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  1. Jacques Cousteau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Jacques Cousteau, the French undersea researcher, is shown addressing members of the press on his experiences during an Antarctic expedition with the oceanographic ship, Calypso. The Calypso used satellite communication and weather equipment provided by NASA to test the accuracy of satellite observations in relation to the ship's surface observations. Calypso used satellite observation information to navigate into safe waters after getting hit by an iceberg. Cousteau was born in Saint-Andre-de-Cubzac, France on June 11, 1910. He died on June 25, 1997, after contributing various books and hundreds of documents on the chartless realms that make up the planet's oceans. In 1956, with the help of Calypso and her crew, Cousteau received an Academy award for his undersea documentary, The Silent World, and cemented his position as one of the world's most famous marine biologists.

  2. The significance of Jacques Lacan.

    PubMed

    Leavy, S A

    1977-01-01

    The contemporary French psychoanalyst, Jacques Lacan, has offered a reinterpretation of basic Freudian concepts that is to a great extent based on the structural linguistics of F. de Saussure. Certain fundamental ideas of Lacan, such as his views that "the unconscious is structured like a language" and that "the unconscious is the discourse of the Other" are examined here, and an attempt is made to place them in perspective in psychoanalysis.

  3. Did Jacques Lacan say anything new?

    PubMed

    Gazzola, Luiz

    2005-01-01

    The late French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan is an important theoretician, well known in Europe and South America, whose work is rapidly gaining recognition in other countries. However, Lacan is still poorly known in the United States except in academic departments of philosophy, linguistics, and literature. Psychoanalytic clinicians and even many training analysts often find it difficult to approach Lacan's complex theory, and his reputation in the U.S. has suffered from a number of misunderstandings. Nevertheless, judging by his worldwide influence, he has clearly made original contributions to psychoanalytic theory and technique. A biographical sketch of Lacan's life, paired with a brief overview of his writings and seminars, helps to indicate some of the reasons for both the difficulty and the misunderstandings. A flavor of Lacan's works can be achieved through a more detailed look at one of his major concepts: the use of logical time in analysis, which is the origin of the controversial (so-called) "short sessions."

  4. Jacques Monod and Chance and Necessity.

    PubMed

    Ribatti, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Charles Darwin proposed the theory that evolution of live organisms is based on random variation and natural selection. Jacques Monod, in his classic book Chance and Necessity, published 45 years ago, presented his thesis that the biosphere does not contain a predictable class of objects or events, but constitutes a particular occurrence, compatible indeed with the first principles but not deducible from those principles. The biosphere is therefore essentially unpredictable. In his book, Monod expounded at length on the conflict between science and religion. He saw religion as a collection of primitive myths that had been blown to shreds by science. At every turn, Monod emphasized the role of chance in human existence, an idea that is antithetical to essentially every religious doctrine that places humans as some inevitable intention of a Creator.

  5. Jacques Joseph: Father of modern aesthetic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Surajit

    2008-01-01

    When we review the history of modern aesthetic surgery, a name that stands out as bright as a beacon and precious as gold is undoubtedly that of Jacques Joseph. A surgeon, par excellence, far ahead of his time, who chose to think out of the box, Joseph, despite all odds set out to give respectability to Aesthetic Surgery without depriving it of any scientific core values. By his words and deeds proved beyond doubt that only the very best in the field of reconstructive surgery, can visualize the hidden perfection in imperfection and formulate a treatment plan and a surgical strategy to achieve that elusive perfection. The rich surgical literature that he has left behind, the wealth of surgical instruments that he had designed and above all a way of thinking that he propagated, that aesthetic surgery is not frivolous but very serious endeavor, and treating the psychology of the patient is as important as treating his disease, undoubtedly makes him the revered ‘Father of Modern Aesthetic Surgery’. PMID:20174541

  6. Jacques Joseph: Father of modern aesthetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Surajit

    2008-10-01

    When we review the history of modern aesthetic surgery, a name that stands out as bright as a beacon and precious as gold is undoubtedly that of Jacques Joseph. A surgeon, par excellence, far ahead of his time, who chose to think out of the box, Joseph, despite all odds set out to give respectability to Aesthetic Surgery without depriving it of any scientific core values. By his words and deeds proved beyond doubt that only the very best in the field of reconstructive surgery, can visualize the hidden perfection in imperfection and formulate a treatment plan and a surgical strategy to achieve that elusive perfection. The rich surgical literature that he has left behind, the wealth of surgical instruments that he had designed and above all a way of thinking that he propagated, that aesthetic surgery is not frivolous but very serious endeavor, and treating the psychology of the patient is as important as treating his disease, undoubtedly makes him the revered 'Father of Modern Aesthetic Surgery'.

  7. Controlling life: from Jacques Loeb to regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Maienschein, Jane

    2009-01-01

    In his 1987 book Controlling Life: Jacques Loeb and the Engineering Ideal in Biology, Philip Pauly presented his readers with the biologist Jacques Loeb and his role in developing an emphasis on control of life processes. Loeb's work on artificial parthenogenesis, for example, provided an example of bioengineering at work. This paper revisits Pauly's study of Loeb and explores the way current research in regenerative medicine reflects the same tradition. A history of regeneration research reveals patterns of thinking and research methods that both echo Loeb's ideology and point the way to modern studies. Pauly's work revealed far more than we readers realized at the time of its publication.

  8. Redistributing the Sensory: The Critical Pedagogy of Jacques Ranciere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Cath

    2012-01-01

    Jacques Ranciere remains neglected within educational debates. In this paper I examine the potential of his philosophies for enacting critical interventions in relation to contemporary (higher) educational concerns. Ranciere argues against the progressive temporality of pedagogic relations and provides an alternative thesis that equality is a…

  9. Under the Name of Method: On Jacques Ranciere's Presumptive Tautology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the philosophical method of Jacques Ranciere, with special attention to use of the "presumptive tautology". It distinguishes between the Enlightenment conception of method as universally applicable technique, and the philosophical conception of method as a certain style that has been invented by a certain person.…

  10. Education as the Possibility of Justice: Jacques Derrida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert J. J.

    This paper is an analysis of the ongoing work of philosopher Jacques Derrida and the immense body of work associated with him. Derrida's copious work is difficult to categorize since Derrida challenges the very concept that meaning can be grasped in its original moment or that meaning can be represented in the form of some proper, self-identical…

  11. Jacques Maritain and John Dewey on Education: A Reconsideration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutek, Gerald L.

    2005-01-01

    Jacques Maritain and John Dewey were two of the towering figures in philosophy of education. Maritain led an international revival of Aristotelian and Thomist philosophies known as Integral Humanism. Dewey, a founding figure of Pragmatism, exercised a significant influence on American education. Originating in very different philosophical…

  12. The Humanities, Social Justice, and Reconceptualization: Jacques Maritain Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Richard J.; Miller, Janet L.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the educational thought of Jacques Maritain (1882-1973), the French Catholic philosopher, in terms of its similarity to other recent philosophies of education. Points out the common themes of social transformation in Maritain's work, in the "reconceptualist" movement, and in the proposals of a group of Catholic theorists. (AYC)

  13. Jacques Ranciere, Education, and the Art of Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This article is part of a broader effort recently undertaken by educational theorists to verify the implications of Jacques Ranciere's work for the field of educational studies. Rather than attempting to fashion productive linkages between Ranciere and other critical pedagogues, to render a "new logic of emancipation," or explore the political…

  14. Use the Good Mind! An Interview with Freida Jacques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonelli, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Freida Jacques, Onondaga clan mother, discusses the discipline of the "good mind," which involves becoming aware of your thoughts, examining the intent of your actions, and deciding whether your intent is based on love or fear and anger. Peace and healing must be achieved through forgiveness and respect. Sidebars discuss Native American healing…

  15. [Jacques Monod: some unpublished pages of his life].

    PubMed

    Gilgenkrantz, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The friendship and affinity of thought between Albert Camus and Jacques Monod were little highlighted in France. A book published in the U.S. in 2013 over the period of the Second World War in France shows their importance. It seemed useful to collect the elements of correspondence and writings reflecting their common concerns,frequent meetings and friendship.

  16. Jacques Ranciere's Lesson on the Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Samuel A.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the significance of Jacques Ranciere's work on pedagogy, and argues that to make sense of Ranciere's "lesson on the lesson" one must do more but also less than merely explicate Ranciere's texts. It steadfastly refuses to draw out the lessons of Ranciere's writings in the manner of a series of…

  17. [Saint-Jacques de Besançon Hospital].

    PubMed

    Deridder, Annick

    2007-01-01

    The first plan (1670) was carried out by Archbishop Antoine Pierre 1st de Grammont under the Spanish administration, with the aid of the Community Saint Marthe whose Congregation was at the start of a new monastic order and whose last members left Besançon a few years ago. At the beginning King Louis XIVth supported the building of the new hospital (1865) which was intended to shelter numerous soldiers like some other hospitals of the time. The main walls were ended in 1701 and the garden in 1702. The first patients were received in 1691. The cross-shaped Italian building is centred on a chapel and looks like many other buildings such as "La Salpêtriere" in Paris. It superseded the ancient medieval building "Saint-Jacques des Arènes" vowed to the travellers and pilgrims, the site of which was on the main crossing roads but on too small a space. The main architect was Canon Jacques Magnin, the material was found in the country and the gorgeous railings were forged by a local craftsman Chappuis. A local practitioner Gabriel Gascon bequeathed his sumptuous apothecary's shop. Some extensions of the building occured during the following centuries: a wing towards the garden, the "Couvent du Refuge" and its brilliant baroque chapel allowed the whole building to have a praise worthy chapel. At last the "Hôtel de Mont martin" initially built for Cardinal Granvelle was joined to the main hospital and became the Maternity Hospital. PMID:18175607

  18. Jacques Guillemeau's 16th-century account of ophthalmoplegia.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Rodríguez, M Victoria; González-Hernández, Ayoze N

    2013-07-01

    In 1585, the renowned French royal surgeon Jacques Guillemeau published his Traité des maladies de l'oeil. The book is divided into 9 unequal sections devoted to the description of eye anatomy and ophthalmological diseases including muscle, membrane, and humor disorders; optic nerve damage; and eyelid affections. Section 3, in particular, focuses on a form of ophthalmoplegia involving progressive paralysis of extraocular muscles. Here we describe and discuss Guillemeau's theoretical framework and practical approach to this ophthalmological disorder. To determine whether this physician was possibly influenced by the thought of antique and contemporary learned men, we reviewed some fundamental ideas on cranial nerves and their paralysis as presented by authors such as Herophilus of Chalcedon, Erasistratus of Ceos, Claudius Galen, Andreas Vesalius, and Leonhard Fuchs. PMID:23700141

  19. Enzymatic cybernetics: an unpublished work by Jacques Monod.

    PubMed

    Gayon, Jean

    2015-06-01

    In 1959, Jacques Monod wrote a manuscript entitled Cybernétique enzymatique [Enzymatic cybernetics]. Never published, this unpublished manuscript presents a synthesis of how Monod interpreted enzymatic adaptation just before the publication of the famous papers of the 1960s on the operon. In addition, Monod offers an example of a philosophy of biology immersed in scientific investigation. Monod's philosophical thoughts are classified into two categories, methodological and ontological. On the methodological side, Monod explicitly hints at his preferences regarding the scientific method in general: hypothetical-deductive method, and use of theoretical models. He also makes heuristic proposals regarding molecular biology: the need to analyse the phenomena in question at the level of individual cells, and the dual aspect of all biological explanation, functional and evolutionary. Ontological issues deal with the notions of information and genetic determinism, "cellular memory", the irrelevance of the notion of "living matter", and the usefulness of a cybernetic comprehension of molecular biology.

  20. Why did Jacques Monod make the choice of mechanistic determinism?

    PubMed

    Loison, Laurent

    2015-06-01

    The development of molecular biology placed in the foreground a mechanistic and deterministic conception of the functioning of macromolecules. In this article, I show that this conception was neither obvious, nor necessary. Taking Jacques Monod as a case study, I detail the way he gradually came loose from a statistical understanding of determinism to finally support a mechanistic understanding. The reasons of the choice made by Monod at the beginning of the 1950s can be understood only in the light of the general theoretical schema supported by the concept of mechanistic determinism. This schema articulates three fundamental notions for Monod, namely that of the rigidity of the sequence of the genetic program, that of the intrinsic stability of macromolecules (DNA and proteins), and that of the specificity of molecular interactions.

  1. From Mephistopheles to Isaiah: Jacques Loeb, technical biology and war.

    PubMed

    Fangerau, Heiner

    2009-04-01

    In 1917, the German-American scientist Jacques Loeb (1859-1924) published a short essay, entitled 'Biology and War', that summarized his disagreement with World War I. He was deeply saddened by the break-up of the international scientific community as a consequence of the actions of bellicose politicians. These actions were in direct opposition to his efforts to promote social reform, mechanistic biology and scientific internationalism. The aim of this paper is to examine Loeb's activities aimed at these efforts before, during and after the war. It attempts to explain how Loeb's scientific work was formed, what was special about it and why it was both successful and attacked. Particular emphasis is placed on how Loeb reacted to the War and the subsequent forced disintegration of his international scientific network. Loeb's attempts to integrate his interpretation of biology into post-war Europe's approach to the life sciences is analysed in connection with his social commitment. It is argued that his emigration to the USA, the circumstances of World War I, the reaction of his German colleagues to it and the demolition of the international scientific community changed: (1) Loeb's feelings towards his old home; (2) the direction of his scientific endeavours; and (3) his engagement in science politics. His correspondence with eminent scientists from all over the world serves as a key to Loeb's efforts in the context of the social elements of scientific networks and perceptions.

  2. Condensed matter physics in the 21st century: The legacy of Jacques Friedel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchiat, Hélène; Villain, Jacques

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this dossier of Comptes rendus Physique devoted to the memory of Jacques Friedel is to give a panorama of his exceptional and numerous contributions to modern condensed matter physics. Since it is not possible to cover all the domains he investigated in a single volume, we have selected only a limited number of topics. We have tried, when possible, to present a juxtaposition of articles written by his former students or colleagues with others written instead by younger researchers whose work is inspired by important concepts originating from the work of Jacques Friedel, but who may have never met him.

  3. A scientist born in amiens : jacques rohault (1620-1672) (French Title: Un savant amiénois : jacques rohault (1620-1672))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Boeuffle, A.

    2004-12-01

    Jacques Rohault is born in Amiens town at the beginning of the seventeen century. After the Middle Ages, science try to use nex methods and want to abandon Greek's dogmas. Rohault came to Paris to continue his studies and met J.B. Poquelin (Molière). He became a friend an a supporter of René Descartes. He was a very popular scientist. He practised many experiments in public and writed the book La physique to popularize science.

  4. Educational Research and "Human Techniques" in the Global Technological System: The Theory of Jacques Ellul.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waks, Leonard J.

    The French sociologist Jacques Ellul has had great influence on contemporary thought about the role of science and technology in the emerging global society. His books "The Technological Society" (1954) and "The Technological System" (1980) characterize the new social context as a tightly interlocked global technological system increasingly…

  5. Initiating "The Methodology of Jacques Ranciere": How Does It All Start?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercieca, Duncan P.

    2012-01-01

    Educationalists are currently engaging with Jacques Ranciere's thought on emancipation and equality. The focus of this paper is on what initiates the process that starts emancipation. With reference to teachers the question is: how do teachers become emancipated? This paper discusses how the teacher's life is made "sensible" and how sense is…

  6. Jacques Cousteau's Living Sea: A Museum of the Mind and the Senses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Jan

    1973-01-01

    Describes the major exhibits to be found in Jacques Cousteau's Living Sea Museum, which is located aboard the Queen Mary at Long Beach, California. It is described as a museum of the mind and senses, since the exhibits demand imagination and the use of sight, hearing, touch, and smell. (JR)

  7. A Portrait of the Teacher as Friend and Artist: The Example of Jean-Jacques Rousseau

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Hunter

    2011-01-01

    The following is a reflection on the possibility of teaching by example, and especially as the idea of teaching by example is developed in the work of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. My thesis is that Rousseau created a literary version of himself in his writings as an embodiment of his philosophy, rather in the same way and with the same purpose that…

  8. The Meaning of the Global City: Jacques Ellul's Continued Relevance to 21st-Century Urbanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toly, Noah

    2012-01-01

    Jacques Ellul's book, "The Meaning of the City," widely recognized as one of the most important twentieth century theological reflections on the city, was also one of his most controversial scholarly contributions. Many urbanists interpreted the book as demeaning the city and diminishing the importance of urban policy, planning, design,…

  9. Emancipating Subjects in Science Education: Taking a Lesson from Patti Lather and Jacques Ranciere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    This paper extends the conversation started by Patti Lather in her forum response to "Neoliberal ideology, global capitalism, and science education: engaging the question of subjectivity", in terms of engaging the thought of Jacques Ranciere. Ranciere can offer (science) educators a more definitive example of (possible) emancipatory political…

  10. Jacques Prevert: "Modernism"--Conception and Perception of His Contemporary Society through His Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzash, Michael D.

    Born in 1900, Jacques Prevert was destined to become one of the most popular poets of the twentieth century. After spending his young adulthood with artists linked with the surrealist movement, Prevert became a satirist, social critic, songwriter, writer of children's stories and television programs, and poet. Prevert's interests in the visual…

  11. The Essential Connection Between the Two Parts of the Work of Jacques Ellul

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2004-01-01

    Almost without exception, interpretations of Jacques Ellul's work focus either on his sociopolitical thought or on his Christian reflections. However, each one drives the other, thereby exposing how we collectively journey through time and reality on a magic carpet of myths (in the sense of cultural anthropology). Ellul challenges us to give up…

  12. Can You Hear Me Now? Jean-Jacques Rousseau on Listening Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laverty, Megan J.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Megan J. Laverty argues that Jean-Jacques Rousseau's conception of humane communication and his proposal for teaching it have implications for our understanding of the role of listening in education. She develops this argument through a close reading of Rousseau's most substantial work on education, "Emile: Or, On Education". Laverty…

  13. The Autodidact in Defense of Himself: Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Knut Hamsun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttry, Dolores

    1980-01-01

    Describes Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Knut Hamsun as self-educated men who never ceased to warn of the evils of formal education. Quoting from their works, considers their feelings toward education as revealed in Rousseau's "Emile," with its description of ideal education, and in the ill effects of education on Hamsun's characters. (AYC)

  14. Curing Provincialism: Why We Educate the Way We Do. A Conversation with Jacques Barzun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Educator, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This interview with author and cultural historian Jacques Barzun discusses the origins of history, science, art, literature, and math, calling them the core of intellectual inheritance. Notes how the frameworks they provide enable people to extend their understanding of the world and reach beyond natural, human parochialism. Discusses the…

  15. Reconsidering Emancipatory Education: Staging a Conversation between Paulo Freire and Jacques Ranciere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    In this essay Sarah Galloway considers emancipation as a purpose for education through examining the theories of Paulo Freire and Jacques Ranciere. Both theorists are concerned with the prospect of distinguishing between education that might socialize people into what is taken to be an inherently oppressive society and education with emancipation…

  16. Jacques Maritain's Philosophy of History and Philosophy of Education: A Relationship Secured Through Experience and Reason.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Souza, Mario

    1997-01-01

    Jacques Maritain's philosophy of history and philosophy of education both deal with the singularity of experience and the universality of reason. The philosophy of history is subordinated to moral philosophy; the philosophy of education is subordinated to metaphysics. Although Maritain's philosophies reflect a Christian world view, they can make a…

  17. Ensaio de Pedagogia Comparada: Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) X Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) (Essay on Compared Pedagogy: Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) X Immanuel Kant (1724-1804).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontanella, Francisco Cock

    2000-01-01

    Finds that, although the thought of Jean Jacques Rousseau is frequently cited as an influence on Immanuel Kant, this has no basis regarding pedagogical influence. Compares the "Projecto" and "Emilio" of Rousseau with Kant's "Pedagogia." (BT)

  18. [Jacques Cassard and the military pharmacy on the Island of Curaçao in 1713].

    PubMed

    Rutten, A M

    1998-01-01

    In the month of February 1713, Curacaoan militia tried in vain to stop an invasion of French troops under leading of their commander Jacques Cassard. The battle was fought near the strategically situated country house called Malpais. Several surgeons in charge of the Dutch West India Company were called to take care of the sick and wounded French and Curacaoan people. The medicines and other supplies were available from army medicine chests. The content of those chests is described and explained in this article.

  19. [Jacques Cassard and military pharmacy on the island of Curaçao in 1713].

    PubMed

    Rutten, A

    1996-01-01

    In the month of february 1713, Curaçaoan militia tried in vain to stop an invasion of French troops under leading of their commander Jacques Cassard. The battle was fought near the strategically situated country house called Malpais. Several surgeons in charge of the Dutch West India Company were called to take care for the sick and wounded French and Curaçaoan people. The medicines and other supplies were available from army medicine chests. The content of those chests is described and explained in this article.

  20. Payload specialist Jean-Jacques Favier, representing the French Space Agency (CNES), and astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-78 ONBOARD VIEW --- Payload specialist Jean-Jacques Favier, representing the French Space Agency (CNES), and astronaut Kevin R. Kregel, pilot, perform a successful Inflight Maintenance (IFM) on the Bubble Drop Particle Unit (BDPU). The IFM technique was performed initially on the ground at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) by alternate payload specialist Pedro Duque of the European Space Agency (ESA), with the procedure being recorded on video and uplinked to the crew of the Space Shuttle Columbia to aid in the repair.

  1. [Jean-Jacques Lefrère: A miscarried ambition for blood safety in francophone Africa].

    PubMed

    Tayou Tagny, C; Laperche, S; Murphy, E

    2016-02-01

    The announcement of the death of Professor Jean-Jacques Lefrère caused considerable emotion and surprise within the francophone Africa blood transfusion research network. The group was created in 2007 in Paris. Each member that works within this group wanted to pay their last respects through dedicated publication for a brilliant researcher and writer. The tribute describes the creation of the group, its goals, its operations, its achievements and the prospects of its activities while emphasizing the essential role that Professor Lefrère played within the group. PMID:26762688

  2. Science and the applications of science from Louis Pasteur to Jacques Monod.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Maxime

    2015-06-01

    Jacques Monod's ideas on the applications of science came within the scope of a long tradition at the Institut Pasteur. Louis Pasteur, whose scientific career was characterized by a permanent come and go between science and its applications, long opposed the idea of getting any income from his research, until the financial needs of the Institut Pasteur made him change his mind. As for Jacques Monod, he remained a fervent supporter of basic science during his whole scientific career. However, once he became director of the Institut Pasteur, he realized that the applications of research had to be developed to support the institute from a financial point of view. Thus, he reorganized the valorization of research in the institute, through an incitation of scientists to develop projects with possible applications, and by creating a company, Institut Pasteur Production, for which he had a factory built, and which was in charge of producing and commercializing the vaccines and reagents stemming from the research at the Institut Pasteur.

  3. Moments with Jacques Rancière: Sketches from a Lived Pedagogical Experiment in an Elementary Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otoide, Lorraine; Alsop, Steve

    2015-01-01

    The work of Jacques Rancière has become rather popular of late, with a series of high-profile advocates. In this article, we reflect on an elementary classroom and an experiment with pedagogy inspired by Rancière's (1991) text, The "Ignorant Schoolmaster." The authors discuss the text, outline a 20-lesson response that emerged from the…

  4. Jean-Jacques Rousseau on Adult Education and Revolution. Paradigma of Radical, Pedagogical Thought. 2nd Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dame, Frederick William

    This book explores Jean-Jacques Rousseau's educational philosophy, as expressed in his key works, and applies that philosophy to adult education and revolution. The titles and topics of the book's seven chapters are as follows: (1) "L'Invitation: Raison d'Etre" (prelude, statement, significance, the process, assumptions and limitations); (2) "Le…

  5. How the Science versus Religion Debate Has Missed the Point of Genesis 1 and 2: Jacques Ellul (1912-1994)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2010-01-01

    From a social and historical perspective, the conflict between science and religion regarding the opening chapters of Genesis in the Jewish and Christian Bibles may have more to do with uncritically reading these texts through our "cultural glasses" than with what these texts actually say. Within the context of his work, Jacques Ellul read these…

  6. Jacques Bénigne Winslow (1669-1760) and the misnomer cavernous sinus.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Jai Deep; Sonig, Ashish; Khan, Imad Saeed; Connor, David E; Pait, T Glenn; Nanda, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Sinus cavernosi, or the cavernous sinus, was coined by Jacques Bénigne Winslow in the 18th century. Among the neurosurgeons and the modern-day neuroanatomists, Winslow is mainly known for erroneously using the term cavernous sinus. As the anatomical understanding of the parasellar space advanced during the next 200 years, it was unclear as to why Winslow compared this space in the brain with that of a male reproductive organ (corpus cavernosum). Our primary objective was to study the historical treatise on anatomy written by Winslow in the 18th century and analyze his anatomical dissections and nomenclature for the parasellar compartment. In addition, his pertinent contributions to neuroscience are highlighted in this vignette.

  7. Jean-Jacques Rousseau's copy of Albrecht von Haller's Historia stirpium indigenarum Helvetiae inchoata (1768).

    PubMed

    Cook, A

    2003-04-01

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau sold his botanical texts to Daniel Malthus (father of Thomas Malthus) about 1775. Two of these are now in the Old Library, Jesus College, Cambridge, but all the rest have long been thought lost. However, a copy of Albrecht von Haller's Historia stirpium indigenarum Helvetiae inchoata (1768) in the Lindley Library, Royal Horticultural Society, London, bears Rousseau's name and seems to have been annotated by him. The volume contains the bookplate of Jane Dalton, a cousin to whom Malthus willed "all[his] Botanical Books in which the name of Rousseau is written". Haller was well-known to Rousseau, who while in exile in the Swiss Jura (1763-1765), studied under one of Haller's collaborators, Abraham Gagnebin. Rousseau cited Haller's entry 762 when describing a species of Seseli to the Duchess of Portland.

  8. Consciousness eclipsed: Jacques Loeb, Ivan P. Pavlov, and the rise of reductionistic biology after 1900.

    PubMed

    Greenspan, Ralph J; Baars, Bernard J

    2005-03-01

    The life sciences in the 20th century were guided to a large extent by a reductionist program seeking to explain biological phenomena in terms of physics and chemistry. Two scientists who figured prominently in the establishment and dissemination of this program were Jacques Loeb in biology and Ivan P. Pavlov in psychological behaviorism. While neither succeeded in accounting for higher mental functions in physical-chemical terms, both adopted positions that reduced the problem of consciousness to the level of reflexes and associations. The intellectual origins of this view and the impediment to the study of consciousness as an object of inquiry in its own right that it may have imposed on peers, students, and those who followed is explored. PMID:15766898

  9. Consciousness eclipsed: Jacques Loeb, Ivan P. Pavlov, and the rise of reductionistic biology after 1900.

    PubMed

    Greenspan, Ralph J; Baars, Bernard J

    2005-03-01

    The life sciences in the 20th century were guided to a large extent by a reductionist program seeking to explain biological phenomena in terms of physics and chemistry. Two scientists who figured prominently in the establishment and dissemination of this program were Jacques Loeb in biology and Ivan P. Pavlov in psychological behaviorism. While neither succeeded in accounting for higher mental functions in physical-chemical terms, both adopted positions that reduced the problem of consciousness to the level of reflexes and associations. The intellectual origins of this view and the impediment to the study of consciousness as an object of inquiry in its own right that it may have imposed on peers, students, and those who followed is explored.

  10. Payload specialist Jean-Jacques Favier, representing the French Space Agency (CNES), prepares a

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-78 ONBOARD VIEW --- Payload specialist Jean-Jacques Favier, representing the French Space Agency (CNES), prepares a sample for the Advanced Gradient Heating Facility (AGHF) while wearing instruments that measure upper body movement. The Torso Rotation Experiment (TRE) complements other vestibular studies that measure differences in the way human beings react physically to their surroundings in microgravity. This is a typical Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS-1) mission scene, with several experiments being performed. Astronaut Susan J. Helms, payload commander, assists Favier in the AGHF preparations. Astronaut Richard M. Linnehan (bottom right), mission specialist, tests his muscle response with the Handgrip Dynamometer. Astronaut Thomas T. (Tom) Henricks (far background), mission commander, offers assistance.

  11. [Jean-Jacques Rosseau the vitalist. The moralization of medical hygiene between diet and ethical food].

    PubMed

    Menin, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The historiographical prejudice that sees in Jean-Jacques Rousseau an implacable opponent of scientific knowledge has long prevented an objective evaluation of the important influence that medical thought exerted over his philosophy. The aim of this paper is to show not only Rousseau's familiarity with the most important expressions of eighteenth-century medical literature, but also his willingness to incorporate some medical suggestions in his philosophical and literary production. In the first part of this article, I try to show how Rousseau's sensibility theory presupposes precise medical ideals, related to Montpellier School of vitalism. In the second part, I stress how Rousseau's philosophy of alimentation (which has clear anthropological and political implications) can be regarded as a genuine application of an ambition typical of vitalism: to use medical hygiene, also and above all, for moral purpose.

  12. [Jean-Jacques Rosseau the vitalist. The moralization of medical hygiene between diet and ethical food].

    PubMed

    Menin, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The historiographical prejudice that sees in Jean-Jacques Rousseau an implacable opponent of scientific knowledge has long prevented an objective evaluation of the important influence that medical thought exerted over his philosophy. The aim of this paper is to show not only Rousseau's familiarity with the most important expressions of eighteenth-century medical literature, but also his willingness to incorporate some medical suggestions in his philosophical and literary production. In the first part of this article, I try to show how Rousseau's sensibility theory presupposes precise medical ideals, related to Montpellier School of vitalism. In the second part, I stress how Rousseau's philosophy of alimentation (which has clear anthropological and political implications) can be regarded as a genuine application of an ambition typical of vitalism: to use medical hygiene, also and above all, for moral purpose. PMID:23035396

  13. Jacques Loeb, B. F. Skinner, and the legacy of prediction and control.

    PubMed

    Hackenberg, T D

    1995-01-01

    The biologist Jacques Loeb is an important figure in the history of behavior analysis. Between 1890 and 1915, Loeb championed an approach to experimental biology that would later exert substantial influence on the work of B. F. Skinner and behavior analysis. This paper examines some of these sources of influence, with a particular emphasis on Loeb's firm commitment to prediction and control as fundamental goals of an experimental life science, and how these goals were extended and broadened by Skinner. Both Loeb and Skinner adopted a pragmatic approach to science that put practical control of their subject matter above formal theory testing, both based their research programs on analyses of reproducible units involving the intact organism, and both strongly endorsed technological applications of basic laboratory science. For Loeb, but especially for Skinner, control came to mean something more than mere experimental or technological control for its own sake; it became synonomous with scientific understanding. This view follows from (a) the successful working model of science Loeb and Skinner inherited from Ernst Mach, in which science is viewed as human social activity, and effective practical action is taken as the basis of scientific knowledge, and (b) Skinner's analysis of scientific activity, situated in the world of direct experience and related to practices arranged by scientific verbal communities. From this perspective, prediction and control are human acts that arise from and are maintained by social circumstances in which such acts meet with effective consequences.

  14. Broca and Charcot's research on Jacques Inaudi: the psychological and anthropological study of a mental calculator.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Serge; Guida, Alessandro; Levine, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, French scientific institutions became interested in young "mental calculators," arithmetical prodigies able to quickly and accurately perform complex mental calculations. The first scientists to study mental calculators were phrenologists who sought to prove the existence of a calculating organ in the frontal lobe. Paul Broca introduced one such mental calculator, Jacques Inaudi, to the Anthropological Society of Paris in 1880. Broca attributed extraordinary faculty for mental calculation to memory functioning (the psychological hypothesis) rather than physiological difference (the phrenological hypothesis). In 1892, prominent French Academy of Sciences member Jean-Martin Charcot produced a noteworthy study of Inaudi on the organization's behalf. Charcot observed that Inaudi called upon auditory memory rather than visual memory in his mental calculations, unlike most mental calculators who preceded him. Like Broca, Charcot was skeptical of the phrenological hypothesis, though he noted that Inaudi's skull was markedly plagiocephalic. Interestingly, anthropological examination of Inaudi is consistent with the themes of modern cognitive neuroscience. Thus, Charcot seems to have anticipated present research on the localization of mental calculation and memory for numbers. 1. (1)The Academy of Sciences, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV (1638-1715) with the goal of contributing to the advancement and application of the sciences in France, was one of the earliest European scientific institutions. As a prestigious society, it played an active role in defining scientific and technological research policy as well as drafting and publishing official reports.

  15. Broca and Charcot's research on Jacques Inaudi: the psychological and anthropological study of a mental calculator.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Serge; Guida, Alessandro; Levine, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, French scientific institutions became interested in young "mental calculators," arithmetical prodigies able to quickly and accurately perform complex mental calculations. The first scientists to study mental calculators were phrenologists who sought to prove the existence of a calculating organ in the frontal lobe. Paul Broca introduced one such mental calculator, Jacques Inaudi, to the Anthropological Society of Paris in 1880. Broca attributed extraordinary faculty for mental calculation to memory functioning (the psychological hypothesis) rather than physiological difference (the phrenological hypothesis). In 1892, prominent French Academy of Sciences member Jean-Martin Charcot produced a noteworthy study of Inaudi on the organization's behalf. Charcot observed that Inaudi called upon auditory memory rather than visual memory in his mental calculations, unlike most mental calculators who preceded him. Like Broca, Charcot was skeptical of the phrenological hypothesis, though he noted that Inaudi's skull was markedly plagiocephalic. Interestingly, anthropological examination of Inaudi is consistent with the themes of modern cognitive neuroscience. Thus, Charcot seems to have anticipated present research on the localization of mental calculation and memory for numbers. 1. (1)The Academy of Sciences, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV (1638-1715) with the goal of contributing to the advancement and application of the sciences in France, was one of the earliest European scientific institutions. As a prestigious society, it played an active role in defining scientific and technological research policy as well as drafting and publishing official reports. PMID:24697632

  16. [A inspection in the pharmacy belonging to Jacques François Cordier in Commercy on 1752 December 9th].

    PubMed

    Labrude, Pierre

    2012-02-01

    The respect of regulation in pharmaceutical activity was ever a preoccupation for the legal powers. When the Royal College of Medicine was created in Nancy in 1752, this institution received some prerogatives in this field. The report studied here shows how such a survey is conducted in the pharmacy of a practitioner recently settled in Commercy. We are also informed of current human, hierarchal and social relations. Jacques François Cordier, whose biography is presented, was the introducer and the "godfather" of two famous pharmacists: Jean-Nicolas Trusson in Paris, and Henri Braconnot in Nancy.

  17. Jacques-Louis David's tumour: an opportunity to study the natural history of a pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Wine, Humphrey; Baum, Michael

    2008-12-01

    The great artist and one-time revolutionary, Jacques-Louis David died in 1825. The cause of his death has been open to speculation. An extraordinary sequence of portraits of the artist describes his transition from handsome middle age to a deformed old man. During this phase a swelling appears at the angle of his left jaw and over a period of 20 years a facial palsy can be diagnosed. We submit that this evidence suggests that malignant transformation of a pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid gland was the proximal cause of his death.

  18. Emancipating subjects in science education: taking a lesson from Patti Lather and Jacques Rancière

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2013-03-01

    This paper extends the conversation started by Patti Lather in her forum response to "Neoliberal ideology, global capitalism, and science education: engaging the question of subjectivity", in terms of engaging the thought of Jacques Rancière. Rancière can offer (science) educators a more definitive example of (possible) emancipatory political subjectivities. His notion of radical equality can also aid in developing new pedagogical spaces in science education. This latter point is taken up in the concluding sections of this short essay.

  19. Scientific exchange: Jacques Loeb (1859-1924) and Emil Godlewski (1875-1944) as representatives of a transatlantic developmental biology.

    PubMed

    Fangerau, Heiner; Müller, Irmgard

    2007-09-01

    The German-American physiologist Jacques Loeb (1859-1924) and the Polish embryologist Emil Godlewski, jr. (1875-1944) contributed many valuable works to the body of developmental biology. Jacques Loeb was world famous at the beginning of the twentieth century for his development and demonstration of artificial parthenogenesis in 1899 and his experiments on regeneration. He served as a role model for the younger Polish experimenter Emil Godlewski, who began his career as a researcher like Loeb at the Zoological Station in Naples. Following Godlewski's first visit to Naples in 1901 a close relationship between the two scientists developed. Until Loeb's death in 1924 the two exchanged ideas via correspondence that was only interrupted during the First World War. The aim of the paper is to examine the transatlantic transfer of knowledge in the field of biological experimentation that was fostered by these two protagonists. Using a modification of Bruno Latour's model of the 'Circulatory System of Science' as a heuristic tool, different mechanisms of scientific exchange are displayed. With the help of Loeb's and Godlewski's correspondence the role of scientific communities, methods, allies, the public and institutions in the process of knowledge transfer are analysed. Preconditions for success and failure in transferring science are examined.

  20. Suicides associated with the Jacques Cartier Bridge, Montreal, Quebec 1988-1993: descriptive analysis and intervention proposal.

    PubMed

    Prévost, C; Julien, M; Brown, B P

    1996-01-01

    Falls from heights represent an uncommon means of suicide. Regional variations are attributable to the presence of particular sites which attract suicidal individuals. The Jacques Cartier Bridge in Montreal is one such site, though less well known than North American sites such as the Golden Gate Bridge or Niagara Falls. According to Coroner's records, 54 suicides were associated with the bridge for the period 1988 to 1993. All but one of the suicides were the result of jumps from the bridge. The median age of victims was 30 years, and 46 of the victims were male. Bridge-specific verbalization of suicidal intent and prior history of medically diagnosed psychiatric disorders are frequently noted. Based on a review of the effectiveness of preventive measures, we propose limiting access to jumping by means of a fence along the bridge railing. PMID:9009392

  1. Nurses as 'guests'--a study of a concept in light of Jacques Derrida's philosophy of hospitality.

    PubMed

    Oresland, Stina; Lutzén, Kim; Norberg, Astrid; Rasmussen, Birgit H; Määttä, Sylvia

    2013-04-01

    As revealed in previous empirical research, nurses describe their position in home-based nursing care (HBNC) as that of 'guests' in the patient's home. Such a description is problematic as 'guests' might not be considered to belong to the realm of professionalism. As Jacques Derrida's work on hospitality has received wide publicity, sparking theoretical and philosophical discussion about host and guest, the aim of this study was to explore how the concept 'guests' can be understood in the light of Derrida's philosophy of hospitality. The study revealed that (a) guest must be considered a binary concept; and (b) hospitality should be regarded as an exchange of giving and receiving between a host and a guest. The present study demonstrated that it is important to reflect on the meaning of the concepts used by nurses in HBNC. Further theoretical and empirical exploration of the concept 'hospitality' would be fruitful, i.e. what is patients' understanding of 'hospitality' and 'hostility' related to nurses' descriptions of themselves as 'guests' in the patient's home.

  2. Métallurgie fondamentale et métallurgie numérique : l'héritage de Jacques Friedel dans la théorie de la plasticité des métaux et alliages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bréchet, Yves

    2016-03-01

    Jacques Friedel's contribution to the theory of plasticity is described, as well as the more recent developments it inspired. It involves the microscopic properties of dislocations as well as macroscopic effects. The evolution of fundamental metallurgy toward numerical metallurgy is discussed, and Friedel's point of view on numerical methods is analyzed.

  3. The novel Arrowsmith, Paul de Kruif (1890-1971) and Jacques Loeb (1859-1924): a literary portrait of "medical science".

    PubMed

    Fangerau, H M

    2006-12-01

    Shortly after bacteriologist Paul de Kruif had been dismissed from a research position at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, he started contributing to a novel in collaboration with the future Nobel laureate Sinclair Lewis. The novel, Arrowsmith, would become one of the most famous satires on medicine and science. Using de Kruif's correspondence with his idol Jacques Loeb, this paper describes the many ways in which medical science is depicted in Arrowsmith. This article compares the novel with de Kruif's and Loeb's biographies, and (1) focuses on the struggles of the main character, Martin Arrowsmith, as an allegory of the institutionalisation of medical research in the US, (2) shows that (influenced by de Kruif) Sinclair's purpose is to caricaturise scientific work in modern medical research institutions anywhere and (3) shows that the novel depicts a reductionist philosophy of research that seems to contradict the "messiness" of medical practice.

  4. Jacques Loeb (1859-1924) and His Forgotten Contributions to Electrolyte and Acid-Base Physiology in The Organism as a Whole.

    PubMed

    Sgambato, Francesco; Sgambato, Ester; De Santo, Natale Gaspare

    2016-02-01

    Jacques Loeb (1859-1924) was the founder of the Journal of General Physiology which he co-directed in association with W.J.V. Osterhout in the years 1918-1924. Having worked (1889-1891)at the Marine Zoological Station of Naples, newly founded by Anton Dohrn, he was imprinted for life. A strong investigator used to perform the experiments personally. Loeb was engaged lifelong in the explanation of life on physico-chemical basis. He touched various fields (being a creative scientist full of ideas), and centered on the exchanges of electrolytes, acids and bases between the body and sea water in fish. He identified two equations: {[K+]+[Na+]}: {[Ca++]+[Mg++]} (Loebs 1st equation) {[K+]+[Na+]}: {[H+]+[Ca++]+[Mg++]} (Loebs final equation) Even nowadays these equations may have applications in a wide list of electrolyte and acid-base disturbances. Unfortunately his heredity has been dissipated.

  5. Jacques Forestier's vanished bowstring sign in ankylosing spondylitis: a call to test its validity and possible relation to spinal myofascial hypertonicity.

    PubMed

    Masi, A T; Sierakowski, S; Kim, J M

    2005-01-01

    Jacques Forestier's bowstring sign (signe de la "corde de l'arc") in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) was described by him in his 1951 book (French). In free lateral bending, the early AS patient has palpably firm, contracted dorsolumbar muscles on the concave side, opposite to the findings in normals. Forestier described this sign as a common and characteristic finding in AS. Perplexingly, the sign is essentially unknown in the rheumatologic field. A single report (Polish) on electromyographic (EMG) findings in AS and control subjects documented the electromotor component of the bowstring sign as well as its diagnostic utility in early AS patients. In this paper, the literature on EMG studies in series of AS patients is reviewed as well as kinesiologic EMG studies of normals in lateral bending. Paravertebral and other muscle pathology in AS was reviewed in relation to the EMG findings. Critical, controlled assessment of Forestier's bowstring sign and biomechanical investigations of the dorsolumbar muscles in AS promise to offer new insights into the early physiopathogenesis of this unique disease.

  6. A New Logic of Emancipation: The Methodology of Jacques Ranciere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2010-01-01

    The idea of emancipation plays a central role in modern educational theories and practices. The emancipatory impetus is particularly prominent in critical traditions and approaches where the aim of education is conceived as that of emancipating students from oppressive structures in the name of social justice and human freedom. What is needed to…

  7. Jacques Friedel and the physics of metals and alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villain, Jacques; Lavagna, Mireille; Bruno, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    This is an introduction to the theoretical physics of metals for students and physicists from other specialities. Certain simple consequences of the Fermi statistics in pure metals are first addressed, namely the Peierls distortion, Kohn anomalies and the Labbé-Friedel distortion. Then the physics of dilute alloys is discussed. The analogy with nuclear collisions was a fruitful starting point, which suggested one should analyze the effects of impurities in terms of a scattering problem with the introduction of phase shifts. Starting from these concepts, Friedel derived a theory of the resistivity of alloys, and a celebrated sum rule relating the phase shifts at the Fermi level to the number of electrons in the impurity, which turned out to play a prominent role later in the context of correlated impurities, as for instance in the Kondo effect. Friedel oscillations are also an important result, related to incommensurate magnetic structures. It is shown how they can be derived in various ways: from collision theory, perturbation theory, self-consistent approximations and Green's function methods. While collision theory does not permit to take the crystal structure into account, which is responsible for electronic bands, those effects can be included in other descriptions, using for instance the tight binding approximation. xml:lang="fr"

  8. Alain Badiou, Jacques Lacan and the Ethics of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taubman, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that Badiou's and Lacan's theorizations of ethics offer a way to formulate an ethics of teaching and to explore what such an ethics might look like when teachers encounter events that disrupt their quotidian lives. Relying on the work of Badiou and Lacan, the paper critiques mainstream approaches to the ethics of teaching and…

  9. Jean-Jacques Rousseau's views on adult education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dame, Frederick William

    1996-01-01

    Although Rousseau describes in Émile only his scheme for childhood education, he presents us in this work with some direct statements which can be applied to explain more fully the nature of adult education. The author surveys Rousseau's ideas on the role of the general will in adult educational philosophy, subject matter, methodology and negative education, as well as the relationships between the family, student, teacher, community and the state. He concludes that the modern Rousseau would not limit education to males and would recognize that the four Rousseauian periods of educational development — infancy, childhood, youngster, adolescence — is followed by a fifth: adulthood. Adult education is the logical continuation of the four previous phases. Throughout each phase education must permit intellectual and moral growth and always allow for creativity and diversity. Only then can adults become positive contributors to their society.

  10. 75 FR 68783 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ...: Comments on the proposed decisions should be sent to Valentina Cabrera Stagno, Water Division (WTR-2), U.S...-3434, facsimile (415) 947- 3537, e-mail cabrera-stagno.valentina@epa.gov . Oral comments will not be... or calling Valentina Cabrera Stagno. Underlying documentation comprising the record for...

