

    1997-07-01

    Specific binding to midgut membrane proteins is required for the toxicity of insecticidal crystal proteins (ICP) from Bacillus thuringiensis. A direct relationship between toxicity and binding has been proposed. It has been hypothesized that sharing of a single receptor by more than one ICP could lead to the occurrence of multiple resistance in the event of an alteration in the common receptor. Binding of CryIA(a), CryIA(b) and CryIA(c), three structurally related ICPs, has been studied in Phthorimaea operculella, Mamestra brassicae and, Spodoptera exigua using brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from the midgut tissue. Using iodinated CryIA(b), the three insects showed similar results: one binding site for CryIA(b), which is shared with CryIA(a) and CryIA(c). The binding site concentrations obtained for CryIA(b) in P. operculella, M. brassicae and S. exigua were 5.1, 16.3 and 2.2 pmol/mg vesicle protein, respectively. In the same way, dissociation constants were 3.8, 5.3 and 0.7 nM. Data show that binding for an ICP does not directly imply toxicity. The occurrence of a common receptor for the CryIA subgroup of ICPs in P. operculella, M. brassicae and S. exigua might theoretically discourage the use of combinations of these ICPs in integrated pest management programmes. PMID:9404010

  16. Cadherin is involved in the action of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lin; Hou, Leilei; Zhang, Boyao; Liu, Lang; Li, Bo; Deng, Pan; Ma, Weihua; Wang, Xiaoping; Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Chen, Lizhen; Lei, Chaoliang

    2015-05-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins are effective against some insect pests in sprays and transgenic crops, although the evolution of resistance could threaten the long-term efficacy of such Bt use. One strategy to delay resistance to Bt crops is to "pyramid" two or more Bt proteins that bind to distinct receptor proteins within the insect midgut. The most common Bt pyramid in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) employs Cry1Ac with Cry2Ab to target several key lepidopteran pests, including the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), which is a serious migratory pest of many vegetable crops and is increasingly important in cotton in China. While cadherin and aminopeptidase-N are key receptors of Cry1 toxins in many lepidopterans including S. exigua, the receptor for Cry2A toxins remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that a heterologous expressed peptide corresponding to cadherin repeat 7 to the membrane proximal extracellular domain (CR7-MPED) in the S. exigua cadherin 1b (SeCad1b) binds Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa. Moreover, SeCad1b transcription was suppressed in S. exigua larvae by oral RNA interference and susceptibility to Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa was significantly reduced. These results indicate that SeCad1b plays important functional roles of both Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa, having major implications for resistance management for S. exigua in Bt crops. PMID:25754522

  17. A Transformed Bacterium Expressing Double-Stranded RNA Specific to Integrin β1 Enhances Bt Toxin Efficacy against a Polyphagous Insect Pest, Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunseong; Park, Youngjin; Kim, Yonggyun

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral toxicity of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) specific to integrin β1 subunit (SeINT) was known in a polyphagous insect pest, Spodoptera exigua. For an application of the dsRNA to control the insect pest, this study prepared a transformed Escherichia coli expressing dsRNA specific to SeINT. Principal Findings The dsRNA expression was driven by T7 RNA polymerase overexpressed by an inducer in the transformed E. coli. The produced dsRNA amount was proportional to the number of the cultured bacteria. The transformed bacteria gave a significant oral toxicity to S. exigua larvae with a significant reduction of the SeINT expression. The resulting insect mortality increased with the fed number of the bacteria. Pretreatment with an ultra-sonication to disrupt bacterial cell wall/membrane significantly increased the insecticidal activity of the transformed bacteria. The larvae treated with the transformed bacteria suffered tissue damage in the midgut epithelium, which exhibited a marked loss of cell-cell contacts and underwent a remarkable cell death. Moreover, these treated larvae became significantly susceptible to a Cry toxin derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Conclusions This study provides a novel and highly efficient application technique to use dsRNA specific to an integrin gene by mixing with a biopesticide, Bt. PMID:26171783

  18. In Vivo and In Vitro Binding of Vip3Aa to Spodoptera frugiperda Midgut and Characterization of Binding Sites by 125I Radiolabeling

    PubMed Central

    Chakroun, Maissa

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip3A) have been recently introduced in important crops as a strategy to delay the emerging resistance to the existing Cry toxins. The mode of action of Vip3A proteins has been studied in Spodoptera frugiperda with the aim of characterizing their binding to the insect midgut. Immunofluorescence histological localization of Vip3Aa in the midgut of intoxicated larvae showed that Vip3Aa bound to the brush border membrane along the entire apical surface. The presence of fluorescence in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells seems to suggest internalization of Vip3Aa or a fragment of it. Successful radiolabeling and optimization of the binding protocol for the 125I-Vip3Aa to S. frugiperda brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) allowed the determination of binding parameters of Vip3A proteins for the first time. Heterologous competition using Vip3Ad, Vip3Ae, and Vip3Af as competitor proteins showed that they share the same binding site with Vip3Aa. In contrast, when using Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac as competitors, no competitive binding was observed, which makes them appropriate candidates to be used in combination with Vip3A proteins in transgenic crops. PMID:25002420

  19. Transcriptional profiling analysis of Spodoptera litura larvae challenged with Vip3Aa toxin and possible involvement of trypsin in the toxin activation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Feifei; Chen, Chen; Wu, Songqing; Shao, Ensi; Li, Mengnan; Guan, Xiong; Huang, Zhipeng

    2016-01-01

    Vip proteins, a new group of insecticidal toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis, are effective against specific pests including Spodoptera litura. Here, we report construction of a transcriptome database of S. litura by de novo assembly along with detection of the transcriptional response of S. litura larvae to Vip3Aa toxin. In total, 56,498 unigenes with an N50 value of 1,853 bp were obtained. Results of transcriptome abundance showed that Vip3Aa toxin provoked a wide transcriptional response of the S. litura midgut. The differentially expressed genes were enriched for immunity-related, metabolic-related and Bt-related genes. Twenty-nine immunity-related genes, 102 metabolic-related genes and 62 Bt-related genes with differential expression were found. On the basis of transcriptional profiling analysis, we focus on the functional validation of trypsin which potentially participated in the activation of Vip3Aa protoxin. Zymogram analysis indicated that the presence of many proteases, including trypsin, in S. litura larvae midgut. Results of enzymolysis in vitro of Vip3Aa by trypsin, and bioassay and histopathology of the trypsin-digested Vip3Aa toxin showed that trypsin was possibly involved in the Vip3Aa activation. This study provides a transcriptome foundation for the identification and functional validation of the differentially expressed genes in an agricultural important pest, S. litura. PMID:27025647

  20. Parasitic Manipulation of Host Behaviour: Baculovirus SeMNPV EGT Facilitates Tree-Top Disease in Spodoptera exigua Larvae by Extending the Time to Death

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yue; van Houte, Stineke; Drees, Gerben F.; van Oers, Monique M.; Ros, Vera I. D.

    2015-01-01

    Many parasites enhance their dispersal and transmission by manipulating host behaviour. One intriguing example concerns baculoviruses that induce hyperactivity and tree-top disease (i.e., climbing to elevated positions prior to death) in their caterpillar hosts. Little is known about the underlying mechanisms of such parasite-induced behavioural changes. Here, we studied the role of the ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase (egt) gene of Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) in tree-top disease in S. exigua larvae. Larvae infected with a mutant virus lacking the egt gene exhibited a shorter time to death and died before the induction of tree-top disease. Moreover, deletion of either the open reading frame or the ATG start codon of the egt gene prevented tree-top disease, indicating that the EGT protein is involved in this process. We hypothesize that SeMNPV EGT facilitates tree-top disease in S. exigua larvae by prolonging the larval time to death. Additionally, we discuss the role of egt in baculovirus-induced tree-top disease. PMID:26463412

  1. Rhabdovirus-like endogenous viral elements in the genome of Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells are actively transcribed: Implications for adventitious virus detection.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Christoph; Jarvis, Donald L

    2016-07-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf) cell lines are used to produce several biologicals for human and veterinary use. Recently, it was discovered that all tested Sf cell lines are persistently infected with Sf-rhabdovirus, a novel rhabdovirus. As part of an effort to search for other adventitious viruses, we searched the Sf cell genome and transcriptome for sequences related to Sf-rhabdovirus. To our surprise, we found intact Sf-rhabdovirus N- and P-like ORFs, and partial Sf-rhabdovirus G- and L-like ORFs. The transcribed and genomic sequences matched, indicating the transcripts were derived from the genomic sequences. These appear to be endogenous viral elements (EVEs), which result from the integration of partial viral genetic material into the host cell genome. It is theoretically impossible for the Sf-rhabdovirus-like EVEs to produce infectious virus particles as 1) they are disseminated across 4 genomic loci, 2) the G and L ORFs are incomplete, and 3) the M ORF is missing. Our finding of transcribed virus-like sequences in Sf cells underscores that MPS-based searches for adventitious viruses in cell substrates used to manufacture biologics should take into account both genomic and transcribed sequences to facilitate the identification of transcribed EVE's, and to avoid false positive detection of replication-competent adventitious viruses.

  2. Characterization of an Sf-rhabdovirus-negative Spodoptera frugiperda cell line as an alternative host for recombinant protein production in the baculovirus-insect cell system.

    PubMed

    Maghodia, Ajay B; Geisler, Christoph; Jarvis, Donald L

    2016-06-01

    Cell lines derived from the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf), are widely used as hosts for recombinant protein production in the baculovirus-insect cell system (BICS). However, it was recently discovered that these cell lines are contaminated with a virus, now known as Sf-rhabdovirus [1]. The detection of this adventitious agent raised a potential safety issue that could adversely impact the BICS as a commercial recombinant protein production platform. Thus, we examined the properties of Sf-RVN, an Sf-rhabdovirus-negative Sf cell line, as a potential alternative host. Nested RT-PCR assays showed Sf-RVN cells had no detectable Sf-rhabdovirus over the course of 60 passages in continuous culture. The general properties of Sf-RVN cells, including their average growth rates, diameters, morphologies, and viabilities after baculovirus infection, were virtually identical to those of Sf9 cells. Baculovirus-infected Sf-RVN and Sf9 cells produced equivalent levels of three recombinant proteins, including an intracellular prokaryotic protein and two secreted eukaryotic glycoproteins, and provided similar N-glycosylation patterns. In fact, except for the absence of Sf-rhabdovirus, the only difference between Sf-RVN and Sf9 cells was SF-RVN produced higher levels of infectious baculovirus progeny. These results show Sf-RVN cells can be used as improved, alternative hosts to circumvent the potential safety hazard associated with the use of Sf-rhabdovirus-contaminated Sf cells for recombinant protein manufacturing with the BICS.

