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Sample records for female ejaculation serve

  1. The history of female ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Korda, Joanna B; Goldstein, Sue W; Sommer, Frank

    2010-05-01

    The existence of female ejaculation and the female prostate is controversial; however, most scientists are not aware that historians of medicine and psychology described the phenomenon of female ejaculation approximately 2,000 years ago. To review historical literature in which female ejaculation is described. A comprehensive systematic literature review. Emission of fluid at the acme of orgasm and/or sexual pleasure in females was considered as a description of female ejaculation and therefore all documents referring to this phenomenon are included. Physicians, anatomists, and psychologists in both eastern and western culture have described intellectual concepts of female ejaculation during orgasm. In ancient Asia female ejaculation was very well known and mentioned in several Chinese Taoist texts starting in the 4th century. The ancient Chinese concept of female ejaculation as independent of reproduction was supported by ancient Indian writings. First mentioned in a 7th century poem, female ejaculation and the Gräfenberg spot (G-spot) are described in detail in most works of the Kāmaśāstra. In ancient Western writings the emission of female fluid is mentioned even earlier, depicted about 300 B.C. by Aristotle and in the 2nd century by Galen. Reinjier De Graaf in the 16th century provided the first scientific description of female ejaculation and was the first to refer to the periurethral glands as the female prostate. This concept was held by other scientists during the following centuries through 1952 A.D. when Ernst Gräfenberg reported on "The role of the urethra in female orgasm. Current research provides insight into the anatomy of the female prostate and describes female ejaculation as one of its functions. Credible evidence exists among different cultures that the female prostate and female ejaculation have been discovered, described and then forgotten over the last 2,000 years.

  2. New insights from one case of female ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Casillas, Alberto; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2011-12-01

    Although there are historical records showing its existence for over 2,000 years, the so-called female ejaculation is still a controversial phenomenon. A shared paradigm has been created that includes any fluid expulsion during sexual activities with the name of "female ejaculation." To demonstrate that the "real" female ejaculation and the "squirting or gushing" are two different phenomena. Biochemical studies on female fluids expelled during orgasm. In this case report, we provided new biochemical evidences demonstrating that the clear and abundant fluid that is ejected in gushes (squirting) is different from the real female ejaculation. While the first has the features of diluted urines (density: 1,001.67 ± 2.89; urea: 417.0 ± 42.88 mg/dL; creatinine: 21.37 ± 4.16 mg/dL; uric acid: 10.37 ± 1.48 mg/dL), the second is biochemically comparable to some components of male semen (prostate-specific antigen: 3.99 ± 0.60 × 103 ng/mL). Female ejaculation and squirting/gushing are two different phenomena. The organs and the mechanisms that produce them are bona fide different. The real female ejaculation is the release of a very scanty, thick, and whitish fluid from the female prostate, while the squirting is the expulsion of a diluted fluid from the urinary bladder. © 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  3. Do women with female ejaculation have detrusor overactivity?

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Rufus; Elvy, Susannah; Cardozo, Linda

    2007-11-01

    Questionnaire surveys suggest that 40-54% of women have experienced an expulsion of fluid at orgasm. Some of these women have coital incontinence, whereas others identify the fluid passed as female ejaculate. To assess whether women who have experienced female ejaculation have detrusor overactivity or the bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms associated with coital incontinence. We recruited six women who self-identified as having experienced female ejaculation and six controls who had not. Each woman completed a 3-day bladder diary and two validated bladder questionnaires: the Urgency Perception Scale (UPS) and the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ). Each woman underwent short provocative ambulatory urodynamics, a modified form of urodynamics, with a high sensitivity for detrusor overactivity. Prevalence of detrusor overactivity, 24-hour urinary frequency, IIQ and UPS scores. No woman in either group had detrusor overactivity. The bladder diaries and questionnaire results were within the normal range for all women. Women who experience female ejaculation may have normal voiding patterns, no bothersome incontinence symptoms, and no demonstrable detrusor overactivity. Women who report female ejaculation, in the absence of other lower urinary tract symptoms, do not require further investigation, and may be reassured that it is an uncommon, but physiological, phenomenon.