  11. Education in the Realm of the Senses: Understanding Paulo Freire's Aesthetic Unconscious through Jacques Ranciere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tyson Edward

    2009-01-01

    In this article I re-examine the role that aesthetics play in Paulo Freire's pedagogy of the oppressed. As opposed to the vast majority of scholarship in this area, I suggest that aesthetics play a more centralised role in pedagogy above and beyond arts-based curricula. To help clarify Freire's position, I will argue that underlying the linguistic…

  12. [Jacques Clarion (1776-1844), professor of l'Ecole de pharmacie de Paris].

    PubMed

    Trépardoux, Francis

    2006-11-01

    Engaged in military campaigns from 1793 to 1797, he then studied medicine in Paris, as well as pharmacy, specialised in chemistry and botany. Supported by Deyeux and Corvisart, he was nominated as pharmacist of the emperor. From 1819 to 1844, he taught botany at the School of pharmacy of Paris. In 1823, the authority gave him a second chair for the medical botany at the Faculty of medicine, but after the 1830 revolution, he was dismissed. He mainly worked in taxonomy, contributing to several publications with Palisot and de Candolle for Graminaceae. He was a member of the academy of medicine.

  13. [Jacques Lacan: The turn of the Obligado or the return of the unavoidable].

    PubMed

    Harari, R

    1976-09-01

    "La Vuelta de Obligado" (Obligado bend of Paraná river) is the name of a battle fought by local rebels against the colonial invading navy. The victory was due to a witty device: the patriots stretched a cable across the river and succeded in stopping the foreign float. The event is the paradigm of the everlasting fight of under-developped countries against powerful colonial metropolis. The author examines the conditions of local fight against colonizing cultural and scientific ideas, being his main content that scientific advancement needs not be an instrument of scientific imperialism. He analyzes in detail several factors currently impeding the use of scientific discoveries and improvements, focusing into concrete "obstacles" (in Bachelard's meaning) to betterment of Psychoanalytic knowledge. The obstacles are: 1. All-pervading transference. The rule adapted from Melanie Klein theories emphasizing hic et nunc validity of materials from the patient, neglects the fact that the analyst is also moved by desire, and that the patient's productions are not fragments of behavior able to be reduced to the present situation, but vectorial motions, always open and always re-opening into something defined since the beginning as forever lost. 2. Increasing activity for the analyst. The current hypothesis concerning the possibility of analyzing everything, encouraging the analyst's hyperactivity, does not allow for theoretical evaluation of the means and ways of manifestation of unconscious drives through gaps in the discourse. 3. Pan-counter-transference. The conception of counter-transference as an instrument is against Freud's contention, defining it as a reciprocal transference that must be fought in the same way as the patient's. 4. Belittling of theory. The thesis against theory, on the grounds that Psychoanalysis deals with affects and the affective life of patients, forgets that there is always some system for understanding the world and, for want of a theory, an ideological system is always ready to provide the grid underlying all concepts used. 5. Not-analyzing. The automatic "translation", lacking the search for new links to replace the ones that analysis dismantles, leads to denaturalizing the practice and keeping intact the patient's imaginary consistent universe. 6. Intergrationism. Other theories cannot be integrated to Psychoanalysis as they have different objects and different frameworks. Conversely, Psychoanalitic concepts cannot be formulated in other theories conceptual corpus for the same reason. The exception are the sciences having similar fields and methods of analysis, such as Semiotics or Linguistics. In their case the articulation of concepts becomes possible, but still requires the previous command of Psychoanalytic Theory in its full depth. 7. Communicationalism. The most common of all integrations with other sciences is the one linking Psychoanalysis with Communications Theory...

  14. [Mirror image of the ego. On Jacques Lacan's theory of the imaginary].

    PubMed

    Gekle, H

    1995-08-01

    Lacan places the concept of the imaginary alongside the categories of the real and the symbolic. This concept plays a highly prominent role in his thinking, given that the essential determination of the imaginary is the primary relation of the ego to the image of the similar. Thus it is not surprising that unlike Freud the early Lacan acceded to the status of theoretician of surrealism, his decentralization of the cogito having a profound effect on Dalí in particular. The author shows that non-identity and paranoic anamorphosis are only conceivable as the forms of the imaginary absolutised by Lacan if they are seen in relation to an Oedipally constructed cogito--just as mannerism regularly follows classicism and cannot be conceived of separately from it. If Freud was a classicist, Lacan was the mannerist who came after him--except that the latter refused to countenance this connection. PMID:7676068

  15. Jacques Maritain and Some Christian Suggestions for the Education of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Wade A.

    2005-01-01

    "What indeed has Athens to do with Jerusalem? What concord is there between the Academy and the Church?" According to third-century Christian apologist Tertullian, not much. From precisely the opposite perspective, the twentieth-century "secular humanist" John Dewey would have echoed Tertullian, although he was as greatly indebted to Christian…

  16. Jean-Jacques Is Alive and Well: Rousseau and Contemporary Sociobiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Roger D.

    1978-01-01

    A description of the author's personal fascination with and study of Rousseau's life. Discusses Rousseau's many questions that are relevant to evolutionary biology, sociobiology, anthropology, and ethology. Questions concern the nature of human nature, the origin of human society, nurture-nature influences on humans, and the nature of male-female…

  17. Jean-Jacques Rousseau among the Footnotes: Mapping Interdisciplinary Research in Social Science Citation Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herubel, Jean-Pierre V. M.; Buchanan, Anne L.

    1994-01-01

    Examination of citations indexed in Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) reveals salient patterns which can be helpful in determining interdisciplinarity and/or disciplinarity. Collection development efforts can be enhanced by examination of citation patterns of published research related to a classical social science author such as Jean-Jacques…

  18. Paulo Freire's Last Laugh: Rethinking Critical Pedagogy's Funny Bone through Jacques Ranciere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tyson Edward

    2010-01-01

    In several enigmatic passages, Paulo Freire describes the pedagogy of the oppressed as a "pedagogy of laughter". The inclusion of laughter alongside problem-posing dialogue might strike some as ambiguous, considering that the global exploitation of the poor is no laughing matter. And yet, laughter seems to be an important aspect of the pedagogy of…

  19. Human Unity and the Catholic University: Some Notes from the Philosophy of Jacques Maritain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Souza, Mario O.

    2008-01-01

    While focusing on the nature and mission of Catholic higher education, "Ex Corde Ecclesiae: The Apostolic Constitution on Catholic Universities and The Presence of the Church in the University and University Culture" are also interested in the relationship between the mission of the Catholic university and the nature of the student as a person.…

  20. Using Chinese Knowledge in Internationalising Research Education: Jacques Ranciere, an Ignorant Supervisor and Doctoral Students from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The problematic of the research reported in this paper, namely the place of Chinese knowledge in educational research in Australia provides an opportunity to use Rancire's work to rethink the place of ignorance in the supervisory pedagogies used in internationalising education. Because its scope and character is quite variable, consideration is…

  1. Pierre Bourdieu and Jacques Rancière on art/aesthetics and politics: the origins of disagreement, 1963-1985.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Derek

    2015-12-01

    Rancière published two substantial criticisms of the work of Bourdieu in the early 1980s. It is possible that these were provoked by his sense that he needed to oppose what he considered to be the sociological reduction of aesthetic taste offered by Bourdieu in Distinction (Bourdieu 1986 [1979]) at precisely the moment when he (Rancière) was beginning to articulate his commitment to the potential of aesthetic expression as a mode of political resistance. Except in so far as it draws upon some of the retrospective reflections offered by Rancière in his introductions to the re-issues of his early texts, this paper examines the parallel development of the thinking of the two men up to the mid-1980s--but not beyond. The discussion is situated socio-historically and, by definition, does not seek to offer comparatively any transhistorical assessment of the values of the positions adopted by the two men. I argue that Rancière misrepresented the character of Bourdieu's sociological work by failing to recognize the underlying phenomenological orientation of his thinking. Bourdieu suppressed this orientation in the 1960s but, after the May events of 1968, it enabled him to expose the extent to which the practices of both science and art operate within constructed 'fields' in strategic distinction from popular primary experience. The challenge is to introduce an ongoing dialogue between primary and constructed cultures rather than to suppose that either social science or art possesses intrinsic autonomy. PMID:26455436

  2. The need for true controversies in psychoanalysis: the debates on Melanie Klein and Jacques Lacan in the Rio de la Plata.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Ricardo

    2002-08-01

    Controversies are part of the process of scientific knowing. In psychoanalysis, the diversity of theoretical, technical and epistemological positions makes the debate particularly necessary and by the same token difficult. In this paper, the author examines the function of controversies and the obstacles to their development, taking as examples the debates held in the Río de la Plata (Buenos Aires and Montevideo) during the nineteen seventies, when the dominant Kleinian ideas came into contact with Lacanian thought. The author examines different examples of argumentative discourses, using concepts taken from the theory of argumentation. The major difficulties encountered did not hinge on characteristics pertaining to psychoanalytic theories (i.e. the lack of commensurability between them), but on the defensive strategies aimed at keeping each theory's premises safe from the opposing party's arguments. A true debate implies the construction of a shared argumentative field that makes it possible to lay out the different positions and see some interaction between them and is guided by the search for the best argument. When this occurs, controversies promote the discipline's development, even when they fail to reach any consensus.

  3. Jacques Lacan's theory of the subject as real, symbolic and imaginary: how can Lacanian theory be of help to mental health nursing practice?

    PubMed

    McSherry, A

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents an outline of Lacan's theory of the human subject, in particular focusing on Lacan's concepts of the real, symbolic and imaginary registers, and how an understanding of these can inform change and practice in mental health nursing. Mental health nursing is under pressure to define itself as a practice distinct from other professions in the field, and to respond in new ways to promoting mental health to the individual and a wider public. Lacan's theory of the subject is of particular relevance to mental health nurses working with mental distress but has received little attention in mental health nursing literature. Six implications for practice are outlined in terms of: against normalization, the importance of the function of the symptom, what cannot be known, meaning as ever-changing, against empathy and against holistic ideas of the self.

  4. Pierre Bourdieu and Jacques Rancière on art/aesthetics and politics: the origins of disagreement, 1963-1985.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Derek

    2015-12-01

    Rancière published two substantial criticisms of the work of Bourdieu in the early 1980s. It is possible that these were provoked by his sense that he needed to oppose what he considered to be the sociological reduction of aesthetic taste offered by Bourdieu in Distinction (Bourdieu 1986 [1979]) at precisely the moment when he (Rancière) was beginning to articulate his commitment to the potential of aesthetic expression as a mode of political resistance. Except in so far as it draws upon some of the retrospective reflections offered by Rancière in his introductions to the re-issues of his early texts, this paper examines the parallel development of the thinking of the two men up to the mid-1980s--but not beyond. The discussion is situated socio-historically and, by definition, does not seek to offer comparatively any transhistorical assessment of the values of the positions adopted by the two men. I argue that Rancière misrepresented the character of Bourdieu's sociological work by failing to recognize the underlying phenomenological orientation of his thinking. Bourdieu suppressed this orientation in the 1960s but, after the May events of 1968, it enabled him to expose the extent to which the practices of both science and art operate within constructed 'fields' in strategic distinction from popular primary experience. The challenge is to introduce an ongoing dialogue between primary and constructed cultures rather than to suppose that either social science or art possesses intrinsic autonomy.

  5. The need for true controversies in psychoanalysis: the debates on Melanie Klein and Jacques Lacan in the Rio de la Plata.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Ricardo

    2002-08-01

    Controversies are part of the process of scientific knowing. In psychoanalysis, the diversity of theoretical, technical and epistemological positions makes the debate particularly necessary and by the same token difficult. In this paper, the author examines the function of controversies and the obstacles to their development, taking as examples the debates held in the Río de la Plata (Buenos Aires and Montevideo) during the nineteen seventies, when the dominant Kleinian ideas came into contact with Lacanian thought. The author examines different examples of argumentative discourses, using concepts taken from the theory of argumentation. The major difficulties encountered did not hinge on characteristics pertaining to psychoanalytic theories (i.e. the lack of commensurability between them), but on the defensive strategies aimed at keeping each theory's premises safe from the opposing party's arguments. A true debate implies the construction of a shared argumentative field that makes it possible to lay out the different positions and see some interaction between them and is guided by the search for the best argument. When this occurs, controversies promote the discipline's development, even when they fail to reach any consensus. PMID:12204169

  6. 78 FR 4365 - Capital, Margin, and Segregation Requirements for Security-Based Swap Dealers and Major Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Friday, February 22, 2013. \\1\\ See Exchange Act Release No. 68071 (Oct. 18, 2012), 77 FR 70213 (Nov. 23...) 551-5545; Valentina M. Deng, Attorney, at (202) 551-5778; or Teen I. Sheng, Attorney, at 202-551-...

  7. PRAGUE SEMINAR ON LANGUAGE TEACHING AIMS, 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FRIED, VILEM

    AN INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR, WHOSE PURPOSE IT WAS TO DISCUSS THE STRUCTURAL DIFFERENCES IN LANGUAGE TEACHING AIMS, IS REPORTED ON IN THIS ARTICLE. THE THREE PAPERS PRESENTED BY IVAN POLDAUF, VALENTINA ZETLINA, AND JOHN B. CARROLL ARE REVIEWED FOR THEIR DISCUSSIONS ON LINGUISTICS, DIDACTICS, AND PSYCHOLOGY. THE DISCUSSION FOLLOWING THE PRESENTATION OF…

  8. 75 FR 71431 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of List Decisions Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... Register notice that published on November 9, 2010 at 75 FR 68783 announcing the availability of EPA...: Comments on the proposed decisions should be sent to Valentina Cabrera Stagno or Dave Guiliano, Water... 94105, telephone (415) 972-3434 or (415) 947-4133, facsimile (415) 947-3537, e-mail...

  9. 75 FR 6398 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ..., IN 46805, Officers, Tonya R. Watson, Vice President, (Qualifying Individual), Sabah A. Qiyas..., COO, (Qualifying Individual), Jean Jacques Lalou, CEO. Geevee Enterprises Inc. dba Aerosend, 245...

  10. [Change in biochemical composition of amaranth leaves as a result of selection for increased level of amaranthine pigment].

    PubMed

    Gins, M S; Gins, V K; Kononkov, P F

    2002-01-01

    The composition and content of secondary compounds produced by the shikimate pathway and the contents of protein and cellulose were determined in leaves of amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) K-99 and the cultivar Valentina raised from it by family selection and enriched in the pigment amaranthine. It was found that intense biosynthesis of amaranthine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine resulted in a decrease in the contents of lignin, protein, and cellulose in leaves of Valentina by comparison with K-99 and in changed the morphological traits: color deepening and a decrease in leaf density. It is concluded that amaranth biosynthesis is related to nitrogen metabolism and amaranthine is an intermediate involved in conversion of nitrogen compounds in the cell.

  11. A salt bath will keep you going? Euryhalinity tests and genetic structure of caridean shrimps from Iberian rivers.

    PubMed

    González-Ortegón, Enrique; Palero, Ferran; Lejeusne, Christophe; Drake, Pilar; Cuesta, Jose A

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the role of euryhalinity and life-history traits on the population genetic structure of the four main caridean shrimp species from the Iberian Peninsula (Atyaephyra desmarestii, Dugastella valentina, Palaemon varians and Palaemon zariquieyi) able to complete their life cycle in freshwater/oligohaline habitats. Seawater exposure experiments indicated that A. desmarestii, D. valentina and P. zariquieyi are more sensitive to high salinity waters than P. varians and confirm the relationship between osmolality regulation and spatial distribution of species. The limited or no survival in seawater could explain the restricted distributions observed in D. valentina and P. zariquieyi, whereas the current A. desmarestii distribution could be due to either past river dynamics and/or human-mediated water transfers. Conversely, the high tolerance of P. varians to a large salinity range (euryhalinity) could explain its capacity to colonize geographically distant estuaries. In agreement with osmoregulation results, the phylogeography patterns of the cytochrome oxidase 1 (Cox 1) gene fragment revealed significant genetic differentiation among river systems whatever the species considered. Atyidae species presented higher nucleotide diversity levels than Palaemonidae species, while isolation-by-distance patterns were only found for the latter. Our results have important implications for the management and conservation of freshwater species, since the inter-catchment connectivity may affect the speciation processes. PMID:26118862

  12. Dewey, Derrida, and "The Double Bind"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Jim

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the texts of Jacques Derrida and Dewey. The texts of Jacques Derrida seem inextricably connected to the word deconstruction, yet, Derrida insists, "The word "deconstruction," like all other words, acquires its value only from its inscription in a chain of possible substitutions." The author argues that…

  13. Literary Theory and the Notion of Difficulty. Report Series 4.7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Touponce, William

    The works of French literary theorists Jacques Lacan, Jacques Derrida, and Roland Barthes reflect a view of the text as the primary object of investigation for any discipline in the human sciences. Each of the three has been involved with pedagogical reforms within French cultural institutions: Derrida with the teaching of philosophy, Lacan with…

  14. Languages in a Globalising World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurais, Jacques, Ed.; Morris, Michael A., Ed.

    This book offers 21 papers in three parts. After (1) "Introduction" (Jacques Maurais and Michael A. Morris), Part 1, "Global Communication Challenges," includes (2) "Towards a New Global Linguistic Order?" (Jacques Maurais); (3) "The Geostrategies of Interlingualism" (Mark Fettes); (4) "Language Policy and Linguistic Theory" (Douglas A Kibbee);…

  15. Moliere: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guicharnaud, Jacques, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Jacques Guicharnaud, Rene Bray, Gustave Lanson, Alfred Simon, Will G. Moore, Ramon Fernandez, Paul Benichou, Lionel Gossman, Andre Villiers, James Doolittle, H. Gaston Hall, Robert J. Nelson, Jacques Copeau, Charles…

  16. Plato's Pharmacy and Derrida's Drugstore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortensen, Chris

    2000-01-01

    In a long essay titled "Plato's Pharmacy, Jacques Derrida attacked Western metaphysics. This article undertakes to defend Western philosophy from Derrida's arguments. It is shown that Derrida's arguments are very unsatisfactory. (Author/VWL)

  17. The Jouissance of English Department Politics: A Tale of Shem and Shaun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Henry R.

    1993-01-01

    Considers the role of the English department malcontent, who constantly seems to spoil any chance of departmental consensus. Discusses the typical life of the English department. Analyzes departmental disputes with the aid of Jacques Lacan's notion of "jouissance." (HB)

  18. 78 FR 24288 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Frida Kahlo, Diego Rivera...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Frida Kahlo, Diego Rivera, and... included in the exhibition ``Frida Kahlo, Diego Rivera, and Masterpieces of Modern Mexico: The Jacques...

  19. Toward a 'Nouveau Emile.'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerson, Martin

    1979-01-01

    The author notes that the questions raised in Torsten Husen's book, "The School in Question," are the same raised by the eighteenth-century philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau. Specifically, problems inherent in the concept of equal education are considered. (KC)

  20. Nigeria, Alienation, and The Novels of Chinua Achebe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Omolara

    1973-01-01

    Examines the novels of Chinua Achebe in the light of Jean Jacques Rousseau's definition of political alienation as the political process of representation whereby a community allows its interests to be represented by a smaller group. (Author/JM)

  1. Natural Freedom and Wilderness Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welton, George E.

    1978-01-01

    The "naturalism" of Jean Jacques Rousseau offers a philosophical base for wilderness survival: the renewal of participants in nature so that they can reenter civilization with a proper balance of natural and civil liberty. (MJB)

  2. Deconstruction and Linguistic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleifer, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    Challenges a number of concepts in classical continental linguistics. Argues that a direct relationship exists between Jacques Derrida's procedures of deconstruction and the methods of linguistic analysis. Claims that deconstruction is the negation or denial of linguistic neutralization. (JD)

  3. Bioavailability and toxicity of arsenic in maize (Zea mays L.) grown in contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Drličková, Gabriela; Vaculík, Marek; Matejkovič, Peter; Lux, Alexander

    2013-08-01

    The growth of maize (Zea mays L.), hybrid Valentina, was compared in two types of contaminated soil substrates (Ochre and Heap) with different arsenic (As) concentration originating from an old mining area in Slovakia. Although the total As concentration in Heap soil was 2.6 times lower than in Ochre soil (90 and 237 mg kg⁻¹, respectively), plants grown in Heap soil accumulated more As in their tissues (shoot and root As concentration being 4 and 5.5 times higher, respectively) and were markedly smaller, which produced significantly less biomass and flowered later in comparison with Ochre soil grown plants. PMID:23775315

  4. Press conference bring excitement of geophysical research to the public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leifert, Harvey

    “A Flare to Remember.” “Starbucks for Starfish.” “Earth's Rotation Slows for El Niño.” What do these catchy headlines have in common? They all resulted from presentations at AGU's Spring Meeting in Boston, Mass. Yes, geophysical science can be big news when presented in a way that is interesting to general audiences.Proof? Well, the “Flare to Remember” headline (in the Dallas Morning News) reported the discovery, via the SOHO spacecraft, that a solar flare had produced, deep inside the Sun, seismic disturbances of a magnitude never experienced on Earth. Researchers Valentina Zharkova of Glasgow University and Alexander Kosovichev of Stanford gave media representatives a preview of their session, supported by visual aids, in the AGU press briefing room.

  5. Learner, Student, Speaker: Why It Matters How We Call Those We Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I discuss three different ways in which we can refer to those we teach: as learner, as student or as speaker. My interest is not in any aspect of teaching but in the question whether there can be such a thing as emancipatory education. Working with ideas from Jacques Ranciere I offer the suggestion that emancipatory education can be…

  6. Art, Politics, and the Pedagogical Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruitenberg, Claudia W.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the French philosopher Jacques Ranciere has addressed the predicament of artists and curators who, in their eagerness to convey a critical message or engage their viewers in an emancipatory process, end up predetermining the outcomes of the experience, hence blocking its critical or emancipatory potential. In this essay I consider…

  7. Emancipation, Equality and Education: Ranciere's Critique of Bourdieu and the Question of Performativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Jacques Rancire's work has had significant impact in philosophy and literary theory, but remains largely undiscussed in the field of education. This article is a review of the relevance of Rancire's work to education research. Rancire's argument about education emerges from his critique of Bourdieu, which states that Bourdieu reinforces inequality…

  8. What I Talk about When I Talk about Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safstrom, Carl Anders

    2011-01-01

    In this text I discuss two events in which I learned something important about life and about education in order to formulate in a precise manner two propositions for my pedagogical creed. In focus for both are the interrelatedness of theory and life. The stories are told through the lenses of Emmanuel Levinas's and Jacques Ranciere's thinking,…

  9. Aesthetics, Affect, and Educational Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores aesthetics, affect, and educational politics through the thought of Gilles Deleuze and Jacques Ranciere. It contextualizes and contrasts the theoretical valences of their ethical and democratic projects through their shared critique of Kant. It then puts Ranciere's notion of dissensus to work by exploring it in relation to a…

  10. Creative Class, Dismissed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fendrich, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    Recently the author has been including in her undergraduate seminars Jean-Jacques Rousseau's "Letter to d'Alembert on the Theatre" (1758), the most provocative essay on the arts ever written. It is about the unintended effects of theater--which, for Rousseau, stands in for all of the arts--on an audience. The essay is an impassioned rebuttal to…

  11. Problematizing Knowledge-Power Relationships: A Rancièrian Provocation for Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanellopoulos, Panagiotis A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper suggests a framework for re-thinking the relationships between power and knowledge in music education. Informed by Jacques Rancière's notion of equality it explores how a dialectic between knowledge/mastery and ignorance/equality effects a rupture in the canonical relationships between knowledge and authority. Further, and based on a…

  12. Ambitions and Responsibilities: A Textual Analysis of the Norwegian National Curriculum Regulations for Nursing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solbrekke, Tone Dyrdal; Heggen, Kristin; Engebretsen, Eivind

    2014-01-01

    Society assigns professional educational programs the responsibility to aid students in learning and dedicate expert knowledge to furthering the well-being of citizens. This demand calls for addressing the how educational policies prioritize learning professionals' responsibility. Inspired by the theory of Jacques Derrida, we deconstruct the…

  13. Installation of a Bridge Barrier as a Suicide Prevention Strategy in Montréal, Québec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Stéphane; Fournier, Michel; Perron, Paul-André; Ouellet, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether the installation of a suicide prevention barrier on Jacques-Cartier Bridge led to displacement of suicides to other jumping sites on Montréal Island and Montérégie, Québec, the 2 regions it connects. Methods. Suicides on Montréal Island and Montérégie were extracted from chief coroners’ records. We used Poisson regression to assess changes in annual suicide rates by jumping from Jacques-Cartier Bridge and from other bridges and other sites and by other methods before (1990–June 2004) and after (2005–2009) installation of the barrier. Results. Suicide rates by jumping from Jacques-Cartier Bridge decreased after installation of the barrier (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.24; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.13, 0.43), which persisted when all bridges (IRR = 0.39; 95% CI = 0.27, 0.55) and all jumping sites (IRR = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.54, 0.80) in the regions were considered. Conclusions. Little or no displacement to other jumping sites may occur after installation of a barrier at an iconic site such as Jacques-Cartier Bridge. A barrier’s design is important to its effectiveness and should be considered for new bridges with the potential to become symbolic suicide sites. PMID:23678905

  14. Dissenting with Queer Theory: Reading Rancière Queerly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greteman, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author looks to the work of Jacques Rancière to engage the possibilities in dissensus in queer theory in education. Fatigued of Foucault, bored with Butler, disdainful of Derrida and dumbfounded by Deleuze and Guattari, and just generally tired of feeling bullied into citing particular people and not others, the author…

  15. Council of Europe Experimental Special Classes for Migrant Workers' Children, Academic Year 1972-73. (Vitry, France).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestour, Renee; And Others

    During the 1972-73 academic year, an adaptation class for foreign pupils was conducted at the "Anatole France" Co-Educational School in Vitry, France. The class was composed of children between the ages of 6 and 10 years, mainly of Portuguese nationality. Pupils spent 27 hours per week in class. The "Frere Jacques" method, devised by the Office…

  16. The Flemish Bastard and the Former Indians: Metis and Identity in Seventeenth-Century New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midtrod, Tom Arne

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the lives of three children of Dutch men and Mohawk women: the Mohawk leader Smits Jan and the siblings Jacques van Slyck and Hilletie van Olinda of the Dutch village of Schenectady. In recent years several historians have examined how cross-cultural settings enabled people to reshape their identities. William Hart sees the…

  17. Choreographing Theory: An Analysis of Edouard Lock's "Amelia" (2002) Questioning the Limits of Feminist and Poststructuralist Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireland, Ruby

    2009-01-01

    Edouard Lock's dance film "Amelia" (2002) is the focus of this essay. Second-wave feminist and poststructuralist perspectives inform the analysis of this piece of contemporary dance. Laura Mulvey's male gaze theory and Julia Kristeva's theory of the semiotic and symbolic realms of representation are explored and critiqued, whilst Jacques Derrida's…

  18. Sartre: A Collection of Critical Essays. Twentieth Century Views Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Edith, Ed.

    One of a series of works aimed at presenting contemporary critical opinion on major authors, this collection includes essays by Edith Kern, Claude-Edmonde Magny, Henri Peyre, Kenneth Douglas, Edmund Wilson, Theophil Spoerri, Jacques Guicharnaud, Eric Bentley, Robert Champigny, Oreste F. Pucciani, Frederic Jameson, Rene Girard, Guido…

  19. Our Brave New World Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Aldous Huxley is perhaps the only author to have written a work of science fiction and a work of nonfiction to ascertain whether fiction had become reality. Both "Brave New World" and "Brave New World Revisited" are discussed and compared with Jacques Ellul's work on technology.

  20. International Reports on Literacy Research: France, United Kingdom, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botza, Stergios, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on France, United Kingdom and Brazil. In the first report, research correspondent Jacques Fijalkow presents research into variations of reading motivation related to students' socioeconomic status (SES), age, and gender. Three of these…

  1. AGORA--II. "The Role of the Company in Lifelong Learning" (Thessaloniki, Greece, November 17-18, 1997). CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planas, Jordi

    This document contains the participants list, agenda, and six papers from a seminar on the role of the company in lifelong learning in the European Union. "Introductory Comment: The Role of the Company in Lifelong Learning" (Jacques Delcourt) traces the movement from training for life toward flexible training systems coupled with flexible work and…

  2. On the Borders: The Arrival of Irregular Immigrants in Malta--Some Implications for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercieca, Duncan

    2007-01-01

    This paper concerns the issue of the continual arrival of irregular immigrants in Malta and the problems that ensue. The view generally held is that we need to respond to the needs of irregular immigrants by providing services. However, with reference to some of Jacques Derrida's ideas, I argue in this paper that the "other"/immigrant is not there…

  3. Commodification of Ghana's Volta River: An Example of Ellul's Autonomy of Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbemabiese, Lawrence; Byrne, John

    2005-01-01

    Jacques Ellul argued that modernity's nearly exclusive reliance on science and technology to design society would threaten human freedom. Of particular concern for Ellul was the prospect of the technical milieu overwhelming culture. The commodification of the Volta River in order to modernize Ghana illustrates the Ellulian dilemma of the autonomy…

  4. Proceedings of the EMU Conference on Foreign Languages for Business and the Professions (Dearborn, Michigan, April 5-7, 1984). Part I: Business Needs/Educators Respond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voght, Geoffrey M., Ed.

    Part I of the proceedings includes seven presentations. They are: "International Language Evaluation and Professional Points of View" (M. Jacques Cartier); "Foreign Languages and International Businesses in Colorado: A Report and Assessment" (Alain W. D. Ranwez and Donald Schmidt); "The Use of Foreign Languages in International Banking: A Survey…

  5. Preschoolers' Recitation versus Understanding of a Televised Song.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sandra L.; And Others

    A study was conducted to determine whether children think about the verbal messages embedded in songs, or merely sing the words without thinking about them. A total of 48 preschool girls and boys viewed a televised vignette of the song "Frere Jacques" under varying conditions of language comprehensibility, rehearsal, and repetition. The visual…

  6. Quebec's Aboriginal Languages: History, Planning and Development. Multilingual Matters 107.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurais, Jacques, Ed.

    This book provides an overview of the history, present circumstances, and future prospects of the native languages of Quebec: Abenaki, Algonquin, Atikamekw, Cree, Inuktitut, Micmac, Mohawk, Montagnais, and Naskapi. Chapter 1, "The Situation of Aboriginal Languages in the Americas" (Jacques Maurais), discusses the linguistic demography of American…

  7. Papers on Educational Reform, Volume IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Open Court Publishing Co., La Salle, IL.

    The following nine papers were presented to the Open Court Editorial Advisory Board Meeting, 1974. In "National Assessment of Educational Progress" J. Stanley Ahmann provides an overview of assessment aims, construction, and results. Jacques Barzun discusses the history of educational theory in "The Use of Tradition in Educational Disputes". In…

  8. Music Education in the Sign of Deconstruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyndahl, Petter

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the aim is to address different forms of relationship between deconstruction, as coined by Jacques Derrida, and research perspectives on music education. Deconstruction represents a radical departure from Western ontology from Plato onward and its essentialistic notions of the metaphysics of presence. Instead, Derrida claims that…

  9. The Promise of Politics and Pedagogy in Derrida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author profiles Jacques Derrida, whose teaching activity made an invaluable and indelible contribution to the intellectual life of the University of California, Irvine (UCI). The question of pedagogy is central for Derrida, not only in terms of teaching people to read and write differently, but as a means for appreciating the…

  10. Representational and Territorial Economies in Global Citizenship Education: Welcoming the Other at the Limit of Cosmopolitan Hospitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langmann, Elisabet

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I argue that any success a discourse on cosmopolitan hospitality might have in global citizenship education depends on how it deals with its own limits, and I propose a way of responding to these limits that takes the cosmopolitan commitment to openness to the other seriously. Following Jacques Derrida, my point is that to teach…

  11. Whose Place Is This Anyway? Reflecting upon Hospitality and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    In this essay I propose that using online tools to connect geographically-separated classrooms for real-time collaborative learning experiences may effectively develop intercultural competency in the religious studies classroom. I explore personal examples from several international and inter-institutional collaborations with Jacques Derrida's…

  12. Derrida, Friendship and Responsible Teaching in Contrast to Effective Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Shilpi

    2013-01-01

    Educational theorists working within the tradition of Jacques Derrida and Emmanuel Levinas's thought, posit teaching to be a site of implied ethics, that is, a realm in which non-violent or less violent relations to the other are possible. Derrida links ethics to the realm of friendship, enabling one to understand teaching as a site of the…

  13. Uncommon Grounds: Preparing Students in Higher Music Education for the Unpredictable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapidaki, Eleni

    2016-01-01

    This article considers the contribution that Jacques Derrida's work "Of Hospitality" might make to higher music education as it unsettles the usual ascription of normative value to learning and teaching music at the university. Along these lines, what is most at issue in the encounter with Derrida's thinking is the concomitant notion of…

  14. What Kind of Deconstruction for Deconstructive Religious Education? Response to Noaparast and Khosravi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert J. J.; Miedema, Siebren

    2011-01-01

    The question whether the writings of Jacques Derrida have anything to offer for religious education is, in the authors' opinion, a very important one. In their attempts at answering the question, the authors have tried to argue that the writings of Derrida provide openings that speak to both theology and education in a way that is not only…

  15. "Technique" and Artistic Imitation and Invention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younes, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Contrary to the general belief that modernist art and architecture reflect the technological society, Jacques Ellul maintains in his "L'empire du non-sens" that they are justifications for the integration of humankind into what he called the technicist complex. Modernism in art and architecture meant that every product must be qualified by a…

  16. Inventing the Educational Subject in the "Information Age"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bojesen, Emile

    2016-01-01

    This paper asks the question of how we can situate the educational subject in what Luciano Floridi has defined as an "informational ontology" (Floridi in "The philosophy of information." Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011a). It will suggest that Jacques Derrida and Bernard Stiegler offer paths toward rethinking the…

  17. Pedagogies of Hauntology in History Education: Learning to Live with the Ghosts of Disappeared Victims of War and Dictatorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2013-01-01

    Michalinos Zembylas examines how history education can be reconceived in terms of Jacques Derrida's notion of "hauntology," that is, as an ongoing conversation with the "ghost"--in the case of this essay, the ghosts of disappeared victims of war and dictatorship. Here, Zembylas uses hauntology as both metaphor and pedagogical methodology for…

  18. Affordances of Equality: Rancière, Emerging Media, and the New Amateur

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thumlert, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    This article extends a recent educational engagement with the work of Jacques Rancière by linking his meditations on 19th-century worker emancipation to present cultural contexts and media forms. Taking Nick Prior's (2010) notion of the "new amateur" as point of departure, I argue that new media and attendant production contexts offer an…

  19. "Listen Then, Or, Rather, Answer": Contemporary Challenges to Socratic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullam, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    The popularity of Jacques Rancière in recent work in educational philosophy has rejuvenated discussion of the merits and weaknesses of Socratic education, both in Plato's dialogues and in invocations of Socrates in contemporary educational practice. In this essay Jordan Fullam explores the implications of this trend through comparing…

  20. East Siberia and Bering Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On June 5, 2001 MODIS captured this true-color image of Eastern Siberia and the Bering Strait. To the right of the image is the western tip of Alaska's St. Lawrence Island. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  1. [The sense of the senseless, psychoanalytic aspects of delusion in psychosis].

    PubMed

    Chaperot, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    The psychoanalytic approach to delusion in psychosis leads us to examine the function of a "furrow". It is necessary to remain in the furrow in order not to become delusional. References to Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan, Mélanie Klein and Jean-Claude Maleval enlighten us as to the origin and the function of delusion as an attempt to give meaning.

  2. Opening Philosophy to the World: Derrida and Education in Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burik, Steven

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, Steven Burik discusses Jacques Derrida's position with regard to the place of education in philosophy within the university system, and then relates these thoughts to comparative philosophy. Philosophers find themselves constantly having to defend philosophy and the importance of teaching philosophy against pressure from the powers…

  3. Annals of Community-Oriented Education, Volume 3, Part I, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, C., Ed.; And Others

    This collection gathers together several papers reflecting the state of the art in the development of community-based programs in health sciences education. Titles and authors are as follows: "Issues in Implementing a Problem-Based Learning Curriculum at the University of Sherbrooke" (Jacques E. Des Marchais; Bertrand Dumais); "Students'…

  4. Language and Being Human in Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Laan, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    This essay considers the analysis Jacques Ellul carried out about the devaluation of language. This investigation also explores the consequences of that devaluation (or humiliation as Ellul called it) wrought by our orientation to technology. Our existence in technology transforms language and our use of it, shifting emphasis as well to the visual…

  5. Lacan, Subjectivity and the Task of Mathematics Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tony

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of subjectivity in the context of mathematics education research. It introduces the psychoanalyst and theorist Jacques Lacan whose work on subjectivity combined Freud's psychoanalytic theory with processes of signification as developed in the work of de Saussure and Peirce. The paper positions Lacan's subjectivity…

  6. Two Cultures, Two Dialogists and Two Intersecting Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenscroft, Lesley

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents some possibilities for applying the linguistic and psychological theories of two dialogists, Mikhail Bakhtin and Jacques Lacan, to the classroom. There is a short summary of how the two theories may interact with each other and then a discussion of their two opposing views of identity formation. Bakhtin was a Russian, coming…

  7. Don't Fence Me In: The Liberation of Undomesticated Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruitenberg, Claudia

    2004-01-01

    In response to Helmut Heid's critique of domesticated philosophical critique, I focus on the metaphor of domestication, which is central to his article. Drawing on the work of Jacques Derrida, I offer a deconstructive critique of the opposition between domesticated and undomesticated critique, arguing that a clear conceptual demarcation between…

  8. Thanatos and Civilization: Lacan, Marcuse, and the Death Drive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    During the 1950s and 1960s two thinkers, Herbert Marcuse and Jacques Lacan, were conducting a "return to Freud" for very similar reasons. If the differences between them are often advertised, their affinities are less so. In this article, I examine how their "return to Freud" and fidelity to psychoanalysis serves as a common ground to read each in…

  9. Why Ranciere Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanke, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    This essay introduces readers to the work of Jacques Ranciere and demonstrates how his thinking on art and politics can help alleviate certain impasses within contemporary aesthetic and political theory. Exploiting untranslated sources, I present Ranciere's recent work as responding to predispositions within the theory and practice of art that…

  10. 'Administering the Medicine': Progressive Education, Colonialism, and the State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Joost

    2001-01-01

    Draws comparisons between the Australian education directors, Frank Tate and Jacques Henry Abendanon. Discusses educational reform issues based on racial contexts and social, political, and cultural aspects in the British colony of Victoria and the Dutch colony of Java. Concludes that, though their politcal contexts are different, their views are…

  11. Eyeless in America, the Sequel: Hollywood and Indiewood's Iraq War on Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This article builds on conclusions drawn in the article "Eyeless in America," by the same author and considers how 50 American films about the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan intended to function as what Jacques Ellul called "integration propaganda" fared. This article considers and rejects a number of theories about why most feature war films failed…

  12. "The Treasure Within: Learning to Know, Learning to Do, Learning to Live Together and Learning to Be." What Is the Value of that Treasure 15 Years after Its Publication?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delors, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    This is an English translation of a speech held by French economist and politician Jacques Delors, former President of the European Commission, on 7 November 2011 at the opening of the International Congress on Lifelong Learning in Donostia/San Sebastián, Spain. Fifteen years after the International Commission on Education for the Twenty-first…

  13. Rousseau's "Emile" and its Contribution to the Development of Educational Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, R. Graham

    1982-01-01

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau's educational and political thought is compared to that of John Locke. Rousseau's theories, as expressed in "Emile," are placed in the context of some of that author's other works to show how his educational theories can seem practical in terms of his views on social and political inequality. (PP)

  14. In the Shadow of "Emile": Pedagogues, Pediatricians, Physical Education, 1686-1762

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosato-Rigo, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    This article takes as its starting point the commonplace that Rousseau's "Emile" enabled his contemporaries to discover not only childhood but physical education. Focused on what the pedestal erected for Jean-Jacques somewhat overshadows, a brief historiographic overview and a survey of some major writings on education before Rousseau (by the…

  15. The Growth of Democratic Tradition: The Age of Enlightenment. Tenth Grade Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa, Marie A.

    This lesson plan begins with an overview of the age of enlightenment and those ideas that influenced the founders of the United States. The lesson plan provides information sheets about five enlightenment thinkers: John Locke (1632-1704), Mary Wolstonecraft (1759-1898), Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755), Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1788), and John…

  16. The Writing Cure: Psychoanalysis, Composition, and the Aims of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracher, Mark

    Asserting that psychoanalysis and writing instruction have much to offer each other, this book examines the intersection between these two fields and proposes pedagogical uses of psychoanalytic technique for writing instruction. Articulating an approach based on the work of Jacques Lacan, the book shows how a psychoanalytic perspective can offer…

  17. Metaphor and Metonymy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigg, Russell

    1994-01-01

    Describes in some detail the structure of metaphor and metonymy, reviewing three main structures of metaphor--supposition, extension, and apposition--and proposing a comprehensive definition of metaphor taking all three structures into account. Draws on Roman Jakobson when explaining Jacques Lacan's claim that condensation is metaphor and…

  18. Subjectivity as an Unlimited Semiosis: Lacan and Peirce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordtug, Birgit

    2004-01-01

    The discussion on subjectivity is based on the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan's understanding of subjectivity as constructed in and through language, and the philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce's general ideas of signifying construction as an unlimited sign-exchanging process--the idea of the unlimited semiosis. The article advocates combining…

  19. Aborigines of the Imaginary: Applying Lacan to Aboriginal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Neil

    2012-01-01

    This paper applies the work of Jacques Lacan, a French psychoanalyst, to decipher the desire of the teacher in Aboriginal education. It argues that the images of Aboriginal people represented in Australian classrooms are effects of the teacher's Imaginary, the Imaginary being one of the three psychoanalytic domains theorised by Lacan over a period…

  20. The Ethics of the "Real" In Levinas, Lacan, and Buddhism: Pedagogical Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jagodzinski, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Explores the unstated ethics that exist in the silent space between teacher and students, highlighting Emmanuel Levinas, Jacques Lacan, and Buddhism. The paper uses the juxtaposition of west and east to help illuminate ethical pedagogy, and it argues that there is an unknowable dimension which raises the question of ethics in human relations that…

  1. At the Intersection between the Subject and the Political: A Contribution to an Ongoing Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pais, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    The issue of subjectivity has recently occasioned a lively discussion in this journal opposing socioculturalism and Lacanian psychoanalysis. By confronting Luis Radford's cultural theory with Jacques Lacan's psychoanalysis, Tony Brown sought to show the limitations of socioculturalism. This article takes advantage of that discussion to develop a…

  2. Burke, Nietzsche, Lacan: Three Perspectives on the Rhetoric of Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Douglas

    1993-01-01

    Examines the complex relationship between rhetoric and order in the works of Kenneth Burke, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Jacques Lacan. Argues for three differing, yet complementary, views of rhetoric and order, each having a corresponding epistemology and axiology. Concludes with an analysis of the construction of order in Thomas Hobbe's "Leviathan."…

  3. Enjoying God's Death: "The Passion of the Christ" and the Practices of an Evangelical Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Publics are not simply a product of common attention to texts, but are also animated by an economy of tropes and affects that relies on processes of metonymic connection, metaphorical condensation, and affective investment. Drawing on Jacques Lacan's theory of enjoyment and his treatments of metaphor and metonymy as rhetorical forms, this essay…

  4. Psychologizing and the Anti-Psychologist: Dewey, Lacan, and Contemporary Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Beth A.

    2012-01-01

    Art education throughout the 20th and into the 21st century has drawn on both psychology and psychoanalysis to support approaches to teaching and learning in the arts. This article examines the concept of "psychologizing" as it appears in the writing of psychologist/philosopher John Dewey (1859-1952) and psychiatrist/psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan…

  5. Antihumanism in the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Joel

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes the antihumanistic elements of Jacques Derrida's theory of deconstruction. Argues that the modern French intellectuals, including Foucault, Derrida, and Lacan, have had an antihumanistic effect on the American social sciences and humanities by rejecting the existence of truth, morality, and rationality. (FMW)

  6. "The Ignorant Schoolmaster": Jacotot/Rancière on Equality, Emancipation and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukhopadhyay, Rahul; Narayanan, Varadarajan

    2014-01-01

    Jacques Rancière (born 1940), much like his contemporary Michel Foucault, has an academic oeuvre that defies neat classification within established disciplinary boundaries. This is due to the cross-disciplinary nature of his work, with a strong orientation towards history and philosophy. Although he trained as a philosopher (studying with Louis…

  7. An Examination of Prepropaganda and Political Change in Afghanistan during a National Crisis--September, 1979-January, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Robert; Hayes, James

    Jacques Ellul defined "prepropaganda" as the subtle and sophisticated use of news services to improve an authoritarian government's public image. Because its value is directly related to its being used sparingly, he predicted that prepropaganda would increase when an authoritarian government felt threatened and decrease when it once more felt…

  8. Derridean Justice and the DJ: A Classroom Impossibility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, researchers and theorists of music education have taken a stronger interest in questions of justice. Meanwhile, in educational research more broadly, there has been a simultaneous growth in efforts to bring deconstruction and the theories of Jacques Derrida to bear upon philosophies of education. One significant difficulty with…

  9. "Remediating Childhood Recollection": Facilitating Intermedial Theatre Based on Lived-Experience, Recollection and Remediation of Digital Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Jem

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on an intermedial pedagogy informed by Jacques Rancière's "Ignorant Schoolmaster" (1991). Two case studies interrogate the creative application of notions found in intermedial practice, hypersurface and palimpsest, discussing student agency as rigorous, innovative and research-led. The emerging status of pedagogy in…

  10. A history of research on yeasts 3: Emil Fischer, Eduard Buchner and their contemporaries, 1880-1900.

    PubMed

    Barnett, J A; Lichtenthaler, F W

    2001-03-15

    Through the discovery of Buchner, Biology was relieved of another fragment of mysticism. The splitting up of sugar into CO2 and alcohol is no more the effect of a "vital principle" than the splitting up of cane sugar by invertase. (Jacques Loeb 1906 [138] p.22.)