  3. Bioactivity of Piper hispidinervum (Piperales: Piperaceae) and Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) oils, with or without formulated Bta on the biology and immunology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Correia, A A; Breda, M O; Alves, T J S; Cunha, F M; Teixeira, A A C; Dutra, K A; Navarro, D M A F

    2014-02-01

    The combination of essential oils and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner may represent an interesting control strategy. Thus, the study tested the following hypothesis: the combination of long pepper oil (Piper hispidinervum L.) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) oils in two concentrations with Xentari WG (Bta) yields a more effective control of Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) affecting biological and reproductive parameters and leading to changes in the levels of phenoloxidase and nitric oxide in the hemolymph of the pest. The results demonstrate that only long pepper oil, at the highest concentration with Xentari WG (Bta), promotes reduced larval survival. However, both oils with or without the insecticide interfere in the biology and humoral immunity of S.frugiperda. All treatments caused a decrease in the amount of eggs, except for the clove oil at both concentrations without Bta. Therefore, the use of these oils is a promising alternative for the integrated management of S. frugiperda; however, its association with Bta demonstrated no significant increase in their efficiency.

  4. Bioactivity of Piper hispidinervum (Piperales: Piperaceae) and Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) oils, with or without formulated Bta on the biology and immunology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Correia, A A; Breda, M O; Alves, T J S; Cunha, F M; Teixeira, A A C; Dutra, K A; Navarro, D M A F

    2014-02-01

    The combination of essential oils and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner may represent an interesting control strategy. Thus, the study tested the following hypothesis: the combination of long pepper oil (Piper hispidinervum L.) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.) oils in two concentrations with Xentari WG (Bta) yields a more effective control of Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) affecting biological and reproductive parameters and leading to changes in the levels of phenoloxidase and nitric oxide in the hemolymph of the pest. The results demonstrate that only long pepper oil, at the highest concentration with Xentari WG (Bta), promotes reduced larval survival. However, both oils with or without the insecticide interfere in the biology and humoral immunity of S.frugiperda. All treatments caused a decrease in the amount of eggs, except for the clove oil at both concentrations without Bta. Therefore, the use of these oils is a promising alternative for the integrated management of S. frugiperda; however, its association with Bta demonstrated no significant increase in their efficiency. PMID:24665696

  5. Biochemical parameters of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) treated with citronella oil (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor) and its influence on reproduction.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cristiane Thalita Dos Santos; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valéria; Cunha, Franklin Magliano da; Oliveira, José Vargas de; Dutra, Kamilla de Andrade; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Teixeira, Álvaro Aguiar Coelho

    2016-05-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda is the principal corn pest in Brazil. Searches for new control methods that minimize the adverse effects of synthetic insecticides have initiated a resurgence of the use of botanical insecticides. Citronella oil (a product of Cymbopogon winterianus) is an effective repellent and insecticide. Thus, biochemical profile changes in oil-treated larvae and its influence on reproduction were assessed. Corn leaves dipped in a 50mg/mL concentration were offered to third instar larvae for 24h and assessed in sixth instar to estimate protein, lipid, sugar, and glycogen levels. Adult testes and ovarioles were collected for histological and histochemical analysis 24h after emergence. Number of eggs and hatching rate were also measured. Oil-treated larvae showed an increase in glycogen and a decrease in protein, lipid, and totals sugar content. Control testes exhibited connective tissue lining and cysts with abundant spermatozoids. However, intense peripheral vacuolation and neutral carbohydrates reduction occurred in oil-treated individuals. Control ovarioles showed normal morphologic characteristics. On the other hand, oil-treatment ovarioles showed follicular cell stratification and removal, reduced nurse cell development, reduced yolk quantity, a thinner conjunctiva sheath, and a reduction in proteins and neutral carbohydrates. Eggs derived from oil-treated pairs were unviable. Therefore, sub-lethal doses of citronella oil alters the biochemical profile of S. frugiperda larvae, causing damage to their reproductive histophysiology and results in diminished reproduction or reproductive failure. PMID:27012436

  6. Heritability of Wing Size and Shape of the Rice and Corn Strains of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cañas-Hoyos, N; Márquez, E J; Saldamando-Benjumea, C I

    2016-08-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) represents a pest of economic importance in all Western Hemisphere. This polyphagous species has diverged into two populations that have been mainly recognized with various mitochondrial and nuclear molecular markers and named "the rice" and "the corn" strains. In Colombia, both strains have evolved prezygotic and postzygotic isolation. They differ in tolerance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Cry1Ac and Cry1Ab endotoxins) and the insecticides lambda-cyhalothrin and methomyl. In 2014, a wing morphometric analysis made in 159 individuals from a colony showed that both strains significantly differ in wing shape. The species also exhibits sexual dimorphism in the rice strain as in females wing size is larger than in males. Here, we continued this work with another wing morphometric approach in laboratory-reared strains to calculate wing size and shape heritabilities using a full-sib design and in wild populations to determine if this method distinguishes these strains. Our results show that male heritabilities of both traits were higher than female ones. Wild populations were significantly different in wing shape and size. These results suggest that wing morphometrics can be used as an alternative method to molecular markers to differentiate adults from laboratory-reared populations and wild populations of this pest, particularly in males of this species. Finally, Q ST values obtained for wing size and shape further demonstrated that both strains are genetically differentiated in nature. PMID:27044394

  7. Overexpression of a Weed (Solanum americanum) Proteinase Inhibitor in Transgenic Tobacco Results in Increased Glandular Trichome Density and Enhanced Resistance to Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ming; Wang, Zhaoyu; Li, Huapeng; Xia, Kuai-Fei; Cai, Yinpeng; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2009-01-01

    In this study we produced transgenic tobacco plants by overexpressing a serine proteinase inhibitor gene, SaPIN2a, from the American black nightshade Solanum americanum under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. SaPIN2a was properly transcribed and translated as indicated by Northern blot and Western blot analyses. Functional integrity of SaPIN2a in transgenic plants was confirmed by proteinase inhibitory activity assay. Bioassays for insect resistance showed that SaPIN2a-overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants were more resistant to cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) and tobacco cutworm (Spodoptera litura) larvae, two devastating pests of important crop plants, than the control plants. Interestingly, overexpression of SaPIN2a in transgenic tobacco plants resulted in a significant increase in glandular trichome density and a promotion of trichome branching, which could also provide an additional resistance mechanism in transgenic plants against insect pests. Therefore, SaPIN2a could be used as an alternative proteinase inhibitor for the production of insect-resistant transgenic plants. PMID:19468345

  8. Selective effects of natural and synthetic insecticides on mortality of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its predator Eriopis connexa (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Tavares, Wagner S; Costa, Mariana A; Cruz, Ivan; Silveira, Rodrigo D; Serrao, Jose E; Zanuncio, Jose C

    2010-08-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a serious pest of corn in several American countries. It is mainly controlled with synthetic insecticides. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of the natural products, neem oil and pyroligneous extract, and the synthetic insecticide, lufenuron, at 2.50 mL water (0.25%) on the mortality of 2-, 4- and 6-day-old caterpillars of S. frugiperda, and their selectivities against fourth instar larvae of Eriopis connnexa Germar (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Four- and 6-day-old S. frugiperda caterpillars showed higher mortality after exposure to neem oil (83.33 +/- 0.83 and 89.58 +/- 0.90%, respectively) and lufenuron (95.83 +/- 0.96 and 85.41 +/- 0.83%), compared to pyroligneous extract (68.75 +/- 0.69 and 31.25 +/- 0.31%). The deleterious effect of pyroligneous extract was higher in 2- (83.33 +/- 0.83% mortality) and 4-day-old (68.75 +/- 0.69%) S. frugiperda caterpillars than in 6-day-old caterpillars (31.25 +/- 0.31%). Larval mortality of the predator E. connexa was lower with neem oil and pyroligneous extract (25.00 +/- 0.33%) than with lufenuron (91.66 +/- 1.22%). Neem oil is thus recommended for control of S. frugiperda because of its high toxicity, combined with its relatively low toxicity to larvae of the natural enemy E. connexa. PMID:20603748

  9. Generating susceptible strain and resistance status of field populations of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) against some conventional and new chemistry insecticides in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ishtiaq, M; Saleem, Mushtaq A

    2011-08-01

    Two field populations of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Dera Ghazi Khan (D. G. Khan) and Multan, Pakistan, were tested for resistance to the 10 most commonly used insecticides in Pakistan by using a standard leaf disc bioassay on the F1 progeny. For comparison, a susceptible strain was generated from the Multan strain, which displayed lower LC50 values for most of the insecticides, by either mass rearing without exposure to insecticides or single-pair crosses against selected insecticides. The single-pair crosses generated a more susceptible strain than mass rearing. The D. G. Khan field strain was highly resistant to cypermethrin, profenofos, spinosad, abamectin, and chlorpyrifos and moderately resistant to deltamethrin, indoxacarb, and methoxyfenozide compared with susceptible lab strain. The Multan strain was highly resistant to profenofos and indoxacarb. Both field populations were susceptible to emamectin benzoate and lufenuron. Rotating these two insecticides with others that show very low, low, or moderate levels of resistance and have different modes of action may be useful for the effective management of this pest. PMID:21882702

  10. Biochemical parameters of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) treated with citronella oil (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor) and its influence on reproduction.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cristiane Thalita Dos Santos; Wanderley-Teixeira, Valéria; Cunha, Franklin Magliano da; Oliveira, José Vargas de; Dutra, Kamilla de Andrade; Navarro, Daniela Maria do Amaral Ferraz; Teixeira, Álvaro Aguiar Coelho

    2016-05-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda is the principal corn pest in Brazil. Searches for new control methods that minimize the adverse effects of synthetic insecticides have initiated a resurgence of the use of botanical insecticides. Citronella oil (a product of Cymbopogon winterianus) is an effective repellent and insecticide. Thus, biochemical profile changes in oil-treated larvae and its influence on reproduction were assessed. Corn leaves dipped in a 50mg/mL concentration were offered to third instar larvae for 24h and assessed in sixth instar to estimate protein, lipid, sugar, and glycogen levels. Adult testes and ovarioles were collected for histological and histochemical analysis 24h after emergence. Number of eggs and hatching rate were also measured. Oil-treated larvae showed an increase in glycogen and a decrease in protein, lipid, and totals sugar content. Control testes exhibited connective tissue lining and cysts with abundant spermatozoids. However, intense peripheral vacuolation and neutral carbohydrates reduction occurred in oil-treated individuals. Control ovarioles showed normal morphologic characteristics. On the other hand, oil-treatment ovarioles showed follicular cell stratification and removal, reduced nurse cell development, reduced yolk quantity, a thinner conjunctiva sheath, and a reduction in proteins and neutral carbohydrates. Eggs derived from oil-treated pairs were unviable. Therefore, sub-lethal doses of citronella oil alters the biochemical profile of S. frugiperda larvae, causing damage to their reproductive histophysiology and results in diminished reproduction or reproductive failure.

