Science.gov

Sample records for fem3a model development

  1. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Salehi, Iraj A.; Havens, Jerry; Spicer, Tom

    2006-12-22

    The initial scope of work for this project included: 1) Improving the FEM3A advanced turbulence closure module, 2) Adaptation of FEM3A for more general applications, and 3) Verification of dispersion over rough surfaces, with and without obstacle using the advanced turbulence closure module. These work elements were to be performed by Chemical Hazards Research Center (CHRC), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas as a subcontractor to Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The tasks for GTI included establishment of the scientific support base for standardization of the FEM3A model, project management, technology transfer, and project administration. Later in the course of the project, the scope of work was modified by the National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) to remove the emphasis on FEM3A model and instead, develop data in support of NETL’s FLUENT modeling. With this change, GTI was also instructed to cease activities relative to FEM3A model. GTI’s technical activities through this project included the initial verification of FEM3A model, provision of technical inputs to CHRC researchers regarding the structure of the final product, and participation in technical discussion sessions with CHRC and NETL technical staff. GTI also began the development of a Windows-based front end for the model but the work was stopped due to the change in scope of work. In the meantime, GTI organized a workshop on LNG safety in Houston, Texas. The workshop was very successful and 75 people from various industries participated. All technical objectives were met satisfactorily by Dr. Jerry Havens and Dr. Tom Spicer of CHRC and results are presented in a stand-alone report included as Appendix A to this report.

  2. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Iraj A. Salehi; Jerry Havens; Tom Spicer

    2006-09-30

    The initial scope of work for this project included: (1) Improving the FEM3A advanced turbulence closure module, (2) Adaptation of FEM3A for more general applications, and (3) Verification of dispersion over rough surfaces, with and without obstacle using the advanced turbulence closure module. These work elements were to be performed by Chemical Hazards Research Center (CHRC), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas as a subcontractor to Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The tasks for GTI included establishment of the scientific support base for standardization of the FEM3A model, project management, technology transfer, and project administration. Later in the course of the project, the scope of work was modified by the National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) to remove the emphasis on FEM3A model and instead, develop data in support of NETL's FLUENT modeling. With this change, GTI was also instructed to cease activities relative to FEM3A model. GTI's technical activities through this project included the initial verification of FEM3A model, provision of technical inputs to CHRC researchers regarding the structure of the final product, and participation in technical discussion sessions with CHRC and NETL technical staff. GTI also began the development of a Windows-based front end for the model but the work was stopped due to the change in scope of work. In the meantime, GTI organized a workshop on LNG safety in Houston, Texas. The workshop was very successful and 75 people from various industries participated. All technical objectives were met satisfactorily by Dr. Jerry Havens and Dr. Tom Spicer of CHRC and results are presented in a stand-alone report included as Appendix A to this report.

  3. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Liese Dallbauman

    2004-06-30

    During this reporting period, kickoff and planning meetings were held. Subcontracted experimental and modeling tasks were defined. Efforts to address the numerical stability problems that hamper FEM3A's applicability to low wind speed, stable atmospheric conditions were initiated. A detailed review of FEM3A code and its execution, required for development of an accessible user interface, was also begun. A one-day workshop on LNG safety models has been scheduled for September 2004. The goals of this project are to develop a national focal point for LNG safety research and technical dissemination and to develop the FEM3A dispersion model for application to general scenarios involving dispersion problems with obstacle and terrain features of realistic complexity. During this reporting period, the objectives and scope of the project and its constituent tasks were discussed at a project kickoff meeting in Morgantown. Details of the subcontracted experimental and modeling tasks were further defined at a separate meeting at the University of Arkansas. Researchers at the university have begun to modify the turbulence closure model used in FEM3A to insure numerical stability during simulation of low-wind-speed, stable atmospheric conditions. The university's wind tunnel is being prepared for upcoming experimental studies. GTI has begun a detailed review of the FEM3A code and its execution that will provide guidance during development of an accessible user interface. Plans were made for a one day workshop on LNG safety models that will be held at the end of September and will provide an introduction to currently available and pending software tools.

  4. LNG SAFETY RESEARCH: FEM3A MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Havens; Iraj A. Salehi

    2005-05-10

    The objective of this report is to develop the FEM3A model for application to general scenarios involving dispersion problems with obstacles and terrain features of realistic complexity, and for very low wind speed, stable weather conditions as required for LNG vapor dispersion application specified in 49 CFR 193. The dispersion model DEGADIS specified in 49 CFR 193 is limited to application for dispersion over smooth, level terrain free of obstacles (such as buildings, tanks, or dikes). There is a need for a dispersion model that allows consideration of the effects of terrain features and obstacles on the dispersion of LNG vapor clouds. Project milestones are: (1) Simulation of Low-Wind-Speed Stable Atmospheric Milestones Conditions; (2) Verification for Dispersion over Rough Surfaces, With And Without Obstacles; and (3) Adapting the FEM3A Model for General Application. Results for this quarter are work continues to underway to address numerical problems during simulation of low-wind-speed, stable, atmospheric conditions with FEM3A. Steps 1 and 2 in the plan outlined in the first Quarterly report are complete and steps 3 and 4 are in progress. During this quarter, we have been investigating the effect upon numerical stability of the heat transfer model used to predict the surface-to-cloud heat transfer, which can be important for LNG vapor dispersion. Previously, no consideration has been given to ground cooling as a result of heat transfer to the colder gas cloud in FEM3A. The present effort is directed to describing the ground surface temperature decrease as a function of time.

  5. LNG SAFETY RESEARCH: FEM3A MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Havens; Iraj A. Salehi

    2005-02-21

    This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from October 1, 2004 to December 31, 2004. On December 9, 2004 a meeting was held in Morgantown to rescope the LNG safety modeling project such that the work would complement the DOE's efforts relative to the development of the intended LNG-Fluent model. It was noted and discussed at the December 9th meeting that the fundamental research being performed on surface to cloud heat transfer and low wind speed issues will be relevant to the development of the DOE LNG/Fluent Model. In general, it was decided that all research to be performed from December 9th through the remainder of the contract is to be focused on the development of the DOE LNG/Fluent model. In addition, all GTI activities for dissemination and transfer of FEM3A will cease and dissemination activities will focus on the new DOE LNG/Fluent model. The proposed new scope of work is presented in section 4 of this report. The work reported in the present document relates to the original scope of work which was in effect during the reporting period. The future work will be re-scoped to meet the requirements of the new scope of work. During the report period work was underway to address numerical problems present during simulation of low-wind-speed, stable, atmospheric conditions with FEM3A. Steps 1 and 2 in the plan outlined in the first Quarterly report are complete and steps 3 and 4 are in progress. During this quarter, the University of Arkansas has been investigating the effect upon numerical stability of the heat transfer model used to predict the surface-to-cloud heat transfer, which can be important for LNG vapor dispersion. Previously, no consideration has been given to ground cooling as a result of heat transfer to the colder gas cloud in FEM3A.

  6. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Iraj A Salehi; Jerry Havens; Tom Spicer

    2006-05-01

    Work continued to address numerical problems experienced with simulation of low-wind-speed, stable, atmospheric conditions with FEM3A. Steps 1 through 8 in the plan outlined in the first Quarterly report have been completed successfully for the FEM3A model utilizing the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) turbulence closure model. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have solved the problems related to stability of the simulations at regulatory conditions of low wind speed and stable atmospheric conditions with FEM3A using the PBL model, and are continuing our program to verify the operation of the model using an updated, verified, version of the k-epsilon turbulence closure model which has been modified to handle dense gas dispersion effects. This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from January 1, 2006 to March 31, 2006. GTI's activities during the report quarter were limited to administrative work. The work at the University of Arkansas continued in line with the initial scope of work and the identified questions regarding surface to cloud heat transfer as being largely responsible for the instability problems previously encountered. A brief summary of results is discussed in this section and the complete report from University of Arkansas is attached.

  7. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Iraj A. Salehi

    2004-09-30

    This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from July 1, 2004 to September 30, 2004. Activity during this period included preparation of a CD containing the FEM3a FORTRAN code for distribution and organization of an LNG safety workshop. Contract negotiation between GTI and University of Arkansas continued.

  8. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Iraj A. Salehi; Jerry Havens; Tom Spicer

    2005-10-01

    Work has continued to address numerical problems experienced with simulation of low-wind-speed, stable, atmospheric conditions with FEM3A. Steps 1 through 8 in the plan outlined in the first Quarterly report have been satisfied. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have all indications that the important problems related to stability of the simulations at regulatory conditions of low wind speed and stable atmospheric conditions have been resolved. This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from July 1, 2005 to September 31, 2005. GTI's activities during the report quarter were limited to administrative work. The work at the University of Arkansas continued in line with the initial scope of work and identified the questions regarding surface to cloud heat transfer as being largely responsible for the instability problems previously encountered. A brief summary of results is included in this section and the complete report from University of Arkansas is attached as Appendix A.

  9. Recent upgrades and enhancements of the FEM3A model

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, S.T.

    1994-12-01

    In 1984, the US Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center began to fund Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to further develop FEM3, a fully three-dimensional heavy-gas dispersion model, as a research tool for studying the atmospheric transport and diffusion of certain chemical systems. As a result, a significantly improved version of the model, called FEM3A, was delivered to ERDEC in 1988. During the past few years, two more major improvements have been developed and tested. They are: improved mass conservation for treating dispersion scenarios with large density variations, and the addition of an advanced turbulence submodel based on the k-{var_epsilon} transport equations. These enhancements have resulted in substantial improvements in the dispersion simulations of heavy-gases and can greatly extend the range of applicability of the model, including the ability to treat problems with large density variations and dispersion scenarios of much greater complexities. Documented in this report are the new features and some of the improvements obtained with the new model.

  10. LNG Safety Research FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Iraj A. Salehi; Jerry Havens; Tom Spicer

    2006-02-02

    This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from October 1, 2005 to December 31, 2005. GTI's activities during the report quarter were limited to administrative work. The work at the University of Arkansas continued in line with the initial scope of work and identified the questions regarding surface to cloud heat transfer as being largely responsible for the instability problems previously encountered. A brief summary of results is included in this section and the complete report from University of Arkansas is attached as Appendix A.

  11. FEM3A simulations of selected LNG vapor barrier verification field tests

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, S.T.

    1990-10-01

    In order to evaluate and eventually predict the possible mitigating effects of vapor fences on the dispersion of the vapor cloud resulting from an accidental liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill in storage areas, a research program was initiated to evaluate methods for predicting LNG dispersion distances for realistic facility configurations. As part of the program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducted a series of large-scale field experiments called the LNG Vapor Barrier Verification Field Trials (also referred to as the Falcon Series) at the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility (LGFSTF), Nevada. Objectives were (1) to provide a data base on LNG vapor dispersion from spill involving complex field obstacles to assist in validation of wind tunnel and mathematical models, and (2) to assess the effectiveness of vapor fences for mitigating LNG vapor dispersion hazards in the events of an accidental spill. Five spill experiments were conducted on water in order to generate vapor at rates equivalent to the liquid spill rates. In this study, the FEM3A model was applied to simulate four of the Falcon experiments. The objectives of this study were, through numerical modeling and a detailed model-data comparison: (1) to improve our understanding of LNG vapor dispersion involving vapor barriers, (2) to assess FEM3A in modeling such complex vapor dispersion scenarios, and (3) to complement the results of field and wind tunnel tests, such as providing plausible explanations for unexpected results and filling in data gaps due to instrument failure or limited array size. Toward these goals, the relevant field measurements were analyzed and several series of 2-D and 3-D simulations were carried out. 11 refs., 93 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. Gain-of-function mutations of fem-3, a sex-determination gene in Caenorhabditis elegans

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, M.K.; Schedl, T.B.; Kimble, J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have isolated nine gain-of-function (gf) alleles of the sex-determination gene fem-3 as suppressors of feminizing mutations in fem-1 and fem-2. The wild type fem-3 gene is needed for spermatogenesis in XX self-fertilizing hermaphrodites and for male development in both soma and germ line of XO animals. Loss-of-function alleles of fem-3 transform XX and XO animals into females (spermless hermaphrodites). In contrast, fem-3 (gf) alleles masculinize only one tissue, the hermaphrodite germ line. Thus, XX fem-3 (gf) mutant animals have a normal hermaphrodite soma, but the germ line produces a vast excess of sperm and no oocytes. All nine fem-3 (gf) alleles are temperature sensitive. The temperature-sensitive period is from late L4 to early adult, a period just preceding the first signs of oogenesis. The finding of gain-of-function alleles which confer a phenotype opposite to that of loss-of-function alleles supports the idea that fem-3 plays a critical role in germ-line sex determination. Furthermore, the germ-line specificity of the fem-3 (gf) mutant phenotype and the late temperature-sensitive period suggest that, in the wild-type XX hermaphrodite, fem-3 is negatively regulated so that the hermaphrodite stops making sperm and starts making oocytes. Temperature shift experiments also show that, in the germ line, sexual commitment appears to be a continuing process. Spermatogenesis can resume even after oogenesis has begun, and oogenesis can be initiated much later than normal.

  13. Gain-of-Function Mutations of fem-3, a Sex-Determination Gene in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Barton, M. Kathryn; Schedl, Timothy B.; Kimble, Judith

    1987-01-01

    We have isolated nine gain-of-function (gf) alleles of the sex-determination gene fem-3 as suppressors of feminizing mutations in fem-1 and fem-2. The wild-type fem-3 gene is needed for spermatogenesis in XX self-fertilizing hermaphrodites and for male development in both soma and germ line of XO animals. Loss-of-function alleles of fem-3 transform XX and XO animals into females (spermless hermaphrodites). In contrast, fem-3(gf) alleles masculinize only one tissue, the hermaphrodite germ line. Thus, XX fem-3(gf) mutant animals have a normal hermaphrodite soma, but the germ line produces a vast excess of sperm and no oocytes. All nine fem-3(gf) alleles are temperature sensitive. The temperature-sensitive period is from late L4 to early adult, a period just preceding the first signs of oogenesis. The finding of gain-of-function alleles which confer a phenotype opposite to that of loss-of-function alleles supports the idea that fem-3 plays a critical role in germ-line sex determination. Furthermore, the germ-line specificity of the fem-3( gf) mutant phenotype and the late temperature-sensitive period suggest that, in the wild-type XX hermaphrodite, fem-3 is negatively regulated so that the hermaphrodite stops making sperm and starts making oocytes. Temperature shift experiments also show that, in the germ line, sexual commitment appears to be a continuing process. Spermatogenesis can resume even after oogenesis has begun, and oogenesis can be initiated much later than normal. PMID:3557107

  14. Develop a Model Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ensey, Tyler S.

    2013-01-01

    During my internship at NASA, I was a model developer for Ground Support Equipment (GSE). The purpose of a model developer is to develop and unit test model component libraries (fluid, electrical, gas, etc.). The models are designed to simulate software for GSE (Ground Special Power, Crew Access Arm, Cryo, Fire and Leak Detection System, Environmental Control System (ECS), etc. .) before they are implemented into hardware. These models support verifying local control and remote software for End-Item Software Under Test (SUT). The model simulates the physical behavior (function, state, limits and 110) of each end-item and it's dependencies as defined in the Subsystem Interface Table, Software Requirements & Design Specification (SRDS), Ground Integrated Schematic (GIS), and System Mechanical Schematic.(SMS). The software of each specific model component is simulated through MATLAB's Simulink program. The intensiv model development life cycle is a.s follows: Identify source documents; identify model scope; update schedule; preliminary design review; develop model requirements; update model.. scope; update schedule; detailed design review; create/modify library component; implement library components reference; implement subsystem components; develop a test script; run the test script; develop users guide; send model out for peer review; the model is sent out for verifictionlvalidation; if there is empirical data, a validation data package is generated; if there is not empirical data, a verification package is generated; the test results are then reviewed; and finally, the user. requests accreditation, and a statement of accreditation is prepared. Once each component model is reviewed and approved, they are intertwined together into one integrated model. This integrated model is then tested itself, through a test script and autotest, so that it can be concluded that all models work conjointly, for a single purpose. The component I was assigned, specifically, was a

  15. Reference Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jepsen, Richard

    2011-11-02

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review in which principal investigator discusses project progress to develop a representative set of Reference Models (RM) for the MHK industry to develop baseline cost of energy (COE) and evaluate key cost component/system reduction pathways.

  16. Probabilistic Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, James H., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Develop a Probabilistic Model for the Solar Energetic Particle Environment. Develop a tool to provide a reference solar particle radiation environment that: 1) Will not be exceeded at a user-specified confidence level; 2) Will provide reference environments for: a) Peak flux; b) Event-integrated fluence; and c) Mission-integrated fluence. The reference environments will consist of: a) Elemental energy spectra; b) For protons, helium and heavier ions.

  17. Developing a Model Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) was a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The initial purpose of the UCTS was to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The UCTS is designed with the capability of servicing future space vehicles; including all Space Station Requirements necessary for the MPLM Modules. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems during their development. As an intern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (dryer) to model in Simulink. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink. The dryer is a Catch All replaceable core type filter-dryer. The filter-dryer provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-dryer also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. The filter-dryer was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure and velocity of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my filter-dryer model in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements. I participated in Simulation meetings and was involved in the subsystem design process and team collaborations. I gained valuable work experience and insight into a career path as an engineer.

  18. Developing a Model Component

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is,. responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) is a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The purpose of the UCTS is to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems s:luring their development. As an intern at KSC, my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (drier) to model in Matlab. The drier was a Catch All replaceable core type filter-drier. The filter-drier provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-drier also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink to help aid in my assignment. The filter-drier was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure, velocity and temperature of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my model filter-drier in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements.

  19. IMPACT fragmentation model developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorge, Marlon E.; Mains, Deanna L.

    2016-09-01

    The IMPACT fragmentation model has been used by The Aerospace Corporation for more than 25 years to analyze orbital altitude explosions and hypervelocity collisions. The model is semi-empirical, combining mass, energy and momentum conservation laws with empirically derived relationships for fragment characteristics such as number, mass, area-to-mass ratio, and spreading velocity as well as event energy distribution. Model results are used for several types of analysis including assessment of short-term risks to satellites from orbital altitude fragmentations, prediction of the long-term evolution of the orbital debris environment and forensic assessments of breakup events. A new version of IMPACT, version 6, has been completed and incorporates a number of advancements enabled by a multi-year long effort to characterize more than 11,000 debris fragments from more than three dozen historical on-orbit breakup events. These events involved a wide range of causes, energies, and fragmenting objects. Special focus was placed on the explosion model, as the majority of events examined were explosions. Revisions were made to the mass distribution used for explosion events, increasing the number of smaller fragments generated. The algorithm for modeling upper stage large fragment generation was updated. A momentum conserving asymmetric spreading velocity distribution algorithm was implemented to better represent sub-catastrophic events. An approach was developed for modeling sub-catastrophic explosions, those where the majority of the parent object remains intact, based on estimated event energy. Finally, significant modifications were made to the area-to-mass ratio distribution to incorporate the tendencies of different materials to fragment into different shapes. This ability enabled better matches between the observed area-to-mass ratios and those generated by the model. It also opened up additional possibilities for post-event analysis of breakups. The paper will discuss

  20. Coastal Surveillance Baseline Model Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-27

    reconnaissance (ISR) model for coastal surveillance. The model needs to be developed in the System Toolkit (STK) software package version 10.0 (or...reconnaissance (ISR) model for coastal surveillance. The model needs to be developed in the System Toolkit (STK) software package version 10.0 (or...Catalogue STK System Toolkit TA Technical Authority DRDC CORA Task #185 Coastal Surveillance Baseline Model Development 27 February 2015 F-1 5758-001

  1. Developing New Models for Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoffle, Carla J.; Fore, Janet; Allen, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the need to develop new models for collection development in academic libraries, based on experiences at the University of Arizona. Highlights include changes in the organizational chart; focusing on users' information goals and needs; integrative services; shared resources; interlibrary loans; digital technology; and funding. (LRW)

  2. SSME structural dynamic model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, M. J.; Tilley, D. M.; Welch, C. T.

    1983-01-01

    A mathematical model of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) as a complete assembly, with detailed emphasis on LOX and High Fuel Turbopumps is developed. The advantages of both complete engine dynamics, and high fidelity modeling are incorporated. Development of this model, some results, and projected applications are discussed.

  3. Physiological water model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Susan

    1993-01-01

    The water of the human body can be categorized as existing in two main compartments: intracellular water and extracellular water. The intracellular water consists of all the water within the cells and constitutes over half of the total body water. Since red blood cells are surrounded by plasma, and all other cells are surrounded by interstitial fluid, the intracellular compartment has been subdivided to represent these two cell types. The extracellular water, which includes all of the fluid outside of the cells, can be further subdivided into compartments which represent the interstitial fluid, circulating blood plasma, lymph, and transcellular water. The interstitial fluid surrounds cells outside of the vascular system whereas plasma is contained within the blood vessels. Avascular tissues such as dense connective tissue and cartilage contain interstitial water which slowly equilibrates with tracers used to determine extracellular fluid volume. For this reason, additional compartments are sometimes used to represent these avascular tissues. The average size of each compartment, in terms of percent body weight, has been determined for adult males and females. These compartments and the forces which cause flow between them are presented. The kidneys, a main compartment, receive about 25 percent of the cardiac output and filters out a fluid similar to plasma. The composition of this filtered fluid changes as it flows through the kidney tubules since compounds are continually being secreted and reabsorbed. Through this mechanism, the kidneys eliminate wastes while conserving body water, electrolytes, and metabolites. Since sodium accounts for over 90 percent of the cations in the extracellular fluid, and the number of cations is balanced by the number of anions, considering the renal handling sodium and water only should sufficiently describe the relationship between the plasma compartment and kidneys. A kidney function model is presented which has been adapted from a

  4. Econometric models for biohydrogen development.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duu-Hwa; Lee, Duu-Jong; Veziroglu, Ayfer

    2011-09-01

    Biohydrogen is considered as an attractive clean energy source due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. Analyzing various economic scenarios can help decision makers to optimize development strategies for the biohydrogen sector. This study surveys econometric models of biohydrogen development, including input-out models, life-cycle assessment approach, computable general equilibrium models, linear programming models and impact pathway approach. Fundamentals of each model were briefly reviewed to highlight their advantages and disadvantages. The input-output model and the simplified economic input-output life-cycle assessment model proved most suitable for economic analysis of biohydrogen energy development. A sample analysis using input-output model for forecasting biohydrogen development in the United States is given.

  5. Neighborhood Development: Issues and Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    Argues that Neighborhood Development Organization (NDO) staffs and volunteers have a faulty understanding of the political economies of poor urban communities, and have adopted a free market orientation. Recommends an alternative "organizing-driven" model of community development. (FMW)

  6. Developing a model: an illustration.

    PubMed

    Havenga, Yolanda; Poggenpoel, Marie; Myburgh, Chris

    2014-04-01

    Model development may seem a daunting task for the novice. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the steps of model development applied to a real-life phenomenon using an inductive theory-generating research approach. The value of the illustration is that nurse researchers can follow the application of the process as a point of departure for their own work. A logical stepwise discussion is followed for empirical theory development. The logical thought process from identifying the phenomenon to describing the model as a visual metaphor of the phenomenon is illustrated.

  7. Advanced Mirror & Modelling Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Effinger, Michael; Stahl, H. Philip; Abplanalp, Laura; Maffett, Steven; Egerman, Robert; Eng, Ron; Arnold, William; Mosier, Gary; Blaurock, Carl

    2014-01-01

    The 2020 Decadal technology survey is starting in 2018. Technology on the shelf at that time will help guide selection to future low risk and low cost missions. The Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) team has identified development priorities based on science goals and engineering requirements for Ultraviolet Optical near-Infrared (UVOIR) missions in order to contribute to the selection process. One key development identified was lightweight mirror fabrication and testing. A monolithic, stacked, deep core mirror was fused and replicated twice to achieve the desired radius of curvature. It was subsequently successfully polished and tested. A recently awarded second phase to the AMTD project will develop larger mirrors to demonstrate the lateral scaling of the deep core mirror technology. Another key development was rapid modeling for the mirror. One model focused on generating optical and structural model results in minutes instead of months. Many variables could be accounted for regarding the core, face plate and back structure details. A portion of a spacecraft model was also developed. The spacecraft model incorporated direct integration to transform optical path difference to Point Spread Function (PSF) and between PSF to modulation transfer function. The second phase to the project will take the results of the rapid mirror modeler and integrate them into the rapid spacecraft modeler.

  8. Kantian Model of Moral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, Hyun Sub

    A Kantian model of moral development already tested on adolescents was further tested on normal and delinquent Korean adults. The model, based on the philosophy of Kant, starts its causality from the self, moves from the self to parental images, advances from parental images to duty and legality, and moves from duty and legality to a moral…

  9. OSPREY Model Development Status Update

    SciTech Connect

    Veronica J Rutledge

    2014-04-01

    During the processing of used nuclear fuel, volatile radionuclides will be discharged to the atmosphere if no recovery processes are in place to limit their release. The volatile radionuclides of concern are 3H, 14C, 85Kr, and 129I. Methods are being developed, via adsorption and absorption unit operations, to capture these radionuclides. It is necessary to model these unit operations to aid in the evaluation of technologies and in the future development of an advanced used nuclear fuel processing plant. A collaboration between Fuel Cycle Research and Development Offgas Sigma Team member INL and a NEUP grant including ORNL, Syracuse University, and Georgia Institute of Technology has been formed to develop off gas models and support off gas research. Georgia Institute of Technology is developing fundamental level model to describe the equilibrium and kinetics of the adsorption process, which are to be integrated with OSPREY. This report discusses the progress made on expanding OSPREY to be multiple component and the integration of macroscale and microscale level models. Also included in this report is a brief OSPREY user guide.

  10. VARTM Model Development and Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cano, Roberto J. (Technical Monitor); Dowling, Norman E.

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, a comprehensive Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) process simulation model was developed and verified. The model incorporates resin flow through the preform, compaction and relaxation of the preform, and viscosity and cure kinetics of the resin. The computer model can be used to analyze the resin flow details, track the thickness change of the preform, predict the total infiltration time and final fiber volume fraction of the parts, and determine whether the resin could completely infiltrate and uniformly wet out the preform.

  11. USEPA Resistance Management Model development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA requires registrants of plant incorporated protectant (PIP) crops to provide information relating to the time frame for pest resistance development related to the control traits of the crop. Simulation models are used to evaluate the future conditions for resistance de...

  12. Developing + Using Models in Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Todd; Neilson, Drew; Oh, Phil Seok

    2013-01-01

    Of the eight practices of science identified in "A Framework for K-12 Science Education" (NRC 2012), helping students develop and use models has been identified by many as an anchor (Schwarz and Passmore 2012; Windschitl 2012). In instruction, disciplinary core ideas, crosscutting concepts, and scientific practices can be meaningfully…

  13. Deformable human body model development

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, W.O.; Aida, T.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A Deformable Human Body Model (DHBM) capable of simulating a wide variety of deformation interactions between man and his environment has been developed. The model was intended to have applications in automobile safety analysis, soldier survivability studies and assistive technology development for the disabled. To date, we have demonstrated the utility of the DHBM in automobile safety analysis and are currently engaged in discussions with the U.S. military involving two additional applications. More specifically, the DHBM has been incorporated into a Virtual Safety Lab (VSL) for automobile design under contract to General Motors Corporation. Furthermore, we have won $1.8M in funding from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command for development of a noninvasive intracranial pressure measurement system. The proposed research makes use of the detailed head model that is a component of the DHBM; the project duration is three years. In addition, we have been contacted by the Air Force Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory concerning possible use of the DHBM in analyzing the loads and injury potential to pilots upon ejection from military aircraft. Current discussions with Armstrong involve possible LANL participation in a comparison between DHBM and the Air Force Articulated Total Body (ATB) model that is the current military standard.

  14. Modeling plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw

    2004-02-01

    Computational plant models or 'virtual plants' are increasingly seen as a useful tool for comprehending complex relationships between gene function, plant physiology, plant development, and the resulting plant form. The theory of L-systems, which was introduced by Lindemayer in 1968, has led to a well-established methodology for simulating the branching architecture of plants. Many current architectural models provide insights into the mechanisms of plant development by incorporating physiological processes, such as the transport and allocation of carbon. Other models aim at elucidating the geometry of plant organs, including flower petals and apical meristems, and are beginning to address the relationship between patterns of gene expression and the resulting plant form.

  15. Modelling hormonal response and development.

    PubMed

    Voß, Ute; Bishopp, Anthony; Farcot, Etienne; Bennett, Malcolm J

    2014-05-01

    As our knowledge of the complexity of hormone homeostasis, transport, perception, and response increases, and their outputs become less intuitive, modelling is set to become more important. Initial modelling efforts have focused on hormone transport and response pathways. However, we now need to move beyond the network scales and use multicellular and multiscale modelling approaches to predict emergent properties at different scales. Here we review some examples where such approaches have been successful, for example, auxin-cytokinin crosstalk regulating root vascular development or a study of lateral root emergence where an iterative cycle of modelling and experiments lead to the identification of an overlooked role for PIN3. Finally, we discuss some of the remaining biological and technical challenges.

  16. Developing models in virtual cell.

    PubMed

    Neves, Susana R

    2011-09-20

    This Teaching Resource provides lecture notes, slides, and a student assignment for a two-part lecture on mathematical modeling using the Virtual Cell environment. The lectures discuss the steps involved in developing and running simulations using Virtual Cell, with particular focus on spatial partial differential equation models. We discuss how to construct both ordinary differential equation models, in which the cytoplasm is considered a well-mixed cellular compartment, and partial differential equation models, which calculate how chemical species change as a function of both time and location. The Virtual Cell environment is especially well suited for models that explore spatial specificity of cellular reactions. Partial differential equation models in Virtual Cell can give rise to simulations using predefined cellular geometries, which enable direct comparison with imaging data. These models address questions regarding the regulatory capability arising from spatial organization of the cell. Examples are provided of studies that have successfully exploited the Virtual Cell software to address the spatial contribution to signaling.

  17. Space market model development project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of the research program, Space Market Model Development Project, (Phase 1) were: (1) to study the need for business information in the commercial development of space; and (2) to propose a design for an information system to meet the identified needs. Three simultaneous research strategies were used in proceeding toward this goal: (1) to describe the space business information which currently exists; (2) to survey government and business representatives on the information they would like to have; and (3) to investigate the feasibility of generating new economical information about the space industry.

  18. Developing a Malaysia flood model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haseldine, Lucy; Baxter, Stephen; Wheeler, Phil; Thomson, Tina

    2014-05-01

    Faced with growing exposures in Malaysia, insurers have a need for models to help them assess their exposure to flood losses. The need for an improved management of flood risks has been further highlighted by the 2011 floods in Thailand and recent events in Malaysia. The increasing demand for loss accumulation tools in Malaysia has lead to the development of the first nationwide probabilistic Malaysia flood model, which we present here. The model is multi-peril, including river flooding for thousands of kilometres of river and rainfall-driven surface water flooding in major cities, which may cause losses equivalent to river flood in some high-density urban areas. The underlying hazard maps are based on a 30m digital surface model (DSM) and 1D/2D hydraulic modelling in JFlow and RFlow. Key mitigation schemes such as the SMART tunnel and drainage capacities are also considered in the model. The probabilistic element of the model is driven by a stochastic event set based on rainfall data, hence enabling per-event and annual figures to be calculated for a specific insurance portfolio and a range of return periods. Losses are estimated via depth-damage vulnerability functions which link the insured damage to water depths for different property types in Malaysia. The model provides a unique insight into Malaysian flood risk profiles and provides insurers with return period estimates of flood damage and loss to property portfolios through loss exceedance curve outputs. It has been successfully validated against historic flood events in Malaysia and is now being successfully used by insurance companies in the Malaysian market to obtain reinsurance cover.

  19. Development of relaxation turbulence models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, C. M.

    1976-01-01

    Relaxation turbulence models have been intensively studied. The complete time dependent mass averaged Navier-Stokes equations have been solved for flow into a two dimensional compression corner. A new numerical scheme has been incorporated into the developed computed code with an attendant order of magnitude reduction in computation time. Computed solutions are compared with experimental measurements of Law for supersonic flow. Details of the relaxation process have been studied; several different relaxation models, including different relaxation processes and varying relaxation length, are tested and compared. Then a parametric study has been conducted in which both Reynolds number and wedge angle are varied. To assess effects of Reynolds number and wedge angle, the parametric study includes the comparison of computed separation location and upstream extent of pressure rise; numerical results are also compared with the measurements of surface pressure, skin friction and mean velocity field.

  20. Development Model for Research Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wächter, Joachim; Hammitzsch, Martin; Kerschke, Dorit; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    . The maturity of individual scientific domains differs considerably. • Technologically and organisationally many different RI components have to be integrated. Individual systems are often complex and have a long-term history. Existing approaches are on different maturity levels, e.g. in relation to the standardisation of interfaces. • The concrete implementation process consists of independent and often parallel development activities. In many cases no detailed architectural blue-print for the envisioned system exists. • Most of the funding currently available for RI implementation is provided on a project basis. To increase the synergies in infrastructure development the authors propose a specific RI Maturity Model (RIMM) that is specifically qualified for open system-of-system environments. RIMM is based on the concepts of Capability Maturity Models for organisational development, concretely the Levels of Conceptual Interoperability Model (LCIM) specifying the technical, syntactical, semantic, pragmatic, dynamic, and conceptual layers of interoperation [1]. The model is complemented by the identification and integration of growth factors (according to the Nolan Stages Theory [2]). These factors include supply and demand factors. Supply factors comprise available resources, e.g., data, services and IT-management capabilities including organisations and IT-personal. Demand factors are the overall application portfolio for RIs but also the skills and requirements of scientists and communities using the infrastructure. RIMM thus enables a balanced development process of RI and RI components by evaluating the status of the supply and demand factors in relation to specific levels of interoperability. [1] Tolk, A., Diallo, A., Turnitsa, C. (2007): Applying the Levels of Conceptual Interoperability Model in Support of Integratability, Interoperability, and Composability for System-of-Systems Engineering. Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Volume 5 - Number 5. [2

  1. Recent development of hydrodynamic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Tetsufumi

    2014-09-01

    In this talk, I give an overview of recent development in hydrodynamic modeling of high-energy nuclear collisions. First, I briefly discuss about current situation of hydrodynamic modeling by showing results from the integrated dynamical approach in which Monte-Carlo calculation of initial conditions, quark-gluon fluid dynamics and hadronic cascading are combined. In particular, I focus on rescattering effects of strange hadrons on final observables. Next I highlight three topics in recent development in hydrodynamic modeling. These include (1) medium response to jet propagation in di-jet asymmetric events, (2) causal hydrodynamic fluctuation and its application to Bjorken expansion and (3) chiral magnetic wave from anomalous hydrodynamic simulations. (1) Recent CMS data suggest the existence of QGP response to propagation of jets. To investigate this phenomenon, we solve hydrodynamic equations with source term which exhibits deposition of energy and momentum from jets. We find a large number of low momentum particles are emitted at large angle from jet axis. This gives a novel interpretation of the CMS data. (2) It has been claimed that a matter created even in p-p/p-A collisions may behave like a fluid. However, fluctuation effects would be important in such a small system. We formulate relativistic fluctuating hydrodynamics and apply it to Bjorken expansion. We found the final multiplicity fluctuates around the mean value even if initial condition is fixed. This effect is relatively important in peripheral A-A collisions and p-p/p-A collisions. (3) Anomalous transport of the quark-gluon fluid is predicted when extremely high magnetic field is applied. We investigate this possibility by solving anomalous hydrodynamic equations. We found the difference of the elliptic flow parameter between positive and negative particles appears due to the chiral magnetic wave. Finally, I provide some personal perspective of hydrodynamic modeling of high energy nuclear collisions

  2. A Synergistic Model of Organizational Career Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernes, K. B.; Magnusson, K. C.

    The Synergistic Model of Organizational Career Development is a new model of organizational career development that combines the best of career development practice and organizational development into a unified, coherent model. The model has three levels of organization: philosophical, strategic, and practical. Expanding circles are used to…

  3. Developing a Professional Development Program Model Based on Teachers' Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hea-Jin

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a model of a teacher needs-based (TNB) professional development program. The TNB model formed the foundation of three externally funded professional development programs. The objectives of this model are to maximize the effects of a professional development program, and to help participants sustain their learning over the long…

  4. Radiation Environment Modeling for Spacecraft Design: New Model Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet; Xapsos, Mike; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Ladbury, Ray

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on various new space radiation environment models for spacecraft design is described. The topics include: 1) The Space Radiatio Environment; 2) Effects of Space Environments on Systems; 3) Space Radiatio Environment Model Use During Space Mission Development and Operations; 4) Space Radiation Hazards for Humans; 5) "Standard" Space Radiation Environment Models; 6) Concerns about Standard Models; 7) Inadequacies of Current Models; 8) Development of New Models; 9) New Model Developments: Proton Belt Models; 10) Coverage of New Proton Models; 11) Comparison of TPM-1, PSB97, AP-8; 12) New Model Developments: Electron Belt Models; 13) Coverage of New Electron Models; 14) Comparison of "Worst Case" POLE, CRESELE, and FLUMIC Models with the AE-8 Model; 15) New Model Developments: Galactic Cosmic Ray Model; 16) Comparison of NASA, MSU, CIT Models with ACE Instrument Data; 17) New Model Developmemts: Solar Proton Model; 18) Comparison of ESP, JPL91, KIng/Stassinopoulos, and PSYCHIC Models; 19) New Model Developments: Solar Heavy Ion Model; 20) Comparison of CREME96 to CREDO Measurements During 2000 and 2002; 21) PSYCHIC Heavy ion Model; 22) Model Standardization; 23) Working Group Meeting on New Standard Radiation Belt and Space Plasma Models; and 24) Summary.

  5. Piaget's Model of Emotional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse, Petra

    Piaget systematically attempted to relate cognitive, moral, and emotional development in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. In his view, cognitive and emotional development show parallel, complementary courses of development, with cognition providing the structure and emotion the energy of development. Just as children go through stages of…

  6. Curriculum Development: A Philosophical Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, William H.

    Presenting models based on the philosophies of Carl Rogers, John Dewey, Erich Fromm, and Jean-Paul Sartre, this paper proposes a philosophical approach to education and concludes with pragmatic suggestions concerning teaching based on a fully-functioning-person model. The fully-functioning person is characterized as being open to experience,…

  7. Development of ocean model LSOMG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachl, Libor; Martinec, Zdenek

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this contribution is to present the ocean general circulation model LSOMG. It originates from the LSG (Maier-Reimer and Mikolajewicz, 1992) ocean model, however, significant number of changes has been made. LSOMG is a z-coordinate baroclinic ocean model which solves the primitive equations under the Boussinesq approximation. We intend to use the model for a various geophysical applications with the focus on paleoclimate studies. Hence, the model is not as complex as the current state-of-art climate models, such as the Modular Ocean Model or NEMO models. On the other hand, it is less computationally demanding. The changes and improvements in the code will be reported. One of the obvious changes is that the governing equations are no more discretized on the Arakawa E grid. The whole model has been rewritten on the Arakawa C grid. The main motivation is to avoid a coexistence of two solutions on the grid that evolve independently of each other. A more natural treatment of boundary conditions and simpler structure of the grid are additional advantages. Another significant change is the treatment of time tendencies. The system of equations is split to barotropic and baroclinic subsystems. Both subsystems may either be discretized at the same time points (as in the original LSG model), or their discretizations may be staggered in time as described in Griffies (2004). The original fully implicit barotropic time stepping scheme was found to significantly dissipate energy. Three different time stepping schemes are available instead. Namely, the predictor-corrector scheme of Griffies (2004), the generalized forward-backward scheme of Shchepetkin and McWilliams (2008) and the implicit free surface scheme of Campin et al. (2004). The first two schemes are intended to be used with the split-explicit model configuration for short-term studies whereas the third scheme is suitable for long-term studies, e.g. paleoclimate studies. The short-term studies may also

  8. History of model development at Temple, TX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Model development at Temple, Texas, USA has a long history. Prior to the actual model develop-ment research, a hydrological data collection programme was established at Riesel, Texas (about 60 km northeast of Temple) in 1937. Data collected from the Riesel watersheds during 1937–2006 have been valua...

  9. Modeling First Grade Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesmer, Heidi Anne E.; Williams, Thomas O.

    2014-01-01

    This study tested a hypothesized model examining reading proficiency across first grade. It addressed how alphabetics at the beginning of the year were mediated by applied and automated skills at the middle of the year to explain actualized reading at the end of the year. The alphabetic skills of 102 first graders were measured in October and the…

  10. Developing Empirically Based Models of Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blythe, Betty J.; Briar, Scott

    1985-01-01

    Over the last decade emphasis has shifted from theoretically based models of practice to empirically based models whose elements are derived from clinical research. These models are defined and a developing model of practice through the use of single-case methodology is examined. Potential impediments to this new role are identified. (Author/BL)

  11. Yield model development project implementation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambroziak, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Tasks remaining to be completed are summarized for the following major project elements: (1) evaluation of crop yield models; (2) crop yield model research and development; (3) data acquisition processing, and storage; (4) related yield research: defining spectral and/or remote sensing data requirements; developing input for driving and testing crop growth/yield models; real time testing of wheat plant process models) and (5) project management and support.

  12. Community Capacity and Resource Mapping: Model Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dedrick, Angie; Mitchell, Graham

    This document explains the use of a model for mapping community capacity and resources that was developed by the community development office of a health group in Edmonton, Alberta, and applied in a collaborative pilot project in preparation for development of a community health plan. A brief discussion of the factors leading to development of the…

  13. SSME structural dynamic model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    The high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) is a major component of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) powerhead. The device is a three stage centrifugal pump that is directly driven by a two stage hot gas turbine. The purpose of the pump is to deliver fuel (liquid hydrogen) from the low pressure fuel turbopump (LPFTP) through the main fuel valve (MFV) to the thrust chamber coolant circuits. In doing so, the pump pressurizes the fuel from an inlet pressure of approximately 178 psi to a discharge pressure of over 6000 psi. At full power level (FPL), the pump rotates at a speed of over 37,000 rpm while generating approximately 77,000 horsepower. Obviously, a pump failure at these speeds and power levels could jeopardize the mission. Results are summarized for work in which the solutions obtained from analytical models of the fuel turbopump impellers are compared with the results obtained from dynamic tests.

  14. Resist development modeling for OPC accuracy improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yongfa; Zavyalova, Lena; Zhang, Yunqiang; Zhang, Charlie; Lucas, Kevin; Falch, Brad; Croffie, Ebo; Li, Jianliang; Melvin, Lawrence; Ward, Brian

    2009-03-01

    A precise lithographic model has always been a critical component for the technique of Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) since it was introduced a decade ago [1]. As semiconductor manufacturing moves to 32nm and 22nm technology nodes with 193nm wafer immersion lithography, the demand for more accurate models is unprecedented to predict complex imaging phenomena at high numerical aperture (NA) with aggressive illumination conditions necessary for these nodes. An OPC model may comprise all the physical processing components from mask e-beam writing steps to final CDSEM measurement of the feature dimensions. In order to provide a precise model, it is desired that every component involved in the processing physics be accurately modeled using minimum metrology data. In the past years, much attention has been paid to studying mask 3-D effects, mask writing limitations, laser spectrum profile, lens pupil polarization/apodization, source shape characterization, stage vibration, and so on. However, relatively fewer studies have been devoted to modeling of the development process of resist film though it is an essential processing step that cannot be neglected. Instead, threshold models are commonly used to approximate resist development behavior. While resist models capable of simulating development path are widely used in many commercial lithography simulators, the lack of this component in current OPC modeling lies in the fact that direct adoption of those development models into OPC modeling compromises its capability of full chip simulation. In this work, we have successfully incorporated a photoresist development model into production OPC modeling software without sacrificing its full chip capability. The resist film development behavior is simulated in the model to incorporate observed complex resist phenomena such as surface inhibition, developer mass transport, HMDS poisoning, development contrast, etc. The necessary parameters are calibrated using metrology data

  15. Problem Solving, Modeling, and Local Conceptual Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesh, Richard; Harel, Guershon

    2003-01-01

    Describes similarities and differences between modeling cycles and stages of development. Includes examples of relevant constructs underlying children's developing ways of thinking about fractions, ratios, rates, proportions, or other mathematical ideas. Concludes that modeling cycles appear to be local or situated versions of the general stages…

  16. Program Development and Evaluation: A Modeling Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Donald W.; Corgiat, RayLene

    A model of program development and evaluation was developed at Genesee Community College, utilizing a system theory/process of deductive and inductive reasoning to ensure coherence and continuity within the program. The model links activities to specific measurable outcomes. Evaluation checks and feedback are built in at various levels so that…

  17. International Development Models for Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, William K.; Williams, James

    2005-01-01

    Over the last half century of educational development, six distinctive administrative models have emerged: (1) neo-colonial, (2) centralised, (3) decentralised-regionalisation, (4) decentralised-sectoral, (5) community-based, and (6) transformative models. The origins, strengths, and weaknesses of the respective models are reviewed and compared.…

  18. Three Models for the Curriculum Development Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, James

    1973-01-01

    Presents descriptions of the management, systematic, and open-access curriculum development models to identify the decisionmaking bases, operational processes, evaluation requirements, and curriculum control methods of each model. A possible relationship among these models is then suggested. (Author/DN)

  19. Faculty Development Using the Situational Leadership Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaner, Michael C.

    1995-01-01

    The situational leadership model developed by Hersey and Blanchard is described, and the task-specific model is then applied to the four primary tasks of college faculty--teaching, research, community service, and institutional service. The model combines directive and supportive behavior as they are reflected in four distinctive leadership…

  20. Army Systems Engineering Career Development Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-15

    Army Systems Engineering Career Development Model Technical Report SERC-2015-TR-042-3 January 15, 2015 Principal Investigators: Dr... Career Development Model 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER HQ0034-13-D-0004 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Pennotti /Val Gavito Michael...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Army Improved Systems Engineering (SE) Career Development System (CDS) report begins with a description of the

  1. What Develops in Moral Development? A Model of Moral Sensibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherblom, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The field of moral psychology would benefit from an integrative model of what develops in moral development, contextualized within the larger scope of social science research. Moral sensibility is proposed as the best concept to embody stated aims, but the content of this concept must be more finely articulated and conceptualized as a dynamic…

  2. New developments in internal dosimetry models.

    PubMed

    Nosske, D; Blanchardon, E; Bolch, W E; Breustedt, B; Eckerman, K F; Giussani, A; Harrison, J D; Klein, W; Leggett, R W; Lopez, M A; Luciani, A; Zankl, M

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes new biokinetic and dosimetric models, especially those being developed by ICRP which will be used in the forthcoming documents on Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides. It also presents the results of a working group within the European project CONRAD which is being continued within EURADOS. This group is implementing the new models, performing quality assurance of the model implementation (including their description) and giving guidance to the scientific community on the application of the models for individual dose assessment.