  11. International Reports on Literacy Research: France and Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This is a compilation of two separate reports on international literacy research from France and Argentina. In the reports from France, research correspondent Jacques Fijalkow detailed three research projects that included the following: (1) A description of adult literacy skills; (2) An investigation of how study-abroad students were integrated…

  12. Behind the School Walls: The School Community in French and English Boarding Schools for Girls, 1810-1867

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bellaigue, Christina

    2004-01-01

    This article develops a comparative analysis of lay boarding schools for girls in France and England in the first part of the nineteenth century, demonstrating that the character of school life in the two countries differed markedly. Contemporary observers such as Matthew Arnold, Henry Montucci and Jacques Demogeot visited boys' schools on either…

  13. [The union of three families of apothecaries in Paris in the 17th and 18th centuries--The apothecaries François Pihoué, François Regnault, Henry Charas and Marie Fourneau].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2015-06-01

    The family network started with Marie Fourneau, daughter of the apothecary Jacques Fourneau, married successively two apothecaries first François Pihoué and then François Regnault and whose only daughter Marie Anne married the apothecary Henry Charas grandson of the famous apothecary Moyse Charas.

  14. The Public Library, Democracy and Rancière's Poetics of Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huzar, Timothy Jozef

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This paper applies the thought of Jacques Rancière to the concept of democracy as it is traditionally understood in library studies literature. Methods: The paper reviews a cross-section of instances of the link between democracy and the public library in library studies literature. It offers a close textual analysis of Michael…

  15. Pedagogy of Ignorance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwaruddin, Sardar M.

    2015-01-01

    In this article I discuss how Jacques Rancière's thought invites us to re-conceptualize the education-emancipation nexus. The primary goal of traditional approaches to emancipatory and anti-oppressive education has been to empower the oppressed so that the latter can (re)gain their voice and transform their situations. Building on Rancière's…

  16. Les observateurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponsard, P.

    2014-09-01

    Nore observatoire de Nandrin vous attend - Comète Jacques (C/2014 E2) - Nuages noctulescents - L’observatoire de Cointe vu du monument interalliés - Orage sur la province de Liège - La police de Liège à l’heure des rendez-vous célestes

  17. Perpetuating the Technological Ideology: An Ellulian Critique of Feenberg's Democratized Rationalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Andrew Feenberg, in his book "Questioning Technology", offers his theory of "democratized rationalization" as a critical alternative to Jacques Ellul's essentialist perspective. Feenberg argues that Ellul has confused the tendency toward efficiency in technological discourse with the essence of technology, thereby disallowing for a "positive…

  18. Surrealism and Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, J. H.

    This book is a critical, genre study of surrealist films including a general discussion of the backgrounds, influences, and overall traits of surrealism as a mode of artistic response to an absurdist world. Citing the impetus of Jacques Vache and Andre Breton as the originators of surrealism, the work expands upon the themes of fractured realism…

  19. D&D of the French High Enrichment Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    BEHAR, Christophe; GUIBERTEAU, Philippe; DUPERRET, Bernard; TAUZIN, Claude

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes the D&D program that is being implemented at France's High Enrichment Gaseous Diffusion Plant, which was designed to supply France's Military with Highly Enriched Uranium. This plant was definitively shut down in June 1996, following French President Jacques Chirac's decision to end production of Highly Enriched Uranium and dismantle the corresponding facilities.

  20. Postmodern Philosophical Critique and the Pursuit of Knowledge in Higher Education. Critical Studies in Education and Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mourad, Roger P., Jr.

    This book explores postmodern critique in scholarly inquiry in the context of the philosophies of Jean-Francois Lyotard, Michel Foucault, Jacques Derrida, Richard Rorty, and Calvin Schrag. Claiming that the overall course of inquiry is characterized by basic theoretical deficiencies, postmodern critique suggests a rethinking of the nature and aims…

  1. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Gourevitch, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    After a paper by Jacques Chevallier (Histoire des sciences médicales, XLIX, 2015, 179-188), the author presents two unpublished letters from Engène Brieux, a popular write, and amateur of cruises, to Dr. Édouard Toulouse, a famous psychiatrist. PMID:27349129

  2. The History of the Present: Towards a Contemporary Phenomenology of the School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peim, Nick

    2001-01-01

    Discusses phenomenology as it relates to the theory that radical distinction cannot be sustained for subject and object, based on our perceptions of the factors involved. Focuses on Michel Foucault's philosophy and Jacques Derrida's anti-essentialist phenomenology. States that potential exists for rethinking the politics of theory in education.…

  3. Why Man Explores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena.

    This document presents a transcript of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration panel discussion held on July 2, 1976, in conjunction with the Viking Mission to Mars. The panel consisted of Norman Cousins, Ray Bradbury, Jacques Cousteau, James Michener, and Philip Morrison, and the principal topic was a philosophical discussion of the…

  4. Open File: Education in Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ordonez, Victor, Ed.; Maclean, Rupert, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This collection of scholarly essays on comparative education is divided into four sections. The first section, Viewpoints/Controversies, contains the essay "Educational Policies and Contents in Developing Countries" (Jacques Hallak). The second section, Open File: Education in Asia, contains the following essays: "Some Current Issues, Concerns and…

  5. Freeze, Wait, Reanimate: Cryonic Suspension and Science Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoffstall, Grant

    2010-01-01

    This essay takes as its chief point of departure Jacques Ellul's contention that imaginative treatments of malevolent technology in antitechnological science fiction, by way of inviting rejection, refusal, dismissal, or condemnation, conspire in facilitating human acceptance of and adjustment to technology as it otherwise presently is. The author…

  6. 75 FR 36774 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Renewals; Vision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Mary D. Gunnels, Director, Medical Programs, (202)-366-4001, fmcsamedical... 23, 2010 (75 FR 20881). Conclusion The Agency has not received any adverse evidence on any of these..., Laurent G. Jacques, Lucio Leal, Earl R. Mark, Douglas A. Mendoza, Michael R. Moore, Richard W....

  7. Teaching Rousseau: Natural Man and Present Existence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Daryl H.

    1989-01-01

    Offers an interpretation of Jean-Jacques Rousseau's "Discourse on the Origin and Foundations of Inequality" and provides examples of classroom exercises designed to make Rousseau's ideas and writings accessible to undergraduates. Stresses Rousseau's philosophy on natural man, language, ethics, and society. Includes interpretive references to…

  8. Education's Three Old Ideas, and a Better Idea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Kieran

    1999-01-01

    Discusses three educational ideas, demonstrating their incompatibility: (1) a focus on socialization; (2) Plato's notion that education is the process of seeking truth about reality; and (3) Jean-Jacques Rousseau's idea that the mind undergoes a developmental process and education furthers its development. Argues that education is learning to use…

  9. The Primary Aim of Speech Communication Education: Some Potential Concerns for Members of the Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, David D.

    Following a brief discussion of the works of the philosopher Jacques Maritain, who viewed the educational process as the art of helping individuals to realize the nature of that which is inherent in them, this paper analyzes the implications of Maritain's views for the discipline of speech communication. The paper suggests that education in speech…

  10. Technological Nihilism vs. Natural Law: Science, Morality, and the Law Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Peter Augustine

    2005-01-01

    The conflict between the followers of Jacques Maritain and the followers of John Dewey seems to amount to this: each group accuses the other of promoting education for tyranny. Pragmatism, for the Deweyans, frees human beings from the idea of a fixed human nature to pursue freely their ever-evolving ideas of happiness or fulfillment. According to…

  11. DEFECTS IN CERVICAL VERTEBRAE IN BORIC ACID-EXPOSED RAT EMBRYOS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH ANTERIOR SHIFTS OF HOX GENE EXPRESSION DOMAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Defects in cervical vertebrae in boric acid-exposed rat embryos are associated with anterior shifts of hox gene expression domains

    Nathalie Wery,1 Michael G. Narotsky,2 Nathalie Pacico,1 Robert J. Kavlock,2 Jacques J. Picard,1 AND Francoise Gofflot,1*
    1Unit of Developme...

  12. Rousseau and the Fable: Rethinking the Fabulous Nature of Educational Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Tyson E.

    2012-01-01

    In this essay Tyson Lewis reevaluates Jean-Jacques Rousseau's assessment of the pedagogical value of fables in Emile's education using Giorgio Agamben's theory of poetic production and Thomas Keenan's theory of the inherent ambiguity of the fable. From this perspective, the "unreadable" nature of the fable that Rousseau exposed is not simply the…

  13. Who Won the Debate in Women Education? Rousseau or Wollstonecraft?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owusu-Gyamfi, Clifford

    2016-01-01

    Curriculum framework in the education of children became debatable during the enlightenment. Jean-Jacque Rousseau's treatise, "Emile," outlined an educational curriculum based on natural rights. Rousseau thought education should be based on espousing and exploring the natural abilities of a person. Therefore, since women have a natural…

  14. Thinking about the Nature and Role of Authority in Democratic Education with Rousseau's "Emile"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaud, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Educational authority is an issue in contemporary democracies. Surprisingly, little attention has been given to the problem of authority in Jean-Jacques Rousseau's "Emile" and his work has not been addressed in the contemporary debate on the issue of authority in democratic education. Olivier Michaud's goals are, first, to address both of these…

  15. Rousseau's Imaginary Friend: Childhood, Play, and Suspicion of the Imagination in "Emile"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuffelton, Amy B.

    2012-01-01

    In this essay Amy Shuffelton considers Jean-Jacques Rousseau's suspicion of imagination, which is, paradoxically, offered in the context of an imaginative construction of a child's upbringing. First, Shuffelton articulates Rousseau's reasons for opposing children's development of imagination and their engagement in the sort of imaginative play…

  16. Exploring Fear: Rousseau, Dewey, and Freire on Fear and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Andrea; Stengel, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Fear is not the first feature of educational experience associated with the best-known progressive educational theorists--Jean-Jacques Rousseau, John Dewey, and Paolo Freire. But each of these important thinkers did, in fact, have something substantive to say about how fear functions in the processes of learning and growth. Andrea English and…

  17. Realizing the Natural Self: Rousseau and the Current System of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckover, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau believed that Nature is master. Children acknowledge this truth perhaps better than most adults. Nature gives life to humanity and provides humans with the tools necessary to survive. Even as an infant, Nature urges the child to scream for nourishment. As children, humans trust their master. The idea of resisting their human…

  18. The Wish for the End of Education and the Myth of Paradise: The Impact of Rousseauism on the Development of a Radical Critique of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruder, Georg

    1989-01-01

    Inquires into the question of how the necessity for a radical critique of education is justified, based on a comparative analysis of the argumentational structures used by Alice Miller and Jean Jacques Rousseau. Hypothesizes that both approaches are based on a concept of the origin of human societies based on the modern version of "the myth of…

  19. Alexander Meiklejohn in Search of Freedom and Dignity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tony W.

    1982-01-01

    Assesses the contributions of the philosopher/educator Alexander Meiklejohn. Discusses the influences of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Immanuel Kant, and the U.S. Constitution on Meiklejohn's educational theories, which stressed that human freedom and dignity can be enhanced by rigorous examination of U.S. Supreme Court decisions and the meaning of…

  20. Political and Cultural Nationalism in Education. The Ideas of Rousseau and Herder Concerning National Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiborg, Susanne

    2000-01-01

    Jean Jacques Rousseau in France and Johann Gottfied Herder in Germany both emphasized the role of education in building the nation-state. However, Rousseau focused on shaping the national character through citizenship education and political socialization in public schools, while Herder saw a national identity evolving from a common culture and…

  1. A Contrast in Schooling: The Natural Education of Emile vs. Giroux's Radical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau's classic work "Emile" of 1762 is contrasted with Henry G. Giroux's 1981 book "Ideology Culture and the Process of Schooling." Although both Giroux and Rousseau are social critics, their notions about education and its outcome are contrary and not due to historical time alone. This comparative analysis characterizes…

  2. Young Mary Wollstonecraft's Schooling and Its Influence on Her Future Pioneering Agenda for the Rational Education of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Leonard H.

    This paper presents biographical information about Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797), focusing especially on her education. The paper begins with an overview of the status of women's education, or lack of it, in 18th century England. It then describes Wollstonecraft's reaction to Jean Jacques Rousseau's views on women's education and the influence…

  3. Rousseau, Happiness, and the Economic Approach to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilead, Tal

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1960s, the influence of economic thought on education has been steadily increasing. Taking Jean-Jacques Rousseau's educational thought as a point of departure, Tal Gilead critically inquires into the philosophical foundations of what can be termed the economic approach to education. Gilead's focus in this essay is on happiness and the…

  4. Outdoor Education--The Past Is Prologue to the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    Although educators and philosophers such as Johann Amos Comenius, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Pestalozzi, and Froebel stressed the study of nature, outdoor education really began with the first teaching-learning act which occurred outdoors. The human being, physiologically and psychologically adapted for outdoor existence, has only been indoors for…

  5. Rosseau Revisited: Gender as a Category in the History of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Pia

    1992-01-01

    Reviews research on the impact of Jean Jacques Rousseau on educational history. Discusses the effects of either integrating or omitting gender as a research category. Concludes with a review of feminist research on Rousseau within the framework of educational history. (CFR)

  6. Master Teachers at the Carnegie.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judson, Bay Hallowell

    1989-01-01

    Describes children's art education at Pittsburgh's Carnegie Museum of Art from 1928-1975. Discusses how the educational philosophy was influenced by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, John Dewey, and Franz Cizek, stating that the goal of art education was to build character, transmit culture, promote healthy competition, and develop moral values and…

  7. The Happy and Suffering Student? Rousseau's "Emile" and the Path Not Taken in Progressive Educational Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Avi I.

    2012-01-01

    One of the mantras of progressive education is that genuine learning ought to be exciting and pleasurable, rather than joyless and painful. To a significant extent, Jean-Jacques Rousseau is associated with this mantra. In a theme of "Emile" that is often neglected in the educational literature, however, Rousseau stated that "to suffer is the first…

  8. History and the Curriculum in Rousseau's "Emile."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, David B.

    1982-01-01

    This essay considers Jean Jacques Rousseau's conception of history in "Emile" and its relationship to Rousseau's educational curriculum. History is, for Rousseau, at the heart of the curriculum and is one of the chief instruments for imparting knowledge of the world and encouraging moral behavior. (PP)

  9. L2 Reading Research and Pedagogical Considerations in the Teaching of French and Francophone Theater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Carole; Taylor, Alan M.

    2012-01-01

    Little research on improving second language (L2) reading comprehension of French and francophone theater has been conducted. This study provides insight into enhancing L2 comprehension of drama by combining L2 research with examples from L'accent grave by Jacques Prevert, Ton beau capitaine by Simone Schwarz-Bart (1987), Un Touareg s'est marie a…

  10. The Question in Educational Leadership: For Whom and for What Are We Responsible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Jacques Derrida wrote about democratic leadership in educational institutions throughout his later work, but in this article the author notes the importance of Derrida's essays published as "Eyes of the University" (2004). Derrida begins by returning to questions raised by Immanuel Kant two centuries earlier with regard to the founding of the…

  11. Settling No Conflict in the Public Place: Truth in Education, and in Rancierean Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This essay offers an educational understanding of truth deriving from the work of Jacques Ranciere. Unlike other educational accounts--the traditional, progressive, and critical accounts--of truth that take education as a way of approaching pre-existing truths (or lack of pre-existing truths), this essay establishes an account of truth that is…

  12. The Humanities without Condition: Derrida and the Singular "Oeuvre"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attridge, Derek

    2014-01-01

    In an important lecture on the function of the Humanities, "The University without Condition", Jacques Derrida asks what it means to "profess" the truth and advocates a commitment to the "oeuvre"--the work that constitutes an event rather than just a contribution to knowledge. I examine a few phrases from the lecture,…

  13. Contemporary Art and Art in Education: The New, Emancipation and Truth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    This article assembles some ideas on equality and learning in relation to the notions of truth and emancipation. It considers learning as a political act, as defined by Jacques Ranciere and Alain Badiou, rather than, for example, an incremental process of psychological or sociological development. Practical exemplifications will be taken from…

  14. Out of the Ordinary: Incorporating Limits with Austin and Derrida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Emma

    2014-01-01

    This article seeks to open up a re-examination of the relationship between thought and language by reference to two philosophers: John Austin and Jacques Derrida. While in traditional philosophical terms these thinkers stand far apart, recent work in the philosophy of education has highlighted the importance of Austin's work in a way that has…

  15. An Act of Methodology: A Document in Madness--Writing Ophelia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinnes, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to stage some questions concerning methodology and education, inspired by Ophelia in Shakespeare's "Hamlet" and by Jacques Derrida's poetic philosophical oeuvres. What are at stake are the long traditions of preferences of sanity over madness, friend over enemy, male over female and of clean, unambiguous univocal language…

  16. Educational Technology: A Presupposition of Equality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlando, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    The work of philosopher Jacques Rancière is used conceptually and methodologically to frame an exploration of the driving interests in educational technology policy and the sanctioning of particular discursive constructions of pedagogy that result. In line with Rancière's thinking, the starting point for this analysis is that of…

  17. [The union of three families of apothecaries in Paris in the 17th and 18th centuries--The apothecaries François Pihoué, François Regnault, Henry Charas and Marie Fourneau].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2015-06-01

    The family network started with Marie Fourneau, daughter of the apothecary Jacques Fourneau, married successively two apothecaries first François Pihoué and then François Regnault and whose only daughter Marie Anne married the apothecary Henry Charas grandson of the famous apothecary Moyse Charas. PMID:26189312

  18. Educational Neocolonialism and the World Bank: A Rancièrean Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwaruddin, Sardar M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I employ Jacques Rancière's conception of an explicative order to explore how the World Bank contributes to the global project of educational neocolonialism. I argue that the Bank operates as a Master Explicator who taps into students' "inability" to learn by themselves. It explicates concepts such as…

  19. Towards a Politicized Notion of Citizenship for Science Education: Engaging the Social through Dissensus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzul, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    This theoretical article draws from the political thought of Jacques Rancière to trouble some taken-for-granted conceptions of citizenship education. Rancière's notion of politics and dissensus (as opposed to consensus) can lay the groundwork for a version of citizenship that challenges what is deemed sensible, visible, who is counted in…

  20. Knowledge and the Curriculum: Derrida, Deconstruction and "Sustainable Development"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Christine

    2007-01-01

    This paper enquires into curriculum knowledge about sustainable development at advanced level in geography in English schools through a critical look at two concepts. The deconstructive perspective used is drawn from Jacques Derrida. The focus is on school knowledge and responsibility to other ways of knowing that may be neglected within…

  1. Best Practices in Marine and Coastal Science Education: Lessons Learned from a National Estuarine Research Reserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Janice D.

    The Jacques Cousteau National Estuarine Research Reserve (JC NERR) program has successfully capitalized on human fascination with the ocean by using the marine environment to develop interest and capability in science. The Institute of Marine & Coastal Sciences, as the managing agency of the JC NERR, makes its faculty, staff resources, and…

  2. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Original Water Color in Wells ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Original Water Color in Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum Capt. Jean Jacques Vioget, Artist Spring of 1837 FIRST WATER COLOR OF SAN FRANCISCO (JACOB LEESE HOUSE IN CENTER) - San Francisco, Historic View, 1837, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. Education as Humanism of the Other

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarc, Aparna Mishra

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores how educators might intervene in canonized texts of the human subject on which a particular and exclusive kind of humanism rests. In imagining possible interventions educators might make, I turn to and trace Jacques Derrida's on-going deconstruction of the philosophical texts of subjectivity. In his body of work, Derrida…

  4. Education as Seance: Specters, Spirits, and the Expansion of Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruitenberg, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    In this essay I propose that education be conceived as seance: a place where ghosts are summoned in order that we may come to (speaking) terms with them. Against the backdrop of my own summoning of the ghosts haunting my childhood visits to a nearby castle, I draw on the work of Jacques Derrida to provide a theoretical rationale for the importance…

  5. Scenes of Aesthetic Education: Ranciere, Oedipus, and "Notre Musique"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Boever, Arne

    2012-01-01

    In an interview titled "The Janus-Face of Politicized Art," Jacques Ranciere describes his methodology as follows: "I always try to think in terms of horizontal distributions, combinations between systems of possibilities, not in terms of surface and substratum. Where one searches for the hidden beneath the apparent, a position of mastery is…

  6. Acceptance, Resistance and Educational Transformation: A Taoist Reading of "The First Man"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a Taoist reading of Camus' posthumously published novel, "The first man". With its focus on the early life of the central character, Jacques Cormery, "The first man" is a semi-autobiographical account of learning and transformation, but it is, like so many other stories of its kind, one sustained by…

  7. Thinking about Women's History, Part Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Barbara Corrado

    1993-01-01

    Reviews eight European histories by Dorothy O. Helly, Ed., and Susan M. Reverby, Ed. (1992); Joy Wiltenburg (1992); Margaret L. King (1991); Joan DeJean (1991); Jacques Gelis (1991); Barbara Duden (1991); Jane Lewis (1991); and Sheila Rowbotham (1989). This sampling shows women's historians use an interdisciplinary approach and consistently deal…

  8. Google™ underwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-10-01

    The first underwater panoramic images were added to Google Maps™, the company announced on 25 September. This first “underwater Street View collection,” launched in partnership with the Caitlin Seaview Survey, provides people with the opportunity to “become the next virtual Jacques Cousteau.” For more information, see: maps.google.com/ocean.

  9. Rival Visions: J.J. Rousseau and T.H. Huxley on the Nature (or Nurture) of Inequality and What It Means for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie-Knight, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) and Thomas Huxley (1852-1895) had different, but substantial, effects on the history of education. Rousseau's educational theories supplied the intellectual foundation for pedagogical progressivism. Huxley's educational writings helped to enlarge the scope of the British curriculum to include such things as…

  10. Lifelong Learning in the European Union: Whither the Lisbon Strategy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Hywel Ceri

    2005-01-01

    This article traces the Lisbon strategy back to the White Paper issued by President Jacques Delors in 1993 on "Growth, Competitiveness, and Jobs" as the launching point for the structural reform agenda needed to turn around the massive unemployment crisis and proposing a combination of policies for the structural reform of the labour market and…

  11. Ranciere and the Poetics of the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelletier, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the significance of Jacques Ranciere's work for methodological debates in the social sciences, and education specifically. It explores the implications of constructing research as an aesthetic, rather than primarily a methodological, endeavour. What is at stake in this distinction is the means by which research intervenes in…

  12. Critical Thinking and the Question of Critique: Some Lessons from Deconstruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert J. J.; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Provides some philosophical groundwork for contemporary debates about the idea of critical thinking. Discusses three styles of critique: critical dogmatism, transcendental critique (Karl-Otto Apel), and deconstruction (Jacques Derrida). Argues that while transcendental critique is able to solve some of the problems of the dogmatic approach to…

  13. In Search of the Modern Hero.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shugar, Carol E.

    1988-01-01

    Provides profiles of contemporary figures who can serve as appropriate role models (heroes and heroines) for today's young people. Profiled are Desmond Tutu, Neil Armstrong, Mother Teresa, Lech Walesa, Jesse Jackson, Jacques Cousteau, Sharon Christa McAuliffe, and Anatoly Shcharansky. (SKC)

  14. Derrida's Right to Philosophy, Then and Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willinsky, John

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, a tribute to Jacques Derrida's educational efforts at expanding access to current work in philosophy, John Willinsky examines his efforts as both a public right and an element of academic freedom that bear on the open access movement today. Willinsky covers Derrida's extension and outreach work with the Groupe de Recherches pour…

  15. Temptation and Seduction in the Technological Milieu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Laan, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Jacques Ellul's work on propaganda provides the basis for this analysis of life in technology. Advertising and the mass media rely on temptation and seduction and create a constant flow of propaganda, all of which serve the technological system. Propaganda aims to condition and regulate us so that we participate in and adapt ourselves to a desired…

  16. Eyeless in America: Hollywood and Indiewood's Iraq War on Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This article examines 50 films produced and released between the years 2001 and 2012 that are concerned with the American wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Using Jacques Ellul's theories set out in his book "Propaganda," the article argues that while the films have failed at the box office, they were intended to function as integration propaganda. The…

  17. Aporias, Responsibility, and the Im/possibility of Teaching Multicultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hongyu

    2005-01-01

    Drawing upon Jacques Derrida's notions of aporia and responsibility, this essay discusses the dilemmas of multicultural education and the pedagogical responsibility of multicultural educators. Derrida emphasizes that there is no responsibility without experiencing aporia as the possibility of the impossible. To promote personal transformation and…

  18. "Hospes": The Wabash Center as a Site of Transformative Hospitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Carolyn M.

    2007-01-01

    The Wabash Center for Teaching and Learning in Theology and Religion is a place of hospitality and its staff the epitome of the "good host." This essay explores the meaning of hospitality, including its problematic dimensions, drawing on a number of voices and texts: Jacques Derrida's "Of Hospitality"; Henri M. Nouwen's "Reaching Out: The Three…

  19. Papers on Education Reform, Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Open Court Publishing Co., La Salle, IL.

    The following ten papers were presented to the Open Court Editorial Advisory Board in 1971. "Where Educational Nonsense Comes From" by Jacques Barzun focuses on education as the removal of ignorance. "The Importance of Teaching Poetry" by Cleanth Brooks discusses the powers of poetry in the instruction of yound children. In "Educating the…

  20. [The sense of the senseless, psychoanalytic aspects of delusion in psychosis].

    PubMed

    Chaperot, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    The psychoanalytic approach to delusion in psychosis leads us to examine the function of a "furrow". It is necessary to remain in the furrow in order not to become delusional. References to Sigmund Freud, Jacques Lacan, Mélanie Klein and Jean-Claude Maleval enlighten us as to the origin and the function of delusion as an attempt to give meaning. PMID:21416882

  1. Toward the sociopolitical in science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolbert, Sara; Bazzul, Jesse

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we explore how Jacques Rancière's (The ignorant schoolmaster: five lessons in intellectual emancipation. Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1991) notions of radical equality and dissensus reveal horizons for activism and sociopolitical engagement in science education theory, research, and practice. Drawing on Rochelle Gutiérrez' (J Res Math Educ 44(1):37-68, 2013a. doi: 10.5951/jresematheduc.44.1.0037; J Urban Math Educ 6(2):7-19, b) "sociopolitical turn" for mathematics education, we identify how the field of science education can/is turning from more traditional notions of equity, achievement and access toward issues of systemic oppression, identity and power. Building on the conversation initiated by Lorraine Otoide who draws from French philosopher Jacques Rancière to experiment with a pedagogy of radical equality, we posit that a sociopolitical turn in science education is not only imminent, but necessary to meet twenty-first century crises.

  2. [Clothes of the HOUSE, or Clothes of REASON? Children's clothing during the Age of Enlightenment].

    PubMed

    Kottek, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Children's clothing is a subject that forms part of the history of pediatrics. Many studies focus on the ideas developed by Locke and Rousseau. Here we choose to focus our study on an author who is rarely quoted: Jacques Ballexserd (1726-1774), "citizen of Geneva," who is little known to historians of pediatrics. However, George Frederic Still (1868-1941) devotes two pages to his views in his Histoire de la Pédiatrie.

  3. Ellen Weaver, Biologist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Ellen Weaver, an associate professor of biology from California State University is shown developing instrumentation to be used in satellites for ocean monitoring. In the early 1970s, NASA researchers and ocean explorer Jacques Cousteau formed a team to study productivity of the sea. The team devised a sensor system to monitor ocean temperatures and chlorophyll levels by aircraft. This sensor was used in the satellite communication and weather equipment provided by NASA to assist in the accuracy of satellite observation.

  4. The design of an enzyme: a chronology on the controversy.

    PubMed

    Buc, Henri

    2013-05-13

    After the publication of the Monod-Wyman-Changeux model, a controversy arose between Jacques Monod, Francis Crick and Jeffries Wyman about the comparison of the regulatory performances of an oligomer undergoing a concerted transition between two states and a monomer having the same composition and subjected to a similar conformational equilibrium. The controversy took place between September 1965 and March 1966. It gave rise to several unpublished notes. Numerous misunderstandings between the participants were not fully dissipated as the controversy abruptly ended.

  5. Terrorism--A (Self) Love Story: Redirecting the Significance Quest Can End Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruglanski, Arie W.; Belanger, Jocelyn J.; Gelfand, Michele; Gunaratna, Rohan; Hettiarachchi, Malkanthi; Reinares, Fernando; Orehek, Edward; Sasota, Jo; Sharvit, Keren

    2013-01-01

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau's concepts of self-love ("amour propre") and love of self ("amour de soi meme") are applied to the psychology of terrorism. Self-love is concern with one's image in the eyes of respected others, members of one's group. It denotes one's feeling of personal significance, the sense that…

  6. Victoria Land, Ross Sea, and Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On December 19, 2001, MODIS acquired data that produced this image of Antarctica's Victoria Land, Ross Ice Shelf, and the Ross Sea. The coastline that runs up and down along the left side of the image denotes where Victoria Land (left) meets the Ross Ice Shelf (right). The Ross Ice Shelf is the world's largest floating body of ice, approximately the same size as France. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  7. Coast of the East Siberian Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Sea ice is pulling away from the coastline of northeastern Siberia in the east Siberia Sea. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 26, 2002, also the thinning of ice in bays and coves, and the blue reflection of the water from beneath causes the ice to appear bright blue. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  8. Flooding of the Ob and Irtysh Rivers, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of true- and false-color images shows flooding along the Ob' (large east-west running river) and Irtysh (southern tributary of the Ob') on July 7, 2002. In the false-color image, land surfaces are orange-gold and flood waters are black or dark blue. Fires are marked with red dots in both images. Rivers Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  9. [Ethical issues in transfusion medicine].

    PubMed

    Tissot, J-D; Danic, B; Cabaud, J-J; Garraud, O

    2016-09-01

    Ethics is on the cross road of off values that are present along the ways of transfusion medicine. This is an important tool to afford opinions as well as debates that always emerge when discussing transfusion medicine. The wording is particularly important; this was one among several others that characterized the soul of Jean-Jacques Lefrère when he opened the doors of the ethical issues of transfusion medicine. PMID:27443188

  10. Jacobus Sylvius (1478-1555): physician, teacher, and anatomist.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, R Shane; Linganna, Sanjay; Loukas, Marios

    2007-11-01

    Jacques Dubois (1478-1555), better known by his Latin cognomen Jacobus Sylvius was one of the great anatomists and teachers of the Renaissance period. His legacy today, however, is marred by his feud with pupil Andreas Vesalius. The story of Sylvius's life provides the modern clinical anatomist with valuable lessons regarding the nature of orthodoxy, conflict, and the evolving nature of "truth." PMID:17948293

  11. Insulating oxide surfaces and nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goniakowski, Jacek; Noguera, Claudine

    2016-03-01

    This contribution describes some peculiarities of the science of oxide surfaces and nanostructures and proposes a simple conceptual scheme to understand their electronic structure, in the spirit of Jacques Friedel's work. Major results on the effects of non-stoichiometry and polarity are presented, for both semi-infinite surfaces and ultra-thin films, and promising lines of research for the near future are sketched. xml:lang="fr"

  12. Lena River Delta and East Siberian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The winter sea ice in the east Siberian Sea is looking a bit like a cracked windshield in these true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images from June 16 and 23, 2002. North of the thawing tundra, the sea ice takes on its cracked, bright blue appearance as it thins, which allows the reflection of the water to show through. Numerous still-frozen lakes dot the tundra. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  13. East Siberian Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The winter sea ice in the east Siberian Sea is looking a bit like a cracked windshield in these true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images from June 16 and 23, 2002. North of the thawing tundra, the sea ice takes on its cracked, bright blue appearance as it thins, which allows the reflection of the water to show through. Numerous still-frozen lakes dot the tundra. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  14. Classical music and the teeth.

    PubMed

    Eramo, Stefano; Di Biase, Mary Jo; De Carolis, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Teeth and their pathologies are frequent themes in classical music. The teeth have inspired popular songwriters such as Thomas Crecquillon, Carl Loewe, Amilcare Ponchielli & Christian Sinding; as well as composers whose works are still played all over the world, such as Robert Schumann and Jacques Offenbach. This paper examines several selections in which the inspiring theme is the teeth and the pain they can cause, from the suffering of toothache, to the happier occasion of a baby's first tooth. PMID:23691776

  15. Lake Volta, Ghana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of Lake Volta in Ghana was acquired March 31, 2002 by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Lake Volta is one of the world's largest artificially created lakes. Lake Volta is actually a reservoir formed from the damming of the Volta River, and extends 250 miles north of the Akosombo Dam. The lake covers an area of 8,482 square km. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  16. Phytoplankton bloom all along the coast of Southeast United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    All along the eastern and southern coasts of the United States, marine plants seem impervious to the onslaught of winter weather further north. In this true-color image from January 9, 2002, phytoplankton can be seen growing in the nation's coastal waters; their characteristic blue-green swirls are especially visible off the west coast of Florida. Fire locations are marked with red dots. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  17. Sulfur plumes off Namibia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Sulfur plumes rising up from the bottom of the ocean floor produce colorful swirls in the waters off the coast of Namibia in southern Africa. The plumes come from the breakdown of marine plant matter by anaerobic bacteria that do not need oxygen to live. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on April 24, 2002 Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  18. In pursuit of the practice of radical equality: Rancière inspired pedagogical inquiries in elementary school science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otoide, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    This article outlines a study of praxis. Inspired by my reading of Jacques Rancière's (The ignorant schoolmaster: Five lessons in intellectual emancipation, trans. K. Ross, Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1991) influential text, The Ignorant School Master, I explore the practical applications of his work for teaching and outline a pedagogical response that sought to effect educational change through a philosophically driven teacher inquiry.

  19. The semiotics of gender.

    PubMed

    Van Buren, J

    1992-01-01

    The semiotics of gender are investigated in this article for the purpose of exploring the way that deep unconscious motives in relationship to cultural biases give rise to gender concepts. Theories of semiotic processes, including Jacques Lacan's concept of the psychoanalytic signifier, are explained briefly and applied to the signs of gender. The article concludes that gender concepts develop out of biology, unconscious feelings, and social patterning, and are not given, natural, and irrevocable.

  20. Dislocations and other topological oddities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieranski, Pawel

    2016-03-01

    We will show that the book Dislocations by Jacques Friedel, published half a century ago, can still be recommended, in agreement with the author's intention, as a textbook "for research students at University and for students at engineering schools as well as for research engineers". Indeed, today dislocations are known to occur not only in solid crystals but also in many other systems discovered more recently such as colloidal crystals or liquid crystals having periodic structures. Moreover, the concept of dislocations is an excellent starting point for lectures on topological defects occurring in systems equipped with order parameters resulting from broken symmetries: disclinations in nematic or hexatic liquid crystals, dispirations in chiral smectics or disorientations in lyotropic liquid crystals. The discussion of dislocations in Blue Phases will give us an opportunity to call on mind Sir Charles Frank, friend of Jacques Friedel since his Bristol years, who called these ephemeral mesophases "topological oddities". Being made of networks of disclinations, Blue Phases are similar to Twist Grain Boundary (TGB) smectic phases, which are made of networks of screw dislocations and whose existence was predicted by de Gennes in 1972 on the basis of the analogy between smectics and superconductors. We will stress that the book by Jacques Friedel contains seeds of this analogy.

  1. Biology and war--American biology and international science.

    PubMed

    Fangerau, Heiner

    2007-01-01

    The German-born American scientist Jacques Loeb (1859-1924) was one of the most important promoters of experimental biology around 1900. He was best known for his physico-chemical explanations of psychological processes and his biotechnological approach to artificial parthenogenesis. At the start of the First World War, Loeb was deeply troubled by the deterioration of the international scientific community and the growing alienation of his German and American colleagues. The aim of this paper is to examine Jacques Loeb's activities aimed at advancing scientific internationalism before, during, and after the war. Loeb, for example, tried to negotiate the publication of German authors in American journals during the war, at a time when this was categorically rejected by publishers. Immediately after the war, he tried to create a specific system aimed at disseminating scientific literature and funding selected European colleagues, in order to overcome what he considered reactionary and hegemonic forces within German scientific institutions. His correspondence with eminent scientists from all over the world (amongst them Albert Einstein, Richard Goldschmidt, Otto Meyerhof, Otto Warburg, Paul Ehrlich, Wolfgang Ostwald, Wilhelm Roux, and Ross Harrison) will serve as a source for the analysis. Special emphasis will be placed on the question how Jacques Loeb integrated epistemology, his particular world view, and his social commitment into the workings of his own life and how he tried to extend his scientific goal of controlling biological systems to the sphere of international science.

  2. STS-96 crew takes part in payload Interface Verification Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    During a payload Interface Verification Test (IVT) in the SPACEHAB Facility, STS-96 Mission Specialist Valery Tokarev of Russia (second from left) and Commander Kent Rominger learn about the Sequential Shunt Unit (SSU) in front of them from Lynn Ashby (far right), with Johnson Space Center. At the far left looking on is TTI interpreter Valentina Maydell. Other crew members at KSC for the IVT are Pilot Rick Husband and Mission Specialists Ellen Ochoa, Tamara Jernigan, Dan Barry and Julie Payette. The SSU is part of the cargo on Mission STS-96, which carries the SPACEHAB Logistics Double Module, with equipment to further outfit the International Space Station service module and equipment that can be off-loaded from the early U.S. assembly flights. The SPACEHAB carries internal logistics and resupply cargo for station outfitting, plus an external Russian cargo crane to be mounted to the exterior of the Russian station segment and used to perform space walking maintenance activities. The double module stowage provides capacity of up to 10,000 lbs. with the ability to accommodate powered payloads, four external rooftop stowage locations, four double-rack locations (two powered), up to 61 bulkhead-mounted middeck locker locations, and floor storage for large unique items and Soft Stowage. STS-96 is targeted to launch May 20 about 9:32 a.m.

  3. Forty Years of Research on Isolated Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulentic, J.

    2010-10-01

    Isolated galaxies have not been a hot topic over the past four decades. This is partly due to uncertainties about their existence. Are there galaxies isolated enough to be interesting? Do they exist in sufficient numbers to be statistically useful? Most attempts to compile isolated galaxy lists were marginally successful-too small number and not very isolated galaxies. If really isolated galaxies do exist then their value becomes obvious in a Universe where effects of interactions and environment (i.e. nurture) are important. They provide a means for better quantifying effects of nurture. The Catalog of Isolated Galaxies (CIG) compiled by Valentina Karachentseva appeared near the beginning of the review period. It becomes the focus of this review because of its obvious strengths and because the AMIGA project has increased its utility through a refinement (a vetted CIG). It contains almost 1000 galaxies with nearest neighbor crossing times of 1--3 Gyr. It is large enough to serve as a zero-point or control sample. The galaxies in the CIG (and the distribution of galaxy types) may be significantly different than those in even slightly richer environments. The AMIGA-CIG, and future iterations, may be able to tell us something about galaxy formation. It may also allow us to better define intrinsic (natural) correlations like e.g. Fisher-Tully and FIR-OPTICAL. Correlations can be better defined when the dispersion added by external stimuli (nurture) is minimized or removed.

  4. Providing innovative solutions in a single pill: Servier's portfolio in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Jean-Jacques; Guillerm, Jean-Christophe

    2016-09-01

    Jean-Jacques Mourad & Jean-Christophe Guillerm speak to Henry Ireland, Drug Evaluation Editor: Jean-Jacques Mourad talks about his vision of the current landscape and unmet medical needs in the field of hypertension. Jean-Christophe Guillerm describes the family of antihypertensive treatments from Servier, which were designed to address the current challenges in the management of hypertension by providing an adapted solution to doctors and to the specific needs of each patient. Jean-Jacques Mourad currently works as Professor of Medicine and is the Head of the Hypertension Unit at the Hôpital Avicenne in Bobigny, France. He completed his academic degrees at the Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris VI in the field of internal and vascular medicine in 1996, and in the area of cardiovascular medicine and pharmacology in 2001. He is the past president of the French League Against Hypertension (since 2012), and the former General Secretary of the French Microcirculation Society. He is the actual Scientific Secretary of the French Society of Hypertension. He is also a member of the administrative council of the Collège Français de Pathologie Vasculaire. His research focuses on the epidemiology of hypertension, arterial structure and function, determinants of adherence to chronic treatment and the effects of antihypertensive agents. He was involved in several studies and surveys. He is a co-author of more than 130 publications and of 900 communications presented at national and international meetings. Jean-Christophe Guillerm, joined the pharmaceutical industry 17 years ago. He is currently the Head of the Cardiovascular Division for Servier, in charge of both cardiology and hypertension's medical strategy at a global level. Prior to this, he was in charge of the diabetes and internal medicine franchise at a global level. He also has experience in French commercial operations.

  5. Providing innovative solutions in a single pill: Servier's portfolio in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Jean-Jacques; Guillerm, Jean-Christophe

    2016-09-01

    Jean-Jacques Mourad & Jean-Christophe Guillerm speak to Henry Ireland, Drug Evaluation Editor: Jean-Jacques Mourad talks about his vision of the current landscape and unmet medical needs in the field of hypertension. Jean-Christophe Guillerm describes the family of antihypertensive treatments from Servier, which were designed to address the current challenges in the management of hypertension by providing an adapted solution to doctors and to the specific needs of each patient. Jean-Jacques Mourad currently works as Professor of Medicine and is the Head of the Hypertension Unit at the Hôpital Avicenne in Bobigny, France. He completed his academic degrees at the Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris VI in the field of internal and vascular medicine in 1996, and in the area of cardiovascular medicine and pharmacology in 2001. He is the past president of the French League Against Hypertension (since 2012), and the former General Secretary of the French Microcirculation Society. He is the actual Scientific Secretary of the French Society of Hypertension. He is also a member of the administrative council of the Collège Français de Pathologie Vasculaire. His research focuses on the epidemiology of hypertension, arterial structure and function, determinants of adherence to chronic treatment and the effects of antihypertensive agents. He was involved in several studies and surveys. He is a co-author of more than 130 publications and of 900 communications presented at national and international meetings. Jean-Christophe Guillerm, joined the pharmaceutical industry 17 years ago. He is currently the Head of the Cardiovascular Division for Servier, in charge of both cardiology and hypertension's medical strategy at a global level. Prior to this, he was in charge of the diabetes and internal medicine franchise at a global level. He also has experience in French commercial operations. PMID:27503672

  6. Scientific Misconduct and Theft: Case Report from 17th Century

    PubMed Central

    Fatović-Ferenčić, Stella

    2008-01-01

    Gjuro Armen Baglivi was one of the most famous medical authorities of the 17th century. Apart from his numerous books and publications, several extensive collections of his correspondence have been preserved and are available in libraries around the world. They provide new information about the 17th century scientific culture and place of Baglivi’s work in the scientific European context. Also, they shed light on his personality more than other writings intended for the public eye. In this paper I will present the case of a theft of intellectual property, which Baglivi described in one of his letters to Jean Jacques Manget. PMID:18293461

  7. A mixture of heavy rainfall, snowmelt, and ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC Satellite: Terra Sensor: MODIS Image Date: 06-16-2002 VE Record ID: 13692 Description: A mixture of heavy rainfall, snowmelt, and ice jams in late May and early June of this year caused the Ob River and surrounding tributaries in Western Siberia to overflow their banks. The flooding can be seen in this image taken on June 16, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Last year, the river flooded farther north. Normally, the river resembles a thin black line.

  8. Tropical Cyclone Kesiny northeast of Madagascar, Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Tropical Cyclone Kesiny can be seen over the Indian Ocean in this true color image taken on May 6, 2002, at 6:45 UTC by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. When this image was taken, the cyclone was several hundred miles east of northern Madagascar and packing winds of up to 120 kilometers (75 miles) per hour. As the cyclone continues its approach southwest into Madagascar, it is forecast to increase in intensity and generate sustained winds of up to 139 kilometers (86 miles) per hour. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  9. Trace and transference: therapy in a post-structuralist era.

    PubMed

    Appleby, Brian S

    2008-01-01

    As leader of the deconstruction movement, Jacques Derrida has had a profound effect on modern thinking. In this article, the author applies Derridean concepts to psychotherapy. Using the concepts of trace and differance, identity and therapeutic relationships are described. Transference and countertransference are regarded as traces, resulting in a breakdown of the therapist/patient dichotomy. Using the Derridean notion of "play" and "dissemination" opens psychotherapeutic options that allow the patient to explore how meaning is derived in his/her life. Questions of how feelings and behaviors are constructed are also examined. In summary, a deconstructive therapeutic approach results in an array of freedom and possibilities. PMID:18605126

  10. [Foucault, Derrida, and the history of madness: notes on a controversy].