  11. Resistance Risk Assessment of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to Vip3Aa20 Insecticidal Protein Expressed in Corn.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Oderlei; Bernardi, Daniel; Amado, Douglas; Sousa, Renan S; Fatoretto, Julio; Medeiros, Fernanda C L; Conville, Jared; Burd, Tony; Omoto, Celso

    2015-12-01

    Transgenic Agrisure Viptera 3 corn that expresses Cry1Ab, Vip3Aa20, and EPSPS proteins and Agrisure Viptera expressing Vip3Aa20 are used for control of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) and Diatraea saccharalis (F.) in Brazil. To support a resistance management program, resistance risk assessment studies were conducted to characterize the dose expression of Vip3Aa20 protein and level of control against these species. The Vip3Aa20 expression in Agrisure Viptera 3 and Agrisure Viptera decreased from V6 to V10 stage of growth. However, Vip3Aa20 expression in Agrisure Viptera 3 at V6 and V10 stages was 13- and 16-fold greater than Cry1Ab, respectively. The Vip3Aa20 expression in lyophilized tissue of Agrisure Viptera 3 and Agrisure Viptera diluted 25-fold in an artificial diet caused complete larval mortality of S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis. In contrast, lyophilized tissue of Bt11 at the same dilution does not provide complete mortality of these species. Agrisure Viptera 3 and Agrisure Viptera also caused a high level of mortality against S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis. Moreover, 100% mortality was observed for S. frugiperda larvae (neonates through fifth-instar larvae) when fed in corn with the Vip trait technology. Viptera corn achieves a high level of control against S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis providing a high dose, which is an important determination to support the refuge strategy for an effective resistance management program. PMID:26470366

  12. Haplotype Profile Comparisons Between Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Populations From Mexico With Those From Puerto Rico, South America, and the United States and Their Implications to Migratory Behavior.

    PubMed

    Nagoshi, Rodney N; Rosas-García, Ninfa M; Meagher, Robert L; Fleischer, Shelby J; Westbrook, John K; Sappington, Thomas W; Hay-Roe, Mirian; Thomas, Jean M G; Murúa, Gabriela M

    2015-02-01

    Fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith)] is a major economic pest throughout the Western Hemisphere of maize, cotton, sorghum, and a variety of agricultural grasses and vegetable crops. Previous studies demonstrated extensive annual migrations occurring as far north as Canada from overwintering locations in southern Florida and Texas. In contrast, migratory behavior in the rest of the hemisphere is largely uncharacterized. Understanding the migration patterns of fall armyworm will facilitate efforts to predict the spread of pesticide resistance traits that repeatedly arise in this species and assess the consequences of changing climatic trends on the infestation range. Four independent fall armyworm colonies derived from widely separated populations in Mexico and two field collections were examined for their mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene haplotypes and compared with other locations. The Mexico populations were most similar in their haplotype profile to those from Texas and South America, but also displayed some distinctive features. The data extend the haplotype distribution map in the Western Hemisphere and confirm that the previously observed regional differences in haplotype frequencies are stable over time. The Mexico collections were associated with haplotypes rarely found elsewhere, suggesting limited migratory interactions with foreign populations, including those in neighboring Texas.

  13. The Homologous Regions of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Nucleopolyhedrovirus II Have Both the Function as Origin of DNA Replication and Enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huifen; Gao, Huiju; Guo, Guang; Li, Yunzhi; Li, Yinü; Wang, Jinhui; Zhang, Zhifang; Yu, Zhencheng

    2015-01-01

    In the genome sequence of the Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus II (SpltNPVII), seven homologous regions (hrs), Sphr1-7, were identified. Each of them composed of three to eight 64-bp highly conserved sequences, and each contained a 24-bp imperfect palindrome. A transient expression assay demonstrated that the expression of SpltNPVII-ie1 promoter-driven luciferase gene was enhanced between 3- and 13-fold by infection of SpltNPVII in Spli221 cells. Real-time polymerase chain reaction confirmed each of seven hrs could function as origin (ori) of viral DNA replication. This suggests that these hrs are bifunctional, having both ori and enhancer activities for transcription. In addition, the potential of seven hrs as origins had a significantly positive correlation with the number of their palindromes (r = 0.847, Sig: 0.016 < 0.05), and enhancer efficiency had a significantly positive correlation with the number of characteristic motifs (r = 0.893, Sig: 0.007 < 0.01). The efficiency of replication and enhancement of each hr both increased with increasing total numbers of palindromes, repeat sequences, and characteristic motifs. In addition, a single 64-bp highly conserved consensus sequence cannot very good support to the function as origin and enhancer, and require the assistance of other cis-elements in hrs.

  14. Development and reproduction of Spodoptera eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its egg parasitoid Telenomus remus (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) on the genetically modified soybean (Bt) MON 87701×MON 89788.

    PubMed

    Bortolotto, O C; Silva, G V; de Freitas Bueno, A; Pomari, A F; Martinelli, S; Head, G P; Carvalho, R A; Barbosa, G C

    2014-12-01

    Genetically modified crops with insect resistance genes from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt-plants) are increasingly being cultivated worldwide. Therefore, it is critical to improve our knowledge of their direct or indirect impact not only on target pests but also on non-target arthropods. Hence, this study evaluates comparative leaf consumption and performance of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer), a species that is tolerant of the Cry1Ac protein, fed with Bt soybean, MON 87701×MON 89788 or its near [corrected] non-Bt isoline. Using this species as a model, we assessed [corrected] the comparative performance of the egg parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon on eggs of S. eridania produced from individuals that fed on these two soybean genotypes [corrected] as larvae. Results showed that Bt soybean did not affect pest foliage consumption, but did reduce larvel duration by two days despite larvae in both treatments having six instars. Nevertheless, survival of S. eridania larvae, pupal weight, sex ratio, fecundity and longevity of female moths, and egg viability did not differ between Bt and non-Bt soybeans. Adult longevity of S. eridania males was increased when caterpillars were fed with Bt soybean versus the near isoline. No adverse effects of this technology were observed for the egg parasitoid T. remus. [corrected].

  15. Selection of Annonaceae Species for the Control of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Metabolic Profiling of Duguetia lanceolata Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Alves, D S; Machado, A R T; Campos, V A C; Oliveira, D F; Carvalho, G A

    2016-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the activity of 19 dichloromethane-soluble fractions obtained from the methanolic extracts of 10 Annonaceae species against the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). The stem bark of Duguetia lanceolata A. St.-Hil. showed the highest insecticidal activity, with a median lethal time (LT50) of 61.4 h and a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 946.5 µg/ml of diet. The dichloromethane-soluble fractions from six D. lanceolata specimens were subjected to evaluation of their activities against S. frugiperda and metabolomic analysis using hydrogen (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Although all of the samples affected S. frugiperda mortality, their insecticidal activities varied according to the sample used in the experiments. Using partial least squares regression of the results, the D. lanceolata specimens were grouped according to their metabolite profile and insecticidal activity. A detailed analysis via uni- and bidimensional NMR spectroscopy showed that the peaks in the 1H NMR spectra associated with increased insecticidal activity could be attributed to 2,4,5-trimethoxystyrene, which suggests that this substance is involved in the insecticidal activity of the stem bark fraction of D. lanceolata.

  16. Performance of Spodoptera litura Fabricius on different host plants: influence of nitrogen and total phenolics of plants and mid-gut esterase activity of the insect.

    PubMed

    Ghumare, S S; Mukherjee, S N

    2003-08-01

    Five host plants [castor, Ricinus communis (Carolus Linnaeus); cotton, Gossypium hirsutm (Carolus Linnaeus); tomato, Lycopersicum esculentum (Philip Miller); mint, Mentha arvensis (Carolus Linnaeus) and cabbage, Brassica oleracea (Carolus Linnaeus)] belonging to different families were used to study the performance of the Asian armyworm, Spodoptera litura larvae. Highest consumption of food and dry weight gain was observed in larvae fed on castor. Mint did not support optimum larval growth because of low digestibility and low efficiency of conversion of digested food to body matter. Dry weight gain ranged from 26.64 mg on mint to 86.80 mg in castor. These differences tend to be related to nitrogen and total phenolics content of the leaf tissues; however, the most clear-cut correlation is an inverse one between the host plant preference and the ratio of total phenolics to nitrogen in the leaf tissues. Mid-gut esterase activity in larvae showed an increasing trend with the increase in total phenolics: nitrogen ratio in the test plants and the order of mid-gut esterase activity in larvae was mint > cabbage > cotton > tomato > castor. PMID:15248492

  17. Static feed water electrolysis module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Jensen, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    An advanced static feed water electrolysis module (SFWEM) and associated instrumentation for generating breathable O2 was developed. The system also generates a H2 byproduct for use in an air revitalization system for O2 recovery from metabolic CO2. Special attention was given to: (1) eliminating water feed compartment degassing, (2) eliminating need for zero gravity condenser/separators, (3) increasing current density capability, and (4) providing a self contained module so that operation is independent of laboratory instrumentation and complicated startup/shutdown procedures.

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... vertebratus, Diaphania indica, Helicoverpa armigera, and Spodoptera littoralis. (a) Approved greenhouses. The baby squash and baby courgettes must be grown in Zambia in insect-proof, pest-free greenhouses approved jointly by the Zambian national plant protection organization (NPPO) and APHIS. (1) The greenhouses...

  19. Comparative infectivity of homologous and heterologous nucleopolyhedroviruses against beet armyworm larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homologous and heterologous nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) were assayed to determine the most effective NPV against beet armyworm larvae, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)(SeMNPV). Included were three isolates from S. exigua, one isolate each from S. littoralis Boisduval, S. litura...

  20. Feeding device for glossectomy patients.

    PubMed

    Fleming, S M; Weaver, A W

    1983-04-01

    Instructions are provided for making a feeding spoon from a plastic syringe for use by patients who have had a glossectomy. This adaptation may be accomplished using only a hacksaw blade and sandpaper. Such a device may be indicated for patients who have had at least 60% of their tongue resected, but who are not at significant risk of aspiration. PMID:6838348

  1. Alfalfa non-feed uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-feed uses for alfalfa such as biomass energy and phytoremediation could increase alfalfa acreage and improve farm profitability. The new bio-energy alfalfa and production system increased forage yield and ethanol production. New alfalfas with enhanced nitrogen cycling capacities would protect wa...

  2. Complete feeds-intensive systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most commercially cultivated fish are raised in high-density culture systems where the assumption is that the contribution of natural foods to the nutrition of the fish is insignificant. Thus, intensively cultured fish must be fed a nutritionally complete feed. A short section on the concept and im...

  3. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - pump; G-tube - pump; Gastrostomy button - pump; Bard Button - pump; MIC-KEY - pump ... Your child has a gastrostomy tube (G-tube). This is a soft, plastic tube placed into your child's stomach. It delivers nutrition (food) and medicines until your ...