  3. An Aristotelian Model of Moral Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderse, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    Despite the Aristotelian renaissance in the philosophy of education, the development of virtue has not received much attention. This is unfortunate, because an attempt to draft an Aristotelian model of moral development can help philosophers to evaluate the contribution Aristotelian virtue ethics can make to our understanding of moral development,…

  4. A Career Roles Model of Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekstra, Hans A.

    2011-01-01

    Career development is described as the interactive progression of internal career identity formation and the growth of external career significance. Argued is the need for a content model of career development where the field is dominated by process theories. A theory is put forward of career development crystallizing in the acquisition of career…

  5. Development of a comprehensive weld process model

    SciTech Connect

    Radhakrishnan, B.; Zacharia, T.; Paul, A.

    1997-05-01

    This cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) combines CTC`s expertise in the welding area and that of LMES to develop computer models and simulation software for welding processes. This development is of significant impact to the industry, including materials producers and fabricators. The main thrust of the research effort was to develop a comprehensive welding simulation methodology. A substantial amount of work has been done by several researchers to numerically model several welding processes. The primary drawback of most of the existing models is the lack of sound linkages between the mechanistic aspects (e.g., heat transfer, fluid flow, and residual stress) and the metallurgical aspects (e.g., microstructure development and control). A comprehensive numerical model which can be used to elucidate the effect of welding parameters/conditions on the temperature distribution, weld pool shape and size, solidification behavior, and microstructure development, as well as stresses and distortion, does not exist. It was therefore imperative to develop a comprehensive model which would predict all of the above phenomena during welding. The CRADA built upon an already existing three-dimensional (3-D) welding simulation model which was developed by LMES which is capable of predicting weld pool shape and the temperature history in 3-d single-pass welds. However, the model does not account for multipass welds, microstructural evolution, distortion and residual stresses. Additionally, the model requires large resources of computing time, which limits its use for practical applications. To overcome this, CTC and LMES have developed through this CRADA the comprehensive welding simulation model described above.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF WATER CIRCULATION MODEL INCLUDING IRRIGATION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsuki, Shunji; Tanaka, Kenji; Kojiri, Toshiharu; Hamaguchi, Toshio

    It is well known that since agricultural water withdrawal has much affect on water circulation system, accurate analysis of river discharge or water balance are difficult with less regard for it. In this study, water circulation model composed of land surface model and distributed runoff model is proposed at 10km 10km resolution. In this model, irrigation water, which is estimated with land surface model, is introduced to river discharge analysis. The model is applied to the Chao Phraya River in Thailand, and reproduced seasonal water balance. Additionally, the discharge on dry season simulated with the model is improved as a result of including irrigation. Since the model, which is basically developed from global data sets, simulated seasonal change of river discharge, it can be suggested that our model has university to other river basins.

  7. The development of the EASE model.

    PubMed

    Tickner, John; Friar, Jeff; Creely, Karen S; Cherrie, John W; Pryde, D Eric; Kingston, John

    2005-03-01

    The estimation and assessment of substance exposure (EASE) model has been under development and in use since the early 1990s. It is a general model that can be used to predict workplace exposure to any substance hazardous to health. The current EASE model (version 2.0) has been used widely in the risk assessment of new and existing chemicals by the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and other regulatory agencies. EASE has also been distributed globally to over 200 users and therefore may have been used for many other purposes. Despite widespread use of the model, neither the development of its structure nor its underlying concepts and principles have been published in the open literature. Using surviving documentary evidence and discussions with key personnel, the creation and development of the model from 1992 to 2002 is described. The role of the HSE's National Exposure Database (NEDB) as the principal data source for the development of the model output exposure ranges is described. A number of problems and limitations of the model have been identified and the description of the model's development provides some explanation of their presence.

  8. Gene Regulation Networks for Modeling Drosophila Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mjolsness, E.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter will very briefly introduce and review some computational experiments in using trainable gene regulation network models to simulate and understand selected episodes in the development of the fruit fly, Drosophila Melanogaster.

  9. Mathematical Model Development and Simulation Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, Ronald C.; Tobbe, Patrick A.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in support of the Contact Dynamics 6DOF Facility and the Flight Robotics Lab at NASA/ MSFC in the areas of Mathematical Model Development and Simulation Support.

  10. Average-passage flow model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, John J.; Celestina, Mark L.; Beach, Tim A.; Kirtley, Kevin; Barnett, Mark

    1989-01-01

    A 3-D model was developed for simulating multistage turbomachinery flows using supercomputers. This average passage flow model described the time averaged flow field within a typical passage of a bladed wheel within a multistage configuration. To date, a number of inviscid simulations were executed to assess the resolution capabilities of the model. Recently, the viscous terms associated with the average passage model were incorporated into the inviscid computer code along with an algebraic turbulence model. A simulation of a stage-and-one-half, low speed turbine was executed. The results of this simulation, including a comparison with experimental data, is discussed.

  11. Sectioning Clay Models Makes Anatomy & Development Tangible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Carina Endres; Howell, James Endres

    2010-01-01

    Clay models have proved to be useful teaching aids for many topics in biology that depend on three-dimensional reasoning. Students studying embryonic development struggle to mentally reconstruct the three-dimensional structure of embryos and larvae by observing prepared slides of cross-sectional slices. Students who build clay models of embryos…

  12. Survey of Instructional Development Models. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Kent L.; Branch, Robert Maribe

    This ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) monograph updates and expands upon earlier ERIC publications on the topic of instructional development (ID) models. This monograph presents a brief history of ID models, describes a taxonomy for classifying them, provides examples from each of the categories in the taxonomy, and describes trends…

  13. The PEARL Model of Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilgin, Mert

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses perception (P), environment (E), action (A), relationship (R), and locality (L) as the social indicators of sustainable development (SD), the capital letters of which label the PEARL model. The paper refers to PEARL with regard to three aspects to elaborate the promises and limits of the model. Theoretically; it discusses…

  14. Developing Modelling Lenses among Practicing Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahbari, Juhaina Awawdeh; Tabach, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Growing awareness of the importance of modelling activities in mathematics education has raised the question of whether teachers are prepared to facilitate the engagement of students in such activities. The current study investigates the effects of how teachers cope with modelling activities in developing their abilities to identify modelling…

  15. Developing Fault Models for Space Mission Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikora, Allen P.; Munson, John C.

    2003-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the development of fault models for space mission software is shown. The topics include: 1) Goal: Improve Understanding of Technology Fault Generation Process; 2) Required Measurement; 3) Measuring Structural Evolution; 4) Module Attributes; 5) Principal Components of Raw Metrics; 6) The Measurement Process; 7) View of Structural Evolution at the System and Module Level; 8) Identifying and Counting Faults; 9) Fault Enumeration; 10) Modeling Fault Content; 11) Modeling Results; 12) Current and Future Work; and 13) Discussion and Conclusions.

  16. Landscape development modeling based on statistical framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohjola, Jari; Turunen, Jari; Lipping, Tarmo; Ikonen, Ari T. K.

    2014-01-01

    Future biosphere modeling has an essential role in assessing the safety of a proposed nuclear fuel repository. In Finland the basic inputs needed for future biosphere modeling are the digital elevation model and the land uplift model because the surface of the ground is still rising due to the download stress caused by the last ice age. The future site-scale land uplift is extrapolated by fitting mathematical expressions to known data from past shoreline positions. In this paper, the parameters of this fitting have been refined based on information about lake and mire basin isolation and archaeological findings. Also, an alternative eustatic model is used in parameter refinement. Both datasets involve uncertainties so Monte Carlo simulation is used to acquire several realizations of the model parameters. The two statistical models, the digital elevation model and the refined land uplift model, were used as inputs to a GIS-based toolbox where the characteristics of lake projections for the future Olkiluoto nuclear fuel repository site were estimated. The focus of the study was on surface water bodies since they are the major transport channels for radionuclides in containment failure scenarios. The results of the study show that the different land uplift modeling schemes relying on alternative eustatic models, Moho map versions and function fitting techniques yield largely similar landscape development tracks. However, the results also point out some more improbable realizations, which deviate significantly from the main development tracks.

  17. Developing modelling lenses among practicing teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awawdeh Shahbari, Juhaina; Tabach, Michal

    2016-07-01

    Growing awareness of the importance of modelling activities in mathematics education has raised the question of whether teachers are prepared to facilitate the engagement of students in such activities. The current study investigates the effects of how teachers cope with modelling activities in developing their abilities to identify modelling cycles. The research was conducted among 34 practicing teachers studying for master's degrees at a college of education. The data were collected from two reports and one reflection provided by the participants about a modelling activity conducted by a group of five sixth-grade students. The first report was submitted before the participants themselves dealt with the modelling activities, while the second report and the reflection were submitted after their participation in the modelling activities. The findings indicate that prior to participating in the activity most of the teachers described the students' participation in modelling activity as a linear process. The participating teachers noticed the final mathematical model and the mathematical results obtained from applying the model, but most of them ignored the realistic results, the validating process and the cyclical nature of the mathematical model's progress. However, after the practicing teachers participated in modelling activities as learners, their reports indicated that most were able to recognize all the modelling phases and to distinguish the cyclical processes of the progress of the mathematical models. Moreover, according to the analyses of the reflections, the participating teachers are aware of the changes in their descriptions.

  18. Modeling Socioeconomic Status Effects on Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michael S. C.; Forrester, Neil A.; Ronald, Angelica

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important environmental predictor of language and cognitive development, but the causal pathways by which it operates are unclear. We used a computational model of development to explore the adequacy of manipulations of environmental information to simulate SES effects in English past-tense acquisition, in a data…

  19. An Innovative Model for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Sharon; O'Neill, Susan; Thompson, Ross

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers an innovative model of continuing professional development in addressing the needs of children with literacy difficulties, namely the Special Educational Needs Continuing Professional Development Literacy Project. Stranmillis University College, in partnership with St Mary's University College, Belfast secured £4.06 million…

  20. Dynamic Modeling, Chaos, and Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Mark L.; Rabinowitz, F. Michael

    1994-01-01

    Introduces the essential constructs involved in dynamic modeling, in relation to issues in psychological development. Presents several instances of how the principles of dynamic systems can be translated into mathematical formalism. Concludes that transition is a key invariance in development and that single subject, longitudinal designs are…

  1. RDD-100 model development for TWRS

    SciTech Connect

    Gneiting, B.C.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work performed to develop an executable model of the TWRS technical baseline using the RDD-100 Dynamic Verification Facility. The benefit of developing a DVF model that simulates the conceptual TWRS baseline system is that is provides a verification of the system performance and the traceability needed between the system requirements and the proposed architectures that will satisfy the requirements and perform the identified functions. The initial modeling results showed some potential interface and scheduling conflicts between some of the TWRS components.

  2. Development and Integration of Control System Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Young K.

    1998-01-01

    The computer simulation tool, TREETOPS, has been upgraded and used at NASA/MSFC to model various complicated mechanical systems and to perform their dynamics and control analysis with pointing control systems. A TREETOPS model of Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility - Imaging (AXAF-1) dynamics and control system was developed to evaluate the AXAF-I pointing performance for Normal Pointing Mode. An optical model of Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) was also developed and its optical performance analysis was done using the MACOS software.

  3. A Generic Modeling Process to Support Functional Fault Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Hemminger, Joseph A.; Oostdyk, Rebecca; Bis, Rachael A.

    2016-01-01

    Functional fault models (FFMs) are qualitative representations of a system's failure space that are used to provide a diagnostic of the modeled system. An FFM simulates the failure effect propagation paths within a system between failure modes and observation points. These models contain a significant amount of information about the system including the design, operation and off nominal behavior. The development and verification of the models can be costly in both time and resources. In addition, models depicting similar components can be distinct, both in appearance and function, when created individually, because there are numerous ways of representing the failure space within each component. Generic application of FFMs has the advantages of software code reuse: reduction of time and resources in both development and verification, and a standard set of component models from which future system models can be generated with common appearance and diagnostic performance. This paper outlines the motivation to develop a generic modeling process for FFMs at the component level and the effort to implement that process through modeling conventions and a software tool. The implementation of this generic modeling process within a fault isolation demonstration for NASA's Advanced Ground System Maintenance (AGSM) Integrated Health Management (IHM) project is presented and the impact discussed.

  4. Development of a working Hovercraft model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noor, S. H. Mohamed; Syam, K.; Jaafar, A. A.; Mohamad Sharif, M. F.; Ghazali, M. R.; Ibrahim, W. I.; Atan, M. F.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the development process to fabricate a working hovercraft model. The purpose of this study is to design and investigate of a fully functional hovercraft, based on the studies that had been done. The different designs of hovercraft model had been made and tested but only one of the models is presented in this paper. In this thesis, the weight, the thrust, the lift and the drag force of the model had been measured and the electrical and mechanical parts are also presented. The processing unit of this model is Arduino Uno by using the PSP2 (Playstation 2) as the controller. Since our prototype should be functioning on all kind of earth surface, our model also had been tested in different floor condition. They include water, grass, cement and tile. The Speed of the model is measured in every case as the respond variable, Current (I) as the manipulated variable and Voltage (V) as the constant variable.

  5. Testing Strategies for Model-Based Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimdahl, Mats P. E.; Whalen, Mike; Rajan, Ajitha; Miller, Steven P.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents an approach for testing artifacts generated in a model-based development process. This approach divides the traditional testing process into two parts: requirements-based testing (validation testing) which determines whether the model implements the high-level requirements and model-based testing (conformance testing) which determines whether the code generated from a model is behaviorally equivalent to the model. The goals of the two processes differ significantly and this report explores suitable testing metrics and automation strategies for each. To support requirements-based testing, we define novel objective requirements coverage metrics similar to existing specification and code coverage metrics. For model-based testing, we briefly describe automation strategies and examine the fault-finding capability of different structural coverage metrics using tests automatically generated from the model.

  6. Modeling psychiatric disorders for developing effective treatments

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Tobias; Feng, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    The recent advance in identifying risk genes has provided an unprecedented opportunity for developing animal models for psychiatric disease research with the goal of attaining translational utility to ultimately develop novel treatments. However, at this early stage, successful translation has yet to be achieved. Here, we review recent advances in modeling psychiatric disease, discuss utility and limitations of animal models, and emphasize the importance of shifting from behavioral analysis to identifying neurophysiological defects, which are likely more conserved across species and thus increase translatability. Looking forward, we envision that preclinical research will align with clinical research to build a common framework of comparable neurobiological abnormalities and form subgroups of patients based on similar pathophysiology. Experimental neuroscience can then use animal models to discover mechanisms underlying distinct abnormalities and develop strategies for effective treatments. PMID:26340119

  7. Development of NASA's Models and Simulations Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertch, William J.; Zang, Thomas A.; Steele, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    From the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation, there were several NASA-wide actions that were initiated. One of these actions was to develop a standard for development, documentation, and operation of Models and Simulations. Over the course of two-and-a-half years, a team of NASA engineers, representing nine of the ten NASA Centers developed a Models and Simulation Standard to address this action. The standard consists of two parts. The first is the traditional requirements section addressing programmatics, development, documentation, verification, validation, and the reporting of results from both the M&S analysis and the examination of compliance with this standard. The second part is a scale for evaluating the credibility of model and simulation results using levels of merit associated with 8 key factors. This paper provides an historical account of the challenges faced by and the processes used in this committee-based development effort. This account provides insights into how other agencies might approach similar developments. Furthermore, we discuss some specific applications of models and simulations used to assess the impact of this standard on future model and simulation activities.

  8. System model development for nuclear thermal propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, J.T.; Hannan, N.A.; Perkins, K.R.; Buksa, J.J.; Worley, B.A.; Dobranich, D.

    1992-10-01

    A critical enabling technology in the evolutionary development of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) is the ability to predict the system performance under a variety of operating conditions. Since October 1991, US (DOE), (DOD) and NASA have initiated critical technology development efforts for NTP systems to be used on Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to the Moon and Mars. This paper presents the strategy and progress of an interagency NASA/DOE/DOD team for NTP system modeling. It is the intent of the interagency team to develop several levels of computer programs to simulate various NTP systems. An interagency team was formed for this task to use the best capabilities available and to assure appropriate peer review. The vision and strategy of the interagency team for developing NTP system models will be discussed in this paper. A review of the progress on the Level 1 interagency model is also presented.

  9. PK/PD models in antibacterial development

    PubMed Central

    Velkov, Tony; Bergen, Phillip; Lora-Tamayo, Jaime; Landersdorfer, Cornelia B.; Li, Jian

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need for novel antibiotics to treat life-threatening infections caused by bacterial ‘superbugs’. Validated in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) and animal infection models have been employed to identify the most predictive PK/PD indices and serve as key tools in the antibiotic development process. The results obtained can be utilized for optimizing study designs in order to minimize the cost and duration of clinical trials. This review outlines the key in vitro PK/PD and animal infection models which have been extensively used in antibiotic discovery and development. These models have shown great potential in accelerating drug development programs and will continue to make significant contributions to antibiotic development. PMID:23871724

  10. Modeling socioeconomic status effects on language development.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Michael S C; Forrester, Neil A; Ronald, Angelica

    2013-12-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important environmental predictor of language and cognitive development, but the causal pathways by which it operates are unclear. We used a computational model of development to explore the adequacy of manipulations of environmental information to simulate SES effects in English past-tense acquisition, in a data set provided by Bishop (2005). To our knowledge, this is the first application of computational models of development to SES. The simulations addressed 3 new challenges: (a) to combine models of development and individual differences in a single framework, (b) to expand modeling to the population level, and (c) to implement both environmental and genetic/intrinsic sources of individual differences. The model succeeded in capturing the qualitative patterns of regularity effects in both population performance and the predictive power of SES that were observed in the empirical data. The model suggested that the empirical data are best captured by relatively wider variation in learning abilities and relatively narrow variation in (and good quality of) environmental information. There were shortcomings in the model's quantitative fit, which are discussed. The model made several novel predictions, with respect to the influence of SES on delay versus giftedness, the change of SES effects over development, and the influence of SES on children of different ability levels (gene-environment interactions). The first of these predictions was that SES should reliably predict gifted performance in children but not delayed performance, and the prediction was supported by the Bishop data set. Finally, the model demonstrated limits on the inferences that can be drawn about developmental mechanisms on the basis of data from individual differences.

  11. Model for STratospheric Aerosols -MOSTRA : Latest developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingen, Christine; Errera, Quentin; Chabrillat, Simon; Vanhellemont, Filip; Fussen, Didier; Mateshvili, Nina; Dekemper, Emmanuel; Loodts, Nicolas

    We present the most recent work related to the development and use of the Model for STrato-spheric Aerosols (MOSTRA). This model is a 3D microphysical/transport model describing the evolution in time and space of the aerosol size distribution described using a set of particle bins. The microphysical module used in the model is based on the PSCBOX model developed by Larsen (2000). The transport module is based on the transport model used in the Belgian Assimilation System of Chemical Observations from Envisat (BASCOE), using a flux-form semi-Lagrangian scheme developed by Lin and Rood (1996). In this presentation, we discuss current challenges and issues, as well as our projects related to MOSTRA for the near future. References: N. Larsen, Polar Stratospheric Clouds, Microphysical and optical models, Scientific Report 00-06, Danish Meteorological Institute, 2000 Lin, S.-J. Rood, R.B., Multidimensional Flux-Form Semi-Lagrangian Transport Schemes, Monthly Weather Review, 124, 2046-2070, 1996.

  12. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  13. Clover development during spaceflight: a model system.

    PubMed

    Guikema, J A; DeBell, L; Paulsen, A; Spooner, B S; Wong, P P

    1994-01-01

    The development of legume root nodules was studied as a model system for the examination of gravitational effects on plant root development. In order to examine whether rhizobial association with clover roots can be achieved in microgravity, experiments were performed aboard the KC-135 parabolic aircraft and aboard the sounding rocket mission Consort 3. Binding of rhizobia to roots and the initial stages of root nodule development successfully occurred in microgravity. Seedling germination experiments were performed in the sliding block device, the Materials Dispersion Apparatus, aboard STS-37. When significant hydration of the seeds was achieved, normal rates of germination and seedling development were observed.

  14. Clover development during spaceflight: A model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guikema, James A.; Debell, Lynnette; Paulsen, Avelina; Spooner, Brian S.; Wong, Peter P.

    1994-08-01

    The development of legume root nodules was studied as a model system for the examination of gravitational effects on plant root development. In order to examine whether rhizobial association with clover roots can be achieved in microgravity, experiments were performed aboard the KC-135 parabolic aircraft and aboard the sounding rocket mission Consort 3. Binding of rhizobia to roots and the initial stages of root nodule development successfully occurred in microgravity. Seedling germination experiments were performed in the sliding block device, the Materials Dispersion Apparatus, aboard STS-37. When significant hydration of the seeds was achieved, normal rates of germination and seedling development were observed.

  15. Clover development during spaceflight: A model system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guikema, James A.; Debell, Lynnette; Paulsen, Avelina; Spooner, Brian S.; Wong, Peter P.

    1994-01-01

    The development of legume root nodules was studied as a model system for the examination of gravitational effects on plant root development. In order to examine whether rhizobial association with clover roots can be achieved in microgravity, experiments were performed aboard the KC-135 parabolic aircraft and aboard the sounding rocket mission Consort 3. Binding of rhizobia to roots and the initial stages of root nodule development successfully occurred in microgravity. Seedling germination experiments were performed in the sliding block device, the Materials Dispersion Apparatus, aboard STS-37. When significant hydration of the seeds was achieved, normal rates of germination and seedling development were observed.

  16. Development of Ensemble Model Based Water Demand Forecasting Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyun-Han; So, Byung-Jin; Kim, Seong-Hyeon; Kim, Byung-Seop

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, Smart Water Grid (SWG) concept has globally emerged over the last decade and also gained significant recognition in South Korea. Especially, there has been growing interest in water demand forecast and optimal pump operation and this has led to various studies regarding energy saving and improvement of water supply reliability. Existing water demand forecasting models are categorized into two groups in view of modeling and predicting their behavior in time series. One is to consider embedded patterns such as seasonality, periodicity and trends, and the other one is an autoregressive model that is using short memory Markovian processes (Emmanuel et al., 2012). The main disadvantage of the abovementioned model is that there is a limit to predictability of water demands of about sub-daily scale because the system is nonlinear. In this regard, this study aims to develop a nonlinear ensemble model for hourly water demand forecasting which allow us to estimate uncertainties across different model classes. The proposed model is consist of two parts. One is a multi-model scheme that is based on combination of independent prediction model. The other one is a cross validation scheme named Bagging approach introduced by Brieman (1996) to derive weighting factors corresponding to individual models. Individual forecasting models that used in this study are linear regression analysis model, polynomial regression, multivariate adaptive regression splines(MARS), SVM(support vector machine). The concepts are demonstrated through application to observed from water plant at several locations in the South Korea. Keywords: water demand, non-linear model, the ensemble forecasting model, uncertainty. Acknowledgements This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "Projects for Developing Eco-Innovation Technologies (GT-11-G-02-001-6)

  17. System model development for nuclear thermal propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Hannan, N.A.; Worley, B.A.; Walton, J.T.; Perkins, K.R.; Buksa, J.J.; Dobranich, D.

    1992-11-01

    A critical enabling technology in the evolutionary development of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) is the ability to predict the system performance under a variety of operating conditions. This is crucial for mission analysis and for control subsystem testing as well as for the modeling of various failure modes. Performance must be accurately predicted during steady-state and transient operation, including startup, shutdown and post operation cooling. The development and application of verified and validated system models has the potential to reduce the design, testing, cost and time required for the technology to reach flight-ready status. Since October 1991, the US Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DOD) and NASA have initiated critical technology development efforts for NTP systems to be used on Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to the Moon and Mars. This paper presents the strategy and progress of an interagency NASA/DOE/DOD team for NTP system modeling.

  18. Constitutive model development for isotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective is to develop a unified constitutive model for finite-element structural analysis of turbine engine hot section components. This effort constitutes a different approach for nonlinear finite-element computer codes which were heretofore based on classical inelastic methods. A unified constitutive theory will avoid the simplifying assumptions of classical theory and should more accurately represent the behavior of superalloy materials under cyclic loading conditions and high temperature environments. Model development will be directed toward isotropic, cast nickel-base alloys used for aircooled turbine blades and vanes. The contractor will select a base material for model development and an alternate material for verification purposes from a list of three alloys specified by NASA. The candidate alloys represent a cross-section of turbine blade and vane materials of interest to both large and small size engine manufacturers. Material stock for the base and alternate materials will be supplied to the Contractor by the government.

  19. Preform Characterization in VARTM Process Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Cano, Roberto J.; Hubert, Pascal; Loos, Alfred C.; Kellen, Charles B.; Jensen, Brian J.

    2004-01-01

    Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) is a Liquid Composite Molding (LCM) process where both resin injection and fiber compaction are achieved under pressures of 101.3 kPa or less. Originally developed over a decade ago for marine composite fabrication, VARTM is now considered a viable process for the fabrication of aerospace composites (1,2). In order to optimize and further improve the process, a finite element analysis (FEA) process model is being developed to include the coupled phenomenon of resin flow, preform compaction and resin cure. The model input parameters are obtained from resin and fiber-preform characterization tests. In this study, the compaction behavior and the Darcy permeability of a commercially available carbon fabric are characterized. The resulting empirical model equations are input to the 3- Dimensional Infiltration, version 5 (3DINFILv.5) process model to simulate infiltration of a composite panel.

  20. Turbulence Modeling Validation, Testing, and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardina, J. E.; Huang, P. G.; Coakley, T. J.

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this work is to provide accurate numerical solutions for selected flow fields and to compare and evaluate the performance of selected turbulence models with experimental results. Four popular turbulence models have been tested and validated against experimental data often turbulent flows. The models are: (1) the two-equation k-epsilon model of Wilcox, (2) the two-equation k-epsilon model of Launder and Sharma, (3) the two-equation k-omega/k-epsilon SST model of Menter, and (4) the one-equation model of Spalart and Allmaras. The flows investigated are five free shear flows consisting of a mixing layer, a round jet, a plane jet, a plane wake, and a compressible mixing layer; and five boundary layer flows consisting of an incompressible flat plate, a Mach 5 adiabatic flat plate, a separated boundary layer, an axisymmetric shock-wave/boundary layer interaction, and an RAE 2822 transonic airfoil. The experimental data for these flows are well established and have been extensively used in model developments. The results are shown in the following four sections: Part A describes the equations of motion and boundary conditions; Part B describes the model equations, constants, parameters, boundary conditions, and numerical implementation; and Parts C and D describe the experimental data and the performance of the models in the free-shear flows and the boundary layer flows, respectively.

  1. Development of a Comprehensive Weld Process Model

    SciTech Connect

    Radhakrishnan, B.; Zacharia, T.

    1997-05-01

    This cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) combines CTC's expertise in the welding area and that of LMES to develop computer models and simulation software for welding processes. This development is of significant impact to the industry, including materials producers and fabricators. The main thrust of the research effort was to develop a comprehensive welding simulation methodology. A substantial amount of work has been done by several researchers to numerically model several welding processes. The primary drawback of most of the existing models is the lack of sound linkages between the mechanistic aspects (e.g., heat transfer, fluid flow, and residual stress) and the metallurgical aspects (e.g., microstructure development and control). A comprehensive numerical model which can be used to elucidate the effect of welding parameters/conditions on the temperature distribution, weld pool shape and size, solidification behavior, and microstructure development, as well as stresses and distortion, does not exist. It was therefore imperative to develop a comprehensive model which would predict all of the above phenomena during welding. The CRADA built upon an already existing three- dimensional (3-D) welding simulation model which was developed by LMES which is capable of predicting weld pool shape and the temperature history in 3-d single-pass welds. However, the model does not account for multipass welds, microstructural evolution, distortion and residual stresses. Additionally, the model requires large resources of computing time, which limits its use for practical applications. To overcome this, CTC and LMES have developed through this CRADA the comprehensive welding simulation model described above. The following technical tasks have been accomplished as part of the CRADA. 1. The LMES welding code has been ported to the Intel Paragon parallel computer at ORNL

  2. Software Model Of Software-Development Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chi Y.; Synott, Debra J.; Levary, Reuven R.

    1990-01-01

    Collection of computer programs constitutes software tool for simulation of medium- to large-scale software-development projects. Necessary to include easily identifiable and more-readily quantifiable characteristics like costs, times, and numbers of errors. Mathematical model incorporating these and other factors of dynamics of software-development process implemented in the Software Life Cycle Simulator (SLICS) computer program. Simulates dynamics of software-development process. In combination with input and output expert software systems and knowledge-based management software system, develops information for use in managing large software-development project. Intended to aid managers in planning, managing, and controlling software-development processes by reducing uncertainties in budgets, required personnel, and schedules.

  3. Development modeling of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Higley, Leon G.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between insect development and temperature has been well established and has a wide range of uses, including the use of blow flies for postmortem (PMI) interval estimations in death investigations. To use insects in estimating PMI, we must be able to determine the insect age at the time of discovery and backtrack to time of oviposition. Unfortunately, existing development models of forensically important insects are only linear approximations and do not take into account the curvilinear properties experienced at extreme temperatures. A series of experiments were conducted with Lucilia sericata, a forensically important blow fly species, that met the requirements needed to create statistically valid development models. Experiments were conducted over 11 temperatures (7.5 to 32.5 °C, at 2.5 °C) with a 16:8 L:D cycle. Experimental units contained 20 eggs, 10 g beef liver, and 2.5 cm of pine shavings. Each life stage (egg to adult) had five sampling times. Each sampling time was replicated four times, for a total of 20 measurements per life stage. For each sampling time, the cups were pulled from the chambers and the stage of each maggot was documented morphologically through posterior spiracle slits and cephalopharyngeal skeletal development. Data were normally distributed with the later larval stages (L3f, L3m) having the most variation within and transitioning between stages. The biological minimum was between 7.5 °C and 10 °C, with little egg development and no egg emergence at 7.5 °C. Temperature-induced mortality was highest from 10.0 to 17.5 °C and 32.5 °C. The development data generated illustrates the advantages of large datasets in modeling Lucilia sericata development and the need for curvilinear models in describing development at environmental temperatures near the biological minima and maxima. PMID:25780761

  4. C++ Model Developer (CMD) User Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    SIMULATION 66 5 SCALABILITY – BUILDING A 6 DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM (6DOF) SIMULATION One problem with a lot of simulation documentation is that simple...Directorate Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center Ray Sells Michael Fennell DESE Research, Inc. 315 Wynn Drive...C++ Model Developer (CMD) is an open-source C++ source code based environment for building simulations of systems described by time-based

  5. Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Buechler, Cynthia Eileen

    2015-12-03

    This report will describe the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model that was developed to calculate the temperatures and gas volume fractions in the solution vessel during the irradiation. It is based on the model used to calculate temperatures and volume fractions in an annular vessel containing an aqueous solution of uranium . The experiment was repeated at several electron beam power levels, but the CFD analysis was performed only for the 12 kW irradiation, because this experiment came the closest to reaching a steady-state condition. The aim of the study is to compare results of the calculation with experimental measurements to determine the validity of the CFD model.

  6. Growing models of vertebrate limb development.

    PubMed

    Towers, Matthew; Tickle, Cheryll

    2009-01-01

    The developing limb has been a very influential system for studying pattern formation in vertebrates. In the past, classical embryological models have explained how patterned structures are generated along the two principal axes of the limb: the proximodistal (shoulder to finger) and anteroposterior (thumb to little finger) axes. Over time, the genetic and molecular attributes of these patterning models have been discovered, while the role of growth in the patterning process has been only recently highlighted. In this review, we discuss these recent findings and propose how the various models of limb patterning can be reconciled.

  7. SSME structural dynamic model development, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, M. J.; Wilson, V. L.

    1985-01-01

    A set of test correlated mathematical models of the SSME High Pressure Oxygen Turbopump (HPOTP) housing and rotor assembly was produced. New analysis methods within the EISI/EAL and SPAR systems were investigated and runstreams for future use were developed. The LOX pump models have undergone extensive modification since the first phase of this effort was completed. The rotor assembly from the original model was abandoned and a new, more detailed model constructed. A description of the new rotor math model is presented. Also, the pump housing model was continually modified as additional test data have become available. This model is documented along with measured test results. Many of the more advanced features of the EAL/SPAR finite element analysis system were exercised. These included the cyclic symmetry option, the macro-element procedures, and the fluid analysis capability. In addition, a new tool was developed that allows an automated analysis of a disjoint structure in terms of its component modes. A complete description of the implementation of the Craig-Bampton method is given along with two worked examples.

  8. Development and Validation of Reaction Wheel Disturbance Models: Empirical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masterson, R. A.; Miller, D. W.; Grogan, R. L.

    2002-01-01

    Accurate disturbance models are necessary to predict the effects of vibrations on the performance of precision space-based telescopes, such as the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). There are many possible disturbance sources on such spacecraft, but mechanical jitter from the reaction wheel assembly (RWA) is anticipated to be the largest. A method has been developed and implemented in the form of a MATLAB toolbox to extract parameters for an empirical disturbance model from RWA micro-vibration data. The disturbance model is based on one that was used to predict the vibration behaviour of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) wheels and assumes that RWA disturbances consist of discrete harmonics of the wheel speed with amplitudes proportional to the wheel speed squared. The MATLAB toolbox allows the extension of this empirical disturbance model for application to any reaction wheel given steady state vibration data. The toolbox functions are useful for analyzing RWA vibration data, and the model provides a good estimate of the disturbances over most wheel speeds. However, it is shown that the disturbances are under-predicted by a model of this form over some wheel speed ranges. The poor correlation is due to the fact that the empirical model does not account for disturbance amplifications caused by interactions between the harmonics and the structural modes of the wheel. Experimental data from an ITHACO Space Systems E-type reaction wheel are used to illustrate the model development and validation process.

  9. Regional geoid height models developed using aerogravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, D. R.; Li, X.; Holmes, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    The techniques employed during the development of the Geoid Slope Validation Study of 2011 (GSVS 11) were adapted to modeling of regional geoid height models. Aerogravity from the Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D) Project was first evaluated with respect to satellite gravity field models developed from both GRACE and GOCE data to establish long wavelength consistency and remove biases in individual survey lines. In turn, the airborne and satellite gravity were then combined to evaluate surface gravity data from around 1400 separate surveys over the conterminous United States (CONUS). These surveys can span anywhere from 10's to 100's of kilometers and comprise the surface gravity database held by the U.S. National Geodetic Survey. These surface data have been used as-is in the development of previous gravimetric geoid models. With the availability of aerogravity, these surveys were examined to detect and mitigate potential biases that can create artifacts in geoid height models. About 5% of these surveys exhibit significant biases of 3-5 mGals, which equate to 10-20 cm errors in subsequent geoid height models. Given the requirement for cm-level accuracy in a future vertical datum based on geoid height models, these errors must be addressed. GSVS 11 demonstrated that it is possible to combine satellite, airborne and surface gravity to achieve cm-level accuracy over a limited locale. This study demonstrates that this can also be achieved over more regional scales. While not all of the CONUS has yet been flown by the GRAV-D Project, significant portions have been flown and those regions have been evaluated here. In the GSVS 11 study, external metrics were collected simultaneously to permit evaluation of the overall error. Such data is generally not available on a national basis, but comparisons are made with the GSVS 11 data, tidal benchmarks in combination with ocean topography models, and astrogeodetic deflection of the vertical

  10. Gis in Tourism Development Using Spatial Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juodkienė, Vytautė

    2014-12-01

    The article deals with a spatial problem - setting the best places for tourism development in Panevėžys district (Lithuania). In order to select areas using ArcGIS software, there was developed a model that evaluated the criteria that influence the selection of areas suitable for tourism. The article presents a digital map, which indicates most suitable locations for rural development by evaluating zones by points in order of importance. The evaluation scale is from 10 points (the most suitable location) to 2 points (the least suitable location). Evaluation points in thematic maps indicate exact locations that are most suitable for tourism homesteads.

  11. Development of an Integrated Global Energy Model

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1999-07-08

    The primary objective of this research was to develop a forefront analysis tool for application to enhance understanding of long-term, global, nuclear-energy and nuclear-material futures. To this end, an existing economics-energy-environmental (E{sup 3}) model was adopted, modified, and elaborated to examine this problem in a multi-regional (13), long-term ({approximately}2,100) context. The E{sup 3} model so developed was applied to create a Los Alamos presence in this E{sup 3} area through ''niche analyses'' that provide input to the formulation of policies dealing with and shaping of nuclear-energy and nuclear-materials futures. Results from analyses using the E{sup 3} model have been presented at a variety of national and international conferences and workshops. Through use of the E{sup 3} model Los Alamos was afforded the opportunity to participate in a multi-national E{sup 3} study team that is examining a range of global, long-term nuclear issues under the auspices of the IAEA during the 1998-99 period . Finally, the E{sup 3} model developed under this LDRD project is being used as an important component in more recent Nuclear Material Management Systems (NMMS) project.

  12. Developing a Motivational Model of College Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.; Abry, Dennis

    This study involves developing a motivational model of college achievement. The predictor variables, which were procrastination tendency, self-efficacy, self-regulation, intrinsic value, outcome value, cognitive strategy, test anxiety, students grade goals, parent grade goals, and grade point average, as well as the criterion variable exam…

  13. A Computational Model of Spatial Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraki, Kazuo; Sashima, Akio; Phillips, Steven

    Psychological experiments on children's development of spatial knowledge suggest experience at self-locomotion with visual tracking as important factors. Yet, the mechanism underlying development is unknown. We propose a robot that learns to mentally track a target object (i.e., maintaining a representation of an object's position when outside the field-of-view) as a model for spatial development. Mental tracking is considered as prediction of an object's position given the previous environmental state and motor commands, and the current environment state resulting from movement. Following Jordan & Rumelhart's (1992) forward modeling architecture the system consists of two components: an inverse model of sensory input to desired motor commands; and a forward model of motor commands to desired sensory input (goals). The robot was tested on the `three cups' paradigm (where children are required to select the cup containing the hidden object under various movement conditions). Consistent with child development, without the capacity for self-locomotion the robot's errors are self-center based. When given the ability of self-locomotion the robot responds allocentrically.

  14. The Jeffrey Town Model for Community Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Ivy Veronica

    2014-01-01

    The Jeffrey Town model for community development has been effectively applied to the rural community of Jeffrey Town in Jamaica with Information and Computer Technology (ICT) as a key element. The farmer's association is the vehicle that has driven the change. Included is a brief outline of the community plus highlights of the tangible and…

  15. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demasi, J. T.; Sheffler, K. D.

    1985-01-01

    The objective is to develop an integrated life prediction model accounting for all potential life-limiting thermal barrier coating (TBC) degradation and failure modes, including spallation resulting from cyclic thermal stress, oxidation degradation, hot corrosion, erosion and foreign object damage.

  16. A Brush Seals Program Modeling and Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Flower, Ralph; Howe, Harold

    1996-01-01

    Some events of a U.S. Army/NASA Lewis Research Center brush seals program are reviewed, and the development of ceramic brush seals is described. Some preliminary room-temperature flow data are modeled and compare favorably to the results of Ergun.

  17. Wind Farm Power System Model Development: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.

    2004-07-01

    In some areas, wind power has reached a level where it begins to impact grid operation and the stability of local utilities. In this paper, the model development for a large wind farm will be presented. Wind farm dynamic behavior and contribution to stability during transmission system faults will be examined.

  18. A Model of Teacher Change and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honey, Sukrat; Graham, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at research based models that have been put forward to describe how teacher use of technology develops. There have been a variety of studies that have proposed levels that describe teacher use of technology and identify the different aspects of use that distinguish these levels. Very few of these studies have shown how teachers…

  19. Mechanical Model Development for Composite Structural Supercapacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Trenton M.; Lacy, Thomas E., Jr.; Santiago, Diana; Bednarcyk, Brett A.

    2016-01-01

    Novel composite structural supercapacitor concepts have recently been developed as a means both to store electrical charge and to provide modest mechanical load carrying capability. Double-layer composite supercapacitors are often fabricated by impregnating a woven carbon fiber fabric, which serves as the electrodes, with a structural polymer electrolyte. Polypropylene or a glass fabric is often used as the separator material. Recent research has been primarily limited to evaluating these composites experimentally. In this study, mechanical models based on the Multiscale Generalized Method of Cells (MSGMC) were developed and used to calculate the shear and tensile properties and response of two composite structural supercapacitors from the literature. The modeling approach was first validated against traditional composite laminate data. MSGMC models for composite supercapacitors were developed, and accurate elastic shear/tensile properties were obtained. It is envisioned that further development of the models presented in this work will facilitate the design of composite components for aerospace and automotive applications and can be used to screen candidate constituent materials for inclusion in future composite structural supercapacitor concepts.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMSUMPTION ESTIMATION MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives data on the distribution and usage of firewood, obtained from a pool of household wood use surveys. ased on a series of regression models developed using the STEPWISE procedure in the SAS statistical package, two variables appear to be most predictive of wood use...

  1. Developing a Computerized Performance Based Curriculum Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagmeier, Jerry; And Others

    In developing a model for institutional assessment, John Wood Community College (JWCC), in Quincy, Illinois, decided to use student learning as the foundation of evaluation, as opposed to the activities and services offered by the college. This performance-based approach to institutional assessment was then expanded to reshape the process by which…

  2. A Generational Model for Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caverly, David C.; Peterson, Cynthia L.; Mandeville, Thomas F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a social-constructivist model of professional development arising from a collaboration between Southwest Texas State University's education department and New Braunfels (Texas) Independent School District. Teachers learn technology integration techniques from an instructionally strong "first-generation" of teachers trained at a…

  3. On the Logical Development of Statistical Models.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    Maistrov (1974), pp . 68-69 and also Todhunter (1865)) The next important step occurred with the development of a statistic- extrapolative model for a...1978). " Modelos con parametros variables en el analisis de series temporales" Questiio, 4, 2, 75-87. [25] Seal, H. L. (1967). "The historical

  4. CPAS Parachute Testing, Model Development, & Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romero, Leah M.

    2013-01-01

    Capsule Parachute Assembly System (CPAS) is the human rated parachute system for the Orion vehicle used during re-entry. Similar to Apollo parachute design. Human rating requires additional system redundancy. A Government Furnished Equipment (GFE) project responsible for: Design; Development testing; Performance modeling; Fabrication; Qualification; Delivery

  5. Modeling Sustainability in Product Development and Commercialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Robert C.; Rafinejad, Dariush

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors present the framework of a model that integrates strategic product development decisions with the product's impact on future conditions of resources and the environment. The impact of a product on stocks of nonrenewable sources and sinks is linked in a feedback loop to the cost of manufacturing and using the product…

  6. GPU Developments for General Circulation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleyard, Jeremy; Posey, Stan; Ponder, Carl; Eaton, Joe

    2014-05-01

    Current trends in high performance computing (HPC) are moving towards the use of graphics processing units (GPUs) to achieve speedups through the extraction of fine-grain parallelism of application software. GPUs have been developed exclusively for computational tasks as massively-parallel co-processors to the CPU, and during 2013 an extensive set of new HPC architectural features were developed in a 4th generation of NVIDIA GPUs that provide further opportunities for GPU acceleration of general circulation models used in climate science and numerical weather prediction. Today computational efficiency and simulation turnaround time continue to be important factors behind scientific decisions to develop models at higher resolutions and deploy increased use of ensembles. This presentation will examine the current state of GPU parallel developments for stencil based numerical operations typical of dynamical cores, and introduce new GPU-based implicit iterative schemes with GPU parallel preconditioning and linear solvers based on ILU, Krylov methods, and multigrid. Several GCMs show substantial gain in parallel efficiency from second-level fine-grain parallelism under first-level distributed memory parallel through a hybrid parallel implementation. Examples are provided relevant to science-scale HPC practice of CPU-GPU system configurations based on model resolution requirements of a particular simulation. Performance results compare use of the latest conventional CPUs with and without GPU acceleration. Finally a forward looking discussion is provided on the roadmap of GPU hardware, software, tools, and programmability for GCM development.

  7. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillery, R. V.; Pilsner, B. H.; Mcknight, R. L.; Cook, T. S.; Hartle, M. S.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes work performed to determine the predominat modes of degradation of a plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating system and to develop and verify life prediction models accounting for these degradation modes. The primary TBC system consisted of a low pressure plasma sprayed NiCrAlY bond coat, an air plasma sprayed ZrO2-Y2O3 top coat, and a Rene' 80 substrate. The work was divided into 3 technical tasks. The primary failure mode to be addressed was loss of the zirconia layer through spalling. Experiments showed that oxidation of the bond coat is a significant contributor to coating failure. It was evident from the test results that the species of oxide scale initially formed on the bond coat plays a role in coating degradation and failure. It was also shown that elevated temperature creep of the bond coat plays a role in coating failure. An empirical model was developed for predicting the test life of specimens with selected coating, specimen, and test condition variations. In the second task, a coating life prediction model was developed based on the data from Task 1 experiments, results from thermomechanical experiments performed as part of Task 2, and finite element analyses of the TBC system during thermal cycles. The third and final task attempted to verify the validity of the model developed in Task 2. This was done by using the model to predict the test lives of several coating variations and specimen geometries, then comparing these predicted lives to experimentally determined test lives. It was found that the model correctly predicts trends, but that additional refinement is needed to accurately predict coating life.

  8. Inducer analysis/pump model development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Gary C.

    1994-03-01

    Current design of high performance turbopumps for rocket engines requires effective and robust analytical tools to provide design information in a productive manner. The main goal of this study was to develop a robust and effective computational fluid dynamics (CFD) pump model for general turbopump design and analysis applications. A finite difference Navier-Stokes flow solver, FDNS, which includes an extended k-epsilon turbulence model and appropriate moving zonal interface boundary conditions, was developed to analyze turbulent flows in turbomachinery devices. In the present study, three key components of the turbopump, the inducer, impeller, and diffuser, were investigated by the proposed pump model, and the numerical results were benchmarked by the experimental data provided by Rocketdyne. For the numerical calculation of inducer flows with tip clearance, the turbulence model and grid spacing are very important. Meanwhile, the development of the cross-stream secondary flow, generated by curved blade passage and the flow through tip leakage, has a strong effect on the inducer flow. Hence, the prediction of the inducer performance critically depends on whether the numerical scheme of the pump model can simulate the secondary flow pattern accurately or not. The impeller and diffuser, however, are dominated by pressure-driven flows such that the effects of turbulence model and grid spacing (except near leading and trailing edges of blades) are less sensitive. The present CFD pump model has been proved to be an efficient and robust analytical tool for pump design due to its very compact numerical structure (requiring small memory), fast turnaround computing time, and versatility for different geometries.