  4. [G-spot and female ejaculation: fiction or reality?].

    PubMed

    Rabinerson, David; Horowitz, Eran

    2007-02-01

    The G-spot is an ill-defined region, located on the anterior vaginal wall, in its upper outer third, suggested by Ernst Grafenberg, and commemorates the first letter of his name. This area is sensitive to tactile touch, which, when applied, is claimed to result in an intense female orgasm. The G-spot is thought to be the vaginal part that lies beneath the posterior part of the "female prostatic gland", which, when stimulated, results in female ejaculation during orgasm. G-spot and female ejaculation have been studied intensively during the last 50 years and there is scientific (anatomical and biochemical) evidence for their existence. However, this evidence has been challenged, and the debate regarding the existence of the G-spot and female ejaculation as true clinical entities is still ongoing.

  5. Is sexual function in female partners of men with premature ejaculation compromised?

    PubMed

    Kaya, Cevdet; Gunes, Mustafa; Gokce, Ali Murat; Kalkan, Senad

    2015-01-01

    The authors enrolled 32 female partners of sexually active men with premature ejaculation to investigate their sexual functions. An age-matched sample of the same number women whose partners had no sexual dysfunction was also included. Premature ejaculation was defined for all participants as ejaculation that nearly always occurs before or within 2 min of vaginal penetration. An invitation letter was given to men with premature ejaculation to ask whether their female partners could be contacted about completing a questionnaire to measure female sexual status. On the basis of the Female Sexual Function Index, the average sexual function score was significantly lower in partners of men with premature ejaculation (21.8 ± 7.6) compared with that in healthy controls (25.9 ± 6.6). Female sexual dysfunction was diagnosed in 78% of women who has a male partner with premature ejaculation, while 40% of female partner of healthy men. All of the domain scores of Female Sexual Function Index, except the desire and pain levels, were significantly lower in female partners of men with premature ejaculation group than those of healthy subjects.

  6. An electrophysiologic study of female ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Shafik, Ahmed; Shafik, Ismail A; El Sibai, Olfat; Shafik, Ali A

    2009-01-01

    Opinions vary over whether female ejaculation exists or not. We investigated the hypothesis that female orgasm is not associated with ejaculation. Thirty-eight healthy women were studied. The study comprised of glans clitoris electrovibration with simultaneous recording of vaginal and uterine pressures as well as electromyography of corpus cavernous and ischio- and bulbo-cavernosus muscles. Glans clitoris electrovibration was continued until and throughout orgasm. Upon glans clitoris electrovibration, vaginal and uterine pressures as well as corpus cavernous electromyography diminished until a full erection occurred when the silent cavernosus muscles were activated. At orgasm, the electromyography of ischio-and bulbo-cavernosus muscles increased intermittently. The female orgasm was not associated with the appearance of fluid coming out of the vagina or urethra.

  7. Pontine control of ejaculation and female orgasm.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Hieu K; Willemsen, Antoon T M; Lovick, Thelma A; Holstege, Gert

    2013-12-01

    The physiological component of ejaculation shows parallels with that of micturition, as both are essentially voiding activities. Both depend on supraspinal influences to orchestrate the characteristic pattern of activity in the pelvic organs. Unlike micturition, little is known about the supraspinal pathways involved in ejaculation and female orgasm. To identify brainstem regions activated during ejaculation and female orgasm and to compare them with those activated during micturition. Ejaculation in men and orgasm in women were induced by manual stimulation of the penis or clitoris by the participants' partners. Positron emission tomography (PET) with correction for head movements was used to capture the pattern of brain activation at the time of sexual climax. PET scans showing areas of activation during sexual climax. Ejaculation in men and orgasm in women resulted in activation in a localized region within the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum on the left side and in another region in the ventrolateral pontine tegmentum on the right side. The dorsolateral pontine area was also active in women who attempted but failed to have an orgasm and in women who imitated orgasm. The ventrolateral pontine area was only activated during ejaculation and physical orgasm in women. Activation of a localized region on the left side in the dorsolateral pontine tegmentum, which we termed the pelvic organ-stimulating center, occurs during ejaculation in men and physical orgasm in women. This same region has previously been shown to be activated during micturition, but on the right side. The pelvic organ-stimulating center, via projections to the sacral parasympathetic motoneurons, controls pelvic organs involved in voiding functions. In contrast, the ventrolateral pontine area, which we term the pelvic floor-stimulating center, produces the pelvic floor contractions during ejaculation in men and physical orgasm in women via direct projections to pelvic floor motoneurons. © 2013