  4. Breast feeding and HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Cutting, W A

    1992-10-01

    There are considerable data suggesting that breast milk and colostrum transmit HIV. The European Collaborative Study shows the risk of transmission of HIV from breast milk to infant to be about 28%. A study in Rwanda indicates that transmission is more likely to take place during viremia which occurs during primary HIV infection and later with progression to AIDS. Postnatal transmission in this study stood at about 60%. Breast feeding protects against diarrhea and respiratory infections. A study in Brazil demonstrates that infants who were not breast fed were at 14.2 and 3.6 higher risk of death from diarrhea and respiratory infections, respectively, than breast-fed infants. These risks are especially great where poverty, inadequate sanitation, and poor hygiene predominate. A study in Malaysia shows that infants living in a household with no piped water and no toilet and were not breast-fed faced a 5-fold risk of death after 1 week of age than breast-fed infants living under the same conditions. This risk continued to be high (2.5) for non-breast-fed infants living in a household with piped water and a toilet. In developed countries, affordable formula, clean water, and adequate facilities for sterilizing bottles allows HIV positive mothers to bottle feed their infants which should reduce the vertical transmission rate. In developing countries, however, bottle feeding is expensive and hazardous. Governments often cannot provide potable water and sanitation services. In addition, mathematical models demonstrate that for HIV positive mothers, the risk of infant death is lower in infants who breast feed than in those who do not. Thus, in those areas of the world where infectious diseases and malnutrition are the leading causes of infant death, health workers should promote breast feeding regardless of HIV status of the mothers. PMID:1422355

  5. Feed mechanism and method for feeding minute items

    DOEpatents

    Stringer, Timothy Kent; Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2009-10-20

    A feeding mechanism and method for feeding minute items, such as capacitors, resistors, or solder preforms. The mechanism is adapted to receive a plurality of the randomly-positioned and randomly-oriented extremely small or minute items, and to isolate, orient, and position one or more of the items in a specific repeatable pickup location wherefrom they may be removed for use by, for example, a computer-controlled automated assembly machine. The mechanism comprises a sliding shelf adapted to receive and support the items; a wiper arm adapted to achieve a single even layer of the items; and a pushing arm adapted to push the items into the pickup location. The mechanism can be adapted for providing the items with a more exact orientation, and can also be adapted for use in a liquid environment.

  6. Feed mechanism and method for feeding minute items

    DOEpatents

    Stringer, Timothy Kent; Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2012-11-06

    A feeding mechanism and method for feeding minute items, such as capacitors, resistors, or solder preforms. The mechanism is adapted to receive a plurality of the randomly-positioned and randomly-oriented extremely small or minute items, and to isolate, orient, and position the items in a specific repeatable pickup location wherefrom they may be removed for use by, for example, a computer-controlled automated assembly machine. The mechanism comprises a sliding shelf adapted to receive and support the items; a wiper arm adapted to achieve a single even layer of the items; and a pushing arm adapted to push the items into the pickup location. The mechanism can be adapted for providing the items with a more exact orientation, and can also be adapted for use in a liquid environment.

  7. Feeding patterns and diet - babies and infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... a day). Feed your baby when they seems hungry. Signs include smacking lips, making suckling movements, and ... to feed her. This means she is very hungry. Your baby should not sleep more than 4 ...

  8. Oral feeding readiness assessment in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Gennattasio, Annmarie; Perri, Elizabeth A; Baranek, Donna; Rohan, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Oral feeding readiness is a complex concept. More evidence is needed on how to approach beginning oral feedings in premature hospitalized infants. This article provides a review of literature related to oral feeding readiness in the premature infant and strategies for promoting safe and efficient progression to full oral intake. Oral feeding readiness assessment tools, clinical pathways, and feeding advancement protocols have been developed to assist with oral feeding initiation and progression. Recognition and support of oral feeding readiness may decrease length of hospital stay and have a positive impact on reducing healthcare costs. Supporting effective cue-based oral feeding through use of rigorous assessment or evidence-based care guidelines can also optimize the hospital experience for infants and caregivers, which, in turn, can promote attachment and parent satisfaction.

  9. Parasite transmission through suspension feeding.

    PubMed

    Ben-Horin, Tal; Bidegain, Gorka; Huey, Lauren; Narvaez, Diego A; Bushek, David

    2015-10-01

    Suspension-feeding bivalve molluscs are confronted with a wide range of materials in the benthic marine environment. These materials include various sized plankton and the organic material derived from it, macroalgae, detritus and a diversity of microbial parasites that have adapted life stages to survive in the water column. For bivalve parasites to infect hosts though, they must first survive and remain infectious in the water column to make initial contact with hosts, and once in contact, enter and overcome elaborate pathways for particle sorting and selection. Even past these defenses, bivalve parasites are challenged with efficient systems of mechanical and chemical digestion and highly evolved systems of innate immunity. Here we review how bivalve parasites evade these hurdles to complete their life cycles and establish within bivalve hosts. We broadly cover significant viral, bacterial, and protozoan parasites of marine bivalve molluscs, and illustrate the emergent properties of these host-parasite systems where parasite transmission occurs through suspension feeding. PMID:26210495

  10. Feeding and swimming of flagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doelger, Julia; Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Kiorboe, Thomas; Bohr, Tomas; Andersen, Anders

    2015-11-01

    Hydrodynamics plays a dominant role for small planktonic flagellates and shapes their survival strategies. The high diversity of beat patterns and arrangements of appendages indicates different strategies balancing the trade-offs between the general goals, i.e., energy-efficient swimming, feeding, and predator avoidance. One type of flagellated algae that we observe, are haptophytes, which possess two flagella for flow creation and one so-called haptonema, a long, rigid structure fixed on the cell body, which is used for prey capture. We present videos and flow fields obtained using velocimetry methods around freely swimming haptophytes and other flagellates, which we compare to analytical results obtained from point force models. The observed and modelled flows are used to analyse how different morphologies and beat patterns relate to different feeding or swimming strategies, such as the capture mechanism in haptophytes. The Centre for Ocean Life is a VKR center of excellence supported by the Villum foundation.

  11. Families and Pediatric Feeding Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martorana, Pamela; Bove, Kelly; Scarcelli, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    When a child is born with a feeding and/or swallowing problem, it affects the entire family. Parents, mothers specifically, internalize the problem and come to believe it is due to something they've done. Families are put on an emotional rollercoaster with the ups and downs being dependant on how much the child has eaten that day. In this article,…

  12. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Brian C.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  13. A malfunctioning nasogastric feeding tube.

    PubMed

    Cereda, Emanuele; Costa, Antonio; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Pedrolli, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    A critical point of nasogastric feeding tube placement, potentially resulting in an unsafe and/or non-effective operation of the device, is the monitoring of its proper placement into the stomach. A properly obtained and interpreted radiograph is currently recommended to confirm placement. We reported the case of a 68-year-old demented woman referred for complicated dysphagia. A nasogastric tube was blindly inserted and its placement was confirmed by the radiologist. Enteral nutrition was initiated but the patient began to vomit immediately. After reviewing the radiograph it was understood that a gastric loop in the tube and its tip pointing upwards did not allow a safe infusion of the feeding formula. It is not enough having the radiologist reporting that a nasogastric feeding tube is placed in the stomach; the inclusion in the report of specific warnings on any potential cause of malfunctioning of the device should be considered. The presence of a gastric loop should be taken into account as a cause of potential malfunctioning.

  14. Histopathology and the lethal effect of Cry proteins and strains of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner in Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith Caterpillars (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Knaak, N; Franz, A R; Santos, G F; Fiuza, L M

    2010-08-01

    Among the phytophagous insects which attack crops, the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) is particularly harmful in the initial growth phase of rice plants. As a potential means of controlling this pest, and considering that the entomopathogen Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner demonstrates toxicity due to synthesis of the Cry protein, the present study was undertaken to evaluate this toxic effect of B. thuringiensis thuringiensis 407 (pH 408) and B. thuringiensis kurstaki HD-73 on S. frugiperda. The following method was used. Both bacterial strains were evaluated in vitro in 1st instar S. frugiperda caterpillars, by means of histopathological assays. The Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac proteins, codified by the respective strains of B. thuringiensis, were evaluated in vivo by bioassays of 1st instar S. frugiperda caterpillars in order to determine the Mean Lethal Concentration (LC50). The results of the histopathological analysis of the midget of S. frugiperda caterpillars demonstrate that treatment with the B. thuringiensis thuringiensis strain was more efficient, because the degradations of the microvilosities started 9 hours after treatment application (HAT), while in the B. thuringiensis kurstaki the same effect was noticed only after 12 HAT. Toxicity data of the Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac proteins presented for the target-species LC50 levels of 9.29 and 1.79 microgxcm-2 respectively. The strains and proteins synthesised by B. thuringiensis thuringiensis and B. thuringiensis kurstaki are effective in controlling S. frugiperda, and may be used to produce new biopesticides or the genes may be utilised in the genetic transformation of Oryza sativa L.

  15. Expression and characterization of recombinant human alpha-3/4-fucosyltransferase III from Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) and Trichoplusia ni (Tn) cells using the baculovirus expression system.

    PubMed Central

    Morais, V A; Serpa, J; Palma, A S; Costa, T; Maranga, L; Costa, J

    2001-01-01

    The human alpha-3/4-fucosyltransferase III (Fuc-TIII) participates in the synthesis of Lewis determinants. The enzyme from human sources is scarce and heterogeneous. In this paper we describe the expression of a secreted form of Fuc-TIII (SFT3) in two insect cell lines, Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) and Trichoplusia ni (Tn), using the baculovirus expression system. The Sf9 cells secreted approx. 0.4 unit/l (1 mg/l) of the enzyme. The Tn cells secreted approx. 3-fold this amount. A large proportion of active protein was accumulated in the two cell lines (50 and 75% respectively for Sf9 and Tn cells, on the fourth day after infection) indicating a possible limitation not only of the folding machinery, but also a saturation of the secretory pathway. SFT3 was purified by cation-exchange chromatography followed by affinity chromatography. The enzyme from the Tn cell line had a lower global charge, possibly due to post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation or sulphation. The two glycosylation sites from SFT3 were occupied. SFT3 secreted by Sf9 cells was completely deglycosylated by peptide-N-glycanase F, whereas 50% of SFT3 secreted by Tn cells was resistant to deglycosylation by this enzyme. The apparent kinetic parameters determined with the type I acceptor were k(cat)=0.4 s(-1) and K(m)=0.87 mM for the SFT3 secreted by Tn cells, and k(cat)=0.09 s(-1) and K(m)=0.76 mM for the SFT3 secreted by Sf9 cells, indicating that the enzymes had substrate affinities within the same order of magnitude as their mammalian counterpart. Furthermore, SFT3 secreted by either cell type showed a clear preference for type 1 carbohydrate acceptors, similarly to human Fuc-TIII. PMID:11171070

  16. Target and non-target toxicity of botanical insecticide derived from Couroupita guianensis L. flower against generalist herbivore, Spodoptera litura Fab. and an earthworm, Eisenia foetida Savigny.

    PubMed

    Ponsankar, Athirstam; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Hunter, Wayne B; Alessandro, Rocco T; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed; Paik, Chae-Hoon; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2016-11-01

    Botanical insecticides may provide alternatives to synthetic insecticides for controlling Spodoptera litura (F.) and they are target specific, biodegradable, and harmless to mammals. Eight natural chemical compounds with larvicidal activity were identified from fraction F6 of C. guianensis flower extract. Probit analysis of 95% confidence level exposed an LC50 of 223ppm against S. litura third instar larvae. The growth and development of S. litura was affected in sub-lethal concentrations of fraction F6 (50, 100, 150 and 200ppm) compared to controls. Similarly nutritional indices values decreased significantly compared to controls. Fraction F6 also damaged the gut epithelial layer and brush border membrane (BBM). This study also resolved the effects of toxicity to non-target earthworm treated with fraction F6 and chemical pesticides (monotrophos and cypermethrin) and the results showed that fraction F6 had no harmful effect on E. fetida. Further, fraction F6 was eluted and sub fractions F6c (50ppm) showed high mortality against S. litura third instar larvae. Octacosane from fraction F6c was established and confirmed using IR spectrum and HPLC. The time of retention of fraction F6c was confirmed with the octacosane standard. Fraction F6 of C. guianensis extract caused dose-dependent mortality towards S. litura. Octacosane in fraction F6c was establish to be the prominent chemical compound associated with causing mortality but other compounds present in the fraction F6 were shown to be associated with changes in development of S. litura at low dosages. S. litura at low dosage. Therefore, these findings suggest that octacosane may be one of the major insecticidal compounds affecting S. litura survival.