    PubMed

    Pereira Neto, A F

    1998-01-01

    The publication of the book Folie et Déraison. Histoire de la Folie à l'Age Classique (1961), by Michel Foucault, sparked a debate between the author and philosopher Jacques Derrida during the 1960s and 70s. Derrida criticized the methodological proposal and organization of the History of Madness presented by Foucault in the foreword to the first edition. The controversy appears to have motivated the author to withdraw this same foreword from the second edition. The purpose of this article is to analyze some current points in this controversy. It also presents a research agenda for an understanding of the reasons leading Foucault to take this stance. PMID:9761619

  11. Flooding of the Ob River, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A mixture of heavy rainfall, snowmelt, and ice jams in late May and early June of this year caused the Ob River and surrounding tributaries in Western Siberia to overflow their banks. The flooding can be seen in thess image taken on June 16, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Last year, the river flooded farther north. Normally, the river resembles a thin black line, but floods have swollen the river considerably. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  12. Flooding of the Taz, Pur, and Yenisey Rivers, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Each spring and summer, rivers across Siberia experience flooding as the waters in the south begin to melt and run before the ice has retreated from the northern limits. The ice causes jams which are sometimes loosened up using explosives. This pair of MODIS images from June 18, 2002, shows flooding on the Pur (left), Taz (center), and Yenisey (right) Rivers in central Siberia. In the false-color image, ice and snow are red, clouds are white, water is black, and vegetation is green. Bare soil is brown. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  13. Wildfires, smoke, and burn scars, near Yakutsk, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Lena River in central Siberia is hidden beneath a veil of smoke from multiple wildfires burning around the city of Yakutsk, Russia. Fires have been burning in the region off and on since late May 2002, and may be agricultural in cause. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on July 23, 2002. In the false=-color image, vegetation is bright green, smoke is blueish-white, and burned areas are reddish-brown. In both images, fire detections are marked with red outlines. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  14. Toward a methodology for applying psychoanalysis to literature.

    PubMed

    Reed, G S

    1982-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology which seeks to use psychoanalysis to fathom the unique quality of the literary text without turning the text into a symptom or its author into a patient. Its hypothesis: the literary text evokes an unconscious fantasy in its readers; critics who respond to the text empathically but without conscious understanding re-enact aspects of its organizing fantasy in the way they write their criticism. To test this hypothesis, the criticism of Jacques le Fataliste et son Matître by Diderot is examined. The phenomenon of parallelism is suggested as a clinical analogy for the re-enactment which takes place. PMID:7073873

  15. Aral Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This series of MODIS images shows the dwindling Aral Sea. Once one of the world's largest freshwater lakes, the Aral Sea has decreased by as much as 60% over the past few decades due to diversion of the water to grow cotton and rice. These diversion have dropped the lake levels, increased salinity, and nearly decimated the fishing industry. The previous extent of the lake is clearly visible as a whitish perimeter in these image from April 16, May 18, and June 3, 2002. s. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  16. Doing justice to allosteric regulation.

    PubMed

    Keller, Evelyn Fox

    2015-06-01

    Jacques Monod gave us not only our first regulatory system, but also our first smart molecules - i.e., he gave us allosteric proteins. But both of these contributions hung in a certain tension with his primary commitments. In particular, I focus here on the ways in which his ontological commitments constrained his thinking about the power of allostery. Although he wrote that "so far as regulation through allosteric interaction is concerned, everything is possible", for him, not everything was conceivable. In particular, what was not conceivable was a challenge to the primacy of DNA.

  17. Remains to be transmitted: Primo Levi's traumatic dream.

    PubMed

    Blévis, Jean-Jacques

    2004-07-01

    Drawing on the writings of Primo Levi and the psychoanalysis of Jacques Lacan, the author attempts to conceive psychic trauma as a coalescence of traumas, since this is perhaps the only way to prevent a subject from being forced back into identification with the catastrophic event, whatever that may have been. A recurrent dream of Primo Levi's suggests to the author the way that traumas may have coalesced within Levi. The hope would be to restore the entire significance of what remains from that traumatic event to the speech (parole) of the Other, to the speech of every human, even the most helpless, bruised, or destroyed among us. PMID:15287444

  18. Flooding in Central Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A mixture of snowmelt and ice jams in late May and June of this year caused the Taz River (left) and the Yenisey River (right) in central Siberia to overflow their banks. The flooding can be seen in this image taken on June 11, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Normally, the rivers would resemble thin black lines in MODIS imagery. In the false-color images sage green and rusty orange is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  19. Taking a geometric look at the socio-political functioning schemes of the living. Catastrophe theory and theoretical sociology.

    PubMed

    Morier, Clément

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this communication is to consider morphological processes in sociology, mainly through the study of the stability of forms of sociality. At the same time, it aims to study the regulation of constraints, related to an increasingly conflictual environment, through political organization. We use a specific theoretical framework: the catastrophe theory developed by René Thom in topology, further developed by Claude Bruter from a physics point of view, and reworked by Jacques Viret in biology. The idea is to show the existence of archetypal processes organizing social forms. PMID:23943093

  20. Love and/in psychoanalysis: a commentary on Lacan's reading of Plato's Symposium in Seminar VIII: Transference.

    PubMed

    Fink, Bruce

    2015-02-01

    What is love and what part does it play in psychoanalysis? Where are the analyst and the analysand situated in relation to the roles defined as those of the "lover" and the "beloved"? Jacques Lacan explores these and other questions in his soon-to-be-published Seminar VIII: Transference by providing an extensive commentary on Plato's most famous dialogue on love, the Symposium. This paper outlines some of the major points about love that grow out of Lacan's reading of the dialogue and examines their relevance to the analytic setting. Can the analyst be characterized as a sort of modern-day Socrates? PMID:25688680

  1. Can artificial parthenogenesis sidestep ethical pitfalls in human therapeutic cloning? An historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Fangerau, H

    2005-12-01

    The aim of regenerative medicine is to reconstruct tissue that has been lost or pathologically altered. Therapeutic cloning seems to offer a method of achieving this aim; however, the ethical debate surrounding human therapeutic cloning is highly controversial. Artificial parthenogenesis-obtaining embryos from unfertilised eggs-seems to offer a way to sidestep these ethical pitfalls. Jacques Loeb (1859-1924), the founding father of artificial parthenogenesis, faced negative public opinion when he published his research in 1899. His research, the public's response to his findings, and his ethical foundations serve as an historical argument both for the communication of science and compromise in biological research.

  2. Floods in Central China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of true- and false-color images from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows flooding in central China on July 4, 2002. In the false-color image vegetation appears orange and water appears dark blue to black. Because of the cloud cover and the fact that some of the water is filled with sediment, the false-color image provides a clearer picture of where rivers have exceeded their banks and lakes have risen. The river in this image is the Yangtze River, and the large lake is the Poyang Hu. Credits: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  3. [Foucault, Derrida, and the history of madness: notes on a controversy].

    PubMed

    Pereira Neto, A F

    1998-01-01

    The publication of the book Folie et Déraison. Histoire de la Folie à l'Age Classique (1961), by Michel Foucault, sparked a debate between the author and philosopher Jacques Derrida during the 1960s and 70s. Derrida criticized the methodological proposal and organization of the History of Madness presented by Foucault in the foreword to the first edition. The controversy appears to have motivated the author to withdraw this same foreword from the second edition. The purpose of this article is to analyze some current points in this controversy. It also presents a research agenda for an understanding of the reasons leading Foucault to take this stance.

  4. Taking a geometric look at the socio-political functioning schemes of the living. Catastrophe theory and theoretical sociology.

    PubMed

    Morier, Clément

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this communication is to consider morphological processes in sociology, mainly through the study of the stability of forms of sociality. At the same time, it aims to study the regulation of constraints, related to an increasingly conflictual environment, through political organization. We use a specific theoretical framework: the catastrophe theory developed by René Thom in topology, further developed by Claude Bruter from a physics point of view, and reworked by Jacques Viret in biology. The idea is to show the existence of archetypal processes organizing social forms.

  5. The solar abundance of Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevesse, N.

    2009-07-01

    With Martin Asplund (Max Planck Institute of Astrophysics, Garching) and Jacques Sauval (Observatoire Royal de Belgique, Brussels) I recently published detailed reviews on the solar chemical composition ({Asplund et al. 2005}, {Grevesse et al. 2007}). A new one, with Pat Scott (Stockholm University) as additional co-author, will appear in Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics ({Asplund et al. 2009}). Here we briefly analyze recent works on the solar abundance of Oxygen and recommend a value of 8.70 in the usual astronomical scale.

  6. The beauty of impurities: Two revivals of Friedel's virtual bound-state concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georges, Antoine

    2016-03-01

    Jacques Friedel pioneered the theoretical study of impurities and magnetic impurities in metals. He discovered Friedel oscillations, introduced the concept of virtual bound-state, and demonstrated that the charge on the impurity is related to the scattering phase-shift at the Fermi level (Friedel sum-rule). After a brief review of some of these concepts, I describe how they proved useful in two new contexts. The first one concerns the Coulomb blockade in quantum dots, and its suppression by the Kondo effect. The second one is the dynamical mean-field theory of strong electronic correlations. xml:lang="fr"

  7. [Benni, Babiński, Bouchard, Charcot. Their contribution to the development of XIX-century Polish and French medical relations].

    PubMed

    Kierzek, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    The professional and scientific achievements of four physicians: Józef F. Babiński (1857-1932), French clinician, neurologist of Polish origin, Karol Benni (1843-1916), one of the first Varsovian otiatrist and social activist, Charles Jacques Bouchard (1837-1915), French physician and bacteriologist and Jean Martin Charcot (1825-1893), one of the best XIX-century physicians have been presented in brief. Their personal, professional and scientific connections based on authority materials are presented in more detail. The letter from Charcot to Benni is presented.

  8. Anticipating the Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trachtenberg, Zev

    2015-09-01

    There is an important precedent in the history of ideas for the Anthropocene proposal. This is not found in the precursors that have been proposed to the formal scientific concept, but rather in the work of the eighteenth-century social theorist Jean-Jacques Rousseau. I argue that Rousseau's speculative account of the development of human society models a way of viewing the condition of the physical environment as an expression of the social and economic institutions that support human beings' way of life.

  9. Love and/in psychoanalysis: a commentary on Lacan's reading of Plato's Symposium in Seminar VIII: Transference.

    PubMed

    Fink, Bruce

    2015-02-01

    What is love and what part does it play in psychoanalysis? Where are the analyst and the analysand situated in relation to the roles defined as those of the "lover" and the "beloved"? Jacques Lacan explores these and other questions in his soon-to-be-published Seminar VIII: Transference by providing an extensive commentary on Plato's most famous dialogue on love, the Symposium. This paper outlines some of the major points about love that grow out of Lacan's reading of the dialogue and examines their relevance to the analytic setting. Can the analyst be characterized as a sort of modern-day Socrates?

  10. [French lines in Recife architecture: Pedro II Hospital].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Geraldo

    2011-12-01

    Pedro II Hospital was inaugurated in Recife in 1861 and for several decades was the leading center of its kind in the state of Pernambuco and in Northeast Brazil. Its construction followed French design, as developed by physician Jacques-René Tenon, that is, the so-called pavilion style that was the norm in Pernambuco and in Brazil for many years. After being nearly abandoned in 1982, the hospital was reformed shortly thereafter and reopened its doors to offer a variety of services, thanks to negotiations between the Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor Fernando Figueira and the Archdiocese of Olinda and Recife.

  11. ["Catching falcons, training and keeping healthy". A hunting related reference of the late 16th century].

    PubMed

    Giese, Martina

    2009-01-01

    The "Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek" in Vienna houses a copy of Jacques Du Fouilloux, La vénerie avec plusieurs receptes pour guerir les chiens, Poitiers 1564 (signature: *44. Q. 13), a classic of early modern hunting literature, containing handwritten german notes on the catching, training and healing of birds of prey, mostly falcons, written by the anonymous passionate falconer who owned the print in the late 16th century. These handwritten notes are an interesting document for the history of falconry and likewise for the special terminology of this field of hunting "Fachprosa". In the appendix of the article the handwritten notes are edited and commented.

  12. Five NASA astronauts and two international payload specialists take a break from a Shuttle duration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-78 ONBOARD VIEW --- Five NASA astronauts and two international payload specialists take a break from a Shuttle duration record-breaker flight to pose for the traditional inflight crew portrait. The photograph should be oriented with payload commander Susan J. Helms at bottom center. Others, clockwise, are French payload specialist Jean-Jacques Favier, Canadian payload specialist Robert B. Thirsk; and astronauts Kevin R. Kregel, pilot; and Charles J. (Chuck) Brady and Richard M. Linnehan, both mission specialists, and Terence T. (Tom) Henricks, mission commander. The crew chose the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS-1) Science Module, situated in the Space Shuttle Columbias cargo bay, for the portrait setting.

  13. Doing justice to allosteric regulation.

    PubMed

    Keller, Evelyn Fox

    2015-06-01

    Jacques Monod gave us not only our first regulatory system, but also our first smart molecules - i.e., he gave us allosteric proteins. But both of these contributions hung in a certain tension with his primary commitments. In particular, I focus here on the ways in which his ontological commitments constrained his thinking about the power of allostery. Although he wrote that "so far as regulation through allosteric interaction is concerned, everything is possible", for him, not everything was conceivable. In particular, what was not conceivable was a challenge to the primacy of DNA. PMID:25908117

  14. Can artificial parthenogenesis sidestep ethical pitfalls in human therapeutic cloning? An historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fangerau, H

    2005-01-01

    The aim of regenerative medicine is to reconstruct tissue that has been lost or pathologically altered. Therapeutic cloning seems to offer a method of achieving this aim; however, the ethical debate surrounding human therapeutic cloning is highly controversial. Artificial parthenogenesis—obtaining embryos from unfertilised eggs—seems to offer a way to sidestep these ethical pitfalls. Jacques Loeb (1859–1924), the founding father of artificial parthogenesis, faced negative public opinion when he published his research in 1899. His research, the public's response to his findings, and his ethical foundations serve as an historical argument both for the communication of science and compromise in biological research. PMID:16319240

  15. Lake Nasser and Toshka Lakes, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Nasser (center) and the Toshka Lakes (center left) glow emerald green and black in this MODIS true-color image acquired March 8, 2002. Located on and near the border of Egypt and Norther Sudan, these lakes are an oasis of water in between the Nubian (lower right) and Libyan Deserts (upper left). Also visible are the Red Sea (in the upper right) and the Nile River (running north from Lake Nasser). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  16. Hydrology Section Executive Committee Minutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. Ivan

    The Hydrology Section Executive Committee (EC) convened at 8:20 A.M. on May 28, 1985, in Room 311 of the Convention Center in Baltimore, Md. The meeting was chaired by Hydrology Section President R. Allan Freeze. Section President-Elect Marshall Moss kept the minutes in the absence of the Section Secretary Thomas Maddock III. Also in attendance were William Back, Rafael Bras, Stephen Burges, Jerry Cohon, Ron Cummings, David Dawdy, Jacques Delleur, Leonard Konikow, Jurate Landwehr, Fred Molz, Don Nielsen, Joyce Peters, Karen Prestegaard, Tom Schmugge, Waldo Smith, Jery Stedinger, and Eric Wood.

  17. Function(s) of religion in the contemporary world: psychoanalytic perspectives : about new types of religious conversions.

    PubMed

    Combres, Laurent; Askofaré, Sidi

    2013-12-01

    With respect to our psychoanalytic frame of reference allowing us to study the extent of the hypotheses concerning the religious phenomenon as formulated by Sigmund Freud and Jacques Lacan, in the context of a cross approach between the accuracy of the concept of conversion and of psychic mechanisms or phenomena at stake within conversions, and based on the testimonials of subjects acknowledging themselves in the experiment of conversion, we try to understand if and how religion is anchored in our cultural era through subversive effects it may have on the subject. PMID:23412649

  18. Monod and the spirit of molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Morange, Michel

    2015-06-01

    The founders of molecular biology shared views on the place of biology within science, as well as on the relations of molecular biology to Darwinism. Jacques Monod was no exception, but the study of his writings is particularly interesting because he expressed his point of view very clearly and pushed the implications of some of his choices further than most of his contemporaries. The spirit of molecular biology is no longer the same as in the 1960s but, interestingly, Monod anticipated some recent evolutions of this discipline.

  19. Memorial V.J.Glaser

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Plusieurs orateurs rendent hommage au grand physicien et scientifique Vladimir Jurko Glaser (1924 - 1984) qui travaillait au Ruder Boscovic Institut à Zagreb avant de venir au Cern en 1957 où il trouvait un poste permanent au département de physique théorique. Walter Tearing, Harry Lehmann,Henry Epstein, Jacques Bros et André Martin font des résumés biographiques de leurs collègue et ami en honorant ses grands qualités d'homme et ses remarquables conquêtes de la science et leurs accomplissement.

  20. A dream come true: being President of ASHRM.

    PubMed

    Oppenberg, Andrew A

    2014-01-01

    During our 33rd Annual Conference of the American Society for Healthcare Risk Management, I had the absolute honor and privilege to thank our 2013 ASHRM board and staff along with the ASHRM membership. On behalf of the membership I extended heartfelt thanks for a job well done to our retiring board members, friends, and colleagues: Faye Shepherd, Ellen Grady-Venditti, Michael Midgley, and Immediate Past President Mary Anne Hilliard. Together, we welcomed 2014 ASHRM board members and witnessed the oath of office to Hala Helm, David Sine, and Sherrill Peters, along with President-Elect Ellen Grady-Venditti and our 2014 President Jacque Mitchell. PMID:24549693

  1. Importance of holographic light in the emerging field of mind-body healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Roberta

    2000-10-01

    Healing with color has been researched and documented worldwide for centuries. Every single part of the brain and every cell in the body is effected by light. Chinese and Russian scientists demonstrated that the acupuncture meridians transmit light. Dr. Peter Mandel, German chiropractic physician and acupuncturist, states that the acupuncture points are especially sensitive to electromagnetic waves within the spectrum of visible light and microwave energy, and all cells constantly emit and absorb small pockets of electromagnetic radiation or light, called biophotons. The harmony or disharmony of cells has been documented. Kirlian photography, to photography the aura was invented by Russians Semyon and Valentina Kirlian. Photo therapy and light research are being practiced worldwide. In the United States, Dr. Jacob Lieberman has written an influential book Light Medicine of the Future. In 1992 the first Light Years Ahead conference was held. (#5 1996) Dr. Brian Breiling and Dr. Lee Hartley brought together experts in the field to discuss the many potentials of light therapy. My present research in this area has focused on narrow band frequencies through the use of holography. Its therapeutic applications of color healing in this research are both critical and fundamental. My current work, The Chakras, seven reflection holograms on silver halide, relate to the wheels of light described in the earliest recorded Indian history. I will discus the chakras, this ancient metaphysical system under the new light of popular western metaphors and visionary art, how the chakras relate to the seven colors of the rainbow, the electromagnetic waves, and the connection to color holography in healing light therapy. I will be citing concurrent research in color healing, and the important areas of research that are necessary to have significant impact on future directions. Holography in the future will constitute a major frontier in discovery.

  2. SV-Bay: structural variant detection in cancer genomes using a Bayesian approach with correction for GC-content and read mappability

    PubMed Central

    Iakovishina, Daria; Janoueix-Lerosey, Isabelle; Barillot, Emmanuel; Regnier, Mireille; Boeva, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Whole genome sequencing of paired-end reads can be applied to characterize the landscape of large somatic rearrangements of cancer genomes. Several methods for detecting structural variants with whole genome sequencing data have been developed. So far, none of these methods has combined information about abnormally mapped read pairs connecting rearranged regions and associated global copy number changes automatically inferred from the same sequencing data file. Our aim was to create a computational method that could use both types of information, i.e. normal and abnormal reads, and demonstrate that by doing so we can highly improve both sensitivity and specificity rates of structural variant prediction. Results: We developed a computational method, SV-Bay, to detect structural variants from whole genome sequencing mate-pair or paired-end data using a probabilistic Bayesian approach. This approach takes into account depth of coverage by normal reads and abnormalities in read pair mappings. To estimate the model likelihood, SV-Bay considers GC-content and read mappability of the genome, thus making important corrections to the expected read count. For the detection of somatic variants, SV-Bay makes use of a matched normal sample when it is available. We validated SV-Bay on simulated datasets and an experimental mate-pair dataset for the CLB-GA neuroblastoma cell line. The comparison of SV-Bay with several other methods for structural variant detection demonstrated that SV-Bay has better prediction accuracy both in terms of sensitivity and false-positive detection rate. Availability and implementation: https://github.com/InstitutCurie/SV-Bay Contact: valentina.boeva@inserm.fr Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26740523

  3. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-07-01

    Alba Paolo (Università di Torino) Becattini Francesco (Università di Firenze) Bombaci Ignazio (Università di Pisa) Bonaccorso Angela (INFN Pisa) Colonna Maria (INFN-LNS Catania) Coraggio Luigi (INFN Napoli) Covello Aldo (Università di Napoli) Di Toro Massimo (Università di Catania) De Angelis Giacomo (INFN-LNL Legnaro) Gargano Angela (INFN Napoli) Gattobigio Mario (INLN, Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, France) Gensini Paolo (INFN Lecce) Giannini Mauro (Università di Genova) Girlanda Luca (Università del Salento) Giusti Carlotta (Università di Pavia) Greco Vincenzo (Università di Catania) Grossi Eduardo (Università di Firenze) Itaco Nunzio (Università di Napoli) Kievsky Alejandro (INFN Pisa) Lanza Edoardo (INFN Catania) Lavagno Andrea (Politecnico di Torino) Logoteta Domenico (Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal) Lo Iudice Nicola (Università di Napoli) Lombardo Maria Paola (INFN-LNF Frascati) Lo Meo Sergio (ENEA Bologna) Mannarelli Massimo (INFN-LNGS Assergi) Marcucci Laura Elisa (Università di Pisa) Matera Francesco (Università di Firenze) Orlandini Giuseppina (Università di Trento) Pacati Franco (Università di Pavia) Pederiva Francesco (Università di Trento) Pirrone Sara (INFN Catania) Puglisi Armando (Università di Catania) Radici Marco (INFN Pavia) Rinaldi Matteo (Università di Perugia) Roggero Alessandro (Università di Trento) Rolando Valentina (Università di Ferrara) Rosati Sergio (Università di Pisa) Ruggieri Marco (Università di Catania) Salmè Gianni (INFN Roma) Santopinto Elena (INFN Genova) Scopetta Sergio (Università di Perugia) Taiuti Mauro (Università di Genova) Vigezzi Enrico (INFN Milano) Viviani Michele (INFN Pisa) Vorabbi Matteo (Università di Pavia)

  4. Clock gene variation in Tachycineta swallows.

    PubMed

    Dor, Roi; Cooper, Caren B; Lovette, Irby J; Massoni, Viviana; Bulit, Flor; Liljesthrom, Marcela; Winkler, David W

    2012-01-01

    Many animals use photoperiod cues to synchronize reproduction with environmental conditions and thereby improve their reproductive success. The circadian clock, which creates endogenous behavioral and physiological rhythms typically entrained to photoperiod, is well characterized at the molecular level. Recent work provided evidence for an association between Clock poly-Q length polymorphism and latitude and, within a population, an association with the date of laying and the length of the incubation period. Despite relatively high overall breeding synchrony, the timing of clutch initiation has a large impact on the fitness of swallows in the genus Tachycineta. We compared length polymorphism in the Clock poly-Q region among five populations from five different Tachycineta species that breed across a hemisphere-wide latitudinal gradient (Fig. 1). Clock poly-Q variation was not associated with latitude; however, there was an association between Clock poly-Q allele diversity and the degree of clutch size decline within breeding seasons. We did not find evidence for an association between Clock poly-Q variation and date of clutch initiation in for any of the five Tachycineta species, nor did we found a relationship between incubation duration and Clock genotype. Thus, there is no general association between latitude, breeding phenology, and Clock polymorphism in this clade of closely related birds.Figure 1Photos of Tachycineta swallows that were used in this study: A) T. bicolor from Ithaca, New York, B) T. leucorrhoa from Chascomús, Argentina, C) T. albilinea from Hill Bank, Belize, D) T. meyeni from Puerto Varas, Chile, and E) T. thalassina from Mono Lake, California, Photographers: B: Valentina Ferretti; A, C-E: David Winkler.

  5. Topological and experimental approach to the pressure-temperature-composition phase diagram of the binary enantiomer system d- and l-camphor.

    PubMed

    Rietveld, Ivo B; Barrio, Maria; Espeau, Philippe; Tamarit, Josep Lluis; Céolin, René

    2011-02-24

    In 1981, Jacques, Collet, and Wilen already put forward the idea to use pressure to influence equilibria in binary enantiomer systems in analogy with temperature (Jacques et al. Enantiomers, Racemates and Resolutions; John Wiley & Sons: New York, 1981). Whereas temperature is used routinely to study phase equilibria, pressure is an all but forgotten parameter. This is therefore possibly the first paper on the influence of pressure on a binary enantiomer system: d- and l-camphor. The study consists of two parts, a topological approach, which uses data obtained from routine measurements (differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction), and the experimental determination of phase transitions as a function of pressure and temperature. This has resulted in two topological pressure-temperature phase diagrams of the pure enantiomer d-camphor and of the racemic mixture dl-camphor; both have been verified by the experiments as a function of pressure. In turn, these results have been used to construct part of the pressure-temperature-composition phase diagram of d- and l-camphor. A method to obtain the excess Gibbs energy from these binary phase diagrams as a function of pressure is proposed. PMID:21280597

  6. LHC, le Big Bang en éprouvette

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Notre compréhension de l’Univers est en train de changer… Bar des Sciences - Tout public Débat modéré par Marie-Odile Montchicourt, journaliste de France Info. Evenement en vidéoconférence entre le Globe de la science et de l’innovation, le bar le Baloard de Montpellier et la Maison des Métallos à Paris. Intervenants au CERN : Philippe Charpentier et Daniel Froideveaux, physiciens au CERN. Intervenants à Paris : Vincent Bontemps, philosophe et chercheur au CEA ; Jacques Arnould, philosophe, historien des sciences et théologien, Jean-Jacques Beineix, réalisateur, producteur, scénariste de cinéma. Intervenants à Montpellier (LPTA) : André Neveu, physicien théoricien et directeur de recherche au CNRS ; Gilbert Moultaka, physicien théoricien et chargé de recherche au CNRS. Partenariat : CERN, CEA, IN2P3, Université MPL2 (LPTA) Dans le cadre de la Fête de la science 2008

  7. STS-65 crewmembers and backup participate in bench review at Boeing Building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 crewmembers, wearing clean suits, look over equipment to be carried aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, for the scheduled July flight of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) mission. Surrounding a table full of equipment at Boeing's Flight Equipment Processing Facility near the Johnson Space Center (JSC), are (left to right) Mission Specialist (MS) Leroy Chiao, MS Donald A. Thomas, Commander Robert D. Cabana, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, Payload Commander (PLC) Richard J. Hieb, and backup (alternate) payload specialist Jean-Jacques Favier. Mukai represents Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA) and Favier represents France's Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales. Photo taken by NASA JSC contract photographer Scott A. Wickes.

  8. STS-65 crewmembers and backup participate in bench review at Boeing Building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Attired in clean suits, STS-65 Payload Commander (PLC) Richard J. Hieb (left), backup (alternate) payload specialist Jean-Jacques Favier (center), and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai look over equipment to be carried aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, for the scheduled July flight of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) mission. Hygiene supplies including plaid lintless towels are stacked on the table in front of the crewmembers. The bench review and equipment inspection took place at the Boeing Flight Equipment Processing Facility (FEPF) near the Johnson Space Center (JSC). Mukai represents Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA) and Favier represents France's Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Photo taken by NASA JSC contract photographer Scott A. Wickes.

  9. [The amazing treatment of ringworm in a Nantes hospital at the beginning of the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Blandin, Gaston

    2009-01-01

    In 1900, in Nantes, the ringworm was a real plague. Despite the very painful cares recovery could not be hoped before two years while the poor boys were roaming around far from school. At the Home St Jacques, a district for children suffering from ringworm and a department of electro-radiology were open where Doctor Gustave Bureau began to use X Rays to cure the ill hair and create a long lasting alopecia. The result was spectacular and patches disappeared in a few days. Besides three cases of radio dermatitis, there was no noticeable incident in spite of irradiation for twenty to twenty five minutes. The treatment has been used for about fifty years as it changed the life of the children till an effective drug. Then some studies showed the harmful long-term effects of such expositions to X rays.

  10. Nelson River and Hudson Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Rivers that empty into large bodies of water can have a significant impact on the thawing of nearshore winter ice. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 18, 2001, shows the Nelson River emptying spring runoff from the Manitoba province to the south into the southwestern corner of Canada's Hudson Bay. The warmer waters from more southern latitudes hasten melting of ice near the shore, though some still remained, perhaps because in shallow coastal waters, the ice could have been anchored to the bottom. High volumes of sediment in the runoff turned the inflow brown, and the rim of the retreating ice has taken on a dirty appearance even far to the east of the river's entrance into the Bay. The sediment would have further hastened the melting of the ice because its darker color would have absorbed more solar radiation than cleaner, whiter ice. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  11. Wildfires in Eastern U.S.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Drought conditions have plagued the Appalachian Mountains in October and November, and low relative humidity combined with dry leaves on the ground has created extreme fire danger in many eastern states. This true-color MODIS image made from data collected on November 13, 2001, shows smoke from numerous fires (indicated in red), predominantly in southern West Virginia (image center), Kentucky (to the southwest), and Tennessee (south). The fires, at least some of which are likely the result of arson, have burned thousands of acres throughout the region. Unfortunately for those people fighting the fires, the fire danger is likely to remain high, with no significant rain expected in the near term. South of Lake Erie, the southernmost of the Great Lakes, numerous aircraft contrails crisscross Ohio. Water vapor emitted with engine exhaust condenses in the cold, dry air at high altitudes, leaving behind a trail of condensation--a contrail. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  12. Wheeler thought experiment with delayed choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Jeffrey

    2012-02-01

    This is an alternative interpretation of Jacques, et. al. (2007), Wheeler's thought experiment with delayed choice. The researchers find that the choice of observables changes the previous behavior of the photon inside the interferometer. Stepping outside the QM box, we propose that elementary waves from the detectors travel backwards through the interferometer, and the photon is following such a ray in the reverse direction. Thus a change in observables changes the behavior of the photon for the simple reason that the observable is transmitting information to the photon and the photon is able to change its polarization mid-stream in response to a change in that information. According to this explanation there is no delayed choice. It is an illusion.

  13. [Moleschott and materialism].

    PubMed

    van Gijn, Jan; Gijselhart, Joost P

    2012-01-01

    Jacques Moleschott (1822-1893), born into a Dutch Roman Catholic family, attended secondary school in Cleve (Germany). There he became captivated by Hegelian philosophy and lost his faith. After medical studies in Heidelberg and a brief spell as physician in Utrecht, where he struck up a life-long friendship with the physiologists Franciscus Donders (1818-1889) and Izaak van Deen (1805-1869), he returned to Heidelberg as lecturer in physiology. In his textbooks and particularly in his book for the general public, 'The circulation of life' (in German), he attested to a strict physicochemical view of biological phenomena, in opposition to contemporary notions of vitalism and teleology. When the atheistic implications had caused a conflict with the authorities in Baden, he moved as professor of physiology to Zürich (1854) and subsequently to the emerging nation of Italy, as professor in Turin (1861) and finally in Rome (1878), where he became a senator. PMID:22929747

  14. STS-78 Drag Chute Deploy (side view)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The drag chute pops open as the orbiter Columbia glides down Runway 33 of KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility. Main gear touchdown occurred at 8:36 a.m. EDT, July 7. A mission duration of 16 days, 21 hours and 47 minutes made STS-78 the longest Shuttle flight to date. The STS-78 crew numbered seven: Mission Commander Terence 'Tom' Henricks; Pilot Kevin R. Kregel; Payload Commander Susan J. Helms; Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan and Charles E. Brady Jr.; and Payload Specialists Jean-Jacques Favier, representing the French Space Agency (CNES) and Robert Brent Thirsk, of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). The primary payload of the 78th Shuttle flight was the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS).

  15. STS-78 Drag Chute Deploy (front view)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The drag chute pops open as the orbiter Columbia glides down Runway 33 of KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility. Main gear touchdown occurred at 8:36 a.m. EDT, July 7. A mission duration of 16 days, 21 hours and 47 minutes made STS-78 the longest Shuttle flight to date. The STS-78 crew numbered seven: Mission Commander Terence 'Tom' Henricks; Pilot Kevin R. Kregel; Payload Commander Susan J. Helms; Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan and Charles E. Brady Jr.; and Payload Specialists Jean-Jacques Favier, representing the French Space Agency (CNES) and Robert Brent Thirsk, of the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). The primary payload of the 78th Shuttle flight was the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS).

  16. STS-78 crew holds up Olympic torch at SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-78 Payload Commander Susan J. Helms (center) holds up an Olympic torch that was presented to the crew after they arrived at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility. With Helms are (from left) Payload Specialist Robert Brenton Thirsk (Canadian Space Agency); Mission Specialist Charles E. Brady; Mission Commander Terence T. 'Tom' Henricks; Helms; Mission Specialist Richard M. Linnehan; Pilot Keven R. Kregel; and Payload Specialist Jean-Jacques Favier (French Space Agency). The crew will take the torch with them on their upcoming spaceflight and then present it upon their return to a representative of the Atlanta Committee for the Olympic games (ACOG). The countdown clock began ticking earlier today toward the June 20 launch of the Space Shuttle Columbia on Mission STS- 78, the fifth Shuttle flight of 1996.

  17. [The birth of the international conference "Biology and the future of man", Paris, 18-24 September 1974].

    PubMed

    Galperin, Charles

    2015-01-01

    In 1974, a symposium was organized in Paris entitled "Biology and the future of man". It was focused on the analysis of "new powers of science and new duties of man" in the field of medically assisted procreation, agriculture, demography, and environmental issues. This small introductory text begins by describing the circumstances that led to the organization of this prestigious conference. Then, in order to go further than the silent framework of the presentation of the themes, we will focus on the report of Dr. Robert Edwards on medically assisted procreation, we will recall the duel between Jacques Monod and Jérôme Lejeune on abortion, then we will give center stage to physicians like Jean Bernard and Alexandre Minkowski about the right to die, and finally we will remind the conclusion brought to the conference by Georges Canguilhem. PMID:26184345

  18. Beyond ion-conduction: Channel-dependent and -independent roles of TRP channels during development and tissue homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Vrenken, Kirsten S; Jalink, Kees; van Leeuwen, Frank N; Middelbeek, Jeroen

    2016-06-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels comprise a family of cation channels implicated in a variety of cellular processes, including proliferation, cell migration and cell survival. As a consequence, members of this ion family play prominent roles during embryonic development, tissue maintenance and cancer progression. Although most TRP channels are non-selective, many cellular responses, mediated by TRP channels, appear to be calcium-dependent. In addition, there is mounting evidence for channel-independent roles for TRP channels. In this review, we will discuss how both these channel-dependent and -independent mechanisms affect cellular programs essential during embryonic development, and how perturbations in these pathways contribute to a variety of pathologies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium and Cell Fate. Guest Editors: Jacques Haiech, Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, Thierry Capiod and Olivier Mignen.

  19. [Birth of the movie from the spirit of laughter].

    PubMed

    Schlüpmann, H

    1994-11-01

    So far, the links between film theory and psychoanalysis have been largely forged via Sigmund Freud's theory of dreams and the "linguistic turn" ushered in by Jacques Lacan. The present author elects a different approach. Drawing upon Freud's treatise on jokes, she outlines the way in which the social nature of joke production (in contrast to the loneliness of the dreamer) and the modes of wish-fulfillment inherent therein (neglected by Lacan) can be utilised for a feminist re-vision of cinema. According to Schlüpmann, the unconscious factors inherent in jokes and comedy re-emerge in a radicalized form in three elements of cinema: in the technicality of film, the participation of women and the projective space represented by the movie theatre.

  20. Audism: exploring the metaphysics of oppression.

    PubMed

    Bauman, H-Dirksen L

    2004-01-01

    This article traces the development of the concept of "audism" from its inception in the mid-1970s by exploring three distinct dimensions of oppression: individual, institutional, and metaphysical. Although the first two aspects of audism have been identified, there is a deeply rooted belief system regarding language and human identity that is yet to be explored within the context of audism. This article attempts to expose how our particular historical and philosophical constructions of language and being have created what French philosopher Jacques Derrida calls phonocentrism. Although Derrida does not discuss audism, his deconstruction of the Western notion of language provides a lens through which we can better see the orientation that has provided fertile ground out of which individual and institutional audism has flourished. PMID:15304445

  1. The deconstructive experience.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    Logocentrism was conceptualized by Jacques Derrida as connoting the assertion within Western philosophical traditions of certain assumed truths and the exclusion of alternative perspectives. In this paper, the author proposes that the concept of logocentrism may be usefully applied within the clinical situation to enrich understanding of splitting between idealized and devalued perceptions of self and others. He presents a case of a woman with borderline personality disorder to illustrate a logocentric self-structure, as well as how common psychotherapeutic models inadvertently risk reinforcing such structures through the hierarchical nature of the patient-therapist relationship. The process of deconstructing logocentric self-structures is facilitated by the patient experiencing the therapist paradoxically as an extension of the self that sometimes behaves contrary to expectations. Such a deconstructive experience challenges reified perceptions of self and others, serves to broaden the experience of self, and enhances qualities of self-reflection and empathy. PMID:16555459

  2. How might Levinas' concept of the other's priority and Derrida's unconditional hospitality contribute to the philosophy of the modern hospice movement?

    PubMed

    Floriani, Ciro Augusto; Schramm, Fermin Roland

    2010-06-01

    Hospitality is commonly referred as one of the meanings of hospes, the Latin word which is also the root of hospice. This article explores the semantics of the word hospice - the seal of identity of modern hospice movement - and attempts to integrate the meaning of hospitality into the modern hospice movement, understood as unconditional reception. Therefore, the article analyzes the concept of unconditional hospitality, developed by Jacques Derrida and that of ethical responsibility proposed by Emmanuel Levinas based on the phenomenological experience of the other. From this point of view, these two concepts tie in with the meaning of hospice, bringing substantial grounding elements to the hospice movement for the construction of a protective ethos. PMID:20307370

  3. Interprofessional collaborative practice: a deconstruction.

    PubMed

    Thistlethwaite, Jill; Jackson, Ann; Moran, Monica

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses (and perhaps abuses) deconstruction to revisit the meanings of collaboration and practice. We start with a description of deconstruction itself, as espoused by Jacques Derrida, and then move onto challenging the notion that words, such as collaboration, can have fixed meanings. And, in the spirit of Derrida, "I can foresee the impatience of the bad reader: this is the way I name or accuse the fearful reader, the reader in a hurry to be determined, decided upon deciding (in order to annul, in other words to bring back to oneself, one has to wish to know in advance what to expect...)" (Derrida, 1987, p. 4--original italics), we move straight into the text. PMID:23126420

  4. A footnote on allostery.

    PubMed

    Crick, F H C; Wyman, Jeffries

    2013-05-13

    A manuscript on allostery signed by Francis Crick and Jeffries Wyman was sent by Crick to Jacques Monod in 1965. Monod transmitted a copy of the manuscript, upon which he had written several comments, to Jean-Pierre Changeux, then a post-doctoral fellow at the University of California Berkeley in the laboratory of Howard Schachman. Changeux provided a copy to Stuart Edelstein, a graduate student in the same laboratory. The manuscript was never submitted for publication, but Edelstein retained his copy since that time and has edited it for publication in the special issue on allostery. The text emphasized the interpretation of the properties of an allosteric oligomer by characterizing its equivalent monomer. The text also developed the concept of the allosteric range and included a simple equation for calculation of the Hill coefficient from the parameters of the Monod-Wyman-Changeux model.

  5. Lena River, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This pair of true- and false-color images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) from June 28, 2002, shows numerous burn scars dotting the northern Siberian landscape along the Lena River. In the true-color image, the burn scars appear dark grayish-brown, while in the false-color image they appear red, as does the bare exposed soil of the Verkhoyansk Mountain Range to the east of the north-flowing Lena. A tinge of blue along the mountains in the false-color image means there is some lingering snow or ice, and that the bare soil is due to spring's late arrival there, and not to burn scars. At the top, sea ice still fills the Laptev Sea. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  6. Fires in Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Numerous thermal anomalies were detected on the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia in late June and early July by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Some of the anomalies (red dots) were fires, but at least one was the result of ongoing volcanic activity at one of the Peninsula's numerous active volcanoes. The erupting volcano, called Sheveluch, can be seen most clearly in the image from July 8, 2002. It is located in the upper right quadrant of the image, and appears as a grayish circular patch amid the surrounding green vegetation. In its center is a red dot indicating that MODIS detected a thermal signature coming from the restless volcano. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  7. Re-reading "Little Hans": Freud's case study and the question of competing paradigms in psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Midgley, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    Psychoanalysts have long recognized the complex interaction between clinical data and formal psychoanalytic theories. While clinical data are often used to provide "evidence" for psychoanalytic paradigms, the theoretical model used by the analyst also structures what can and cannot be seen in the data. This delicate interaction between theory and clinical data can be seen in the history of interpretations of Freud's "Analysis of a Phobia in a Five-Year-Old Boy" ("Little Hans"). Freud's himself revised his reading of the case in 1926, after which a number of psychoanalysts--including Melanie Klein, Jacques Lacan, and John Bowlby--reinterpreted the case in the light of their particular models of the mind. These analysts each found "evidence" for their theoretical model within this classic case study, and in doing so they illuminated aspects of the case that had previously been obscured, while also revealing a great deal about the shifting preoccupations of psychoanalysis as a field.

  8. [Severe depression : psychoanalysis].

    PubMed

    Bouvet de la Maisonneuve, O

    2009-12-01

    The indication for psychoanalysis in severe depression is not clear. And yet, demands for this type of intervention are increasing, despite the absence of any form of consensus on the subject. Freud considered depression as a failure of analytical efforts and, based on this observation, revised his theory, in particular to include the notions of narcissism and the death drive. Many analysts have been reluctant to follow his teachings on this last point and provide depressed patients with analytical-type therapies aimed at restoring narcissism. Melanie Klein pushed Freud's ideas about depression even further and brought such therapies back to the heart of analytical practice. Jacques Lacan took the debate to another level by proposing an overhaul of the principles on which analysis has been based. Today, while following certain precautionary rules, true psychoanalyses can be proposed to patients with severe depression, whether of the bipolar, recurring or even neurotic type that can reach this level of severity.

  9. Resistance, rupture and repetition: Civil society strategies against intimate partner violence in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Lilja, Mona; Baaz, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a new interpretation of the 'resistance' carried out by local civil society organisations in Cambodia against intimate partner violence (IPV). In this, the paper explores the nexus between 'rupture', 'resistance' and 'repetition' and concludes that different 'repetitions' can contribute to acts of violence while simultaneously creating possibilities for resisting IPV. In regard to the latter, the concept of 'rupture' is investigated as a performative politics through which organisations try to disrupt the 'repetitions' of violent masculinities. Furthermore, it is argued that the importance of 'repetitions' and the concept of time should be acknowledged. The French criminal defence lawyer Jacques Vergès' understanding of 'rupture' and the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze's notions of 'repetition' inform the analysis. To exemplify our discussion and findings, the paper embraces stories of a number of civil society workers who facilitate various men's groups in Cambodia in order to negotiate the practice of IPV.

  10. Les Droits de l'Homme et l'Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Francine

    2002-07-01

    The 21st century will, we hope, be the century of education or, as Jacques Delors put it in his report for UNESCO, the century of "lifelong learning". But this hope will only be realised if education is the subject and aim of a universal right. This right is enshrined in the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which ought to be recognised in all countries of the world as the set of principles that should guide human action. The recognition of these rights should lead to a functioning democracy within educational establishments, where the rules of life should be the same for all: pupils, teachers and administrators. It is no less essential that human rights should constitute guiding principles for educational practice. The United Nations Decade for Human Rights (1995-2004) is an outstanding opportunity for each state to establish a plan of action for a true programme of human rights education.

  11. [Couching then and now].

    PubMed

    Bokhorst, Leonard P; Zegers, Richard H C

    2011-01-01

    Cataracts are the most important cause of acquired blindness worldwide. The oldest known surgical treatment for cataracts dates back to around 1,000 years before Christ. The Indian surgeon Sushruta described the technique of 'couching', in which the opaque lens is pushed from the line of vision using a needle. At the time of Alexander the Great this technique spread across Europe and then to the rest of the world. Couching was the only available treatment for cataracts for a long time, until the discovery of lens extraction by Jacques Daviel in 1748. Since then lens extraction has replaced couching in the western world, because of poor results and high complication rates. This procedure is, however, still practiced in areas of Africa and Asia.

  12. Smog Obscures Chinese Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Most of southeastern China has been covered by a thick greyish shroud of aerosol pollution over the last few weeks. The smog is so thick it is difficult to see the surface in some regions of this scene, acquired on January 7, 2002. The city of Hong Kong is the large brown cluster of pixels toward the lower lefthand corner of the image (indicated by the faint black box). The island of Taiwan, due east of mainland China, is also blanketed by the smog. This true-color image was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor, flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  13. Highlighting the History of French Radio Astronomy. 7: The Genesis of the Institute of Astronomy at Millimeter Wavelengths (IRAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encrenaz, Pierre; Gómez González, Jesús; Lequeux, James; Orchiston, Wayne

    2011-07-01

    Radio astronomy in France and in Germany started around 1950. France was then building interferometers and Germany large single dishes, so it was not unexpected that their first projects involving millimetre radio astronomy were respectively with an interferometer and a single dish. In this paper, we explain in detail how these two projects finally merged in 1979 with the formation of the Institute of Radio Astronomy at Millimetre Wavelengths (IRAM), after a long process with many ups and downs. We also describe how Spain started radio astronomy by joining IRAM. Presently, IRAM is the most powerful facility worldwide for millimetre radio astronomy. We wish to dedicate our paper to the memory of Émile-Jacques Blum (1923-2009), who played a major role in the construction of IRAM but died before he could participate in the writing of this paper. An interview made one month before his death was very useful in the preparation of this paper.