  8. Ejaculate components delay reproductive senescence while elevating female reproductive rate in an insect

    PubMed Central

    Reinhardt, Klaus; Naylor, Richard A.; Siva-Jothy, Michael T.

    2009-01-01

    Increased female reproductive rates usually result in accelerated senescence. This correlation provides a link between the evolutionary conflict of the sexes and aging when ejaculate components elevate female reproductive rates at the cost of future reproduction. It is not clear whether this female cost is manifest as shorter lifespan or an earlier onset or a steeper rate of reproductive senescence. It also is unclear whether beneficial ejaculates release females from reproductive trade-offs and, if so, which senescence parameters are affected. We examined these issues in the bedbug, Cimex lectularius, a long-lived insect that shows reduced female lifespan as well as female reproductive senescence at the male-determined mating frequency. We demonstrate experimentally that, independently of the mating frequency, females receiving more ejaculate show increased reproductive rates and enter reproductive senescence later than females receiving less ejaculate. The rate of reproductive senescence did not differ between treatments, and reproductive rates did not predict mortality. The ejaculate effects were consistent in inter- and intra-population crosses, suggesting they have not evolved recently and are not caused by inbreeding. Our results suggest that ejaculate components compensate for the costs of elevated female reproductive rates in bedbugs by delaying the onset of reproductive senescence. Ejaculate components that are beneficial to polyandrous females could have arisen because male traits that protect the ejaculate have positive pleiotropic effects and/or because female counteradaptations to antagonistic male traits exceed the neutralization of those traits. That males influence female reproductive senescence has important consequences for trade-offs between reproduction and longevity and for studies of somatic senescence. PMID:19996174

  9. Correlated evolution between male ejaculate allocation and female remating behaviour in seed beetles (Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Katvala, M; Rönn, J L; Arnqvist, G

    2008-03-01

    Sperm competition theory suggests that female remating rate determines the selective regime that dictates the evolution of male ejaculate allocation. To test for correlated evolution between female remating behaviour and male ejaculate traits, we subjected detailed experimental data on female and male reproductive traits in seven-seed beetle species to phylogenetic comparative analyses. The evolution of a larger first ejaculate was positively correlated with the evolution of a more rapid decline in ejaculate size over successive matings. Further, as predicted by theory, an increase in female remating rate correlated with the evolution of larger male testes but smaller ejaculates. However, an increase in female remating was associated with the evolution of a less even allocation of ejaculate resources over successive matings, contrary to classic sperm competition theory. We failed to find any evidence for coevolution between the pattern of male ejaculate allocation and variation in female quality and we conclude that some patterns of correlated evolution are congruent with current theory, whereas some are not. We suggest that this may reflect the fact that much sperm competition theory does not fully incorporate other factors that may affect the evolution of male and female traits, such as trade-offs between ejaculate expenditure and other competing demands and the evolution of resource acquisition.