  17. Resistance to Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Euxesta stigmatias (Diptera: Ulidiidae) in sweet corn derived from exogenous and endogenous genetic systems.

    PubMed

    Nuessly, G S; Scully, B T; Hentz, M G; Beiriger, R; Snook, M E; Widstrom, N W

    2007-12-01

    Field trials using Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Euxesta stigmatias Loew (Diptera: Ulidiidae) were conducted to evaluate resistance and potential damage interactions between these two primary corn, Zea mays L., pests against Lepidoptera-resistant corn varieties derived from both endogenous and exogenous sources. The endogenous source of resistance was maysin, a C-glycosyl flavone produced in high concentrations in varieties 'Zapalote Chico 2451' and 'Zapalote Chico sh2'. The exogenous resistance source was the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)11 gene that expresses Cry1A(b) insecticidal protein found in 'Attribute GSS-0966'. Damage by the two pests was compared among these resistant varieties and the susceptible 'Primetime'. Single-species tests determined that the Zapalote Chico varieties and GSS-0966 effectively reduced S. frugiperda larval damage compared with Primetime. E. stigmatias larval damage was less in the Zapalote Chico varieties than the other varieties in single-species tests. E. stigmatias damage was greater on S. frugiperda-infested versus S. frugiperda-excluded ears. Ears with S. frugiperda damage to husk, silk and kernels had greater E. stigmatias damage than ears with less S. frugiperda damage. Reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of nonpollinated corn silk collected from field plots determined that isoorientin, maysin, and apimaysin plus 3'-methoxymaysin concentrations followed the order Zapalote Chico sh2 > Zapalote Chico 2451 > Attribute GSS-0966 = Primetime. Chlorogenic acid concentrations were greatest in Zapalote Chico 2451. The two high maysin Zapalote Chico varieties did as well against fall armyworm as the Bt-enhanced GSS-0966, and they outperformed GSS-0966 against E. stigmatias. PMID:18232407

  18. Detoxification of insecticides, allechemicals and heavy metals by glutathione S-transferase SlGSTE1 in the gut of Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhi-Bin; Zou, Xiao-Peng; Zhang, Ni; Feng, Qi-Li; Zheng, Si-Chun

    2015-08-01

    Insect glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play important roles in detoxifying toxic compounds and eliminating oxidative stress caused by these compounds. In this study, detoxification activity of the epsilon GST SlGSTE1 in Spodoptera litura was analyzed for several insecticides and heavy metals. SlGSTE1 was significantly up-regulated by chlorpyrifos and xanthotoxin in the midgut of S. litura. The recombinant SlGSTE1 had Vmax (reaction rate of the enzyme saturated with the substrate) and Km (michaelis constant and equals to the substrate concentration at half of the maximum reaction rate of the enzyme) values of 27.95 ± 0.88 μmol/min/mg and 0.87 ± 0.028 mmol/L for glutathione, respectively, and Vmax and Km values of 22.96 ± 0.78 μmol/min/mg and 0.83 ± 0.106 mmol/L for 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, respectively. In vitro enzyme indirect activity assay showed that the recombinant SlGSTE1 possessed high binding activities to the insecticides chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin, malathion, phoxim and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT). SlGSTE1 showed higher binding activity to toxic heavy metals cadmium, chromium and lead than copper and zinc that are required for insect normal growth. Western blot analysis showed that SlGSTE1 was induced in the gut of larvae fed with chlorpyrifos or cadmium. SlGSTE1 also showed high peroxidase activity. All the results together indicate that SlGSTE1 may play an important role in the gut of S. litura to protect the insect from the toxic effects of these compounds and heavy metals. PMID:24863567

  19. Hsp70 and small Hsps are the major heat shock protein members involved in midgut metamorphosis in the common cutworm, Spodoptera litura.

    PubMed

    Gu, J; Huang, L-X; Shen, Y; Huang, L-H; Feng, Q-L

    2012-10-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are important chaperones, which are involved in various signal pathways and regulate lots of physiological processes. Early research suggested that some Hsps are involved in insect development. However, few studies have been carried out to explore the roles of Hsps, especially in larval-pupal metamorphosis. In the present study, 49 Hsp unigenes were identified in the Spodoptera litura transcriptome and their mRNA expression profiles during midgut metamorphosis were examined using a tag-based digital gene expression system. The genes with the most different levels of expression were then cloned and their expression patterns in midguts from sixth instar larvae to pupae were analysed using real time quantitative PCR. The responses of these genes to juvenile hormone (JH) and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) were also studied. The results showed that the mRNA levels of 22 Hsp unigenes changed significantly during midgut metamorphosis. Amongst these 22 unigenes, hsp70, hsp20.4 and hsp20.8 were the most up-regulated members, and hsp15.9, hsp19.3 and hsp22.0 were the most down-regulated ones. Further studies showed that hsp70, hsp20.4 and hsp20.8 were remarkably up-regulated by JH. In addition, 20E slightly increased the mRNA levels of both hsp20.4 and hsp20.8. However, hsp15.9, hsp19.3 and hsp22.0 did not respond to either JH or 20E. These results indicate that Hsp70 and small Hsps (sHsps) are probably the major players in midgut metamorphosis in S. litura. The current findings provide valuable insights into the roles of the Hsp superfamily in insect metamorphosis.

  20. Performance and cross-crop resistance of Cry1F-maize selected Spodoptera frugiperda on transgenic Bt cotton: implications for resistance management.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei; Kerns, David L; Brown, Sebe; Kurtz, Ryan; Dennehy, Tim; Braxton, Bo; Head, Graham; Huang, Fangneng

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins have become a primary tool in pest management. Due to the intensive use of Bt crops, resistance of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, to Cry1F maize has occurred in Puerto Rico, Brazil, and some areas of the southeastern U.S. The sustainability of Bt crops faces a great challenge because the Cry1F-maize resistant S. frugiperda may also infest other Bt crops in multiple cropping ecosystems. Here we examined the survival and plant injury of a S. frugiperda population selected with Cry1F maize on three single-gene and five pyramided Bt cotton products. Larvae of Cry1F-susceptible (SS), -heterozygous (RS), and -resistant (RR) genotypes of S. frugiperda were all susceptible to the pyramided cotton containing Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab, Cry1Ac/Cry1F/Vip3A, Cry1Ab/Cry2Ae, or Cry1Ab/Cry2Ae/Vip3A, and the single-gene Cry2Ae cotton. Pyramided cotton containing Cry1Ac/Cry1F was effective against SS and RS, but not for RR. These findings show that the Cry1F-maize selected S. frugiperda can cause cross-crop resistance to other Bt crops expressing similar insecticidal proteins. Resistance management and pest management programs that utilize diversify mortality factors must be implemented to ensure the sustainability of Bt crops. This is especially important in areas where resistance to single-gene Bt crops is already widespread. PMID:27301612

  1. F2 screen for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2-maize in field populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Niu, Ying; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Ni, Xinzhi; Head, Graham P; Price, Paula A; Meagher, Robert L; Kerns, David; Levy, Ronnie; Yang, Xiangbing; Huang, Fangneng

    2016-07-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target pest of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South America. In 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were established using single-pair mating of field individuals collected from seven locations in four states of the southern U.S.: Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, and Florida. The objective of the investigation was to detect resistance alleles in field populations to Cry2Ab2, a common Bt protein produced in transgenic maize and cotton. For each F2 family, 128 F2 neonates were screened on leaf tissue of Cry2Ab2 maize plants in the laboratory. A conservative estimate of the frequency of major Cry2Ab2 resistance alleles in S. frugiperda from the four states was 0.0023 with a 95% credibility interval of 0.0003-0.0064. In addition, six families were considered to likely possess minor resistance alleles at a frequency of 0.0082 with a 95% credibility interval of 0.0033-0.0152. One F2 family from Georgia (GA-15) was confirmed to possess a major resistance allele to the Cry2Ab2 protein. Larvae from this family survived well on whole maize plants expressing Cry2Ab2 protein and demonstrated a significant level (>15-fold) of resistance when fed with the same protein incorporated in a meridic diet. The detection of the major resistance allele along with the relatively abundant minor resistance alleles revealed in this study may have important implications for resistance management. PMID:27311896

  2. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing Cry1Ia12 Toxin Confer Resistance to Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Raquel S.; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B.; Moura, Hudson F. N.; de Macedo, Leonardo L. P.; Arraes, Fabrício B. M.; Lucena, Wagner A.; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela T.; de Deus Barbosa, Aulus A.; da Silva, Maria C. M.; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F.

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique) using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized by PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold). Also, an important reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60%) was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda), and the Coleopteran (A. grandis) insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests. PMID:26925081

  3. Performance and cross-crop resistance of Cry1F-maize selected Spodoptera frugiperda on transgenic Bt cotton: implications for resistance management

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fei; Kerns, David L.; Brown, Sebe; Kurtz, Ryan; Dennehy, Tim; Braxton, Bo; Head, Graham; Huang, Fangneng

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins have become a primary tool in pest management. Due to the intensive use of Bt crops, resistance of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, to Cry1F maize has occurred in Puerto Rico, Brazil, and some areas of the southeastern U.S. The sustainability of Bt crops faces a great challenge because the Cry1F-maize resistant S. frugiperda may also infest other Bt crops in multiple cropping ecosystems. Here we examined the survival and plant injury of a S. frugiperda population selected with Cry1F maize on three single-gene and five pyramided Bt cotton products. Larvae of Cry1F-susceptible (SS), -heterozygous (RS), and -resistant (RR) genotypes of S. frugiperda were all susceptible to the pyramided cotton containing Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab, Cry1Ac/Cry1F/Vip3A, Cry1Ab/Cry2Ae, or Cry1Ab/Cry2Ae/Vip3A, and the single-gene Cry2Ae cotton. Pyramided cotton containing Cry1Ac/Cry1F was effective against SS and RS, but not for RR. These findings show that the Cry1F-maize selected S. frugiperda can cause cross-crop resistance to other Bt crops expressing similar insecticidal proteins. Resistance management and pest management programs that utilize diversify mortality factors must be implemented to ensure the sustainability of Bt crops. This is especially important in areas where resistance to single-gene Bt crops is already widespread. PMID:27301612

  4. Developmental response of Spodoptera litura Fab. to treatments of crude volatile oil from Piper betle L. and evaluation of toxicity to earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae Kinb.