  9. Inducer analysis/pump model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Gary C.

    1994-01-01

    Current design of high performance turbopumps for rocket engines requires effective and robust analytical tools to provide design information in a productive manner. The main goal of this study was to develop a robust and effective computational fluid dynamics (CFD) pump model for general turbopump design and analysis applications. A finite difference Navier-Stokes flow solver, FDNS, which includes an extended k-epsilon turbulence model and appropriate moving zonal interface boundary conditions, was developed to analyze turbulent flows in turbomachinery devices. In the present study, three key components of the turbopump, the inducer, impeller, and diffuser, were investigated by the proposed pump model, and the numerical results were benchmarked by the experimental data provided by Rocketdyne. For the numerical calculation of inducer flows with tip clearance, the turbulence model and grid spacing are very important. Meanwhile, the development of the cross-stream secondary flow, generated by curved blade passage and the flow through tip leakage, has a strong effect on the inducer flow. Hence, the prediction of the inducer performance critically depends on whether the numerical scheme of the pump model can simulate the secondary flow pattern accurately or not. The impeller and diffuser, however, are dominated by pressure-driven flows such that the effects of turbulence model and grid spacing (except near leading and trailing edges of blades) are less sensitive. The present CFD pump model has been proved to be an efficient and robust analytical tool for pump design due to its very compact numerical structure (requiring small memory), fast turnaround computing time, and versatility for different geometries.

  10. Advanced Small Modular Reactor Economics Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas J.

    2014-10-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) research and development activities focus on four key areas: Developing assessment methods for evaluating advanced SMR technologies and characteristics; and Developing and testing of materials, fuels and fabrication techniques; and Resolving key regulatory issues identified by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and industry; and Developing advanced instrumentation and controls and human-machine interfaces. This report focuses on development of assessment methods to evaluate advanced SMR technologies and characteristics. Specifically, this report describes the expansion and application of the economic modeling effort at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Analysis of the current modeling methods shows that one of the primary concerns for the modeling effort is the handling of uncertainty in cost estimates. Monte Carlo–based methods are commonly used to handle uncertainty, especially when implemented by a stand-alone script within a program such as Python or MATLAB. However, a script-based model requires each potential user to have access to a compiler and an executable capable of handling the script. Making the model accessible to multiple independent analysts is best accomplished by implementing the model in a common computing tool such as Microsoft Excel. Excel is readily available and accessible to most system analysts, but it is not designed for straightforward implementation of a Monte Carlo–based method. Using a Monte Carlo algorithm requires in-spreadsheet scripting and statistical analyses or the use of add-ons such as Crystal Ball. An alternative method uses propagation of error calculations in the existing Excel-based system to estimate system cost uncertainty. This method has the advantage of using Microsoft Excel as is, but it requires the use of simplifying assumptions. These assumptions do not necessarily bring into question the analytical results. In fact, the

  11. Heat Pump Clothes Dryer Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    A heat pump clothes dryer (HPCD) is an innovative appliance that uses a vapor compression system to dry clothes. Air circulates in a closed loop through the drum, so no vent is required. The condenser heats air to evaporate moisture out of the clothes, and the evaporator condenses water out of the air stream. As a result, the HPCD can achieve 50% energy savings compared to a conventional electric resistance dryer. We developed a physics-based, quasi-steady-state HPCD system model with detailed heat exchanger and compressor models. In a novel approach, we applied a heat and mass transfer effectiveness model to simulate the drying process of the clothes load in the drum. The system model is able to simulate the inherently transient HPCD drying process, to size components, and to reveal trends in key variables (e.g. compressor discharge temperature, power consumption, required drying time, etc.) The system model was calibrated using experimental data on a prototype HPCD. In the paper, the modeling method is introduced, and the model predictions are compared with experimental data measured on a prototype HPCD.

  12. Mathematical modeling of vertebrate limb development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Tao; Alber, Mark S; Newman, Stuart A

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we review the major mathematical and computational models of vertebrate limb development and their roles in accounting for different aspects of this process. The main aspects of limb development that have been modeled include outgrowth and shaping of the limb bud, establishment of molecular gradients within the bud, and formation of the skeleton. These processes occur interdependently during development, although (as described in this review), there are various interpretations of the biological relationships among them. A wide range of mathematical and computational methods have been used to study these processes, including ordinary and partial differential equation systems, cellular automata and discrete, stochastic models, finite difference methods, finite element methods, the immersed boundary method, and various combinations of the above. Multiscale mathematical modeling and associated computational simulation have become integrated into the study of limb morphogenesis and pattern formation to an extent with few parallels in the field of developmental biology. These methods have contributed to the design and analysis of experiments employing microsurgical and genetic manipulations, evaluation of hypotheses for limb bud outgrowth, interpretation of the effects of natural mutations, and the formulation of scenarios for the origination and evolution of the limb skeleton.

  13. Prediction of Chemical Function: Model Development and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Exposure Forecaster (ExpoCast) project is developing both statistical and mechanism-based computational models for predicting exposures to thousands of chemicals, including those in consumer products. The high-throughput (HT) screening-level exposures developed under ExpoCast can be combined with HT screening (HTS) bioactivity data for the risk-based prioritization of chemicals for further evaluation. The functional role (e.g. solvent, plasticizer, fragrance) that a chemical performs can drive both the types of products in which it is found and the concentration in which it is present and therefore impacting exposure potential. However, critical chemical use information (including functional role) is lacking for the majority of commercial chemicals for which exposure estimates are needed. A suite of machine-learning based models for classifying chemicals in terms of their likely functional roles in products based on structure were developed. This effort required collection, curation, and harmonization of publically-available data sources of chemical functional use information from government and industry bodies. Physicochemical and structure descriptor data were generated for chemicals with function data. Machine-learning classifier models for function were then built in a cross-validated manner from the descriptor/function data using the method of random forests. The models were applied to: 1) predict chemi

  14. System model development for nuclear thermal propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, James T.; Hannan, Nelson A.; Perkins, Ken R.; Buksa, John H.; Worley, Brian A.; Dobranich, Dean

    1992-01-01

    A critical enabling technology in the evolutionary development of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) is the ability to predict the system performance under a variety of operating conditions. This is crucial for mission analysis and for control subsystem testing as well as for the modeling of various failure modes. Performance must be accurately predicted during steady-state and transient operation, including startup, shutdown, and post operation cooling. The development and application of verified and validated system models has the potential to reduce the design, testing, and cost and time required for the technology to reach flight-ready status. Since Oct. 1991, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DOD), and NASA have initiated critical technology development efforts for NTP systems to be used on Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to the Moon and Mars. This paper presents the strategy and progress of an interagency NASA/DOE/DOD team for NTP system modeling. It is the intent of the interagency team to develop several levels of computer programs to simulate various NTP systems. The first level will provide rapid, parameterized calculations of overall system performance. Succeeding computer programs will provide analysis of each component in sufficient detail to guide the design teams and experimental efforts. The computer programs will allow simulation of the entire system to allow prediction of the integrated performance. An interagency team was formed for this task to use the best capabilities available and to assure appropriate peer review.

  15. System model development for nuclear thermal propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, James T.; Hannan, Nelson A.; Perkins, Ken R.; Buksa, John H.; Worley, Brian A.; Dobranich, Dean

    1992-08-01

    A critical enabling technology in the evolutionary development of nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) is the ability to predict the system performance under a variety of operating conditions. This is crucial for mission analysis and for control subsystem testing as well as for the modeling of various failure modes. Performance must be accurately predicted during steady-state and transient operation, including startup, shutdown, and post operation cooling. The development and application of verified and validated system models has the potential to reduce the design, testing, and cost and time required for the technology to reach flight-ready status. Since Oct. 1991, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Department of Defense (DOD), and NASA have initiated critical technology development efforts for NTP systems to be used on Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions to the Moon and Mars. This paper presents the strategy and progress of an interagency NASA/DOE/DOD team for NTP system modeling. It is the intent of the interagency team to develop several levels of computer programs to simulate various NTP systems. The first level will provide rapid, parameterized calculations of overall system performance. Succeeding computer programs will provide analysis of each component in sufficient detail to guide the design teams and experimental efforts. The computer programs will allow simulation of the entire system to allow prediction of the integrated performance. An interagency team was formed for this task to use the best capabilities available and to assure appropriate peer review.

  16. Development of models for welding applications

    SciTech Connect

    Roper, J.R.; Hayer, L.K.

    1990-01-01

    The modeling of welding processes offers considerable potential for help with manufacturing problems but a complete definition of any welding process offers many challenges. However, the modular structure of MARC, and the diverse range of capabilities offered, create a good opportunity for development in this area. This paper discusses these problems and describes techniques used to overcome some of them. Models have been developed to simulate gas tungsten arc (GTA) and electron beam (EB) welding with a moving heat source. Fortran routines for subroutines FLUX and FORCDT have been written to generate a moving heat source. Sequential element activation has permitted the simulation of GTA welding with cold wire feed (CWF), as in filling of a machined weld groove. A program which generates History Definition blocks necessary for this type of welding model is also described in this paper. Semi-infinite heat transfer elements were used to get accurate temperature histories while keeping the size of the model manageable. Time-temperature histories and isothermal contours compare well with experimental measurements, although many areas for improvement and refinement remain. Results have been used to anticipate the necessity for weld parameter changes after part redesign, and the electron beam model relates closely to situations in which information is needed for the minimization of peak temperatures on the underside of the welded part. 8 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruse, T. A.; Stewart, S. E.; Ortiz, M.

    1988-01-01

    A life prediction model for correlating the spallation life of ceramic thermal barrier coatings is developed which includes both cyclic and time-dependent damage. The cyclic damage is related to the calculated cyclic inelastic strain range, while the time-dependent damage is related to the oxidation kinetics at the bond-ceramic interface. The cyclic inelastic strain range is calculated using a modified form of the Walker viscoplastic material model; calculation of the oxidation kinetics is based on traditional oxidation algorithms using experimentally determined parameters. The correlation between the actual and predicted spallation lives is within a factor of 3.

  18. Preliminary Phase Field Computational Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Xu, Ke; Suter, Jonathan D.; McCloy, John S.; Johnson, Bradley R.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2014-12-15

    This interim report presents progress towards the development of meso-scale models of magnetic behavior that incorporate microstructural information. Modeling magnetic signatures in irradiated materials with complex microstructures (such as structural steels) is a significant challenge. The complexity is addressed incrementally, using the monocrystalline Fe (i.e., ferrite) film as model systems to develop and validate initial models, followed by polycrystalline Fe films, and by more complicated and representative alloys. In addition, the modeling incrementally addresses inclusion of other major phases (e.g., martensite, austenite), minor magnetic phases (e.g., carbides, FeCr precipitates), and minor nonmagnetic phases (e.g., Cu precipitates, voids). The focus of the magnetic modeling is on phase-field models. The models are based on the numerical solution to the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. From the computational standpoint, phase-field modeling allows the simulation of large enough systems that relevant defect structures and their effects on functional properties like magnetism can be simulated. To date, two phase-field models have been generated in support of this work. First, a bulk iron model with periodic boundary conditions was generated as a proof-of-concept to investigate major loop effects of single versus polycrystalline bulk iron and effects of single non-magnetic defects. More recently, to support the experimental program herein using iron thin films, a new model was generated that uses finite boundary conditions representing surfaces and edges. This model has provided key insights into the domain structures observed in magnetic force microscopy (MFM) measurements. Simulation results for single crystal thin-film iron indicate the feasibility of the model for determining magnetic domain wall thickness and mobility in an externally applied field. Because the phase-field model dimensions are limited relative to the size of most specimens used in

  19. Thermal Effects Modeling Developed for Smart Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ho-Jun

    1998-01-01

    Applying smart materials in aeropropulsion systems may improve the performance of aircraft engines through a variety of vibration, noise, and shape-control applications. To facilitate the experimental characterization of these smart structures, researchers have been focusing on developing analytical models to account for the coupled mechanical, electrical, and thermal response of these materials. One focus of current research efforts has been directed toward incorporating a comprehensive thermal analysis modeling capability. Typically, temperature affects the behavior of smart materials by three distinct mechanisms: Induction of thermal strains because of coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch 1. Pyroelectric effects on the piezoelectric elements; 2. Temperature-dependent changes in material properties; and 3. Previous analytical models only investigated the first two thermal effects mechanisms. However, since the material properties of piezoelectric materials generally vary greatly with temperature (see the graph), incorporating temperature-dependent material properties will significantly affect the structural deflections, sensory voltages, and stresses. Thus, the current analytical model captures thermal effects arising from all three mechanisms through thermopiezoelectric constitutive equations. These constitutive equations were incorporated into a layerwise laminate theory with the inherent capability to model both the active and sensory response of smart structures in thermal environments. Corresponding finite element equations were formulated and implemented for both the beam and plate elements to provide a comprehensive thermal effects modeling capability.

  20. Developing Soil Models for Dynamic Impact Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Lyle, Karen H.; Jackson, Karen E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes fundamental soils characterization work performed at NASA Langley Research Center in support of the Subsonic Rotary Wing (SRW) Aeronautics Program and the Orion Landing System (LS) Advanced Development Program (ADP). LS-DYNA(Registered TradeMark)1 soil impact model development and test-analysis correlation results are presented for: (1) a 38-ft/s vertical drop test of a composite fuselage section, outfitted with four blocks of deployable energy absorbers (DEA), onto sand, and (2) a series of impact tests of a 1/2-scale geometric boilerplate Orion capsule onto soil. In addition, the paper will discuss LS-DYNA contact analysis at the soil/structure interface, methods used to estimate frictional forces, and the sensitivity of the model to density, moisture, and compaction.

  1. Air Tightness of US Homes: Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.

    2006-05-01

    Air tightness is an important property of building envelopes. It is a key factor in determining infiltration and related wall-performance properties such as indoor air quality, maintainability and moisture balance. Air leakage in U.S. houses consumes roughly 1/3 of the HVAC energy but provides most of the ventilation used to control IAQ. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been gathering residential air leakage data from many sources and now has a database of more than 100,000 raw measurements. This paper uses that database to develop a model for estimating air leakage as a function of climate, building age, floor area, building height, floor type, energy-efficiency and low-income designations. The model developed can be used to estimate the leakage distribution of populations of houses.

  2. Development of an energy storage tank model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Robert Christopher

    A linearized, one-dimensional finite difference model employing an implicit finite difference method for energy storage tanks is developed, programmed with MATLAB, and demonstrated for different applications. A set of nodal energy equations is developed by considering the energy interactions on a small control volume. The general method of solving these equations is described as are other features of the simulation program. Two modeling applications are presented: the first using a hot water storage tank with a solar collector and an absorption chiller to cool a building in the summer, the second using a molten salt storage system with a solar collector and steam power plant to generate electricity. Recommendations for further study as well as all of the source code generated in the project are also provided.

  3. Career streaming: a model of career development.

    PubMed

    Dyck, D; Walker, M

    1996-04-01

    1. A career is an individually perceived sequence of attitudes and behaviors associated with work related experiences and activities over the span of the person's life. 2. Every career ultimately reaches some sort of a plateau--a position from which someone is unlikely to advance to a higher level of responsibility in their career. The danger is they will become unmotivated and apathetic. 3. One method proposed for keeping employees challenged and interested is career streaming--a model of career development for employees within a defined professional field. The challenge is to provide a range of levels with defined skills for each level. The model developed for an occupational health service is provided as an example.

  4. Model of the Product Development Lifecycle.

    SciTech Connect

    He, Sunny L.; Roe, Natalie H.; Wood, Evan; Nachtigal, Noel M.; Helms, Jovana

    2015-10-01

    While the increased use of Commercial Off-The-Shelf information technology equipment has presented opportunities for improved cost effectiveness and flexibility, the corresponding loss of control over the product's development creates unique vulnerabilities and security concerns. Of particular interest is the possibility of a supply chain attack. A comprehensive model for the lifecycle of hardware and software products is proposed based on a survey of existing literature from academic, government, and industry sources. Seven major lifecycle stages are identified and defined: (1) Requirements, (2) Design, (3) Manufacturing for hardware and Development for software, (4) Testing, (5) Distribution, (6) Use and Maintenance, and (7) Disposal. The model is then applied to examine the risk of attacks at various stages of the lifecycle.

  5. NASA: Model development for human factors interfacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L. L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of an intensive literature review in the general topics of human error analysis, stress and job performance, and accident and safety analysis revealed no usable techniques or approaches for analyzing human error in ground or space operations tasks. A task review model is described and proposed to be developed in order to reduce the degree of labor intensiveness in ground and space operations tasks. An extensive number of annotated references are provided.

  6. Development of Atmospheric Infrared Emission Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    spectral radiance may be calculated for an arbitrary line -of-sight (LOS) passing through up to seven profiles . Interpolation is used to... Spectral Line with the Voigt Profile ," J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 14, 319 (1974). 34. "U. S. Standard Atmosphere 1976," National Oceanic... Spectral Radiance Model 7 2.4.1 Calculation for a Single Line 7 2.4.2 Illustrative Calculations 9 2.5 Data Comparisons 11 3. DEVELOPMENT OF

  7. Development of an Ocean Model for COAMPS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    leveraging related programs to develop an ocean data assimilation capability. This prediction system will be the cornerstone of a vertically...ocean data assimilation system to a mesoscale atmospheric data assimilation system. This will include studies of issues that include, but are not...any given area; the availability of data , particularly synthetic observations; and the lack of a full-physics global model present the largest

  8. A model for fully developed turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canuto, V. M.; Goldman, I.; Chasnov, J.

    1987-11-01

    A model for stationary, fully developed turbulence is presented in which the turbulent spectral energy function is completely determined once the time scale for the energy fed into the eddy interaction is known. The form of the eddy correlation time scale determining the turbulent viscosity is suggested by the basic equation of the model itself, up to a dimensionless constant that is fixed by demanding that the coefficient of the spectrum in the Heisenberg-Kolmogoroff inertial range of wavenunmbers be the experimental value. The model makes quantitative predictions that are compared with data on turbulent convection; the k-epsilon and Smagorinsky relations; the spectral function, transfer term, and dissipation term; the skewness factor; the Kolmogoroff and Batchelor constants; and the inertial-conductive and inertial-convective ranges.

  9. Development of ECP models for BWR applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.J.; Niedrach, L.W.; Lin, C.C.; Ramp, K.S.

    1995-12-31

    The electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) of stainless steel has been measured under simulated Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) coolant circuit conditions using a rotating cylinder electrode. Based on the results of measurements an empirical model has been developed to predict the ECP of structure materials in a BVTR primary circuit as a function of H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations in reactor coolant and water flow velocity. The ECP modeling results using the H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations calculated by the radiolysis model are compared with the available reactor internal ECP data obtained in an operating reactor.

  10. Developing linguistic literacy: a comprehensive model.

    PubMed

    Ravid, Dorit; Tolchinsky, Liliana

    2002-05-01

    This is a position paper modelling the domain of linguistic literacy and its development through the life span. It aims to provide a framework for the analysis of language development in the school years, integrating sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic notions of variation, language awareness, and literacy in a comprehensive model. The paper focuses on those aspects of literacy competence that are expressed in language as well as aspects of linguistic knowledge that are affected by literacy competence, tracing the route that children take in appropriating linguistic literacy as part of their cognitive abilities and examining the effect of literacy on language across development. Our view of linguistic literacy consists of one defining feature: control over linguistic variation from both a user-dependent ('lectal') and a context-dependent (modality, genre, and register) perspective; of one concomitant process: metalanguage and its role in language development; and of one condition: familiarity with writing and written language from two aspects: written language as discourse style--the recognition that the kind of language used for writing is essentially different from the one used for speech; and written language as a notational system--the perception and growing command of the representational system that is used in the written modality. Linguistic literacy is viewed as a constituent of language knowledge characterized by the availability of multiple linguistic resources and by the ability to consciously access one's own linguistic knowledge and to view language from various perspectives.

  11. Developments on infrared montgolfiere modeling at CNES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonnier, J.-M.; Dieudonne, W.; Spel, M.; Venel, S.; Letrenne, G.

    One of the CNES long duration stratospheric balloon is the infrared montgolfiere MIR which allows a day ceiling at about 28 km and a night ceiling at about 23 km Under very severe cloud conditions i e low infrared incoming heat flux the MIR will descend at a lower altitude and the flight will be stopped CNES works with a three nodes thermal model to simulate the MIR flights This model is in most cases effective but in some cases it does not succeed to represent a fast descent to a low level without making the hypothesis that the MIR opening became inefficient In order to try to be able to understand this behavior CNES is developing together with R-Tech a very precise CFD model based on strong fluid-thermal coupling It represents the real shape and material of the MIR the geometric shadowing effects the multiple reflections inside the MIR the thermal and aerodynamic effects This model is now able to simulate a nominal day to night transition through a coupling between the thermal condition inside the MIR and the flight trajectory simulation The next steps are now to quantify the effect of the size of the MIR opening and to simulate a fast descent to a low level altitude More generally the CFD model is used as a tool to understand the response of the MIR to various environment and hopefully improve the MIR design

  12. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour

    SciTech Connect

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula; Kurisu, Kiyo H.; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model waste prevention behaviour using structure equation modelling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We merge attitude-behaviour theories with wider models from environmental psychology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main behaviour predictors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental concern, moral obligation and inconvenience are the main influence on the behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Waste prevention and recycling are different dimensions of waste management behaviour. - Abstract: Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude-behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz's altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste

  13. Developing Models for Predictive Climate Science

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, John B; Jones, Philip W

    2007-01-01

    The Community Climate System Model results from a multi-agency collaboration designed to construct cutting-edge climate science simulation models for a broad research community. Predictive climate simulations are currently being prepared for the petascale computers of the near future. Modeling capabilities are continuously being improved in order to provide better answers to critical questions about Earth's climate. Climate change and its implications are front page news in today's world. Could global warming be responsible for the July 2006 heat waves in Europe and the United States? Should more resources be devoted to preparing for an increase in the frequency of strong tropical storms and hurricanes like Katrina? Will coastal cities be flooded due to a rise in sea level? The National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), which archives all weather data for the nation, reports that global surface temperatures have increased over the last century, and that the rate of increase is three times greater since 1976. Will temperatures continue to climb at this rate, will they decline again, or will the rate of increase become even steeper? To address such a flurry of questions, scientists must adopt a systematic approach and develop a predictive framework. With responsibility for advising on energy and technology strategies, the DOE is dedicated to advancing climate research in order to elucidate the causes of climate change, including the role of carbon loading from fossil fuel use. Thus, climate science--which by nature involves advanced computing technology and methods--has been the focus of a number of DOE's SciDAC research projects. Dr. John Drake (ORNL) and Dr. Philip Jones (LANL) served as principal investigators on the SciDAC project, 'Collaborative Design and Development of the Community Climate System Model for Terascale Computers.' The Community Climate System Model (CCSM) is a fully-coupled global system that provides state-of-the-art computer simulations of the

  14. Development of a smart DC grid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalimunthe, Amty Ma'rufah Ardhiyah; Mindara, Jajat Yuda; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made

    2016-03-01

    Smart grid and distributed generation should be the solution of the global climate change and the crisis energy of the main source of electrical power generation which is fossil fuel. In order to meet the rising electrical power demand and increasing service quality demands, as well as reduce pollution, the existing power grid infrastructure should be developed into a smart grid and distributed power generation which provide a great opportunity to address issues related to energy efficiency, energy security, power quality and aging infrastructure systems. The conventional of the existing distributed generation system is an AC grid while for a renewable resources requires a DC grid system. This paper explores the model of smart DC grid by introducing a model of smart DC grid with the stable power generation give a minimal and compressed circuitry that can be implemented very cost-effectively with simple components. The PC based application software for controlling was developed to show the condition of the grid and to control the grid become `smart'. The model is then subjected to a severe system perturbation, such as incremental change in loads to test the performance of the system again stability. It is concluded that the system able to detect and controlled the voltage stability which indicating the ability of power system to maintain steady voltage within permissible rangers in normal condition.

  15. High-Fidelity Flash Lidar Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Glenn D.; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Amzajerdian, Farzin

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technologies (ALHAT) project is currently developing the critical technologies to safely and precisely navigate and land crew, cargo and robotic spacecraft vehicles on and around planetary bodies. One key element of this project is a high-fidelity Flash Lidar sensor that can generate three-dimensional (3-D) images of the planetary surface. These images are processed with hazard detection and avoidance and hazard relative navigation algorithms, and then are subsequently used by the Guidance, Navigation and Control subsystem to generate an optimal navigation solution. A complex, high-fidelity model of the Flash Lidar was developed in order to evaluate the performance of the sensor and its interaction with the interfacing ALHAT components on vehicles with different configurations and under different flight trajectories. The model contains a parameterized, general approach to Flash Lidar detection and reflects physical attributes such as range and electronic noise sources, and laser pulse temporal and spatial profiles. It also provides the realistic interaction of the laser pulse with terrain features that include varying albedo, boulders, craters slopes and shadows. This paper gives a description of the Flash Lidar model and presents results from the Lidar operating under different scenarios.

  16. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour.

    PubMed

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula; Kurisu, Kiyo H; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2012-12-01

    Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude-behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz's altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste management behaviour requiring particular approaches to increase individuals' engagement in future policies.

  17. Recent Developments in the EOSTA model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barshalom, Avraham; Oreg, Joseph

    2006-10-01

    The EOSTA model that combines the STA and Inferno models, was extended to calculate EOS and Opacities on the same footing. The Inferno section was improved and includes efficient algorithm for tracing all the shape resonances and to follow their detailed shapes. In addition higher partial waves improves the accuracy. Optimized Effective Potential (OEP) and Parametric Potential are used for transition energies. In the calculation of internal energy we apply exact exchange with appropriate reduction of the self-energy. A new method for calculating EOS that was presented recently is further developed. The lower component representation of the relativistic virial theorem yields a differential equation that is a basis for very good approximations. Excellent agreement is achieved in comparison with experiments and other calculations.

  18. Modeling microstructure development in gray cast irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goettsch, David D.; Dantzig, Jonathan A.

    1994-05-01

    Recent years have seen increasing use of solidification process modeling as a tool to aid in the analysis and elimination of manufacturing defects in castings. Grain size and other microstructural features such as second-phase morphology and distribution are the primary factors in determining the mechanical properties in cast metals. In this work, a representation of nucleation and growth kinetics for gray cast irons, based on a statistical description of the microstructure, has been coupled with a commercial finite-element method code for transient heat-flow calculation to determine microstructure. Features predicted include eutectic cell size, fractions of gray and white iron, graphite morphology, percent pearlite, percent ferrite, and pearlite spacing. The predicted microstructure can then be used to determine the strength and fatigue properties using published correlations. The theoretical development and results of the finite-elementbased model will be discussed and compared with experimental results.

  19. Development and application of earth system models

    PubMed Central

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    2013-01-01

    The global environment is a complex and dynamic system. Earth system modeling is needed to help understand changes in interacting subsystems, elucidate the influence of human activities, and explore possible future changes. Integrated assessment of environment and human development is arguably the most difficult and most important “systems” problem faced. To illustrate this approach, we present results from the integrated global system model (IGSM), which consists of coupled submodels addressing economic development, atmospheric chemistry, climate dynamics, and ecosystem processes. An uncertainty analysis implies that without mitigation policies, the global average surface temperature may rise between 3.5 °C and 7.4 °C from 1981–2000 to 2091–2100 (90% confidence limits). Polar temperatures, absent policy, are projected to rise from about 6.4 °C to 14 °C (90% confidence limits). Similar analysis of four increasingly stringent climate mitigation policy cases involving stabilization of greenhouse gases at various levels indicates that the greatest effect of these policies is to lower the probability of extreme changes. The IGSM is also used to elucidate potential unintended environmental consequences of renewable energy at large scales. There are significant reasons for attention to climate adaptation in addition to climate mitigation that earth system models can help inform. These models can also be applied to evaluate whether “climate engineering” is a viable option or a dangerous diversion. We must prepare young people to address this issue: The problem of preserving a habitable planet will engage present and future generations. Scientists must improve communication if research is to inform the public and policy makers better. PMID:22706645

  20. Development and application of earth system models.

    PubMed

    Prinn, Ronald G

    2013-02-26

    The global environment is a complex and dynamic system. Earth system modeling is needed to help understand changes in interacting subsystems, elucidate the influence of human activities, and explore possible future changes. Integrated assessment of environment and human development is arguably the most difficult and most important "systems" problem faced. To illustrate this approach, we present results from the integrated global system model (IGSM), which consists of coupled submodels addressing economic development, atmospheric chemistry, climate dynamics, and ecosystem processes. An uncertainty analysis implies that without mitigation policies, the global average surface temperature may rise between 3.5 °C and 7.4 °C from 1981-2000 to 2091-2100 (90% confidence limits). Polar temperatures, absent policy, are projected to rise from about 6.4 °C to 14 °C (90% confidence limits). Similar analysis of four increasingly stringent climate mitigation policy cases involving stabilization of greenhouse gases at various levels indicates that the greatest effect of these policies is to lower the probability of extreme changes. The IGSM is also used to elucidate potential unintended environmental consequences of renewable energy at large scales. There are significant reasons for attention to climate adaptation in addition to climate mitigation that earth system models can help inform. These models can also be applied to evaluate whether "climate engineering" is a viable option or a dangerous diversion. We must prepare young people to address this issue: The problem of preserving a habitable planet will engage present and future generations. Scientists must improve communication if research is to inform the public and policy makers better.

  1. Development and application of earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    2013-02-01

    The global environment is a complex and dynamic system. Earth system modeling is needed to help understand changes in interacting subsystems, elucidate the influence of human activities, and explore possible future changes. Integrated assessment of environment and human development is arguably the most difficult and most important "systems" problem faced. To illustrate this approach, we present results from the integrated global system model (IGSM), which consists of coupled submodels addressing economic development, atmospheric chemistry, climate dynamics, and ecosystem processes. An uncertainty analysis implies that without mitigation policies, the global average surface temperature may rise between 3.5 °C and 7.4 °C from 1981-2000 to 2091-2100 (90% confidence limits). Polar temperatures, absent policy, are projected to rise from about 6.4 °C to 14 °C (90% confidence limits). Similar analysis of four increasingly stringent climate mitigation policy cases involving stabilization of greenhouse gases at various levels indicates that the greatest effect of these policies is to lower the probability of extreme changes. The IGSM is also used to elucidate potential unintended environmental consequences of renewable energy at large scales. There are significant reasons for attention to climate adaptation in addition to climate mitigation that earth system models can help inform. These models can also be applied to evaluate whether "climate engineering" is a viable option or a dangerous diversion. We must prepare young people to address this issue: The problem of preserving a habitable planet will engage present and future generations. Scientists must improve communication if research is to inform the public and policy makers better.

  2. Development of Improved Dynamic Failure Models.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-15

    M 1.35 g/cm3 ) was used to produce a Chapman - Jouguet pressure of 16.3 GPa. The cylinder was surrounded by a PMHA tube of 1.15 cm thickness and a steel...3 mproved computational models were developed for dynamic material failure by Shear banding and ductile fracture. The research effort involved theory ...Cylinder at 56 ps After Detonation ..................... VI-41 ý,r I.4 I.P VI.2 Fragment (a) of 4340 Steel Cylinder (RC 40) and Photomicrographs (b and c) of

  3. Recent developments for realistic solar models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serenelli, Aldo M.

    2014-05-01

    The "solar abundance problem" has triggered a renewed interest in revising the concept of SSM from different perspectives: 1) constituent microphysics: equation of state, nuclear rates, radiative opacities; 2) constituent macrophysics: the physical processes impact the evolution of the Sun and its present-day structure, e.g. dynamical processes induced by rotation, presence of magnetic fields; 3) challenge the hypothesis that the young Sun was chemically homogeneous: the possible interaction of the young Sun with its protoplanetary disk. Here, I briefly review and then present a (personal) view on recent advances and developments on solar modeling, part of them carried out as attempts to solve the solar abundance problem.

  4. Space market model development project, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Peter C.; Hamel, Gary P.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a research project investigating information needs for space commercialization is described. The Space Market Model Development Project (SMMDP) was designed to help NASA identify the information needs of the business community and to explore means to meet those needs. The activity of the SMMDP is reviewed and a report of its operation via three sections is presented. The first part contains a brief historical review of the project since inception. The next part reports results of Phase 3, the most recent stage of activity. Finally, overall conclusions and observations based on the SMMDP research results are presented.

  5. Vortex Generator Model Developed for Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, Rodrick V.

    2002-01-01

    A computational model was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to investigate possible uses of vortex generators (VG's) for improving the performance of turbomachinery. A vortex generator is a small, winglike device that generates vortices at its tip. The vortices mix high-speed core flow with low-speed boundary layer flow and, thus, can be used to delay flow separation. VG's also turn the flow near the walls and, thus, can be used to control flow incidence into a turbomachinery blade row or to control secondary flows.

  6. MEDSLIK oil spill model recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lardner, Robin; Zodiatis, George

    2016-04-01

    MEDSLIK oil spill model recent developments Robin Lardner and George Zodiatis Oceanography Center, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus MEDSLIK is a well established 3D oil spill model that predicts the transport, fate and weathering of oil spills and is used by several response agencies and institutions around the Mediterranean, the Black seas and worldwide. MEDSLIK has been used operationally for real oil spill accidents and for preparedness in contingency planning within the framework of pilot projects with REMPEC-Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean Sea and EMSA-European Maritime Safety Agency. MEDSLIK has been implemented in many EU funded projects regarding oil spill predictions using the operational ocean forecasts, as for example the ECOOP, NEREIDs, RAOP-Med, EMODNET MedSea Check Point. Within the frame of MEDESS4MS project, MEDSLIK is at the heart of the MEDESS4MS multi model oil spill prediction system. The MEDSLIK oil spill model contains among other, the following features: a built-in database with 240 different oil types characteristics, assimilation of oil slick observations from in-situ or aerial, to correct the predictions, virtual deployment of oil booms and/or oil skimmers/dispersants, continuous or instantaneous oil spills from moving or drifting ships whose slicks merge can be modelled together, multiple oil spill predictions from different locations, backward simulations for tracking the source of oil spill pollution, integration with AIS data upon the availability of AIS data, sub-surface oil spills at any given water depth, coupling with SAR satellite data. The MEDSLIK can be used for operational intervention for any user-selected region in the world if the appropriate coastline, bathymetry and meteo-ocean forecast files are provided. MEDSLIK oil spill model has been extensively validated in the Mediterranean Sea, both in real oil spill incidents (i.e. during the Lebanese oil pollution crisis in

  7. A formative model for student nurse development and evaluation--Part 1--Developing the model.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, A S; Roos, E C; Mulder, M; Joubert, A; Botha, D E; Coetzee, M H; Lombard, A; van Niekerk, A; Visser, L

    1996-12-01

    Preparing student nurses for the profession is a complex task for nurse educators; especially when dealing with the development of personal and interpersonal skills, qualities and values held in high esteem by the nursing profession and the community they serve. These researchers developed a model for formative evaluation of students by using the principles of inductive and deductive reasoning. This model was implemented in clinical practice situations and evaluated for its usefulness. It seems that the model enhanced the standards of nursing care because it had a positive effect on the behavior of students and they were better motivated; the model also improved interpersonal relationships and communication between practising nurses and students. The fact that students repeatedly use the model as a norm for self evaluation ensures that they are constantly reminded of the standards required of a professional nurse.

  8. An Age-Graded Model for Career Development Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.

    This paper presents a career developmental model covering the ages of 5 to 18. Career development education includes experiences which facilitate self-awareness, career-awareness and career decision-making. Before choosing a model for career development, it is necessary to decide on a model for child development. The model developed here borrows…

  9. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demasi, J.; Sheffler, K.

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop an integrated life prediction model accounting for all potential life-limiting Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) degradation and failure modes including spallation resulting from cyclic thermal stress, oxidative degradation, hot corrosion, erosion, and foreign object damage (FOD). The mechanisms and relative importance of the various degradation and failure modes will be determined, and the methodology to predict predominant mode failure life in turbine airfoil application will be developed and verified. An empirically based correlative model relating coating life to parametrically expressed driving forces such as temperature and stress will be employed. The two-layer TBC system being investigated, designated PWA264, currently is in commercial aircraft revenue service. It consists of an inner low pressure chamber plasma-sprayed NiCoCrAlY metallic bond coat underlayer (4 to 6 mils) and an outer air plasma-sprayed 7 w/o Y2O3-ZrO2 (8 to 12 mils) ceramic top layer.

  10. Training Module on the Development of Best Modeling Practices

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This module continues the fundamental concepts outlined in the previous modules. Objectives are to identify the ‘best modeling practices’ and strategies for the Development Stage of the model life-cycle and define the steps of model development.

  11. Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development II

    SciTech Connect

    Buechler, Cynthia Eileen

    2016-07-01

    This report describes the continuation of the work reported in “Argonne Bubble Experiment Thermal Model Development”. The experiment was performed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in 2014. A rastered 35 MeV electron beam deposited power in a solution of uranyl sulfate, generating heat and radiolytic gas bubbles. Irradiations were performed at three beam power levels, 6, 12 and 15 kW. Solution temperatures were measured by thermocouples, and gas bubble behavior was observed. This report will describe the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model that was developed to calculate the temperatures and gas volume fractions in the solution vessel during the irradiations. The previous report described an initial analysis performed on a geometry that had not been updated to reflect the as-built solution vessel. Here, the as-built geometry is used. Monte-Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) calculations were performed on the updated geometry, and these results were used to define the power deposition profile for the CFD analyses, which were performed using Fluent, Ver. 16.2. CFD analyses were performed for the 12 and 15 kW irradiations, and further improvements to the model were incorporated, including the consideration of power deposition in nearby vessel components, gas mixture composition, and bubble size distribution. The temperature results of the CFD calculations are compared to experimental measurements.

  12. NUBEAM developments and 3d halo modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorelenkova, M. V.; Medley, S. S.; Kaye, S. M.

    2012-10-01

    Recent developments related to the 3D halo model in NUBEAM code are described. To have a reliable halo neutral source for diagnostic simulation, the TRANSP/NUBEAM code has been enhanced with full implementation of ADAS atomic physic ground state and excited state data for hydrogenic beams and mixed species plasma targets. The ADAS codes and database provide the density and temperature dependence of the atomic data, and the collective nature of the state excitation process. To be able to populate 3D halo output with sufficient statistical resolution, the capability to control the statistics of fast ion CX modeling and for thermal halo launch has been added to NUBEAM. The 3D halo neutral model is based on modification and extension of the ``beam in box'' aligned 3d Cartesian grid that includes the neutral beam itself, 3D fast neutral densities due to CX of partially slowed down fast ions in the beam halo region, 3D thermal neutral densities due to CX deposition and fast neutral recapture source. More details on the 3D halo simulation design will be presented.

  13. Building Energy Model Development for Retrofit Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Chasar, David; McIlvaine, Janet; Blanchard, Jeremy; Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-09-30

    Based on previous research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Florida Solar Energy Center providing technical assistance to implement 22 deep energy retrofits across the nation, 6 homes were selected in Florida and Texas for detailed post-retrofit energy modeling to assess realized energy savings (Chandra et al, 2012). However, assessing realized savings can be difficult for some homes where pre-retrofit occupancy and energy performance are unknown. Initially, savings had been estimated using a HERS Index comparison for these homes. However, this does not account for confounding factors such as occupancy and weather. This research addresses a method to more reliably assess energy savings achieved in deep energy retrofits for which pre-retrofit utility bills or occupancy information in not available. A metered home, Riverdale, was selected as a test case for development of a modeling procedure to account occupancy and weather factors, potentially creating more accurate estimates of energy savings. This “true up” procedure was developed using Energy Gauge USA software and post-retrofit homeowner information and utility bills. The 12 step process adjusts the post-retrofit modeling results to correlate with post-retrofit utility bills and known occupancy information. The “trued” post retrofit model is then used to estimate pre-retrofit energy consumption by changing the building efficiency characteristics to reflect the pre-retrofit condition, but keeping all weather and occupancy-related factors the same. This creates a pre-retrofit model that is more comparable to the post-retrofit energy use profile and can improve energy savings estimates. For this test case, a home for which pre- and post- retrofit utility bills were available was selected for comparison and assessment of the accuracy of the “true up” procedure. Based on the current method, this procedure is quite time intensive. However, streamlined processing spreadsheets or

  14. Developing and Extending a Cyberinfrastructure Model

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, Rosio

    2007-11-13

    Increasingly, research and education institutions are realizing the strategic value and challenge of deploying and supporting institutional cyberinfrastructure (CI). Cyberinfrastructure is composed of high performance computing systems, massive storage systems, visualization systems, and advanced networks to interconnect the components within and across institutions and research communities. CI also includes the professionals with expertise in scientific application and algorithm development and parallel systems operation. Unlike ?regular? IT infrastructure, the manner in which the components are configured and skills to do so are highly specific and specialized. Planning and coordinating these assets is a fundamental step toward enhancing an institution?s research competitiveness and return on personnel, technology, and facilities investments. Coordinated deployment of CI assets has implications across the institution. Consider the VC for Research whose new faculty in the Life Sciences are now asking for simulation systems rather than wet labs, or the Provost who lost another faculty candidate to a peer institution that offered computational support for research, or the VC for Administration who has seen a spike in power and cooling demands from many of the labs and office spaces being converted to house systems. These are just some of the issues that research institutions are wrestling with as research becomes increasingly computational, data-intensive and interdisciplinary. This bulletin will discuss these issues and will present an approach for developing a cyberinfrastructure model that was successfully developed at one institution and then deployed across institutions.

  15. Developing Tsunami Warnings Based on Model Output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Stewart; Greenslade, Diana

    2010-05-01

    The Joint Australian Tsunami Warning Centre is responsible for issuing tsunami warnings for the Australian mainland and offshore territories. Warnings are currently based on model output from the T2 scenario database. When a tsunami event occurs, the closest scenario is selected from the T2 scenario database according to the seismic parameters. The values of the maximum amplitude for the scenario are assessed within coastal regions to determine the threat level. Tsunami warnings are issued according to whether the maximum amplitudes exceed pre-determined threshold values. The threshold values have been derived empirically by consideration of past events and observed coastal impacts. This presentation will describe recent developments that have been made to improve this technique, such as consideration of percentile values of the maximum amplitude.

  16. Spirituality: concept analysis and model development.

    PubMed

    Buck, Harleah G

    2006-01-01

    The concept of spirituality has gained increasing attention over the last decade, as evidenced by the number of conceptual and empirical articles published. Many recommend that continued theory development is essential to understand spirituality and guide practice. The aim of this article is to review the nursing research on spirituality and conduct a concept analysis using Chinn and Kramer's method of creating conceptual meaning. A definition of spirituality is presented, and a model constructed from a review of the literature and reflection. Spirituality is defined as: that most human of experiences that seeks to transcend self and find meaning and purpose through connection with others, nature, and/or a Supreme Being, which may or may not involve religious structures or traditions.

  17. ER@CEBAF: Modeling code developments

    SciTech Connect

    Meot, F.; Roblin, Y.

    2016-04-13

    A proposal for a multiple-pass, high energy, energy-recovery experiment using CEBAF is under preparation in the frame of a JLab-BNL collaboration. In view of beam dynamics investigations regarding this project, in addition to the existing model in use in Elegant a version of CEBAF is developed in the stepwise ray-tracing code Zgoubi, Beyond the ER experiment, it is also planned to use the latter for the study of polarization transport in the presence of synchrotron radiation, down to Hall D line where a 12 GeV polarized beam can be delivered. This Note briefly reports on the preliminary steps, and preliminary outcomes, based on an Elegant to Zgoubi translation.

  18. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demasi, J. T.

    1986-01-01

    A methodology is established to predict thermal barrier coating life in a environment similar to that experienced by gas turbine airfoils. Experiments were conducted to determine failure modes of the thermal barrier coating. Analytical studies were employed to derive a life prediction model. A review of experimental and flight service components as well as laboratory post evaluations indicates that the predominant mode of TBC failure involves thermomechanical spallation of the ceramic coating layer. This ceramic spallation involves the formation of a dominant crack in the ceramic coating parallel to and closely adjacent to the topologically complex metal ceramic interface. This mechanical failure mode clearly is influenced by thermal exposure effects as shown in experiments conducted to study thermal pre-exposure and thermal cycle-rate effects. The preliminary life prediction model developed focuses on the two major damage modes identified in the critical experiments tasks. The first of these involves a mechanical driving force, resulting from cyclic strains and stresses caused by thermally induced and externally imposed mechanical loads. The second is an environmental driving force based on experimental results, and is believed to be related to bond coat oxidation. It is also believed that the growth of this oxide scale influences the intensity of the mechanical driving force.

  19. Model development for naphthenic acids ozonation process.

    PubMed

    Al Jibouri, Ali Kamel H; Wu, Jiangning

    2015-02-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are toxic constituents of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) which is generated during the extraction of bitumen from oil sands. NAs consist mainly of carboxylic acids which are generally biorefractory. For the treatment of OSPW, ozonation is a very beneficial method. It can significantly reduce the concentration of NAs and it can also convert NAs from biorefractory to biodegradable. In this study, a factorial design (2(4)) was used for the ozonation of OSPW to study the influences of the operating parameters (ozone concentration, oxygen/ozone flow rate, pH, and mixing) on the removal of a model NAs in a semi-batch reactor. It was found that ozone concentration had the most significant effect on the NAs concentration compared to other parameters. An empirical model was developed to correlate the concentration of NAs with ozone concentration, oxygen/ozone flow rate, and pH. In addition, a theoretical analysis was conducted to gain the insight into the relationship between the removal of NAs and the operating parameters.

  20. LADEE Satellite Modeling and Simulation Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Michael; Cannon, Howard; Frost, Chad

    2011-01-01

    As human activity on and around the Moon increases, so does the likelihood that our actions will have an impact on its atmosphere. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), a NASA satellite scheduled to launch in 2013, will orbit the Moon collecting composition, density, and time variability data to characterize the current state of the lunar atmosphere. LADEE will also test the concept of the "Modular Common Bus" spacecraft architecture, an effort to reduce both development time and cost by designing reusable, modular components for use in multiple missions with similar requirements. An important aspect of this design strategy is to both simulate the spacecraft and develop the flight code in Simulink, a block diagram-style programming language that allows easy algorithm visualization and performance testing. Before flight code can be tested, however, a realistic simulation of the satellite and its dynamics must be generated and validated. This includes all of the satellite control system components such as actuators used for force and torque generation and sensors used for inertial orientation reference. My primary responsibilities have included designing, integrating, and testing models for the LADEE thrusters, reaction wheels, star trackers, and rate gyroscopes.

  1. Developing a model of chronic subdural hematoma.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jingyang; Ai, Jinglu; Macdonald, R Loch

    2011-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common neurosurgical condition that has a high incidence in the increasing elderly population of many countries. Pathologically, it is defined as a persistent liquefied hematoma in the subdural space more than 3 weeks old that is generally encased by a membraneous capsule. CSDHs likely originate after minor head trauma, with a key factor in its development being the potential for a subdural cavity to permit its expansion within, which is usually due to craniocerebral disproportion. The pathogenesis of CSDH has been attributed to osmotic or oncotic pressure differences, although measurements of these factors in the CSDH fluid do not support this theory. Current belief is that CSDH arises from recurrent bleeding in the subdural space, caused by a cycle of local angiogenesis, inflammation, coagulation and ongoing fibrinolysis. However, because of a lack of detailed knowledge about the precise mechanisms, treatment is often limited to surgical interventions that are invasive and often prone to recurrence. Thus, it is possible that an easily reproducible and representative animal model of CSDH would facilitate research in the pathogenesis of CSDH and aid with development of treatment options.