  10. International online survey: female ejaculation has a positive impact on women's and their partners' sexual lives.

    PubMed

    Wimpissinger, Florian; Springer, Christopher; Stackl, Walter

    2013-07-01

    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: Genital secretions during female orgasm (female ejaculation) have been a matter of controversy for centuries. Scientific work on this essential part of female sexual function has been able to differentiate between female ejaculation, urinary incontinence and vaginal transudate. According to earlier studies, less than 50% of women actually do ejaculate during sexual stimulation. Few affected women discuss female ejaculation with their physician--partly because of its physiological nature, partly through embarrassment. To gain knowledge on the characteristics of female ejaculation and its impact on women's sexual lives, an online questionnaire has been designed and published internationally. In this way, data from 320 women who perceive ejaculation could be acquired. Most women and their partners perceive female ejaculation as an enrichment of their sexual lives. To study characteristics of female ejaculation as perceived by healthy women. To evaluate whether fluid emission during sexual activity has an impact on women's or their partners' sexual lives. An online questionnaire consisting of 23 questions addressing the participants' characteristics, aspects of perceived female ejaculation, and its impact on women's and their partners' lives was published internationally on various online platforms. Over a period of 18 months, 320 women from all over the world were included in the study (excluding women below the age of 18 years and double entries). The women's mean age was 34.1 years (±11.1) and their mean age at first ejaculation was 25.4 years. Most women ejaculate a few times a week. The volume of ejaculation is approximately 2 oz (29.1%), and the fluid is usually clear as water (83.1%). For most women (78.8%) and their partners (90.0%), female ejaculation is an enrichment of their sexual lives, whereas 14 women (4.4%) stated that their partners were unaware of their potential ejaculation. Perceived

  11. Sperm economy between female mating frequency and male ejaculate allocation.

    PubMed

    Abe, Jun; Kamimura, Yoshitaka

    2015-03-01

    Why females of many species mate multiply is a major question in evolutionary biology. Furthermore, if females accept matings more than once, ejaculates from different males compete for fertilization (sperm competition), which confronts males with the decision of how to allocate their reproductive resources to each mating event. Although most existing models have examined either female mating frequency or male ejaculate allocation while assuming fixed levels of the opposite sex's strategies, these strategies are likely to coevolve. To investigate how the interaction of the two sexes' strategies is influenced by the level of sperm limitation in the population, we developed models in which females adjust their number of allowable matings and males allocate their ejaculate in each mating. Our model predicts that females mate only once or less than once at an even sex ratio or in an extremely female-biased condition, because of female resistance and sperm limitation in the population, respectively. However, in a moderately female-biased condition, males favor partitioning their reproductive budgets across many females, whereas females favor multiple matings to obtain sufficient sperm, which contradicts the predictions of most existing models. We discuss our model's predictions and relationships with the existing models and demonstrate applications for empirical findings.

  12. Female ejaculation orgasm vs. coital incontinence: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Zlatko

    2013-07-01

    Women may expel various kinds of fluids during sexual arousal and at orgasm. Their origins, quantity, compositions, and expulsion mechanisms depend on anatomical and pathophysiological dispositions and the degree of sexual arousal. These are natural sexual responses but may also represent symptoms of urinary incontinence. The study aims to clarify the etiology of fluid leakage at orgasm, distinguish between associated physiological sexual responses, and differentiate these phenomena from symptoms of illness. A systematic literature review was performed. EMBASE (OvidSP) and Web of Science databases were searched for the articles on various phenomena of fluid expulsions in women during sexual arousal and at orgasm. Articles included focused on female ejaculation and its variations, coital incontinence (CI), and vaginal lubrication. Female ejaculation orgasm manifests as either a female ejaculation (FE) of a smaller quantity of whitish secretions from the female prostate or a squirting of a larger amount of diluted and changed urine. Both phenomena may occur simultaneously. The prevalence of FE is 10-54%. CI is divided into penetration and orgasmic forms. The prevalence of CI is 0.2-66%. Penetration incontinence occurs more frequently and is usually caused by stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Urodynamic diagnoses of detrusor overactivity (DOA) and SUI are observed in orgasmic incontinence. Fluid expulsions are not typically a part of female orgasm. FE and squirting are two different physiological components of female sexuality. FE was objectively evidenced only in tens of cases but its reported high prevalence is based mostly on subjective questionnaire research. Pathophysiology of squirting is rarely documented. CI is a pathological sign caused by urethral disorder, DOA, or a combination of both, and requires treatment. An in-depth appreciation of these similar but pathophysiologically distinct phenomena is essential for distinguishing normal, physiological sexual

  13. [Knowledge of the "Gräfenberg zone" and female ejaculation in ancient Indian sexual science. A medical history contribution].