    PubMed

    Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Sakthi-Bhagavathy, Muthiah; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Hunter, Wayne B; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2016-07-01

    Evaluations of biological effects of (Pb-CVO) the crude volatile oil of Piper betle leaves on the tobacco cutworm Spodoptera litura were conducted. Pb-CVO was subjected to GC-MS analysis and twenty vital compounds were isolated from the betel leaf oil. Pb-CVO was tested at four different concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) against S. litura. The treated insects exhibited dose depended mortality. The mortality rate was significantly higher at the 1.0 and 1.5% Pb-CVO. The LC50 (Lethal concentration) were observed at 0.48% Pb-CVO. Larval and pupal durations increased in all treatment concentrations (0.25, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5%) whereas, pupal weight decreased compared to control. Adult longevity of S. litura was reduced in all treatments but predominantly in the 0.4 and 0.5% Pb-CVO. Correspondingly, mean fecundity rate was reduced at all concentrations compared to control. Histological studies of larvae mid-gut profiles of S. litura were severely damaged in 1.0 and 1.5% and showed abnormalities in mid-gut cells with 0.25 and 0.5% Pb-CVO treatments. Earthworm toxicity illustrated that 0.1% of chemical insecticides (monocrotophos and cypermethrin) varied widely in their contact toxicities compared to 0.5 and 1.0% Pb-CVO and control in both contact filter paper and artificial soil test. These findings suggest that twenty essential compounds of betel leaf oil were significant inhibitors of the development and caused behavioral changes of S. litura. Treatment with betel leaf oil at these concentrations had no adverse effect on earthworm populations. PMID:27135695

  5. Target and non-target toxicity of botanical insecticide derived from Couroupita guianensis L. flower against generalist herbivore, Spodoptera litura Fab. and an earthworm, Eisenia foetida Savigny.

    PubMed

    Ponsankar, Athirstam; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Hunter, Wayne B; Alessandro, Rocco T; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed; Paik, Chae-Hoon; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2016-11-01

    Botanical insecticides may provide alternatives to synthetic insecticides for controlling Spodoptera litura (F.) and they are target specific, biodegradable, and harmless to mammals. Eight natural chemical compounds with larvicidal activity were identified from fraction F6 of C. guianensis flower extract. Probit analysis of 95% confidence level exposed an LC50 of 223ppm against S. litura third instar larvae. The growth and development of S. litura was affected in sub-lethal concentrations of fraction F6 (50, 100, 150 and 200ppm) compared to controls. Similarly nutritional indices values decreased significantly compared to controls. Fraction F6 also damaged the gut epithelial layer and brush border membrane (BBM). This study also resolved the effects of toxicity to non-target earthworm treated with fraction F6 and chemical pesticides (monotrophos and cypermethrin) and the results showed that fraction F6 had no harmful effect on E. fetida. Further, fraction F6 was eluted and sub fractions F6c (50ppm) showed high mortality against S. litura third instar larvae. Octacosane from fraction F6c was established and confirmed using IR spectrum and HPLC. The time of retention of fraction F6c was confirmed with the octacosane standard. Fraction F6 of C. guianensis extract caused dose-dependent mortality towards S. litura. Octacosane in fraction F6c was establish to be the prominent chemical compound associated with causing mortality but other compounds present in the fraction F6 were shown to be associated with changes in development of S. litura at low dosages. S. litura at low dosage. Therefore, these findings suggest that octacosane may be one of the major insecticidal compounds affecting S. litura survival. PMID:27476000

  6. Sequencing and characterization of glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase genes from Spodoptera exigua and analysis of their function in starvation and excessive sugar intake.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bin; Xu, Qi; Zou, Qi; Fang, Qi; Wang, Shigui; Ye, Gongyin

    2012-06-01

    Glycogen and trehalose are important energy source and key regulation factors in the development of many organisms' pass through energy metabolism, including bacteria, fungi, and insects. To study glycogen metabolism pathway in Spodoptera exigua, first cDNAs for glycogen synthase (SpoexGS) and glycogen phosphorylase (SpoexGP) were cloned from S. exigua. SpoexGS cDNA contains an open reading frame of 2,010 nucleotides encoding a protein of 669 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 76.19 kDa and a pI of 5.84. SpoexGP contains an open reading frame of 2,946 nucleotides, which encodes a protein of 841 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of approximately 96.63 kDa and a pI of 6.03. Second, Northern blotting revealed that SpoexGS and SpoexGP mRNAs were expressed in brain, fat body, mid-gut, Malpighian tubules, spermary, and tracheae of S. exigua. Expression patterns for SpoexGS and SpoexGP mRNAs were similar in fat body, but differed in whole body at different developmental stages. The last, under starvation conditions, SpoexGS and SpoexGP transcript expression rapidly decreased with increasing starvation time. When the starvation stress was removed, SpoexGS and SpoexGP mRNA levels were lower in the groups starved for 6 and 12 h than in the 24-h starvation and control groups. Treatment with excessive sugar intake led to higher levels of SpoexGS and SpoexGP transcripts after 12 h compared to the control group. These findings provide new data on the tissue distribution, expression patterns, and potential function of glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase proteins.

  7. The "11K" gene family members sf68, sf95 and sf138 modulate transmissibility and insecticidal properties of Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    PubMed

    Beperet, Inés; Simón, Oihane; Williams, Trevor; López-Ferber, Miguel; Caballero, Primitivo

    2015-05-01

    The "11K" gene family is notable for having homologs in both baculoviruses and entomopoxviruses and is classified as either type 145 or type 150, according to their similarity with the ac145 or ac150 genes of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). One homolog of ac145 (sf138) and two homologs of ac150 (sf68 and sf95) are present in Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV). Recombinant bacmids lacking sf68, sf95 or sf138 (Sf68null, Sf95null and Sf138null, respectively) and the respective repair bacmids were generated from a bacmid comprising the complete virus genome. Occlusion bodies (OBs) of the Sf138null virus were ∼15-fold less orally infective to insects, which was attributed to a 100-fold reduction in ODV infectious titer. Inoculation of insects with Sf138null OBs in mixtures with an optical brightener failed to restore the pathogenicity of Sf138null OBs to that of the parental virus, indicating that the effects of sf138 deletion on OB pathogenicity were unlikely to involve an interaction with the gut peritrophic matrix. In contrast, deletion of sf68 and sf95 resulted in a slower speed-of-kill by 9h, and a concurrent increase in the yield of OBs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that sf68 and sf95 were not generated after a duplication event of an ancestral gene homologous to the ac150 gene. We conclude that type 145 genes modulate the primary infection process of the virus, whereas type 150 genes appear to have a role in spreading systemic infection within the insect.

  8. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing Cry1Ia12 Toxin Confer Resistance to Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis).

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Raquel S; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Moura, Hudson F N; de Macedo, Leonardo L P; Arraes, Fabrício B M; Lucena, Wagner A; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela T; de Deus Barbosa, Aulus A; da Silva, Maria C M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2016-01-01

    Gossypium hirsutum (commercial cooton) is one of the most economically important fibers sources and a commodity crop highly affected by insect pests and pathogens. Several transgenic approaches have been developed to improve cotton resistance to insect pests, through the transgenic expression of different factors, including Cry toxins, proteinase inhibitors, and toxic peptides, among others. In the present study, we developed transgenic cotton plants by fertilized floral buds injection (through the pollen-tube pathway technique) using an DNA expression cassette harboring the cry1Ia12 gene, driven by CaMV35S promoter. The T0 transgenic cotton plants were initially selected with kanamycin and posteriorly characterized by PCR and Southern blot experiments to confirm the genetic transformation. Western blot and ELISA assays indicated the transgenic cotton plants with higher Cry1Ia12 protein expression levels to be further tested in the control of two major G. hirsutum insect pests. Bioassays with T1 plants revealed the Cry1Ia12 protein toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda larvae, as evidenced by mortality up to 40% and a significant delay in the development of the target insects compared to untransformed controls (up to 30-fold). Also, an important reduction of Anthonomus grandis emerging adults (up to 60%) was observed when the insect larvae were fed on T1 floral buds. All the larvae and adult insect survivors on the transgenic lines were weaker and significantly smaller compared to the non-transformed plants. Therefore, this study provides GM cotton plant with simultaneous resistance against the Lepidopteran (S. frugiperda), and the Coleopteran (A. grandis) insect orders, and all data suggested that the Cry1Ia12 toxin could effectively enhance the cotton transgenic plants resistance to both insect pests. PMID:26925081

  9. Feeding and Swallowing Dysfunction in Genetic Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper-Brown, Linda; Copeland, Sara; Dailey, Scott; Downey, Debora; Petersen, Mario Cesar; Stimson, Cheryl; Van Dyke, Don C.

    2008-01-01

    Children with genetic syndromes frequently have feeding problems and swallowing dysfunction as a result of the complex interactions between anatomical, medical, physiological, and behavioral factors. Feeding problems associated with genetic disorders may also cause feeding to be unpleasant, negative, or even painful because of choking, coughing,…

  10. Caregivers feeding styles questionnaire. Establishing cutoff points

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting l...

  11. 9 CFR 89.5 - Feeding pens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding pens. 89.5 Section 89.5... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.5 Feeding pens. (a) Stock pens and other enclosures for feeding, watering, and... pens are located. (b) Care should be taken to protect livestock unloaded en route at a point...

  12. Supplementary feeding restructures urban bird communities

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, Josie A.; Jones, Darryl N.; Stanley, Margaret C.

    2015-01-01

    Food availability is a primary driver of avian population regulation. However, few studies have considered the effects of what is essentially a massive supplementary feeding experiment: the practice of wild bird feeding. Bird feeding has been posited as an important factor influencing the structure of bird communities, especially in urban areas, although experimental evidence to support this is almost entirely lacking. We carried out an 18-mo experimental feeding study at 23 residential properties to investigate the effects of bird feeding on local urban avian assemblages. Our feeding regime was based on predominant urban feeding practices in our region. We used monthly bird surveys to compare avian community composition, species richness, and the densities of local species at feeding and nonfeeding properties. Avian community structure diverged at feeding properties and five of the commonest garden bird species were affected by the experimental feeding regime. Introduced birds particularly benefitted, with dramatic increases observed in the abundances of house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and spotted dove (Streptopelia chinensis) in particular. We also found evidence of a negative effect on the abundance of a native insectivore, the grey warbler (Gerygone igata). Almost all of the observed changes did not persist once feeding had ceased. Our study directly demonstrates that the human pastime of bird feeding substantially contributes to the structure of avian community in urban areas, potentially altering the balance between native and introduced species. PMID:25941361

  13. Infant Feeding Practices in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanlier, Nevin; Unusan, Nurhan

    2009-01-01

    Infant feeding decisions are some of the most important choices parents make. Breast milk or formula is the first decision made in infant feeding. Complementary feeding is common among very young children in Turkey. Therefore, the aim of this research is to focus on the introduction of solid foods, and to determine the relationship between…

  14. Supplementary feeding restructures urban bird communities.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, Josie A; Beggs, Jacqueline R; Jones, Darryl N; Stanley, Margaret C

    2015-05-19

    Food availability is a primary driver of avian population regulation. However, few studies have considered the effects of what is essentially a massive supplementary feeding experiment: the practice of wild bird feeding. Bird feeding has been posited as an important factor influencing the structure of bird communities, especially in urban areas, although experimental evidence to support this is almost entirely lacking. We carried out an 18-mo experimental feeding study at 23 residential properties to investigate the effects of bird feeding on local urban avian assemblages. Our feeding regime was based on predominant urban feeding practices in our region. We used monthly bird surveys to compare avian community composition, species richness, and the densities of local species at feeding and nonfeeding properties. Avian community structure diverged at feeding properties and five of the commonest garden bird species were affected by the experimental feeding regime. Introduced birds particularly benefitted, with dramatic increases observed in the abundances of house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and spotted dove (Streptopelia chinensis) in particular. We also found evidence of a negative effect on the abundance of a native insectivore, the grey warbler (Gerygone igata). Almost all of the observed changes did not persist once feeding had ceased. Our study directly demonstrates that the human pastime of bird feeding substantially contributes to the structure of avian community in urban areas, potentially altering the balance between native and introduced species.