  2. An Integrated Professional Development Model for Effective Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuijpers, J. M.; Houtveen, A. A. M.; Wubbels, Th.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the design of a professional development model that aims to improve student achievement. This model has been designed by combining and supplementing elements from school-improvement literature and existing professional development models. Existing models from two largely independent approaches to professional development of…

  3. Developments in Atmosphere Revitalization Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, James C.; Kittredge, Kenneth; Xoker, Robert F.; Cummings, Ramona; Gomez, Carlos F.

    2012-01-01

    "NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is pioneering new approaches for rapidly developing prototype systems, demonstrating key capabilities, and validating operational concepts for future human missions beyond Earth orbit" (NASA 2012). These forays beyond the confines of earth's gravity will place unprecedented demands on launch systems. They must not only blast out of earth's gravity well as during the Apollo moon missions, but also launch the supplies needed to sustain a crew over longer periods for exploration missions beyond earth's moon. Thus all spacecraft systems, including those for the separation of metabolic carbon dioxide and water from a crewed vehicle, must be minimized with respect to mass, power, and volume. Emphasis is also placed on system robustness both to minimize replacement parts and ensure crew safety when a quick return to earth is not possible. Current efforts are focused on improving the current state-of-the-art systems utilizing fixed beds of sorbent pellets by evaluating structured sorbents, seeking more robust pelletized sorbents, and examining alternate bed configurations to improve system efficiency and reliability. These development efforts combine testing of sub-scale systems and multi-physics computer simulations to evaluate candidate approaches, select the best performing options, and optimize the configuration of the selected approach, which is then implemented in a full-scale integrated atmosphere revitalization test. This paper describes the development of atmosphere revitalization models and simulations. A companion paper discusses the hardware design and sorbent screening and characterization effort in support of the Atmosphere Revitalization Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project within the AES program.

  4. Teachers' Development Model to Authentic Assessment by Empowerment Evaluation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charoenchai, Charin; Phuseeorn, Songsak; Phengsawat, Waro

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) Study teachers authentic assessment, teachers comprehension of authentic assessment and teachers needs for authentic assessment development. 2) To create teachers development model. 3) Experiment of teachers development model. 4) Evaluate effectiveness of teachers development model. The research is divided into 4…

  5. Adolescent Psychosocial Development: A Review of Longitudinal Models and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeus, Wim

    2016-01-01

    This review used 4 types of longitudinal models (descriptive models, prediction models, developmental sequence models and longitudinal mediation models) to identify regular patterns of psychosocial development in adolescence. Eight patterns of adolescent development were observed across countries: (1) adolescent maturation in multiple…

  6. Developing a biomimetic tooth bud model.

    PubMed

    Smith, Elizabeth E; Zhang, Weibo; Schiele, Nathan R; Khademhosseini, Ali; Kuo, Catherine K; Yelick, Pamela C

    2017-01-08

    A long-term goal is to bioengineer, fully functional, living teeth for regenerative medicine and dentistry applications. Biologically based replacement teeth would avoid insufficiencies of the currently used dental implants. Using natural tooth development as a guide, a model was fabricated using post-natal porcine dental epithelial (pDE), porcine dental mesenchymal (pDM) progenitor cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) encapsulated within gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogels. Previous publications have shown that post-natal DE and DM cells seeded onto synthetic scaffolds exhibited mineralized tooth crowns composed of dentin and enamel. However, these tooth structures were small and formed within the pores of the scaffolds. The present study shows that dental cell-encapsulated GelMA constructs can support mineralized dental tissue formation of predictable size and shape. Individually encapsulated pDE or pDM cell GelMA constructs were analysed to identify formulas that supported pDE and pDM cell attachment, spreading, metabolic activity, and neo-vasculature formation with co-seeded endothelial cells (HUVECs). GelMa constructs consisting of pDE-HUVECS in 3% GelMA and pDM-HUVECs within 5% GelMA supported dental cell differentiation and vascular mineralized dental tissue formation in vivo. These studies are the first to demonstrate the use of GelMA hydrogels to support the formation of post-natal dental progenitor cell-derived mineralized and functionally vascularized tissues of specified size and shape. These results introduce a novel three-dimensional biomimetic tooth bud model for eventual bioengineered tooth replacement teeth in humans. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Developing Friction Stir Welding Process Model for ICME Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu-Ping

    2015-01-01

    A framework for developing a product involving manufacturing processes was developed with integrated computational materials engineering approach. The key component in the framework is a process modeling tool which includes a thermal model, a microstructure model, a thermo-mechanical, and a property model. Using friction stir welding (FSW) process as an example, development of the process modeling tool was introduced in detail. The thermal model and the microstructure model of FSW of steels were validated with the experiment data. The model can predict reasonable temperature and hardness distributions as observed in the experiment. The model was applied to predict residual stress and joint strength of a pipe girth weld.

  8. Development of a reburning boiler process model

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, K.T.

    1992-01-30

    The overall objective of this program is to integrate EER's expertise in boiler reburning performance evaluation into a package of analytical computer tools. Specific objectives of the program are to develop a computational capability with the following features: (1) can be used to predict the impact of gas reburning application on thermal conditions in the boiler radiant furnace, and on overall boiler performance; (2) can estimate gas reburning NO{sub x} reduction effectiveness based on specific reburning configurations and furnace/boiler configurations; (3) can be used as an analytical tool to evaluate the impact of boiler process parameters (e.g., fuel switching and changes in boiler operating conditions) on boiler thermal performance; (4) is adaptable to most boiler designs (tangential and wall fire boilers) and a variety of fuels (solid, liquid, gaseous and slurried fuels); (5) is sufficiently user friendly to be exercisable by engineers with a reasonable knowledge of boilers, and with reasonable computer skills. Here, user friendly'' means that the user will be guided by computer codes during the course of setting up individual input files for the boiler performance model.

  9. Kinetic Model Development for Lignin Pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.; Robichaud, D.; Nimlos, M.

    2012-01-01

    Lignin pyrolysis poses a significant barrier to the formation of liquid fuel products from biomass. Lignin pyrolyzes at higher temperatures than other biomass components (e.g. cellulose and hemi-cellulose) and tends to form radicals species that lead to cross-linking and ultimately char formation. A first step in the advancement of biomass-to-fuel technology is to discover the underlying mechanisms that lead to the breakdown of lignin at lower temperatures into more stable and usable products. We have investigated the thermochemistry of the various inter-linkage units found in lignin (B-O4, a-O4, B-B, B-O5, etc) using electronic structure calculations at the M06-2x/6-311++G(d,p) on a series of dimer model compounds. In addition to bond homolysis reactions, a variety of concerted elimination pathways are under investigation that tend to produce closed-shell stable products. Such a bottom-up approach could aid in the targeted development of catalysts that produce more desirable products under less severe reactor conditions.

  10. Numerical modeling of volcanic arc development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerya, T.; Gorczyk, W.; Nikolaeva, K.

    2007-05-01

    We have created a new coupled geochemical-petrological-thermomechanical numerical model of subduction associated with volcanic arc development. The model includes spontaneous slab bending, subducted crust dehydration, aqueous fluid transport, mantle wedge melting and melt extraction resulting in crustal growth. Two major volcanic arc settings are modeled so far: active continental margins, and intraoceanic subduction. In case of Pacific-type continental margin two fundamentally different regimes of melt productivity are observed in numerical experiments which are in line with natural observations: (1) During continuous convergence with coupled plates highest amounts of melts are formed immediately after the initiation of subduction and then decrease rapidly with time due to the steepening of the slab inclination angle precluding formation of partially molten mantle wedge plumes; (2) During subduction associated with slab delamination and trench retreat resulting in the formation of a pronounced back arc basin with a spreading center in the middle melt production increases with time due to shallowing/stabilization of slab inclination associated with upward asthenospheric mantle flow toward the extension region facilitating propagation of hydrous partially molten plumes from the slab. In case of spontaneous nucleation of retreating oceanic subduction two scenarios of tecono-magmatic evolution are distinguished: (1) decay and, ultimately, the cessation of subduction and related magmatic activity, (2) increase in subduction rate (to up to ~12 cm/yr) and stabilization of subduction and magmatic arc growth. In the first case the duration of subduction correlates positively with the intensity of melt extraction: the period of continued subduction increases from 15,4 Myrs to 47,6 Myrs with the increase of melt extraction threshold from 1% to 9%. In scenario (1) the magmatic arc crust includes large amounts of rocks formed by melting of subducted crust atop the thermally

  11. Instructional Technology Professional Development Evaluation: Developing a High Quality Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaytan, Jorge A.; McEwen, Beryl C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The literature contains very few studies that focused on evaluating the impact of professional development activities on student learning. And, many of these studies failed to determine whether the professional development activities met their primary goal--to improve the learning process. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to use…

  12. Talent Development Professional Development Evaluation Model: A Paradigm Shift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Constance M.

    2004-01-01

    Professional development has moved from the periphery of teachers' professional lives to center stage, clearly recognized today as one of the key factors that shape teachers' ability to reach and teach all students successfully. To be effective, any professional development program must pay close attention to changes in teacher classroom…

  13. How Qualitative Methods Can be Used to Inform Model Development.

    PubMed

    Husbands, Samantha; Jowett, Susan; Barton, Pelham; Coast, Joanna

    2017-03-20

    Decision-analytic models play a key role in informing healthcare resource allocation decisions. However, there are ongoing concerns with the credibility of models. Modelling methods guidance can encourage good practice within model development, but its value is dependent on its ability to address the areas that modellers find most challenging. Further, it is important that modelling methods and related guidance are continually updated in light of any new approaches that could potentially enhance model credibility. The objective of this article was to highlight the ways in which qualitative methods have been used and recommended to inform decision-analytic model development and enhance modelling practices. With reference to the literature, the article discusses two key ways in which qualitative methods can be, and have been, applied. The first approach involves using qualitative methods to understand and inform general and future processes of model development, and the second, using qualitative techniques to directly inform the development of individual models. The literature suggests that qualitative methods can improve the validity and credibility of modelling processes by providing a means to understand existing modelling approaches that identifies where problems are occurring and further guidance is needed. It can also be applied within model development to facilitate the input of experts to structural development. We recommend that current and future model development would benefit from the greater integration of qualitative methods, specifically by studying 'real' modelling processes, and by developing recommendations around how qualitative methods can be adopted within everyday modelling practice.

  14. Applying mechanistic models in bioprocess development.

    PubMed

    Lencastre Fernandes, Rita; Bodla, Vijaya Krishna; Carlquist, Magnus; Heins, Anna-Lena; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist V

    2013-01-01

    The available knowledge on the mechanisms of a bioprocess system is central to process analytical technology. In this respect, mechanistic modeling has gained renewed attention, since a mechanistic model can provide an excellent summary of available process knowledge. Such a model therefore incorporates process-relevant input (critical process variables)-output (product concentration and product quality attributes) relations. The model therefore has great value in planning experiments, or in determining which critical process variables need to be monitored and controlled tightly. Mechanistic models should be combined with proper model analysis tools, such as uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. When assuming distributed inputs, the resulting uncertainty in the model outputs can be decomposed using sensitivity analysis to determine which input parameters are responsible for the major part of the output uncertainty. Such information can be used as guidance for experimental work; i.e., only parameters with a significant influence on model outputs need to be determined experimentally. The use of mechanistic models and model analysis tools is demonstrated in this chapter. As a practical case study, experimental data from Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentations are used. The data are described with the well-known model of Sonnleitner and Käppeli (Biotechnol Bioeng 28:927-937, 1986) and the model is analyzed further. The methods used are generic, and can be transferred easily to other, more complex case studies as well.

  15. Workload Modeling and Workload Management: Recent Theoretical Developments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    Workload Modeling and Workload Management : Recent Theoretical Developments by Raja Parasuraman and Ericka Rovira ARL-CR-0562 April...Proving Ground, MD 21005-5425 ARL-CR-0562 April 2005 Workload Modeling and Workload Management : Recent Theoretical Developments Raja...Workload Modeling and Workload Management : Recent Theoretical Developments 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 62716-AH70

  16. A Neuroconstructivist Model of Past Tense Development and Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermann, Gert; Ruh, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    We present a neural network model of learning and processing the English past tense that is based on the notion that experience-dependent cortical development is a core aspect of cognitive development. During learning the model adds and removes units and connections to develop a task-specific final architecture. The model provides an integrated…

  17. Development of an Instructional Quality Assurance Model in Nursing Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajpru, Haruthai; Pasiphol, Shotiga; Wongwanich, Suwimon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an instructional quality assurance model in nursing science. The study was divided into 3 phases; (1) to study the information for instructional quality assurance model development (2) to develop an instructional quality assurance model in nursing science and (3) to audit and the assessment of the developed…

  18. Hypersonic Vehicle Propulsion System Simplified Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stueber, Thomas J.; Raitano, Paul; Le, Dzu K.; Ouzts, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This document addresses the modeling task plan for the hypersonic GN&C GRC team members. The overall propulsion system modeling task plan is a multi-step process and the task plan identified in this document addresses the first steps (short term modeling goals). The procedures and tools produced from this effort will be useful for creating simplified dynamic models applicable to a hypersonic vehicle propulsion system. The document continues with the GRC short term modeling goal. Next, a general description of the desired simplified model is presented along with simulations that are available to varying degrees. The simulations may be available in electronic form (FORTRAN, CFD, MatLab,...) or in paper form in published documents. Finally, roadmaps outlining possible avenues towards realizing simplified model are presented.

  19. Aqueous Solution Vessel Thermal Model Development II

    SciTech Connect

    Buechler, Cynthia Eileen

    2015-10-28

    The work presented in this report is a continuation of the work described in the May 2015 report, “Aqueous Solution Vessel Thermal Model Development”. This computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model aims to predict the temperature and bubble volume fraction in an aqueous solution of uranium. These values affect the reactivity of the fissile solution, so it is important to be able to calculate them and determine their effects on the reaction. Part A of this report describes some of the parameter comparisons performed on the CFD model using Fluent. Part B describes the coupling of the Fluent model with a Monte-Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) neutron transport model. The fuel tank geometry is the same as it was in the May 2015 report, annular with a thickness-to-height ratio of 0.16. An accelerator-driven neutron source provides the excitation for the reaction, and internal and external water cooling channels remove the heat. The model used in this work incorporates the Eulerian multiphase model with lift, wall lubrication, turbulent dispersion and turbulence interaction. The buoyancy-driven flow is modeled using the Boussinesq approximation, and the flow turbulence is determined using the k-ω Shear-Stress-Transport (SST) model. The dispersed turbulence multiphase model is employed to capture the multiphase turbulence effects.

  20. Simulation Modeling of Software Development Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calavaro, G. F.; Basili, V. R.; Iazeolla, G.

    1996-01-01

    A simulation modeling approach is proposed for the prediction of software process productivity indices, such as cost and time-to-market, and the sensitivity analysis of such indices to changes in the organization parameters and user requirements. The approach uses a timed Petri Net and Object Oriented top-down model specification. Results demonstrate the model representativeness, and its usefulness in verifying process conformance to expectations, and in performing continuous process improvement and optimization.

  1. Simulation Modelling: Educational Development Roles for Learning Technologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, David

    2002-01-01

    Discusses computer assisted learning and simulation modeling from a United Kingdom perspective. Highlights include modeling with the DMS (Dynamic Modelling System); modeling with STELLA; learning and teaching simulation modeling; educational development roles for learning technologists; and a list of relevant Web sites. (Contains 52 references.)…

  2. The Development of an Illustration Design Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Robert O.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a method for isolating factors that influence the ability of a reader to comprehend the message of an illustration, and explains a model that is constructed from these factors to highlight potential problem stages in an author's design of an illustration. The model is based on data from comprehension trials with college students. (17…

  3. Development of the Integrated Communication Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hua-Kuo

    2008-01-01

    Human communication is a critical issue in personal life. It also should be the indispensable core element of general education curriculum in universities and colleges. Based on literature analysis and the author's clinical observation, the importance of human communication, functions of model, and often seen human communication models were…

  4. Multiscale models for vertebrate limb development.

    PubMed

    Newman, Stuart A; Christley, Scott; Glimm, Tilmann; Hentschel, H G E; Kazmierczak, Bogdan; Zhang, Yong-Tao; Zhu, Jianfeng; Alber, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Dynamical systems in which geometrically extended model cells produce and interact with diffusible (morphogen) and nondiffusible (extracellular matrix) chemical fields have proved very useful as models for developmental processes. The embryonic vertebrate limb is an apt system for such mathematical and computational modeling since it has been the subject of hundreds of experimental studies, and its normal and variant morphologies and spatiotemporal organization of expressed genes are well known. Because of its stereotypical proximodistally generated increase in the number of parallel skeletal elements, the limb lends itself to being modeled by Turing-type systems which are capable of producing periodic, or quasiperiodic, arrangements of spot- and stripe-like elements. This chapter describes several such models, including, (i) a system of partial differential equations in which changing cell density enters into the dynamics explicitly, (ii) a model for morphogen dynamics alone, derived from the latter system in the "morphostatic limit" where cell movement relaxes on a much slower time-scale than cell differentiation, (iii) a discrete stochastic model for the simplified pattern formation that occurs when limb cells are placed in planar culture, and (iv) several hybrid models in which continuum morphogen systems interact with cells represented as energy-minimizing mesoscopic entities. Progress in devising computational methods for handling 3D, multiscale, multimodel simulations of organogenesis is discussed, as well as for simulating reaction-diffusion dynamics in domains of irregular shape.

  5. New developments of the nuclear shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poves, Alfredo

    2002-04-01

    More than fifty years ago, the independent particle model of the nucleus was proposed by M. Goeppert-Mayer and H. Jensen. The label "shell model" has since changed meaning and nowadays it applies mainly to the description of the nucleus that results of the mixing of many Slater determinants by an effective "in medium" interaction, usually limited to one and two-body terms. The advent of efficient new algorithms to solve the secular problem, together with the increase in speed and storage capacity of modern computers, has brought into the reach of large scale shell model calculations entire regions of nuclei and of nuclear phenomena traditionally considered to be out of the shell model realm. This enormous extension of its field of practical applications has occurred simultaneously with a regain of experimental interest in the nuclear spectroscopy, in particular in very neutron rich and N=Z nuclei. The shell model work in large model spaces demands a very complete understanding of the effective nuclear interaction, a basic goal of the nuclear theory. Besides, the huge increase of dimensionality that occurs when many valence orbits and valence particles are involved, is a formidable challenge for both the direct diagonalization shell model codes and for the many different approximations, based most often in physically guided truncations of the full shell model basis. In this talk I aim to transmit the effervescence of the field by highlighting the most important recent advances and applications.

  6. DEVELOPING MEANINGFUL COHORTS FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper summarizes numerous statistical analyses focused on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD), used by many exposure modelers as the basis for data on what people do and where they spend their time. In doing so, modelers ...

  7. Instructional Developer as Content Specialist: Three Case Studies Utilizing the Instructional Development-Operations Research Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Stephen M.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a 3-phase model (content research, specification, delivery) for instructional development-operations research and describes its application in developing courses in zoology, geology, and paleontology. (MER)

  8. Development and assessment of a biotechnology workforce development center model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huxley, Mary Pat

    Life science and biotechnology companies are the fastest growing industries in the nation, with more than 30% of these companies and close to 50% of the nation's life science workers located in California. The need for well-trained biotechnology workers continues to grow. Educational institutions and industry professionals have attempted to create the training and the workforce for the bioscience and biotechnology industry. Many have concluded that one way would be to create a multiuse training center where trainees from high school age through late adulthood could receive up-to-date training. This case study had 2 unique phases. Phase 1 consisted of examining representative stakeholder interview data for characteristics of an ideal biotechnology shared-use regional education (B-SURE) center, which served as the basis for an assessment tool, with 107 characteristics in 8 categories. This represented what an ideal center model should include. Phase 2 consisted of using this assessment tool to gather data from 6 current biotechnology regional centers to determine how these centers compared to the ideal model. Results indicated that each center was unique. Although no center met all ideal model characteristics, the 6 centers could clearly be ranked. Recommendations include refining the core characteristics, further assessing the existing and planned centers; evaluating and refining the interview instrument in Phase 1 and the assessment tool in Phase 2 by including additional stakeholders in both phases and by adding reviewers of Phase 1 transcripts; and determining a method to demonstrate a clear return on investment in a B-SURE center.

  9. Test Driven Development of Scientific Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clune, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Test-Driven Development (TDD), a software development process that promises many advantages for developer productivity and software reliability, has become widely accepted among professional software engineers. As the name suggests, TDD practitioners alternate between writing short automated tests and producing code that passes those tests. Although this overly simplified description will undoubtedly sound prohibitively burdensome to many uninitiated developers, the advent of powerful unit-testing frameworks greatly reduces the effort required to produce and routinely execute suites of tests. By testimony, many developers find TDD to be addicting after only a few days of exposure, and find it unthinkable to return to previous practices.After a brief overview of the TDD process and my experience in applying the methodology for development activities at Goddard, I will delve more deeply into some of the challenges that are posed by numerical and scientific software as well as tools and implementation approaches that should address those challenges.

  10. Multimedia-modeling integration development environment

    SciTech Connect

    Pelton, Mitchell A.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.

    2002-09-02

    There are many framework systems available; however, the purpose of the framework presented here is to capitalize on the successes of the Framework for Risk Analysis in Multimedia Environmental Systems (FRAMES) and Multi-media Multi-pathway Multi-receptor Risk Assessment (3MRA) methodology as applied to the Hazardous Waste Identification Rule (HWIR) while focusing on the development of software tools to simplify the module developer?s effort of integrating a module into the framework.

  11. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, Susan M.; Nissley, David M.; Sheffler, Keith D.; Cruse, Thomas A.

    1991-01-01

    A thermal barrier coated (TBC) turbine component design system, including an accurate TBC life prediction model, is needed to realize the full potential of available TBC engine performance and/or durability benefits. The objective of this work, which was sponsored in part by NASA, was to generate a life prediction model for electron beam - physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) zirconia TBC. Specific results include EB-PVD zirconia mechanical and physical properties, coating adherence strength measurements, interfacial oxide growth characteristics, quantitative cyclic thermal spallation life data, and a spallation life model.

  12. Overview of turbulence model development and applications at Rocketdyne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadid, A. H.; Lynch, E. D.; Sindir, Munir M.

    1995-03-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses turbulence modeling requirements, development philosophy, and approach; two major areas of concentration (high speed and low speed turbulence modeling); high speed turbulence modeling; compressibility effects; turbulence models adapted to USA code; M = 9.2 flat plate flow; Mach 7.05 flow over axisymmetric flare; Mach 8.6 flow over cold wall edge; low speed turbulence modeling; turbulence models being assessed; turbulence model deck structure and integration with Navier-Stokes solver; nonlinear algebraic-stress model; rotation modified k-epsilon model; and Reynolds stress model.

  13. Development of large Area Covering Height Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, K.

    2014-04-01

    Height information is a basic part of topographic mapping. Only in special areas frequent update of height models is required, usually the update cycle is quite lower as for horizontal map information. Some height models are available free of charge in the internet; for commercial height models a fee has to be paid. Mostly digital surface models (DSM) with the height of the visible surface are given and not the bare ground height, as required for standard mapping. Nevertheless by filtering of DSM, digital terrain models (DTM) with the height of the bare ground can be generated with the exception of dense forest areas where no height of the bare ground is available. These height models may be better as the DTM of some survey administrations. In addition several DTM from national survey administrations are classified, so as alternative the commercial or free of charge available information from internet can be used. The widely used SRTM DSM is available also as ACE-2 GDEM corrected by altimeter data for systematic height errors caused by vegetation and orientation errors. But the ACE-2 GDEM did not respect neighbourhood information. With the worldwide covering TanDEM-X height model, distributed starting 2014 by Airbus Defence and Space (former ASTRIUM) as WorldDEM, higher level of details and accuracy is reached as with other large area covering height models. At first the raw-version of WorldDEM will be available, followed by an edited version and finally as WorldDEM-DTM a height model of the bare ground. With 12 m spacing and a relative standard deviation of 1.2 m within an area of 1° x 1° an accuracy and resolution level is reached, satisfying also for larger map scales. For limited areas with the HDEM also a height model with 6 m spacing and a relative vertical accuracy of 0.5 m can be generated on demand. By bathymetric LiDAR and stereo images also the height of the sea floor can be determined if the water has satisfying transparency. Another method of getting

  14. Research and Development Project Prioritization - Computer Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    ble pwm .-ezts or- for aggregvationr of noltinle criteri an-k ordered reqoirenments for- procdzcts. priorities. o) Reducd length lists (dowcn to C...Quantities of 50 and 51 respectively were reduced one each, without loss of generalization , to permit model computation. 69 -A- TABLE 5. (CONcLUDED) Case 10...strived examples from the literature. The model then was and generally failed to i6nd aggregation methods that demonstrated for an extensive R & D

  15. A Model for Rural Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampp, Lary; Johnson, Deke

    This paper offers definitions and descriptions, and explores the dynamics, of "strategic grantseeking" as a means of supporting economic development programs. Strategic grantseeking is a natural and dynamic tool usable with any economic development program. It consists of a set of concepts, procedures, and tools which are integrated into…

  16. Modeling Low Impact Development Alternatives with SWIMM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Water (OW) is actively promoting the use of Low Impact Development (LID) practices to help protect and restore water quality in urban and developing areas. Such practices support the concepts of green infrastructure and sustain...

  17. Leadership Development Model for Shelby County Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobia, F. Jane; Smith, Elizabeth F.; Wood, Leah Anne

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors impacting program quality in leadership development programs as a means to inform the Shelby County School System of effective practices in leadership development. The qualitative research design method was used to explore two school systems identified through a comprehensive review of research as…

  18. Test Driven Development of Scientific Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clune, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    Test-Driven Development (TDD) is a software development process that promises many advantages for developer productivity and has become widely accepted among professional software engineers. As the name suggests, TDD practitioners alternate between writing short automated tests and producing code that passes those tests. Although this overly simplified description will undoubtedly sound prohibitively burdensome to many uninitiated developers, the advent of powerful unit-testing frameworks greatly reduces the effort required to produce and routinely execute suites of tests. By testimony, many developers find TDD to be addicting after only a few days of exposure, and find it unthinkable to return to previous practices. Of course, scientific/technical software differs from other software categories in a number of important respects, but I nonetheless believe that TDD is quite applicable to the development of such software and has the potential to significantly improve programmer productivity and code quality within the scientific community. After a detailed introduction to TDD, I will present the experience within the Software Systems Support Office (SSSO) in applying the technique to various scientific applications. This discussion will emphasize the various direct and indirect benefits as well as some of the difficulties and limitations of the methodology. I will conclude with a brief description of pFUnit, a unit testing framework I co-developed to support test-driven development of parallel Fortran applications.

  19. A toolbox and a record for scientific model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellman, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    Scientific computation can benefit from software tools that facilitate construction of computational models, control the application of models, and aid in revising models to handle new situations. Existing environments for scientific programming provide only limited means of handling these tasks. This paper describes a two pronged approach for handling these tasks: (1) designing a 'Model Development Toolbox' that includes a basic set of model constructing operations; and (2) designing a 'Model Development Record' that is automatically generated during model construction. The record is subsequently exploited by tools that control the application of scientific models and revise models to handle new situations. Our two pronged approach is motivated by our belief that the model development toolbox and record should be highly interdependent. In particular, a suitable model development record can be constructed only when models are developed using a well defined set of operations. We expect this research to facilitate rapid development of new scientific computational models, to help ensure appropriate use of such models and to facilitate sharing of such models among working computational scientists. We are testing this approach by extending SIGMA, and existing knowledge-based scientific software design tool.

  20. Development and application of air quality models at the US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overview of the development and application of air quality models at the U.S. EPA, particularly focused on the development and application of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model developed within the Computation Exposure Division (CED) of the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). This presentation will provide a simple overview of air quality model development and application geared toward a non-technical student audience. The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Computational Exposure Division (CED) develops and evaluates data, decision-support tools, and models to be applied to media-specific or receptor-specific problem areas. CED uses modeling-based approaches to characterize exposures, evaluate fate and transport, and support environmental diagnostics/forensics with input from multiple data sources. It also develops media- and receptor-specific models, process models, and decision support tools for use both within and outside of EPA.

  1. Advanced modeling environment for developing and testing FES control systems.

    PubMed

    Davoodi, R; Brown, I E; Loeb, G E

    2003-01-01

    Realistic models of neuromusculoskeletal systems can provide a safe and convenient environment for the design and evaluation of controllers for functional electrical stimulation (FES) prior to clinical trials. We have developed a set of integrated musculoskeletal modeling tools to facilitate the model building process. Simulink models of musculoskeletal systems are created using two software packages developed in our laboratory, Musculoskeletal Modeling in Simulink (MMS) and virtual muscle, in addition to one software package available commercially, SIMM (Musculographics Inc., USA). MMS converts anatomically accurate musculoskeletal models generated by SIMM into Simulink(R) blocks. It also removes run-time constraints on kinetic simulations in SIMM, and allows the development of complex musculoskeletal models without writing a line of code. Virtual muscle builds realistic Simulink models of muscles responding to either natural recruitment or FES. Models of sensorimotor control systems can be developed using various Matlab (Mathworks Inc., USA) toolboxes and integrated easily with these musculoskeletal blocks in the graphical environment of Simulink.

  2. A Conceptual Model of Career Development to Enhance Academic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Nancy Creighton

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop, refine, and validate a conceptual model of career development to enhance the academic motivation of community college students. To achieve this end, a straw model was built from the theoretical and empirical research literature. The model was then refined and validated through three rounds of a Delphi…

  3. A Leadership Identity Development Model: Applications from a Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komives, Susan R.; Mainella, Felicia C.; Longerbeam, Susan D.; Osteen, Laura; Owen, Julie E.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a stage-based model of leadership identity development (LID) that resulted from a grounded theory study on developing a leadership identity (Komives, Owen, Longerbeam, Mainella, & Osteen, 2005). The LID model expands on the leadership identity stages, integrates the categories of the grounded theory into the LID model, and…

  4. Developing mathematical models of neurobehavioral performance for the "real world".

    PubMed

    Dean, Dennis A; Fletcher, Adam; Hursh, Steven R; Klerman, Elizabeth B

    2007-06-01

    Work-related operations requiring extended wake durations, night, or rotating shifts negatively affect worker neurobehavioral performance and health. These types of work schedules are required in many industries, including the military, transportation, and health care. These industries are increasingly using or considering the use of mathematical models of neurobehavioral performance as a means to predict the neurobehavioral deficits due to these operational demands, to develop interventions that decrease these deficits, and to provide additional information to augment existing decision-making processes. Recent advances in mathematical modeling have allowed its application to real-world problems. Developing application-specific expertise is necessary to successfully apply mathematical models, in part because development of new algorithms and methods linking the models to the applications may be required. During a symposium, "Modeling Human Neurobehavioral Performance II: Towards Operational Readiness," at the 2006 SIAM-SMB Conference on the Life Sciences, examples of the process of applying mathematical models, including model construction, model validation, or developing model-based interventions, were presented. The specific applications considered included refining a mathematical model of sleep/wake patterns of airline flight crew, validating a mathematical model using railroad operations data, and adapting a mathematical model to develop appropriate countermeasure recommendations based on known constraints. As mathematical models and their associated analytical methods continue to transition into operational settings, such additional development will be required. However, major progress has been made in using mathematical model outputs to inform those individuals making schedule decisions for their workers.

  5. RFI and SCRIMP Model Development and Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loos, Alfred C.; Sayre, Jay

    2000-01-01

    Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) processes are becoming promising technologies in the manufacturing of primary composite structures in the aircraft industry as well as infrastructure. A great deal of work still needs to be done on efforts to reduce the costly trial-and-error methods of VARTM processing that are currently in practice today. A computer simulation model of the VARTM process would provide a cost-effective tool in the manufacturing of composites utilizing this technique. Therefore, the objective of this research was to modify an existing three-dimensional, Resin Film Infusion (RFI)/Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) model to include VARTM simulation capabilities and to verify this model with the fabrication of aircraft structural composites. An additional objective was to use the VARTM model as a process analysis tool, where this tool would enable the user to configure the best process for manufacturing quality composites. Experimental verification of the model was performed by processing several flat composite panels. The parameters verified included flow front patterns and infiltration times. The flow front patterns were determined to be qualitatively accurate, while the simulated infiltration times over predicted experimental times by 8 to 10%. Capillary and gravitational forces were incorporated into the existing RFI/RTM model in order to simulate VARTM processing physics more accurately. The theoretical capillary pressure showed the capability to reduce the simulated infiltration times by as great as 6%. The gravity, on the other hand, was found to be negligible for all cases. Finally, the VARTM model was used as a process analysis tool. This enabled the user to determine such important process constraints as the location and type of injection ports and the permeability and location of the high-permeable media. A process for a three-stiffener composite panel was proposed. This configuration evolved from the variation of the process

  6. Kohlberg's Moral Development Model: Cohort Influences on Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bechtel, Ashleah

    An overview of Kohlberg's theory of moral development is presented; three interviews regarding the theory are reported, and the author's own moral development is compared to the model; finally, a critique of the theory is addressed along with recommendations for future enhancement. Lawrence Kohlberg's model of moral development, also referred to…

  7. The Punctuated-Tuckman: Towards a New Group Development Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurt, Andrew C.; Trombley, Sarah M.

    2007-01-01

    Two commonly accepted theories of group development are the Tuckman model (Tuckman & Jensen, 1977) and the Punctuated-Equilibrium model (Gersick, 1988). Critiques of both are that they assume linear development and that they fail to account for outside influences. In contrast, Tubbs (2004) suggests that group development should be viewed from a…

  8. Development of a rotor wake-vortex model, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majjigi, R. K.; Gliebe, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    Certain empirical rotor wake and turbulence relationships were developed using existing low speed rotor wave data. A tip vortex model was developed by replacing the annulus wall with a row of image vortices. An axisymmetric turbulence spectrum model, developed in the context of rotor inflow turbulence, was adapted to predicting the turbulence spectrum of the stator gust upwash.

  9. The Development of Educational Evaluation Models in Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasoetion, N.; And Others

    The primary purpose of this project was to develop model evaluation procedures that could be applied to large educational undertakings in Indonesia. Three programs underway in Indonesia were selected for the development of evaluation models: the Textbook-Teacher Upgrading Project, the Development School Project, and the Examinations (Item Bank)…

  10. Development of a laboratory demonstration model active cleaning device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    A laboratory demonstration model of a device for removing contaminant films from optical surfaces in space was developed. The development of a plasma tube, which would produce the desired cleaning effects under high vacuum conditions, represented the major problem in the program. This plasma tube development is discussed, and the resulting laboratory demonstration-model device is described.

  11. Developing Models of Caring in the Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noddings, Nel

    Much theoretical work is being done in relational ethics, particularly the ethics of care. Models of human caring are also arising within the professions. This paper discusses feminist contributions to theories of caring, focusing on the shared premises, conflicts, and paradoxes faced by four professions (law, nursing, theology, and education),…

  12. Using Hybrid Modeling to Develop Innovative Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtman, Brenda; Avans, Diana

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a hybrid activities model that physical educators can use with students in grades four and above to create virtually a limitless array of novel games. A brief introduction to the basic theory is followed by descriptions of some hybrid games. Hybrid games are typically the result of merging two traditional sports or other…

  13. Criteria Assessment Model for Sustainable Product Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Turan, Faiz; Johan, Kartina; Hisyamudin Muhd Nor, Nik

    2016-11-01

    The instability in today's market and the ever increasing and emerging demands for mass customized and hybrid products by customers, are driving companies and decision makers to seek for cost effective and time efficient improvements in their product development process. Design concept evaluation which is the end of conceptual design is one of the most critical decision points in product development. It relates to the final success of product development, because poor criteria assessment in design concept evaluation can rarely compensated at the later stages. This has led to real pressure for the adaptation of new developmental architecture and operational parameters to remain competitive in the market. In this paper, a new integrated design concept evaluation based on fuzzy-technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (Fuzzy-TOPSIS) is presented, and it also attempts to incorporate sustainability practices in assessing the criteria. Prior to Fuzzy-TOPSIS, a new scale of “Weighting criteria” for survey process is developed to quantify the evaluation criteria. This method will help engineers to improve the effectiveness and objectivity of the sustainable product development. Case example from industry is presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methodology. The result of the example shows that the new integrated method provides an alternative to existing methods of design concept evaluation.

  14. Model Development Highlight for 1984: The GLA Fourth Order GCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaendtner, J.

    1985-01-01

    A number of improvements have been made to the GLA Fourth Order General Circulation Model and its associated run procedures during the past year. Major development efforts have been carried out in the following areas: (1) model resolution; (2) boundary fields and topography; (3) post-processing of model results on CYBER computer; and (4) model source code.

  15. A Lattice Model of the Development of Reading Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Connor, Carol McDonald

    2016-12-01

    In this article, I present a developmental model of how children learn to comprehend what they read, which builds on current models of reading comprehension and integrates findings from instructional research and evidence-based models of development in early and middle childhood. The lattice model holds that children's developing reading comprehension is a function of the interacting, reciprocal, and bootstrapping effects of developing text-specific, linguistic, and social-cognitive processes, which interact with instruction as child-characteristic-by-instruction (CXI) interaction effects. The processes develop over time and in the context of classroom, home, peer, community, and other influences to affect children's development of proficient reading comprehension. I first describe models of reading comprehension. I then review the basic processes in the model, the role of instruction, and CXI interactions in the context of the lattice model. I then discuss implications for instruction and research.

  16. Millimeter Wave Radio Frequency Propagation Model Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-28

    Attenuation Panel ............................................................................................ 35  Figure 12. Dust Storms Visibility Level Drop...scintillation, gaseous absorption, dust storms , clouds and fog. The details of the current models describing these effects are explained in the...attenuation due to dust storms can be calculated similarly as [12]: dB, (76) with the specific attenuation, Ap, given as 4.343 10 dB/km, (77) where σt

  17. Development of a melting model for meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Bruno; Bariselli, Federico; Turchi, Alessandro; Frezzotti, Aldo; Chatelain, Philippe; Magin, Thierry

    2016-11-01

    Meteor phenomenon is a frequent event happening on planet Earth. Due to the high entry velocities of these objects, the surface of the material undergoes extreme heat loads. Since the material is mainly composed by several oxides, eventually, the surface temperature will overcome the melting point. In this study we propose a melting model, in order to understand the material behavior, coupled with a flow solver. A detailed study of the flow around the stagnation streamline is also presented.

  18. Development of a clinical preceptor model.

    PubMed

    Blum, Cynthia Ann

    2009-01-01

    To reflect contemporary nursing care, the practicing nurse is in an ideal position to shape the clinical experience for student nurses. Although nurse preceptors are frequently used to assist in practice education of nursing students, their contribution to the creation of these programs has not been explored. The author discusses the results of a participatory action research study with the aim of creating a preceptor-guided practice education model for use throughout an undergraduate bachelor of science in nursing curriculum.

  19. Future Models for Federally Funded Research and Development Center Contracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-20

    Future Models for Federally Funded Research and Development Center Contracts Approved by the DBB 20 October 2016 Presentation on: Task Group... Development Center (FFRDC) contracts. Specifically, the DBB should;  Review existing governance models, compare management activities to those of the...USAF Establish DBB Task Group to ecommend an appropriate futur model and focus for DoD sponsor d Federally Funded Research and Development

  20. Army Engineers Develop Model to Support Iraqi Water Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    technical references and computer resources, due to fire damage and looting. Reservoir Simulation Model To assist in this effort, the US Army Corps of...Development Alternatives, Incorporated, the USAID agent. HEC is developing a reservoir simulation model for the Tigris and Euphrates River system in...studying and solving reservoir system management problems. HEC and the Afghanistan Engineer District recently teamed up to develop a reservoir simulation model

  1. Professional Development Leave: The Florida Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perdue, Robert W.

    The history of professional development leave for librarians in the Florida State University System was examined, and an inventory was made of all leaves taken in the state's nine universities. The state's leave policy was judged to be generous when compared to the policies of other libraries in the nation. The leaves were examined for their…

  2. Development toward School Readiness: A Holistic Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaynor, Alan Kibbe

    2015-01-01

    A systemic analysis of early childhood development factors explains the variance in school readiness among representative U.S. 5-year-olds. The underlying theory incorporates a set of causally interactive endogenous variables that are hypothesized to be driven by the effects of three exogenous variables: parental education, immigrant status and…

  3. Mentoring: A Model for Leadership Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stead, Valerie

    2005-01-01

    There appears to be a paucity of research on mentoring senior leaders (Hobson & Sharp, 2005) and yet a growing interest in the development of leadership through experience (Abra "et al.," 2003; McCauley "et al.," 1998). This paper therefore presents and evaluates a case study of a pilot mentoring scheme and programme for…

  4. Community Work Development: A Marketing Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Como, Perry; Hagner, David

    This manual is concerned with developing community-based work for persons with disabilities, particularly disabled workers in segregated settings and individuals who are considered not yet ready for or capable of work. The first part of the publication deals with the following topics: the concepts of community, work, and severe disabilities; the…

  5. Regional Economic Development Impact Model: Phase I Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    A multiregional variable input-output (MRVIO) model is introduced to investigate the impact of a change in transportation costs on regional development and trade flows. The MRVIO model is a theoretically well-founded, practically useful, and policy sensitive model. The regional technical coefficients and the trade coefficients are endogenous variables to the MRVIO model. These coefficients are sensitive to the transportation costs as...transportation cost stimulates the regional development . However, its sensitivity differs among industries. (Author)

  6. Development of mpi_EPIC model for global agroecosystem modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Shujiang; Wang, Dali; Jeff A. Nichols; Schuchart, Joseph; Kline, Keith L.; Wei, Yaxing; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Post, Wilfred M.; Izaurralde, R. Cesar

    2014-12-31

    Models that address policy-maker concerns about multi-scale effects of food and bioenergy production systems are computationally demanding. We integrated the message passing interface algorithm into the process-based EPIC model to accelerate computation of ecosystem effects. Simulation performance was further enhanced by applying the Vampir framework. When this enhanced mpi_EPIC model was tested, total execution time for a global 30-year simulation of a switchgrass cropping system was shortened to less than 0.5 hours on a supercomputer. The results illustrate that mpi_EPIC using parallel design can balance simulation workloads and facilitate large-scale, high-resolution analysis of agricultural production systems, management alternatives and environmental effects.

  7. Development of mpi_EPIC model for global agroecosystem modeling

    DOE PAGES

    Kang, Shujiang; Wang, Dali; Jeff A. Nichols; ...

    2014-12-31

    Models that address policy-maker concerns about multi-scale effects of food and bioenergy production systems are computationally demanding. We integrated the message passing interface algorithm into the process-based EPIC model to accelerate computation of ecosystem effects. Simulation performance was further enhanced by applying the Vampir framework. When this enhanced mpi_EPIC model was tested, total execution time for a global 30-year simulation of a switchgrass cropping system was shortened to less than 0.5 hours on a supercomputer. The results illustrate that mpi_EPIC using parallel design can balance simulation workloads and facilitate large-scale, high-resolution analysis of agricultural production systems, management alternatives and environmentalmore » effects.« less

  8. Modeling and simulation of cement hydration kinetics and microstructure development

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Jeffrey J.; Biernacki, Joseph J.; Bullard, Jeffrey W.; Bishnoi, Shashank; Dolado, Jorge S.; Scherer, George W.; Luttge, Andreas

    2011-12-15

    Efforts to model and simulate the highly complex cement hydration process over the past 40 years are reviewed, covering different modeling approaches such as single particle models, mathematical nucleation and growth models, and vector and lattice-based approaches to simulating microstructure development. Particular attention is given to promising developments that have taken place in the past few years. Recent applications of molecular-scale simulation methods to understanding the structure and formation of calcium-silicate-hydrate phases, and to understanding the process of dissolution of cement minerals in water are also discussed, as these topics are highly relevant to the future development of more complete and fundamental hydration models.

  9. The Wisconsin Small Business Development Center Information Service: A Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awe, Susan C.

    1986-01-01

    Presents the model of the Information Service of the Wisconsin Small Business Development Center Information Service, including the objectives and tasks necessary to develop an information service, and staffing and funding guidelines for the first two years. (EJS)

  10. Avian necrotic enteritis: Experimental models, climate change, and vaccine development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review summarizes recent developments in disease models, pathogenesis, host immunity, risk factors, and vaccine development for Clostridium perfringens infection of poultry and necrotic enteritis (NE). The increasing trends of legislative restrictions and voluntary removal of antibiotic growth...

  11. Transducer Analysis and ATILA++ Model Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-10

    Peak dynamic strain vs. field and mechanical quality factor for high-QM ceramic materials • NEC-N64 is in the middle of the group at low field, but...Peak Dynamic Stress (MPa) 80 Figure 10 Elastic modulus vs. strain and mechanical quality factor vs. stress for high-QM ceramic materials • The...under Static Preload An apparatus and software control system have been fabricated and developed for evaluating the behavior of materials under high

  12. Development of a novel mouse constipation model

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chao; Wang, Kai-Yue; Yu, Zhi; Xu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To establish a novel mouse constipation model. METHODS: Animals were randomly divided into three groups, and intragastrically administered 0-4 °C saline (ice-cold group) or 15-20 °C saline (saline control group) daily for 14 d, or were left untreated (blank control group). Stools were collected 3-24 h after treatment to record the wet and dry weights and the stool form. Intestinal propulsion experiments were carried out and defecation time was measured for six days continuously after suspending treatments. The expressions of PGP9.5 were detected by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Based on the percentage of stool weight changes compared with baseline (before irritation) in 9-14 d, stool weight changes were classified into three levels. Each level shows a different body state, which is state I (no change: plus or minus 5%), state II (slightly decreased: 5%-15%) and state III (decreased: 15%-25%). In state III, between day 9-14, the stool weights decreased by 15%-25% compared with the baseline, and changed at a rate > 10% compared with blank control values, and the stools became small and dry. Additionally, intestinal functions degenerated in these animals, and PGP9.5-positive expression markedly decreased in jejunum, ileum and proximal colon myenteric plexus. CONCLUSION: Irritation with ice-cold saline is a stable, repeatable method in building constipation model in mice for exploring the pathogenesis and treatment options of constipation, and the change of stool weight and size may serve as a useful tool to judge a constipation model success or not. PMID:26973418

  13. Development of a Raytrace Model for IXO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, John E.; Heilmann, R. K.; Dewey, D.; Bautz, M. W.; Foster, R.; Houck, J. C.; Huenemoerder, D. P.; Levine, A. M.; Marshall, H. L.; Nowak, M. A.; Schattenburg, M. L.; Schulz, N. S.