  14. Bryan Coast, English Coast, Alexander Island, Fallieres Coast, and Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Antarctica shows the Bryan Coast (lower left), the English Coast (lower central), Alexander Island (middle right), the Fallieres Coast (top right), and the Bellingshausen Sea. The entire continent has been dedicated to peaceful scientific investigation since 1961, with the signing of the Antarctic Treaty.The waters surrounding Antarctica are intensely cold. Salt water freezes at -2C, allowing sea ice to form. The middle left portion of the image shows quite a lot of sea ice in the Bellingshausen Sea. During the Antarctic winter, when data for this image was acquired, Antarctica doubles in size to about 28.5 million square km (or about 11 million square miles), and temperatures in the -60C range are common.This true-color image was compiled from MODIS data gathered March 29, 2002. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  15. [The diseases of Bossuet].

    PubMed

    Charon, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Jacques Bénigne Bossuet--nicknamed 'the Bright Eagle from Meaux' by Voltaire--died at 77, in his Parisian place of residence, on April 12th 1704. Which disease so took this robust prelate of Burgundian origin, bishop since he was 53 and whose active life had been filled with important duties and honours. If bibliography about his life is copious we owe before any trusting the testimony of his private secretary, priest François Le Dieu, whose diary describes everyday life in detail. Thus we know his fevers, skin rashes in 1699, and his bronchial and digestive problems and we can follow the evolution of his vesical lithiasis complicated with purulent, necrosing cystisis which led to the lethal evolution in spite of the efforts of renowned praticians. PMID:26050428

  16. Thinking in the space between Winnicott and Lacan.

    PubMed

    Luepnitz, Deborah Anna

    2009-10-01

    The author, following André Green, maintains that the two most original psychoanalytic thinkers since Freud were Donald Winnicott and Jacques Lacan. Winnicott, it has been said, introduced the comic tradition into psychoanalysis, while Lacan sustained Freud's tragic/ironic vision. Years of mutual avoidance by their followers (especially of Lacan by Anglophone clinicians) has arguably diminished understanding of the full spectrum of psychoanalytic thought. The author outlines some basic constructs of Winnicott and of Lacan, including: their organizing tropes of selfhood versus subjectivity, their views of the "mirror stage", and their definitions of the aims of treatment. While the ideas of Winnicott and Lacan appear at some points complementary, the goal is not to integrate them into one master discourse, but rather to bring their radically different paradigms into provocative contact. A clinical vignette is offered to demonstrate concepts from Lacan and Winnicott, illustrating what it might mean to think and teach in the potential space between them.

  17. Flooding in Central China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, frequent, heavy rains gave rise to floods and landslides throughout China that have killed over 1,000 people and affected millions. This false-color image of the western Yangtze River and Dongting Lake in central China was acquired on August 21, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. (right) The latest flooding crisis in China centers on Dingtong Lake in the center of the image. Heavy rains have caused it to swell over its banks and swamp lakefront towns in the province of Hunan. As of August 23, 2002, more than 250,000 people have been evacuated, and over one million people have been brought in to fortify the dikes around the lake. Normally the lake would appear much smaller and more defined in the MODIS image. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

  18. [The complex travel of cinchona barks between Peru and Québec Hôtel-Dieu, in the middle of the eighteenth century].

    PubMed

    Simon, Lorène; Lafont, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    Duplessis sisters, who were religious nuns in Hôtel-Dieu (Quebec hospital), were exchanging letters with a French apothecary from Dieppe in Normandy, named Jacques-Tranquilain Féret. They asked him to send them in Quebec the drugs and medicines their apothecary needed. Amongst these drugs were cinchona barks that came from Callao in Peru by boat, passed Cape Horn and then sailed to Cadiz, the great Spanish port. Then they embarked to Rouen, which was the French port for goods coming from overseas. The goods from Peru had then to be transported on little fishing boats to Dieppe, where Féret received the barks. The apothecary sent these drugs to Quebec by boats sailing either from Rouen or from La Rochelle. So these Peruvian drugs had to cross two times the Ocean before accessing to North America. PMID:27281933

  19. [The complex travel of cinchona barks between Peru and Québec Hôtel-Dieu, in the middle of the eighteenth century].

    PubMed

    Simon, Lorène; Lafont, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    Duplessis sisters, who were religious nuns in Hôtel-Dieu (Quebec hospital), were exchanging letters with a French apothecary from Dieppe in Normandy, named Jacques-Tranquilain Féret. They asked him to send them in Quebec the drugs and medicines their apothecary needed. Amongst these drugs were cinchona barks that came from Callao in Peru by boat, passed Cape Horn and then sailed to Cadiz, the great Spanish port. Then they embarked to Rouen, which was the French port for goods coming from overseas. The goods from Peru had then to be transported on little fishing boats to Dieppe, where Féret received the barks. The apothecary sent these drugs to Quebec by boats sailing either from Rouen or from La Rochelle. So these Peruvian drugs had to cross two times the Ocean before accessing to North America.

  20. Fires in Chile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On February 5, 2002, the dense smoke from numerous forest fires stretched out over the Pacific Ocean about 400 miles south of Santiago, Chile. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the fires, which are located near the city of Temuco. The fires are indicated with red dots (boxes in the high-resolution imagery). The fires were burning near several national parks and nature reserves in an area of the Chilean Andes where tourism is very popular. Southeast of the fires, the vegetation along the banks of the Rio Negro in Argentina stands out in dark green. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  1. Lashley's shift from bacteriology to neuropsychology, 1910-1917, and the influence of Jennings, Watson, and Franz.

    PubMed

    Bruce, D

    1986-01-01

    From 1910 to 1917, Karl S. Lashley's research moved from bacteriology to neuropsychology through intermediate stages of zoology, comparative psychology, and the psychology of learning. This shift is examined with particular reference to Lashley's associations with John B. Watson, Shepherd I. Franz, and Herbert S. Jennings. Watson's impact was substantial, for he attracted Lashley to comparative psychology and was the source of many of his later research interests. The bridge to neuropsychological research was provided by Franz who trained Lashley in the lesion method of investigating the brain bases of learning. The influence of Jennings, Lashley's Ph.D. supervisor, was most evident in the divergence of the post-1915 interests of Lashley and Watson. Lashley's search for brain mechanisms of learning, as contrasted with Watson's concern with behavioral prediction and control, mirrored a similar earlier difference between Jennings and Jacques Loeb.

  2. James Cameron discusses record dive and science concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy; Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-12-01

    James Cameron, the explorer and filmmaker, led a 4 December panel at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco to discuss his daring dive on 26 March to the bottom of the ocean in a one-person vertical "torpedo" submarine, the Deepsea Challenger, and to present some initial science findings from expedition samples and data. The dive touched the bottom of the Challenger Deep, a valley in the floor of the nearly 11-kilometer-deep Mariana Trench in the western Pacific Ocean. The vessel landed close to the same depth and at a location similar to where Don Walsh and Jacques Piccard descended in the Trieste bathyscaphe on 23 January 1960 at a then record-setting depth of 10,911 meters.

  3. Smoke from Fires in Central America Drifts over Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Smoke from widespread fires in tropical Mexico and Central America appears to be drifting over the U.S. Gulf States. In 1998 similar circumstances resulted in air-quality warnings being issued in several U.S. states, including Texas and Louisiana. The top image shows smoke and fires (red pixels) observed by the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA's Terra satellite. Possibly hundreds of small fires are scattered across Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. The lower image, acquired by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), shows smoke from these fires carried by the prevailing winds across the Gulf of Mexico and over the United States. Images courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the SeaWiFS Project, NASA GSFC, and ORBIMAGE

  4. Pierre Curie, 1859–1906

    PubMed Central

    Mould, R.F.

    2007-01-01

    The year 2006 marked 100 years since the death of Pierre Curie. It is therefore appropriate that we remember his life and his work, which was cut short by his untimely death from an accident on the Pont Neuf, Paris, on April 19, 1906. He had already accomplished much during his life, both before the discovery of radium with Marie Curie, in work co-authored with his brother Jacques on piezoelectricity, and afterwards, when he published the results of several experimental studies with radium and radon. He came from a medical family, and his grandfather Pierre Curie was a famous homeopathic physician. He has, in print, unfairly been relegated to the background—his own scientific contributions having been overtaken by the fame of Marie Curie, probably because she outlived him by 28 years. PMID:17576470

  5. Critique and cure: a dream of uniting psychoanalysis and philosophy.

    PubMed

    Webster, Jamieson

    2013-06-01

    Critical theory, whose aim was to historicize philosophy through integrating it with the social sciences, turned to psychoanalysis to find its way through an accounting of philosophy after the Second World War. Over 50 years after this initial project, the rift between philosophy and psychoanalysis has never been greater. If Jacques Lacan could be considered one of the few psychoanalysts to maintain and foster links to philosophical thought in the latter half of the 20th century, his work has sadly remained marginal in the clinical field throughout America and Europe. Both critical theory and Lacan remain skeptical of the direction taken by psychoanalysis after Freud. Reflecting on the history of these two disciplines, as well as through an examination of Theodor Adorno's posthumously published dream journal, critique and cure emerge as two dialectically intertwined themes that gain momentum in the dream of the unification of the philosophical and psychoanalytic projects.

  6. Valley of the Brahmaputra, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this true-color MODIS image from October 23, 2001, the semi-arid Tibetan Plateau (upper left) meets up with the Himalayas to the south. From the heights of the Himalayas, snow-covered on their northern flanks, and lush with vegetation to the south, numerous rivers, brown with churned up sediment, flow into the valley of the Brahmaputra River in Assam, India. The Brahmaputra turns southward at the border of Bangladesh and is soon joined by the Ganges River, flowing in from image left. The mighty river splits into numerous channels as it runs out toward the Bay of Bengal, giving the region the name 'Mouths of the Ganges.' Vast amounts of sediment are being emptied into the Bay by the river, and greenish blue swirls could be a mixture of sediment and phytoplankton. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  7. [The diseases of Bossuet].

    PubMed

    Charon, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Jacques Bénigne Bossuet--nicknamed 'the Bright Eagle from Meaux' by Voltaire--died at 77, in his Parisian place of residence, on April 12th 1704. Which disease so took this robust prelate of Burgundian origin, bishop since he was 53 and whose active life had been filled with important duties and honours. If bibliography about his life is copious we owe before any trusting the testimony of his private secretary, priest François Le Dieu, whose diary describes everyday life in detail. Thus we know his fevers, skin rashes in 1699, and his bronchial and digestive problems and we can follow the evolution of his vesical lithiasis complicated with purulent, necrosing cystisis which led to the lethal evolution in spite of the efforts of renowned praticians.

  8. (Thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems)

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, F.C.

    1990-07-19

    This report describes the Jacques Monod Conference on Intracellular Redox Control in Animals, Plants and Microrganisms by Thioredoxin and Glutaredoxin Systems,'' which was held in Roscoff, France, on July 1--7, 1990. I was given the opportunity to lecture on my group's work concerning chemical characterization of phosphoribulokinase and its regulation by thioredoxin. I was also asked to chair a half-day session on thioredoxin reductases, a family of regulatory proteins that are involved in processes as diverse as DNA replication in mammals and carbon fluxes through the Calvin cycle in plants. As a major theme of the conference was structure/function relationships of proteins, most topics were of direct relevance to many research endeavors in the Biology Division of ORNL.

  9. MODIS Views the Middle-East

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    To paraphrase English author T.H. White, borders are the one thing a man sees that a bird cannot see as it flies high overhead. For the 15th consecutive day, differences in ideology have sparked violence and tension in the middle-east as the rest of the world watches, concerned. This true-color image of the region was taken on September 10, 2000, by the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The image shows the lands of Israel along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea, with the countries of Jordan to the southeast and Syria to the Northeast. Jerusalem, labeled, is Israel's capital city and Aman, labeled, is the capital of Jordan. The region known as the West Bank lies between the two countries. Running from north to south, the Jordan River links the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Group, NASA GSFC

  10. European industry attacks proposed carbon tax

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.

    1995-08-09

    The European chemical industry, facing growing political support for the European Commission`s latest version of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2})-energy tax, has renewed its attacks on the proposed law. Simon de Bree, chairman of DSM and president of the European Chemical Industry Council (Cefic; Brussels), last week wrote to Jacques Santer, president of the commission, and Solana Madariaga, current president of Europe Union`s (EU) Council of Ministers, saying the tax was {open_quotes}totally unacceptable and irresponsible in terms of EU competitiveness.{close_quotes} He says it {open_quotes}has nothing to do anymore with the protection of the environment and has instead become a normal additional taxation, disguised, for opportunistic reasons, as an environmental protection measurement.{close_quotes}

  11. STS-78 Mission Highlights Resource Tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The flight crew of the STS-78 mission, Cmdr. Terence T. Henricks, Pilot Kevin R. Kregel, Payload Cmdr. Susan J. Helms, Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Charles E. Brady, Jr., and Payload Specialists Jean-Jacques Favier, Pd.D. and Robert B. Thirsk, M.D., present a video mission over-view of their space flight. Images include: pre-launch activities such as eating the traditional breakfast, crew suit-up, and the ride out to the launch pad. Also, included are various panoramic views of the shuttle on the pad. The crew can be seen being readied in the white room' for their mission. After the closing of the hatch and arm retraction, launch activities are shown including countdown, engine ignition, launch, and the separation of the Solid Rocket Boosters. Following an on-time launch, the crew of Endeavor are shown setting up a variety of experiments that will operate for much of the mission.

  12. Getting ahead of one's self? The common culture of immunology and philosophy.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Warwick

    2014-09-01

    During the past thirty years, immunological metaphors, motifs, and models have come to shape much social theory and philosophy. Immunology, so it seems, often has served to naturalize claims about self, identity, and sovereignty--perhaps most prominently in Jacques Derrida's later studies. Yet the immunological science that functions as "nature" in these social and philosophical arguments is derived from interwar and Cold War social theory and philosophy. Theoretical immunologists and social theorists knowingly participated in a common culture. Thus the "naturalistic fallacy" in this case might be reframed as an error of categorization: its conditions of possibility would require ceaseless effort to purify and separate out the categories of nature and culture. The problem--inasmuch as there is a problem-therefore is not so much the making of an appeal to nature as assuming privileged access to an independent, sovereign category called "nature".

  13. Regulation of Pyrimidine and Arginine Biosynthesis Investigated by the Use of Phaseolotoxin and 5-Fluorouracil 1

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Steve; Sung, Zinmay Renee

    1981-01-01

    Purified phaseolotoxin inhibits the growth of carrot cells. Such inhibitions can be reversed completely by citrulline but not by arginine. This toxin inhibits ornithine transcarbamylase activity in vitro, which leads to an accumulation of ornithine and a decrease in arginine levels intracellularly. In carrot cells, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) toxicity can be reduced by the addition of purified toxin and citrulline, or ornithine. The toxin also decreases the incorporation of [14C]uracil and [14C]5-FU into trichloroacetic acid precipitable material by 50%. Finally, a 5-FU-resistant line, F5 (Sung ZR, Jacques S 1980 Planta 148: 389-396), was found to be more sensitive to the toxin than were 5-FU-sensitive cells. One millimolar 5-FU roughly doubled the ability of F5 to tolerate phaseolotoxin. These results demonstrate a close regulation between the pyrimidine and arginine path-ways in carrots. PMID:16661663

  14. 1994 Geophysical images contest entries sought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    As part of AGU's 75th Anniversary year, entries are sought for the 1994 Geophysical Images Contest. Over ninety photographs, computer graphics, posters, maps, slides, and videos were submitted in 1993. The winning images were displayed at the AGU Spring Meeting in Baltimore, and again at the Fall Meeting in San Francisco, along with the other images submitted.First place winner in the computer graphics section was “Western Mediterranean Sea Salinity Field,” submitted by Jacques Haus. Honorable Mentions went to Wei-jia Su for “A View of Whole Mantle Heterogeneity” and Toshiro Tanimoto, Paul Morin, David Yuen, and Yu-Shen Zhang for “Visualization of the Earth's Upper Mantle.”

  15. Context for the cultural impact of the computer

    SciTech Connect

    Grabow, P.C.

    1994-12-31

    It is apparent that the computer has had and is having a profound effect on everyone`s life. However, it is not always apparent what these effects are, where they originate, what direction they are taking us, or what controls them. Unfortunately, discussions concerning these issues often lack needed context -- terminology and ideas that help one uncover the underlying reality. This paper attempts to provide some of that context by introducing Jacques Ellul`s concept of {open_quotes}technique{close_quotes} -- encompassing much more than the computer. Many of these ideas grew out of {open_quotes}The Cultural Impact of the Computer{close_quotes}, a senior-level course taught by the author at Baylor University. The need for such context became evident when preparing for that course.

  16. Pierre curie, 1859-1906.

    PubMed

    Mould, R F

    2007-04-01

    The year 2006 marked 100 years since the death of Pierre Curie. It is therefore appropriate that we remember his life and his work, which was cut short by his untimely death from an accident on the Pont Neuf, Paris, on April 19, 1906. He had already accomplished much during his life, both before the discovery of radium with Marie Curie, in work co-authored with his brother Jacques on piezoelectricity, and afterwards, when he published the results of several experimental studies with radium and radon. He came from a medical family, and his grandfather Pierre Curie was a famous homeopathic physician. He has, in print, unfairly been relegated to the background-his own scientific contributions having been overtaken by the fame of Marie Curie, probably because she outlived him by 28 years.

  17. Identifying the death gender -- the ghost of masochism in queer subject.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    This article re-assesses the theories of death, narcissism and identification from a selection of essays by Sigmund Freud and Jacques Lacan in order to demonstrate that gender is generated out of masochism and the 'death drive' (Todestrieb). In closely reading and amending key sections of Judith Butler's queer theories, the author argues against her Foucaltian claim that the queer subject is constituted in the face of a sadistic Law, which s/he is forced to eroticise and internalise, and therefore conflate with her/his own masochism. It is argued that the subject's masochism is a queer attempt not to be; to bridge the constitutional split enforced by the Lacanian idea of the assumption of subjectivity through misidentification, and to become a living mortuary for the (dead) identifications that found the subject on his/her illusory ground through the (contingent) foreclosure of the Other.

  18. Volga River Delta and Caspian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color MODIS image from May 10, 2002, captures Russia's Volga River (running south through the center) emptying into the northern portion of the Caspian Sea. The waters of the Caspian Sea are quite murky in this image, highlighting the water quality problems plaguing the sea. The sea is inundated with sewage and industrial and agricultural waste, which is having measurable impact on human health and wildlife. According reports from the Department of Energy, in less than a decade the sturgeon catch dropped from 30,000 tons to just over 2,000 tons. National and international groups are currently joining together to find strategies of dealing with the environmental problems of the Caspian Sea. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  19. Medical science, culture, and truth

    PubMed Central

    Gillett, Grant

    2006-01-01

    There is a fairly closed circle between culture, language, meaning, and truth such that the world of a given culture is a world understood in terms of the meanings produced in that culture. Medicine is, in fact, a subculture of a powerful type and has its own language and understanding of the range of illnesses that affect human beings. So how does medicine get at the truth of people and their ills in such a way as to escape its own limited constructions? There is a way out of the closed circle implicit in the idea of a praxis and the engagement with reality that is central to it and the further possibility introduced by Jacques Lacan that signification is never comprehensive in relation to the subject's encounter with the real. I will explore both of these so as to develop a conception of truth that is apt for the knowledge that arises in the clinic. PMID:17178003

  20. [The birth of the international conference "Biology and the future of man", Paris, 18-24 September 1974].

    PubMed

    Galperin, Charles

    2015-01-01

    In 1974, a symposium was organized in Paris entitled "Biology and the future of man". It was focused on the analysis of "new powers of science and new duties of man" in the field of medically assisted procreation, agriculture, demography, and environmental issues. This small introductory text begins by describing the circumstances that led to the organization of this prestigious conference. Then, in order to go further than the silent framework of the presentation of the themes, we will focus on the report of Dr. Robert Edwards on medically assisted procreation, we will recall the duel between Jacques Monod and Jérôme Lejeune on abortion, then we will give center stage to physicians like Jean Bernard and Alexandre Minkowski about the right to die, and finally we will remind the conclusion brought to the conference by Georges Canguilhem.

  1. The Balkans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Transylvanian Basin in Romania stands out in brilliant green in this image from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on May 3, 2002. Near the top of the image, the hilly, forested basin is tucked in between the Carpathian Mountains, running northwest-southeast, and the Transylvanian Alps, running west-east. To the right of the image is the Black Sea. The large patch of turquoise water in the Black Sea is a large phytoplankton bloom. At the bottom of the image, the Aegean Sea and the Sea of Marmara is ringed by Greece (left) and Turkey (right). Please note that the high-resolution scene provided here is 500 meters per pixel. For a copy of this scene at the sensor?s fullest (250-m) resolution, visit the MODIS Rapidfire site. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  2. What to do about your child's handedness? Advice from five eighteenth-century authors, and some questions for today.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lauren Julius

    2003-04-01

    On the question "What to do about your child's handedness?", parents have never lacked for advice. Over more than two millennia, however, their advisors have rarely spoken with one voice. Instead, they have disagreed on virtually everything, including the desirability of handedness, its origins in nature or nurture, and especially the acceptability and treatment of left-handedness. After briefly describing such disagreements from classical times, this article presents and analyses new examples from the works of five authors in the eighteenth century, three from England ("An Eminent Physician", William Cadogan, and John Hill) and two from France (Nicholas Andry and Jean-Jacques Rousseau). It then presents similar examples from more recent authors, and it concludes by asking what advice about handedness the current generation of laterality researchers would be prepared to offer.

  3. Getting ahead of one's self? The common culture of immunology and philosophy.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Warwick

    2014-09-01

    During the past thirty years, immunological metaphors, motifs, and models have come to shape much social theory and philosophy. Immunology, so it seems, often has served to naturalize claims about self, identity, and sovereignty--perhaps most prominently in Jacques Derrida's later studies. Yet the immunological science that functions as "nature" in these social and philosophical arguments is derived from interwar and Cold War social theory and philosophy. Theoretical immunologists and social theorists knowingly participated in a common culture. Thus the "naturalistic fallacy" in this case might be reframed as an error of categorization: its conditions of possibility would require ceaseless effort to purify and separate out the categories of nature and culture. The problem--inasmuch as there is a problem-therefore is not so much the making of an appeal to nature as assuming privileged access to an independent, sovereign category called "nature". PMID:25816483

  4. [Severe depression : psychoanalysis].

    PubMed

    Bouvet de la Maisonneuve, O

    2009-12-01

    The indication for psychoanalysis in severe depression is not clear. And yet, demands for this type of intervention are increasing, despite the absence of any form of consensus on the subject. Freud considered depression as a failure of analytical efforts and, based on this observation, revised his theory, in particular to include the notions of narcissism and the death drive. Many analysts have been reluctant to follow his teachings on this last point and provide depressed patients with analytical-type therapies aimed at restoring narcissism. Melanie Klein pushed Freud's ideas about depression even further and brought such therapies back to the heart of analytical practice. Jacques Lacan took the debate to another level by proposing an overhaul of the principles on which analysis has been based. Today, while following certain precautionary rules, true psychoanalyses can be proposed to patients with severe depression, whether of the bipolar, recurring or even neurotic type that can reach this level of severity. PMID:20141799

  5. Re-reading "Little Hans": Freud's case study and the question of competing paradigms in psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Midgley, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    Psychoanalysts have long recognized the complex interaction between clinical data and formal psychoanalytic theories. While clinical data are often used to provide "evidence" for psychoanalytic paradigms, the theoretical model used by the analyst also structures what can and cannot be seen in the data. This delicate interaction between theory and clinical data can be seen in the history of interpretations of Freud's "Analysis of a Phobia in a Five-Year-Old Boy" ("Little Hans"). Freud's himself revised his reading of the case in 1926, after which a number of psychoanalysts--including Melanie Klein, Jacques Lacan, and John Bowlby--reinterpreted the case in the light of their particular models of the mind. These analysts each found "evidence" for their theoretical model within this classic case study, and in doing so they illuminated aspects of the case that had previously been obscured, while also revealing a great deal about the shifting preoccupations of psychoanalysis as a field. PMID:16773821

  6. Radio OH Observations of Recent Bright Comets from Arecibo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovell, Amy J.; Howell, Ellen S.

    2014-11-01

    We obtained OH spectra of recent comets with the Arecibo 305m radiotelescope. C/2012 X1 LINEAR was observed between 03 November 2013 and 13 January 2014, C/2014 E2 Jacques on 14 dates between 10 May and 31 July 2014, and C/2012 K1 PANSTARRS on 12 dates between 16 June and 23 August 2014. Spectra at 1667 and 1665 MHz (18cm wavelength) were obtained with an on-sky beam size of 2.9 arcminutes, mapping 7 positions of the OH within 4 arcminutes of the nucleus when the coma is sufficiently large. Radio OH spectra are seen via a Λ-doublet, with the excitation of the lines depending on the heliocentric velocity of the comet. We interpret the spectra via a Monte Carlo model, taking into account the OH inversion predictions of Despois et al. (1981) or Schleicher & A'Hearn (1988). In highly productive comets, high densities thermalize the lines, reducing the line strength near the nucleus. Models of mapping observations can directly constrain the radius within which quenching is active, and thus yield a more accurate estimate of the gas production rate, while radio observations at high spectral resolution place excellent constraints on the gas outflow velocity whether or not the coma is resolved. We present gas production rates, quenching radius estimates and outflow velocities for comets C/2012 X1 LINEAR, C/2014 E2 Jacques and C/2012 K1 PANSTARRS. Near its noteworthy sungrazing perihelion, comet C/2012 S1 ISON presented too small a gas coma for mapping observations, so we present only estimated gas production rates and outflow velocities for these unresolved observations.

  7. Evaluation of water vapour assimilation in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere by a chemical transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payra, Swagata; Ricaud, Philippe; Abida, Rachid; El Amraoui, Laaziz; Attié, Jean-Luc; Rivière, Emmanuel; Carminati, Fabien; von Clarmann, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The present analysis deals with one of the most debated aspects of the studies on the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS), namely the budget of water vapour (H2O) at the tropical tropopause. Within the French project "Multiscale water budget in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere in the TROpics" (TRO-pico), a global-scale analysis has been set up based on space-borne observations, models and assimilation techniques. The MOCAGE-VALENTINA assimilation tool has been used to assimilate the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) version 3.3 H2O measurements within the 316-5 hPa range from August 2011 to March 2013 with an assimilation window of 1 h. Diagnostics based on observations minus analysis and forecast are developed to assess the quality of the assimilated H2O fields. Comparison with an independent source of H2O measurements in the UTLS based on the space-borne Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) observations and with meteorological ARPEGE analyses is also shown. Sensitivity studies of the analysed fields have been performed by (1) considering periods when no MLS measurements are available and (2) using H2O data from another MLS version (4.2). The studies have been performed within three different spaces in time and space coincidences with MLS (hereafter referred to as MLS space) and MIPAS (MIPAS space) observations and with the model (model space) outputs and at three different levels: 121 hPa (upper troposphere), 100 hPa (tropopause) and 68 hPa (lower stratosphere) in January and February 2012. In the MLS space, the analyses behave consistently with the MLS observations from the upper troposphere to the lower stratosphere. In the model space, the analyses are wetter than the reference atmosphere as represented by ARPEGE and MLS in the upper troposphere (121 hPa) and around the tropopause (100 hPa), but are consistent with MLS and MIPAS in the lower stratosphere (68 hPa). In the MIPAS space, the sensitivity and the

  8. Stable isotopes in Lithuanian bioarcheological material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skipityte, Raminta; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2015-04-01

    Schutkowski. "Diet and social status during the La Tène period in Bohemia: carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis of bone collagen from Kutná Hora-Karlov and Radovesice." Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 24.2 (2005): 135-147. Schutkowski, Holger, et al. "Diet, status and decomposition at Weingarten: trace element and isotope analyses on early mediaeval skeletal material." Journal of Archaeological Science 26.6 (1999): 675-685. Zernitskaya, Valentina, et al. "Vegetation pattern and sedimentation changes in the context of the Lateglacial climatic events: Case study of Staroje Lake (Eastern Belarus)." Quaternary International (2014).

  9. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-11-01

    Ceresole Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Università di Torino Kang Sin Choi University of Bonn Michele Cirafici University of Patras Andres Collinucci Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Aldo Cotrone Universitat de Barcelona Ben Craps Vrije Universiteit, Brussel Stefano Cremonesi SISSA, Trieste Gianguido Dall'Agata Padova University Sanjit Das Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Forcella Davide SISSA, Trieste Jose A de Azcarraga Valencia University and Instituto de Fìsica Corpuscular (CSIC-UVEG), Valencia Sophie de BuylInstitut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, Bures-sur-Yvette Jean-Pierre Derendinger Université de Neuchâtel Stephane Detournay Università Degli Studi di Milano Paolo Di Vecchia NORDITA, København Oscar Dias Universitat de Barcelona Vladimir Dobrev Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia Joel Ekstrand Department of Theoretical Physics, Uppsala University Federico Elmetti Università di Milano I Diaconu Eugen University of Craiova Oleg Evnin Vrije Universiteit, Brussel Bo Feng Imperial College, London Livia Ferro Università di Torino Pau Figueras Universitat de Barcelona Raphael Flauger University of Texas at Austin Valentina Forini Università di Perugia Angelos Fotopoulos Università di Torino Denis Frank Université de Neuchâtel Lisa Freyhult Albert-Einstein-Institut, Golm Carlos Fuertes Instituto de Física Teórica, Madrid Matthias Gaberdiel Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich Maria Pilar Garcia del Moral Università di Torino Daniel Gerber Instituto de Física Teórica, Madrid Valentina Giangreco Marotta Puletti Uppsala University Joaquim Gomis Universitat de Barcelona Gianluca Grignani Università di Perugia Luca Griguolo Università di Parma Umut Gursoy École Polytechnique, Palaiseau and École Normale Supérieure, Paris Michael Haack Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München Troels Harmark Niels Bohr Institute, København Alexander Haupt Imperial College, London Michal

  10. List of Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    Davide CassaniLaboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, Paris Alejandra CastroUniversity of Michigan Claudio Caviezel Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Alessio Celi Universitat de Barcelona Anna Ceresole Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Università di Torino Athanasios ChatzistavrakidisNational Technical University of Athens Wissam ChemissanyCentre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Eugen-Mihaita CioroianuUniversity of Craiova Andres CollinucciTechnische Universität Wien Paul CookUniversità di Roma, Tor Vergata Lorenzo CornalbaUniversità di Milano-Bicocca Aldo CotroneKatholieke Universiteit Leuven Ben Craps Vrije Universiteit, Brussel Stefano Cremonesi SISSA, Trieste Riccardo D'AuriaPolitecnico di Torino Gianguido Dall'AgataUniversity of Padova Jose A de AzcarragaUniversidad de Valencia Jan de BoerInstituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam Sophie de BuylInstitut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, Bures-sur-Yvette Marius de LeeuwUtrecht University Frederik De RooVrije Universiteit, Brussel Jan De Rydt Katholieke Universiteit Leuven and CERN, Geneva Bernard de WitInstitute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University Stephane DetournayIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano Paolo Di Vecchia Niels Bohr Institute, København Eugen DiaconuUniversity of Craiova Vladimir Dobrev Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia Nick DoreyUniversity of Cambridge Hajar Ebrahim NajafabadiIPM, Tehran Federico Elmetti Università di Milano Oleg Evnin Vrije Universiteit, Brussel Francesco Fiamberti Università di Milano Davide Forcella SISSA, Trieste and CERN, Geneva Valentina Forini Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin Angelos Fotopoulos Università di Torino Denis Frank Université de Neuchâtel Marialuisa Frau Università di Torino Matthias Gaberdiel Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich Diego Gallego SISSA/ISAS, Trieste Maria Pilar Garcia del

  11. Modelling study on buffering pH and retaining U using a simplified uranium mill tailings pile example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, Diederik; Simunek, Jirka

    2014-05-01

    The hypothetical problem that is presented here considers the release and migration of uranium from a simplified uranium mill tailings pile towards a river. The modeling exercise with the coupled reactive transport model HP2 illustrates the effect of the geochemical conceptual model for sorption on (i) the buffering of the pH in the soil/aquifer system and (ii) the retention of U in the soil. The HP2 module, which couples the PHREEQC geochemical code with HYDRUS (2D/3D), is a two-dimensional equivalent of the one-dimensional HP1 program that was first released in 2005 (Jacques et al., 2008), and used successfully in many applications. Sorption of U is described using a multi-site cation exchange model (see Jacques et al., 2008). This sorption model also buffers the acid pH due to proton exchange. Two scenarios are considered: a soil with a relatively low (8.1 × 10-3 mol/kg) and relatively high (8.1 × 10-2 mol/kg) sorption capacity. In the third scenario, specific sorption of U and other cations and anions on Fe-oxides is described using a non-electrostatic surface complexation model with a very low capacity (8.1 × 10-4 mol/kg), in addition to low exchange complexation. Proton exchange on the cation exchanger buffers the acidity by replacing calcium with protons on the exchanger; the spatial extent of the pH-perturbed region is smaller in the scenario with the higher exchange capacity. Specific sorption has only a small effect on the pH-perturbed zone, although it is important to note that its capacity is one order of magnitude lower than in the scenario with the low sorption capacity. U reaches the river system within 1000 d in scenarios with low and high exchange capacities. Only in the scenario with specific sorption, U migration within the ground water system is retarded, compared to the other two cases. The results of the three scenarios do not seem to be intuitive, especially the equally fast movement of U in the scenario with a high exchange capacity

  12. Assessment of chemical element migration in soil-plant complex of Urov endemic localities of East Transbaikalia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadim V., Ermakov; Valentina, Danilova; Sabsbakhor, Khushvakhtova; Aklexander, Degtyarev; Sergey, Tyutikov; Victor, Berezkin; Elena, Karpova

    2014-05-01

    - Salicaceae) and selenium (needles of larch - Larix sibirica L.) were found among the plants. References 1. Ermakov V., Jovanovic L. Characteristics of selenium migration in soil-plant system of East Meshchera and Transbaikalia// J. Geochem. Explor., 2010. Vol. 107, 200-205. 2. Ermakov Vadim, Jovanovic Larisa, Berezkin Victor, Tyutikov Sergey, Danilogorskaya Anastasiya, Danilova Valentina, Krechetova Elena, Degtyarev Alexander, Khushvakhtova Sabsbakhor. Chemical assessment of soil and water of Urov biogeochemical provinces of Eastern Transbaikalia// Ecologica, 2012. Vol. 19, 69, 5-9. 3. Ermakov V.V., Tuytikov S.F. Khushvakhtova S.D., Danilova V.N. Boev V.A., Barabanschikova R.N., Chudinova E.A. Peculiarities of quantitative determination of selenium in biological materials// Bulletin of the Tyumen State University Press, 2010, 3, 206-214. Supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, grant number 12-05-00141a.

  13. PREFACE: International Conference "Trends in Spintronics and Nanomagnetism" (TSN-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruccio, Giuseppe; Sanvito, Stefano; Hoffmann, Germar; Wiesendanger, Roland; Rowan, Alan

    2011-03-01

    Conference banner The International Conference "Trends in Spintronics and Nanomagnetism" (TSN-2010), was organized by partners of the EU-project SpiDME and held in the historical city of Lecce, Italy from 23-27 May 2010, at the Ecotekne Campus, University of Salento. The conference provided an international forum to discuss recent progress and future trends in the field. In particular, the aim was to bring together the community of more conventional spin-transport, with that of molecular and nano-magnetism. The main topics of TSN-2010 were: MATERIALSSPIN-PHYSICS AND THEORY - Molecular Magnets- Spin injection - Magnetic nanoparticles and nanowires- Domain walls, spin torque and vortex dynamics - Magnetic semiconductors- Numerical modeling of organic nanomagnetism - Multiferroics and transition metal oxides APPLICATIONSADVANCES IN CHARACTERIZATION - Magnetic Multilayers- Magneto-optical characterization and spin manipulation - Spin-photonics- Intrinsic spin transport mechanism in organics - Molecular and nano-spintronics- Organometallic molecules on surfaces - Spin-based quantum computation- Single molecular magnets on surfaces - Magnetism for sensing and nanomedicine- Nanoscale characterization and spin-sensitive SPM The scientific programme started on Monday 24 May and ended on Thursday 27 May. The Nobel Laureate A Fert attended the conference giving a plenary talk and the programme also featured invited presentations by (in alphabetical order): M Aeschlimann, M Affronte, N Atodiresei, P A Bobbert, A Dediu, N Kioussis, L W Molenkamp, J Moodera, V Prigodin, M Ruben, R Sessoli, R Tan, and H Wende. TSN2010 had 150 attendees who came from around the globe to present their latest research in 100 oral presentations. Contributed talks were selected by the program committee, composed of Giuseppe Maruccio, Ross Rinaldi, Valentina Arima, Fabio Della Sala, Maurizio Martino (Universitá del Salento, NNL Institute Nanoscience-CNR, Lecce, Italy), Stefano Sanvito (Trinity College

  14. Christmas on Mars: be there with ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-12-01

    The exciting event can be followed at ESA’s European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany, on Thursday, 25 December, from 01:30 to 14:00, together with the mission managers, the operation teams, scientists and top ESA management, including ESA’s Director-General Jean-Jacques Dordain, ESA’s Director of Science David Southwood and ESA’s Director of Technical and Operational Support Gaele Winters. The highlights of the night will be also webcast over the internet http://mars.esa.int. As well as live streaming of key events, the Mars Express site will have daily news, features, images, videos and more. The ESA TV Service will provide live coverage of operations, from the Operations Control Centre at ESOC. All transmission and satellite details are published online at http://television.esa.int All live transmissions are also carried free-to-air on Astra 2 C at 19 degrees East, transponder 57, horizontal, (DVB-MPEG-2), frequency 10832 MHz, Symbol Rate 22000 MS/sec, FEC 5/6. The service name is ESA Media wishing to attend are asked to complete the attached reply form and fax it back to ESA Media Relations Service: +33 (0)1 53 69 76 90.

  15. The calcium-signaling toolkit: Updates needed.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Charlotte; Prevarskaya, Natalia; Vanden Abeele, Fabien

    2016-06-01

    Here, we review the role of Ca(2+) in apoptosis, namely that ER Ca(2+) depletion or a sustained elevation of cytosolic or mitochondrial Ca(2+) concentration are sufficient to trigger apoptosis. These concepts have emerged by the use of ER stressor agents that decrease the ER Ca(2+) pool by inhibiting SERCA pumps. However, aside from their well-known actions on Ca(2+) homeostasis disruption leading to apoptosis, new evidence show that some ER Ca(2+) modulators have significant implications in other Ca(2+)-mediated or Ca(2+)-independent pathways determining cell fate suggesting a more complex regulation of apoptosis by intracellular Ca(2+). Here, we discuss the crucial interplay between Ca(2+) mediated apoptosis, the Unfold Protein Response and autophagy determining cell fate, and the molecular compounds that have been used to depict these pathways. This review of the literature clearly shows the need for new inhibitors that do not interfere concomitantly with autophagy and Ca(2+) signaling. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium and Cell Fate. Guest Editors: Jacques Haiech, Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, Thierry Capiod and Olivier Mignen.

  16. Can calcium signaling be harnessed for cancer immunotherapy?

    PubMed

    Rooke, Ronald

    2014-10-01

    Experimental evidence shows the importance of the immune system in controlling tumor appearance and growth. Immunotherapy is defined as the treatment of a disease by inducing, enhancing or suppressing an immune response. In the context of cancer treatment, it involves breaking tolerance to a cancer-specific self-antigen and/or enhancing the existing anti-tumor immune response, be it specific or not. Part of the complexity in developing such treatment is that cancers are selected to escape adaptive or innate immune responses. These escape mechanisms are numerous and they may cumulate in one cancer. Moreover, different cancers of a same type may present different combinations of escape mechanisms. The limited success of immunotherapeutics in the clinic as stand-alone products may in part be explained by the fact that most of them only activate one facet of the immune response. It is important to identify novel methods to broaden the efficacy of immunotherapeutics. Calcium signaling is central to numerous cellular processes, leading to immune responses, cancer growth and apoptosis induced by cancer treatments. Calcium signaling in cancer therapy and control will be integrated to current cancer immunotherapy approaches. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium Signaling in Health and Disease. Guest Editors: Geert Bultynck, Jacques Haiech, Claus W. Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, and Marc Moreau.

  17. Ethology and the origins of behavioral endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Marler, Peter

    2005-04-01

    The neurosciences embrace many disciplines, some long established, others of more recent origin. Behavioral endocrinology has only recently been fully acknowledged as a branch of neuroscience, distinctive for the determination of some of its exponents to remain integrative in the face of the many pressures towards reductionism that so dominate modern biology. One of its most characteristic features is a commitment to research at the whole-animal level on the physiological basis of complex behaviors, with a particular but by no means exclusive focus on reproductive behavior in all its aspects. The search for rigorously defined principles of behavioral organization that apply across species and the hormonal and neural mechanisms that sustain them underlies much of the research. Their aims are much like those put forth in the classical ethology of Lorenz and Tinbergen, one of the roots from which behavioral endocrinology has sprung. But there are others that can be traced back a century or more. Antecedents can be found in the work of such pioneers as Jakob von Uexküll, Jacques Loeb, Herbert Spencer Jennings, and particularly Charles Otis Whitman who launched a tradition that culminated in the classical contributions of Robert Hinde and Daniel Lehrman. William C. Young was another pioneer. His studies revolutionized thinking about the physiological mechanisms by which hormones influence behavior. An earlier potent influence was Karl Lashley who helped to shape the career of Frank Ambrose Beach who, more than anyone, has played a leading role in launching this new field. PMID:15777816

  18. [Impact of synthetic biology on patent law in view of of European jurisprudence].

    PubMed

    Bernardo Alvarez, María Angela

    2014-01-01

    The roots of synthetic biology--the redesign of biological molecules, structures and organisms--can be traced to the research developed by Jacques L. Monod and François Jacob in 1961. This field has undergone significant growth in the past ten years and its emergence has raised the question of whether the patent system is suitable to protect inventions in emergent areas as synthetic biology. The article will analyze the numerous scientific, socio-economic, ethical and legal challenges faced by synthetic biology, introducing the European Patent Law related to biotechnology as the minimum common framework and considering if more changes are needed to adequately protect the inventor rights, while taking into account the arrival of a new research culture, characterized by embracing open-innovation and open-source initiatives. The discussion will review some biotechnological patent law cases and summarize questions as whether isolated molecules of DNA are eligible for patent or the patentability of living matter, under the terms of Directive 98/44/EC. The article will finally consider the impact of synthetic biology on the European patent system.

  19. The "Genetic Program": Behind the Genesis of an Influential Metaphor.

    PubMed

    Peluffo, Alexandre E

    2015-07-01

    The metaphor of the "genetic program," indicating the genome as a set of instructions required to build a phenotype, has been very influential in biology despite various criticisms over the years. This metaphor, first published in 1961, is thought to have been invented independently in two different articles, one by Ernst Mayr and the other by François Jacob and Jacques Monod. Here, after a detailed analysis of what both parties meant by "genetic program," I show, using unpublished archives, the strong resemblance between the ideas of Mayr and Monod and suggest that their idea of genetic program probably shares a common origin. I explore the possibility that the two men met before 1961 and also exchanged their ideas through common friends and colleagues in the field of molecular biology. Based on unpublished correspondence of Jacob and Monod, I highlight the important events that influenced the preparation of their influential paper, which introduced the concept of the genetic program. Finally, I suggest that the genetic program metaphor may have preceded both papers and that it was probably used informally before 1961.

  20. Book Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragh, Helge

    2015-11-01

    Ever since the days of William Blake there has been an underground resistance against the soulless yet triumphant science and its unholy alliance with money, technology and political power. With the nearly undisputed hegemony that science and technological innovation has attained in the post-World War II era, this kind of resistance has resulted in numerous books and articles that in different ways warn against the dark sides of science and the socio-economic system that nourishes a science in degeneration. Classical examples include Herbert Marcuse's One-Dimensional Man (1964), Jacques Ellul's The Technological Society (1965), Theodore Roszak's The Making of a Counter Culture (1968), and Paul Feyerabend's Science in a Free Society (1978). A fair part of the literature written by sociologists and philosophers is not only critical to trends in modern science, but tends to or is overtly anti-science. The book under review belongs in some respects to this heterogeneous literary tradition, but Twilight of the Scientific Age is primarily directed against the institutional system of science and its associated ideology and not against science itself. Indeed, the author is himself a practicing scientist, an astrophysicist, and he emphasizes several times that he firmly believes in science, even that he loves it. He is not a "stupid cultural relativist," he asserts (p. 11), but a critical freethinker independent of dogmatic beliefs.

  1. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  2. Hurricane Erin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The first Atlantic hurricane of the 2001 season narrowly missed Bermuda yesterday (September 9) as it churned north-northwestward at a rate of 19 km per hour (12 miles per hour). Packing sustained winds of 195 km per hour (120 miles per hour), Hurricane Erin was located just east of Bermuda at the time NASA's Terra satellite acquired this image. The true-color image was produced using data from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The U.S. National Hurricane Center predicts that tonight the storm will shift to a more northerly path. The Center says there is still the possibility that Hurricane Erin could impact Canada, somewhere along the coast of Newfoundland, within three to four days. Hurricane Erin was upgraded from a tropical storm to hurricane status on September 8, and was listed as a Category 3 hurricane on September 10 on the Saffir-Simpson scale. The storm's hurricane-force winds extend outward in a 75-km (45-mile) radius from its center, with tropical storm force winds extending to 280 km (175 miles) from center. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  3. Can calcium signaling be harnessed for cancer immunotherapy?