  15. Feeding Students in School: Providing Guidelines and Information on Safe Feeding Practices for Special Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sandra; And Others

    This manual provides guidelines for safe feeding practices for students with disabilities in Oregon schools. Stressed is the importance of distinguishing between feeding for the maintenance of health and feeding for the acquisition of skills. Individual sections cover: definitions of feeding programs; the school district responsibility; risks;…

  16. 21 CFR 501.110 - Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING Exemptions From Animal Food Labeling Requirements § 501.110 Animal feed labeling; collective names for...

  17. 21 CFR 501.110 - Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING Exemptions From Animal Food Labeling Requirements § 501.110 Animal feed labeling; collective names for...

  18. 21 CFR 501.110 - Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING Exemptions From Animal Food Labeling Requirements § 501.110 Animal feed labeling; collective names for...

  19. 21 CFR 501.110 - Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING Exemptions From Animal Food Labeling Requirements § 501.110 Animal feed labeling; collective names for...

  20. 21 CFR 501.110 - Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Animal feed labeling; collective names for feed... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING Exemptions From Animal Food Labeling Requirements § 501.110 Animal feed labeling; collective names for...

  1. Parent-Reported Feeding and Feeding Problems in a Sample of Dutch Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moor, Jan; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the feeding behaviors and problems with feeding in toddlers. In the present questionnaire study, data were collected on the feeding behaviors and feeding problems in a relatively large (n = 422) sample of Dutch healthy toddlers (i.e. 18-36 months old) who lived at home with their parents. Results show that three meals a day…

  2. Breast-feeding and the Working Mother

    PubMed Central

    Livingstone, Verity H.; Grams, Garry D.

    1985-01-01

    Despite the resurgent popularity and known benefits of breast-feeding, most Canadian women do not consider the possibility of continuing breast-feeding when they return to work. This paper examines the reasons why many women make this choice, and what factors are involved in continuing to breast-feed. The long-range goal of our society should be to increase the percentage of mothers who continue to breast-feed their babies until at least six months of age, and to increase the percentage of places of employment where it is possible for an employee to continue to breast-feed after returning to work. PMID:21274179

  3. Optimal feed locations and number of trays for distillation columns with multiple feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, J.; Grossmann, I.E. . Engineering Design Research Center)

    1993-11-01

    MINLP models for finding the optimal locations for the feeds and the number of trays required for a specified separation for a distillation column with multiple feeds are presented. Systems with ideal, Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state and UNIQUAC thermodynamic models are considered. This rigorous procedure requires no assumptions concerning the order of the feeds-i.e., the disposition of any feed with respect to other feeds. The optimization step automatically determines the order and the locations.

  4. Salmonella occurrence and Enterobacteriaceae counts in pig feed ingredients and compound feed from feed mills in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Burns, Anne Marie; Lawlor, Peadar G; Gardiner, Gillian E; McCabe, Evonne M; Walsh, Des; Mohammed, Manal; Grant, Jim; Duffy, Geraldine

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of non-typhoidal Salmonellae and Enterobacteriaceae counts in raw ingredients and compound feeds sampled from feed mills manufacturing pig diets. Between November 2012 and September 2013, feed ingredients (n=340) and compound pig feed (n=313) samples were collected from five commercial feed mills and one home compounder at various locations throughout Ireland. Feed ingredients included cereals, vegetable protein sources and by-products of oil extraction and ethanol production. The compound feeds included meal and pelleted feed for all stages of pig production. Samples were analysed for Salmonella using standard enrichment procedures. Recovered isolates were serotyped, characterised for antibiotic resistance and subtyped by multi locus variance analysis (MLVA). Total Enterobacteriaceae counts were also performed. Salmonella was recovered from 2/338 (0.6%) ingredients (wheat and soybean meal), at two of the six mills. Salmonella was also detected in 3/317 (0.95%) compound feeds including pelleted feed which undergoes heat treatment. All isolates recovered from feed ingredient and compound feed samples were verified as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype (4,[5],12:i:-) that lack the expression of flagellar Phase 2 antigens representing monophasic variants of Salmonella Typhimurium (4,[5],12:i:-). Isolates exhibited resistance to between two and seven antimicrobials. Two distinct MLVA profiles were observed, with the same profile recovered from both feed and ingredients, although these did not originate at the same mill. There was no relationship between the occurrence of Salmonella and a high Enterobacteriaceae counts but it was shown that Enterobacteriaceae counts were significantly lower in pelleted feed (heat treated) than in meal (no heat treatment) and that Enterobacteriaceae counts would be very useful indicator in HACPP programme. Overall, although the prevalence of Salmonella in pig feed and feed

  5. SeGSTo, a novel glutathione S-transferase from the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua), involved in detoxification and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengfei; Han, Ningning; Kang, Tinghao; Zhan, Sha; Lee, Kwang Sik; Jin, Byung Rae; Li, Jianhong; Wan, Hu

    2016-09-01

    Members of the glutathione S-transferase superfamily can protect organisms against oxidative stress. In this study, we characterized an omega glutathione S-transferase from Spodoptera exigua (SeGSTo). The SeGSTo gene contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 744 nucleotides encoding a 248-amino acid polypeptide. The predicted molecular mass and isoelectric point of SeGSTo are 29007 Da and 7.74, respectively. Multiple amino acid sequence alignment analysis shows that the SeGSTo sequence is closely related to the class 4 GSTo of Bombyx mori BmGSTo4 (77 % protein sequence similarity). Homologous modeling and molecular docking reveal that Cys35 may play an essential role in the catalytic process. Additionally, the phylogenetic tree indicates that SeGSTo belongs to the omega group of the GST superfamily. During S. exigua development, SeGSTo is expressed in the midgut of the fifth instar larval stage, but not in the epidermis or fat body. Identification of recombinant SeGSTo via SDS-PAGE and Western blot shows that its molecular mass is 30 kDa. The recombinant SeGSTo was able to protect super-coiled DNA from damage in a metal-catalyzed oxidation (MCO) system and catalyze the 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), but not 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB), 4-nitrophenethyl bromide (4-NPB), or 4-nitrobenzyl chloride (4-NBC). The optimal reaction pH and temperature were 8 and 50 °C, respectively, in the catalysis of CDNB by recombinant SeGSTo. The mRNA expression of SeGSTo was up-regulated by various oxidative stresses, such as CdCl2, CuSO4, and isoprocarb, and the catalytic activity of recombinant SeGSTo was noticeably inhibited by heavy metals (Cu(2+) and Cd(2+)) and various pesticides. Taken together, these results indicate that SeGSTo plays an important role in the antioxidation and detoxification of pesticides. PMID:27230212

  6. Two different Bacillus thuringiensis toxin genes confer resistance to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) in transgenic Bt-shallots (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Si-Jun; Henken, Betty; de Maagd, Ruud A; Purwito, Agus; Krens, Frans A; Kik, Chris

    2005-06-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation was applied to produce beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) resistant tropical shallots (Allium cepa L. group Aggregatum). A cry1Ca or a H04 hybrid gene from Bacillus thuringiensis, driven by the chrysanthemum ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (Rubisco SSU) promoter, along with the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt) driven by the CaMV 35S promoter, was employed for genetic transformation. An average transformation frequency of 3.68% was obtained from two shallot cultivars, Tropix and Kuning. After transfer of the in vitro plants to the greenhouse 69% of the cry1Ca and 39% of the H04 transgenic shallots survived the first half year. After one year of cultivation in the greenhouse the remaining cry1Ca and H04 transgenic plants grew vigorously and had a normal bulb formation, although the cry1Ca transgenic plants (and controls) had darker green leaves compared to their H04 counterparts. Standard PCR, adaptor ligation PCR and Southern analyses confirmed the integration of T-DNA into the shallot genome. Northern blot and ELISA analyses revealed expression of the cry1Ca or H04 gene in the transgenic plants. The amount of Cry1Ca expressed in transgenic plants was higher than the expression levels of H04 (0.39 vs. 0.16% of the total soluble leaf proteins, respectively). There was a good correlation between protein expression and beet armyworm resistance. Cry1Ca or H04 gene expression of at least 0.22 or 0.08% of the total soluble protein in shallot leaves was sufficient to give a complete resistance against beet armyworm. This confirms earlier observations that the H04 toxin is more toxic to S. exigua than the Cry1Ca toxin. The results from this study suggest that the cry1Ca and H04 transgenic shallots developed could be used for introducing resistance to beet armyworm in (sub) tropical shallot.

  7. Two different Bacillus thuringiensis toxin genes confer resistance to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) in transgenic Bt-shallots (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Si-Jun; Henken, Betty; de Maagd, Ruud A; Purwito, Agus; Krens, Frans A; Kik, Chris

    2005-06-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation was applied to produce beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) resistant tropical shallots (Allium cepa L. group Aggregatum). A cry1Ca or a H04 hybrid gene from Bacillus thuringiensis, driven by the chrysanthemum ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (Rubisco SSU) promoter, along with the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt) driven by the CaMV 35S promoter, was employed for genetic transformation. An average transformation frequency of 3.68% was obtained from two shallot cultivars, Tropix and Kuning. After transfer of the in vitro plants to the greenhouse 69% of the cry1Ca and 39% of the H04 transgenic shallots survived the first half year. After one year of cultivation in the greenhouse the remaining cry1Ca and H04 transgenic plants grew vigorously and had a normal bulb formation, although the cry1Ca transgenic plants (and controls) had darker green leaves compared to their H04 counterparts. Standard PCR, adaptor ligation PCR and Southern analyses confirmed the integration of T-DNA into the shallot genome. Northern blot and ELISA analyses revealed expression of the cry1Ca or H04 gene in the transgenic plants. The amount of Cry1Ca expressed in transgenic plants was higher than the expression levels of H04 (0.39 vs. 0.16% of the total soluble leaf proteins, respectively). There was a good correlation between protein expression and beet armyworm resistance. Cry1Ca or H04 gene expression of at least 0.22 or 0.08% of the total soluble protein in shallot leaves was sufficient to give a complete resistance against beet armyworm. This confirms earlier observations that the H04 toxin is more toxic to S. exigua than the Cry1Ca toxin. The results from this study suggest that the cry1Ca and H04 transgenic shallots developed could be used for introducing resistance to beet armyworm in (sub) tropical shallot. PMID:16145834