    2010-03-01

    The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) will feature an X-ray Grating Spectrometer (XGS) for the 0.1 - 1.0 keV band where it is expected to have an effective area exceeding 1000 cm2 and a spectral resolution of 3000 or more. One of the proposed designs for the XGS is the critical angle transmission grating spectrometer (CATGS). As part of the CATGS design process, we are developing a raytrace program that will be used to optimize the spectrometer and to realistically assess that the desired spectral resolution can be achieved. Moreover, the raytrace will help us evaluate the impact of different categories of mirror imperfections and blur sources upon the resolution of the spectrometer. The raytrace is based upon MARX, which is used to simulate the on-orbit performance of Chandra X-Ray Observatory. As such, it will be capable of simulating the response of the observatory to a variety of astrophysical sources. Like MARX, we expect this raytrace to be useful throughout the life of the mission, including for the design and calibration of the observatory, the production of input data products for development of the various software pipelines, and for observer proposal planning. Here we report on the development status of the raytrace and provide an update on the design of the CATGS.

  14. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demasi, J. T.; Sheffler, K. D.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this program is to establish a methodology to predict Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) life on gas turbine engine components. The approach involves experimental life measurement coupled with analytical modeling of relevant degradation modes. The coating being studied is a flight qualified two layer system, designated PWA 264, consisting of a nominal ten mil layer of seven percent yttria partially stabilized zirconia plasma deposited over a nominal five mil layer of low pressure plasma deposited NiCoCrAlY. Thermal barrier coating degradation modes being investigated include: thermomechanical fatigue, oxidation, erosion, hot corrosion, and foreign object damage.

  15. Experiments for foam model development and validation.

    SciTech Connect

    Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Cote, Raymond O.; Moffat, Harry K.; Grillet, Anne Mary; Mahoney, James F.; Russick, Edward Mark; Adolf, Douglas Brian; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Thompson, Kyle Richard; Kraynik, Andrew Michael; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Gorby, Allen D.

    2008-09-01

    A series of experiments has been performed to allow observation of the foaming process and the collection of temperature, rise rate, and microstructural data. Microfocus video is used in conjunction with particle image velocimetry (PIV) to elucidate the boundary condition at the wall. Rheology, reaction kinetics and density measurements complement the flow visualization. X-ray computed tomography (CT) is used to examine the cured foams to determine density gradients. These data provide input to a continuum level finite element model of the blowing process.

  16. Biogeochemistry in Sea Ice: CICE model developments

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffery, Nicole; Hunke, Elizabeth; Elliott, Scott; Turner, Adrian

    2012-06-18

    Polar primary production unfolds in a dynamic sea ice environment, and the interactions of sea ice with ocean support and mediate this production. In spring, for example, fresh melt water contributes to the shoaling of the mixed layer enhancing ice edge blooms. In contrast, sea ice formation in the fall reduces light penetration to the upper ocean slowing primary production in marine waters. Polar biogeochemical modeling studies typically consider these types of ice-ocean interactions. However, sea ice itself is a biogeochemically active medium, contributing a significant and, possibly, essential source of primary production to polar regions in early spring and fall. Here we present numerical simulations using the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE) with prognostic salinity and sea ice biogeochemistry. This study investigates the relationship between sea ice multiphase physics and sea ice productivity. Of particular emphasis are the processes of gravity drainage, melt water flushing, and snow loading. During sea ice formation, desalination by gravity drainage facilitates nutrient exchange between ocean and ice maintaining ice algal blooms in early spring. Melt water flushing releases ice algae and nutrients to underlying waters limiting ice production. Finally, snow loading, particularly in the Southern Ocean, forces sea ice below the ocean surface driving an upward flow of nutrient rich water into the ice to the benefit of interior and freeboard communities. Incorporating ice microphysics in CICE has given us an important tool for assessing the importance of these processes for polar algal production at global scales.

  17. Developing Viable Financing Models for Space Tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilingsfeld, F.; Schaetzler, D.

    2002-01-01

    Increasing commercialization of space services and the impending release of government's control of space access promise to make space ventures more attractive. Still, many investors shy away from going into the space tourism market as long as they do not feel secure that their return expectations will be met. First and foremost, attracting investors from the capital markets requires qualifying financing models. Based on earlier research on the cost of capital for space tourism, this paper gives a brief run-through of commercial, technical and financial due diligence aspects. After that, a closer look is taken at different valuation techniques as well as alternative ways of streamlining financials. Experience from earlier ventures has shown that the high cost of capital represents a significant challenge. Thus, the sophistication and professionalism of business plans and financial models needs to be very high. Special emphasis is given to the optimization of the debt-to-equity ratio over time. The different roles of equity and debt over a venture's life cycle are explained. Based on the latter, guidelines for the design of an optimized loan structure are given. These are then applied to simulating the financial performance of a typical space tourism venture over time, including the calculation of Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) and Net Present Value (NPV). Based on a concluding sensitivity analysis, the lessons learned are presented. If applied properly, these will help to make space tourism economically viable.

  18. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheffler, K. D.; Demasi, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    A methodology was established to predict thermal barrier coating life in an environment simulative of that experienced by gas turbine airfoils. Specifically, work is being conducted to determine failure modes of thermal barrier coatings in the aircraft engine environment. Analytical studies coupled with appropriate physical and mechanical property determinations are being employed to derive coating life prediction model(s) on the important failure mode(s). An initial review of experimental and flight service components indicates that the predominant mode of TBC failure involves thermomechanical spallation of the ceramic coating layer. This ceramic spallation involves the formation of a dominant crack in the ceramic coating parallel to and closely adjacent to the metal-ceramic interface. Initial results from a laboratory test program designed to study the influence of various driving forces such as temperature, thermal cycle frequency, environment, and coating thickness, on ceramic coating spalling life suggest that bond coat oxidation damage at the metal-ceramic interface contributes significantly to thermomechanical cracking in the ceramic layer. Low cycle rate furnace testing in air and in argon clearly shows a dramatic increase of spalling life in the non-oxidizing environments.

  19. Materials Database Development for Ballistic Impact Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, J. Michael

    2007-01-01

    A set of experimental data is being generated under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Supersonics project to help create and validate accurate computational impact models of jet engine impact events. The data generated will include material property data generated at a range of different strain rates, from 1x10(exp -4)/sec to 5x10(exp 4)/sec, over a range of temperatures. In addition, carefully instrumented ballistic impact tests will be conducted on flat plates and curved structures to provide material and structural response information to help validate the computational models. The material property data and the ballistic impact data will be generated using materials from the same lot, as far as possible. It was found in preliminary testing that the surface finish of test specimens has an effect on measured high strain rate tension response of AL2024. Both the maximum stress and maximum elongation are greater on specimens with a smoother finish. This report gives an overview of the testing that is being conducted and presents results of preliminary testing of the surface finish study.

  20. Modeling the development of written language

    PubMed Central

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Foorman, Barbara; Foster, Elizabeth; Wilson, Laura Gehron; Tschinkel, Erika; Kantor, Patricia Thatcher

    2011-01-01

    Alternative models of the structure of individual and developmental differences of written composition and handwriting fluency were tested using confirmatory factor analysis of writing samples provided by first- and fourth-grade students. For both groups, a five-factor model provided the best fit to the data. Four of the factors represented aspects of written composition: macro-organization (use of top sentence and number and ordering of ideas), productivity (number and diversity of words used), complexity (mean length of T-unit and syntactic density), and spelling and punctuation. The fifth factor represented handwriting fluency. Handwriting fluency was correlated with written composition factors at both grades. The magnitude of developmental differences between first grade and fourth grade expressed as effect sizes varied for variables representing the five constructs: large effect sizes were found for productivity and handwriting fluency variables; moderate effect sizes were found for complexity and macro-organization variables; and minimal effect sizes were found for spelling and punctuation variables. PMID:22228924

  1. Modeling the connection between development and evolution: Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Mjolsness, E.; Reinitz, J.; Garrett, C.D.; Sharp, D.H.

    1993-07-29

    In this paper we outline a model which incorporates development processes into an evolutionary frame work. The model consists of three sectors describing development, genetics, and the selective environment. The formulation of models governing each sector uses dynamical grammars to describe processes in which state variables evolve in a quantitative fashion, and the number and type of participating biological entities can change. This program has previously been elaborated for development. Its extension to the other sectors of the model is discussed here and forms the basis for further approximations. A specific implementation of these ideas is described for an idealized model of the evolution of a multicellular organism. While this model doe not describe an actual biological system, it illustrates the interplay of development and evolution. Preliminary results of numerical simulations of this idealized model are presented.

  2. A Distributed Online Curriculum and Courseware Development Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durdu, Pinar Onay; Yalabik, Nese; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2009-01-01

    A distributed online curriculum and courseware development model (DONC[superscript 2]) is developed and tested in this study. Courseware development teams which may work in different institutions who need to develop high quality, reduced cost, on time products will be the users of DONC[superscript 2]. The related features from the disciplines of…

  3. Developing a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Model Knowledgebase in Support of Provisional Model Construction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developing physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for chemicals can be resource-intensive, as neither chemical-specific parameters nor in vivo pharmacokinetic data are easily available for model construction. Previously developed, well-parameterized, and thoroughly-v...

  4. Process Developed for Forming Urethane Ice Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannuyen, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    A new process for forming ice shapes on an aircraft wing was developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The innovative concept was formed by Lewis' Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) team, and the hardware was manufactured by Lewis' Manufacturing Engineering Division. This work was completed to increase our understanding of the stability and control of aircraft during icing conditions. This project will also enhance our evaluation of true aerodynamic wind tunnel effects on aircraft. In addition, it can be used as a design tool for evaluating ice protection systems.

  5. Thermal barrier coating life prediction model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demasi, J. T.; Manning, S. L.; Ortiz, M.; Sheffler, K. D.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to increase understanding of thermal barrier coating (TBC) degradation and failure modes, to generate quantitative ceramic failure life data under cyclic thermal conditions which simulate those encountered in gas turbine engine service, and to develop an analytical methodology for prediction of coating life in the engine. Observations of degradation and failure modes in plasma deposited ceramic indicate that spallation failure results from progressive cracking of the ceramic parallel to and adjacent to, but not coincident with the metal-ceramic interface.

  6. Exploratory Development Model Hermaphroditic Fiber Optic Connectors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    80 7 AUTHOR( .B. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBR( a ) J F. Dal g-7-c 7 (-s>iH.H. Lukas jDAAK80S 9c P71 1" 9 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS ’-40...necessary end identify by block number) .This final technical report documents the fiber alignment concept, a description of the connector plug and...bulkhead receptacle, detailed installation procedures and a summary of the test results. Recommendations are made concerning final development of the

  7. Accident Sequence Precursor Program Large Early Release Frequency Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.D.; Brownson, D.A.; Duran, F.A.; Gregory, J.J.; Rodrick, E.G.

    1999-01-04

    The objectives for the ASP large early release frequency (LERF) model development work is to build a Level 2 containment response model that would capture all of the events necessary to define LERF as outlined in Regulatory Guide 1.174, can be directly interfaced with the existing Level 1 models, is technically correct, can be readily modified to incorporate new information or to represent another plant, and can be executed in SAPHIRE. The ASP LERF models being developed will meet these objectives while providing the NRC with the capability to independently assess the risk impact of plant-specific changes proposed by the utilities that change the nuclear power plants' licensing basis. Together with the ASP Level 1 models, the ASP LERF models provide the NRC with the capability of performing equipment and event assessments to determine their impact on a plant's LERF for internal events during power operation. In addition, the ASP LERF models are capable of being updated to reflect changes in information regarding the system operations and phenomenological events, and of being updated to assess the potential for early fatalities for each LERF sequence. As the ASP Level 1 models evolve to include more analysis capabilities, the LERF models will also be refined to reflect the appropriate level of detail needed to demonstrate the new capabilities. An approach was formulated for the development of detailed LERF models using the NUREG-1150 APET models as a guide. The modifications to the SAPHIRE computer code have allowed the development of these detailed models and the ability to analyze these models in a reasonable time. Ten reference LERF plant models, including six PWR models and four BWR models, which cover a wide variety of containment and nuclear steam supply systems designs, will be complete in 1999. These reference models will be used as the starting point for developing the LERF models for the remaining nuclear power plants.

  8. Computational Modeling Develops Ultra-Hard Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Glenn Research Center's Mechanical Components Branch developed a spiral bevel or face gear test rig for testing thermal behavior, surface fatigue, strain, vibration, and noise; a full-scale, 500-horsepower helicopter main-rotor transmission testing stand; a gear rig that allows fundamental studies of the dynamic behavior of gear systems and gear noise; and a high-speed helical gear test for analyzing thermal behavior for rotorcraft. The test rig provides accelerated fatigue life testing for standard spur gears at speeds of up to 10,000 rotations per minute. The test rig enables engineers to investigate the effects of materials, heat treat, shot peen, lubricants, and other factors on the gear's performance. QuesTek Innovations LLC, based in Evanston, Illinois, recently developed a carburized, martensitic gear steel with an ultra-hard case using its computational design methodology, but needed to verify surface fatigue, lifecycle performance, and overall reliability. The Battelle Memorial Institute introduced the company to researchers at Glenn's Mechanical Components Branch and facilitated a partnership allowing researchers at the NASA Center to conduct spur gear fatigue testing for the company. Testing revealed that QuesTek's gear steel outperforms the current state-of-the-art alloys used for aviation gears in contact fatigue by almost 300 percent. With the confidence and credibility provided by the NASA testing, QuesTek is commercializing two new steel alloys. Uses for this new class of steel are limitless in areas that demand exceptional strength for high throughput applications.

  9. Developing Pre-Service Teachers' Technology Integration Expertise through the TPACK-Developing Instructional Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Joyce H. L.; Divaharan, Shanti

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the TPACK-Developing Instructional Model which prescribes an instructional process for developing pre-service teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) during the instruction of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools. This model proposes three phases for developing teachers' TPACK through ICT…

  10. Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell System Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Jakupca, Ian

    2003-01-01

    A Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell (URFC) Energy Storage System is being developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This URFC system is unique in that it uses the surface area of the hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks as radiating heat surfaces for overall thermal control of the system. The tank surfaces also play an important role in the temperature control of regenerative gas dryers/humidifiers used to dry the hydrogen and oxygen gases produced by electrolysis during the charging and also used to humidify the hydrogen and oxygen gases used by fuel cell during the discharging of the URFCS. A bi- directional pressure controller is used to control the pressure of the oxygen and hydrogen gas inside the URFC stack during both charging and discharging of the URFC system. A water storage accumulator is used to store water reactant and control water pressure inside the URFC stack.

  11. A Model-Driven Development Method for Management Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Tomoki; Matsumoto, Keinosuke; Mori, Naoki

    Traditionally, a Management Information System (MIS) has been developed without using formal methods. By the informal methods, the MIS is developed on its lifecycle without having any models. It causes many problems such as lack of the reliability of system design specifications. In order to overcome these problems, a model theory approach was proposed. The approach is based on an idea that a system can be modeled by automata and set theory. However, it is very difficult to generate automata of the system to be developed right from the start. On the other hand, there is a model-driven development method that can flexibly correspond to changes of business logics or implementing technologies. In the model-driven development, a system is modeled using a modeling language such as UML. This paper proposes a new development method for management information systems applying the model-driven development method to a component of the model theory approach. The experiment has shown that a reduced amount of efforts is more than 30% of all the efforts.

  12. The Japanese Model of Professional Development: Teaching as Craft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimahara, N. Ken

    1998-01-01

    Discusses Japanese teacher professional development strategies, which are driven by a peer-based model using peer collaboration, planning, and management, exploring how the Japanese perspective of teaching as craft contributes to elementary professional development. Critical issues inherent in the Japanese model are discussed, noting its basic…

  13. A Model for the Development of University Curricula in Nanoelectronics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruun, E.; Nielsen, I.

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology is having an increasing impact on university curricula in electrical engineering and in physics. Major influencers affecting developments in university programmes related to nanoelectronics are discussed and a model for university programme development is described. The model takes into account that nanotechnology affects not only…

  14. A Strategic Science and Technology Planning and Development Process Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    developed process model to the research and technology initiatives of the U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center...action teams were formed (under change management sponsorship of a champion) to formulate and implement an improved process model considered essential

  15. Knowledge Management Model: Practical Application for Competency Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustri, Denise; Miura, Irene; Takahashi, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to present a knowledge management (KM) conceptual model for competency development and a case study in a law service firm, which implemented the KM model in a competencies development program. Design/methodology/approach: The case study method was applied according to Yin (2003) concepts, focusing a six-professional group…

  16. Development, Selection, and Validation of Tumor Growth Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahmoradi, Amir; Lima, Ernesto; Oden, J. Tinsley

    In recent years, a multitude of different mathematical approaches have been taken to develop multiscale models of solid tumor growth. Prime successful examples include the lattice-based, agent-based (off-lattice), and phase-field approaches, or a hybrid of these models applied to multiple scales of tumor, from subcellular to tissue level. Of overriding importance is the predictive power of these models, particularly in the presence of uncertainties. This presentation describes our attempt at developing lattice-based, agent-based and phase-field models of tumor growth and assessing their predictive power through new adaptive algorithms for model selection and model validation embodied in the Occam Plausibility Algorithm (OPAL), that brings together model calibration, determination of sensitivities of outputs to parameter variances, and calculation of model plausibilities for model selection. Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences.

  17. Modeling Variability in Individual Development: Differences of degree or kind?

    PubMed

    Bauer, Daniel J; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton

    2010-08-01

    The proper use of statistical models for analyzing individual change over time is critical for the progress of developmental science. Latent curve models, hierarchical linear growth models, group-based trajectory models, and growth mixture models constitute increasingly important tools for longitudinal data analysis. To facilitate their understanding and use, this paper clarifies similarities and differences between these models, with particular attention to the assumptions they make about individual development. An example shows how the results and interpretation vary across model types. Discussion centers on reviewing the strengths and limitations of each approach for developmental research.

  18. Mechanistic considerations in benzene physiological model development

    SciTech Connect

    Medinsky, M.A.; Kenyon, E.M.; Seaton, M.J.; Schlosser, P.M.

    1996-12-01

    Benzene, an important industrial solvent, is also present in unleaded gasoline and cigarette smoke. The hematotoxic effects of benzene in humans are well documented and include aplastic anemia, pancytopenia, and acute myelogenous leukemia. However, the risks of leukemia at low exposure concentrations have not been established. A combination of metabolites (hydroquinone and phenol, for example) may be necessary to duplicate the hematotoxic effect of benzene, perhaps due in part to the synergistic effect of phenol on myeloperoxidase-mediated oxidation of hydroquinone to the reactive metabolite benzoquinone. Because benzene and its hydroxylated metabolites (phenol, hydroquinone, and catechol) are substrates for the same cytochrome P450 enzymes, competitive interactions among the metabolites are possible. In vivo data on metabolite formation by mice exposed to various benzene concentrations are consistent with competitive inhibition of phenol oxidation by benzene. In vitro studies of the metabolic oxidation of benzene, phenol, and hydroquinone are consistent with the mechanism of competitive interaction among the metabolites. The dosimetry of benzene and its metabolites in the target tissue, bone marrow, depends on the balance of activation processes such as enzymatic oxidation and deactivation processes such as conjugation and excretion. Phenol, the primary benzene metabolite, can undergo both oxidation and conjugation. Thus the potential exists for competition among various enzymes for phenol. Zonal localization of phase I and phase 11 enzymes in various regions of the liver acinus also impacts this competition. Biologically based dosimetry models that incorporate the important determinants of benzene flux, including interactions with other chemicals, will enable prediction of target tissue doses of benzene and metabolites at low exposure concentrations relevant for humans. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Evaluation and development of physically-based embankment breach models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The CEATI Dam Safety Interest Group (DSIG) working group on embankment erosion and breach modelling has evaluated three physically-based numerical models used to simulate embankment erosion and breach development. The three models identified by the group were considered to be good candidates for fu...

  20. A Dynamic Systems Theory Model of Visual Perception Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coté, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a model for understanding the development of visual perception from a dynamic systems theory perspective. It contrasts to a hierarchical or reductionist model that is often found in the occupational therapy literature. In this proposed model vision and ocular motor abilities are not foundational to perception, they are seen…

  1. Design and Development of a Microscopic Model for Polarization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petridou, E.; Psillos, D.; Hatzikraniotis, E.; Viiri, J.

    2009-01-01

    As research shows that the knowledge and use of models and modelling by teachers is limited, particularly for predicting phenomena, we developed and applied a sequence of three representations of a simulated model focusing on polarization and specifically showing the behaviour of an atom, and forces exerted on a dipole and an insulator, when a…

  2. Development of Bilingual/Bicultural Education Models. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratz, Joan C.; And Others

    This report discusses the development of bilingual/bicultural education models. Included is information concerning the goals of bilingual education, six models of program realization, and problems and possibilities in implementing the models. Also included are footnotes and a bibliography. The appendixes present various articles: "A Brief Survey…

  3. Modeling Instruction: The Impact of Professional Development on Instructional Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Angela T.; Frick, Tasha M.; Barker, Heather L.; Phelps, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    Modeling Instruction holds the potential for transforming science instruction and improving student achievement. Key to the success of Modeling Instruction, however, is the fidelity of implementation of its curriculum. This qualitative study examined the impact of Modeling Instruction professional development on participating teachers'…

  4. NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN THE COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY (CMAQ) MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    CMAQ model research and development is currently following two tracks at the Atmospheric Modeling Division of the USEPA. Public releases of the community model system for research and policy analysis is continuing on an annual interval with the latest release scheduled for Augus...

  5. Design and Development Research: A Model Validation Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Monica W.

    2009-01-01

    This is a report of one case of a design and development research study that aimed to validate an overlay instructional design model incorporating the theory of multiple intelligences into instructional systems design. After design and expert review model validation, The Multiple Intelligence (MI) Design Model, used with an Instructional Systems…

  6. Development of a Model for Whole Brain Learning of Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagleton, Saramarie; Muller, Anton

    2011-01-01

    In this report, a model was developed for whole brain learning based on Curry's onion model. Curry described the effect of personality traits as the inner layer of learning, information-processing styles as the middle layer of learning, and environmental and instructional preferences as the outer layer of learning. The model that was developed…

  7. The Development of a Secondary School Health Assessment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sriring, Srinual; Erawan, Prawit; Sriwarom, Monoon

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to: 1) involved a survey of information relating to secondary school health, 2) involved the construction of a model of health assessment and a handbook for using the model in secondary school, 3) develop an assessment model for secondary school. The research included 3 phases. (1) involved a survey of…

  8. Using Modeling Tasks to Facilitate the Development of Percentages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahbari, Juhaina Awawdeh; Peled, Irit

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the development of percentages knowledge by seventh graders given a sequence of activities starting with a realistic modeling task, in which students were expected to create a model that would facilitate the reinvention of percentages. In the first two activities, students constructed their own pricing model using fractions and…

  9. Review and developments of dissemination models for airborne carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elber, W.

    1980-01-01

    Dissemination prediction models were reviewed to determine their applicability to a risk assessment for airborne carbon fibers. The review showed that the Gaussian prediction models using partial reflection at the ground agreed very closely with a more elaborate diffusion analysis developed for the study. For distances beyond 10,000 m the Gaussian models predicted a slower fall-off in exposure levels than the diffusion models. This resulting level of conservatism was preferred for the carbon fiber risk assessment. The results also showed that the perfect vertical-mixing models developed herein agreed very closely with the diffusion analysis for all except the most stable atmospheric conditions.

  10. Simulation Model Development for Icing Effects Flight Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnhart, Billy P.; Dickes, Edward G.; Gingras, David R.; Ratvasky, Thomas P.

    2003-01-01

    A high-fidelity simulation model for icing effects flight training was developed from wind tunnel data for the DeHavilland DHC-6 Twin Otter aircraft. First, a flight model of the un-iced airplane was developed and then modifications were generated to model the icing conditions. The models were validated against data records from the NASA Twin Otter Icing Research flight test program with only minimal refinements being required. The goals of this program were to demonstrate the effectiveness of such a simulator for training pilots to recognize and recover from icing situations and to establish a process for modeling icing effects to be used for future training devices.

  11. Development of the NASA Digital Astronaut Project Muscle Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth E.; Pennline, James A.; Thompson, W. K.; Humphreys, B. T.; Ryder, J. W.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Mulugeta, L.

    2015-01-01

    This abstract describes development work performed on the NASA Digital Astronaut Project Muscle Model. Muscle atrophy is a known physiological response to exposure to a low gravity environment. The DAP muscle model computationally predicts the change in muscle structure and function vs. time in a reduced gravity environment. The spaceflight muscle model can then be used in biomechanical models of exercise countermeasures and spaceflight tasks to: 1) develop site specific bone loading input to the DAP bone adaptation model over the course of a mission; 2) predict astronaut performance of spaceflight tasks; 3) inform effectiveness of new exercise countermeasures concepts.

  12. In situ vitrification model development and implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    MacKinnon, R.J.; Murray, P.E.; Johnson, R.W.; Hagrman, D.L.; Slater, C.E.; Marwil, E.S.

    1990-08-01

    This document describes the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) Analysis Package being developed at the INEL to provide analytical support for (ISV) safety analysis and treatment performance predictions. Mathematical models and features which comprise this analysis package are presented and the proposed approach to model development and implementation is outlined. The objective of this document is two fold: to define preliminary design information and modeling objectives so that ISV modeling personnel can effectively modify existing models and formulate new models which are consistent with the objectives of the ISV treatability study and to provide sufficient technical information for internal and external reviewers to detect any shortcomings in model development and implementation plans. 27 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Reusable Component Model Development Approach for Parallel and Distributed Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Feng; Yao, Yiping; Chen, Huilong; Yao, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Model reuse is a key issue to be resolved in parallel and distributed simulation at present. However, component models built by different domain experts usually have diversiform interfaces, couple tightly, and bind with simulation platforms closely. As a result, they are difficult to be reused across different simulation platforms and applications. To address the problem, this paper first proposed a reusable component model framework. Based on this framework, then our reusable model development approach is elaborated, which contains two phases: (1) domain experts create simulation computational modules observing three principles to achieve their independence; (2) model developer encapsulates these simulation computational modules with six standard service interfaces to improve their reusability. The case study of a radar model indicates that the model developed using our approach has good reusability and it is easy to be used in different simulation platforms and applications. PMID:24729751

  14. Typhoid transmission: a historical perspective on mathematical model development.

    PubMed

    Bakach, Iurii; Just, Matthew R; Gambhir, Manoj; Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai

    2015-11-01

    Mathematical models of typhoid transmission were first developed nearly half a century ago. To facilitate a better understanding of the historical development of this field, we reviewed mathematical models of typhoid and summarized their structures and limitations. Eleven models, published in 1971 to 2014, were reviewed. While models of typhoid vaccination are well developed, we highlight the need to better incorporate water, sanitation and hygiene interventions into models of typhoid and other foodborne and waterborne diseases. Mathematical modeling is a powerful tool to test and compare different intervention strategies which is important in the world of limited resources. By working collaboratively, epidemiologists and mathematicians should build better mathematical models of typhoid transmission, including pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions, which will be useful in epidemiological and public health practice.

  15. Development of a Novel Free Molecule Rocket Plume Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Development of a Novel Free Molecule Rocket Plume Model Michael Woronowicz Swales Aerospace 5050 Powder Mill Road Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA...Abstract. This paper describes development of a set of analytic point source transient free molecule equations generated to model behavior ranging from...molecular effusion to rocket plumes. A brief review of model performance for step function mass expulsion will be followed by presentation of physical

  16. Cognitive components underpinning the development of model-based learning.

    PubMed

    Potter, Tracey C S; Bryce, Nessa V; Hartley, Catherine A

    2016-10-29

    Reinforcement learning theory distinguishes "model-free" learning, which fosters reflexive repetition of previously rewarded actions, from "model-based" learning, which recruits a mental model of the environment to flexibly select goal-directed actions. Whereas model-free learning is evident across development, recruitment of model-based learning appears to increase with age. However, the cognitive processes underlying the development of model-based learning remain poorly characterized. Here, we examined whether age-related differences in cognitive processes underlying the construction and flexible recruitment of mental models predict developmental increases in model-based choice. In a cohort of participants aged 9-25, we examined whether the abilities to infer sequential regularities in the environment ("statistical learning"), maintain information in an active state ("working memory") and integrate distant concepts to solve problems ("fluid reasoning") predicted age-related improvements in model-based choice. We found that age-related improvements in statistical learning performance did not mediate the relationship between age and model-based choice. Ceiling performance on our working memory assay prevented examination of its contribution to model-based learning. However, age-related improvements in fluid reasoning statistically mediated the developmental increase in the recruitment of a model-based strategy. These findings suggest that gradual development of fluid reasoning may be a critical component process underlying the emergence of model-based learning.

  17. International Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (I-JEDI) Model

    SciTech Connect

    2016-09-01

    International Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (I-JEDI) is a freely available economic model that estimates gross economic impacts from wind, solar, biomass, and geothermal energy projects. Building on a similar model for the United States, I-JEDI was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory under the U.S. government's Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program to support partner countries in assessing economic impacts of LEDS actions in the energy sector.

  18. An integrated inundation model for highly developed urban areas.

    PubMed

    Chen, A S; Hsu, M H; Chen, T S; Chang, T J

    2005-01-01

    A numerical model is developed in this study with various components for simulating the complex flow phenomena in urban drainage basins. The model integrates the HEC-1 model, a 1-D dynamic channel-flow model, a 2-D non-inertia overland-flow model and the SWMM model to reflect the hydraulic processes in areas with different characteristics. The inundation of underground infrastructure during flood is also considered in the model. The typhoon Nari event in 2001, which resulted in severe flood in downtown Taipei, is simulated by the model. The result is compared with the survey records of flooded areas, which reveals the storage effect of underground infrastrucures is significant to the simulation results of highly developed urban areas.

  19. Modeling of clouds and radiation for developing parameterizations of clouds in general circulation models

    SciTech Connect

    Toon, O.B.

    1996-12-31

    We conducted modeling work in radiative transfer and cloud microphysics. Our work in radiative transfer included performance tests to other high accuracy methods and to measurements under cloudy, partial cloudy and cloud-free conditions. Our modeling efforts have been aimed to (1) develop an accurate and rapid radiative transfer model; (2) develop three-dimensional radiative transfer models; and (3) develop microphysics resolving cloud and aerosol models. We applied our models to investigate solar clear-sky model biases, investigate aerosol direct effects, investigate aerosol indirect effects, investigate microphysical properties of cirrus, investigate microphysical properties of stratus, investigate relationships between cloud properties, and investigate the effects of cloud structure.

  20. Thermal Model Development for Ares I-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.; DelCorso, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Thermal analysis for the Ares I-X vehicle has involved extensive thermal model integration, since thermal models of vehicle elements came from several different NASA and industry organizations. Many valuable lessons were learned in terms of model integration and validation. Modeling practices such as submodel, analysis group and symbol naming were standardized to facilitate the later model integration. Upfront coordination of coordinate systems, timelines, units, symbols and case scenarios was very helpful in minimizing integration rework. A process for model integration was developed that included pre-integration runs and basic checks of both models, and a step-by-step process to efficiently integrate one model into another. Extensive use of model logic was used to create scenarios and timelines for avionics and air flow activation. Efficient methods of model restart between case scenarios were developed. Standardization of software version and even compiler version between organizations was found to be essential. An automated method for applying aeroheating to the full integrated vehicle model, including submodels developed by other organizations, was developed.

  1. Development of Models for Regional Cardiac Surgery Centers

    PubMed Central

    Park, Choon Seon; Park, Nam Hee; Sim, Sung Bo; Yun, Sang Cheol; Ahn, Hye Mi; Kim, Myunghwa; Choi, Ji Suk; Kim, Myo Jeong; Kim, Hyunsu; Chee, Hyun Keun; Oh, Sanggi; Kang, Shinkwang; Lee, Sok-Goo; Shin, Jun Ho; Kim, Keonyeop; Lee, Kun Sei

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to develop the models for regional cardiac surgery centers, which take regional characteristics into consideration, as a policy measure that could alleviate the concentration of cardiac surgery in the metropolitan area and enhance the accessibility for patients who reside in the regions. Methods To develop the models and set standards for the necessary personnel and facilities for the initial management plan, we held workshops, debates, and conference meetings with various experts. Results After partitioning the plan into two parts (the operational autonomy and the functional comprehensiveness), three models were developed: the ‘independent regional cardiac surgery center’ model, the ‘satellite cardiac surgery center within hospitals’ model, and the ‘extended cardiac surgery department within hospitals’ model. Proposals on personnel and facility management for each of the models were also presented. A regional cardiac surgery center model that could be applied to each treatment area was proposed, which was developed based on the anticipated demand for cardiac surgery. The independent model or the satellite model was proposed for Chungcheong, Jeolla, North Gyeongsang, and South Gyeongsang area, where more than 500 cardiac surgeries are performed annually. The extended model was proposed as most effective for the Gangwon and Jeju area, where more than 200 cardiac surgeries are performed annually. Conclusion The operation of regional cardiac surgery centers with high caliber professionals and quality resources such as optimal equipment and facility size, should enhance regional healthcare accessibility and the quality of cardiac surgery in South Korea. PMID:28035295

  2. Investigating the Relationship between Students' Views of Scientific Models and Their Development of Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Meng-Fei; Lin, Jang-Long

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the nature of models and engaging in modeling practice have been emphasized in science education. However, few studies discuss the relationships between students' views of scientific models and their ability to develop those models. Hence, this study explores the relationship between students' views of scientific models and their…

  3. The Development Model Electronic Commerce of Regional Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jun; Cai, Lecai; Li, Hongchan

    With the developing of the agricultural information, it is inevitable trend of the development of agricultural electronic commercial affairs. On the basis of existing study on the development application model of e-commerce, combined with the character of the agricultural information, compared with the developing model from the theory and reality, a new development model electronic commerce of regional agriculture base on the government is put up, and such key issues as problems of the security applications, payment mode, sharing mechanisms, and legal protection are analyzed, etc. The among coordination mechanism of the region is discussed on, it is significance for regulating the development of agricultural e-commerce and promoting the regional economical development.

  4. A Dynamic Model for Forecasting New Cloud Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-19

    dispersal 9. Urban circulations 10. Lake effect storms 11. Tropical and mid-latitude convective systems ENGINEERING ASPECTS Because of the large number of...March 2, 1989 1 Introduction The primary goal of this research is to develop a macscale model capable of predicting regions of convective outbreak. The...model fields. The model should be capable of producing forecasts of convective P on mini-computer system. The model should cover a 100 km by 100 km

  5. Operational Model for Career Development and Vocational Preparation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upton, Anne L.; Barrett, Samuel L.

    Three California State Department units (vocational education, pupil personnel services, and career education) and two school districts (Fremont Unified and Huntington Beach Union High) established a consortium to develop demonstration sites for model career development and vocational preparation systems and staff development programs. The…

  6. SCID: A Competency-Based Curriculum Development Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Robert E.

    To provide structure for developing curriculum for Competency Based Education (CBE), an effective and efficient model, Systematic Curriculum and Instructional Development (SCID), has been devised. SCID has five phases: analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. Each of 23 components involves several steps, some optional. Phase…

  7. A Teacher Professional Development Model for Teaching Socioscientific Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Katherine; Dawson, Vaille

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of a three-pillared model for teaching socioscientific issues: teacher professional development; curriculum resources; and classroom support. A professional development program and curriculum resource based on the socioscientific issue of climate change was trialled with 75 Western Australian…

  8. Recent developments for the advancement of hydrological modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehret, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    This talk will consist of three parts: In the first, I will pick up the major questions formulated in the session outline (theories to support hydrological model development, representation of emergent behavior, optimality principles and landscape structure in models, approaches for model evaluation and selection) and present and discuss recent examples for each. In the second part, I will reflect on what the consideration of the above desirables implies for the way we should structure and implement hydrological models. Finally, I will illustrate the latter point with examples from the CAOS model (a mesoscale hydrological model currently under construction in the framework of the Catchments As Organized Systems research group).

  9. A Product Development Decision Model for Cockpit Weather Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sireli, Yesim; Kauffmann, Paul; Gupta, Surabhi; Kachroo, Pushkin; Johnson, Edward J., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant market demand for advanced cockpit weather information products. However, it is unclear how to identify the most promising technological options that provide the desired mix of consumer requirements by employing feasible technical systems at a price that achieves market success. This study develops a unique product development decision model that employs Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Kano's model of consumer choice. This model is specifically designed for exploration and resolution of this and similar information technology related product development problems.

  10. A Product Development Decision Model for Cockpit Weather Information Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sireli, Yesim; Kauffmann, Paul; Gupta, Surabhi; Kachroo, Pushkin

    2003-01-01

    There is a significant market demand for advanced cockpit weather information products. However, it is unclear how to identify the most promising technological options that provide the desired mix of consumer requirements by employing feasible technical systems at a price that achieves market success. This study develops a unique product development decision model that employs Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Kano's model of consumer choice. This model is specifically designed for exploration and resolution of this and similar information technology related product development problems.

  11. Template and Model Driven Development of Standardized Electronic Health Records.

    PubMed

    Kropf, Stefan; Chalopin, Claire; Denecke, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Digital patient modeling targets the integration of distributed patient data into one overarching model. For this integration process, both a theoretical standard-based model and information structures combined with concrete instructions in form of a lightweight development process of single standardized Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are needed. In this paper, we introduce such a process along side a standard-based architecture. It allows the modeling and implementation of EHRs in a lightweight Electronic Health Record System (EHRS) core. The approach is demonstrated and tested by a prototype implementation. The results show that the suggested approach is useful and facilitates the development of standardized EHRSs.

  12. Development and testing of a mouse simulated space flight model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1987-01-01

    The development and testing of a mouse model for simulating some aspects of weightlessness that occurs during space flight, and the carrying out of immunological experiments on animals undergoing space flight is examined. The mouse model developed was an antiorthostatic, hypokinetic, hypodynamic suspension model similar to one used with rats. The study was divided into two parts. The first involved determination of which immunological parameters should be observed on animals flown during space flight or studied in the suspension model. The second involved suspending mice and determining which of those immunological parameters were altered by the suspension. Rats that were actually flown in Space Shuttle SL-3 were used to test the hypotheses.

  13. Evolutionary Development of the Simulation by Logical Modeling System (SIBYL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Helen

    1995-01-01

    Through the evolutionary development of the Simulation by Logical Modeling System (SIBYL) we have re-engineered the expensive and complex IBM mainframe based Long-term Hardware Projection Model (LHPM) to a robust cost-effective computer based mode that is easy to use. We achieved significant cost reductions and improved productivity in preparing long-term forecasts of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) hardware. The LHPM for the SSME is a stochastic simulation model that projects the hardware requirements over 10 years. SIBYL is now the primary modeling tool for developing SSME logistics proposals and Program Operating Plan (POP) for NASA and divisional marketing studies.

  14. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Reservoir Model Development at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Bruce A.; Birdsell, Stephen A.

    1989-03-21

    Discrete fracture and continuum models are being developed to simulate Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal reservoirs. The discrete fracture model is a two-dimensional steady state simulator of fluid flow and tracer transport in a fracture network which is generated from assumed statistical properties of the fractures. The model's strength lies in its ability to compute the steady state pressure drop and tracer response in a realistic network of interconnected fractures. The continuum approach models fracture behavior by treating permeability and porosity as functions of temperature and effective stress. With this model it is practical to model transient behavior as well as the coupled processes of fluid flow, heat transfer, and stress effects in a three-dimensional system. The model capabilities being developed will also have applications in conventional geothermal systems undergoing reinjection and in fractured geothermal reservoirs in general.

  15. Hot Dry Rock geothermal reservoir model development at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, B.A.; Birdsell, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Discrete fracture and continuum models are being developed to simulate Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal reservoirs. The discrete fracture model is a two-dimensional steady state simulator of fluid flow and tracer transport in a fracture network which is generated from assumed statistical properties of the fractures. The model's strength lies in its ability to compute the steady state pressure drop and tracer response in a realistic network of interconnected fractures. The continuum approach models fracture behavior by treating permeability and porosity as functions of temperature and effective stress. With this model it is practical to model transient behavior as well as the coupled processes of fluid flow, heat transfer, and stress effects in a three-dimensional system. The model capabilities being developed will also have applications in conventional geothermal systems undergoing reinjection and in fractured geothermal reservoirs in general. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Scripting MODFLOW Model Development Using Python and FloPy.

    PubMed

    Bakker, M; Post, V; Langevin, C D; Hughes, J D; White, J T; Starn, J J; Fienen, M N

    2016-09-01

    Graphical user interfaces (GUIs) are commonly used to construct and postprocess numerical groundwater flow and transport models. Scripting model development with the programming language Python is presented here as an alternative approach. One advantage of Python is that there are many packages available to facilitate the model development process, including packages for plotting, array manipulation, optimization, and data analysis. For MODFLOW-based models, the FloPy package was developed by the authors to construct model input files, run the model, and read and plot simulation results. Use of Python with the available scientific packages and FloPy facilitates data exploration, alternative model evaluations, and model analyses that can be difficult to perform with GUIs. Furthermore, Python scripts are a complete, transparent, and repeatable record of the modeling process. The approach is introduced with a simple FloPy example to create and postprocess a MODFLOW model. A more complicated capture-fraction analysis with a real-world model is presented to demonstrate the types of analyses that can be performed using Python and FloPy.

  17. Scripting MODFLOW model development using Python and FloPy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakker, Mark; Post, Vincent E. A.; Langevin, Christian D.; Hughes, Joseph D.; White, Jeremy; Starn, Jeffrey; Fienen, Michael N.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical user interfaces (GUIs) are commonly used to construct and postprocess numerical groundwater flow and transport models. Scripting model development with the programming language Python is presented here as an alternative approach. One advantage of Python is that there are many packages available to facilitate the model development process, including packages for plotting, array manipulation, optimization, and data analysis. For MODFLOW-based models, the FloPy package was developed by the authors to construct model input files, run the model, and read and plot simulation results. Use of Python with the available scientific packages and FloPy facilitates data exploration, alternative model evaluations, and model analyses that can be difficult to perform with GUIs. Furthermore, Python scripts are a complete, transparent, and repeatable record of the modeling process. The approach is introduced with a simple FloPy example to create and postprocess a MODFLOW model. A more complicated capture-fraction analysis with a real-world model is presented to demonstrate the types of analyses that can be performed using Python and FloPy.

  18. Development of Knowledge Management Model for Developing the Internal Quality Assurance in Educational Opportunity Expansion Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pradabpech, Pipat; Chantarasombat, Chalard; Sriampai, Anan

    2015-01-01

    This research for: 1) to study the current situation and problem in KM, 2) to develop the KM Model, and 3) to evaluate the finding usage of the KM Model for developing the Internal Quality Assurance of Educational Opportunity Expansion Schools. There were 3 Phases of research implementation. Phase 1: the current situation and problem in KM, was…

  19. The Impact of the Developmental Training Model on Staff Development in Air Force Child Development Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Candace Maria Edmonds

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to standardize training delivery and to individualize staff development based on observation and reflective practice, the Air Force implemented the Developmental Training Model (DTM) in its Child Development Programs. The goal of the Developmental Training Model is to enhance high quality programs through improvements in the training…

  20. Development of a Linear Stirling Model with Varying Heat Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, Timothy F.; Lewandowski, Edward J.

    2007-01-01

    The linear model of the Stirling system developed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been extended to include a user-specified heat input. Previously developed linear models were limited to the Stirling convertor and electrical load. They represented the thermodynamic cycle with pressure factors that remained constant. The numerical values of the pressure factors were generated by linearizing GRC s non-linear System Dynamic Model (SDM) of the convertor at a chosen operating point. The pressure factors were fixed for that operating point, thus, the model lost accuracy if a transition to a different operating point were simulated. Although the previous linear model was used in developing controllers that manipulated current, voltage, and piston position, it could not be used in the development of control algorithms that regulated hot-end temperature. This basic model was extended to include the thermal dynamics associated with a hot-end temperature that varies over time in response to external changes as well as to changes in the Stirling cycle. The linear model described herein includes not only dynamics of the piston, displacer, gas, and electrical circuit, but also the transient effects of the heater head thermal inertia. The linear version algebraically couples two separate linear dynamic models, one model of the Stirling convertor and one model of the thermal system, through the pressure factors. The thermal system model includes heat flow of heat transfer fluid, insulation loss, and temperature drops from the heat source to the Stirling convertor expansion space. The linear model was compared to a nonlinear model, and performance was very similar. The resulting linear model can be implemented in a variety of computing environments, and is suitable for analysis with classical and state space controls analysis techniques.

  1. Plasma Modeling Enabled Technology Development Empowered by Fundamental Scattering Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-05-01

    Technology development increasingly relies on modeling to speed the innovation cycle. This is particularly true for systems using low temperature plasmas (LTPs) and their role in enabling energy efficient processes with minimal environmental impact. In the innovation cycle, LTP modeling supports investigation of fundamental processes that seed the cycle, optimization of newly developed technologies, and prediction of performance of unbuilt systems for new applications. Although proof-of-principle modeling may be performed for idealized systems in simple gases, technology development must address physically complex systems that use complex gas mixtures that now may be multi-phase (e.g., in contact with liquids). The variety of fundamental electron and ion scattering, and radiation transport data (FSRD) required for this modeling increases as the innovation cycle progresses, while the accuracy required of that data depends on the intended outcome. In all cases, the fidelity, depth and impact of the modeling depends on the availability of FSRD. Modeling and technology development are, in fact, empowered by the availability and robustness of FSRD. In this talk, examples of the impact of and requirements for FSRD in the innovation cycle enabled by plasma modeling will be discussed using results from multidimensional and global models. Examples of fundamental studies and technology optimization will focus on microelectronics fabrication and on optically pumped lasers. Modeling of systems as yet unbuilt will address the interaction of atmospheric pressure plasmas with liquids. Work supported by DOE Office of Fusion Energy Science and the National Science Foundation.

  2. Development of Systems Engineering Competency Career Development Model: An Analytical Approach using Blooms Taxonomy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    modeling )and) simulation )standards,)policy,)and) guidance x Demonstrate)a)full)understanding)of)complex) simulations )for)a) system )or) system )element x...plans for the professional development of systems engineers. Finally, the model can contribute to the guidance for development of graduate and...implementation)and)analysis x Understand)the)need)for) system )representations x Understand)the)different)types)of) modeling )and) simulation x Support)the)M&S

  3. Development of in silico models for human liver microsomal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Pil H.; Cucurull-Sanchez, Lourdes; Lu, Jing; Du, Yuhua J.