    PubMed

    Rooke, Ronald

    2014-10-01

    Experimental evidence shows the importance of the immune system in controlling tumor appearance and growth. Immunotherapy is defined as the treatment of a disease by inducing, enhancing or suppressing an immune response. In the context of cancer treatment, it involves breaking tolerance to a cancer-specific self-antigen and/or enhancing the existing anti-tumor immune response, be it specific or not. Part of the complexity in developing such treatment is that cancers are selected to escape adaptive or innate immune responses. These escape mechanisms are numerous and they may cumulate in one cancer. Moreover, different cancers of a same type may present different combinations of escape mechanisms. The limited success of immunotherapeutics in the clinic as stand-alone products may in part be explained by the fact that most of them only activate one facet of the immune response. It is important to identify novel methods to broaden the efficacy of immunotherapeutics. Calcium signaling is central to numerous cellular processes, leading to immune responses, cancer growth and apoptosis induced by cancer treatments. Calcium signaling in cancer therapy and control will be integrated to current cancer immunotherapy approaches. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium Signaling in Health and Disease. Guest Editors: Geert Bultynck, Jacques Haiech, Claus W. Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, and Marc Moreau. PMID:24524821

  4. Healing pathways: longitudinal effects of religious coping and social support on PTSD symptoms in African American sexual assault survivors.

    PubMed

    Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah; Tsong, Yuying; Anderson, Gera; Counts, Pamela; Tillman, Shaquita; Bhang, Cecile; Gray, Anthea

    2015-01-01

    African American women are at a slightly increased risk for sexual assault (A. Abbey, A. Jacques-Tiaura, & M. Parkhill, 2010). However, because of stigma, experiences of racism, and historical oppression, African American women are less likely to seek help from formal agencies compared to White women (Lewis et al., 2005; S. E. Ullman & H. H. Filipas, 2001) and/or women of other ethnic backgrounds (C. Ahrens, S. Abeling, S. Ahmad, & J. Himman, 2010). Therefore, the provision of culturally appropriate services, such as the inclusion of religion and spiritual coping, may be necessary when working with African American women survivors of sexual assault. Controlling for age and education, the current study explores the impact of religious coping and social support over 1 year for 252 African American adult female sexual assault survivors recruited from the Chicago metropolitan area. Results from hierarchical linear regression analyses reveal that high endorsement of religious coping and social support at Time 1 does not predict a reduction in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms at Time 2. However, high social support at Time 2 does predict lower PTSD at Time 2. Also, it is significant to note that survivors with high PTSD at Time 1 and Time 2 endorse greater use of social support and religious coping. Clinical and research implications are explored.

  5. Obliquity Variations of Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Chambers, John E.

    2004-01-01

    A planet's obliquity, which is the angle between its orbital angular momentum and its rotational angular momentum, is an important factor in determining its climate and habitability. For small obliquities, as well as obliquities close to 180 degrees, the planet receives more radiant energy from its star at equatorial latitudes than near its poles, whereas the poles are heated the most for obliquities near 90 degrees. Jacques Laskar has analyzed possible obliquity variations of the planets in our Solar System. His study also considers the same planets with different rotational periods, and the Earth without the Moon. He finds, using frequency map analysis, that the obliquity of the Earth is stabilized by the Moon, and can vary by at most a few degrees. In contrast, the obliquity of Mars can range from 0 to 60 degrees, and a hypothetical moonless Earth's axial tilt could be close to 0 degrees or as large as 85 degrees. Numerical integrations by Laskar and others have shown that Mars' obliquity indeed varies over most of its permitted range on time scales of tens of millions of years. In contrast, our analysis shows that the obliquity of a moonless Earth appears to be confined to the range of approximately 12 - 38 degrees over time scales of 100 million years. Results of ongoing longer integrations will be presented, and their implications discussed.

  6. Monod before Monod: enzymatic adaptation, Lwoff, and the legacy of general biology.

    PubMed

    Loison, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    For most of his scientific career, Jacques Monod appeared to be a man of a single problem: the formation of enzymes and the regulation of their properties. His ability to produce theoretical models led him to play a major role in both the discovery of the operon regulation and the model of allosteric transitions. The successes of Monod, from the 1950s to the Noble Prize (1965), are already well documented. In this paper, I will focus on the Monod before Monod, that is, the Monod who, during the 1940s, tried to explain the fundamental phenomenon of enzymatic adaptation. To begin with, however, I will survey how this phenomenon was discovered and explained by French Pasteurians at the very beginning of the twentieth century. This first explanation took place amidst an entrenched Lamarckian atmosphere in French thought, which was still alive during the 1920s and the 1930s, when Monod commenced the study of biology at the Sorbonne. Because of his will to construct a scientific biology free from teleology, Monod always tried to break from the legacy of this traditional background of Lamarckism, and he consequently developed ways of thinking that, in the main, were not part of the French biological tradition. Nevertheless, one point did link Monod to French history: his fruitful interactions with André Lwoff. As we shall see, these interactions were necessary for the development of Monod's science, both technically and intellectually speaking. PMID:24466631

  7. Performance and Prospects of Khayyam, A Tunable Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (SHS) for High Spectral Resolving Power Observation of Extended Planetary Targets in Optical Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, S.; Harris, W.

    2014-12-01

    We present initial results, calibration and data reduction process from observations of wide-field targets using Khayyam at Mt. Hamilton, a new instrument based on a reflective spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS) at the focus of the Coudé Auxiliary Telescope (CAT). SHS instruments are common path two-beam Fourier transform spectrometers that produce 2-D spatial interference patterns without the requirement for moving parts. The utility of SHS comes from its combination of a wide input acceptance angle (0.5-1°), high resolving power (of order ~105), compact format, high dynamic range, and relaxed optical tolerances compared with other interferometer designs. This combination makes them extremely useful for velocity resolved for observations of wide field targets from both small and large telescopes. This report focuses on the tunable instrument at Mt Hamilton, The CAT provides a test case for on-axis use of SHS, and the impact of the resulting field non-uniformity caused by the spider pattern will be discussed. Observations of several targets will be presented that demonstrate the capabilities of SHS, including comet C/2014 E2 (Jacques), Jupiter, and both the day sky and night glow. Raw interferometric data and transformed power spectra will be shown and evaluated in terms of instrumental stability.

  8. Flooding along Danube River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heavy rains in Central and Eastern Europe over the past few weeks have led to some of the worst flooding the region has witnessed in over a century. The floods have killed more than 100 people in Germany, Russia, Austria, Hungary and the Czech Republic and have led to as much as $20 billion in damage. This false-color image of the Danube River and its tributaries was taken on August 19, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. Budapest, the capital of Hungary, sits just south of the large bend in the river at the top of the image. Here the water reached levels not seen since 1965. Fortunately, the riverbanks are lined with 33-foot retainer walls throughout the city, so it did not face the same fate as Dresden or Prague along the Elbe River. But as one can see, the floodwaters hit many rural areas farther south. As last reported, the water was receding along the Danube. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

  9. Southern Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On November 3, 2001, MODIS collected this image of Western Europe. Starting at the lower-left corner of the image and moving clockwise are the countries of Spain, France, Germany, Austria, Italy, and Switzerland. The Alps, the crescent-shaped mountain range running from the center to the right side of the image, span a length of 750 miles and cover and area of 80,000 square miles. In this image, a gray cloud of aerosols, predominantly from Italy's northwestern region of Lombardy, are corralled by the massive heights of the Alps. One large source of aerosols is the city of Milan. Home to numerous international and local industrial plants, Milan is faced with many of the same air quality problems as other large metropolitan areas. Also visible in the image is a phytoplankton bloom in the Bay of Biscay (left), at the confluence of the Garonne and Dordogne rivers. The rivers form the Gironde Estuary, which is saturated with sediment that provides necessary nutrients for the phytoplankton. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  10. Abyssal intimacies and temporalities of care: How (not) to care about deformed leaf bugs in the aftermath of Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Astrid

    2015-10-01

    Prompted by a classroom discussion on knowledge politics in the aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster, this article offers a reading of Hugh Raffles' Insectopedia entry on Chernobyl. In that entry, Raffles describes how Swiss science-artist and environmental activist Cornelia Hesse-Honegger collects, studies, and paints morphologically deformed leaf bugs that she finds in the proximity of nuclear power plants. In exploring how to begin to care about beings, such as leaf bugs, this article proposes a notion of care that combines an intimate knowledge practice with an ethical relationship to more-than-human others. Jacques Derrida's notion of 'abyssal intimacy' is central to such a combination. Hesse-Honegger's research practices enact and her paintings depict an 'abyssal intimacy' that deconstructs the oppositions between concerns about human suffering and compassion for seemingly irrelevant insects and between knowledge politics and ethics. At the heart of such a careful knowledge production is a fundamental passivity, based on a shared vulnerability. An abyssal intimacy is not something we ought to recognize; rather, it issues from particular practices of care that do not identify their subjects of care in advance. Caring or becoming affected thus entails the dissociation of affection not only from the humanist subject, but also from movements in time: from direct helping action and from the assumption that advocacy necessarily means speaking for an other, usually assumed to be inferior. PMID:26630816

  11. Northern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Seasonal ice in the Beaufort Sea off Alaska's North Slope has begun its spring retreat. This true color MODIS image from March 18, 2002, shows the pack ice in the Chuckchi Sea (left) and Beaufort Sea (top) backing away from its winter position snug up against Alaska's coasts, beginning its retreat into the Arctic Ocean. While not as pronounced in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas as other part of the Arctic, scientists studying Arctic sea ice over the course of the century have documented dramatic changes in the extent of Arctic sea ice. It retreats farther in the summer and does not advance as far in the winter than it did a half-century ago. Both global warming and natural variation in regional weather systems have been proposed as causes. Along the coastal plain of the North Slope, gray-brown tracks (see high-resolution image) hint at melting rivers. South of the North Slope, the rugged mountains of the Brooks Range make a coast-to-coast arc across the state. Coming in at the lower right of the image, the Yukon River traces a frozen white path westward across half the image before veering south and out of view. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  12. Super Typhoon Halong off Taiwan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On July 14, 2002, Super Typhoon Halong was east of Taiwan (left edge) in the western Pacific Ocean. At the time this image was taken the storm was a Category 4 hurricane, with maximum sustained winds of 115 knots (132 miles per hour), but as recently as July 12, winds were at 135 knots (155 miles per hour). Halong has moved northwards and pounded Okinawa, Japan, with heavy rain and high winds, just days after tropical Storm Chataan hit the country, creating flooding and killing several people. The storm is expected to be a continuing threat on Monday and Tuesday. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on July 14, 2002. Please note that the high-resolution scene provided here is 500 meters per pixel. For a copy of the scene at the sensor's fullest resolution, visit the MODIS Rapid Response Image Gallery. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  13. Dislocations in a quantum crystal. Solid helium: A model and an exception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balibar, Sébastien; Beamish, John; Fefferman, Andrew; Haziot, Ariel; Rojas, Xavier; Souris, Fabien

    2016-03-01

    Solid helium is paradoxical: it is both a model and an exception. It is a model for crystal properties mainly because of its extreme purity which makes universal phenomena simpler and easier to identify. It is also exceptional because the large quantum fluctuations of atoms around the nodes in their crystal lattice allow these phenomena to occur at very low temperature with a large amplitude. As noticed by Jacques Friedel in 2013, the properties of helium 4 crystals illustrate how the motion of dislocations may reduce their shear elastic modulus, as it does in all hexagonal close packed (hcp) crystals including metals. But this motion takes place without any dissipation in the limit of T = 0 and in the absence of impurities, which is now exceptional and leads to an elastic anomaly at low temperature, which was called "giant plasticity" by Haziot et al. in 2013. More recently, we have discovered that, in helium-4 crystals, helium-3 impurities are not necessarily fixed pinning centers for dislocations. Even at relatively large velocities, dislocations are able to move dressed with impurities somehow as a necklace of atomic pearls through the periodic lattice. This illustrates what is really quantum in these crystals: it is mainly the dynamics of their dislocations and the behavior of impurities. xml:lang="fr"

  14. Nursing and the avant-garde.

    PubMed

    Drummond, John S

    2004-07-01

    Through an exploration of the theory of the avant-garde, this paper explores the task for nursing in the new humanities of the 21st Century. Drawing on the theory of the avant-garde in general and the work of the French philosopher Jacques Derrida in particular, it argues that nursing must always return to its basic principles, that of the human condition (humanitus). But in doing so, it must also consider its place at the table of the humanities that are undergoing profound changes in western capitalist societies both in the education and practice sectors. It is through its connection with the humanities that the notion of the avant-garde is used to introduce the concept of reconnaissance-thinking again. The purpose and usefulness of this approach for nursing lies in the argument that progress or improvement, whether it be in some aspect of care or professional issue, always involves returning to something, to think of something in a new way. Thus, although nursing still has certain issues to resolve (which I attend to below), thinking through these issues with reference to the avant-garde gives ground for optimism, towards a future that is not yet determined. PMID:15120981

  15. Unconditional hospitality: HIV, ethics and the refugee 'problem'.

    PubMed

    Worth, Heather

    2006-09-01

    Refugees, as forced migrants, have suffered displacement under conditions not of their own choosing. In 2000 there were thought to be 22 million refugees of whom 6 million were HIV positive. While the New Zealand government has accepted a number of HIV positive refugees from sub-Saharan Africa, this hospitality is under threat due to negative public and political opinion. Epidemic conditions raise the social stakes attached to sexual exchanges, contagion becomes a major figure in social relationships and social production, and the fears of the contagious nature of those 'just off the plane' connect refugees to an equally deep-seated fear of racial miscegenation. Jacques Derrida's notion of unconditional hospitality is a dream of a democracy which would have a cosmopolitan form. This means that one cannot decide in advance which refugees one might choose to resettle. This paper will use Derrida's notion of unconditional hospitality to emphasise the fragility of HIV positive refugees' position, caught between becoming newly made New Zealand subjects while at the same time having that subjecthood threatened. For Derrida, both ethics and politics demand both an action and a need for a thoughtful response (a questioning without limit). PMID:17100006

  16. Winnicott and Derrida: development of logic-of-play.

    PubMed

    Bitan, Shachaf

    2012-02-01

    In this essay I develop the logic of play from the writings of the British psychoanalyst Donald W. Winnicott and the French philosopher Jacques Derrida. The logic of play serves as both a conceptual framework for theoretical clinical thinking and a space of experiencing in which the therapeutic situation is located and to which it aspires. I argue that both Winnicott and Derrida proposed a playful turn in Western thinking by their attitude towards oppositions, viewing them not as complementary or contradictory, but as 'peacefully-coexisting'. Derrida criticizes the dichotomous structure of Western thought, proposing playful movement as an alternative that does not constitute itself as a mastering construction. I will show that Winnicott, too, proposes playful logic through which he thinks and acts in the therapeutic situation. The therapeutic encounter is understood as a playful space in which analyst and analysand continuously coexist, instead of facing each other as exclusionary oppositions. I therefore propose the logic of play as the basis for the therapeutic encounter. The playful turn, then, is crucial for the thought and praxis expressed by the concept of two-person psychology. I suggest the term playful psychoanalysis to characterize the present perspective of psychoanalysis in the light of the playful turn. I will first present Derrida's playful thought, go on to Winnicott's playful revolutionism, and conclude with an analysis of Winicott's clinical material in the light of the logic of play. PMID:22320134

  17. 'We hold these truths to be self-evident': deconstructing 'evidence-based' medical practice.

    PubMed

    Devisch, Ignaas; Murray, Stuart J

    2009-12-01

    Rationale, aims and objectives Evidence-based medicine (EBM) claims to be based on 'evidence', rather than 'intuition'. However, EBM's fundamental distinction between quantitative 'evidence' and qualitative 'intuition' is not self-evident. The meaning of 'evidence' is unclear and no studies of quality exist to demonstrate the superiority of EBM in health care settings. This paper argues that, despite itself, EBM holds out only the illusion of conclusive scientific rigour for clinical decision making, and that EBM ultimately is unable to fulfil its own structural criteria for 'evidence'. Methods Our deconstructive analysis of EBM draws on the work of the French philosopher, Jacques Derrida. Deconstruction works in the name of justice to lay bare, to expose what has been hidden from view. In plain language, we deconstruct EBM's paradigm of 'evidence', the randomized controlled trial (RCT), to demonstrate that there cannot be incontrovertible evidence for EBM as such. We argue that EBM therefore 'auto-deconstructs' its own paradigm, and that medical practitioners, policymakers and patients alike ought to be aware of this failure within EBM itself. Results EBM's strict distinction between admissible evidence (based on RCTs) and other supposedly inadmissible evidence is not itself based on evidence, but rather, on intuition. In other words, according to EBM's own logic, there can be no 'evidentiary' basis for its distinction between admissible and inadmissible evidence. Ultimately, to uphold this fundamental distinction, EBM must seek recourse in (bio)political ideology and an epistemology akin to faith. PMID:20367689

  18. Enduring Influence of Elizabethan Ophthalmic Texts of the 1580s: Bailey, Grassus, and Guillemeau

    PubMed Central

    Leffler, Christopher T; Schwartz, Stephen G; Davenport, Byrd; Randolph, Jessica; Busscher, Joshua; Hadi, Tamer

    2014-01-01

    Three English ophthalmic texts of the 1580s were frequently republished: 1) Walter Bailey’s A Briefe Treatise Touching the Preseruation of the Eie Sight, 2) The Method of Phisicke, an adaptation of the medieval treatise of Benevenutus Grassus, and 3) A Worthy Treatise of the Eyes, a translation of Jacques Guillemeau’s treatise. Their history is intertwined through composite publications, some of which lacked clear attribution. At least 21 editions incorporated these texts. Although not previously realized, major elements of all 3 works are found in Two Treatises Concerning the Preseruation of Eie-sight, first published in 1616. To preserve eyesight, Bailey recommended eyebright (Euphrasia officinalis), fennel (Fæniculum vulgare), and a moderate lifestyle incorporating wine. In the works of Grassus and Guillemeau, cataracts were believed to lie anterior to the ‘crystalline humor,’ and were treated by the ‘art of the needle,’ or couching. Links are found between Grassus, Guillemeau, and eighteenth century glaucoma concepts. Although one of his students has traditionally received credit, it was English oculist John Thomas Woolhouse who first combined the early concepts and used the term glaucoma to describe the palpably hard eye in the early eighteenth century. The three primary ophthalmic texts of 1580s England influenced ophthalmic thought for over a century. PMID:24959303

  19. Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image over Morocco was acquired on April 23, 2000, by NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS, flying aboard the Terra spacecraft. The image was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution bands. Notice the exquisite detail in the colors and textures of the variety of land surface features in northwestern Africa. The heavily-vegetated (green pixels) peninsula in the top center of the image is the southern shore of the Strait of Gibralter--the passage between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Notice the patchy formation of low-level cumulus clouds (white pixels) over this region, suggesting a moister climate that contributes to better plant growth. On the tip of this peninsula is the coastal city of Tangier. Moving west along the coastline, the city of Casablanca lies about 200 miles (330 km) southwest of Tangier, and about 50 miles south of Rabat, the capital city. Both Casablanca and Rabat are visible as small grey clusters of pixels. About 200 miles due south of Casablanca, the Atlas Mountains (brownish pixels) are running in a northeasterly direction toward Algeria, Morocco's eastern neighbor. Toward the bottom right side of the image is a portion of the northwestern edge of the Sahara Desert. The most yellow pixels toward the southeast corner of the image is the region in the Sahara known as the Great Western Erg, in Algeria. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Group, NASA GSFC

  20. Dr. von Braun on top of the Deep-Sea Research Submarine 'Ben Franklin'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    This photograph depicts Dr. von Braun (at right, showing his back) and other NASA officials surveying the deep-sea research submarine 'Ben Franklin.' Named for American patriot and inventor Ben Franklin, who discovered the Gulf Steam, the 50-foot Ben Franklin was built between 1966 and 1968 in Switzerland for deep-ocean explorer Jacques Piccard and the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation. The submersible made a famous 30-day drift dive off the East Coast of the United States and Canada in 1969 mapping the Gulf Stream's currents and sea life, and also made space exploration history by studying the behavior of aquanauts in a sealed, self-contained, self-sufficient capsule for NASA. On July 14, 1969, the Ben Franklin was towed to the high-velocity center of the Stream off the coast of Palm Beach, Florida. With a NASA observer on board, the sub descended to 1,000 feet off of Riviera Beach, Florida and drifted 1,400 miles north with the current for more than four weeks, reemerging near Maine. During the course of the dive, NASA conducted exhaustive analyses of virtually every aspect of onboard life. They measured sleep quality and patterns, sense of humor and behavioral shifts, physical reflexes, and the effects of a long-term routine on the crew. The submarine's record-shattering dive influenced the design of Apollo and Skylab missions and continued to guide NASA scientists as they devised future marned space-flight missions.

  1. Dr. von Braun on Top of the Deep-Sea Research Submarine 'Ben Franklin'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    This photograph depicts Dr. von Braun (fourth from far right) and other NASA officials surveying the deep-sea research submarine 'Ben Franklin.' Named for American patriot and inventor Ben Franklin, who discovered the Gulf Steam, the 50-foot Ben Franklin was built between 1966 and 1968 in Switzerland for deep-ocean explorer Jacques Piccard and the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation. The submersible made a famous 30-day drift dive off the East Coast of the United States and Canada in 1969 mapping the Gulf Stream's currents and sea life, and also made space exploration history by studying the behavior of aquanauts in a sealed, self-contained, self-sufficient capsule for NASA. On July 14, 1969, the Ben Franklin was towed to the high-velocity center of the Stream off the coast of Palm Beach, Florida. With a NASA observer on board, the sub descended to 1,000 feet off of Riviera Beach, Florida and drifted 1,400 miles north with the current for more than four weeks, reemerging near Maine. During the course of the dive, NASA conducted exhaustive analyses of virtually every aspect of onboard life. They measured sleep quality and patterns, sense of humor and behavioral shifts, physical reflexes, and the effects of a long-term routine on the crew. The submarine's record-shattering dive influenced the design of Apollo and Skylab missions and continued to guide NASA scientists as they devised future marned space-flight missions.

  2. Deep-Sea Submarine 'Ben Franklin'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The deep-sea submarine 'Ben Franklin' is being docked in the harbor. Named for American patriot and inventor Ben Franklin, who discovered the Gulf Steam, the 50-foot Ben Franklin was built between 1966 and 1968 in Switzerland for deep-ocean explorer Jacques Piccard and the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation. The submersible made a famous 30-day drift dive off the East Coast of the United States and Canada in 1969 mapping the Gulf Stream's currents and sea life. It also made space exploration history by studying the behavior of aquanauts in a sealed, self-contained, self-sufficient capsule for NASA. On July 14, 1969, the Ben Franklin was towed to the high-velocity center of the Stream off the coast of Palm Beach, Florida. With a NASA observer on board, the sub descended to 1,000 feet off of Riviera Beach, Florida and drifted 1,400 miles north with the current for more than four weeks, reemerging near Maine. During the course of the dive, NASA conducted exhaustive analyses of virtually every aspect of onboard life. They measured sleep quality and patterns, sense of humor and behavioral shifts, physical reflexes, and the effect of a long-term routine on the crew. The submarine's record-shattering dive influenced the design of Apollo and Skylab missions and continued to guide NASA scientists as they devised future marned space-flight missions.

  3. Deep-Sea Research Submarine 'Ben Franklin'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    This is an aerial view of the deep-sea research submarine 'Ben Franklin' at dock. Named for American patriot and inventor Ben Franklin, who discovered the Gulf Steam, the 50-foot Ben Franklin was built between 1966 and 1968 in Switzerland for deep-ocean explorer Jacques Piccard and the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation. The submersible made a famous 30-day drift dive off the East Coast of the United States and Canada in 1969 mapping the Gulf Stream's currents and sea life, and also made space exploration history by studying the behavior of aquanauts in a sealed, self-contained, self-sufficient capsule for NASA. On July 14, 1969, the Ben Franklin was towed to the high-velocity center of the Stream off the coast of Palm Beach, Florida. With a NASA observer on board, the sub descended to 1,000 feet off of Riviera Beach, Florida and drifted 1,400 miles north with the current for more than four weeks, reemerging near Maine. During the course of the dive, NASA conducted exhaustive analyses of virtually every aspect of onboard life. They measured sleep quality and patterns, sense of humor and behavioral shifts, physical reflexes, and the effects of a long-term routine on the crew. The submarine's record-shattering dive influenced the design of Apollo and Skylab missions and continued to guide NASA scientists as they devised future marned space-flight missions.

  4. Deep-Sea Research Submarine 'Ben Franklin' at the East Coast of the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    In this photograph, the deep-sea Research Submarine 'Ben Franklin' drifts off the East Coast of the United States (U.S.) prior to submerging into the ocean. Named for American patriot and inventor Ben Franklin, who discovered the Gulf Steam, the 50-foot Ben Franklin was built between 1966 and 1968 in Switzerland for deep-ocean explorer Jacques Piccard and the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation. The submersible made a famous 30-day drift dive off the East Coast of the United States and Canada in 1969 mapping the Gulf Stream's currents and sea life, and also made space exploration history by studying the behavior of aquanauts in a sealed, self-contained, self-sufficient capsule for NASA. On July 14, 1969, the Ben Franklin was towed to the high-velocity center of the Stream off the coast of Palm Beach, Florida. With a NASA observer on board, the sub descended to 1,000 feet off of Riviera Beach, Florida and drifted 1,400 miles north with the current for more than four weeks, reemerging near Maine. During the course of the dive, NASA conducted exhaustive analyses of virtually every aspect of onboard life. They measured sleep quality and patterns, sense of humor and behavioral shifts, physical reflexes, and the effects of a long-term routine on the crew. The submarine's record-shattering dive influenced the design of Apollo and Skylab missions and continued to guide NASA scientists as they devised future marned space-flight missions.

  5. Interior View of the Deep-Sea Research Submarine 'Ben Franklin'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    This is an interior view of the living quarters of the deep-sea research submarine 'Ben Franklin.' Named for American patriot and inventor Ben Franklin, who discovered the Gulf Steam, the 50-foot Ben Franklin was built between 1966 and 1968 in Switzerland for deep- ocean explorer Jacques Piccard and the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation. The submersible made a famous 30-day drift dive off the East Coast of the United States and Canada in 1969 mapping the Gulf Stream's currents and sea life, and also made space exploration history by studying the behavior of aquanauts in a sealed, self-contained, self-sufficient capsule for NASA. On July 14, 1969, the Ben Franklin was towed to the high-velocity center of the Stream off the coast of Palm Beach, Florida. With a NASA observer on board, the sub descended to 1,000 feet off of Riviera Beach, Florida and drifted 1,400 miles north with the current for more than four weeks, reemerging near Maine. During the course of the dive, NASA conducted exhaustive analyses of virtually every aspect of onboard life. They measured sleep quality and patterns, sense of humor and behavioral shifts, physical reflexes, and the effect of a long-term routine on the crew. The submarine's record-shattering dive influenced the design of Apollo and Skylab missions and continued to guide NASA scientists as they devised future marned space-flight missions.

  6. Flooding on Russia's Lena River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nearly every year in the late spring, ice blocks the flow of water at the mouth of the Lena River in northeastern Russia and gives rise to floods across the Siberian plains. This year's floods can be seen in this image taken on June 2, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. The river runs down the left side of the image, and its delta is shrouded in ice (red) at the top of the image. Normally, the river would resemble a thin black line in MODIS imagery. The river, which is Russia's longest, flows 2,641 miles (4,250 kilometers) south to north through Siberia and into the Laptev Sea. In the winter, the river becomes nearly frozen. In the spring, however, water upstream thaws earlier than water at the mouth of the river. As the southern end of the river begins to melt, blocks of ice travel downstream to the still frozen delta, pile up, and often obstruct the flow of water. Flooding doesn't always occur on the same parts of the river. The floods hit further south last year. If the flooding grows severe enough, explosive charges are typically used to break up the ice jams. In these false-color images land areas are a dull, light green or tan, and water is black. Clouds appear pink, and ice comes across as bright red. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  7. Extensive Burn Scars in Russia's Amur Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Vast areas of southeastern Russia have been scorched by fires over the last few weeks. All across Siberia fires have been raging, and this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 15, 2002, shows extensive, dark burn scars along with actively burning fires (red dots) on the north side of the Amur River, which separates Russia (north) and China (south). The southern Amur region is largely devoted to farming and other agriculture, and these fires may have been set intentionally to prepare the land for the growing season. Fire is often used to clear land of unwanted vegetation, and to return the nutrients stored in vegetation back to the soil. However, fires that are too frequent or severe can devastate the soil, eventually making it unsuitable for farming or grazing. Fires can also escape control and spread into protected areas. In this image, fires are mostly concentrated in a lowland area within the drainage basin of the Zeya River, which drains from the frozen lake at the top of the image. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  8. Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Temperate and green in the summer, the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia freezes over completely in the winter. This true-color image of the Kamchatka Peninsula was acquired on December 12, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The peninsula is surrounded by the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and by the Bering Sea to the east. The ice and snow highlight the stunning valleys and tall peaks of the Sredinnyy Khrebet, which is the volcanic mountain range running down the center of the peninsula. The mountains along the range reach heights of over 3500 meters (11,484 feet). Many of the volcanoes are still active, and ash and volcanic rock has turned the snow a dark gray on the eastern side of the range. The light blue latticework of ridges, valleys, and alluvial fans extending from the center of the range were likely carved out by past and present glaciers and by run-off from spring snowmelt. The small island that extends off of the tip of the peninsula is Ostrov Paramushir (Paramushir Island). Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  9. The memory of two great mental calculators: Charcot and Binet's neglected 1893 experiments.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Serge; Gounden, Yannick; Levine, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    French neurologist Jean Martin Charcot (1825-1893) and French psychologist Alfred Binet (1857-1911) are almost unknown as investigators who conducted original and fascinating studies in the area of memory. In a series of 1893 experiments, they compared the performance of two expert mental calculators, Jacques Inaudi and Périclès Diamandi, in tasks that consisted of recalling digits. Inspired by Ribot's psychological work (1881), they believed in the existence of not one type of memory but several partial, special, and local memories, each devoted to a particular domain. In all arithmetical prodigies, memory for digits is abnormally developed compared with other memories. Inaudi was considered to be an auditory memory-based mental calculator; when memorizing digits, he did not rely onthe appearance of the items or create visual imagery of any kind. Rather, he remembered digits principally by their sounds. Inaudi's methods of calculation and memorization were original and different from those used by Diamandi, who was a typical visual memory-based mental calculator. The experiments presented in the 1893 article were among the first scientific demonstrations of the importance to psychology of studying different types of memory. The present work gives a translation of this pioneering experimental article on expert calculators by Charcot and Binet, instructive for the comprehension of normal memory.

  10. A general framework improving teaching ligand binding to a macromolecule.

    PubMed

    Haiech, Jacques; Gendrault, Yves; Kilhoffer, Marie-Claude; Ranjeva, Raoul; Madec, Morgan; Lallement, Christophe

    2014-10-01

    The interaction of a ligand with a macromolecule has been modeled following different theories. The tenants of the induced fit model consider that upon ligand binding, the protein-ligand complex undergoes a conformational change. In contrast, the allosteric model assumes that only one among different coexisting conformers of a given protein is suitable to bind the ligand optimally. In the present paper, we propose a general framework to model the binding of ligands to a macromolecule. Such framework built on the binding polynomial allows opening new ways to teach in a unified manner ligand binding, enzymology and receptor binding in pharmacology. Moreover, we have developed simple software that allows building the binding polynomial from the schematic description of the biological system under study. Taking calmodulin as a canonical example, we show here that the proposed tool allows the easy retrieval of previously experimental and computational reports. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium Signaling in Health and Disease. Guest Editors: Geert Bultynck, Jacques Haiech, Claus W. Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, and Marc Moreau.

  11. A Three-Planet Extrasolar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Pepe, Francesco; Queloz, Didier; Udry, Stéphane; Santos, Nuno C.; Alibert, Yann; Benz, Willy; Mordasini, Christoph; Bouchy, François; Correia, Alexandre C. M.; Laskar, Jacques; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Sivan, Jean-Pierre

    2006-06-01

    Using the ultra-precise HARPS spectro-graph on ESO’s 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, a team of astronomers1 has discovered that a nearby star is host to three Neptune-mass planets. The in-nermost planet is most probably rocky, while the outermost is the first known Neptune-mass planet to reside in the habitable zone. This unique system is likely further enriched by an asteroid belt. Z% Lovis et al. 2006, Nature 441, 305. The team is composed of Christophe Lovis, Michel Mayor, Francesco Pepe, Didier Queloz, and Stéphane Udry (Observatoire de l’Université de Genève, Switzerland), Nuno C. Santos (Observatoire de l’Uni-versité de Genève, Switzerland, Centro de Astro-nomia e Astrofisica da Universidade de Lisboa and Centro de Geofisica de Evora, Portugal), Yann Alibert, Willy Benz, Christoph Mordasini (Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bern, Switzerland), François Bouchy (Observatoire de Haute-Provence and IAP, France), Alexandre C. M. Correia (Uni-versidade de Aveiro, Portugal), Jacques Laskar (IMCCE-CNRS, Paris, France), Jean-Loup Bertaux (Service d’Aéronomie du CNRS, France), and Jean-Pierre Sivan (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille, France).

  12. Hydrographic and mixed layer depth variability on the shelf in the northern Gulf of Alaska, 1974 1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Nandita; Royer, T. C.; Grosch, C. E.

    2005-11-01

    A time series of hydrographic measurements, temperature and salinity versus depth, on the shelf in the northern Gulf of Alaska (GAK 1) is used to determine the seasonal and interannual variability of the hydrography and mixed layer depth from 1974 through mid-1998. This is one of the first opportunities to incorporate salinity into the mixed layer depth (MLD) determination in this region where the density is highly dependent on salinity. The MLD changes seasonally from about 40 m in summer to more than 160 m in winter. This has potential implications for vertical fluxes of nutrients via winter MLD, leading to their annual replenishment. Spectral analysis of MLDs show that the time series have similar periodicities to the hydrography (decadal and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)). The MLD trend during 1974-1998 has a slight increase in the deepest winter MLD that is, however, not statistically significant at the 90% level. This is in contrast to previous studies which found a significant shoaling of the winter MLD in the offshelf region of the Gulf of Alaska at Ocean Station P (OSP) [Freeland, H., Denman, K., Wong, C.S., Whitney, F., Jacques, R., 1997. Evidence of change in the winter mixed layer in the northeast Pacific Ocean. Deep Sea Research 44, 2117-2129]. This difference in the response of the marine system is consistent with an increase in the circulation of the Alaskan Gyre with enhanced upwelling in the central gulf (OSP) and enhanced downwelling along the coast (GAK 1).

  13. Revisiting Bertin Matrices: New Interactions for Crafting Tabular Visualizations.

    PubMed

    Perin, Charles; Dragicevic, Pierre; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2014-12-01

    We present Bertifier, a web app for rapidly creating tabular visualizations from spreadsheets. Bertifier draws from Jacques Bertin's matrix analysis method, whose goal was to "simplify without destroying" by encoding cell values visually and grouping similar rows and columns. Although there were several attempts to bring this method to computers, no implementation exists today that is both exhaustive and accessible to a large audience. Bertifier remains faithful to Bertin's method while leveraging the power of today's interactive computers. Tables are formatted and manipulated through crossets, a new interaction technique for rapidly applying operations on rows and columns. We also introduce visual reordering, a semi-interactive reordering approach that lets users apply and tune automatic reordering algorithms in a WYSIWYG manner. Sessions with eight users from different backgrounds suggest that Bertifier has the potential to bring Bertin's method to a wider audience of both technical and non-technical users, and empower them with data analysis and communication tools that were so far only accessible to a handful of specialists. PMID:26356922

  14. Capacity building and collaborative research on cross-national studies in the Asian region.

    PubMed

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Chang, Linda; Wang, Gene-Jack; Li, Ming D; Rawson, Richard; Shoptaw, Steve; Normand, Jacques; Tai, Betty

    2013-12-01

    To build capacity and collaborative research for future cross-national studies in the Asian and Pacific Islander (API) region, priority research topics were identified and discussed at the April 2013 Conference to Promote Global Health in Taipei. These topics included (1) Neuroscience on HIV/HCV and amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), led by Drs. Linda Chang, Gene-Jack Wang, and Betty Tai; (2) ATS and mental health disorders, led by Drs. Richard Rawson and Wilson Compton; and (3) HIV/HCV transmission and social networks, led by Drs. Steven Shoptaw and Jacques Normand. Potential genetic studies spanning these topical areas as well as the importance of smoking cessation were further discussed, led by Dr. Ming Li. Additional priority research topics were also identified: (4) Drug use prevention, and (5) Family involvement to improve treatment adherence and recovery. Workgroups on these topics will be formed to prioritize research questions within the respective topical area and to determine the next steps. The ultimate goal of these workgroups is to stimulate collaboration that will eventually lead to research studies addressing critical issues related to the rising substance abuse and HIV infection rates in many Asian countries and, at the same time, to advance the scientific knowledge of substance abuse and HIV infection.

  15. Assessing Flood Risks and Planning for Resiliency in New Jersey: A Case Study on the Use of Online Flood Mapping and Resilience Planning Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auermuller, L. M.; Gatto, J.; Huch, C.

    2015-12-01

    The highly developed nature of New Jersey's coastline, barrier island and lagoon communities make them particularly vulnerable to storm surge, sea level rise and flooding. The impacts of Hurricane Sandy have enlightened coastal communities to these realities. Recognizing these vulnerabilities, the Jacques Cousteau National Research Reserve (JC NERR), Rutgers Center for Remote Sensing and Spatial Analysis (CRSSA), Rutgers Bloustein School and the Barnegat Bay Partnership (BBP) have developed web-based tools to assist NJ's coastal communities in visualizing and planning for future local impacts. NJFloodMapper and NJAdapt are two complementary interactive mapping websites that visualize different current and future flood hazards. These hazard layers can be combined with additional data including critical facilities, evacuation routes, socioeconomic and environmental data. Getting to Resilience is an online self-assessment tool developed to assist communities reduce vulnerability and increase preparedness by linking planning, mitigation, and adaptation. Through this interactive process communities will learn how their preparedness can yield valuable points through voluntary programs like FEMA's Community Rating System and Sustainable Jersey. The assessment process can also increase the community's understanding of where future vulnerabilities should be addressed through hazard mitigation planning. Since Superstorm Sandy, more than thirty communities in New Jersey have been provided technical assistance in assessing their risks and vulnerabilities to coastal hazards, and have begun to understand how to better plan and prepare for short and long-term changes along their shorelines.

  16. BASE COMPOSITION OF THE DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID OF SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA

    PubMed Central

    Sigal, Nicole; Senez, Jacques C.; Le Gall, Jean; Sebald, Madeleine

    1963-01-01

    Sigal, Nicole (Laboratoire de Chimie Bactérienne du CNRS, Marseille, France), Jacques C. Senez, Jean Le Gall, and Madeleine Sebald. Base composition of the deoxyribonucleic acid of sulfate-reducing bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 85:1315–1318. 1963—The deoxyribonucleic acid constitution of several strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria has been analytically determined. The results of these studies show that this group of microorganisms includes at least four subgroups characterized by significantly different values of the adenine plus thymine to guanine plus cytosine ratio. The nonsporulated forms with polar flagellation, containing both cytochrome c3 and desulfoviridin, are divided into two subgroups. One includes the fresh-water, nonhalophilic strains with base ratio from 0.54 to 0.59, and the other includes the halophilic or halotolerant strains with base ratio from 0.74 to 0.77. The sporulated, peritrichous strains without cytochrome and desulfoviridin (“nigrificans” and “orientis”) are distinct from the above two types and differ from each other, having base ratios of 1.20 and 1.43, respectively. PMID:14047223

  17. [Buffon, the director of 'Jardin du Roi' in the 1700s].

    PubMed

    Jeune, Bernard; Petersen, Hans Christian

    2008-01-01

    Buffon and Linné were the two greatest naturalists of the 1700s. As they were both born in 1707, their 300 anniversaries were therefore celebrated in France and Sweden. At the celebration meeting at the University of Bourgogne in Dijon - The Buffon Legacy - September 3-6, 2007, we presented the following paper: "Buffon and the longevity of species". In the present paper the life and work of Buffon is introduced on the basis of recent literature, including Jacques Roger's famous biography. Among non-biologists Buffon has nearly been forgotten, even though in the 1700s he was considered to be at the same level as the most famous French thinkers of the Enlightenment - Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau and Diderot. His largest contributions were the publication of his comprehensive "Histoire naturelle" and his long and significant leadership of "Jardin du Roi", which he built up to become one of the best scientific institutions of Europe. Buffon's scientific contributions wereas overshadowed by those of Linné, as it was his classification system, which became dominant all overn Europe. Buffon's student Lamarck and later Darwin contributed by pushing Buffon in oblivion of history, even though Darwin valued him highly. However, in recent decades Buffon is experiencing a renaissance in connection with the increasing interest in biological anthropology, biogeography, ethology, and ecology, as well as on account of his modern species concept. PMID:19831292

  18. Time to Separate the Men From the Beasts: Symbolic Anticipation as the Typically Human Subjective Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Grave, Dieter

    2004-08-01

    In this paper it is argued that the dividing line that runs between the human psyche as opposed to any other complex system is made up by symbolic anticipation. The functionality of the human mind as an anticipatory system is entirely caught up in the crucial role that finiteness, shortage or lack plays for human beings. Anticipation for us is the way by which this negative finiteness or lack is translated into a positive longing, want or desire. We take a look at the three dimensional view of Jacques Lacan regarding these matters in a sophistical example and we illustrate how anticipation as a Symbolic phenomenon is distinct from the Imaginary or the Real register. As Lacan points out anticipation creates a symbolic social link which binds two or more interacting humans together in an anticipatory relationship. Beliefs, expectations and convictions are the typically human social links which ground human interaction and set it apart from other forms of social interaction we can observe in other complex biological entities.

  19. Lacan’s Construction and Deconstruction of the Double-Mirror Device

    PubMed Central

    Vanheule, Stijn

    2011-01-01

    In the 1950s Jacques Lacan developed a set-up with a concave mirror and a plane mirror, based on which he described the nature of human identification. He also formulated ideas on how psychoanalysis, qua clinical practice, responds to identification. In this paper Lacan’s schema of the two mirrors is described in detail and the theoretical line of reasoning he aimed to articulate with aid of this spatial model is discussed. It is argued that Lacan developed his double-mirror device to clarify the relationship between the drive, the ego, the ideal ego, the ego-ideal, the other, and the Other. This model helped Lacan describe the dynamics of identification and explain how psychoanalytic treatment works. He argued that by working with free association, psychoanalysis aims to articulate unconscious desire, and bypass the tendency of the ego for misrecognition. The reasons why Lacan stressed the limits of his double-mirror model and no longer considered it useful from the early 1960s onward are examined. It is argued that his concept of the gaze, which he qualifies as a so-called “object a,” prompted Lacan move away from his double-mirror set-up. In those years Lacan gradually began to study the tension between drive and signifier. The schema of the two mirrors, by contrast, focused on the tension between image and signifier, and missed the point Lacan aimed to address in this new era of his work. PMID:21949511

  20. Lacan's Construction and Deconstruction of the Double-Mirror Device.

    PubMed

    Vanheule, Stijn

    2011-01-01

    In the 1950s Jacques Lacan developed a set-up with a concave mirror and a plane mirror, based on which he described the nature of human identification. He also formulated ideas on how psychoanalysis, qua clinical practice, responds to identification. In this paper Lacan's schema of the two mirrors is described in detail and the theoretical line of reasoning he aimed to articulate with aid of this spatial model is discussed. It is argued that Lacan developed his double-mirror device to clarify the relationship between the drive, the ego, the ideal ego, the ego-ideal, the other, and the Other. This model helped Lacan describe the dynamics of identification and explain how psychoanalytic treatment works. He argued that by working with free association, psychoanalysis aims to articulate unconscious desire, and bypass the tendency of the ego for misrecognition. The reasons why Lacan stressed the limits of his double-mirror model and no longer considered it useful from the early 1960s onward are examined. It is argued that his concept of the gaze, which he qualifies as a so-called "object a," prompted Lacan move away from his double-mirror set-up. In those years Lacan gradually began to study the tension between drive and signifier. The schema of the two mirrors, by contrast, focused on the tension between image and signifier, and missed the point Lacan aimed to address in this new era of his work.

  1. Blanket of Snow Covers Salt Lake City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On December 23, 2001, less than two months before the start of the 2002 Winter Olympics, snow blankets Salt Lake City and the surrounding area. The Great Salt Lake, on the left hand side of the image above, often contributes to the region's snowfall through the 'lake-effect.' As cold air passes over a large body of water it both warms and absorbs moisture. The warm air then rises (like a hot air balloon) and cools again. As it cools, the water vapor condenses out, resulting in snowfall. Just to the east (right) of the Great Salt Lake the mountains of the Wasatch Range lift air from the lake even higher, enhancing the lake-effect, resulting in an average snowfall of 64 inches a year in Salt Lake City and 140 inches in Park City, which is located at the foot of the Wasatch Front. For more information about the lake-effect, read Lake-Effect Snowfalls. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  2. Oughtonomy in healthcare. A deconstructive reading of Kantian autonomy.