    PubMed

    Syed, R

    1999-01-01

    Ancient Indian texts in sexology (kamaśastra) from the 11th century onwards prove that their authors knew about the area later termed the "Gräfenberg zone" in Europe, as well as about the female ejaculation connected with the stimulation of this area. The Gräfenberg zone is a sexually arousable zone in the front part of the vagina, stimulation of which can lead to the discharge of liquid from the urethra, a phenomenon which is described as female ejaculation. The german gynaecologist Ernst Gräfenberg, who worked in America, described this zone, situated beneath the clitoris, for the first time (at least in this century) in Western medicine in an article published in 1950. (There are, however, evidences, that the 17th-century anatomist Regnier de Graaf had knowledge about the mentioned erogenous zone as well as female ejaculation.) Since the 1980s the so-called Gräfenberg zone, popularly termed "G-spot", and female ejaculation have been controversially discussed medically as well as in popular science, first in the United States, then in Europe; both phenomena have meanwhile been accepted as facts in medical manuals and reference books (e.g. the "Pschyrembel"). Whereas the oldest and most well-known sexological-erotological work of Ancient India, the Kamasutra, dating probably from the third century A.D., apparently did not know the Gräfenberg zone and female ejaculation, texts such as the Pañcasayaka (11th century), Jayamangala (Yaśodhara's commentary on the Kamasutra from the 13th century), the Ratirahasya (13th century), as well as the late kamaśastra-works Smaradipika and Anangaranga (16th century?) demonstrably describe both, the Gräfenberg zone and female ejaculation, in great detail. The female ejaculation is described already in the 7th century in a non-kamaśastra-text, in a work of the poet Amaru called the Amaruśataka.

  14. Comprehensive review of the anatomy and physiology of male ejaculation: Premature ejaculation is not a disease.

    PubMed

    Puppo, Vincenzo; Puppo, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    Human semen contains spermatozoa secreted by the testes and a mixture of components produced by the bulbo-urethral and Littre (paraurethral) glands, prostate, seminal vesicles, ampulla, and epididymis. Ejaculation is used as a synonym for the external ejection of semen, but it comprises two phases: emission and expulsion. As semen collects in the prostatic urethra, the rapid preorgasmic distension of the urethral bulb is pathognomonic of impeding orgasm, and the man experiences a sensation that ejaculation is inevitable (in women, emission is the only phase of orgasm). The semen is propelled along the penile urethra mainly by the bulbocavernosus muscle. With Kegel exercises, it is possible to train the perineal muscles. Immediately after the expulsion phase the male enters a refractory period, a recovery time during which further orgasm or ejaculation is physiologically impossible. Age affects the recovery time: as a man grows older, the refractory period increases. Sexual medicine experts consider premature ejaculation only in the case of vaginal intercourse, but vaginal orgasm has no scientific basis, so the duration of intercourse is not important for a woman's orgasm. The key to female orgasm are the female erectile organs; vaginal orgasm, G-spot, G-spot amplification, clitoral bulbs, clitoris-urethra-vaginal complex, internal clitoris and female ejaculation are terms without scientific basis. Female sexual dysfunctions are popular because they are based on something that does not exist, i.e. the vaginal orgasm. The physiology of ejaculation and orgasm is not impaired in premature ejaculation: it is not a disease, and non-coital sexual acts after male ejaculation can be used to produce orgasm in women. Teenagers and men can understand their sexual responses by masturbation and learn ejaculatory control with the stop-start method and the squeeze technique. Premature ejaculation must not be classified as a male sexual dysfunction. It has become the center of a