    2007-12-01

    We developed highly predictive classification models for human liver microsomal (HLM) stability using the apparent intrinsic clearance (CLint, app) as the end point. HLM stability has been shown to be an important factor related to the metabolic clearance of a compound. Robust in silico models that predict metabolic clearance are very useful in early drug discovery stages to optimize the compound structure and to select promising leads to avoid costly drug development failures in later stages. Using Random Forest and Bayesian classification methods with MOE, E-state descriptors, ADME Keys, and ECFP_6 fingerprints, various highly predictive models were developed. The best performance of the models shows 80 and 75% prediction accuracy for the test and validation sets, respectively. A detailed analysis of results will be shown, including an assessment of the prediction confidence, the significant descriptors, and the application of these models to drug discovery projects.

  4. Photovoltaic market analysis program: Background, model development, applications and extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilien, G. L.; Fuller, F. H.

    1981-04-01

    Tools and procedures to help guide government spending decisions associated with stimulating photovoltaic market penetration were developed. The program has three main components: (1) theoretical analysis aimed at understanding qualitatively what general types of policies are likely to be most cost effective in stimulating PV market penetration; (2) operational model developent (PV1), providing a user oriented tool to study quantitatively the relative effectiveness of specific government spending options and (3) field measurements, aimed at providing objective estimates of the parameters used in the diffusion model used in PV1. Existing models of solar technology diffusion are reviewed and the structure of the PV1 model is described. Theoretical results on optimal strategies for spending federal market development and subsidy funds are reviewed. The validity of these results is checked by comparing them with PV1 projections of penetration and cost forecasts for 15 government policy strategies which are simulated on the PV1 model.

  5. Development of a GIS Based Dust Dispersion Modeling System.

    SciTech Connect

    Rutz, Frederick C.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.; Crandall, Duard W.; Allwine, K Jerry

    2004-08-12

    With residential areas moving closer to military training sites, the effects upon the environment and neighboring civilians due to dust generated by training exercises has become a growing concern. Under a project supported by the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) of the Department of Defense, a custom application named DUSTRAN is currently under development that integrates a system of EPA atmospheric dispersion models with the ArcGIS application environment in order to simulate the dust dispersion generated by a planned training maneuver. This integration between modeling system and GIS application allows for the use of real world geospatial data such as terrain, land-use, and domain size as input by the modeling system. Output generated by the modeling system, such as concentration and deposition plumes, can then be displayed upon accurate maps representing the training site. This paper discusses the development of this integration between modeling system and Arc GIS application.

  6. How do digits emerge? - mathematical models of limb development.

    PubMed

    Iber, Dagmar; Germann, Philipp

    2014-03-01

    The mechanism that controls digit formation has long intrigued developmental and theoretical biologists, and many different models and mechanisms have been proposed. Here we review models of limb development with a specific focus on digit and long bone formation. Decades of experiments have revealed the basic signaling circuits that control limb development, and recent advances in imaging and molecular technologies provide us with unprecedented spatial detail and a broader view of the regulatory networks. Computational approaches are important to integrate the available information into a consistent framework that will allow us to achieve a deeper level of understanding, and that will help with the future planning and interpretation of complex experiments, paving the way to in silico genetics. Previous models of development had to be focused on very few, simple regulatory interactions. Algorithmic developments and increasing computing power now enable the generation and validation of increasingly realistic models that can be used to test old theories and uncover new mechanisms.

  7. An Integrative-Interactive Conceptual Model for Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ibrahim, Abdul Rahman H.

    1982-01-01

    The Integrative-Interactive Conceptual Model for Curriculum Development calls for curriculum reform and innovation to be cybernetic so that all aspects of curriculum planning get adequate attention. (CJ)

  8. A model for the development of university curricula in nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruun, E.; Nielsen, I.

    2010-12-01

    Nanotechnology is having an increasing impact on university curricula in electrical engineering and in physics. Major influencers affecting developments in university programmes related to nanoelectronics are discussed and a model for university programme development is described. The model takes into account that nanotechnology affects not only physics but also electrical engineering and computer engineering because of the advent of new nanoelectronics devices. The model suggests that curriculum development tends to follow one of three major tracks: physics; electrical engineering; computer engineering. Examples of European curricula following this framework are identified and described. These examples may serve as sources of inspiration for future developments and the model presented may provide guidelines for a systematic selection of topics in the university programmes.

  9. Prediction of Chemical Function: Model Development and Application

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency’s Exposure Forecaster (ExpoCast) project is developing both statistical and mechanism-based computational models for predicting exposures to thousands of chemicals, including those in consumer products. The high-throughput (...

  10. Agent Model Development for Assessing Climate-Induced Geopolitical Instability.

    SciTech Connect

    Boslough, Mark B.; Backus, George A.

    2005-12-01

    We present the initial stages of development of new agent-based computational methods to generate and test hypotheses about linkages between environmental change and international instability. This report summarizes the first year's effort of an originally proposed three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project. The preliminary work focused on a set of simple agent-based models and benefited from lessons learned in previous related projects and case studies of human response to climate change and environmental scarcity. Our approach was to define a qualitative model using extremely simple cellular agent models akin to Lovelock's Daisyworld and Schelling's segregation model. Such models do not require significant computing resources, and users can modify behavior rules to gain insights. One of the difficulties in agent-based modeling is finding the right balance between model simplicity and real-world representation. Our approach was to keep agent behaviors as simple as possible during the development stage (described herein) and to ground them with a realistic geospatial Earth system model in subsequent years. This work is directed toward incorporating projected climate data--including various C02 scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Third Assessment Report--and ultimately toward coupling a useful agent-based model to a general circulation model.3

  11. Development of dense gas dispersion model for emergency preparedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Manju; Panwar, T. S.; Singh, M. P.

    Mathematical models are recognized as important tools for providing quantitative assessment of the consequences of the accidental release of hazardous materials. In several accidental release situations, denser-than-air vapour clouds are formed which exhibit dispersion behaviour markedly different from that observed for passive atmospheric pollutants. The present work undertakes the development and validation of conceptually simple and computationally efficient dense gas dispersion models which could be used for emergency response. Here, IIT Heavy Gas Models I and II have been developed for instantaneous and continuous releases, respectively, of dense toxic materials in the atmosphere. Sensitivity tests have been performed to determine the various empirical coefficients which are found to be quite different than those used in the earlier studies. Particular emphasis has been laid on model validation by comparing their performance against relevant field trial data (Thorney Island, Burro Series and Maplin Sands Trials) as well as with other models. On the basis of statistical evaluation, a good performance of the model has been established. The performance of the IIT Heavy Gas Model is close to the model showing the best performance amongst 11-14 other models developed in various countries. Using the IIT Heavy Gas Model, the Safe distance/vulnerable zones can be easily estimated for different meteorological and release conditions for the storage of various hazardous chemicals.

  12. Flow Model Development for the Idaho National Laboratory OU 10-08 Sitewide Groundwater Model

    SciTech Connect

    Hai Huang; Swen Magnuson; Thomas Wood

    2005-09-01

    A two-dimensional (2D), steady-state groundwater flow model was developed for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) sitewide groundwater model. A total of 224 wells inside the model domain were used to calibrate the 2D flow model. Three different calibration techniques, zonation approach, pilot point approach and coupled zonation/pilot point approach, were explored and applied during the model development. The pilot point approach allows modelers to model aquifer heterogeneities at various scales, and extract the maximum amount of data from available monitoring data, permitting the best possible representation of flow and transport at the INL.

  13. Setting development goals using stochastic dynamical system models

    PubMed Central

    Nicolis, Stamatios C.; Bali Swain, Ranjula; Sumpter, David J. T.

    2017-01-01

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDG) programme was an ambitious attempt to encourage a globalised solution to important but often-overlooked development problems. The programme led to wide-ranging development but it has also been criticised for unrealistic and arbitrary targets. In this paper, we show how country-specific development targets can be set using stochastic, dynamical system models built from historical data. In particular, we show that the MDG target of two-thirds reduction of child mortality from 1990 levels was infeasible for most countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. At the same time, the MDG targets were not ambitious enough for fast-developing countries such as Brazil and China. We suggest that model-based setting of country-specific targets is essential for the success of global development programmes such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). This approach should provide clear, quantifiable targets for policymakers. PMID:28241057

  14. JEDI: Jobs and Economic Development Impacts Model Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    S. Hendrickson; S.Tegen

    2009-12-01

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models are user-friendly tools that estimate the economic impacts of constructing and operating power generation and biofuel plants at the local(usually state) level. First developed by NREL's Wind Powering America program to model wind energy jobs and impacts, JEDI has been expanded to biofuels,concentrating solar power, coal, and natural gas power plants.

  15. GEOCHEMICAL TESTING AND MODEL DEVELOPMENT - RESIDUAL TANK WASTE TEST PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    CANTRELL KJ; CONNELLY MP

    2010-03-09

    This Test Plan describes the testing and chemical analyses release rate studies on tank residual samples collected following the retrieval of waste from the tank. This work will provide the data required to develop a contaminant release model for the tank residuals from both sludge and salt cake single-shell tanks. The data are intended for use in the long-term performance assessment and conceptual model development.

  16. Development of a Water Recovery System Resource Tracking Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe; Stambaugh, Imelda; Sarguishm, Miriam; Shull, Sarah; Moore, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A simulation model has been developed to track water resources in an exploration vehicle using regenerative life support (RLS) systems. The model integrates the functions of all the vehicle components that affect the processing and recovery of water during simulated missions. The approach used in developing the model results in the RTM being a part of of a complete vehicle simulation that can be used in real time mission studies. Performance data for the variety of components in the RTM is focused on water processing and has been defined based on the most recent information available for the technology of the component. This paper will describe the process of defining the RLS system to be modeled and then the way the modeling environment was selected and how the model has been implemented. Results showing how the variety of RLS components exchange water are provided in a set of test cases.

  17. Development of a Water Recovery System Resource Tracking Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, Joe; Stambaugh, Imelda; Sargusingh, Miriam; Shull, Sarah; Moore, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A simulation model has been developed to track water resources in an exploration vehicle using Regenerative Life Support (RLS) systems. The Resource Tracking Model (RTM) integrates the functions of all the vehicle components that affect the processing and recovery of water during simulated missions. The approach used in developing the RTM enables its use as part of a complete vehicle simulation for real time mission studies. Performance data for the components in the RTM is focused on water processing. The data provided to the model has been based on the most recent information available regarding the technology of the component. This paper will describe the process of defining the RLS system to be modeled, the way the modeling environment was selected, and how the model has been implemented. Results showing how the RLS components exchange water are provided in a set of test cases.

  18. Development of a new Global RAdiation Belt model: GRAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard-Piet, Angelica; Lazaro, Didier; Maget, Vincent; Rolland, Guy; Ecoffet, Robert; Bourdarie, Sébastien; Boscher, Daniel; Standarovski, Denis

    2016-07-01

    The well known AP8 and AE8 NASA models are commonly used in the industry to specify the radiation belt environment. Unfortunately, there are some limitations in the use of these models, first due to the covered energy range, but also because in some regions of space, there are discrepancies between the predicted average values and the measurements. Therefore, our aim is to develop a radiation belt model, covering a large region of space and energy, from LEO altitudes to GEO and above, and from plasma to relativistic particles. The aim for the first version is to correct the AP8 and AE8 models where they are deficient or not defined. At geostationary, we developed ten years ago for electrons the IGE-2006 model which was proven to be more accurate than AE8, and used commonly in the industry, covering a broad energy range, from 1keV to 5MeV. From then, a proton model for geostationary orbit was also developed for material applications, followed by the OZONE model covering a narrower energy range but the whole outer electron belt, a SLOT model to asses average electron values for 2model, which provides high energy proton flux values at low altitudes. As most of these models were developed using more than a solar cycle of measurements, these measurements being checked, cross calibrated and filtered, we have no doubt that the obtained averages are more accurate than AP8 and AE8 for these particular locations. These local models were validated along different orbit with independent data sets or effect measurements. We will use a cache file system to switch between models, in order to obtain at each location in space and energy point the most reliable value. Of course, the way the model is developed is well suited to add new local developments or to include international partnership. This model will be called the GRAB model, as Global Radiation Belt model. We will present first beta version during this conference.

  19. Hypothetical model in testing integrated development of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Bala, Gustav; Katić, Ratko

    2009-06-01

    This paper provides systematic presentation of the issues related to methodology, and offers some possible solutions for analysis of different aspects of child development, especially preschool age. These issues are related to the definition, acceptance and preparation of the existing theories on development, which include analysis of the whole child's self his/her surroundings, and his/her activities. In addition, this analysis also includes some methodological problems related to sexual dimorphism, heritage-bound and surroundings-bound development, definition of the model of constructs affecting the selection of variables for evaluation of integral development, definition of the population and selection of the subject sample, determination of manifest characteristics and abilities, selection or construction of measuring instruments for their evaluation, appropriateness of the model and method of data analysis, as well as the possibility of designing the potential model of integrated development of preschool children.

  20. Cerebral organoids model human brain development and microcephaly.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Madeline A; Renner, Magdalena; Martin, Carol-Anne; Wenzel, Daniel; Bicknell, Louise S; Hurles, Matthew E; Homfray, Tessa; Penninger, Josef M; Jackson, Andrew P; Knoblich, Juergen A

    2013-09-19

    The complexity of the human brain has made it difficult to study many brain disorders in model organisms, highlighting the need for an in vitro model of human brain development. Here we have developed a human pluripotent stem cell-derived three-dimensional organoid culture system, termed cerebral organoids, that develop various discrete, although interdependent, brain regions. These include a cerebral cortex containing progenitor populations that organize and produce mature cortical neuron subtypes. Furthermore, cerebral organoids are shown to recapitulate features of human cortical development, namely characteristic progenitor zone organization with abundant outer radial glial stem cells. Finally, we use RNA interference and patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells to model microcephaly, a disorder that has been difficult to recapitulate in mice. We demonstrate premature neuronal differentiation in patient organoids, a defect that could help to explain the disease phenotype. Together, these data show that three-dimensional organoids can recapitulate development and disease even in this most complex human tissue.

  1. Development management model of elite athletes in team sports games.

    PubMed

    Trninić, Marko; Trninić, Slavko; Papić, Vladan

    2009-06-01

    The scientific and expert approach to defining a model of managing the development of top-level athletes in team sports games is oriented toward the challenging values that mark a certain position and role in a team sports game. A hypothetical dynamic model of development management of top-level athletes in team sports games, which explicitly shows the order of procedures in the process of multidimensional development of athletes using the concepts of the dynamic systems theory has been suggested. The hypothetical model of management shows that the athlete's development is primarily under the influence of genetic potential, sports preparation process and the competition format, as well as the management of their lifestyle. In the process, the athlete's development is seen as a dynamic and plastic process under the influence of selective procedures and training programs that enable a continuous change in the level of the athlete's performance and sports preparation process.

  2. New Models and Metaphors for Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains two reports from a poster session on new ideas and models in human resource development (HRD). The first presentation, "Two-way Customer-Service Provider Cycle" (Harriet V. Lawrence, Albert K. Wiswell), discusses a two-way supply cycle model that illustrates relational issues in customer service, including needs…

  3. Development of operational models for space weather prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Siqing; Gong, Jiancun

    Since space weather prediction is currently at the stage of transition from human experience to objective forecasting methods, developing operational forecasting models becomes an important way to improve the capabilities of space weather service. As the existing theoretical models are not fully operational when it comes to space weather prediction, we carried out researches on developing operational models, considering the user needs for prediction of key elements in space environment, which have vital impacts on space assets security. We focused on solar activities, geomagnetic activities, high-energy particles, atmospheric density, plasma environment and so forth. Great progresses have been made in developing 3D dynamic asymmetric magnetopause model, plasma sheet energetic electron flux forecasting model and 400km-atmospheric density forecasting model, and also in the prediction of high-speed solar-wind streams from coronal holes and geomagnetic AE indices. Some of these models have already been running in the operational system of Space Environment Prediction Center, National Space Science Center (SEPC/NSSC). This presentation will introduce the research plans for space weather prediction in China, and current progresses of developing operational models and their applications in daily space weather services in SEPC/NSSC.

  4. Modeling Mechanisms of Persisting and Resolving Delay in Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michael S. C.; Knowland, V. C. P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors used neural network modeling to investigate the possible mechanistic basis of developmental language delay and to test the viability of the hypothesis that persisting delay and resolving delay lie on a mechanistic continuum with normal development. Method: The authors used a population modeling approach to study…

  5. Dynamic Modeling for Development and Education: From Concepts to Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Geert, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The general aim of the article is to teach the reader how to transform conceptual models of change, development, and learning into mathematical expressions and how to use these equations to build dynamic models by means of the widely used spreadsheet program Excel. The explanation is supported by a number of Excel files, which the reader can…

  6. Improving Intercultural Competence in the Classroom: A Reflective Development Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Jing Betty

    2016-01-01

    To meet the increased demand for international business education that prepares college students for studying, living, or working overseas, I propose a four-stage reflective development model to be used in the traditional classroom context to enhance intercultural competence for undergraduate students. I employ the model in a personal development…

  7. The Various Roles of Animal Models in Understanding Human Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Gilbert; Lickliter, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors take a very conservative view of the contribution of animal models to an understanding of human development. We do not think that homologies can be readily documented with even our most closely related relatives' behavior and psychological functioning. The major contribution of animal models is their provision of food…

  8. Development, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of LASH model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many hydrologic models have been developed to help manage natural resources all over the world. Nevertheless, most models have presented a high complexity regarding data base requirements, as well as, many calibration parameters. This has brought serious difficulties for applying them in watersheds ...

  9. Generativity-Stagnation: Development of a Status Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Cheryl L.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews theoretical and empirical developments in Erik Erikson's construct of generativity-stagnation. Presents a five-category model describing styles of resolving the issue using combinations of level of involvement or active concern for the growth of self and others; and level of inclusivity or scope of caregiving concern. Discusses model in…

  10. Children's Conceptions of Career Choice and Attainment: Model Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Kimberly A. S.; Walsh, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a model of children's conceptions of two key career development processes: career choice and career attainment. The model of children's understanding of career choice and attainment was constructed with developmental research and theory into children's understanding of allied phenomena such as their understanding of illness,…

  11. Development of Water Quality Modeling in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes historical trends in water quality model development in the United States, reviews current efforts, and projects promising future directions. Water quality modeling has a relatively long history in the United States. While its origins lie in the work...

  12. The Development and Testing of a School Improvement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leithwood, Kenneth; Jantzi, Doris; McElheron-Hopkins, Charryn

    2006-01-01

    This multimethod study generated and tested a "best evidence" model of school improvement processes (SIP) capable of improving student achievement. Initially developed through the review of a comprehensive body of previous empirical research, the model was further refined through a 2, 5-year longitudinal study in 10 schools. A quantitative test of…

  13. Accident sequence precursor analysis level 2/3 model development

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, C.H.; Galyean, W.J.; Brownson, D.A.

    1997-02-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) program currently uses simple Level 1 models to assess the conditional core damage probability for operational events occurring in commercial nuclear power plants (NPP). Since not all accident sequences leading to core damage will result in the same radiological consequences, it is necessary to develop simple Level 2/3 models that can be used to analyze the response of the NPP containment structure in the context of a core damage accident, estimate the magnitude of the resulting radioactive releases to the environment, and calculate the consequences associated with these releases. The simple Level 2/3 model development work was initiated in 1995, and several prototype models have been completed. Once developed, these simple Level 2/3 models are linked to the simple Level 1 models to provide risk perspectives for operational events. This paper describes the methods implemented for the development of these simple Level 2/3 ASP models, and the linkage process to the existing Level 1 models.

  14. A Prescriptive Model for Determining Professional Development Needs of Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geering, Adrian D.

    The model developed for this paper describes procedures for obtaining job relevant data for a needs assessment of principals' competencies to determine the discrepancy between their actual and desired performance. The major components of the model include selecting a committee to oversee the process, completing a job analysis, identifying and…

  15. Benchmark Dose Software Development and Maintenance Ten Berge Cxt Models

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is intended to provide an overview of beta version 1.0 of the implementation of a concentration-time (CxT) model originally programmed and provided by Wil ten Berge (referred to hereafter as the ten Berge model). The recoding and development described here represent ...

  16. Turbulence model development and application at Lockheed Fort Worth Company

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brian R.

    1995-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation demonstrates that computationally efficient k-l and k-kl turbulence models have been developed and implemented at Lockheed Fort Worth Company. Many years of experience have been gained applying two equation turbulence models to complex three-dimensional flows for design and analysis.

  17. Developing an Interdisciplinary Curriculum Framework for Aquatic-Ecosystem Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Laurel; Segale, Heather M.; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Jenkins, Stephen H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents results from a July 2005 workshop and course aimed at developing an interdisciplinary course on modeling aquatic ecosystems that will provide the next generation of practitioners with critical skills for which formal training is presently lacking. Five different course models were evaluated: (1) fundamentals/general principles…

  18. Development and Utilization of the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    simulation studies with the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS). The targeted problems are submesoscale wakes, fronts, and eddies; nearshore currents...2005: Routes to dissipation in the ocean: The 2D/3D turbulence conundrum. In: Marine Turbulence : Theories, Observations, and Models , Eds. H...Development and Utilization of the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS) James C. McWilliams Department of Atmospheric Sciences and Institute

  19. MMW turntable data collection, data analysis, and target model development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, Annie V.; Barr, Douglas P.; Mobley, Scott B.; Leonard, Wayne

    2000-07-01

    Turntable data collection on ground targets using an instrumentation W-band monopulse radar is reported. The data collection site, instrumentation, and test methodology are described. Preliminary analysis results showing target RCS comparisons are reported. The turntable measurements are used to generate point scatterer target models for all-digital and real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulations. Model development techniques are described. The models are validated against measured data utilizing generic high range resolution acquisition and tracking algorithms.

  20. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of deltamethrin: Development of a rat and human diffusion-limited model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mirfazaelian et al. (2006) developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin in the rat. This model describes gastrointestinal tract absorption as a saturable process mediated by phase III efflux transporters which pump delta...

  1. Further Development of the PCRTM Model and RT Model Inter Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Qiguang; Liu, Xu; Wu, Wan; Kizer, Susan

    2015-01-01

    New results for the development of the PCRTM model will be presented. The new results were used for IASI retrieval validation inter comparison and better results were obtained compare to other fast radiative transfer models.

  2. Developing a Decision Model of Sustainable Product Design and Development from Product Servicizing in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yu-Chen; Tu, Jui-Che; Hung, So-Jeng

    2016-01-01

    In response to the global trend of low carbon and the concept of sustainable development, enterprises need to develop R&D for the manufacturing of energy-saving and sustainable products and low carbon products. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to construct a decision model for sustainable product design and development from product…

  3. A Study on Reflection in In-Service Teacher Development: Introducing Reflective Practitioner Development Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayapinar, Ulas

    2016-01-01

    To date, studies on reflection seem to lack concern for in-service teacher development. This article proposes a new EFL reflective practitioner development model (RPDM) for an in-service program that is not only based on the principles of reflection, but that also measures teachers' reflective and self-efficacy development. Focusing on the…

  4. Control-oriented high-frequency turbomachinery modeling: General one-dimensional model development

    SciTech Connect

    Badmus, O.O.; Eveker, K.M.; Nett, C.N.

    1995-07-01

    In this paper, an approach for control-oriented high-frequency turbomachinery modeling previously developed by the authors is applied to develop one-dimensional unsteady compressible viscous flow models for a generic turbojet engine and a generic compression system. The authors begin by developing models for various components commonly fund in turbomachinery systems. These components include: ducting without combustion, blading, ducting with combustion, heat soak, blading with heat soak, inlet, nozzle, abrupt area change with incurred total pressure lose, flow splitting, bleed, mixing, and the spool. Once the component models have been developed, they are combined to form system models for a generic turbojet engine and a generic compression system. These models are developed so that they can be easily modified and used with appropriate maps to form a model for a specific rig. It is shown that these system models are explicit (i.e., can be solved with any standard ODE solver without iteration) due to the approach used in their development. Furthermore, since the nonlinear models are explicit, explicit analytical linear models can be derived from the nonlinear models. The procedure for developing these analytical linear models is discussed. An interesting feature of the models developed here is the use of effective lengths within the models, as functions of axial Mach number and nondimensional rotational speed, for rotating components. These effective lengths account for the helical path of the flow as it moves through a rotating component. Use of these effective lengths in the unsteady conservation equations introduces a nonlinear dynamic lag consistent with experimentally observed compressor lag and replaces less accurate linear first-order empirical lags proposed to account for this phenomenon. Models of the type developed here are expected to prove useful in the design and simulation of (integrated) surge control and rotating stall avoidance schemes.

  5. Development of a common data model for scientific simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosiano, J.; Butler, D.M.; Matarazzo, C.; Miller, M.; Schoof, L.

    1999-06-01

    The problem of sharing data among scientific simulation models is a difficult and persistent one. Computational scientists employ an enormous variety of discrete approximations in modeling physical processes on computers. Problems occur when models based on different representations are required to exchange data with one another, or with some other software package. Within the DOE`s Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), a cross-disciplinary group called the Data Models and Formats (DMF) group, has been working to develop a common data model. The current model is comprised of several layers of increasing semantic complexity. One of these layers is an abstract model based on set theory and topology called the fiber bundle kernel (FBK). This layer provides the flexibility needed to describe a wide range of mesh-approximated functions as well as other entities. This paper briefly describes the ASCI common data model, its mathematical basis, and ASCI prototype development. These prototypes include an object-oriented data management library developed at Los Alamos called the Common Data Model Library or CDMlib, the Vector Bundle API from the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, and the DMF API from Sandia National Laboratory.

  6. Modelling Sustainable Development Scenarios of Croatian Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pašičko, Robert; Stanić, Zoran; Debrecin, Nenad

    2010-05-01

    The main objective of power system sustainable development is to provide the security of electricity supply required to underpin economic growth and increase the quality of living while minimizing adverse environmental impacts. New challenges such as deregulation, liberalization of energy markets, increased competition on energy markets, growing demands on security of supply, price insecurities and demand to cut CO2 emissions, are calling for better understanding of electrical systems modelling. Existing models are not sufficient anymore and planners will need to think differently in order to face these challenges. Such a model, on the basis on performed simulations, should enable planner to distinguish between different options and to analyze sustainability of these options. PLEXOS is an electricity market simulation model, used for modeling electrical system in Croatia since 2005. Within this paper, generation expansion scenarios until 2020 developed for Croatian Energy Strategy and modeled in PLEXOS. Development of sustainable Croatian energy scenario was analyzed in the paper - impacts of CO2 emission price and wind generation. Energy Strategy sets goal for 1200 MW from wind power plants in 2020. In order to fully understand its impacts, intermittent nature of electricity generation from wind power plant was modeled. We conclude that electrical system modelling using everyday growing models has proved to be inevitable for sustainable electrical system planning in complex environment in which power plants operate today.

  7. Turbulent Dispersion Modelling in a Complex Urban Environment - Data Analysis and Model Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    techniques now gaining popularity for atmospheric dispersion applications. A key feature of the model framework developed in this report is the definition...of a single parameter that describes canopy morphology , and links this to canopy flow variables. A simple canopy dispersion model is then developed...models. A key feature of this model framework is the definition of a single parameter that describes canopy morphology , and links this to canopy flow

  8. An Integrative Model of the Development of Autobiographical Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch-Ross, Melissa K.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a working model for studying development of autobiographical memory based on literatures concerning children's metacognitive capacities, social construction of personal narratives, and development of self-concept. Notes that source monitoring and parental styles of discussing the past affect autobiographical memory, and emphasizes the…

  9. Academic Talent Development Programs: A Best Practices Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagné, Françoys

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to describe how schools should structure the development of academic talent at all levels of the K-12 educational system. Adopting as its theoretical framework the "Differentiating Model of Giftedness and Talent," the author proposes (a) a formal definition of academic talent development (ATD) inspired by the principles…

  10. Teachers' Continuing Professional Development: Framing a Model of Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harland, John; Kinder, Kay

    2014-01-01

    In order to contribute towards the construction of an empirically-grounded theory of effective continuing professional development (CPD), this paper seeks to develop a model of the effects of teachers' CPD or in-service education and training (INSET). It builds on an earlier typology of INSET outcomes and compares it to two previous classification…

  11. 2+2 Electronics. A Model Program Development Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jack; And Others

    This document contains materials and information used during and developed by a model 2+2 electronics technology program development project conducted by Gainesville High School and Cooke County College, Texas. A procedures manual provides information on grant application, surveys, committees, curricula, articulation agreement, and goals and…

  12. The Arctic Climate Modeling Program: Professional Development for Rural Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, Kathryn Berry

    2010-01-01

    The Arctic Climate Modeling Program (ACMP) offered yearlong science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) professional development to teachers in rural Alaska. Teacher training focused on introducing youth to workforce technologies used in Arctic research. Due to challenges in making professional development accessible to rural teachers, ACMP…

  13. The Highly Engaged School: A Successful Model for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Author Bob Meyer, head of the Fay School (Texas) compares professional development strategies in his school to programs in other schools, which he feels are mostly prescriptive in nature, and are based on a deficit model--focused on fixing, rather than developing--and, thus, are not always inspiring. Here Meyer describes the professional…

  14. Model Development and Replication: Introducing and Sustaining Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Corinne W.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the three-decade experience in model development and replication and in introducing and sustaining organization change of Child Development Resources (CDR), of Williamsburg, Virginia. CDR provides an integrated system of services for children with disabilities and developmental delays as well as for children who are at risk.…

  15. A Performance-Based Development Model for Online Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Berlin

    2007-01-01

    Faculty development in distance education does not happen in a vacuum. It is often interwoven with efforts to increase adoption of distance education programs and increase the effectiveness of online teaching. Training might not be the only way to meet these needs. This article presents a new faculty-development model, based on a systematic…

  16. Development of Improved Algorithms and Multiscale Modeling Capability with SUNTANS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Development of Improved Algorithms and Multiscale...a wide range of scales through use of accurate numerical methods and high- performance computational algorithms . The tool will be applied to study...dissipation. OBJECTIVES The primary objective is to enhance the capabilities of the SUNTANS model through development of algorithms to study

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF MODELING PROTOCOLS FOR USE IN DETERMINING SEDIMENT TMDLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling protocols for use in determining sediment TMDLs are being developed to provide the Office of Water, Regions and the States with assistance in determining TMDLs for sediment impaired water bodies. These protocols will supplement the protocols developed by the Office of W...

  18. Community Colleges and Economic Development: Models of Institutional Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsinas, Stephen G.; Lacey, Vincent A.

    An overview is provided of the nontraditional, direct involvement of community colleges in economic development activities. While a review of the literature and a discussion of the factors leading to community colleges' participation in economic development are included, the primary focus of the monograph is on seven models of nontraditional…

  19. Formulation of consumables management models. Development approach for the mission planning processor working model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connelly, L. C.

    1977-01-01

    The mission planning processor is a user oriented tool for consumables management and is part of the total consumables subsystem management concept. The approach to be used in developing a working model of the mission planning processor is documented. The approach includes top-down design, structured programming techniques, and application of NASA approved software development standards. This development approach: (1) promotes cost effective software development, (2) enhances the quality and reliability of the working model, (3) encourages the sharing of the working model through a standard approach, and (4) promotes portability of the working model to other computer systems.

  20. Thermal barrier coating life-prediction model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, T. E.; Neumann, J. F.; Liu, A.

    1987-01-01

    The primary objective of this program was to develop an operative thermal barrier coating (TBC) design model for life prediction. The objective was successfully accomplished with the development, calibration, and demonstration of a mechanistic thermochemical model which rapidly predicts TBC life as a function of engine, mission, and materials system parameters. This thermochemical design model accounts for the three operative TBC damage modes (bond coating oxidation, zirconia toughness reduction, and molten salt film damage), which all contribute to spalling of the insulating zirconia layer.

  1. Development of scale model imagery for ATR investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, John M.; Bergeron, Stuart; Delp, Nathaniel T.; Lewis, Derek R.

    2006-05-01

    Automated target recognition (ATR) methods hold promise for rapid extraction of critical information from imagery data to support military missions. Development of ATR tools generally requires large amounts of imagery data to develop and test algorithms. Deployment of operational ATR systems requires performance validation using operationally relevant imagery. For early algorithm development, however, restrictions on access to such data is a significant impediment, especially for the academic research community. To address this limitation, we have developed a set of grayscale imagery as a surrogate for panchromatic imagery that would be acquired from airborne sensors. This surrogate data set consists of imagery of ground order of battle (GOB) targets in an arid environment. The data set was developed by imaging scale models of these targets set in a scale model background. The imagery spans a range of operating conditions and provides a useful image set for initial explorations of new approaches for ATR development.

  2. Development of Conceptual Benchmark Models to Evaluate Complex Hydrologic Model Calibration in Managed Basins Using Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, J. D.; White, J.

    2013-12-01

    For many numerical hydrologic models it is a challenge to quantitatively demonstrate that complex models are preferable to simpler models. Typically, a decision is made to develop and calibrate a complex model at the beginning of a study. The value of selecting a complex model over simpler models is commonly inferred from use of a model with fewer simplifications of the governing equations because it can be time consuming to develop another numerical code with data processing and parameter estimation functionality. High-level programming languages like Python can greatly reduce the effort required to develop and calibrate simple models that can be used to quantitatively demonstrate the increased value of a complex model. We have developed and calibrated a spatially-distributed surface-water/groundwater flow model for managed basins in southeast Florida, USA, to (1) evaluate the effect of municipal groundwater pumpage on surface-water/groundwater exchange, (2) investigate how the study area will respond to sea-level rise, and (3) explore combinations of these forcing functions. To demonstrate the increased value of this complex model, we developed a two-parameter conceptual-benchmark-discharge model for each basin in the study area. The conceptual-benchmark-discharge model includes seasonal scaling and lag parameters and is driven by basin rainfall. The conceptual-benchmark-discharge models were developed in the Python programming language and used weekly rainfall data. Calibration was implemented with the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno method available in the Scientific Python (SciPy) library. Normalized benchmark efficiencies calculated using output from the complex model and the corresponding conceptual-benchmark-discharge model indicate that the complex model has more explanatory power than the simple model driven only by rainfall.

  3. On the development and validation of QSAR models.

    PubMed

    Gramatica, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental and more critical steps that are necessary for the development and validation of QSAR models are presented in this chapter as best practices in the field. These procedures are discussed in the context of predictive QSAR modelling that is focused on achieving models of the highest statistical quality and with external predictive power. The most important and most used statistical parameters needed to verify the real performances of QSAR models (of both linear regression and classification) are presented. Special emphasis is placed on the validation of models, both internally and externally, as well as on the need to define model applicability domains, which should be done when models are employed for the prediction of new external compounds.

  4. Development of a Stirling System Dynamic Model With Enhanced Thermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, Timothy F.; Lewandowski, Edward J.

    2005-01-01

    The Stirling Convertor System Dynamic Model developed at NASA Glenn Research Center is a software model developed from first principles that includes the mechanical and mounting dynamics, the thermodynamics, the linear alternator, and the controller of a free-piston Stirling power convertor, along with the end user load. As such it represents the first detailed modeling tool for fully integrated Stirling convertor-based power systems. The thermodynamics of the model were originally a form of the isothermal Stirling cycle. In some situations it may be desirable to improve the accuracy of the Stirling cycle portion of the model. An option under consideration is to enhance the SDM thermodynamics by coupling the model with Gedeon Associates Sage simulation code. The result will be a model that gives a more accurate prediction of the performance and dynamics of the free-piston Stirling convertor. A method of integrating the Sage simulation code with the System Dynamic Model is described. Results of SDM and Sage simulation are compared to test data. Model parameter estimation and model validation are discussed.

  5. Development of an aquifer management model AQMAN3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Puig, Juan Carlos; Rolon-Collazo, L. I.; Pagan-Trinidad, Ishmael; Krishna, J.H.; Quinones-Aponte, Vicente; Gomez-Gomez, Fernando; Morris, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    A computer code that enables the use of the USGS Modular groundwater flow model for aquifermanagement modeling has been developed. Aquifermanagement techniques integrate groundwater flow modeling with linear quadratic optimization methods for the solution of various aquifer management problems. The model AQMAN3D, is a modified version of a previously developed two-dimensional AQMAN model. The idea of coupling the AQMAN model with the MODULAR model arose because actual groundwater flow systems behave in a three dimensional manner, therefore requiring treatment as such, and due to the widespread use of MODULAR. The use of the AQMAN3D model permits the implementation of the technique known as aquifer managementmodeling. A generalized approach to obtain an optimal solution to an aquifer management problem is proposed, and a sample test problem is presented to illustrate the use of the model. Even though the model provides the hydrologist with a new and powerful investigative tool, its applicability is limited to confined or quasiconfined systems.

  6. A biophysical model of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) berry development.

    PubMed

    Hall, Alistair J; Minchin, Peter E H; Clearwater, Michael J; Génard, Michel

    2013-12-01

    A model of kiwifruit berry development is presented, building on the model of Fishman and Génard used for peach fruit. That model has been extended to incorporate a number of important features of kiwifruit growth. First, the kiwifruit berry is attached to the stem through a pedicel/receptacle complex which contributes significantly to the hydraulic resistance between the stem and the fruit, and this resistance changes considerably during the season. Second, much of the carbohydrate in kiwifruit berries is stored as starch until the fruit matures late in the season, when the starch hydrolyses to soluble sugars. This starch storage has a major effect on the osmotic potential of the fruit, so an existing model of kiwifruit starch dynamics was included in the model. Using previously published approaches, we also included elasticity and extended the modelling period to cover both the cell division and cell expansion phases of growth. The resulting model showed close simulation of field observations of fresh weight, dry matter, starch, and soluble solids in kiwifruit. Comparison with continuous measurements of fruit diameter confirmed that elasticity was needed to adequately simulate observed diurnal variation in fruit size. Sensitivity analyses suggested that the model is particularly sensitive to variation in inputs relating to water (stem water potential and the humidity of the air), and to parameters controlling cell expansion (cell wall extensibility). Some limitations in the model structure were identified, suggesting that a revised model including current apoplastic/symplastic concepts needs to be developed.

  7. Development of the Microstructure Based Stochastic Life Prediction Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-27

    initiation of the work on the characterization of the 7050 alloys and development of the image analysis software. This progress report gives account for...project. Dr. ’ hang will be additionally working of the development of the image analysis software and on the life prediction models. Dr. Przystupa...the implementation of the tessellation programs I1 ], texture analysis and on the development of the image analysis system. Page 2 Equipment The image

  8. Multiscale Modeling in the Clinic: Drug Design and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Clancy, Colleen E.; An, Gary; Cannon, William R.; Liu, Yaling; May, Elebeoba E.; Ortoleva, Peter; Popel, Aleksander S.; Sluka, James P.; Su, Jing; Vicini, Paolo; Zhou, Xiaobo; Eckmann, David M.

    2016-02-17

    A wide range of length and time scales are relevant to pharmacology, especially in drug development, drug design and drug delivery. Therefore, multi-scale computational modeling and simulation methods and paradigms that advance the linkage of phenomena occurring at these multiple scales have become increasingly important. Multi-scale approaches present in silico opportunities to advance laboratory research to bedside clinical applications in pharmaceuticals research. This is achievable through the capability of modeling to reveal phenomena occurring across multiple spatial and temporal scales, which are not otherwise readily accessible to experimentation. The resultant models, when validated, are capable of making testable predictions to guide drug design and delivery. In this review we describe the goals, methods, and opportunities of multi-scale modeling in drug design and development. We demonstrate the impact of multiple scales of modeling in this field. We indicate the common mathematical techniques employed for multi-scale modeling approaches used in pharmacology and present several examples illustrating the current state-of-the-art regarding drug development for: Excitable Systems (Heart); Cancer (Metastasis and Differentiation); Cancer (Angiogenesis and Drug Targeting); Metabolic Disorders; and Inflammation and Sepsis. We conclude with a focus on barriers to successful clinical translation of drug development, drug design and drug delivery multi-scale models.

  9. Development of a dynamic computational model of social cognitive theory.

    PubMed

    Riley, William T; Martin, Cesar A; Rivera, Daniel E; Hekler, Eric B; Adams, Marc A; Buman, Matthew P; Pavel, Misha; King, Abby C

    2016-12-01

    Social cognitive theory (SCT) is among the most influential theories of behavior change and has been used as the conceptual basis of health behavior interventions for smoking cessation, weight management, and other health behaviors. SCT and other behavior theories were developed primarily to explain differences between individuals, but explanatory theories of within-person behavioral variability are increasingly needed as new technologies allow for intensive longitudinal measures and interventions adapted from these inputs. These within-person explanatory theoretical applications can be modeled as dynamical systems. SCT constructs, such as reciprocal determinism, are inherently dynamical in nature, but SCT has not been modeled as a dynamical system. This paper describes the development of a dynamical system model of SCT using fluid analogies and control systems principles drawn from engineering. Simulations of this model were performed to assess if the model performed as predicted based on theory and empirical studies of SCT. This initial model generates precise and testable quantitative predictions for future intensive longitudinal research. Dynamic modeling approaches provide a rigorous method for advancing health behavior theory development and refinement and for guiding the development of more potent and efficient interventions.

  10. Volumetric Intraoperative Brain Deformation Compensation: Model Development and Phantom Validation

    PubMed Central

    DeLorenzo, Christine; Papademetris, Xenophon; Staib, Lawrence H.; Vives, Kenneth P.; Spencer, Dennis D.; Duncan, James S.

    2012-01-01

    During neurosurgery, nonrigid brain deformation may affect the reliability of tissue localization based on preoperative images. To provide accurate surgical guidance in these cases, preoperative images must be updated to reflect the intraoperative brain. This can be accomplished by warping these preoperative images using a biomechanical model. Due to the possible complexity of this deformation, intraoperative information is often required to guide the model solution. In this paper, a linear elastic model of the brain is developed to infer volumetric brain deformation associated with measured intraoperative cortical surface displacement. The developed model relies on known material properties of brain tissue, and does not require further knowledge about intraoperative conditions. To provide an initial estimation of volumetric model accuracy, as well as determine the model’s sensitivity to the specified material parameters and surface displacements, a realistic brain phantom was developed. Phantom results indicate that the linear elastic model significantly reduced localization error due to brain shift, from >16 mm to under 5 mm, on average. In addition, though in vivo quantitative validation is necessary, preliminary application of this approach to images acquired during neocortical epilepsy cases confirms the feasibility of applying the developed model to in vivo data. PMID:22562728

  11. Geospatial Modelling Approach for 3d Urban Densification Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koziatek, O.; Dragićević, S.; Li, S.

    2016-06-01

    With growing populations, economic pressures, and the need for sustainable practices, many urban regions are rapidly densifying developments in the vertical built dimension with mid- and high-rise buildings. The location of these buildings can be projected based on key factors that are attractive to urban planners, developers, and potential buyers. Current research in this area includes various modelling approaches, such as cellular automata and agent-based modelling, but the results are mostly linked to raster grids as the smallest spatial units that operate in two spatial dimensions. Therefore, the objective of this research is to develop a geospatial model that operates on irregular spatial tessellations to model mid- and high-rise buildings in three spatial dimensions (3D). The proposed model is based on the integration of GIS, fuzzy multi-criteria evaluation (MCE), and 3D GIS-based procedural modelling. Part of the City of Surrey, within the Metro Vancouver Region, Canada, has been used to present the simulations of the generated 3D building objects. The proposed 3D modelling approach was developed using ESRI's CityEngine software and the Computer Generated Architecture (CGA) language.

  12. Development of an interactive anatomical three-dimensional eye model.

    PubMed

    Allen, Lauren K; Bhattacharyya, Siddhartha; Wilson, Timothy D

    2015-01-01

    The discrete anatomy of the eye's intricate oculomotor system is conceptually difficult for novice students to grasp. This is problematic given that this group of muscles represents one of the most common sites of clinical intervention in the treatment of ocular motility disorders and other eye disorders. This project was designed to develop a digital, interactive, three-dimensional (3D) model of the muscles and cranial nerves of the oculomotor system. Development of the 3D model utilized data from the Visible Human Project (VHP) dataset that was refined using multiple forms of 3D software. The model was then paired with a virtual user interface in order to create a novel 3D learning tool for the human oculomotor system. Development of the virtual eye model was done while attempting to adhere to the principles of cognitive load theory (CLT) and the reduction of extraneous load in particular. The detailed approach, digital tools employed, and the CLT guidelines are described herein.

  13. A Software Development Simulation Model of a Spiral Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizell, Carolyn; Malone, Linda

    2007-01-01

    There is a need for simulation models of software development processes other than the waterfall because processes such as spiral development are becoming more and more popular. The use of a spiral process can make the inherently difficult job of cost and schedule estimation even more challenging due to its evolutionary nature, but this allows for a more flexible process that can better meet customers' needs. This paper will present a discrete event simulation model of spiral development that can be used to analyze cost and schedule effects of using such a process in comparison to a waterfall process.

  14. Development of the Ball integrated telescope model (ITM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieber, Michael D.

    2002-07-01

    As the complexity of telescope systems have increased, system engineering trades related to cost and performance issues have become correspondingly complex. The traditional methodology for end-to-end system modeling depends upon focused analysis and data handoff between disciplines - aptly termed the "bucket brigade" approach. For the last 7 years, Ball Aerospace has supported development of an integrated modeling environment for telescope performance modeling and analysis. The Integrated Telescope Model (ITM), a realization of this effort, has been used on several current large telescope programs such as the VLT, NGST, TPF and MAXIM. It permits the user to do both time simulations and analytical work in the spatial/temporal frequency domains. The individual discipline models in structural dynamics, optics, controls, signal processing, detector physics and disturbance modeling are seamlessly integrated into one cohesive model to efficiently support system level trades and analysis. The core of the model is formed by the optical toolbox implemented in MATLAB and realized in object-oriented Simulink environment. Both geometric and physical optical models can be constructed and interfaced to disturbances and detection models. The geometric approach includes ray tracing for exact modeling or sensitivity matrices for rapid execution. Spectral, transmission and polarization information is carried with each ray. The physical optics modules do wavefront propagation for analyzing diffraction effects under either with coherent or incoherent conditions. Coupling of the static offset models, quasi-static thermal deformations and structural dynamics with an optical model allows one to view the full range of disturbance effects on the resulting PSF. This paper addresses the overall model architecture, considerations and issues related to model execution speed, complexity and model resolution/validity. Example of a recent use of the model is reviewed.