    PubMed

    Devisch, Ignaas

    2010-11-01

    For years now, autonomy has been discussed as one of the central values in health care. Understood as self-realization, it is opposed to paternalism which is conceived as an intolerable occurrence of heteronomy. Although different concepts have been developed to nuance this opposition, when it comes to health care discourse, heteronomy is still the enemy of autonomy. In our article, we defend the thesis that autonomy is only achievable as heteronomy. We are not arguing for an expansion of the meaning of autonomy, but are attempting to conduct an analysis which lays bare the 'disrupting' attendance of heteronomy within the principle of autonomy. Autonomy does not begin where heteronomy ends, but can only begin if heteronomy is already involved. To emphasize this, we prefer to elaborate a new concept: 'oughtonomy'. This concept is inspired by Jacques Derrida's distinction between 'difference' and 'differance'. We will develop the concept of oughtonomy from a deconstructive reading of Kant's idea of autonomy, inspired by philosophers such as Jacob Rogozinski, Jean-Luc Nancy and others. In addition to a first exploration of this concept, this article also discusses the possible consequences of oughtonomy for current debates concerning health care. Our quest for a new understanding of autonomy is motivated by the concern that, although the accent on autonomy as self-realization and independence has many advantages, we should also bear in mind the countless disadvantages. PMID:20574757

  3. Plant maintenance and advanced reactors issue, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2009-09-15

    The focus of the September-October issue is on plant maintenance and advanced reactors. Major articles/reports in this issue include: Technologies of national importance, by Tsutomu Ohkubo, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan; Modeling and simulation advances brighten future nuclear power, by Hussein Khalil, Argonne National Laboratory, Energy and desalination projects, by Ratan Kumar Sinha, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India; A plant with simplified design, by John Higgins, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; A forward thinking design, by Ray Ganthner, AREVA; A passively safe design, by Ed Cummins, Westinghouse Electric Company; A market-ready design, by Ken Petrunik, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Canada; Generation IV Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems, by Jacques Bouchard, French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, France, and Ralph Bennett, Idaho National Laboratory; Innovative reactor designs, a report by IAEA, Vienna, Austria; Guidance for new vendors, by John Nakoski, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Road map for future energy, by John Cleveland, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria; and, Vermont's largest source of electricity, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. The Industry Innovation article is titled Intelligent monitoring technology, by Chris Demars, Exelon Nuclear.

  4. Strategy and logistics for the New World Order. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Gildersleeve, C.W.

    1990-12-01

    An interdisciplinary analysis of the post-Cold War world to determine the optimal strategy to attain the national interests of the United States, and the requisite logistic structure to support that strategy. The optimal solution is found to be a strategy based on multinational defense centered on a permanent force of United Nations garrison port complexes. This multilateral force would be augmented by as small a national defense force as necessary to ensure national security. The theses endeavors to reconnect the cultural and philosophical past of the United States with its immediate future. National interests are identified through examination of American Pragmatism and the philosophies of John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau. To determine the current status of common defense, based upon the Foreign Military Sales system, and analysis of current data is accomplished. Future threats to the United States are examined with special emphasis on nuclear terrorism. The ability of Islamic nations in North Africa and the Middle East to produce significant quantities of uranium is demonstrated. The grave political as well as ongoing environmental consequences of this recent capability are discussed in detail.

  5. Flooding Caused by the Collapse of the Zeyzoun Dam, Syria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On Tuesday the Zeyzoun dam in northern Syria ruptured and collapsed, killing 20 people and leaving thousands more homeless. This false-color image taken on June 5, 2002, (bottom) by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite shows the extent of the flooding. Normally, there would be no water present in the center of the image (top, acquired on June 3, 2002). After the dam burst, 71 million cubic meters flowed onto the surrounding landscape and washed over an area of 20,000 acres. Hundreds of homes were destroyed in and around the villages of Zeyzoun, Qastoun, and Ziara, roughly 220 miles (350 kilometers) north of Damascus. Most of the residents fled to higher ground with the help of two helicopters. The Syrians originally constructed the dam to contain the Orontes River and provide a steady flow of water to the surrounding farms, many of which were lost. Rescue workers worry that more bodies may be found as the waters of the dam recede. The Japanese government issued more than $40,000 in aid for the victims, and the Syrian government is petitioning international aid agencies for further assistance. In this false-color image, the ground is sage green and rusty orange, and water is black. Clouds appear pink. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  6. A versatile lab-on-chip test platform to characterize elementary deformation mechanisms and electromechanical couplings in nanoscopic objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardoen, Thomas; Colla, Marie-Sthéphane; Idrissi, Hosni; Amin-Ahmadi, Behnam; Wang, Binjie; Schryvers, Dominique; Bhaskar, Umesh K.; Raskin, Jean-Pierre

    2016-03-01

    A nanomechanical on-chip test platform has recently been developed to deform under a variety of loading conditions freestanding thin films, ribbons and nanowires involving submicron dimensions. The lab-on-chip involves thousands of elementary test structures from which the elastic modulus, strength, strain hardening, fracture, creep properties can be extracted. The technique is amenable to in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations to unravel the fundamental underlying deformation and fracture mechanisms that often lead to size-dependent effects in small-scale samples. The method allows addressing electrical and magnetic couplings as well in order to evaluate the impact of large mechanical stress levels on different solid-state physics phenomena. We had the chance to present this technique in details to Jacques Friedel in 2012 who, unsurprisingly, made a series of critical and very relevant suggestions. In the spirit of his legacy, the paper will address both mechanics of materials related phenomena and couplings with solids state physics issues.

  7. Snowstorm Blankets Midwestern U.S.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An early blast of wintry weather swept across the midwestern United States on November 27-28, 2001, leaving a wide swath of snow and ice on the ground extending from northern Texas up into the Dakotas and as far east as Michigan. Two inches of snow accumulated in the Texas panhandle while sleet and freezing rain glazed bridges and roads as far south as the Dallas-Fort Worth area. Meanwhile, more than 2 feet (0.61 meters) of snow fell in parts of the Dakotas, Wisconsin and Michigan. The town of Willmar, Minnesota, recorded an accumulation of 29 inches (74 cm) of snow. By December 1, the clouds had cleared enough to afford the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) this true-color view of the midwest. The wide swath of white snow, contrasted with the brownish colors of the bare surface, reveals the extent of the region affected by the snowstorm. This scene spans from Ontario, Canada, and Minnesota (upper right) westward across the Dakotas and Montana (upper left). Moving southward, we see the storm blanketed half of Nebraska and the northeast corner of Colorado (lower left). The Missouri River can be seen clearly winding its way southeastward through South Dakota. The Missouri also defines the border between Nebraska and Iowa. The Minnesota River can also be seen in southwestern Minnesota. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  8. Chance and necessity in eye evolution.

    PubMed

    Gehring, Walter J

    2011-01-01

    Charles Darwin has proposed the theory that evolution of live organisms is based on random variation and natural selection. Jacques Monod in his classic book Chance and Necessity, published 40 years ago, presented his thesis "that the biosphere does not contain a predictable class of objects or events, but constitutes a particular occurrence, compatible indeed with the first principles, but not deducible from those principals and therefore, essentially unpredictable." Recent discoveries in eye evolution are in agreement with both of these theses. They confirm Darwin's assumption of a simple eye prototype and lend strong support for the notion of a monophyletic origin of the various eye types. Considering the complexity of the underlying gene regulatory networks the unpredictability is obvious. The evolution of the Hox gene cluster and the specification of the body plan starting from an evolutionary prototype segment is discussed. In the course of evolution, a series of similar prototypic segments gradually undergoes cephalization anteriorly and caudalization posteriorly through diversification of the Hox genes.

  9. [Edouard Brissaud, a neglected neurologist and an artist at heart].

    PubMed

    Poirier, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Academy of Medicine, was a distinguished neurologist. He founded the journal Revue Neurologique, and authored a monumental atlas of the human brain and a talented history of popular medical expressions. He was surrounded by a family of artists, musicians and, above all, actors and singers. The best-known were his great-grandfather Jacques-Marie Boutet de Monvel, nicknamed "The Great Monvel ", his great aunt Mademoiselle Mars, and his cousin Marie Dorval--monstres sacrés of the first half of the XIXth century--as well as the Anselme-Baptiste family and the three Nourrit tenors. As a child, Edouard Brissaud frequently took part in family plays. He was spontaneous, facetious, a practical joker and something of a show-off. He wrote a comedy play entitled "Le chèque", in which a medical professor and his student discuss the temporary direction Chair of Nervous System Diseases that Brissaud briefly held between 1893 and 1894, after the death of his mentor Charcot.

  10. Proving communal warfare among hunter-gatherers: The Quasi-Rousseauan error.

    PubMed

    Gat, Azar

    2015-01-01

    Was human fighting always there, as old as our species? Or is it a late cultural invention, emerging after the transition to agriculture and the rise of the state, which began, respectively, only around ten thousand and five thousand years ago? Viewed against the life span of our species, Homo sapiens, stretching back 150,000-200,000 years, let alone the roughly two million years of our genus Homo, this is the tip of the iceberg. We now have a temporal frame and plenty of empirical evidence for the "state of nature" that Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacque Rousseau discussed in the abstract and described in diametrically opposed terms. All human populations during the Pleistocene, until about 12,000 years ago, were hunter-gatherers, or foragers, of the simple, mobile sort that lacked accumulated resources. Studying such human populations that survived until recently or still survive in remote corners of the world, anthropology should have been uniquely positioned to answer the question of aboriginal human fighting or lack thereof. Yet access to, and the interpretation of, that information has been intrinsically problematic. The main problem has been the "contact paradox." Prestate societies have no written records of their own. Therefore, documenting them requires contact with literate state societies that necessarily affects the former and potentially changes their behavior, including fighting.

  11. Arginine, scurvy and Cartier's "tree of life"

    PubMed Central

    Durzan, Don J

    2009-01-01

    Several conifers have been considered as candidates for "Annedda", which was the source for a miraculous cure for scurvy in Jacques Cartier's critically ill crew in 1536. Vitamin C was responsible for the cure of scurvy and was obtained as an Iroquois decoction from the bark and leaves from this "tree of life", now commonly referred to as arborvitae. Based on seasonal and diurnal amino acid analyses of candidate "trees of life", high levels of arginine, proline, and guanidino compounds were also probably present in decoctions prepared in the severe winter. The semi-essential arginine, proline and all the essential amino acids, would have provided additional nutritional benefits for the rapid recovery from scurvy by vitamin C when food supply was limited. The value of arginine, especially in the recovery of the critically ill sailors, is postulated as a source of nitric oxide, and the arginine-derived guanidino compounds as controlling factors for the activities of different nitric oxide synthases. This review provides further insights into the use of the candidate "trees of life" by indigenous peoples in eastern Canada. It raises hypotheses on the nutritional and synergistic roles of arginine, its metabolites, and other biofactors complementing the role of vitamin C especially in treating Cartier's critically ill sailors. PMID:19187550

  12. Life in the laboratory: public responses to experimental biology.

    PubMed

    Turney, J

    1995-04-01

    Present-day public attitudes to biological manipulation are ambivalent, many surveys show. This paper explores evidence of earlier attitudes to experimental biology, before survey data exists, by examining published responses in the press to the idea that biologists would 'create life'. This remarkable claim achieved wide currency in the early years of this century, particularly linked to the work of two prototypical 'visible scientists': Jacques Loeb and Alexis Carrel. Analysis of press responses to accounts of their work reveals deep disquiet about its possible implications, at a time when science and technology in general were regarded very positively. The evidence is augmented by studying commentary on a Presidential Address by Edward Schafer to the British Association meeting of 1912. It is concluded that feelings of ambivalence toward the manipulative power of biology are apparent at a very early stage in the development of modern biology, and that this makes it implausible that more recent manifestations of such ambivalence can be ascribed to some generalized 'anti-science' sentiment which has gathered strength in recent years.

  13. Mechanism, vitalism and organicism in late nineteenth and twentieth-century biology: the importance of historical context.

    PubMed

    Allen, Garland E

    2005-06-01

    The term 'mechanism' has been used in two quite different ways in the history of biology. Operative, or explanatory mechanism refers to the step-by-step description or explanation of how components in a system interact to yield a particular outcome (as in the 'mechanism of enzyme action' or the 'mechanism of synaptic transmission'). Philosophical Mechanism, on the other hand, refers to a broad view of organisms as material entities, functioning in ways similar to machines--that is, carrying out a variety of activities based on known chemical and physical processes. In the early twentieth century philosophical Mechanism became the foundation of a 'new biology' that sought to establish the life sciences on the same solid and rigorous foundation as the physical sciences, including a strong emphasis on experimentation. In the context of the times this campaign was particularly aimed at combating the reintroduction of more holistic, non-mechanical approaches into the life sciences (organicism, vitalism). In so doing, Mechanists failed to see some of the strong points of non-vitalistic holistic thinking. The two approaches are illustrated in the work of Jacques Loeb and Hans Spemann.

  14. Different methods and metaphysics in early molecular genetics--a case of disparity of research?

    PubMed

    Deichmann, Ute

    2008-01-01

    The encounter between two fundamentally different approaches in seminal research in molecular biology--the problems, aims, methods and metaphysics--is delineated and analyzed. They are exemplified by the microbiologist Oswald T. Avery who, in line with the reductionist mechanistic metaphysics of Jacques Loeb, attempted to explain basic life phenomena through chemistry; and the theoretical physicist Max Delbrück who, influenced by Bohr's antimechanistic views, preferred to explain these phenomena without chemistry. Avery's and Delbrück's most important studies took place concurrently. Thus analysis of their contrasting approaches lends itself to examination of the Weltanschauungen view concerning the role of fundamental (metaphysical) assumptions in scientific change, that is, the view that empirical research cannot be neutral in regard to the worldviews of the researchers. This study shows that the initial ostensible disparity (non-integratibility) of the two approaches lasted for just a short time. Ironically it was a student of Delbrück's school, James Watson, who (with Crick) proposed a chemical model, the DNA double helix, as a solution to Delbrück's problem. The structure of DNA has not been seriously challenged over the past half century Moreover, Watson's and Crick's work did not call into question the validity of Delbrück's research, but opened it up to entirely new approaches. The case of Avery and Delbrück demonstrates that after initial obstacles were overcome the different fundamental attitudes and the resulting research practices were capable of integration.

  15. Proving communal warfare among hunter-gatherers: The Quasi-Rousseauan error.

    PubMed

    Gat, Azar

    2015-01-01

    Was human fighting always there, as old as our species? Or is it a late cultural invention, emerging after the transition to agriculture and the rise of the state, which began, respectively, only around ten thousand and five thousand years ago? Viewed against the life span of our species, Homo sapiens, stretching back 150,000-200,000 years, let alone the roughly two million years of our genus Homo, this is the tip of the iceberg. We now have a temporal frame and plenty of empirical evidence for the "state of nature" that Thomas Hobbes and Jean-Jacque Rousseau discussed in the abstract and described in diametrically opposed terms. All human populations during the Pleistocene, until about 12,000 years ago, were hunter-gatherers, or foragers, of the simple, mobile sort that lacked accumulated resources. Studying such human populations that survived until recently or still survive in remote corners of the world, anthropology should have been uniquely positioned to answer the question of aboriginal human fighting or lack thereof. Yet access to, and the interpretation of, that information has been intrinsically problematic. The main problem has been the "contact paradox." Prestate societies have no written records of their own. Therefore, documenting them requires contact with literate state societies that necessarily affects the former and potentially changes their behavior, including fighting. PMID:26081116

  16. Monte Carlo simulation of zinc protoporphyrin fluorescence in the retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Lane, Stephen

    2010-02-01

    We have used Monte Carlo simulation of autofluorescence in the retina to determine that noninvasive detection of nutritional iron deficiency is possible. Nutritional iron deficiency (which leads to iron deficiency anemia) affects more than 2 billion people worldwide, and there is an urgent need for a simple, noninvasive diagnostic test. Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) is a fluorescent compound that accumulates in red blood cells and is used as a biomarker for nutritional iron deficiency. We developed a computational model of the eye, using parameters that were identified either by literature search, or by direct experimental measurement to test the possibility of detecting ZPP non-invasively in retina. By incorporating fluorescence into Steven Jacques' original code for multi-layered tissue, we performed Monte Carlo simulation of fluorescence in the retina and determined that if the beam is not focused on a blood vessel in a neural retina layer or if part of light is hitting the vessel, ZPP fluorescence will be 10-200 times higher than background lipofuscin fluorescence coming from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) layer directly below. In addition we found that if the light can be focused entirely onto a blood vessel in the neural retina layer, the fluorescence signal comes only from ZPP. The fluorescence from layers below in this second situation does not contribute to the signal. Therefore, the possibility that a device could potentially be built and detect ZPP fluorescence in retina looks very promising.

  17. Fires in South Africa, snow in Lesotho

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The precipitation that brought snow fall to the Drakensberg Mountains in Lesotho in southern Africa was not enough to quench the numerous fires (marked with red dots) burning throughout the Republic of South Africa. These Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images from June 18, 2002, and July 2, 2002, show the snowfall in landlocked Lesotho contrasting sharply with the country's brown, mountainous terrain. (In the false-color image, vegetation is bright green, bare soil is brown, and burned areas are reddish-brown. In northeast Republic of South Africa, right along the border with Mozambique, the smooth, gray-brown terrain shows the boundaries of Kruger National Park. The Park was established in the late 1800s to protect game species, such as elephants, antelope, and bison, which were being hunted in great numbers. In this image, dark brown patches reveal the location of previous fires. The vegetation has yet to come back, and the landscape is virtually bare. NASA scientists study fire behavior in Kruger as part of the SAFARI field campaign. Running southward through Mozambique and into the Indian Ocean is the muddy Limpopo River--known to many through Rudyard Kipling's 'Just-so' story about how the elephant got its trunk. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  18. Argentina from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image over Argentina was acquired on April 24, 2000, and was produced using a combination of the sensor's 250-m and 500-m resolution 'true color' bands. This image was presented on June 13, 2000 as a GIFt to Argentinian President Fernando de la Rua by NASA Administrator Dan Goldin. Note the Parana River which runs due south from the top of the image before turning east to empty into the Atlantic Ocean. Note the yellowish sediment from the Parana River mixing with the redish sediment from the Uruguay River as it empties into the Rio de la Plata. The water level of the Parana seems high, which could explain the high sediment discharge. A variety of land surface features are visible in this image. To the north, the greenish pixels show forest regions, as well as characteristic clusters of rectangular patterns of agricultural fields. In the lower left of the image, the lighter green pixels show arable regions where there is grazing and farming. (Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Group, NASA GSFC)

  19. CRAC channels, calcium, and cancer in light of the driver and passenger concept.

    PubMed

    Hoth, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Advances in next-generation sequencing allow very comprehensive analyses of large numbers of cancer genomes leading to an increasingly better characterization and classification of cancers. Comparing genomic data predicts candidate genes driving development, growth, or metastasis of cancer. Cancer driver genes are defined as genes whose mutations are causally implicated in oncogenesis whereas passenger mutations are defined as not being oncogenic. Currently, a list of several hundred cancer driver mutations is discussed including prominent members like TP53, BRAF, NRAS, or NF1. According to the vast literature on Ca(2+) and cancer, Ca(2+) signals and the underlying Ca(2+) channels and transporters certainly influence the development, growth, and metastasis of many cancers. In this review, I focus on the calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC) channel genes STIM and Orai and their role for cancer development, growth, and metastasis. STIM and Orai genes are being discussed in the context of current cancer concepts with a focus on the driver-passenger hypothesis. One result of this discussion is the hypothesis that a driver analysis of Ca(2+) homeostasis-related genes should not be carried out by looking at isolated genes. Rather a pool of “Ca(2+) genes” might be considered to act as one potential cancer driver. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium and Cell Fate. Guest Editors: Jacques Haiech, Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, Thierry Capiod and Olivier Mignen.

  20. A fortunate journey on uneven grounds.

    PubMed

    Ullmann, Agnes

    2012-01-01

    I was surprised to be invited to write a prefatory chapter for the Annual Review of Microbiology. Indeed, I did not feel that I belonged to that class of eminent scientists who had written such chapters. Perhaps it is because I am a kind of mutant: In spite of having experienced war, both German and Soviet occupations, repeated bombardments, dictatorships, and a revolution, I managed nonetheless to engage in scientific research, thus realizing a childhood dream. After having obtained my Doctor Rerum Naturalium degree in Budapest, Hungary, I was fortunate to meet Jacques Monod at the Pasteur Institute, and this became a turning point in my scientific career. In his laboratory, I contributed to the definition of the lactose operon promoter, uncovered intracistronic complementation in β-galactosidase, and investigated the role of cAMP in Escherichia coli. In my own laboratory, together with many gifted students and collaborators, I studied the role of adenylate cyclase in bacterial virulence. This allowed the engineering of recombinant adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis for the development of protective and therapeutic vaccines. PMID:22994486

  1. What Does It Mean to be Central? A Botanical Geography of Paris 1830-1848.

    PubMed

    Hoquet, Thierry

    2016-02-01

    This paper focuses on the geography of the botanical community in Paris, under the July Monarchy (1830-1848). At that time, the Muséum d'Histoire naturelle (MHN) was at its institutional acme and, under the impulse of François Guizot, its budget was increasing dramatically. However, closer attention to manuscript sources (correspondence, travel diaries) reveals that the botanists of the time favoured other private institutions, located both on the Right and Left Banks of the Seine. The MHN was prestigious for its collections and professors but it was relatively remote from the centre of Paris, and its plant samples were sometimes difficult to access. Several other first-class private herbaria granted liberal access to botanists: those of Jacques Gay, Phillip Barker Webb, and Benjamin Delessert. Thanks to their wealth, these plant amateurs had ownership of historical herbaria consisting of species types alongside rich botanical libraries. Botanists visiting Paris from foreign countries or other provinces of France also spent some time studying less general plant collections, like those of Count Jaubert, or specialized collections, like Montagne's or Léveillé's on cryptogams. Other botanists also enjoyed renown at the time, although they published little, if anything (like Maire). Living in crammed apartments, literally in the middle of their plant samples, these botanists were key nodes in botanical networks, although they had no relation with the prestigious MHN.

  2. United States West Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On Thursday (Feb. 14, 2002), the cloud cover that often overshadows the western United States this time of year broke to provide those at the Olympic Games with a beautiful day. The nearly cloud-free day was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASAs Terra spacecraft. A thick layer of snow blankets northernmost Nevada, northern Utah, most of Idaho and western Wyoming. The snow surrounds and highlights Utahs Great Salt Lake. Just south of the lake, clouds can be seen hovering over southern Utah. (In general, clouds appear streaky and uneven on a satellite image, and snow cover appears solid with definable borders.) North of the Great Salt Lake, one can clearly discern the light gray Northern Rocky Mountains cutting through Idaho and up into Canada. Moving southwest, the spine-like Sierra Nevada mountains separate the greenery of Southern California from the brown deserts of Arizona and Nevada. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  3. Wintertime in the Western U.S.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On Thursday (Feb. 14, 2002), the cloud cover that often overshadows the western United States this time of year broke to provide those at the Olympic Games with a beautiful day. The nearly cloud-free day was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. A thick layer of snow blankets northernmost Nevada, northern Utah, most of Idaho and western Wyoming. The snow surrounds and highlights Utah's Great Salt Lake. Just south of the lake, clouds can be seen hovering over southern Utah. (In general, clouds appear streaky and uneven on a satellite image, and snow cover appears solid with definable borders.) North of the Great Salt Lake, one can clearly discern the light gray Northern Rocky Mountains cutting through Idaho and up into Canada. Moving southwest, the spine-like Sierra Nevada mountains separate the greenery of Southern California from the brown deserts of Arizona and Nevada. For an interesting contrast, compare this MODIS image to the MISR mosaic image of the Western United States during the summer (See Western United States Beyond the Four Corners). To access this image at a resolution of 500 meters per pixel, click on the image above. To access a full-resolution image at 250 meters per pixel, visit the MODIS Rapidfire Image Gallery. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  4. Bioelectromagnetic and subtle energy medicine: the interface between mind and matter.

    PubMed

    Rosch, Paul J

    2009-08-01

    The concept of a "life energy" can be found in many cultures in the present time, as well as in past eras reaching back to the ancients. Variously called qi (chi), ki, the "four humors,"prana, "archaeus,"cosmic aether,"universal fluid,"animal magnetism," and "odic force," among other names, this purported biofield is beginning to yield its properties and interactions to the scientific method. Subtle energy is the term used in this chapter, which traces the recent history of subtle energy studies from Harold Saxton Burr and Björn Nordenström to Jim Oschman and Jacques Benveniste. This work takes signaling in living systems from the chemical/molecular to the physical/atomic level of communication. Effects on heart rate variability, stress response, inflammation, and the vagus nerve have been demonstrated and raise the question--Can the power of subtle energies be harnessed for health enhancement? It is fully accepted that good health depends on good communication both within the organism and between the organism and its environment. Sophisticated imaging procedures brought to bear on telomere, stem cell, and genetic research are confirming the ability of meditation and some other traditional practices to promote optimal health through stress reduction.

  5. Early ant trajectories: spatial behaviour before behaviourism.

    PubMed

    Wehner, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    In the beginning of the twentieth century, when Jacques Loeb's and John Watson's mechanistic view of life started to dominate animal physiology and behavioural biology, several scientists with different academic backgrounds got engaged in studying the wayfinding behaviour of ants. Largely unaffected by the scientific spirit of the time, they worked independently of each other in different countries: in Algeria, Tunisia, Spain, Switzerland and the United States of America. In the current literature on spatial cognition these early ant researchers--Victor Cornetz, Felix Santschi, Charles Turner and Rudolf Brun--are barely mentioned. Moreover, it is virtually unknown that the great neuroanatomist Santiago Ramón y Cajal had also worked on spatial orientation in ants. This general neglect is certainly due to the fact that nearly all these ant researchers were scientific loners, who did their idiosyncratic investigations outside the realm of comparative physiology, neurobiology and the behavioural sciences of the time, and published their results in French, German, and Spanish at rather inaccessible places. Even though one might argue that much of their work resulted in mainly anecdotal evidence, the conceptual approaches of these early ant researchers preempt much of the present-day discussions on spatial representation in animals. PMID:26898725

  6. South Africa, Namibia, and Botswana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pale green vegetation and red-brown deserts dominate this MODIS image of Namibia (left), Botswana (upper right), and the Republic of South Africa (bottom) acquired on June3, 2002. In central Namibia the mountainous terrain of Namaqualand is sandwiched between the Namib Desert on the Atlantic Coast and the Kalahari Desert to the interior, where white dots mark the location of small, impermanent lakes and ponds. Namaqualand is home to numerous rare succulent plants that can survive on the region.s scant rainfall as well as fog that blows in off the ocean. Namaqualand extends south of the Orange River, which runs along the border of Namibia and South Africa and into that country.s Northern Cape region. The Orange River extends almost all the way back through the country, and where it makes a sharp southward dip in this image (at lower right), it runs through the Asbestos Mountains, names for the naturally-occurring asbestos they contain. In southwestern South Africa, high plateaus, such as the Great Karoo become mountain ridges near the coast, and the city of Cape Town is visible as a grayish area of pixels on the north shores of the horseshoe-shaped False Bay at the Cape of Good Hope. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  7. Plasmon resonant gold-coated liposomes for spectrally controlled content release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Sarah J.; Bobnick, Michael C.; Romanowski, Marek

    2010-02-01

    We recently demonstrated that liposome-supported plasmon resonant gold nanoshells are degradable into components of a size compatible with renal clearance, potentially enabling their use as multifunctional agents in applications in nanomedicine, including imaging, diagnostics, therapy, and drug delivery (Troutman et al., Adv. Mater. 2008, 20, 2604-2608). When illuminated with laser light at the wavelength matching their plasmon resonance band, gold-coated liposomes rapidly release their encapsulated substances, which can include therapeutic and diagnostic agents. The present research demonstrates that release of encapsulated agents from gold-coated liposomes can be spectrally controlled by varying the location of the plasmon resonance band; this spectral tuning is accomplished by varying the concentration of gold deposited on the surface of liposomes. Furthermore, the amount of laser energy required for release is qualitatively explained using the concept of thermal confinement (Jacques, Appl. Opt. 1993, 32(3), 2447-2454). Overlapping thermal confinement zones can be avoided by minimizing the laser pulse width, resulting in lower energy requirements for liposomal content release and less global heating of the sample. Control of heating is especially important in drug delivery applications, where it enables spatial and spectral control of delivery and prevents thermal damage to tissue.

  8. Flooding on Elbe River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heavy rains in Central Europe over the past few weeks have led to some of the worst flooding the region has witnessed in more than a century. The floods have killed more than 100 people in Germany, Russia, Austria, Hungary, and the Czech Republic and have led to as much as $20 billion in damage. This false-color image of the Elbe River and its tributaries was taken on August 20, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The floodwaters that inundated Dresden, Germany, earlier this week have moved north. As can be seen, the river resembles a fairly large lake in the center of the image just south of the town of Wittenberg. Flooding was also bad further downriver in the towns of Maqgdeburge and Hitzacker. Roughly 20,000 people were evacuated from their homes in northern Germany. Fifty thousand troops, border police, and technical assistance workers were called in to combat the floods along with 100,000 volunteers. The floodwaters are not expected to badly affect Hamburg, which sits on the mouth of the river on the North Sea. Credit:Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  9. A developmental theory of synaesthesia, with long historical roots: a comment on Hochel & Milan.

    PubMed

    Holcombe, Alex O; Altschuler, Eric L; Over, Harriet J

    2009-03-01

    The recent surge of scientific investigation into synaesthesia, ably reviewed by Hochel and Milan (2008), is representative of an increasing recognition that our various sensory modalities are intimately interconnected rather than separate. The origin of these interconnections is the subject of an intriguing theory by Maurer and Maurer (1988). They suggest that all of us begin life as synaesthetes, with subsequent neural development reducing the connections among the senses. We present some historical roots of the idea that human life begins with the senses intertwined. The influential 18th-century philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau described an early theory of child development in his book Emile (1762), hypothesizing that if "a child had at its birth the stature and strength of a man ... all his sensations would be united in one place, they would exist only in the common 'sensorium'." A half-century later, a young Mary Shelley (1818) brought this idea into popular culture with the Frankenstein creature's recollection of his early experience: "A strange multiplicity of sensations seized me, and I saw, felt, heard, and smelt, at the same time; and it was, indeed, a long time before I learned to distinguish between the operations of my various senses." William James in The Principles of Psychology (1890) expressed a similar idea. In this context, the assumption of many 20th-century scientists that the senses were largely separate appears to be an historical aberration. PMID:18830858

  10. A historical perspective on the collaboration between psychoanalysis and neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Sauvagnat, François; Wiss, Matthias; Clément, Sandra

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this article is to present and discuss the connections between psychoanalysis and neuroscience from a historical viewpoint. We start by examining how Sigmund Freud can be viewed as a pioneer in the interaction between these two fields. Freud was himself a neurologist and had maintained an interest in biology as he developed the key concepts of psychoanalysis. His ideas regarding psychosomatics are described. We will also explore how the concept of drive is essential to the connection between psychoanalysis and neuroscience. Then, we describe several key actors and historical events and characters at the interface of these two fields, namely Sándor Radó Lawrence S. Kubie and Mc Culloch, the debates that took place during the Macy conferences, as well as the positions of Jacques Lacan, George L. Engel, and Eric Kandel. Finally, we present a synthesis of the main fields in which the connections between psychoanalysis and neuroscience are already fruitful, and those where they should be developed: the classification of mental diseases, the link between the scientific and psychic dimensions, therapeutics, the organization of the body, intersubjectivity, the subjective division and ambivalence, as well as transferential effects like such as the placebo and nocebo effects. In the conclusion, we advocate several strategic alliances and underscore the complementarity between rigorous scientific experimentation and the individualized psychoanalytic approach.

  11. VAP: a versatile aggregate profiler for efficient genome-wide data representation and discovery.

    PubMed

    Coulombe, Charles; Poitras, Christian; Nordell-Markovits, Alexei; Brunelle, Mylène; Lavoie, Marc-André; Robert, François; Jacques, Pierre-Étienne

    2014-07-01

    The analysis of genomic data such as ChIP-Seq usually involves representing the signal intensity level over genes or other genetic features. This is often illustrated as a curve (representing the aggregate profile of a group of genes) or as a heatmap (representing individual genes). However, no specific resource dedicated to easily generating such profiles is currently available. We therefore built the versatile aggregate profiler (VAP), designed to be used by experimental and computational biologists to generate profiles of genomic datasets over groups of regions of interest, using either an absolute or a relative method. Graphical representation of the results is automatically generated, and subgrouping can be performed easily, based on the orientation of the flanking annotations. The outputs include statistical measures to facilitate comparisons between groups or datasets. We show that, through its intuitive design and flexibility, VAP can help avoid misinterpretations of genomics data. VAP is highly efficient and designed to run on laptop computers by using a memory footprint control, but can also be easily compiled and run on servers. VAP is accessible at http://lab-jacques.recherche.usherbrooke.ca/vap/.

  12. Floods in Bangladesh and Northeast India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For the past month heavy monsoon rains have led to massive flooding in eastern India, Nepal, and Bangladesh, which have killed over 500 people and left millions homeless. This false-color image acquired on August 5, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft shows the extent of this flooding. In the upper right-hand corner of the image, the swollen Brahmaputra River runs east to west through the Indian state of Assam. Normally, the river and its tributaries would resemble a tangle of thin lines. Moving to the upper left-hand corner, flooding can be seen along the Ganges River in the state of Bihar, India. Both of these rivers flow into Bangladesh along with many others from India and Nepal. Heavy monsoon rains from all across the region have inundated the small country with water this year. Floodwaters have all but covered northeastern Bangladesh, which is usually dry. The Jamuna River, which runs down the center of the country off of the Brahmaputra River, now resembles a narrow lake. Millions of dollars in crops have been destroyed and thousands have been left stranded in their villages or on rafts. Forecasters are warning that flooding could get worse. In the false-color image, land is green, and water is black and dark brown. Clouds appear pink, red and white. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  13. Activities and Achievements of the Double Star Committee of the Socié té Astronomique de France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agati, Jean-Louis; Caille, Sébastien; Debackère, André; Durand, Pierre; Losse, Florent; Manté, René; Mauroy, Florence; Mauroy, Pascal; Morlet, Guy; Pinlou, Claude; Salaman, Maurice; Soulié, Edgar; Thorel, Yvonne; Thorel, Jean-Claude

    2007-08-01

    In a synthesis article (see ref. below), the double star expert Paul COUTEAU put the work of French pioneers of double stars observation in the perspective of the double star work carried in the world. After Antoine Yvon VILLARCEAU and Camille FLAMMARION, one prominent pioneer of double stars was Robert JONCKHEERE (1888toiles Doubles, Maurice DURUY (1894le with a 40-cm and later a 60-cm telescope at Le Rouret (Alpes1995) had started the measurement of double stars as an amateur. He was granted permission to measure them with the 38-cm of the Paris Observatory and made an impressive number of measures during his long 2006) made double star observations for the book which was then in preparation under the title La revue des constellations. Their measures remained unpublished; but publication of the measures made by Robert SAGOT is in preparation. At about the same time, the neurology professor Jacques LE BEAU (1908toiles doubles visuelles. That book triggered the interest of more amateur astronomers for double stars and indirectly influenced the creation of a group of double star observers which was transformed into the Commission des É toiles Doubles

  14. New look at population-food nexus.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    Dr. Tim Dyson, professor of Population Studies at the London School of Economics, in his book entitled "Population and Food -- Global Trends and Future Prospects," claims the world will be able to feed its rapidly expanding population in 25 years, if fertilizer use doubles and world trade grows rapidly. He bases this conclusion on population, grain trade, and production data from UN sources and on the assumption that the world population is expanding at the rate of 1 billion people every 12 years. His prediction that several world regions will have great difficulty producing enough food to meet the demands of growing populations is more optimistic than that of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the UN, which believes a world disaster is impending. FAO Director-General Jacques Diouf, while speaking at the opening session of the FAO Asia and the Pacific regional conference at Apia, Samoa, stated that "extremely violent and serious conflict" was possible if food security was not improved. He said that the prime responsibility of the FAO was to alert world opinion and world leaders to the food situation: although world population has grown substantially per capita, arable land continues to diminish; current modes of exploitation are degrading the environment; fishery resources are over-exploited; and the current distribution of food is skewed.

  15. Sulfur Upwelling off the African Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Though these aquamarine clouds in the waters off the coast of northern Namibia may look like algae blooms, they are in fact clouds of sulfur produced by anaerobic bacteria on the ocean's floor. This image of the sulfur-filled water was taken on April 24, 2002, by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the Orbview-2 satellite. The anaerobic bacteria (bacteria that can live without oxygen) feed upon algae carcasses that exist in abundance on the ocean's floor off of Namibia. As the bacteria ingest the algae husks, they produce hydrogen sulfide, which slowly builds up in the sea-floor sediments. Eventually, the hydrogen sulfide reaches the point where the sediment can no longer contain it, and it bubbles forth. When this poisonous chemical reaches the surface, it combines with the oxygen in the upper layers of the ocean to create clouds of pure sulfur. The sulfur causes the Namibian coast to smell like rotten eggs, and the hydrogen sulfide will often kill fish and drive lobsters away. For more information, read: A Bloom By Any Other Name A high-resolution (250 meters per pixel) image earlier on the 24th taken from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows additional detail in the plumes. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE. MODIS image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  16. Two-photon deep imaging through skin and skull of Zebra finches: preliminary studies for in-vivo brain metabolism monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abi-Haidar, D.; Olivier, T.; Mottin, S.; Vignal, C.; Mathevon, N.

    2007-02-01

    Zebra Finches are songbirds which constitute a model for neuro-ethologists to study the neuro-mechanisms of vocal recognition. For this purpose, in vivo and non invasive monitoring of brain activity is required during acoustical stimulation. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) or NIRS (Near InfraRed Spectroscopy) are suitable methods for these measurements, even though MRI is difficult to link quantitatively with neural activity and NIRS suffers from a poor resolution. In the particular case of songbirds (whose skin is thin and quite transparent and whose skull structure is hollow), two-photon microscopy enables a quite deep penetration in tissues and could be an alternative. We present here preliminary studies on the feasability of two-photon microscopy in these conditions. To do so, we chose to image hollow fibers, filled with Rhodamine B, through the skin of Zebra finches in order to evaluate the spatial resolution we may expect in future in vivo experiments. Moreover, we used the reflectance-mode confocal configuration to evaluate the exponential decrease of backreflected light in skin and in skull samples. Following this procedure recently proposed by S.L. Jacques and co-workers, we planned to determine the scattering coefficient μ s and the anisotropy g of these tissues and make a comparison between fixed and fresh skin and skull samples for future Monte Carlo simulations of the scattering in our particular multi-layered structure.

  17. Floods in Canada and Northern Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    During the first half of June, heavy rains inundated northern Minnesota and southern Canada, giving rise to floods that drove hundreds of people from their homes and drenched more than 300,000 acres of prime farmland. This false-color image of the flood (right) was acquired on June 15, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The worst of the flooding occurred on the border of Canada and Minnesota along the Roseau River, which now resembles a lake in the center of the image. The town of Roseau, Minnesota, which sits in the eastern end of the newly formed lake, was hit the hardest. Nearly all the buildings in the town took heavy water damage and many residents were forced to leave. Widespread flooding across an eight county region in Minnesota has drenched nearly 300,000 to 500,000 acres of farmland altogether. Many of the farmers hit lost 100 percent of their crops and will be unable to plant again for the season. Last week, President Bush declared northern Minnesota a disaster area. Normally, the Roseau River cannot even be seen on a MODIS image (left, acquired May 21, 2002), and the surrounding area is dry. In the false-color images, sage green, rusty orange, and blue is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  18. Floods in Northeast India and Bangladesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For the past two weeks floods have ravaged Bangladesh (center) and eastern India (draped around Bangladesh to the north), killing over 50 people and displacing hundreds of thousands from their homes. These false-color images acquired on July 15 and 16, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite show some of the worst flooding. The dark brown, swollen river in the images (top right on July 16; center on July 15) is the Brahmaputra River, which flows through the middle of the Indian state of Assam at the foothills of the Himalaya Mountains. A large, black area south of the Brahmaputra (partially obscured by clouds) shows flooded areas in Bangladesh. Floods of this magnitude have been known to occur in southern Bangladesh and are caused by storms washing seawater over coastal regions. This year, however, unrelenting torrential rains across the entire eastern sub-continent gave rise to the deluge. The massive amounts of rainwater that fell on Nepal and Assam drained into an already waterlogged eastern Bangladesh. Normally, the Brahmaputra River and its tributaries would resemble a tangle of thin lines, and the large black patches in Bangladesh would be the color of the rest of the land surface, tan. In these false-color images, land is tan, and clouds are pink and white. Water comes across as black or dark brown, depending on its sediment level, with clearer water being closer to black. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  19. The electron diffusion coefficient in Jupiter's magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmingham, T.; Northrop, T.; Baxter, R.; Hess, W.; Lojko, M.

    1974-01-01

    A steady-state model of Jupiter's electron radiation belt is developed. The model includes injection from the solar wind, radial diffusion, energy degradation by synchrotron radiation, and absorption at Jupiter's surface. A diffusion coefficient of the form D sub RR/R sub J squared = k times R to the m-th power is assumed, and then observed data on synchrotron radiation are used to fit the model. The free parameters determined from this fit are m = 1.95 plus or minus 0.5, k = 1.7 plus or minus 0.5 x 10 to the 9th power per sec, and the magnetic moment of injected particles equals 770 plus or minus 300 MeV/G. The value of m shows quite clearly that the diffusion is not caused by magnetic pumping by a variable solar wind or by a fluctuating convection electric field. The process might be field line exchange driven by atmospheric-ionospheric winds; our diffusion coefficient has roughly the same radial dependence but is considerably smaller in magnitude than the upper bound diffusion coefficients recently suggested for this process by Brice and McDonough (1973) and Jacques and Davis (1972).

  20. Cylindrical Piezoelectric Fiber Composite Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Sidney G.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of piezoelectric devices has become widespread since Pierre and Jacques Curie discovered the piezoelectric effect in 1880. Examples of current applications of piezoelectric devices include ultrasonic transducers, micro-positioning devices, buzzers, strain sensors, and clocks. The invention of such lightweight, relatively inexpensive piezoceramic-fiber-composite actuators as macro fiber composite (MFC) actuators has made it possible to obtain strains and displacements greater than those that could be generated by prior actuators based on monolithic piezoceramic sheet materials. MFC actuators are flat, flexible actuators designed for bonding to structures to apply or detect strains. Bonding multiple layers of MFC actuators together could increase force capability, but not strain or displacement capability. Cylindrical piezoelectric fiber composite (CPFC) actuators have been invented as alternatives to MFC actuators for applications in which greater forces and/or strains or displacements may be required. In essence, a CPFC actuator is an MFC or other piezoceramic fiber composite actuator fabricated in a cylindrical instead of its conventional flat shape. Cylindrical is used here in the general sense, encompassing shapes that can have circular, elliptical, rectangular or other cross-sectional shapes in the planes perpendicular to their longitudinal axes.

  1. Fires in Thailand and Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Many fires (red pixels) were seen burning across Thailand and Southern Cambodia on January 8, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. Almost the entire countries of Thailand (center) and Cambodia (lower right) were remarkably cloud-free in this true-color scene. Thailand is bordered by the countries of Myanmar to the west, Laos to the north and east, and Cambodia to the southeast. Thailand's capital city of Bangkok sits on its southern shore, where the Chao Phraya River flows into the large bay in the northern Gulf of Thailand. Moving eastward from Bangkok, one can see the Tonle Sap-Cambodia's largest inland body of water. Waters from the Tonle Sap flow southeastward and converge with the mighty Mekong River, just east of Phnom Penh, Cambodia's capital. The Mekong River defines much of the border between Thailand and Laos. The captal of Laos-Viangchan-is situated just across the Mekong from Thailand's northern border. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  2. Terrorism--a (self) love story: redirecting the significance quest can end violence.

    PubMed

    Kruglanski, Arie W; Bélanger, Jocelyn J; Gelfand, Michele; Gunaratna, Rohan; Hettiarachchi, Malkanthi; Reinares, Fernando; Orehek, Edward; Sasota, Jo; Sharvit, Keren

    2013-10-01

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau's concepts of self-love (amour propre) and love of self (amour de soi même) are applied to the psychology of terrorism. Self-love is concern with one's image in the eyes of respected others, members of one's group. It denotes one's feeling of personal significance, the sense that one's life has meaning in accordance with the values of one's society. Love of self, in contrast, is individualistic concern with self-preservation, comfort, safety, and the survival of self and loved ones. We suggest that self-love defines a motivational force that when awakened arouses the goal of a significance quest. When a group perceives itself in conflict with dangerous detractors, its ideology may prescribe violence and terrorism against the enemy as a means of significance gain that gratifies self-love concerns. This may involve sacrificing one's self-preservation goals, encapsulated in Rousseau's concept of love of self. The foregoing notions afford the integration of diverse quantitative and qualitative findings on individuals' road to terrorism and back. Understanding the significance quest and the conditions of its constructive fulfillment may be crucial to reversing the current tide of global terrorism.

  3. The “Genetic Program”: Behind the Genesis of an Influential Metaphor

    PubMed Central

    Peluffo, Alexandre E.