  8. Cross-Resistance between Cry1 Proteins in Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) May Affect the Durability of Current Pyramided Bt Maize Hybrids in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Daniel; Salmeron, Eloisa; Horikoshi, Renato Jun; Bernardi, Oderlei; Dourado, Patrick Marques; Carvalho, Renato Assis; Martinelli, Samuel; Head, Graham P; Omoto, Celso

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified plants expressing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) offer valuable options for managing insect pests with considerable environmental and economic benefits. Despite the benefits provided by Bt crops, the continuous expression of these insecticidal proteins imposes strong selection for resistance in target pest populations. Bt maize (Zea mays) hybrids have been successful in controlling fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), the main maize pest in Brazil since 2008; however, field-evolved resistance to the protein Cry1F has recently been reported. Therefore it is important to assess the possibility of cross-resistance between Cry1F and other Cry proteins expressed in Bt maize hybrids. In this study, an F2 screen followed by subsequent selection on MON 89034 maize was used to select an S. frugiperda strain (RR) able to survive on the Bt maize event MON 89034, which expresses the Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 proteins. Field-collected insects from maize expressing the Cry1F protein (event TC1507) represented most of the positive (resistance allele-containing) (iso)families found. The RR strain showed high levels of resistance to Cry1F, which apparently also conferred high levels of cross resistance to Cry1A.105 and Cry1Ab, but had only low-level (10-fold) resistance to Cry2Ab2. Life history studies to investigate fitness costs associated with the resistance in RR strain revealed only small reductions in reproductive rate when compared to susceptible and heterozygous strains, but the RR strain produced 32.2% and 28.4% fewer females from each female relative to the SS and RS (pooled) strains, respectively. Consistent with the lack of significant resistance to Cry2Ab2, MON 89034 maize in combination with appropriate management practices continues to provide effective control of S. frugiperda in Brazil. Nevertheless, the occurrence of Cry1F resistance in S. frugiperda across Brazil, and the cross-resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1A.105

  9. Cross-Resistance between Cry1 Proteins in Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) May Affect the Durability of Current Pyramided Bt Maize Hybrids in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Daniel; Salmeron, Eloisa; Horikoshi, Renato Jun; Bernardi, Oderlei; Dourado, Patrick Marques; Carvalho, Renato Assis; Martinelli, Samuel; Head, Graham P.; Omoto, Celso

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified plants expressing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) offer valuable options for managing insect pests with considerable environmental and economic benefits. Despite the benefits provided by Bt crops, the continuous expression of these insecticidal proteins imposes strong selection for resistance in target pest populations. Bt maize (Zea mays) hybrids have been successful in controlling fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), the main maize pest in Brazil since 2008; however, field-evolved resistance to the protein Cry1F has recently been reported. Therefore it is important to assess the possibility of cross-resistance between Cry1F and other Cry proteins expressed in Bt maize hybrids. In this study, an F2 screen followed by subsequent selection on MON 89034 maize was used to select an S. frugiperda strain (RR) able to survive on the Bt maize event MON 89034, which expresses the Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 proteins. Field-collected insects from maize expressing the Cry1F protein (event TC1507) represented most of the positive (resistance allele-containing) (iso)families found. The RR strain showed high levels of resistance to Cry1F, which apparently also conferred high levels of cross resistance to Cry1A.105 and Cry1Ab, but had only low-level (10-fold) resistance to Cry2Ab2. Life history studies to investigate fitness costs associated with the resistance in RR strain revealed only small reductions in reproductive rate when compared to susceptible and heterozygous strains, but the RR strain produced 32.2% and 28.4% fewer females from each female relative to the SS and RS (pooled) strains, respectively. Consistent with the lack of significant resistance to Cry2Ab2, MON 89034 maize in combination with appropriate management practices continues to provide effective control of S. frugiperda in Brazil. Nevertheless, the occurrence of Cry1F resistance in S. frugiperda across Brazil, and the cross-resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1A.105

  10. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of three putative aminopeptidases N affects susceptibility of Spodoptera exigua larvae to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ca.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiang-Liang; Ma, Yan; Cui, Jin-Jie; Li, Guo-Qing

    2014-08-01

    Aminopeptidase N (APN) isoforms in insects have been documented to be involved in the mode of action of insecticidal crystal proteins (Cry) from Bacillus thuringiensis. Here we cloned two novel Seapns from the larval midgut of Spodoptera exigua, a major pest of many crops of economic importance in China. According to a phylogenetic analysis, these two novel SeAPNs, along with the four SeAPN isoforms already described, belong to six different clades. All the six SeAPNs share similar structural features. From N- to C-terminus a signal peptide, a gluzincin aminopeptidase motif, a zinc binding/gluzincin motif, and a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor sequence are located. The six Seapn genes were highly expressed at the larval stage, especially in the larval gut. Ingestion during four consecutive days of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) targeting Seapn1, Seapn2, Seapn3, Seapn4, Seapn5 and Seapn6 significantly reduced corresponding mRNA levels by 55.6%, 45.5%, 43.2%, 56.8%, 45.4%, and 46.0% respectively, compared with those recorded in control larvae fed on non-specific dsRNA (dsegfp). When the larvae that previously ingested phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-, dsegfp-, or six dsSeapns-overlaid diets were then exposed to a diet containing Cry1Ca, the larval mortalities were 71.2%, 69.3%, 52.0%, 77.2%, 43.3%, 62.0%, 65.4% and 53.8% respectively recorded after 6days. ANOVA analysis revealed that the larvae previously fed on dsSeapn1-, dsSeapn3-, and dsSeapn6-overlaid diets had significantly lower mortalities than those previously ingested PBS-, dsegfp-, dsSeapn2-, dsSeapn4- and dsSeapn5-overlaid diets. Thus, these results suggest that SeAPN1, SeAPN3 and SeAPN6 may be candidate receptors for Cry1Ca in S. exigua. PMID:24932922

  11. 7 CFR 905.142 - Animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal feed. 905.142 Section 905.142 Agriculture... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.142 Animal feed. (a) The handling of citrus for animal feed shall be exempt from the provisions of §§ 905.52 and 905.53 and...

  12. 7 CFR 905.142 - Animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal feed. 905.142 Section 905.142 Agriculture... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.142 Animal feed. (a) The handling of citrus for animal feed shall be exempt from the provisions of §§ 905.52 and 905.53 and...

  13. 7 CFR 905.142 - Animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal feed. 905.142 Section 905.142 Agriculture... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.142 Animal feed. (a) The handling of citrus for animal feed shall be exempt from the provisions of §§ 905.52 and 905.53 and...

  14. 7 CFR 905.142 - Animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal feed. 905.142 Section 905.142 Agriculture... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.142 Animal feed. (a) The handling of citrus for animal feed shall be exempt from the provisions of §§ 905.52 and 905.53 and...

  15. 7 CFR 905.142 - Animal feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal feed. 905.142 Section 905.142 Agriculture... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.142 Animal feed. (a) The handling of citrus for animal feed shall be exempt from the provisions of §§ 905.52 and 905.53 and...

  16. Antecedent interventions for pediatric feeding problems.

    PubMed

    Seubert, Christine; Fryling, Mitch J; Wallace, Michele D; Jiminez, Agustin R; Meier, Aimee E

    2014-01-01

    Behavior analysts have implemented and evaluated several antecedent strategies for treating pediatric feeding problems. The extent to which antecedent interventions are beneficial, however, is not yet clear. This review examines recent research in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (2000-2012) that evaluated antecedent interventions. We found that the feeding diagnosis (food refusal vs. food selectivity) and presence of feeding-related medical conditions were related to the differential implementation of antecedent interventions.

  17. Two-feed distillation: Same-composition feeds with different enthalpies

    SciTech Connect

    Wankat, P.C.; Kessler, D.P.

    1993-12-01

    Additional separation can be achieved in flash distillation by separating the liquid feed into two parts, vaporizing only one part, and feeding these (now) two feeds to the top and bottom of a column. The driving force for the additional separation is the difference in chemical potential between liquid and vapor feeds with the same composition. This idea of using two feeds with the same composition but different enthalpies (herein called two-enthalpy feed) is applied to stripping and enriching columns and fractional distillation. Two-enthalpy-feed distillation, a new method for using waste heat effectively, should be useful in heat-integrated plants. When an ordinary distillation column has a two-phase feed, the use of two-enthalpy feed increases separation (same N and L/D), or decreases the number of stages (same L/D, x{sub D}, and x{sub B}), or decreases the reflux ratio (same N, x{sub D}, and x{sub B}). The two-enthalpy-feed system has a lower minimum reflux ratio than ordinary distillation with a two-phase feed. For other types of feed, two-enthalpy-feed distillation requires either less energy or energy at a less extreme temperature (i.e., lower temperature for reboilers or higher temperature for condensers) than ordinary distillation. Examples are presented for constant relative volatilities, hydrocarbon systems, and ethanol-water.

  18. Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. Establishing cutoff points.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Cross, Matthew B; Hennessy, Erin; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D; Power, Thomas G

    2012-02-01

    Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting literature and allow for direct comparison across studies on dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness. No national norms currently exist for the CFSQ. This paper establishes and recommends cutoff points most relevant for low-income, minority US samples that researchers and clinicians can use to assign parents to feeding styles. Median scores for five studies are examined and the average across these studies reported.

  19. Successful breast feeding: the mother's dilemma.

    PubMed

    Harrison, M J; Morse, J M; Prowse, M

    1985-05-01

    A content analysis of 141 articles on breast feeding by discipline revealed differences in the factors considered necessary for breast feeding success and in the criteria used to determine success. Whereas medical articles focused on maternal factors prenatally and infant health post-natally, or the length of time breast feeding was maintained, lay articles focused on the relationship of the mother with her infant (the nursing couple) and the mother's ability to manage breast feeding within the family context. The implications of this discrepancy for nursing practice and research are discussed.

  20. Improving feed slurry rheology by colloidal techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, W.O.; Ternes, R.L.

    1984-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PSN) has investigated three colloidal techniques in the laboratory to improve the sedimentation and flowability of Hanford simulated (nonradioactive) current acid waste (CAW) melter feed slurry: polymer-induced bridging flocculation; manipulating glass former (raw SiO/sub 2/ or frit) particle size; and alteration of nitric acid content. All three methods proved successful in improving the rheology of the simulated CAW feed. This initially had exhibited nearly worst-case flow and clogging properties, but was transformed into a flowable, resuspendable (nonclogging) feed. While each has advantages and disadvantages, the following three specific alternatives proved successful: addition of a polyelectrolyte in 2000 ppM concentration to feed slurry; substitution of a 49 wt % SiO/sub 2/ colloidal suspension (approx. 10-micron particle size) for the -325 mesh (less than or equal to 44-micron particle size) raw-chemical SiO/sub 2/; and increase of nitric acid content from the reference 1.06 M to optimum 1.35 M. The first method, polymer-induced bridging flocculation, results in a high sediment volume, nonclogging CAW feed. The second method, involving the use of colloidal silica particles results in a nonsedimenting feed that when left unagitated forms a gel. The third method, increase in feed acidity, results in a highly resuspendable (nonclogging) melter feed. Further research is therefore required to determine which of the three alternatives is the preferred method of achieving rheological control of CAW melter feeds.