  15. Evaluation and further development of EASE model 2.0.

    PubMed

    Creely, K S; Tickner, J; Soutar, A J; Hughson, G W; Pryde, D E; Warren, N D; Rae, R; Money, C; Phillips, A; Cherrie, J W

    2005-03-01

    EASE (Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure) is a general model that may be used to predict workplace exposure to a wide range of substances hazardous to health. First developed in the early 1990s, it is now in its second Windows version. This paper provides a critical assessment of the utility and performance of the EASE model, and on the basis of this review, recommendations for the structure of a revised model are outlined. Twenty-seven stakeholders were interviewed about their previous use of EASE, perceived advantages and limitations of the model and suggestions for improvement. A subset of stakeholders was contacted on a second occasion to determine their views on the preferred outputs for an ideal exposure assessment model. Overall, stakeholders felt that the model should be updated to provide more accurate and precise exposure assessments. However, users also expressed the view that the simplicity and usability of the software model should not be compromised. Six studies investigating the validity of the inhalation exposure assessment section of EASE were identified. These showed that the model generally either predicted close to the measured exposures or overestimated exposure; though performance was highly variable. Two studies investigated the validity of the dermal exposure assessment and found that EASE produced considerable overestimates of actual dermal exposure (the amount of a substance that actually lands on the skin). A conceptual model of exposure was developed to investigate whether the structure of the EASE model is appropriate. Although EASE has a number of characteristics that describe exposure, it is a greatly simplified model and does not include all the important exposure determinants. More importantly, EASE can produce estimates of exposure that are ambiguous or incomplete. Our conceptual model may provide a rational basis for developing an improved version of EASE but further consultation is needed to decide the purpose and

  16. Aquilegia: a new model for plant development, ecology, and evolution.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Elena M

    2009-01-01

    The lower eudicot genus Aquilegia holds enormous potential for investigating aspects of development, ecology, and evolution that are otherwise unrepresented among existing model systems. Its evolutionary history is of particular interest because it represents a phylogenetic midpoint between models such as Arabidopsis and Oryza but, at the same time, has experienced a recent adaptive radiation within the genus. To take advantage of these features, a collaborative group has developed a number of genetic and genomic resources for Aquilegia that have facilitated the study of its distinct morphology. This work has demonstrated that although the petaloid sepals of Aquilegia do not depend on B-class genes for their identity, these loci do control development of the petals, stamens, and novel staminodium. Overall, Aquilegia stands as a key example of the potential utility and speed of developing new genetic model systems.

  17. Great Plains ASPEN model development: Phosam section. Final topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, S S; Kirman, J J

    1985-02-01

    An ASPEN model has been developed of the PHOSAM Section, Section 4600, of the Great Plains Gasification Plant. The bases for this model are the process description given in Section 6.18 of the Great Plains Project Management Plan and the Lummus Phosam Schematic Process Flow Diagram, Dwg. No. SKD-7102-IM-O. The ASPEN model that has been developed contains the complete set of components that are assumed to be in the gasifier effluent. The model is primarily a flowsheet simulation that will give the material and energy balance and equipment duties for a given set of process conditions. The model is unable to predict fully changes in process conditions that would result from load changes on equipment of fixed sizes, such as a rating model would predict. The model can be used to simulate the steady-state operation of the plant at or near design conditions or to design other PHOSAM units. Because of the limited amount of process information that was available, several major process assumptions had to be made in the development of the flowsheet model. Patent literature was consulted to establish the ammonia concentration in the circulating fluid. Case studies were made with the ammonia content of the feed 25% higher and 25% lower than the base feed. Results of these runs show slightly lower recoveries of ammonia with less ammonia in the feed. As expected, the duties of the Stripper and Fractionator reboilers were higher with more ammonia in the feed. 63 references.

  18. Three-dimensional developing flow model for photocatalytic monolith reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Md.M.; Raupp, G.B.; Hay, S.O.; Obee, T.N.

    1999-06-01

    A first-principles mathematical model describes performance of a titania-coated honeycomb monolith photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) reactor for air purification. The single-channel, 3-D convection-diffusion-reaction model assumes steady-state operation, negligible axial dispersion, and negligible homogeneous reaction. The reactor model accounts rigorously for entrance effects arising from the developing fluid-flow field and uses a previously developed first-principles radiation-field submodel for the UV flux profile down the monolith length. The model requires specification of an intrinsic photocatalytic reaction rate dependent on local UV light intensity and local reactant concentration, and uses reaction-rate expressions and kinetic parameters determined independently using a flat-plate reactor. Model predictions matched experimental pilot-scale formaldehyde conversion measurements for a range of inlet formaldehyde concentrations, air humidity levels, monolith lengths, and for various monolith/lamp-bank configurations. This agreement was realized without benefit of any adjustable photocatalytic reactor model parameters, radiation-field submodel parameters, or kinetic submodel parameters. The model tends to systematically overpredict toluene conversion data by about 33%, which falls within the accepted limits of experimental kinetic parameter accuracy. With further validation, the model could be used in PCO reactor design and to develop quantitative energy utilization metrics.

  19. Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) Model Development: Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Power management and distribution (PMAD) models were developed in the early 1990's to model candidate architectures for various Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions. They were used to generate "ballpark" component mass estimates to support conceptual PMAD system design studies. The initial set of models was provided to NASA Lewis Research Center (since renamed Glenn Research Center) in 1992. They were developed to estimate the characteristics of power conditioning components predicted to be available in the 2005 timeframe. Early 90's component and device designs and material technologies were projected forward to the 2005 timeframe, and algorithms reflecting those design and material improvements were incorporated into the models to generate mass, volume, and efficiency estimates for circa 2005 components. The models are about ten years old now and NASA GRC requested a review of them to determine if they should be updated to bring them into agreement with current performance projections or to incorporate unforeseen design or technology advances. This report documents the results of this review and the updated power conditioning models and new transmission line models generated to estimate post 2005 PMAD system masses and sizes. This effort continues the expansion and enhancement of a library of PMAD models developed to allow system designers to assess future power system architectures and distribution techniques quickly and consistently.

  20. Development of seating accommodation models for soldiers in vehicles.

    PubMed

    Zerehsaz, Yaser; Jin, Jionghua Judy; Ebert, Sheila M; Reed, Matthew P

    2017-04-01

    Data from a previous study of soldier driving postures and seating positions were analysed to develop statistical models for defining accommodation of driver seating positions in military vehicles. Regression models were created for seating accommodation applicable to driver positions with a fixed heel point and a range of steering wheel locations in typical tactical vehicles. The models predict the driver-selected seat position as a function of population anthropometry and vehicle layout. These models are the first driver accommodation models considering the effects of body armor and body-borne gear. The obtained results can benefit the design of military vehicles, and the methods can also be extended to be utilised in the development of seating accommodation models for other driving environments where protective equipment affects driver seating posture, such as vehicles used by law-enforcement officers and firefighters. Practitioner Summary: A large-scale laboratory study of soldier driving posture and seating position was designed to focus on tactical vehicle (truck) designs. Regression techniques are utilised to develop accommodation models suitable for tactical vehicles. These are the first seating accommodation models based on soldier data to consider the effects of personal protective equipment and body-borne gear.

  1. Analysis of an algae-based CELSS. I - Model development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Little, Frank E.; Makela, Merry E.; Patterson, C. O.

    1989-01-01

    A steady state chemical model and computer program have been developed for a life support system and applied to trade-off studies. The model is based on human demand for food and oxygen determined from crew metabolic needs. The model includes modules for water recycle, waste treatment, CO2 removal and treatment, and food production. The computer program calculates rates of use and material balance for food, O2, the recycle of human waste and trash, H2O, N2, and food production/supply. A simple noniterative solution for the model has been developed using the steady state rate equations for the chemical reactions. The model and program have been used in system sizing and subsystem trade-off studies of a partially closed life support system.

  2. Development of a Constitutive Model of Polypropylene for Thermoforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, C.; Martin, P.; Menary, G.; Sweeney, J.; Caton-Rose, P.; Spencer, P.

    2011-05-01

    In this paper the authors outline a constitutive model, implemented within finite element analyses, which was developed for large deformation, high temperature multi-axial stretching of polypropylenes. The model has been generalised to a fully 3-dimensional thermally coupled form. The paper describes how model parameters were characterised using constant width, biaxial and sequential stretching of polypropylenes at elevated temperature using a custom built flexible biaxial stretching machine developed at Queen's University Belfast. The paper presents results of finite element model predictions of material stretching behaviour compared to range of physical experiments. The results presented in the paper confirm that this model is very effective in predicting the complex thermo-mechanical behaviours of polypropylenes at elevated temperatures.

  3. On the Development of Parameterized Linear Analytical Longitudinal Airship Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulczycki, Eric A.; Johnson, Joseph R.; Bayard, David S.; Elfes, Alberto; Quadrelli, Marco B.

    2008-01-01

    In order to explore Titan, a moon of Saturn, airships must be able to traverse the atmosphere autonomously. To achieve this, an accurate model and accurate control of the vehicle must be developed so that it is understood how the airship will react to specific sets of control inputs. This paper explains how longitudinal aircraft stability derivatives can be used with airship parameters to create a linear model of the airship solely by combining geometric and aerodynamic airship data. This method does not require system identification of the vehicle. All of the required data can be derived from computational fluid dynamics and wind tunnel testing. This alternate method of developing dynamic airship models will reduce time and cost. Results are compared to other stable airship dynamic models to validate the methods. Future work will address a lateral airship model using the same methods.

  4. Infrared model development for a high-speed imaging fuze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbo, Dennis L.; Olson, Eric M.; Crow, Dennis R.; Coker, Charles F.; Cunard, Donald A.

    1998-07-01

    Development and generation of high-fidelity IR scenes to support testing requirements at the Kinetic Kill Vehicle Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulator (KHILS) facility at Eglin AFB, Florida has been the mission for the Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL) scene generation team throughout the past ten years. During that time scene generation efforts have supported operational scenarios ranging from surveillance through terminal homing. Recent programs have required the development of IR target and background models to support the testing needs of a high-speed fuze. Development of IR models and techniques to support high-speed fuze applications required advancing the state-of-the-art in IR scene generation. This effort required the development of several target models not available from other sources. In addition, due to the unusual proximity fuze seeker configuration that utilizes a wide angle lens to encompass a full 360 degree field-of-view (FOV) and very fast frame rate requirements, normal scene generation techniques were not adequate. Hundreds of scenarios consisting of hundreds of image frames were needed to develop the fuzing algorithms. This scene generation requirement necessitated that realistic scene sequences be produced in minutes rather than hours. This paper discusses the IR model development path to generate IR scene sequences to support the algorithm development for this fuzing program. The discussion describes the process and unique modeling techniques that were implemented to build foreign target models that include fighter and bomber aircraft, low-flying cruise missiles, and helicopters. Implementation of appropriate rendering techniques to support the generation of backgrounds that include atmospherics, terrain, and sea for realistic target engagements are also discussed. Finally, a description of the process utilized in merging IR model and commercial hardware solutions to satisfy the IR scene generation requirements for this program is presented.

  5. Recent Developments on the Turbulence Modeling Resource Website (Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumssey, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Langley Turbulence Model Resource (TMR) website has been active for over five years. Its main goal of providing a one-stop, easily accessible internet site for up-to-date information on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence models remains unchanged. In particular, the site strives to provide an easy way for users to verify their own implementations of widely-used turbulence models, and to compare the results from different models for a variety of simple unit problems covering a range of flow physics. Some new features have been recently added to the website. This paper documents the site's features, including recent developments, future plans, and open questions.

  6. Development and Application of Nonlinear Land-Use Regression Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champendal, Alexandre; Kanevski, Mikhail; Huguenot, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    The problem of air pollution modelling in urban zones is of great importance both from scientific and applied points of view. At present there are several fundamental approaches either based on science-based modelling (air pollution dispersion) or on the application of space-time geostatistical methods (e.g. family of kriging models or conditional stochastic simulations). Recently, there were important developments in so-called Land Use Regression (LUR) models. These models take into account geospatial information (e.g. traffic network, sources of pollution, average traffic, population census, land use, etc.) at different scales, for example, using buffering operations. Usually the dimension of the input space (number of independent variables) is within the range of (10-100). It was shown that LUR models have some potential to model complex and highly variable patterns of air pollution in urban zones. Most of LUR models currently used are linear models. In the present research the nonlinear LUR models are developed and applied for Geneva city. Mainly two nonlinear data-driven models were elaborated: multilayer perceptron and random forest. An important part of the research deals also with a comprehensive exploratory data analysis using statistical, geostatistical and time series tools. Unsupervised self-organizing maps were applied to better understand space-time patterns of the pollution. The real data case study deals with spatial-temporal air pollution data of Geneva (2002-2011). Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) has caught our attention. It has effects on human health and on plants; NO2 contributes to the phenomenon of acid rain. The negative effects of nitrogen dioxides on plants are the reduction of the growth, production and pesticide resistance. And finally, the effects on materials: nitrogen dioxide increases the corrosion. The data used for this study consist of a set of 106 NO2 passive sensors. 80 were used to build the models and the remaining 36 have constituted

  7. Development of numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    P. Dobson

    2004-08-31

    This report describes the methods used to develop numerical grids of the unsaturated hydrogeologic system beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Numerical grid generation is an integral part of the development of the unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport model, a complex, three-dimensional (3-D) model of Yucca Mountain. This revision contains changes made to improve the clarity of the description of grid generation. The numerical grids, developed using current geologic, hydrogeologic, and mineralogic data, provide the necessary framework to: (1) develop calibrated hydrogeologic property sets and flow fields, (2) test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport, and (3) predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic and thermal-loading conditions. The technical scope, content, and management for the current revision of this report are described in the planning document ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 2). Grids generated and documented in this report supersede those documented in Revision 00 of this report, ''Development of Numerical Grids for UZ Flow and Transport Modeling'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 159356]). The grids presented in this report are the same as those developed in Revision 01 (BSC 2003 [DIRS 160109]); however, the documentation of the development of the grids in Revision 02 has been updated to address technical inconsistencies and achieve greater transparency, readability, and traceability. The constraints, assumptions, and limitations associated with this report are discussed in the appropriate sections that follow.

  8. Investigation on the Practicality of Developing Reduced Thermal Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lombardi, Giancarlo; Yang, Kan

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the spacecraft design and development process, detailed instrument thermal models are created to simulate their on-orbit behavior and to ensure that they do not exceed any thermal limits. These detailed models, while generating highly accurate predictions, can sometimes lead to long simulation run times, especially when integrated with a spacecraft observatory model. Therefore, reduced models containing less detail are typically produced in tandem with the detailed models so that results may be more readily available, albeit less accurate. In the current study, both reduced and detailed instrument models are integrated with their associated spacecraft bus models to examine the impact of instrument model reduction on run time and accuracy. Preexisting instrument bus thermal model pairs from several projects were used to determine trends between detailed and reduced thermal models; namely, the Mirror Optical Bench (MOB) on the Gravity and Extreme Magnetism Small Explorer (GEMS) spacecraft, Advanced Topography Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) on the Ice, Cloud, and Elevation Satellite 2 (ICESat-2), and the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE). Hot and cold cases were run for each model to capture the behavior of the models at both thermal extremes. It was found that, though decreasing the number of nodes from a detailed to reduced model brought about a reduction in the run-time, a large time savings was not observed, nor was it a linear relationship between the percentage of nodes reduced and time saved. However, significant losses in accuracy were observed with greater model reduction. It was found that while reduced models are useful in decreasing run time, there exists a threshold of reduction where, once exceeded, the loss in accuracy outweighs the benefit from reduced model runtime.

  9. Hydraulic modeling development and application in water resources engineering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simoes, Francisco J.; Yang, Chih Ted; Wang, Lawrence K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of modeling has become widespread in water resources engineering and science to study rivers, lakes, estuaries, and coastal regions. For example, computer models are commonly used to forecast anthropogenic effects on the environment, and to help provide advanced mitigation measures against catastrophic events such as natural and dam-break floods. Linking hydraulic models to vegetation and habitat models has expanded their use in multidisciplinary applications to the riparian corridor. Implementation of these models in software packages on personal desktop computers has made them accessible to the general engineering community, and their use has been popularized by the need of minimal training due to intuitive graphical user interface front ends. Models are, however, complex and nontrivial, to the extent that even common terminology is sometimes ambiguous and often applied incorrectly. In fact, many efforts are currently under way in order to standardize terminology and offer guidelines for good practice, but none has yet reached unanimous acceptance. This chapter provides a view of the elements involved in modeling surface flows for the application in environmental water resources engineering. It presents the concepts and steps necessary for rational model development and use by starting with the exploration of the ideas involved in defining a model. Tangible form of those ideas is provided by the development of a mathematical and corresponding numerical hydraulic model, which is given with a substantial amount of detail. The issues of model deployment in a practical and productive work environment are also addressed. The chapter ends by presenting a few model applications highlighting the need for good quality control in model validation.

  10. Using animal models to develop therapeutics for Tourette Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Swerdlow, Neal R; Sutherland, Ashley N

    2005-12-01

    The science of Tourette Syndrome (TS) is advancing at multiple levels of analysis and will be enhanced through the use of animal models. Particular challenges in the development of TS animal models reflect complex features of this disorder, including its waxing and waning course and its "invisible" sensory and psychic symptoms. Animal models can achieve face, predictive, or construct validity based on their particular features. Predictive validity, of most direct relevance to drug development for TS, is achieved to some degree by a several animal models, although the reliance of most of these models on measures of motor suppression may ultimately limit their utility. Other models achieve construct validity with proposed pathophysiological mechanisms related to the immune and neural circuit etiologies of TS. One model-deficient sensorimotor gating of the startle reflex-is discussed in terms of its present and future applications towards advancing our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of TS. In addition to models that will advance the pharmacotherapy of TS, other animal models may enhance the utility of nonpharmacologic TS treatments, ranging from behavior therapy to deep brain stimulation (DBS).

  11. Development of PBPK Models for Gasoline in Adult and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Concern for potential developmental effects of exposure to gasoline-ethanol blends has grown along with their increased use in the US fuel supply. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for these complex mixtures were developed to address dosimetric issues related to selection of exposure concentrations for in vivo toxicity studies. Sub-models for individual hydrocarbon (HC) constituents were first developed and calibrated with published literature or QSAR-derived data where available. Successfully calibrated sub-models for individual HCs were combined, assuming competitive metabolic inhibition in the liver, and a priori simulations of mixture interactions were performed. Blood HC concentration data were collected from exposed adult non-pregnant (NP) rats (9K ppm total HC vapor, 6h/day) to evaluate performance of the NP mixture model. This model was then converted to a pregnant (PG) rat mixture model using gestational growth equations that enabled a priori estimation of life-stage specific kinetic differences. To address the impact of changing relevant physiological parameters from NP to PG, the PG mixture model was first calibrated against the NP data. The PG mixture model was then evaluated against data from PG rats that were subsequently exposed (9K ppm/6.33h gestation days (GD) 9-20). Overall, the mixture models adequately simulated concentrations of HCs in blood from single (NP) or repeated (PG) exposures (within ~2-3 fold of measured values of

  12. Modeling of Biomass Plug Development and Propagation in Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Terri L.; Kim, Dong-Shik

    2004-02-01

    Biomass accumulation and evolution in porous media were simulated using a combination of biofilm evolution model and a biofilm removal model. Theses models describe biomass plug development, removal, and propagation in biological applications such as microbial enhanced oil recovery, in situ bioremediation, and bio-barrier techniques. The biofilm evolution model includes the cell growth rate and exopolymer production kinetics. The biofilm removal model was used for describing the biomass plug propagation and channel breakthrough using Bingham yield stress of biofilm, which represents the stability of biofilm against shear stress. Network model was used to describe a porous medium. The network model consists of pore body and pore bond of which the sizes were determined based on the pore size distribution of ceramic cores. The pressure drop across the network is assumed to be generated from pore bonds only, and the cell growth and biomass accumulation took place in pore bonds. The simulation results showed that the biofilm models based on Bingham yield stress predicted the biomass accumulation and channel breakthrough well. The pressure oscillation (or, permeability oscillation) was also demonstrated well indicating the process of biomass accumulation and breakthrough channel formation. In addition, the effects of cell and biofilm sucrose concentration were significant on the biomass plug development and permeability reduction rates. The modeling elucidated some deficiencies in our knowledge of the biomass yield stress that enables us to predict the stability of biomass plug against shear stress.

  13. Model developer`s appendix to the model documentation report: NEMS macroeconomic activity module

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-15

    The NEMS Macroeconomic Activity Module (MAM) tested here was used to generate the Annual Energy Outlook 1994 (AEO94). MAM is a response surface model, not a structural model, composed of three submodules: the National Submodule, the Interindustry Submodule, and the Regional Submodule. Contents of this report are as follows: properties of the mathematical solution; NEMS MAM empirical basis; and scenario analysis. Scenario analysis covers: expectations for scenario analysis; historical world oil price scenario; AEO94 high world oil price scenario; AEO94 low world oil price scenario; and immediate increase world oil price scenario.

  14. The development model of software product line based AOP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, JingHai

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we proposed a development model of MIS (management information system) software based aspect-oriented programming. MIS software will be the full separation of concerns, and establish corresponding platform-independent model, the dynamic weaving of aspects does not require all the static or fixed in weaver weaving in specific areas and at the same time Optimization, reducing system complexity and improve software development efficiency and speed. While the description and implementation of all aspects of the software industry chain assigned to the various levels of development team to complete, MIS can help resolve the current heavy workload of the software development process, low developing level, low software reuse rate, more duplication work of effort Problems.

  15. Development of Animal Models of Human IgA Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Yusuke; Novak, Jan; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis in the world. IgAN is characterized by the mesangial accumulation of immune complexes containing IgA1, usually with co-deposits of complement C3 and variable IgG and/or IgM. Although more than 40 years have passed since IgAN was first described, the mechanisms underlying the disease development are not fully understood. Small-animal experimental models of IgAN can be very helpful in studies of IgAN, but development of these models has been hindered by the fact that only humans and hominoid primates have IgA1 subclass. Thus, multiple models have been developed, that may be helpful in studies of some specific aspects of IgAN. These models include a spontaneous animal model of IgAN, the ddY mouse first reported in 1985. These mice show mild proteinuria without hematuria, and glomerular IgA deposits, with a highly variable incidence and degree of glomerular injury, due to the heterogeneous genetic background. To obtain a murine line consistently developing IgAN, we intercrossed an earlyonset group of ddY mice, in which the development of IgAN includes mesangial IgA deposits and glomerular injury. After selective intercrossing for >20 generations, we established a novel 100% early-onset grouped ddY murine model. All grouped ddY mice develop proteinuria within eight weeks of age. The grouped ddY mouse model can be a useful tool for analysis of multiple aspects of the pathogenesis of IgAN and may aid in assessment of some approaches for the treatment of IgAN. PMID:25722731

  16. Development and Validation of a 3-Dimensional CFB Furnace Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vepsäläinen, Arl; Myöhänen, Karl; Hyppäneni, Timo; Leino, Timo; Tourunen, Antti

    At Foster Wheeler, a three-dimensional CFB furnace model is essential part of knowledge development of CFB furnace process regarding solid mixing, combustion, emission formation and heat transfer. Results of laboratory and pilot scale phenomenon research are utilized in development of sub-models. Analyses of field-test results in industrial-scale CFB boilers including furnace profile measurements are simultaneously carried out with development of 3-dimensional process modeling, which provides a chain of knowledge that is utilized as feedback for phenomenon research. Knowledge gathered by model validation studies and up-to-date parameter databases are utilized in performance prediction and design development of CFB boiler furnaces. This paper reports recent development steps related to modeling of combustion and formation of char and volatiles of various fuel types in CFB conditions. Also a new model for predicting the formation of nitrogen oxides is presented. Validation of mixing and combustion parameters for solids and gases are based on test balances at several large-scale CFB boilers combusting coal, peat and bio-fuels. Field-tests including lateral and vertical furnace profile measurements and characterization of solid materials provides a window for characterization of fuel specific mixing and combustion behavior in CFB furnace at different loads and operation conditions. Measured horizontal gas profiles are projection of balance between fuel mixing and reactions at lower part of furnace and are used together with both lateral temperature profiles at bed and upper parts of furnace for determination of solid mixing and combustion model parameters. Modeling of char and volatile based formation of NO profiles is followed by analysis of oxidizing and reducing regions formed due lower furnace design and mixing characteristics of fuel and combustion airs effecting to formation ofNO furnace profile by reduction and volatile-nitrogen reactions. This paper presents

  17. Dependability modeling and assessment in UML-based software development.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Simona; Merseguer, José; Petriu, Dorina C

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of software nonfunctional properties (NFP) is an important problem in software development. In the context of model-driven development, an emerging approach for the analysis of different NFPs consists of the following steps: (a) to extend the software models with annotations describing the NFP of interest; (b) to transform automatically the annotated software model to the formalism chosen for NFP analysis; (c) to analyze the formal model using existing solvers; (d) to assess the software based on the results and give feedback to designers. Such a modeling→analysis→assessment approach can be applied to any software modeling language, be it general purpose or domain specific. In this paper, we focus on UML-based development and on the dependability NFP, which encompasses reliability, availability, safety, integrity, and maintainability. The paper presents the profile used to extend UML with dependability information, the model transformation to generate a DSPN formal model, and the assessment of the system properties based on the DSPN results.

  18. Dependability Modeling and Assessment in UML-Based Software Development

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Simona; Merseguer, José; Petriu, Dorina C.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of software nonfunctional properties (NFP) is an important problem in software development. In the context of model-driven development, an emerging approach for the analysis of different NFPs consists of the following steps: (a) to extend the software models with annotations describing the NFP of interest; (b) to transform automatically the annotated software model to the formalism chosen for NFP analysis; (c) to analyze the formal model using existing solvers; (d) to assess the software based on the results and give feedback to designers. Such a modeling→analysis→assessment approach can be applied to any software modeling language, be it general purpose or domain specific. In this paper, we focus on UML-based development and on the dependability NFP, which encompasses reliability, availability, safety, integrity, and maintainability. The paper presents the profile used to extend UML with dependability information, the model transformation to generate a DSPN formal model, and the assessment of the system properties based on the DSPN results. PMID:22988428

  19. Protein adsorption on nanoparticles: model development using computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Qing; Hall, Carol K.

    2016-10-01

    The adsorption of proteins on nanoparticles results in the formation of the protein corona, the composition of which determines how nanoparticles influence their biological surroundings. We seek to better understand corona formation by developing models that describe protein adsorption on nanoparticles using computer simulation results as data. Using a coarse-grained protein model, discontinuous molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to investigate the adsorption of two small proteins (Trp-cage and WW domain) on a model nanoparticle of diameter 10.0 nm at protein concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 5 mM. The resulting adsorption isotherms are well described by the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Kiselev models, but not by the Elovich, Fowler-Guggenheim and Hill-de Boer models. We also try to develop a generalized model that can describe protein adsorption equilibrium on nanoparticles of different diameters in terms of dimensionless size parameters. The simulation results for three proteins (Trp-cage, WW domain, and GB3) on four nanoparticles (diameter  =  5.0, 10.0, 15.0, and 20.0 nm) illustrate both the promise and the challenge associated with developing generalized models of protein adsorption on nanoparticles.

  20. Development and testing of a mouse simulated space flight model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1985-01-01

    The development and testing of a mouse model for simulating some aspects of weightlessness that occur during space flight, and the carrying out of immunological flight experiments on animals was discussed. The mouse model is an antiorthostatic, hypokinetic, hypodynamic suspension model similar to the one used with rats. It is shown that this murine model yield similar results to the rat model of antiorthostatic suspension for simulating some aspects of weightlessness. It is also shown that mice suspended in this model have decreased interferon-alpha/beta production as compared to control, nonsuspended mice or to orthostatically suspended mice. It is suggested that the conditions occuring during space flight could possibly affect interferon production. The regulatory role of interferon in nonviral diseases is demonstrated including several bacterial and protozoan infections indicating the great significance of interferon in resistance to many types of infectious diseases.

  1. Development of a bioenergetics model for age-0 American Shad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauter, Sally T.

    2011-01-01

    Bioenergetics modeling can be used as a tool to investigate the impact of non-native age-0 American shad (Alosa sapidissima) on reservoir and estuary food webs. The model can increase our understanding of how these fish influence lower trophic levels as well as predatory fish populations that feed on juvenile salmonids. Bioenergetics modeling can be used to investigate ecological processes, evaluate alternative research hypotheses, provide decision support, and quantitative prediction. Bioenergetics modeling has proven to be extremely useful in fisheries research (Ney et al. 1993,Chips and Wahl 2008, Petersen et al. 2008). If growth and diet parameters are known, the bioenergetics model can be used to quantify the relative amount of zooplankton or insects consumed by age-0 American shad. When linked with spatial and temporal information on fish abundance, model output can guide inferential hypothesis development to demonstrate where the greatest impacts of age-0 American shad might occur.

  2. Development of SPAWM: selection program for available watershed models.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yongdeok; Roesner, Larry A

    2014-01-01

    A selection program for available watershed models (also known as SPAWM) was developed. Thirty-three commonly used watershed models were analyzed in depth and classified in accordance to their attributes. These attributes consist of: (1) land use; (2) event or continuous; (3) time steps; (4) water quality; (5) distributed or lumped; (6) subsurface; (7) overland sediment; and (8) best management practices. Each of these attributes was further classified into sub-attributes. Based on user selected sub-attributes, the most appropriate watershed model is selected from the library of watershed models. SPAWM is implemented using Excel Visual Basic and is designed for use by novices as well as by experts on watershed modeling. It ensures that the necessary sub-attributes required by the user are captured and made available in the selected watershed model.

  3. Energy standards and model codes development, adoption, implementation, and enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    This report provides an overview of the energy standards and model codes process for the voluntary sector within the United States. The report was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Building Energy Standards Program and is intended to be used as a primer or reference on this process. Building standards and model codes that address energy have been developed by organizations in the voluntary sector since the early 1970s. These standards and model codes provide minimum energy-efficient design and construction requirements for new buildings and, in some instances, existing buildings. The first step in the process is developing new or revising existing standards or codes. There are two overall differences between standards and codes. Energy standards are developed by a consensus process and are revised as needed. Model codes are revised on a regular annual cycle through a public hearing process. In addition to these overall differences, the specific steps in developing/revising energy standards differ from model codes. These energy standards or model codes are then available for adoption by states and local governments. Typically, energy standards are adopted by or adopted into model codes. Model codes are in turn adopted by states through either legislation or regulation. Enforcement is essential to the implementation of energy standards and model codes. Low-rise residential construction is generally evaluated for compliance at the local level, whereas state agencies tend to be more involved with other types of buildings. Low-rise residential buildings also may be more easily evaluated for compliance because the governing requirements tend to be less complex than for commercial buildings.

  4. Models, measurement, and strategies in developing critical-thinking skills.

    PubMed

    Brunt, Barbara A

    2005-01-01

    Health care professionals must use critical-thinking skills to solve increasingly complex problems. Educators need to help nurses develop their critical-thinking skills to maintain and enhance their competence. This article reviews various models of critical thinking, as well as methods used to evaluate critical thinking. Specific educational strategies to develop nurses' critical-thinking skills are discussed. Additional research studies are needed to determine how the process of nursing practice can nurture and develop critical-thinking skills, and which strategies are most effective in developing and evaluating critical thinking.

  5. Relational grounding facilitates development of scientifically useful multiscale models

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We review grounding issues that influence the scientific usefulness of any biomedical multiscale model (MSM). Groundings are the collection of units, dimensions, and/or objects to which a variable or model constituent refers. To date, models that primarily use continuous mathematics rely heavily on absolute grounding, whereas those that primarily use discrete software paradigms (e.g., object-oriented, agent-based, actor) typically employ relational grounding. We review grounding issues and identify strategies to address them. We maintain that grounding issues should be addressed at the start of any MSM project and should be reevaluated throughout the model development process. We make the following points. Grounding decisions influence model flexibility, adaptability, and thus reusability. Grounding choices should be influenced by measures, uncertainty, system information, and the nature of available validation data. Absolute grounding complicates the process of combining models to form larger models unless all are grounded absolutely. Relational grounding facilitates referent knowledge embodiment within computational mechanisms but requires separate model-to-referent mappings. Absolute grounding can simplify integration by forcing common units and, hence, a common integration target, but context change may require model reengineering. Relational grounding enables synthesis of large, composite (multi-module) models that can be robust to context changes. Because biological components have varying degrees of autonomy, corresponding components in MSMs need to do the same. Relational grounding facilitates achieving such autonomy. Biomimetic analogues designed to facilitate translational research and development must have long lifecycles. Exploring mechanisms of normal-to-disease transition requires model components that are grounded relationally. Multi-paradigm modeling requires both hyperspatial and relational grounding. PMID:21951817

  6. Engine System Model Development for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Karl W.; Simpson, Steven P.

    2006-01-01

    In order to design, analyze, and evaluate conceptual Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) engine systems, an improved NTP design and analysis tool has been developed. The NTP tool utilizes the Rocket Engine Transient Simulation (ROCETS) system tool and many of the routines from the Enabler reactor model found in Nuclear Engine System Simulation (NESS). Improved non-nuclear component models and an external shield model were added to the tool. With the addition of a nearly complete system reliability model, the tool will provide performance, sizing, and reliability data for NERVA-Derived NTP engine systems. A new detailed reactor model is also being developed and will replace Enabler. The new model will allow more flexibility in reactor geometry and include detailed thermal hydraulics and neutronics models. A description of the reactor, component, and reliability models is provided. Another key feature of the modeling process is the use of comprehensive spreadsheets for each engine case. The spreadsheets include individual worksheets for each subsystem with data, plots, and scaled figures, making the output very useful to each engineering discipline. Sample performance and sizing results with the Enabler reactor model are provided including sensitivities. Before selecting an engine design, all figures of merit must be considered including the overall impacts on the vehicle and mission. Evaluations based on key figures of merit of these results and results with the new reactor model will be performed. The impacts of clustering and external shielding will also be addressed. Over time, the reactor model will be upgraded to design and analyze other NTP concepts with CERMET and carbide fuel cores.

  7. The Development in modeling Tibetan Plateau Land/Climate Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Yongkang; Liu, Ye; li, qian; Maheswor Shrestha, Maheswor; Ma, Hsi-Yen; Cox, Peter; Sun, shufen; Koike, Toshio

    2015-04-01

    Tibetan Plateau (TP) plays an important role in influencing the continental and planetary scale climate, including East Asian and South Asian monsoon, circulation and precipitation over West Pacific and Indian Oceans. The numerical study has identified TP as the area with strongest land/atmosphere interactions over the midlatitude land. The land degradation there has also affected the monsoon precipitation in TP along the monsoon pathway. The water cycle there affects water sources for major Asian river systems, which include the Tarim, Amu Darya, Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy, Salween, Mekong, Yellow, and Yangtze Rivers. Despite the importance of TP land process in the climate system, the TP land surface processes are poorly modeled due to lack of data available for model validation. To better understand, simulate, and project the role of Tibetan Plateau land surface processes, better parameterization of the Tibetan Land surface processes have been developed and evaluated. The recently available field measurement there and satellite observation have greatly helped this development. This paper presents these new developments and preliminary results using the newly developed biophysical/dynamic vegetation model, frozen soil model, and glacier model. In recent CMIP5 simulation, the CMIP5 models with dynamic vegetation model show poor performance in simulating the TP vegetation and climate. To better simulate the TP vegetation condition and its interaction with climate, we have developed biophysical/dynamic vegetation model, the Simplified Simple Biosphere Model version 4/Top-down Representation of Interactive Foliage and Flora Including Dynamics Model (SSiB4/TRIFFID), based on water, carbon, and energy balance. The simulated vegetation variables are updates, driven by carbon assimilation, allocation, and accumulation, as well as competition between plant functional types. The model has been validated with the station data, including those measured over the TP

  8. Model for Simulating a Spiral Software-Development Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizell, Carolyn; Curley, Charles; Nayak, Umanath

    2010-01-01

    A discrete-event simulation model, and a computer program that implements the model, have been developed as means of analyzing a spiral software-development process. This model can be tailored to specific development environments for use by software project managers in making quantitative cases for deciding among different software-development processes, courses of action, and cost estimates. A spiral process can be contrasted with a waterfall process, which is a traditional process that consists of a sequence of activities that include analysis of requirements, design, coding, testing, and support. A spiral process is an iterative process that can be regarded as a repeating modified waterfall process. Each iteration includes assessment of risk, analysis of requirements, design, coding, testing, delivery, and evaluation. A key difference between a spiral and a waterfall process is that a spiral process can accommodate changes in requirements at each iteration, whereas in a waterfall process, requirements are considered to be fixed from the beginning and, therefore, a waterfall process is not flexible enough for some projects, especially those in which requirements are not known at the beginning or may change during development. For a given project, a spiral process may cost more and take more time than does a waterfall process, but may better satisfy a customer's expectations and needs. Models for simulating various waterfall processes have been developed previously, but until now, there have been no models for simulating spiral processes. The present spiral-process-simulating model and the software that implements it were developed by extending a discrete-event simulation process model of the IEEE 12207 Software Development Process, which was built using commercially available software known as the Process Analysis Tradeoff Tool (PATT). Typical inputs to PATT models include industry-average values of product size (expressed as number of lines of code

  9. Plant hormone signaling during development: insights from computational models.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Marina; Farcot, Etienne; Vernoux, Teva

    2013-02-01

    Recent years have seen an impressive increase in our knowledge of the topology of plant hormone signaling networks. The complexity of these topologies has motivated the development of models for several hormones to aid understanding of how signaling networks process hormonal inputs. Such work has generated essential insights into the mechanisms of hormone perception and of regulation of cellular responses such as transcription in response to hormones. In addition, modeling approaches have contributed significantly to exploring how spatio-temporal regulation of hormone signaling contributes to plant growth and patterning. New tools have also been developed to obtain quantitative information on hormone distribution during development and to test model predictions, opening the way for quantitative understanding of the developmental roles of hormones.

  10. Development of a Bayesian Belief Network Runway Incursion Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    In a previous paper, a statistical analysis of runway incursion (RI) events was conducted to ascertain their relevance to the top ten Technical Challenges (TC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). The study revealed connections to perhaps several of the AvSP top ten TC. That data also identified several primary causes and contributing factors for RI events that served as the basis for developing a system-level Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model for RI events. The system-level BBN model will allow NASA to generically model the causes of RI events and to assess the effectiveness of technology products being developed under NASA funding. These products are intended to reduce the frequency of RI events in particular, and to improve runway safety in general. The development, structure and assessment of that BBN for RI events by a Subject Matter Expert panel are documented in this paper.

  11. Modeling, Measurements, and Fundamental Database Development for Nonequilibrium Hypersonic Aerothermodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    The design of entry vehicles requires predictions of aerothermal environment during the hypersonic phase of their flight trajectories. These predictions are made using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes that often rely on physics and chemistry models of nonequilibrium processes. The primary processes of interest are gas phase chemistry, internal energy relaxation, electronic excitation, nonequilibrium emission and absorption of radiation, and gas-surface interaction leading to surface recession and catalytic recombination. NASAs Hypersonics Project is advancing the state-of-the-art in modeling of nonequilibrium phenomena by making detailed spectroscopic measurements in shock tube and arcjets, using ab-initio quantum mechanical techniques develop fundamental chemistry and spectroscopic databases, making fundamental measurements of finite-rate gas surface interactions, implementing of detailed mechanisms in the state-of-the-art CFD codes, The development of new models is based on validation with relevant experiments. We will present the latest developments and a roadmap for the technical areas mentioned above

  12. Use of animal models to develop antiaddiction medications.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Eliot L

    2008-10-01

    Although addiction is a uniquely human phenomenon, some of its pathognomonic features can be modeled at the animal level. Such features include the euphoric "high" produced by acute administration of addictive drugs; the dysphoric "crash" produced by acute withdrawal; drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors; and relapse to drug-seeking behavior after achieving successful abstinence. Animal models exist for each of these features. In this review, I focus on various animal models of addiction and how they can be used to search for clinically effective antiaddiction medications. I conclude by noting some of the new and novel medications that have been developed preclinically using such models and the hope for further developments along such lines.

  13. Modeling and managing risk early in software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briand, Lionel C.; Thomas, William M.; Hetmanski, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of the software development process, we need to be able to build empirical multivariate models based on data collectable early in the software process. These models need to be both useful for prediction and easy to interpret, so that remedial actions may be taken in order to control and optimize the development process. We present an automated modeling technique which can be used as an alternative to regression techniques. We show how it can be used to facilitate the identification and aid the interpretation of the significant trends which characterize 'high risk' components in several Ada systems. Finally, we evaluate the effectiveness of our technique based on a comparison with logistic regression based models.

  14. Development of an electrical model for integrated magnetic inductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechir, M. B.; Yaya, D. D.; Youssouf, M. K.; Soultan, M.; Capraro, S.; Siblini, A.; Chatelon, J. P.; Rousseau, J. J.

    2014-07-01

    Nowadays, the current trend consists in the development of new technologies with the aim of reducing volume, weight as well as production cost. With the aim of decreasing occupied component area, it will be interesting to use magnetic materials to confine the fields. Therefore, our works concern the modelling and the characterization of magnetic planar inductors. The proposed model is detailed for inductors fabricated with one magnetic layer. The model can take into account, the capacitance between turns and the capacitance between the last turn and the ground plane, the magnetic permeability, the skin and proximity effects of the conductors according to the frequency. The structure of optimization developed to extract the parameters of the model will be presented. Results of extracted parameters are compared with the simulation parameters. A good correlation is observed on Y11 and Y12 parameters on all the broad band frequency.

  15. Modeling Regulatory Networks to Understand Plant Development: Small Is Beautiful

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Alistair M.; Farcot, Etienne; Owen, Markus R.; Vernoux, Teva

    2012-01-01

    We now have unprecedented capability to generate large data sets on the myriad genes and molecular players that regulate plant development. Networks of interactions between systems components can be derived from that data in various ways and can be used to develop mathematical models of various degrees of sophistication. Here, we discuss why, in many cases, it is productive to focus on small networks. We provide a brief and accessible introduction to relevant mathematical and computational approaches to model regulatory networks and discuss examples of small network models that have helped generate new insights into plant biology (where small is beautiful), such as in circadian rhythms, hormone signaling, and tissue patterning. We conclude by outlining some of the key technical and modeling challenges for the future. PMID:23110896

  16. Use of Animal Models to Develop Antiaddiction Medications

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Eliot L.

    2008-01-01

    Although addiction is a uniquely human phenomenon, some of its pathognomonic features can be modeled at the animal level. Such features include the euphoric “high” produced by acute administration of addictive drugs; the dysphoric “crash” produced by acute withdrawal, drug-seeking, and drug-taking behaviors; and relapse to drug-seeking behavior after achieving successful abstinence. Animal models exist for each of these features. In this review, I focus on various animal models of addiction and how they can be used to search for clinically effective antiaddiction medications. I conclude by noting some of the new and novel medications that have been developed preclinically using such models and the hope for further developments along such lines. PMID:18803910

  17. Development of task network models of human performance in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Manuel F.; Adam, Susan

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the utility of task-network modeling for quantifying human performance variability in microgravity. The data are gathered for: (1) improving current methodologies for assessing human performance and workload in the operational space environment; (2) developing tools for assessing alternative system designs; and (3) developing an integrated set of methodologies for the evaluation of performance degradation during extended duration spaceflight. The evaluation entailed an analysis of the Remote Manipulator System payload-grapple task performed on many shuttle missions. Task-network modeling can be used as a tool for assessing and enhancing human performance in man-machine systems, particularly for modeling long-duration manned spaceflight. Task-network modeling can be directed toward improving system efficiency by increasing the understanding of basic capabilities of the human component in the system and the factors that influence these capabilities.

  18. [Development of human embryonic stem cell model for toxicity evaluation].

    PubMed

    Yu, Guang-yan; Cao, Tong; Ouyang, Hong-wei; Peng, Shuang-qing; Deng, Xu-liang; Li, Sheng-lin; Liu, He; Zou, Xiao-hui; Fu, Xin; Peng, Hui; Wang, Xiao-ying; Zhan, Yuan

    2013-02-18

    The current international standard for toxicity screening of biomedical devices and materials recommend the use of immortalized cell lines because of their homogeneous morphologies and infinite proliferation which provide good reproducibility for in vitro cytotoxicity screening. However, most of the widely used immortalized cell lines are derived from animals and may not be representative of normal human cell behavior in vivo, in particular in terms of the cytotoxic and genotoxic response. Therefore, It is vital to develop a model for toxicity evaluation. In our studies, two Chinese human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines as toxicity model were established. hESC derived tissue/organ cell model for tissue/organ specific toxicity evaluation were developed. The efficiency and accuracy of using hESC model for cytoxicity, embryotoxicity and genotoxicity evaluation were confirmed. The results indicated that hESCs might be good tools for toxicity testing and biosafety evaluation in vitro.

  19. Development of a hydraulic model of the human systemic circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, M. K.; Dharmalingham, R. K.

    1999-01-01

    Physical and numeric models of the human circulation are constructed for a number of objectives, including studies and training in physiologic control, interpretation of clinical observations, and testing of prosthetic cardiovascular devices. For many of these purposes it is important to quantitatively validate the dynamic response of the models in terms of the input impedance (Z = oscillatory pressure/oscillatory flow). To address this need, the authors developed an improved physical model. Using a computer study, the authors first identified the configuration of lumped parameter elements in a model of the systemic circulation; the result was a good match with human aortic input impedance with a minimum number of elements. Design, construction, and testing of a hydraulic model analogous to the computer model followed. Numeric results showed that a three element model with two resistors and one compliance produced reasonable matching without undue complication. The subsequent analogous hydraulic model included adjustable resistors incorporating a sliding plate to vary the flow area through a porous material and an adjustable compliance consisting of a variable-volume air chamber. The response of the hydraulic model compared favorably with other circulation models.

  20. Developing a Dynamic Pharmacophore Model for HIV-1 Integrase

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Heather A.; Masukawa, Keven M.; Rubins, Kathleen; Bushman, Frederic; Jorgensen, William L.; Lins, Roberto; Briggs, James; Mccammon, Andy

    2000-05-11

    We present the first receptor-based pharmacophore model for HIV-1 integrase. The development of ''dynamic'' pharmacophore models is a new method that accounts for the inherent flexibility of the active site and aims to reduce the entropic penalties associated with binding a ligand. Furthermore, this new drug discovery method overcomes the limitation of an incomplete crystal structure of the target protein. A molecular dynamics (MD) simulation describes the flexibility of the uncomplexed protein. Many conformational models of the protein are saved from the MD simulations and used in a series of multi-unit search for interacting conformers (MUSIC) simulations. MUSIC is a multiple-copy minimization method, available in the BOSS program; it is used to determine binding regions for probe molecules containing functional groups that complement the active site. All protein conformations from the MD are overlaid, and conserved binding regions for the probe molecules are identified. Those conserved binding regions define the dynamic pharmacophore model. Here, the dynamic model is compared to known inhibitors of the integrase as well as a three-point, ligand-based pharmacophore model from the literature. Also, a ''static'' pharmacophore model was determined in the standard fashion, using a single crystal structure. Inhibitors thought to bind in the active site of HIV-1 integrase fit the dynamic model but not the static model. Finally, we have identified a set of compounds from the Available Chemicals Directory that fit the dynamic pharmacophore model, and experimental testing of the compounds has confirmed several new inhibitors.

  1. A Model for Effective Professional Development of Formal Science Educators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleacher, L. V.; Jones, A. J. P.; Farrell, W. M.