    2015-01-01

    The metaphor of the “genetic program,” indicating the genome as a set of instructions required to build a phenotype, has been very influential in biology despite various criticisms over the years. This metaphor, first published in 1961, is thought to have been invented independently in two different articles, one by Ernst Mayr and the other by François Jacob and Jacques Monod. Here, after a detailed analysis of what both parties meant by “genetic program,” I show, using unpublished archives, the strong resemblance between the ideas of Mayr and Monod and suggest that their idea of genetic program probably shares a common origin. I explore the possibility that the two men met before 1961 and also exchanged their ideas through common friends and colleagues in the field of molecular biology. Based on unpublished correspondence of Jacob and Monod, I highlight the important events that influenced the preparation of their influential paper, which introduced the concept of the genetic program. Finally, I suggest that the genetic program metaphor may have preceded both papers and that it was probably used informally before 1961. PMID:26170444

  4. Fires in Tanzania and Mozambique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Like many countries, the southeastern African country of Malawi faces the challenge of balancing a growing population's need for food and energy with preservation of natural resources. This MODIS image from November 8, 2001, shows Malawi surrounded by (starting from top and moving clockwise) Tanzania, Mozambique, and northern Zambia. Lake Malawi runs north-south through the eastern part of the country, and is the southern-most of Africa's Great Rift Lakes, a series of deep lakes that run roughly north-south along the Great Rift Valley in eastern Africa, formed when the Earth buckled and then sank after the collision of Africa and Eurasia millions of years ago. Most of the land around the lake and throughout the country has been cleared of its natural vegetation and converted to agricultural land. This causes soil erosion problems and sedimentation in the lake, which affects the sustainability of fishing in the lake. In this image, greenish swirls in the water around the shores could indicate a mixture of sediment and phytoplankton or algae. Deforestation is also a major issue, especially since wood for fuel is the primary source of the country's energy. The difference between the lands protected by parks and preserves stand out dramatically. The largest protected area is halfway down the western border of the country-Kasungu National Park. Several smaller preserves also exist, and where they do, they stand out in green against the paler landscape. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  5. Identification of the finishing technique of an early eighteenth century musical instrument using FTIR spectromicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Loïc; Robinet, Laurianne; Cohen, Serge X; Sandt, Christophe; Le Hô, Anne-Solenn; Soulier, Balthazar; Lattuati-Derieux, Agnès; Echard, Jean-Philippe

    2011-03-01

    The study of varnishes from musical instruments presents the difficulty of analysing very thin layers of heterogeneous materials on samples most of which are generally brittle and difficult to prepare. Such study is crucial to the understanding of historical musical instrument varnishing practices since written sources before 1800 are very rare and not precise. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and imaging methods were applied to identify the major chemical components within the build-up of the varnish layers on a cello made by one of the most prominent French violin-makers of the eighteenth century (Jacques Boquay, ca. 1680-1730). Two types of FTIR imaging methods were used: scanning with a synchrotron-based microscope and full-field imaging using a 2D imager with a conventional source. An interpretation of the results obtained from these studies on the Boquay cello is that the maker first applied a proteinaceous layer, probably gelatine-based animal glue. He later applied a second layer based on a mixture of a drying oil and diterpenic resin from Pinaceae sp. From an historical perspective, the results complement previous studies by describing a second technique used for musical instrument finishes at the beginning of the eighteenth century in Europe. PMID:20963401

  6. The Sahara's Diverse Landscape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Vast stretches of uninterrupted sand are only one kind of Saharan landscape. This true-color MODIS image from November 9, 2001, reveals a diversity of land surface features, including ancient lava flows and volcanoes. Beginning at upper left and moving clockwise are the countries of Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Chad, and Niger. Evidence of previous volcanic activity in the Sahara can be found in northeastern Chad, in particular, in a region known as Tibesti. Reaching up out of the surrounding desert, the dark rock of the Tibesti Plateau stands out in dark brown against the sand. Scattered throughout the region are the circular cones and calderas of several volcanoes. The dark remains of a lava flow mark the location of the Tousside volcano. North of Tibesti, in Libya, more dark-colored lava beds leave their mark on the landscape. Variety exists in Algeria, where the Grand Erg Oriental desert (far upper left) is hemmed in to the south by the Tinrhert Plateau. South of the Plateau, desert resumes briefly, only to give way to a mountainous region traced with impermanent rivers. In northern Niger, a sinuous gray-green line marks the edge of an escarpment that separates the Mangueni Plateau to the north from the rock deserts to the south. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  7. Nursing intuition: a valid form of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Green, Catherine

    2012-04-01

    An understanding of the nature and development of nursing intuition can help nurse educators foster it in young nurses and give clinicians more confidence in this aspect of their knowledge, allowing them to respond with greater assurance to their intuitions. In this paper, accounts from philosophy and neurophysiology are used to argue that intuition, specifically nursing intuition, is a valid form of knowledge. The paper argues that nursing intuition, a kind of practical intuition, is composed of four distinct aspects that include: (1) embodied knowledge rather like that knowledge we have when we have learned to ride a bicycle; (2) well-trained sensory perceptions attentive to subtle details of complex, often rapidly changing situations; (3) a significant store of pertinent conceptual knowledge; and (4) a history of habitual actions intentionally directed towards achieving the best outcomes for our patients. Contemporary neurophysiology research strongly suggests that human persons experience other persons such that they directly understand the meaning of a variety of different human actions, intentions, emotions, and sensations in immediate, non-reflective, and non-conceptual perceptions. This research is supported by the philosophical theories of Jacques Maritain and Yves R. Simon found in their accounts of practical knowledge. Together, these accounts offer us a rich view of the reality of nursing intuition that helps us understand why we find intuitive actions in some but not all nurses and gives us some specific information about how to develop intuition in young nurses. Finally, this research shows us a path for further research.

  8. The Collision of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 and Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noll, Keith S.; Weaver, Harold A.; Feldman, Paul D.

    2006-11-01

    Participants; Preface; 1. The orbital motion and impact circumstances of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 Paul W. Chodas and Donald K. Yeomans; 2. Observational constraints on the composition and nature of Comet D/Shoemaker-Levy 9 Jacques Crovisier; 3. Tidal breakup of the nucleus of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 Zdenek Sekanina; 4. Earth-based observations of impact phenomena Philip D. Nicholson; 5. HST imaging of Jupiter shortly after each impact: plumes and fresh sites Heidi B. Hammel; 6. Galileo observations of the impacts Clark R. Chapman; 7. Models of fragment penetration and fireball evolution David A. Crawford; 8. Entry and fireball models vs. observations: what have we learned? Mordecai-Mark Mac Low; 9. Dynamics and chemistry of SL9 plumes Kevin Zahnle; 10. Chemistry induced by the impacts: observations Emmanuel Lellouch; 11. SL9 impact chemistry: long-term photochemical evolution Julianne I. Moses; 12. Particulate matter in Jupiter's atmosphere from the impacts of Comet P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 Robert A. West; 13. Jupiter's post-impact atmospheric thermal response Barney J. Conrath; 14. Growth and dispersion of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 impact features from HST imaging Reta F. Beebe; 15. Waves from the Shoemaker-Levy 9 impacts Andrew P. Ingersoll and Hiroo Kanamori; 16. Jovian magnetospheric and auroral effects of the SL9 impacts Wing-Huen Ip.

  9. [The family relationships of Antoine Brulon, apothecary to the king, and his wife, Anne de Furnes, in Auvergne and Paris in the 17th century. Anne de Furnes and Molière in Paris and the village of Auteuil].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2011-07-01

    This article presents the biography of Anne de Fumes, wife of Antoine Brulon, the king's apothecary. Due to the successive deaths of her husband and her only daughter, Geneviève, her sisters-in-law, Géraude and Anne Brulon, living in Auvergne, inherited the property of their niece. Anne de Fumes, who inherited the movable assets, carried out a series of transactions to acquire the totality of the property rights, which she obtained, but at the considerable cost of 100,000 pounds. After her death, her five nephews and nieces, her sole legatees, inherited her estate. From 1666, Molière was the tenant of an apartment in a building in the Rue Saint-Thomas-du-Louvre, Place du Palais-Royal, in Paris, which belonged to Anne de Fumes. She lived in the neighbouring house in the Rue Saint-Honoré of which she was also the owner. Three apothecaries, Philibert Boudin, Jean Morel and Pierre Frapin, successively rented the shop and entresol of the house in the Rue Saint-Thomas-du-Louvre. Pierre Frapin, tenant of the shop from 1668, supplied Molière with medicine. Like Molière, Anne de Fumes rented accommodation in a house in the village of Auteuil belonging to Jacques de Grout de Beaufort and his wife Marie Filz. Reports show that the famous actor and Anne de Fumes cohabited in Auteuil during the period 1667 to 1672. PMID:21998974

  10. [Genealogical study of the Pijart dynasty, goldsmiths or apothecaries in Paris in the 16th and 17th centuries].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2007-10-01

    The Pijart dynasty, established in Paris during the 16th and 17th centuries, included apothecaries and goldsmiths who had a common ancestor, Michel Pijart, warden of the goldsmith's guild (garde de l'orfèvrerie) in 1507. He was married to Jehanne Daumont and died 23rd July 1524. This couple had four sons, all goldsmiths, Pierre, Michel, Jehan and Nicolas. Pierre married twice. His first wife, Philippe Dusseau, was the sister of a famous apothecary. Only their eldest son, François, chose the profession of apothecary; the other three, Jacques, Jehan and Philibert, all followed their father's profession. By his second marriage to Marie de Mézières, Pierre had two sons, Claude the elder and Claude the younger, who both became goldsmiths. Thus, the goldsmith's trade became the favoured profession of the Pijart family. Professional endogamy prevailed in this dynasty, after the fashion of merchants belonging to the six most prestigious guilds (Six-Corps de métiers). Goldsmiths and apothecaries retained strong family ties, demonstrated by family reunions (baptisms, betrothals, etc.). It is undisputable that the renown of this dynasty is based on the fame of its goldsmiths. However, through marriage, the Pijart's developed links with other families of apothecaries, of which the most outstanding were the Boulduc's. PMID:18348497

  11. Odd cloud in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On January 28, 2002, MODIS captured this image of an interesting cloud formation in the boundary waters between Antarctica's Ross Sea and the Southern Ocean. A dragon? A snake? A fish? No, but it is an interesting example of the atmospheric physics of convection. The 'eye' of this dragon-looking cloud is likely a small spot of convection, the process by which hot moist air rises up into the atmosphere, often producing big, fluffy clouds as moisture in the air condenses as rises into the colder parts of the atmosphere. A false color analysis that shows different kinds of clouds in different colors reveals that the eye is composed of ice crystals while the 'body' is a liquid water cloud. This suggests that the eye is higher up in the atmosphere than the body. The most likely explanation for the eye feature is that the warm, rising air mass had enough buoyancy to punch through the liquid water cloud. As a convective parcel of air rises into the atmosphere, it pushes the colder air that is higher up out of its way. That cold air spills down over the sides of the convective air mass, and in this case has cleared away part of the liquid cloud layer below in the process. This spilling over of cold air from higher up in the atmosphere is the reason why thunderstorms are often accompanied by a cool breeze. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  12. The products of the imagination: psychoanalytic theory and postmodern literary criticism.

    PubMed

    Souter, K T

    2000-12-01

    This article considers some of the affinities between postmodern literary theory and the psychoanalytic theories concerned with intersubjective phenomena. Postmodern literary theory is described briefly, and it is argued that one of its major concerns is the nature of, and the political and cultural influences on, subjectivity and identity. Despite that, postmodernism generally, and literary postmodernism in particular, can be said to lack a theory of the psychological and interpersonal dimensions of the experience of self. This article contends that the more relational schools of psychoanalytic theory can provide an example of the construction of selfhood that is of importance to contemporary and postmodern literary criticism. The academy has, to a considerable extent identified 'psychoanalysis' with the work of Jacques Lacan, but since the 1980s the work of such theorists as Jane Flax and Jessica Benjamin, building on the work of Nancy Chodorow, have increasingly opened up the possibilities of relational and object relations theory for literary studies. The relational psychoanalytic theories operate in the same epistemological universe as postmodern literary criticism, congruent with the postmodern idea of 'truth' as constructed and relational, and selfhood as shifting, contingent, and always-in-process. Particular attention is paid to the work of Wilfred Bion, whose understanding of self provides an account both of the failure of meaning, and of the development of mind. Some examples of a relational approach to literary analysis are provided.

  13. Multifaceted plasma membrane Ca(2+) pumps: From structure to intracellular Ca(2+) handling and cancer.

    PubMed

    Padányi, Rita; Pászty, Katalin; Hegedűs, Luca; Varga, Karolina; Papp, Béla; Penniston, John T; Enyedi, Ágnes

    2016-06-01

    Plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPases (PMCAs) are intimately involved in the control of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. They reduce Ca(2+) in the cytosol not only by direct ejection, but also by controlling the formation of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate and decreasing Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pool. In mammals four genes (PMCA1-4) are expressed, and alternative RNA splicing generates more than twenty variants. The variants differ in their regulatory characteristics. They localize into highly specialized membrane compartments and respond to the incoming Ca(2+) with distinct temporal resolution. The expression pattern of variants depends on cell type; a change in this pattern can result in perturbed Ca(2+) homeostasis and thus altered cell function. Indeed, PMCAs undergo remarkable changes in their expression pattern during tumorigenesis that might significantly contribute to the unbalanced Ca(2+) homeostasis of cancer cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium and Cell Fate. Guest Editors: Jacques Haiech, Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, Thierry Capiod and Olivier Mignen. PMID:26707182

  14. [The family relationships of Antoine Brulon, apothecary to the king, and his wife, Anne de Furnes, in Auvergne and Paris in the 17th century. Anne de Furnes and Molière in Paris and the village of Auteuil].

    PubMed

    Warolin, Christian

    2011-07-01

    This article presents the biography of Anne de Fumes, wife of Antoine Brulon, the king's apothecary. Due to the successive deaths of her husband and her only daughter, Geneviève, her sisters-in-law, Géraude and Anne Brulon, living in Auvergne, inherited the property of their niece. Anne de Fumes, who inherited the movable assets, carried out a series of transactions to acquire the totality of the property rights, which she obtained, but at the considerable cost of 100,000 pounds. After her death, her five nephews and nieces, her sole legatees, inherited her estate. From 1666, Molière was the tenant of an apartment in a building in the Rue Saint-Thomas-du-Louvre, Place du Palais-Royal, in Paris, which belonged to Anne de Fumes. She lived in the neighbouring house in the Rue Saint-Honoré of which she was also the owner. Three apothecaries, Philibert Boudin, Jean Morel and Pierre Frapin, successively rented the shop and entresol of the house in the Rue Saint-Thomas-du-Louvre. Pierre Frapin, tenant of the shop from 1668, supplied Molière with medicine. Like Molière, Anne de Fumes rented accommodation in a house in the village of Auteuil belonging to Jacques de Grout de Beaufort and his wife Marie Filz. Reports show that the famous actor and Anne de Fumes cohabited in Auteuil during the period 1667 to 1672.

  15. ESA proposes Moon initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    Upon the invitation of the Swiss Government, the European Space Agency (ESA) is organising from Tuesday 31 May to Friday 3 June 1994 an international workshop on present and future plans for study and exploration of the Moon. This meeting will be held in Beatenberg, Switzerland, and attended by European, Russian and Japanese national space agencies as well as by NASA, the National Aeraunotics & Space Administration. For the media : * - a presentation will be held by Prof. Roger M. Bonnet, ESA Director of Science, and Mr. Jean-Jacques Dordain, Associate Director for Strategy, Planning and International Policy, at ESA Headquarters (8-10, rue Mario Nikis - 75015-PARIS) at 09h00 during a press breakfast on Monday 30 May. An info note describing the main lunar studies which will be presented at the Beatenberg workshop will be distributed on this occasion. * - On Friday 3 June, the press is invited to attend the closing session of the Beatenberg workshop starting at 09h30. This session will be followed by a briefing with the chairmen of the working groups and a lunch.

  16. Ethology and the origins of behavioral endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Marler, Peter

    2005-04-01

    The neurosciences embrace many disciplines, some long established, others of more recent origin. Behavioral endocrinology has only recently been fully acknowledged as a branch of neuroscience, distinctive for the determination of some of its exponents to remain integrative in the face of the many pressures towards reductionism that so dominate modern biology. One of its most characteristic features is a commitment to research at the whole-animal level on the physiological basis of complex behaviors, with a particular but by no means exclusive focus on reproductive behavior in all its aspects. The search for rigorously defined principles of behavioral organization that apply across species and the hormonal and neural mechanisms that sustain them underlies much of the research. Their aims are much like those put forth in the classical ethology of Lorenz and Tinbergen, one of the roots from which behavioral endocrinology has sprung. But there are others that can be traced back a century or more. Antecedents can be found in the work of such pioneers as Jakob von Uexküll, Jacques Loeb, Herbert Spencer Jennings, and particularly Charles Otis Whitman who launched a tradition that culminated in the classical contributions of Robert Hinde and Daniel Lehrman. William C. Young was another pioneer. His studies revolutionized thinking about the physiological mechanisms by which hormones influence behavior. An earlier potent influence was Karl Lashley who helped to shape the career of Frank Ambrose Beach who, more than anyone, has played a leading role in launching this new field.

  17. [Impact of synthetic biology on patent law in view of of European jurisprudence].

    PubMed

    Bernardo Alvarez, María Angela

    2014-01-01

    The roots of synthetic biology--the redesign of biological molecules, structures and organisms--can be traced to the research developed by Jacques L. Monod and François Jacob in 1961. This field has undergone significant growth in the past ten years and its emergence has raised the question of whether the patent system is suitable to protect inventions in emergent areas as synthetic biology. The article will analyze the numerous scientific, socio-economic, ethical and legal challenges faced by synthetic biology, introducing the European Patent Law related to biotechnology as the minimum common framework and considering if more changes are needed to adequately protect the inventor rights, while taking into account the arrival of a new research culture, characterized by embracing open-innovation and open-source initiatives. The discussion will review some biotechnological patent law cases and summarize questions as whether isolated molecules of DNA are eligible for patent or the patentability of living matter, under the terms of Directive 98/44/EC. The article will finally consider the impact of synthetic biology on the European patent system. PMID:25845209

  18. [Bachelard and the mathematical pulsation].

    PubMed

    Guitart, René

    2015-01-01

    The working mathematician knows a specific gesture named « mathematical pulsation », a necessary creative moving in diagrams of thoughts and interpretations of mathematical writings. In this perspective the fact of being an object is definitely undecided, and related to the game of relations. The purpose of this paper today is to construct this pulsation, starting from the epistemology of Bachelard, concerning mathematics as well as mathematical physics. On the way, we recover links between ideas of Bachelard and more recent specific propositions by Gilles Ch-let, Charles Alunni, or René Guitart. Also are used authors like Jacques Lacan, Arthur Koestler, Alfred N. Whitehead, Charles S. Peirce. We conclude that the mathematical work consists with pulsative moving in the space of diagrams; we claim that this view is well compatible with the Bachelard's analysis of scientific knowledge: the intellectual or formal mathematical data preceeds the empirical objects, and in some sense these objects result from the pulsative gestures of the thinkers. So we finish with a categorical scheme of the pulsation.

  19. The effects of age on second language grammar and speech production.

    PubMed

    Huang, Becky H

    2014-08-01

    The current study examined the age of learning effect on second language (L2) acquisition. The research goals of the study were twofold: to test whether there is an independent age effect controlling for other potentially confounding variables, and to clarify the age effect across L2 grammar and speech production domains. The study included 118 Mandarin-speaking immigrants and 24 native English speakers. Grammar knowledge was assessed by a grammaticality judgment task, and speech production was measured by native English speaking raters' ratings of participants' foreign accents. Results from the study revealed that the age of learning effect was robust for both L2 domains even after controlling for the influences of other variables, such as length of residence and years of education in the United States. However, the age of learning variable had a stronger impact on speech production than on grammar. The current results support the framework of multiple critical/sensitive periods (Long in Int Rev Appl Linguist 43(4):287-317, 2005; Newport et al. in Language, brain and cognitive development: Essays in honor of Jacques Mehler. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2001; Werker and Tees in Dev Psychobiol 46(3):233-251, 2005).

  20. Alexander Archipelago, Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    West of British Columbia, Canada, and south of the Yukon Territory, the southeastern coastline of Alaska trails off into the islands of the Alexander Archipelago. The area is rugged and contains many long, U-shaped, glaciated valleys, many of which terminate at tidewater. The Alexander Archipelago is home to Glacier Bay National Park. The large bay that has two forks on its northern end is Glacier Bay itself. The eastern fork is Muir inlet, into which runs the Muir glacier, named for the famous Scottish-born naturalist John Muir. Glacier Bay opens up into the Icy Strait. The large, solid white area to the west is Brady Icefield, which terminates at the southern end in Brady's Glacier. To locate more interesting features from Glacier Bay National Park, take a look at the park service map. As recently as two hundred years ago, a massive ice field extended into Icy Strait and filled the Glacier Bay. Since that time, the area has experienced rapid deglaciation, with many large glaciers retreating 40, 60, even 80 km. While temperatures have increased in the region, it is still unclear whether the rapid recession is part of the natural cycle of tidewater glaciers or is an indicator of longer-term climate change. For more on Glacier Bay and climate change, read an online paper by Dr. Dorothy Hall, a MODIS Associate Science Team Member. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  1. [The disfigured men represented by the great painters (O. Dix - G. Grosz - R. Freida.) Disfiguration in the history of art].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Louis-Paul; Méroc, Nicolas; Frapat, Jean; Chauvin, Frédéric; Rousset, Chantal

    2007-01-01

    Sophie Delaporte's book, Philippe Paillard's, Chantal Roussels's novels and Dupeyron's movie underline the difficulties of repairing physical and moral sufferings of the "disfigured men" wounded during the Great War. Beside medical and technical didactic aimed drawings the exhibition of wasted, mutilated or out of repair faces remains little known. In France, Germany or Great Britain there are many artists who took part in war. Among the artists the French painter Raphael Freida and some German expressionists like Otto Dix, Max Beckmann or George Grosz are the most famous. Their works are often confidential, set apart in the museums and showed in rare exhibitions in Great Britain and the United States of America. The sight of ruined faces inspired such horror that the artists depicted it only exceptionally and with discretion, before 1914. Without doubt it is the fear of touching the privacy of the face which is a part of the human identity. There are no "disfigured men" in the countless religious paintings of torture, neither in the Disasters of Warfrom painters or engravers like Goya or Jacques Callot. PMID:18450292

  2. Abyssal intimacies and temporalities of care: How (not) to care about deformed leaf bugs in the aftermath of Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Astrid

    2015-10-01

    Prompted by a classroom discussion on knowledge politics in the aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster, this article offers a reading of Hugh Raffles' Insectopedia entry on Chernobyl. In that entry, Raffles describes how Swiss science-artist and environmental activist Cornelia Hesse-Honegger collects, studies, and paints morphologically deformed leaf bugs that she finds in the proximity of nuclear power plants. In exploring how to begin to care about beings, such as leaf bugs, this article proposes a notion of care that combines an intimate knowledge practice with an ethical relationship to more-than-human others. Jacques Derrida's notion of 'abyssal intimacy' is central to such a combination. Hesse-Honegger's research practices enact and her paintings depict an 'abyssal intimacy' that deconstructs the oppositions between concerns about human suffering and compassion for seemingly irrelevant insects and between knowledge politics and ethics. At the heart of such a careful knowledge production is a fundamental passivity, based on a shared vulnerability. An abyssal intimacy is not something we ought to recognize; rather, it issues from particular practices of care that do not identify their subjects of care in advance. Caring or becoming affected thus entails the dissociation of affection not only from the humanist subject, but also from movements in time: from direct helping action and from the assumption that advocacy necessarily means speaking for an other, usually assumed to be inferior.

  3. Deadly Fire in Kruger National Park, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An explosive fire in Kruger National Park in the northern Republic of South Africa has killed at least 21 people and injured several others, perhaps fatally. This true-color image from NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows the location of that fire and several others in the region indicated in red. Kruger National Park runs along the border of The Republic of South Africa, which takes up most of the western half of the image, and Mozambique, which takes up most of the eastern half. The deadly fire started on Tuesday, September 4, and burned just to the right of the center of this image, near the town of Skukuza. The fire spread rapidly in the winds that blow across South Africa at the end of the region's dry season. This image, made from MODIS data acquired on September 5, shows the perimeter of the fire burning and emitting heavy smoke. An irregularly shaped burn scar stands out in dark brown against the landscape, indicating the extent of the fire. What appears to be another large burn scar can be seen just to the southeast. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  4. France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Every July, the world's best cyclists race more than 3500 km around France, and sometimes the surrounding countries, in the Tour de France. This image from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows the varied terrain which challenges the riders. The race started in western France at Futuroscope, and headed toward Brittany. In these mostly flat 'stages' (as each day's race is called) sprinting specialists usually dash for the finish out of the main pack of riders. The race then moved to the Pyrenees mountains, in southern France along the border with Spain. Climbers and the overall favorites shine in the mountains, often gaining 10 minutes or more on their rivals. Only a few days after the Pyrenees climbs the race was again in the mountains. First Mont Ventoux, an extinct volcano in Provence, and then the massive Alps, with altitudes as high as 2,645 meters, challenged the racers. Finally the race headed toward Paris and a July 23rd finish in Paris. Go Lance! To learn more about MODIS, visit the MODIS web. Image by Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land group, NASA GSFC

  5. Healing Pathways: Longitudinal Effects of Religious Coping and Social Support on PTSD symptoms in African American Sexual Assault Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Bryant-Davis, Thema; Ullman, Sarah; Tsong, Yuying; Anderson, Gera; Counts, Pamela; Tillman, Shaquita; Bhang, Cecile; Gray, Anthea

    2014-01-01

    African American women are at slightly increased risk for sexual assault (Abbey, Jacques-Tiaura, & Parkhill, 2010). However, due to stigma, experiences of racism, and historical oppression, African American women are less likely to seek help from formal agencies when compared to White women (Ullman & Filipas, 2001; Lewis, Resnick, Smith, Best, & Saunders, 2005) and/or women of other ethnic backgrounds (Ahrens, Abeling, Ahmad, & Himman, 2010). Therefore, the provision of culturally appropriate services, such as the inclusion of religion and spiritual coping, may be necessary when working with African American women survivors of sexual assault. The current study, controlling for age and education, explores the impact of religious coping and social support over one year for 252 African American adult female sexual assault survivors recruited from the Chicago metropolitan area. Results from hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed high endorsement of religious coping and social support at Time 1 does not predict a reduction of PTSD symptoms at Time 2. However, high social support at Time 2 does predict lower PTSD at Time 2. Also it is significant to note, survivors with high PTSD at Time 1 and Time 2 endorse greater use of social support and religious coping. Clinical and research implications are explored. PMID:25387044

  6. Lineaments from airborne SAR images and the 1988 Saguenay earthquake, Quebec, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, D.W.; Schmitt, L.; Woussen, G.; Duberger, R. )

    1993-08-01

    Airborne SAR images provided essential clues to the tectonic setting of (1) the MbLg 6.5 Saguenay earthquake of 25 November 1988, (2) the Charlevoix-Kamouraska seismic source zone, and (3) some of the low *eve* seismic activity in the Eastern seismic background zone of Canada. The event occurred in the southeastern part of the Canadian Shield in an area where the boundary between the Saguenay graben and the Jacques Cartier horst is not well defined. These two tectonic blocks are both associated with the Iapetan St-Lawrence rift. These blocks exhibit several important structural breaks and distinct domains defined by the lineament orientations, densities, and habits. Outcrop observations confirm that several lineament sets correspond to Precambrian ductile shear zones reactivated as brittle faults during the Phanerozoic. In addition, the northeast and southwest limits of recent seismic activity in the Charlevoix-Kamouraska zone correspond to major elements of the fracture pattern identified on the SAR images. These fractures appear to be related to the interaction of the Charlevoix astrobleme with the tectonic features of the area. 20 refs.

  7. [Bachelard and the mathematical pulsation].

    PubMed

    Guitart, René

    2015-01-01

    The working mathematician knows a specific gesture named « mathematical pulsation », a necessary creative moving in diagrams of thoughts and interpretations of mathematical writings. In this perspective the fact of being an object is definitely undecided, and related to the game of relations. The purpose of this paper today is to construct this pulsation, starting from the epistemology of Bachelard, concerning mathematics as well as mathematical physics. On the way, we recover links between ideas of Bachelard and more recent specific propositions by Gilles Ch-let, Charles Alunni, or René Guitart. Also are used authors like Jacques Lacan, Arthur Koestler, Alfred N. Whitehead, Charles S. Peirce. We conclude that the mathematical work consists with pulsative moving in the space of diagrams; we claim that this view is well compatible with the Bachelard's analysis of scientific knowledge: the intellectual or formal mathematical data preceeds the empirical objects, and in some sense these objects result from the pulsative gestures of the thinkers. So we finish with a categorical scheme of the pulsation. PMID:26223414

  8. World Cup Hopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    From May 31 to June 30 the biggest single-sport event in the world, the 2002 FIFA World Cup (tm), will be taking place in Asia. South Korea and Japan are acting as hosts for the event which is being held in Asia for the first time. This true-color image of the southern Korean peninsula and southern Japan was acquired on May 25, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. Thirty-two nations are represented at this year's Finals including the 1998 champion France, European powers England and Italy, tournament favorite Argentina, and the United States. The finals are the culmination of a 2-year qualifying process which started with 132 nations competing in regional qualification tournaments. In the round-robin first round of the World Cup, the U.S. team will be competing against teams from Portugal, Poland, and South Korea. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  9. A versatile lab-on-chip test platform to characterize elementary deformation mechanisms and electromechanical couplings in nanoscopic objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardoen, Thomas; Colla, Marie-Sthéphane; Idrissi, Hosni; Amin-Ahmadi, Behnam; Wang, Binjie; Schryvers, Dominique; Bhaskar, Umesh K.; Raskin, Jean-Pierre

    2016-03-01

    A nanomechanical on-chip test platform has recently been developed to deform under a variety of loading conditions freestanding thin films, ribbons and nanowires involving submicron dimensions. The lab-on-chip involves thousands of elementary test structures from which the elastic modulus, strength, strain hardening, fracture, creep properties can be extracted. The technique is amenable to in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations to unravel the fundamental underlying deformation and fracture mechanisms that often lead to size-dependent effects in small-scale samples. The method allows addressing electrical and magnetic couplings as well in order to evaluate the impact of large mechanical stress levels on different solid-state physics phenomena. We had the chance to present this technique in details to Jacques Friedel in 2012 who, unsurprisingly, made a series of critical and very relevant suggestions. In the spirit of his legacy, the paper will address both mechanics of materials related phenomena and couplings with solids state physics issues. xml:lang="fr"

  10. Sediment from the Tigris and Euphrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    There is a large amount of sediment clearly visible in the true-color image of the Persian Gulf, acquired on November 1, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Carried by the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers (at center), the sediment-laden waters appear light brown where they enter the northern end of the Persian Gulf and then gradually dissipate into turquoise swirls as they drift southward. The nutrients these sediments carry are helping to support a phytoplankton bloom in the region, which adds some darker green hues in the rich kaleidoscope of colors on the surface (see the high resolution image). The confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers marks the southernmost boundary between Iran (upper right) and Iraq (upper left). South of Iraq are the countries of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. The red dots indicate the probable locations of fires burning at oil refineries. Thin black plumes of smoke can be seen streaming away from several of these. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  11. Metaphor in psychosis: on the possible convergence of Lacanian theory and neuro-scientific research

    PubMed Central

    Ribolsi, Michele; Feyaerts, Jasper; Vanheule, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    Starting from the theories of leading psychiatrists, like Kraepelin and de Clérambault, the French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan (1901–1981) formulated an original theory of psychosis, focusing on the subject and on the structuring role of language. In particular, he postulated that language makes up the experience of subjectivity and that psychosis is marked by the absence of a crucial metaphorization process. Interestingly, in contemporary psychiatry there is growing empirical evidence that schizophrenia is characterized by abnormal interpretation of verbal and non-verbal information, with a great difficulty to put such information in the appropriate context. Neuro-scientific contributions have investigated this difficulty suggesting the possibility of interpreting schizophrenia as a semiotic disorder which makes the patients incapable of understanding the figurative meaning of the metaphoric speech, probably due to a dysfunction of certain right hemisphere areas, such as the right temporoparietal junction and the right superior/middle temporal gyrus. In this paper we first review the Lacanian theory of psychosis and neuro-scientific research in the field of symbolization and metaphoric speech. Next, we discuss possible convergences between both approaches, exploring how they might join and inspire one another. Clinical and neurophysiological research implications are discussed. PMID:26089805

  12. VAP: a versatile aggregate profiler for efficient genome-wide data representation and discovery.

    PubMed

    Coulombe, Charles; Poitras, Christian; Nordell-Markovits, Alexei; Brunelle, Mylène; Lavoie, Marc-André; Robert, François; Jacques, Pierre-Étienne

    2014-07-01

    The analysis of genomic data such as ChIP-Seq usually involves representing the signal intensity level over genes or other genetic features. This is often illustrated as a curve (representing the aggregate profile of a group of genes) or as a heatmap (representing individual genes). However, no specific resource dedicated to easily generating such profiles is currently available. We therefore built the versatile aggregate profiler (VAP), designed to be used by experimental and computational biologists to generate profiles of genomic datasets over groups of regions of interest, using either an absolute or a relative method. Graphical representation of the results is automatically generated, and subgrouping can be performed easily, based on the orientation of the flanking annotations. The outputs include statistical measures to facilitate comparisons between groups or datasets. We show that, through its intuitive design and flexibility, VAP can help avoid misinterpretations of genomics data. VAP is highly efficient and designed to run on laptop computers by using a memory footprint control, but can also be easily compiled and run on servers. VAP is accessible at http://lab-jacques.recherche.usherbrooke.ca/vap/. PMID:24753414

  13. [Penicillin in Belgium 1945-1952].

    PubMed

    Billiau, A

    2009-01-01

    Penicillin, discovered now eighty years ago (1929) by Alexander Fleming in London, was developed during the world war II into a revolutionizing drug by Howard Florey and Michael Chain in Oxford. At first, industrial production of penicillin was exclusively in the hands of a consortium of large U.S. pharmaceutical companies. However, the war being ended, European entrepreneurs likewise ventured to set up penicillin production units. Amongst them, in Belgium, was Jacques Lannoye, director and co-owner of 'Papeteries de Genval' and of a modest pharmaceutical company, called 'Soprolac'. Through his connections with several medical faculty professors of the Catholic University of Leuven, Lannoye came in touch with Piet De Somer, then a young researcher at the Leuven 'Institute of Bacteriology', with an interest in production of penicillin. A years-long collaboration followed, from which emerged a booming antibiotic and vaccine factory, 'RIT' (Recherche et Industrie Thérapeutiques) in Genval, as well an industry-supported research laboratory, the later Rega Institute, at the University of Leuven. From 1947 to 1952, while coping with the practical problems of setting up large-scale production of penicillin, De Somer maintained a lively correspondence with some other players in the field, sharing with them the ups and downs of the enterprise. Fortunately these letters have been preserved in the archives of the Rega Institute, such that they allow for a reconstruction of this interesting episode in the medical history of Belgium. PMID:20084833

  14. A developmental theory of synaesthesia, with long historical roots: a comment on Hochel & Milan.

    PubMed

    Holcombe, Alex O; Altschuler, Eric L; Over, Harriet J

    2009-03-01

    The recent surge of scientific investigation into synaesthesia, ably reviewed by Hochel and Milan (2008), is representative of an increasing recognition that our various sensory modalities are intimately interconnected rather than separate. The origin of these interconnections is the subject of an intriguing theory by Maurer and Maurer (1988). They suggest that all of us begin life as synaesthetes, with subsequent neural development reducing the connections among the senses. We present some historical roots of the idea that human life begins with the senses intertwined. The influential 18th-century philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau described an early theory of child development in his book Emile (1762), hypothesizing that if "a child had at its birth the stature and strength of a man ... all his sensations would be united in one place, they would exist only in the common 'sensorium'." A half-century later, a young Mary Shelley (1818) brought this idea into popular culture with the Frankenstein creature's recollection of his early experience: "A strange multiplicity of sensations seized me, and I saw, felt, heard, and smelt, at the same time; and it was, indeed, a long time before I learned to distinguish between the operations of my various senses." William James in The Principles of Psychology (1890) expressed a similar idea. In this context, the assumption of many 20th-century scientists that the senses were largely separate appears to be an historical aberration.

  15. Bishop plays down report on condoms / AIDS in France.

    PubMed

    1996-02-26

    Individual bishops in France and other European countries have argued that condom use can save lives by preventing the spread of HIV. The French Bishops' Conference social commission published a 200-page report which in which agreement was expressed with widespread medical opinion that condom use is the sole and necessary barrier against the sexual spread of HIV. Extensive media coverage ensued and led to Bishop Albert Rouet, the bishop of Poitiers and chairman of the French Bishops' Conference, being interviewed by the Holy See's official radio. In the interview, Bishop Rouet distanced the Roman Catholic Church in France from the report, claiming that the media had exaggerated the issue and that his commission was not bound by the reference. The Vatican remains staunchly opposed to condom use against HIV infection and preaches abstinence outside of marriage and fidelity within marriage as the only true ways to avoid HIV infection. In 1995, the Vatican fired Jacques Gaillot, the former bishop of Evreux in Normandy, for his outspoken endorsement of condom use against HIV.

  16. [Stent, endovascular prosthesis, net or strut? What would British dentist Charles Stent (1807-1885) have to say on all this?].

    PubMed

    Lukenda, Josip; Biocina-Lukenda, Dolores

    2009-01-01

    The word stent appears in the Index Medicus as of 1952, while in Croatian articles as of 1993. The origin of the word has been attributed to British dentist Charles. T. Stent (1807-1885), maker of the compound for dental impressions (Stent's compound). Viennese surgeon, Johannes F. S. Esser (1877-1946) used the compound in plastic surgery of the face calling it an eponym Stent's mould. During the 1950's, William H. ReMine and John H. Grindlay used Stent's principle for omentum lined plastic tubes in the bile duct of a dog. The development of today's vascular stents began in 1912 when French Nobel Prize winner Alexis Carrel (1873-1944) implanted glass tubes in the arteries of dogs. The first metal spirals were implanted in the arteries of dogs by Charles T. Dotter (1920-1985), while the first stents in human arteries were implanted by French doctors Ulrich Sigwart and Jacques Puel in Toulouse in 1986. Some authors claim that the origin of the word stent is associated with the Scotish word stynt or stent, meaning stretched out river fishing nets. PMID:19348354

  17. Planetary Science with Balloon-Borne Telescopes: A Summary of the BOPPS Mission and the Planetary Science that may be Possible Looking Forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremic, T.; Cheng, A.; Hibbitts, K.; Young, E. F.

    2015-09-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the planetary science community have recently been exploring the potential contributions of stratospheric balloons to the planetary science field. A study that was recently concluded explored the roughly 200 or so science questions raised in the Planetary Decadal Survey report and found that about 45 of those questions are suited to stratospheric balloon based observations. In September of 2014, a stratospheric balloon mission called BOPPS (which stands for Balloon Observation Platform for Planetary Science) was flown out of Fort Sumner, New Mexico. The mission had two main objectives, first, to observe a number of planetary targets including one or more Oort cloud comets and second, to demonstrate the applicability and performance of the platform, instruments, and subsystems for making scientific measurements in support of planetary science objectives. BOPPS carried two science instruments, BIRC and UVVis. BIRC is a cryogenic infrared multispectral imager which can image in the 0.6-5 ~im range using an HgCdTe detector. Narrow band filters were used to allow detection of water and CO2 emission features of the observed targets. The UVVis is an imager with the science range of 300 to 600 nm. A main feature of the UVVis instrument is the incorporation of a guide camera and a Fine-Steering Mirror (FSM) system to reduce image jitter to less than 100 milliarcsecond. The BIRC instrument was used to image targets including Oort cloud comets Siding Spring and Jacques, and the dwarf planet 1 Ceres. BOPPS achieved the first ever earth based CO2 observation of a comet and the first images of water and CO2 of an Oort cloud comet (Jacques). It also made the first ever measurement of 1 Ceres at 2.73 ~tm to refine the shape of the infrared water absorption feature on that body. The UVVis instrument, mounted on its own optics bench, demonstrated the capability for image correction both from atmospheric disturbances as

  18. Isotopic compositions of volcanic arc rocks in the Southern Volcanic Zone (33°-43°S), Chile: along- and across-arc variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, Guillaume; Hoernle, Kaj; Gill, Jim; Wehrmann, Heidi

    2014-05-01

    We investigate young, olivine-bearing volcanic arc (VA) rocks from the Southern Volcanic Zone (33-43°S; SVZ) in Chile, and from the backarc (BA) in Argentina for their major and trace element, and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb-O isotope geochemistry. The compositional data are processed to identify the source components contributing to the arc magmas and to estimate their proportions, with the aim to better understand the effects of the large-scale along-arc tectonic variations onto melt generation and erupted compositions. The Transitional (T) SVZ (34.5-38°S; Jacques et al., 2013) samples overlap the BA samples in Sr and Nd isotopes, whereas the Central (C) SVZ (38-43°S; Jacques et al., submitted, Chemical Geology) samples are shifted to slightly higher Sr and/or Nd isotope ratios. All samples form a tight correlation on the Pb isotope diagrams. The VA samples plot at the radiogenic end of the positive BA array and overlap trench sediment, indicating mixing between a South Atlantic MORB-type source and a slab component derived from subducted trench sediments and altered oceanic crust. On the Nd versus Hf isotope diagram, the VA and BA form two sub parallel linear trends, neither pointing to subducting sediment. The VA may display an asthenospheric mantle array, whereas enriched Proterozoic lithospheric mantle may be involved in the BA. The CSVZ samples have higher fluid-mobile to fluid-immobile element ratios and lower more- to less-incompatible fluid-immobile element ratios than the TSVZ samples, consistent with higher hydrous melt flux and higher degrees of melting resulting in higher magma production and eruption rates in the CSVZ. Low δ18O(melt) of CSVZ lavas suggests that the source of the enhanced water flux is likely to be hydrated lower crust and serpentinized upper mantle of the incoming plate, resulting from the multiple large fracture zones in this part of the SVZ. The δ18O(melt) values of the NSVZ, TSVZ and BA, on the other hand, largely overlap the MORB mantle

  19. Planck satellite to be presented to media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    at Orsay (France) in the case of HFI, and by the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica (IASF) in Bologna (Italy) in that of LFI. There are also numerous subcontractors spread throughout Europe, with several more in the USA. For further information, please contact: ESA Media Relations Office Tel: +33(0)1.53.69.7155 Fax: +33(0)1.53.69.7690 Press event programme 1 February 2007, 10:00 am Alcatel Alenia Space 100 Boulevard du Midi, Cannes (France) 10:00 - 10:05 - Opening address, by Patrick Maute - Head of Optical Observation and Science Programmes - Alcatel Alenia Space, and by Jacques Louet - Head of Science Projects - ESA 10:05 - 10:15 - Herschel/Planck Mission overview, by Thomas Passvogel - Planck Project Manager - ESA 10:15 - 10:25 - Planck satellite, by Jean-Jacques Juillet - Programme Manager - Alcatel Alenia Space 10:25 - 10:35 - The scientific mission, by Jan Tauber - Planck Project Scientist - ESA 10:35 - 10:45 - The High-Frequency Instrument, by Jean-Loup Puget - HFI Principal Investigator 10:45 - 10:55 - The Low-Frequency Instrument, by Reno Mandolesi - LFI Principal Investigator 10:55 - 11:05 - Special guest - Nobel prize winner G.F. Smoot 11:05 - 11:25 - Questions and answers 11:25 - 12:35 - Visit of the integration room to see Planck spacecraft and face-to-face interviews 12:45 - 14:30 - Lunch hosted by Alcatel Alenia Space.

  20. Europe reaches new frontier - Huygens lands on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    The first scientific data arrived at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany, this afternoon at 17:19 CET. Huygens is mankind’s first successful attempt to land a probe on another world in the outer Solar System. “This is a great achievement for Europe and its US partners in this ambitious international endeavour to explore Saturn system,” said Jean-Jacques Dordain, ESA’s Director General. Following its release from the Cassini mothership on 25 December, Huygens reached Titan’s outer atmosphere after 20 days and a 4 million km cruise. The probe started its descent through Titan’s hazy cloud layers from an altitude of about 1270 km at 11:13 CET. During the following three minutes Huygens had to decelerate from 18 000 to 1400 km per hour. A sequence of parachutes then slowed it down to less than 300 km per hour. At a height of about 160 km the probe’s scientific instruments were exposed to Titan’s atmosphere. At about 120 km, the main parachute was replaced by a smaller one to complete the descent, with an expected touchdown at 13:34 CET. Preliminary data indicate that the probe landed safely, likely on a solid surface. The probe began transmitting data to Cassini four minutes into its descent and continued to transmit data after landing at least as long as Cassini was above Titan’s horizon. The certainty that Huygens was alive came already at 11:25 CET today, when the Green Bank radio telescope in West Virginia, USA, picked up a fain but unmistakable radio signal from the probe. Radio telescopes on Earth continued to receive this signal well past the expected lifetime of Huygens. Huygens data, relayed by Cassini, were picked up by NASA’s Deep Space Network and delivered immediately to ESA’s European Space Operation Centre in Darmstadt, Germany, where the scientific analysis is currently taking place. “Titan was always the target in the Saturn system where the need for ‘ground truth’ from a probe was critical. It