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWE) series was developed by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) education team in 2010 to provide professional development on lunar science and exploration concepts for grades 6-9 science teachers. Over 300 educators have been trained to date. The LWE model incorporates best practices from pedagogical research of science education, thoughtful integration of scientists and engineer subject matter experts for both content presentations and informal networking with educators, access to NASA-unique facilities, hands-on and data-rich activities aligned with education standards, exposure to the practice of science, tools for addressing common misconceptions, follow-up with participants, and extensive evaluation. Evaluation of the LWE model via pre- and post-assessments, daily workshop surveys, and follow-up surveys at 6-month and 1-year intervals indicate that the LWE are extremely effective in increasing educators' content knowledge, confidence in incorporating content into the classroom, understanding of the practice of science, and ability to address common student misconceptions. In order to address the efficacy of the LWE model for other science content areas, the Dynamic Response of Environments at Asteroids, the Moon, and moons of Mars (DREAM2) education team, funded by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute, developed and ran a pilot workshop called Dream2Explore at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in June, 2015. Dream2Explore utilized the LWE model, but incorporated content related to the science and exploration of asteroids and the moons of Mars. Evaluation results indicate that the LWE model was effectively used for educator professional development on non-lunar content. We will present more detail on the LWE model, evaluation results from the Dream2Explore pilot workshop, and suggestions for the application of the model with other science content for robust educator professional development.

  2. A Model for Effective Professional Development of Formal Science Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleacher, L.; Jones, A. P.; Farrell, W. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWE) series was developed by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) education team in 2010 to provide professional development on lunar science and exploration concepts for grades 6-9 science teachers. Over 300 educators have been trained to date. The LWE model incorporates best practices from pedagogical research of science education, thoughtful integration of scientists and engineer subject matter experts for both content presentations and informal networking with educators, access to NASA-unique facilities, hands-on and data-rich activities aligned with education standards, exposure to the practice of science, tools for addressing common misconceptions, follow-up with participants, and extensive evaluation. Evaluation of the LWE model via pre- and post-assessments, daily workshop surveys, and follow-up surveys at 6-month and 1-year intervals indicate that the LWE are extremely effective in increasing educators' content knowledge, confidence in incorporating content into the classroom, understanding of the practice of science, and ability to address common student misconceptions. In order to address the efficacy of the LWE model for other science content areas, the Dynamic Response of Environments at Asteroids, the Moon, and moons of Mars (DREAM2) education team, funded by NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute, developed and ran a pilot workshop called Dream2Explore at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in June, 2015. Dream2Explore utilized the LWE model, but incorporated content related to the science and exploration of asteroids and the moons of Mars. Evaluation results indicate that the LWE model was effectively used for educator professional development on non-lunar content. We will present more detail on the LWE model, evaluation results from the Dream2Explore pilot workshop, and suggestions for the application of the model with other science content for robust educator professional development.

  3. A Cellular Automata-Based Mathematical Model for Thymocyte Development

    PubMed Central

    Souza-e-Silva, Hallan; Savino, Wilson; Feijóo, Raúl A.; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro

    2009-01-01

    Intrathymic T cell development is an important process necessary for the normal formation of cell-mediated immune responses. Importantly, such a process depends on interactions of developing thymocytes with cellular and extracellular elements of the thymic microenvironment. Additionally, it includes a series of oriented and tunely regulated migration events, ultimately allowing mature cells to cross endothelial barriers and leave the organ. Herein we built a cellular automata-based mathematical model for thymocyte migration and development. The rules comprised in this model take into account the main stages of thymocyte development, two-dimensional sections of the normal thymic microenvironmental network, as well as the chemokines involved in intrathymic cell migration. Parameters of our computer simulations with further adjusted to results derived from previous experimental data using sub-lethally irradiated mice, in which thymus recovery can be evaluated. The model fitted with the increasing numbers of each CD4/CD8-defined thymocyte subset. It was further validated since it fitted with the times of permanence experimentally ascertained in each CD4/CD8-defined differentiation stage. Importantly, correlations using the whole mean volume of young normal adult mice revealed that the numbers of cells generated in silico with the mathematical model fall within the range of total thymocyte numbers seen in these animals. Furthermore, simulations made with a human thymic epithelial network using the same mathematical model generated similar profiles for temporal evolution of thymocyte developmental stages. Lastly, we provided in silico evidence that the thymus architecture is important in the thymocyte development, since changes in the epithelial network result in different theoretical profiles for T cell development/migration. This model likely can be used to predict thymocyte evolution following therapeutic strategies designed for recovery of the thymus in diseases

  4. Improving Predictive Modeling in Pediatric Drug Development: Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Mechanistic Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Slikker, William; Young, John F.; Corley, Rick A.; Dorman, David C.; Conolly, Rory B.; Knudsen, Thomas; Erstad, Brian L.; Luecke, Richard H.; Faustman, Elaine M.; Timchalk, Chuck; Mattison, Donald R.

    2005-07-26

    A workshop was conducted on November 18?19, 2004, to address the issue of improving predictive models for drug delivery to developing humans. Although considerable progress has been made for adult humans, large gaps remain for predicting pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) outcome in children because most adult models have not been tested during development. The goals of the meeting included a description of when, during development, infants/children become adultlike in handling drugs. The issue of incorporating the most recent advances into the predictive models was also addressed: both the use of imaging approaches and genomic information were considered. Disease state, as exemplified by obesity, was addressed as a modifier of drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics during development. Issues addressed in this workshop should be considered in the development of new predictive and mechanistic models of drug kinetics and dynamics in the developing human.

  5. Development of an Ingestion Pathway Model for AXAIRQ

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, A.A.

    1999-01-13

    AXAIRQ is a dose mode code used for prospective accident assessment at the Savannah River Site and is primarily used to show regulatory compliance. For completeness of pathway analysis, an ingestion model, AXINGST, has been developed for use with, and incorporation in, AXAIRQ. Currently available ingestion models were referenced as a basis for AXINGST. AXINGST calculates a conservative ingestion dose following an atmospheric release of radionuclides and includes site specific variables where applicable.

  6. Viscoplastic Model Development with an Eye Toward Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.; Walker, Kevin P.

    1995-01-01

    A viscoplastic theory is developed that reduces analytically to creep theory under steady-state conditions. A viscoplastic model is constructed within this theoretical framework by defining material functions that have close ties to the physics of inelasticity. As a consequence, this model is easily characterized-only steady-state creep data, monotonic stress-strain curves, and saturated stress-strain hysteresis loops are required.

  7. Developing Generic Dynamic Models for the 2030 Eastern Interconnection Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Kou, Gefei; Hadley, Stanton W; Markham, Penn N; Liu, Yilu

    2013-12-01

    The Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) has built three major power flow cases for the 2030 Eastern Interconnection (EI) based on various levels of energy/environmental policy conditions, technology advances, and load growth. Using the power flow cases, this report documents the process of developing the generic 2030 dynamic models using typical dynamic parameters. The constructed model was validated indirectly using the synchronized phasor measurements by removing the wind generation temporarily.

  8. Development of the Smart Weapons Operability Enhancement Interim Thermal Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-11

    able to model the thermal structure of the natural background. The physical processes controlling this thermal structure are three-dimensional in nature...so a full three dimensional treatment of the physics is necessary in order to properly describe the radiant field. The development of a three...goal, one must be able to model the thermal structure of the natural background. The physical processes controlling this ther- mal structure are three

  9. Recontextualizing Psychosocial Development in Young Children: A Model of Environmental Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Carie; Kalvaitis, Darius; Worster, Anneliese

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an Environmental Identity Development model, which considers the progression of young children's self-cognitions in relation to the natural world. We recontextualize four of Erikson's psychosocial stages, in order to consider children's identity development in learning in, about, and for the environment. Beginning with…

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR DELTAMETHRIN IN DEVELOPING SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work describes the development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of deltamethrin, a type II pyrethroid, in the developing male Sprague-Dawley rat. Generalized Michaelis-Menten equations were used to calculate metabolic rate constants and organ weights ...

  11. Fieldwork Using the Professional Development Schools Model: Developing a Social Justice Orientation and Multicultural Competency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Amy L.; Krell, Megan M.; Hayden, Laura A.; Gracia, Robert; Denitzio, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Practicum fieldwork was conducted in an urban high school setting using a Professional Development Schools (PDS) model, with a focus on multicultural and social justice counseling competencies (MSJCC). Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyze the journal responses of 16 counseling students to ascertain MSJCC development during…

  12. Computable general equilibrium model fiscal year 2013 capability development report

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Brian Keith; Rivera, Michael Kelly; Boero, Riccardo

    2016-05-17

    This report documents progress made on continued developments of the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) Computable General Equilibrium Model (NCGEM), developed in fiscal year 2012. In fiscal year 2013, NISAC the treatment of the labor market and tests performed with the model to examine the properties of the solutions computed by the model. To examine these, developers conducted a series of 20 simulations for 20 U.S. States. Each of these simulations compared an economic baseline simulation with an alternative simulation that assumed a 20-percent reduction in overall factor productivity in the manufacturing industries of each State. Differences in the simulation results between the baseline and alternative simulations capture the economic impact of the reduction in factor productivity. While not every State is affected in precisely the same way, the reduction in manufacturing industry productivity negatively affects the manufacturing industries in each State to an extent proportional to the reduction in overall factor productivity. Moreover, overall economic activity decreases when manufacturing sector productivity is reduced. Developers ran two additional simulations: (1) a version of the model for the State of Michigan, with manufacturing divided into two sub-industries (automobile and other vehicle manufacturing as one sub-industry and the rest of manufacturing as the other subindustry); and (2) a version of the model for the United States, divided into 30 industries. NISAC conducted these simulations to illustrate the flexibility of industry definitions in NCGEM and to examine the simulation properties of in more detail.

  13. SpaceWire model development technology for satellite architecture.

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, John M.; Leemaster, Jacob Edward; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.

    2011-09-01

    Packet switched data communications networks that use distributed processing architectures have the potential to simplify the design and development of new, increasingly more sophisticated satellite payloads. In addition, the use of reconfigurable logic may reduce the amount of redundant hardware required in space-based applications without sacrificing reliability. These concepts were studied using software modeling and simulation, and the results are presented in this report. Models of the commercially available, packet switched data interconnect SpaceWire protocol were developed and used to create network simulations of data networks containing reconfigurable logic with traffic flows for timing system distribution.

  14. Results from Development of Model Specifications for Multifamily Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Brozyna, K.

    2012-08-01

    Specifications, modeled after CSI MasterFormat, provide the trade contractors and builders with requirements and recommendations on specific building materials, components and industry practices that comply with the expectations and intent of the requirements within the various funding programs associated with a project. The goal is to create a greater level of consistency in execution of energy efficiency retrofits measures across the multiple regions a developer may work. IBACOS and Mercy Housing developed sample model specifications based on a common building construction type that Mercy Housing encounters.

  15. Results From Development of Model Specifications for Multifamily Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Brozyna, Kevin

    2012-08-01

    Specifications, modeled after CSI MasterFormat, provide the trade contractors and builders with requirements and recommendations on specific building materials, components and industry practices that comply with the expectations and intent of the requirements within the various funding programs associated with a project. The goal is to create a greater level of consistency in execution of energy efficiency retrofits measures across the multiple regions a developer may work. IBACOS and Mercy Housing developed sample model specifications based on a common building construction type that Mercy Housing encounters.

  16. Numerical modelling of river morphodynamics: Latest developments and remaining challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siviglia, Annunziato; Crosato, Alessandra

    2016-07-01

    Numerical morphodynamic models provide scientific frameworks for advancing our understanding of river systems. The research on involved topics is an important and socially relevant undertaking regarding our environment. Nowadays numerical models are used for different purposes, from answering questions about basic morphodynamic research to managing complex river engineering problems. Due to increasing computer power and the development of advanced numerical techniques, morphodynamic models are now more and more used to predict the bed patterns evolution to a broad spectrum of spatial and temporal scales. The development and the success of application of such models are based upon a wide range of disciplines from applied mathematics for the numerical solution of the equations to geomorphology for the physical interpretation of the results. In this light we organized this special issue (SI) soliciting multidisciplinary contributions which encompass any aspect needed for the development and applications of such models. Most of the papers in the SI stem from contributions to session HS9.5/GM7.11 on numerical modelling and experiments in river morphodynamics at the European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly held in Vienna, April 27th to May 2nd 2014.

  17. The Development and Application of an Integrated VAR Process Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, A. Stewart

    2016-07-01

    The VAR ingot has been the focus of several modelling efforts over the years with the result that the thermal regime in the ingot can be simulated quite realistically. Such models provide important insight into solidification of the ingot but present some significant challenges to the casual user such as a process engineer. To provide the process engineer with a tool to assist in the development of a melt practice, a comprehensive model of the complete VAR process has been developed. A radiation heat transfer simulation of the arc has been combined with electrode and ingot models to develop a platform which accepts typical operating variables (voltage, current, and gap) together with process parameters (electrode size, crucible size, orientation, water flow, etc.) as input data. The output consists of heat flow distributions and solidification parameters in the form of text, comma-separated value, and visual toolkit files. The resulting model has been used to examine the relationship between the assumed energy distribution in the arc and the actual energy flux which arrives at the ingot top surface. Utilizing heat balance information generated by the model, the effects of electrode-crucible orientation and arc gap have been explored with regard to the formation of ingot segregation defects.

  18. Computational Modeling and Simulation of Genital Tubercle Development

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Hypospadias is a developmental defect of urethral tube closure that has a complex etiology involving genetic and environmental factors, including anti-androgenic and estrogenic disrupting chemicals; however, little is known about the morphoregulatory consequences of androgen/estrogen balance during genital tubercle (GT) development. Computer models that predictively model sexual dimorphism of the GT may provide a useful resource to translate chemical-target bipartite networks and their developmental consequences across the human-relevant chemical universe. Here, we describe a multicellular agent-based model of genital tubercle (GT) development that simulates urethrogenesis from the sexually-indifferent urethral plate stage to urethral tube closure. The prototype model, constructed in CompuCell3D, recapitulates key aspects of GT morphogenesis controlled by SHH, FGF10, and androgen pathways through modulation of stochastic cell behaviors, including differential adhesion, motility, proliferation, and apoptosis. Proper urethral tube closure in the model was shown to depend quantitatively on SHH- and FGF10-induced effects on mesenchymal proliferation and epithelial apoptosis??both ultimately linked to androgen signaling. In the absence of androgen, GT development was feminized and with partial androgen deficiency, the model resolved with incomplete urethral tube closure, thereby providing an in silico platform for probabilistic prediction of hypospadias risk across c

  19. Developing an Empirical Model for Jet-Surface Interaction Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Clif

    2014-01-01

    The process of developing an empirical model for jet-surface interaction noise is described and the resulting model evaluated. Jet-surface interaction noise is generated when the high-speed engine exhaust from modern tightly integrated or conventional high-bypass ratio engine aircraft strikes or flows over the airframe surfaces. An empirical model based on an existing experimental database is developed for use in preliminary design system level studies where computation speed and range of configurations is valued over absolute accuracy to select the most promising (or eliminate the worst) possible designs. The model developed assumes that the jet-surface interaction noise spectra can be separated from the jet mixing noise and described as a parabolic function with three coefficients: peak amplitude, spectral width, and peak frequency. These coefficients are t to functions of surface length and distance from the jet lipline to form a characteristic spectra which is then adjusted for changes in jet velocity and/or observer angle using scaling laws from published theoretical and experimental work. The resulting model is then evaluated for its ability to reproduce the characteristic spectra and then for reproducing spectra measured at other jet velocities and observer angles; successes and limitations are discussed considering the complexity of the jet-surface interaction noise versus the desire for a model that is simple to implement and quick to execute.

  20. Developing an Empirical Model for Jet-Surface Interaction Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Clifford A.

    2014-01-01

    The process of developing an empirical model for jet-surface interaction noise is described and the resulting model evaluated. Jet-surface interaction noise is generated when the high-speed engine exhaust from modern tightly integrated or conventional high-bypass ratio engine aircraft strikes or flows over the airframe surfaces. An empirical model based on an existing experimental database is developed for use in preliminary design system level studies where computation speed and range of configurations is valued over absolute accuracy to select the most promising (or eliminate the worst) possible designs. The model developed assumes that the jet-surface interaction noise spectra can be separated from the jet mixing noise and described as a parabolic function with three coefficients: peak amplitude, spectral width, and peak frequency. These coefficients are fit to functions of surface length and distance from the jet lipline to form a characteristic spectra which is then adjusted for changes in jet velocity and/or observer angle using scaling laws from published theoretical and experimental work. The resulting model is then evaluated for its ability to reproduce the characteristic spectra and then for reproducing spectra measured at other jet velocities and observer angles; successes and limitations are discussed considering the complexity of the jet-surface interaction noise versus the desire for a model that is simple to implement and quick to execute.

  1. Drug discovery and development for neglected diseases: the DNDi model.

    PubMed

    Chatelain, Eric; Ioset, Jean-Robert

    2011-03-16

    New models of drug discovery have been developed to overcome the lack of modern and effective drugs for neglected diseases such as human African trypanosomiasis (HAT; sleeping sickness), leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease, which have no financial viability for the pharmaceutical industry. With the purpose of combining the skills and research capacity in academia, pharmaceutical industry, and contract researchers, public-private partnerships or product development partnerships aim to create focused research consortia that address all aspects of drug discovery and development. These consortia not only emulate the projects within pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, eg, identification and screening of libraries, medicinal chemistry, pharmacology and pharmacodynamics, formulation development, and manufacturing, but also use and strengthen existing capacity in disease-endemic countries, particularly for the conduct of clinical trials. The Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi) has adopted a model closely related to that of a virtual biotechnology company for the identification and optimization of drug leads. The application of this model to the development of drug candidates for the kinetoplastid infections of HAT, Chagas disease, and leishmaniasis has already led to the identification of new candidates issued from DNDi's own discovery pipeline. This demonstrates that the model DNDi has been implementing is working but its DNDi, neglected diseases sustainability remains to be proven.

  2. Time dependent patient no-show predictive modelling development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Li; Hanauer, David A

    2016-05-09

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop evident-based predictive no-show models considering patients' each past appointment status, a time-dependent component, as an independent predictor to improve predictability. Design/methodology/approach - A ten-year retrospective data set was extracted from a pediatric clinic. It consisted of 7,291 distinct patients who had at least two visits along with their appointment characteristics, patient demographics, and insurance information. Logistic regression was adopted to develop no-show models using two-thirds of the data for training and the remaining data for validation. The no-show threshold was then determined based on minimizing the misclassification of show/no-show assignments. There were a total of 26 predictive model developed based on the number of available past appointments. Simulation was employed to test the effective of each model on costs of patient wait time, physician idle time, and overtime. Findings - The results demonstrated the misclassification rate and the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic gradually improved as more appointment history was included until around the 20th predictive model. The overbooking method with no-show predictive models suggested incorporating up to the 16th model and outperformed other overbooking methods by as much as 9.4 per cent in the cost per patient while allowing two additional patients in a clinic day. Research limitations/implications - The challenge now is to actually implement the no-show predictive model systematically to further demonstrate its robustness and simplicity in various scheduling systems. Originality/value - This paper provides examples of how to build the no-show predictive models with time-dependent components to improve the overbooking policy. Accurately identifying scheduled patients' show/no-show status allows clinics to proactively schedule patients to reduce the negative impact of patient no-shows.

  3. Interactive model of urban development in residential areas in Skopje

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marina, O.; Masala, E.; Pensa, S.; Stavric, M.

    2012-10-01

    Development of residential areas in Skopje in a period after the 1963 earthquake led to an emergence of continuous pressure to the physical structure of the city. It's essential to analyse, explore and understand the processes that are shaping our city. The study explores interactive tool that exercise the complex analysis of architectural and urban structure within the Skopje's residential areas and proposes a 3D model to investigate local dynamics and best fitting urban indicators for development. Through series of analysis of diverse typologies, programs, spatial and functional configurations of the dwelling within the city, the study presents an effort by use of Interactive Visualization Tool (InViTo) for modeling of urban development to explicate spatial distribution, the process of transformation and acknowledge the regularities and suitability of development of urban form in Skopje's residential area and, in particular, the relationship between functions and its localizations.

  4. Zebrafish Models of Human Liver Development and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Benjamin J.; Pack, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The liver performs a large number of essential synthetic and regulatory functions that are acquired during fetal development and persist throughout life. Their disruption underlies a diverse group of heritable and acquired diseases that affect both pediatric and adult patients. Although experimental analyses used to study liver development and disease are typically performed in cell culture models or rodents, the zebrafish is increasingly used to complement discoveries made in these systems. Forward and reverse genetic analyses over the past two decades have shown that the molecular program for liver development is largely conserved between zebrafish and mammals, and that the zebrafish can be used to model heritable human liver disorders. Recent work has demonstrated that zebrafish can also be used to study the mechanistic basis of acquired liver diseases. Here, we provide a comprehensive summary of how the zebrafish has contributed to our understanding of human liver development and disease. PMID:23897685

  5. Development of the research lifecycle model for library services

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, KTL; Lerner, Rachel C.; McElfresh, Karen R.; Pavlech, Laura; Romito, David; Reeves, Laurie H.; Morris, Erin N.

    2013-01-01

    Question: Can the niche services of individual librarians across multiple libraries be developed into a suite of standard services available to all scientists that support the entire research lifecycle? Setting: Services at a large, research-intensive state university campus are described. Method: Initial data were collected via concept mapping by librarians. Additional data were collected at conferences and meetings through interactive poster presentations. Main Results: Services of interest to scientists for each of the stages in the research lifecycle were developed by the team to reflect the wide range of strengths of team members in aggregate. Conclusion: Input from researchers was the most effective tool for developing the model. A flexible research lifecycle model can be developed to match the needs of different service groups and the skills of different librarians. PMID:24163603

  6. An integrated mathematical model of the human cardiopulmonary system: model development.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Antonio; Cheng, Limei; Ursino, Mauro; Chbat, Nicolas W

    2016-04-01

    Several cardiovascular and pulmonary models have been proposed in the last few decades. However, very few have addressed the interactions between these two systems. Our group has developed an integrated cardiopulmonary model (CP Model) that mathematically describes the interactions between the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, along with their main short-term control mechanisms. The model has been compared with human and animal data taken from published literature. Due to the volume of the work, the paper is divided in two parts. The present paper is on model development and normophysiology, whereas the second is on the model's validation on hypoxic and hypercapnic conditions. The CP Model incorporates cardiovascular circulation, respiratory mechanics, tissue and alveolar gas exchange, as well as short-term neural control mechanisms acting on both the cardiovascular and the respiratory functions. The model is able to simulate physiological variables typically observed in adult humans under normal and pathological conditions and to explain the underlying mechanisms and dynamics.

  7. Further Developments on the Geothermal System Scoping Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Antkowiak, M.; Sargent, R.; Geiger, J. W.

    2010-07-01

    This paper discusses further developments and refinements for the uses of the Geothermal System Scoping Model in an effort to provide a means for performing a variety of trade-off analyses of surface and subsurface parameters, sensitivity analyses, and other systems engineering studies in order to better inform R&D direction and investment for the development of geothermal power into a major contributor to the U.S. energy supply.

  8. Development of a worldwide model for Flayer-produced scintillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fremouw, E. J.; Rino, C. L.

    1971-01-01

    An empirical approach to modeling the electron-density irregularities in the F layer of the earth's ionosphere that are primarily responsible for scintillation of transatmospheric VHF-UHF signals has been devised and tested. The work was directed toward two major goals: first, development of a worldwide model for describing the rms fluctuation in signal strength to be expected on an arbitrary satellite-to-earth communication link under average ionospheric conditions; and, second, investigation of the feasibility of similar modeling for description of the complete first-order distribution of signal strength.

  9. Modeling transcriptional networks in Drosophila development at multiple scales.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Zeba; DePace, Angela H

    2011-12-01

    Quantitative models of developmental processes can provide insights at multiple scales. Ultimately, models may be particularly informative for key questions about network level behavior during development such as how does the system respond to environmental perturbation, or operate reliably in different genetic backgrounds? The transcriptional networks that pattern the Drosophila embryo have been the subject of numerous quantitative experimental studies coupled to modeling frameworks in recent years. In this review, we describe three studies that consider these networks at different levels of molecular detail and therefore result in different types of insights. We also discuss other developmental transcriptional networks operating in Drosophila, with the goal of highlighting what additional insights they may provide.

  10. Development, validation and application of numerical space environment models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honkonen, Ilja

    2013-10-01

    Currently the majority of space-based assets are located inside the Earth's magnetosphere where they must endure the effects of the near-Earth space environment, i.e. space weather, which is driven by the supersonic flow of plasma from the Sun. Space weather refers to the day-to-day changes in the temperature, magnetic field and other parameters of the near-Earth space, similarly to ordinary weather which refers to changes in the atmosphere above ground level. Space weather can also cause adverse effects on the ground, for example, by inducing large direct currents in power transmission systems. The performance of computers has been growing exponentially for many decades and as a result the importance of numerical modeling in science has also increased rapidly. Numerical modeling is especially important in space plasma physics because there are no in-situ observations of space plasmas outside of the heliosphere and it is not feasible to study all aspects of space plasmas in a terrestrial laboratory. With the increasing number of computational cores in supercomputers, the parallel performance of numerical models on distributed memory hardware is also becoming crucial. This thesis consists of an introduction, four peer reviewed articles and describes the process of developing numerical space environment/weather models and the use of such models to study the near-Earth space. A complete model development chain is presented starting from initial planning and design to distributed memory parallelization and optimization, and finally testing, verification and validation of numerical models. A grid library that provides good parallel scalability on distributed memory hardware and several novel features, the distributed cartesian cell-refinable grid (DCCRG), is designed and developed. DCCRG is presently used in two numerical space weather models being developed at the Finnish Meteorological Institute. The first global magnetospheric test particle simulation based on the

  11. New Developments in Eclipsing Binary Light Curve Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, E. F.; Stagg, C. R.

    1994-03-01

    The light curve modeling of binary stars has continued to evolve since its founding by Henry Norris Russell (see Russell and Merrill 1952 and citations therein) nearly a century ago, accelerated in the 1950s by Kopal's introduction of Roche geometry into models and by the development of synthetic light curve computer code in the 1970's. Improved physics and the use of more kinds of observational input are providing another round of important advances that promise to enlarge our knowledge of both binary stars and ensembles containing them. Here we discuss the newer horizons of light curve modeling and the steps being taken toward them.

  12. Recent developments in experimental animal models of Henipavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Rockx, Barry

    2014-07-01

    Hendra (HeV) and Nipah (NiV) viruses (genus Henipavirus (HNV; family Paramyxoviridae) are emerging zoonotic agents that can cause severe respiratory distress and acute encephalitis in humans. Given the lack of effective therapeutics and vaccines for human use, these viruses are considered as public health concerns. Several experimental animal models of HNV infection have been developed in recent years. Here, we review the current status of four of the most promising experimental animal models (mice, hamsters, ferrets, and African green monkeys) and their suitability for modeling the clinical disease, transmission, pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment for HNV infection in humans.

  13. Computable general equilibrium model fiscal year 2014 capability development report

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Brian Keith; Boero, Riccardo

    2016-05-11

    This report provides an overview of the development of the NISAC CGE economic modeling capability since 2012. This capability enhances NISAC's economic modeling and analysis capabilities to answer a broader set of questions than possible with previous economic analysis capability. In particular, CGE modeling captures how the different sectors of the economy, for example, households, businesses, government, etc., interact to allocate resources in an economy and this approach captures these interactions when it is used to estimate the economic impacts of the kinds of events NISAC often analyzes.

  14. Developing robotic behavior using a genetic programming model

    SciTech Connect

    Pryor, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the methodology for using a genetic programming model to develop tracking behaviors for autonomous, microscale robotic vehicles. The use of such vehicles for surveillance and detection operations has become increasingly important in defense and humanitarian applications. Through an evolutionary process similar to that found in nature, the genetic programming model generates a computer program that when downloaded onto a robotic vehicle`s on-board computer will guide the robot to successfully accomplish its task. Simulations of multiple robots engaged in problem-solving tasks have demonstrated cooperative behaviors. This report also discusses the behavior model produced by genetic programming and presents some results achieved during the study.

  15. Models for Curricular Materials Development: Combining Applied Development Processes with Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleton, James; Lawrenz, Frances; Craft, Elaine; Cudmore, Wynn; Hall, Jim; Waintraub, Jack

    2007-12-01

    Developing curricular materials for technical and vocational education is particularly challenging because of the comprehensive requirements for technical education and the rapidity with which technical positions are evolving. Well-educated employees are expected to have general communication, reasoning, problem-solving, and behavioral skills in addition to occupation-specific technical knowledge. Furthermore, technical and vocational education materials must meet the needs of various contexts each with its own unique array of factors which must be accommodated. To assist in the process of materials development, this paper presents a comprehensive and contextualized model as a guide for curricular developers. This model was formed through the synthesis of two theoretical and four applied models, with the outline of the applied models occurring as part of a national evaluation of the National Science Foundation's Advanced Technological Education Program. Examples illuminating the elements of the template are provided.

  16. Developing a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Model Knowledgebase in Support of Provisional Model Construction

    PubMed Central

    Grulke, Christopher M.; Chang, Daniel T.; Brooks, Raina D.; Leonard, Jeremy A.; Phillips, Martin B.; Hypes, Ethan D.; Fair, Matthew J.; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Johnson, Jeffre; Dary, Curtis C.; Tan, Yu-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Developing physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for chemicals can be resource-intensive, as neither chemical-specific parameters nor in vivo pharmacokinetic data are easily available for model construction. Previously developed, well-parameterized, and thoroughly-vetted models can be a great resource for the construction of models pertaining to new chemicals. A PBPK knowledgebase was compiled and developed from existing PBPK-related articles and used to develop new models. From 2,039 PBPK-related articles published between 1977 and 2013, 307 unique chemicals were identified for use as the basis of our knowledgebase. Keywords related to species, gender, developmental stages, and organs were analyzed from the articles within the PBPK knowledgebase. A correlation matrix of the 307 chemicals in the PBPK knowledgebase was calculated based on pharmacokinetic-relevant molecular descriptors. Chemicals in the PBPK knowledgebase were ranked based on their correlation toward ethylbenzene and gefitinib. Next, multiple chemicals were selected to represent exact matches, close analogues, or non-analogues of the target case study chemicals. Parameters, equations, or experimental data relevant to existing models for these chemicals and their analogues were used to construct new models, and model predictions were compared to observed values. This compiled knowledgebase provides a chemical structure-based approach for identifying PBPK models relevant to other chemical entities. Using suitable correlation metrics, we demonstrated that models of chemical analogues in the PBPK knowledgebase can guide the construction of PBPK models for other chemicals. PMID:26871706

  17. Development Life Cycle and Tools for XML Content Models

    SciTech Connect

    Kulvatunyou, Boonserm; Morris, Katherine; Buhwan, Jeong; Goyal, Puja

    2004-11-01

    Many integration projects today rely on shared semantic models based on standards represented using Extensible Mark up Language (XML) technologies. Shared semantic models typically evolve and require maintenance. In addition, to promote interoperability and reduce integration costs, the shared semantics should be reused as much as possible. Semantic components must be consistent and valid in terms of agreed upon standards and guidelines. In this paper, we describe an activity model for creation, use, and maintenance of a shared semantic model that is coherent and supports efficient enterprise integration. We then use this activity model to frame our research and the development of tools to support those activities. We provide overviews of these tools primarily in the context of the W3C XML Schema. At the present, we focus our work on the W3C XML Schema as the representation of choice, due to its extensive adoption by industry.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A FLEXIBLE, MULTIZONE, MULTIFAMILY BUILDING SIMULATION MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, Mini; Im, Piljae

    2012-01-01

    Weatherization of multifamily buildings is gaining increased attention in the U.S. Available energy audit tools for multifamily buildings were found to need desirable improvements. On the wish list of field experts for enhanced features was the basic ability to model multizone buildings (i.e., one thermal zone per dwelling unit) with simplified user inputs, which allows a better analysis of decentralized and centralized HVAC and domestic hot water systems of multifamily buildings without having to create detailed building models. To address the desired capabilities, development of an enhanced energy audit tool was begun in 2011. The tool is a strategically structured, flexible, one-zone-per-unit, DOE-2.1e model coupled with a simplified user interface to model small to large multifamily buildings with decentralized or centralized systems and associated energy measures. This paper describes the modeling concept and its implementation.

  19. Development of a recursion RNG-based turbulence model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, YE; Vahala, George; Thangam, S.

    1993-01-01

    Reynolds stress closure models based on the recursion renormalization group theory are developed for the prediction of turbulent separated flows. The proposed model uses a finite wavenumber truncation scheme to account for the spectral distribution of energy. In particular, the model incorporates effects of both local and nonlocal interactions. The nonlocal interactions are shown to yield a contribution identical to that from the epsilon-renormalization group (RNG), while the local interactions introduce higher order dispersive effects. A formal analysis of the model is presented and its ability to accurately predict separated flows is analyzed from a combined theoretical and computational stand point. Turbulent flow past a backward facing step is chosen as a test case and the results obtained based on detailed computations demonstrate that the proposed recursion -RNG model with finite cut-off wavenumber can yield very good predictions for the backstep problem.

  20. The Big Bang Model: Its Origin and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpher, Ralph A.

    The current Big Bang Model had its origin in Einstein's attempt to model a static cosmos, based on his general theory of relativity. Friedmann and Lemaitre, as well as de Sitter, further developed the model to cover other options, including nonstatic behavior. Lemaitre in the 1930s and, particularly, Gamow in 1946 first put physics into the nonstatic model. By 1946 there had been significant developments in the mathematics of the model due to Robertson, Walker, Tolman and many others. The Hubble law had given an essential observational basis for the Big Bang, as did the attribution of cosmic significance to element abundances by Goldschmidt. Following early suggestions by George Gamow, the first attempt to explain nucleosynthesis in a hot, dense, early universe was done by Alpher, Bethe and Gamow in 1948, a paper whose principal importance was that it suggested that the early universe was in fact hot and dense, and that hydrogen and helium and perhaps other light elements were primeval. In that same year Alpher and Herman first predicted a cosmic background radiation at 5 kelvin as an essential feature of the model. The Hubble expansion rate, the primordial and stellar abundances of the elements, and the cosmic microwave background are major pillars today for the Big Bang model.

  1. Model-based development of neuroprosthesis for paraplegic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Riener, R

    1999-01-01

    In paraplegic patients with upper motor neuron lesions the signal path from the central nervous system to the muscles is interrupted. Functional electrical stimulation applied to the lower motor neurons can replace the lacking signals. A so-called neuroprosthesis may be used to restore motor function in paraplegic patients on the basis of functional electrical stimulation. However, the control of multiple joints is difficult due to the complexity, nonlinearity, and time-variance of the system involved. Furthermore, effects such as muscle fatigue, spasticity, and limited force in the stimulated muscle further complicate the control task. Mathematical models of the human musculoskeletal system can support the development of neuroprosthesis. In this article a detailed overview of the existing work in the literature is given and two examples developed by the author are presented that give an insight into model-based development of neuroprosthesis for paraplegic patients. It is shown that modelling the musculoskeletal system can provide better understanding of muscular force production and movement coordination principles. Models can also be used to design and test stimulation patterns and feedback control strategies. Additionally, model components can be implemented in a controller to improve control performance. Eventually, the use of musculoskeletal models for neuroprosthesis design may help to avoid internal disturbances such as fatigue and optimize muscular force output. Furthermore, better controller quality can be obtained than in previous empirical approaches. In addition, the number of experimental tests to be performed with human subjects can be reduced. It is concluded that mathematical models play an increasing role in the development of reliable closed-loop controlled, lower extremity neuroprostheses. PMID:10382222

  2. Development of Groundwater Modeling Capacity in Mongolia: Keys to Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, M. T.; Valder, J. F.; Carter, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Ulaanbaatar, the capital city of Mongolia, is totally dependent on groundwater for its municipal and industrial water supply. Water is drawn from a network of shallow wells in an alluvial aquifer along the Tuul River. Evidence, however, suggests that current water use and especially the projected water demand from a rapidly growing urban population, is not sustainable from existing water sources. In response, the Mongolia Ministry of Environment and the Mongolian Fresh Water Institute requested technical assistance on groundwater modeling through the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Scientists from the USGS-SD Water Science Center provided a workshop to Mongolian water experts on basic principles of groundwater modeling using MODFLOW. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together representatives from the Government of Mongolia, local universities, technical experts, and other key stakeholders to build in-country capacity in hydrogeology and groundwater modeling. A preliminary steady-state groundwater flow model was developed to simulate groundwater conditions in the Tuul River Basin and for use in water use decision-making. The model consisted of 2 layers, 226 rows, and 260 columns with uniform 500 meter grid spacing. The upper model layer represented the alluvial aquifer and the lower layer represented the underlying bedrock, which includes areas characterized by permafrost. Estimated groundwater withdrawal was 180 m3/day, and estimated recharge was 114 mm/yr. The model will be modified and updated by Mongolian scientists as more data are available. Ultimately the model will be used to assist managers in developing a sustainable water supply, for current use and changing climate scenarios. A key to success was developing in-country technical capacity and partnerships with the Mongolian University of Science and Technology, Mongolian Freshwater Institute, a non-profit organization, UNESCO, and the government of Mongolia.

  3. Experimental development based on mapping rule between requirements analysis model and web framework specific design model.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Hirotaka; Ogata, Shinpei; Matsuura, Saeko

    2013-12-01

    Model Driven Development is a promising approach to develop high quality software systems. We have proposed a method of model-driven requirements analysis using Unified Modeling Language (UML). The main feature of our method is to automatically generate a Web user interface prototype from UML requirements analysis model so that we can confirm validity of input/output data for each page and page transition on the system by directly operating the prototype. We proposes a mapping rule in which design information independent of each web application framework implementation is defined based on the requirements analysis model, so as to improve the traceability to the final product from the valid requirements analysis model. This paper discusses the result of applying our method to the development of a Group Work Support System that is currently running in our department.

  4. Sipuncula: an emerging model of spiralian development and evolution.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Michael J; Rice, Mary E

    2014-01-01

    Sipuncula is an ancient clade of unsegmented marine worms that develop through a conserved pattern of unequal quartet spiral cleavage. They exhibit putative character modifications, including conspicuously large first-quartet micromeres and prototroch cells, postoral metatroch with exclusive locomotory function, paired retractor muscles and terminal organ system, and a U-shaped digestive architecture with left-right asymmetric development. Four developmental life history patterns are recognized, and they have evolved a unique metazoan larval type, the pelagosphera. When compared with other quartet spiral-cleaving models, sipunculan development is understudied, challenging and typically absent from evolutionary interpretations of spiralian larval and adult body plan diversity. If spiral cleavage is appropriately viewed as a flexible character complex, then understudied clades and characters should be investigated. We are pursuing sipunculan models for modern molecular, genetic and cellular research on evolution of spiralian development. Protocols for whole mount gene expression studies are established in four species. Molecular labeling and confocal imaging techniques are operative from embryogenesis through larval development. Next-generation sequencing of developmental transcriptomes has been completed for two species with highly contrasting life history patterns, Phascolion cryptum (direct development) and Nephasoma pellucidum (indirect planktotrophy). Looking forward, we will attempt intracellular lineage tracing and fate-mapping studies in a proposed model sipunculan, Themiste lageniformis. Importantly, with the unsegmented Sipuncula now repositioned within the segmented Annelida, sipunculan worms have become timely and appropriate models for investigating the potential for flexibility in spiralian development, including segmentation. We briefly review previous studies, and discuss new observations on the spiralian character complex within Sipuncula.

  5. PBPK modeling and simulation in drug research and development.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xiaomei; Lu, Chuang

    2016-09-01

    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling and simulation can be used to predict the pharmacokinetic behavior of drugs in humans using preclinical data. It can also explore the effects of various physiologic parameters such as age, ethnicity, or disease status on human pharmacokinetics, as well as guide dose and dose regiment selection and aid drug-drug interaction risk assessment. PBPK modeling has developed rapidly in the last decade within both the field of academia and the pharmaceutical industry, and has become an integral tool in drug discovery and development. In this mini-review, the concept and methodology of PBPK modeling are briefly introduced. Several case studies were discussed on how PBPK modeling and simulation can be utilized through various stages of drug discovery and development. These case studies are from our own work and the literature for better understanding of the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of a drug candidate, and the applications to increase efficiency, reduce the need for animal studies, and perhaps to replace clinical trials. The regulatory acceptance and industrial practices around PBPK modeling and simulation is also discussed.

  6. Developments in Latent Trait Theory: Models, Technical Issues, and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Hambleton, Ronald K.

    1978-01-01

    Topics concerning latent trait theory are addressed: (1) dimensionality of latent space, local independence, and item characteristic curves; (2) models--equations, parameter estimation, testing assumptions, and goodness of fit, (3) applications test developments, item bias, tailored testing and equating; and (4) advantages over classical…

  7. Development of CCHE2D embankment break model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Earthen embankment breach often results in detrimental impact on downstream residents and infrastructure, especially those located in the flooding zone. Embankment failures are most commonly caused by overtopping or internal erosion. This study is to develop a practical numerical model for simulat...

  8. Concentric Collaboration: A Model of Leadership Development for Healthcare Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Cynthia; Coghlan, David

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on their experience in a Midwest healthcare system, the authors propose a model of leadership development through action learning that embraces "concentric collaboration" at its core. The present study suggests that the process of concentric collaboration can serve to strengthen the skills of the individual leader as well as…

  9. University/School District Partnership in Professional Development: A Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanes, Madlyn Levine; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes the formal partnership between the Ann Arbor (Michigan) School District and the Department of Curriculum and Instruction at Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, for the planning and implementation of an inservice training program that has evolved into a model for flexible staff development. (Author/WD)

  10. A Tutorial Introduction to Bayesian Models of Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfors, Amy; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Xu, Fei

    2011-01-01

    We present an introduction to Bayesian inference as it is used in probabilistic models of cognitive development. Our goal is to provide an intuitive and accessible guide to the "what", the "how", and the "why" of the Bayesian approach: what sorts of problems and data the framework is most relevant for, and how and why it may be useful for…

  11. LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Haberman, Ben; Martinez-Baca, Carlos; Rush, Greg

    2013-05-31

    This report presents a summary of the work performed by LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. during the project LG Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Model Development (DOE Award Number: DE-FE0000773) which commenced on October 1, 2009 and was completed on March 31, 2013. The aim of this project is for LG Fuel Cell Systems Inc. (formerly known as Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc.) (LGFCS) to develop a multi-physics solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) computer code (MPC) for performance calculations of the LGFCS fuel cell structure to support fuel cell product design and development. A summary of the initial stages of the project is provided which describes the MPC requirements that were developed and the selection of a candidate code, STAR-CCM+ (CD-adapco). This is followed by a detailed description of the subsequent work program including code enhancement and model verification and validation activities. Details of the code enhancements that were implemented to facilitate MPC SOFC simulations are provided along with a description of the models that were built using the MPC and validated against experimental data. The modeling work described in this report represents a level of calculation detail that has not been previously available within LGFCS.

  12. On-Line Distance Learning: A Model for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Abdul W.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses issues related to open and distance-learning (ODL) in developing countries, using the virtual campus initiative of the Indira Gandhi National Open University (India) as an example and model of on-line program delivery and on-line, for-profit telelearning centers. Suggests strategies to enable open and distance-learning institutions to…

  13. Using Work Breakdown Structure Models to Develop Unit Treatment Costs

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article presents a new cost modeling approach called work breakdown structure (WBS), designed to develop unit costs for drinking water technologies. WBS involves breaking the technology into its discrete components for the purposes of estimating unit costs. The article dem...

  14. Development of a Medicaid Behavioral Health Case-Mix Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robst, John

    2009-01-01

    Many Medicaid programs have either fully or partially carved out mental health services. The evaluation of carve-out plans requires a case-mix model that accounts for differing health status across Medicaid managed care plans. This article develops a diagnosis-based case-mix adjustment system specific to Medicaid behavioral health care. Several…

  15. SUPERCRITICAL WATER OXIDATION MODEL DEVELOPMENT FOR SELECTED EPA PRIORITY POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Supercritical Water Oxidation (SCWO) evaluated for five compounds: acetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenol, pentachlorophenol, pyridine, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (methyl ester). inetic models were developed for acetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and pyridine. he test compounds were e...

  16. New Frontiers: Moving the Humanities Model of Curricular Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    The American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS) humanities model in the Cambridge (Massachusetts) public schools has significantly affected curricular reform and teacher development. The endeavor is in its third year at the Pilot School, a program within the Cambridge Rindge and Latin School. The article describes progressive reform experiences…

  17. Professional Development Schools: A Model for Preparing School Counselor Trainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Michael; Steen, Sam; Williams, Franklyn

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses a training model, based on The Education Trust, The American School Counselor Association, and The Holmes Partnership, consisting of school counselor trainees completing their clinical experiences in a Professional Development School. A case study demonstrating the role of the school counselor is presented along with…

  18. Models as Feedback: Developing Representational Competence in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padalkar, Shamin; Hegarty, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Spatial information in science is often expressed through representations such as diagrams and models. Learning the strengths and limitations of these representations and how to relate them are important aspects of developing scientific understanding, referred to as "representational competence." Diagram translation is particularly…

  19. Some Instructional Implications from a Mathematical Model of Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mierkiewicz, Diane B.

    Cognitive development and various educational implications are discussed in terms of Donald Saari's model of the interaction of a learner and the enviroment and the constraints imposed by the inefficiency of the learner's cognitive system. Saari proposed a hierarchical system of cognitive structures such that the relationships between structures…

  20. Mechanobiology of Embryonic Skeletal Development: Insights from Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Nowlan, Niamh C.; Sharpe, James; Roddy, Karen A.; Prendergast, Patrick J.; Murphy, Paula

    2016-01-01

    A range of clinical conditions in which foetal movement is reduced or prevented can have a severe effect on skeletal development. Animal models have been instrumental to our understanding of the interplay between mechanical forces and skeletal development, in particular the mouse and the chick model systems. In the chick, the most commonly used means of altering the mechanical environment is by pharmaceutical agents which induce paralysis, while genetically modified mice with non-functional or absent skeletal muscle offer a valuable tool for examining the interplay between muscle forces and skeletogenesis in mammals. This article reviews the body of research on animal models of bone or joint formation in vivo in the presence of an altered or abnormal mechanical environment. In both immobilised chicks and ‘muscleless limb’ mice, a range of effects are seen, such as shorter rudiments with less bone formation, changes in rudiment and joint shape and abnormal joint cavitation. However, while all bones and synovial joints are affected in immobilised chicks, some rudiments and joints are unaffected in muscleless mice. We propose that extrinsic mechanical forces from movements of the mother or littermates impact on skeletogenesis in mammals, while the chick embryo is reliant on intrinsic movement for mechanical stimulation. The insights gained from animal models into the mechanobiology of embryonic skeletal development could provide valuable cues to prospective tissue engineers of cartilage and bone, and contribute to new or improved treatments to minimise the impact on skeletal development of human disorders of reduced movement in utero. PMID:20860060