  15. The relationship between female sexual function index domains and premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Canat, Lütfi; Değirmentepe, Recep Burak; Atalay, Hasan Anıl; Alkan, İlter; Özbir, Sait; Çulha, Mehmet Gökhan; Ötünçtemur, Alper

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this prospective, observational study was to investigate the relationship between premature ejaculation (PE) and female sexual response cycle, using the female sexual function index (FSFI). The FSFI evaluates female sexual function in six domains: desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain. All men were considered to have PE if they fulfilled the criteria of the second Ad Hoc International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Committee. All men were also assessed by the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) and intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) using stopwatch which was held by the partner. All women completed the FSFI. A total of 181 couples who had regular sexual intercourse with one partner for the past 6 months were enrolled the study. By the definition of ISSM Committee, there were 117 men with PE and 64 men without PE. Partners of men with PE had significantly lower total FSFI scores than did partners of men without PE (21.8 ± 3.5 for PE and 26.4 ± 3.1 for non-PE, p < 0.001). Moreover, all the domains of the FSFI scoring system were separately associated with PE. According to the mean FSFI scores, the 48.43% of women had sexual dysfunction in the non-PE group, and all women had sexual dysfunction in PE group. PE is associated with female sexual dysfunction and all of the female sexual dysfunction domains, as determined by FSFI scores.

  16. Retention of Ejaculate by Drosophila melanogaster Females Requires the Male-Derived Mating Plug Protein PEBme.

    PubMed

    Avila, Frank W; Cohen, Allie B; Ameerudeen, Fatima S; Duneau, David; Suresh, Shruthi; Mattei, Alexandra L; Wolfner, Mariana F

    2015-08-01

    Within the mated reproductive tracts of females of many taxa, seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) coagulate into a structure known as the mating plug (MP). MPs have diverse roles, including preventing female remating, altering female receptivity postmating, and being necessary for mated females to successfully store sperm. The Drosophila melanogaster MP, which is maintained in the mated female for several hours postmating, is comprised of a posterior MP (PMP) that forms quickly after mating begins and an anterior MP (AMP) that forms later. The PMP is composed of seminal proteins from the ejaculatory bulb (EB) of the male reproductive tract. To examine the role of the PMP protein PEBme in D. melanogaster reproduction, we identified an EB GAL4 driver and used it to target PEBme for RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown. PEBme knockdown in males compromised PMP coagulation in their mates and resulted in a significant reduction in female fertility, adversely affecting postmating uterine conformation, sperm storage, mating refractoriness, egg laying, and progeny generation. These defects resulted from the inability of females to retain the ejaculate in their reproductive tracts after mating. The uncoagulated MP impaired uncoupling by the knockdown male, and when he ultimately uncoupled, the ejaculate was often pulled out of the female. Thus, PEBme and MP coagulation are required for optimal fertility in D. melanogaster. Given the importance of the PMP for fertility, we identified additional MP proteins by mass spectrometry and found fertility functions for two of them. Our results highlight the importance of the MP and the proteins that comprise it in reproduction and suggest that in Drosophila the PMP is required to retain the ejaculate within the female reproductive tract, ensuring the storage of sperm by mated females. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  17. The function of multiple ejaculations in bitterling.

    PubMed

    Smith, C; Warren, M; Rouchet, R; Reichard, M

    2014-09-01

    In some taxa, males perform multiple ejaculations, which may function in sperm competition or in maintaining a baseline density of spermatozoa in the female reproductive tract to ensure fertilization, a process that has been termed 'topping up'. We investigated the function of multiple ejaculations in two species of bitterling, the European bitterling (Rhodeus amarus) and Chinese rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus). Bitterling oviposit in living freshwater mussels, with fertilization taking place within the mussel gill cavity. Thus, although fertilization is external, the mussel is analogous to the female reproductive tract in an internally fertilizing species. We measured the frequency of ejaculations and mussel inspections by individual males of two bitterling species in 28 replicated mesocosms and examined focal male responses to rival ejaculations and the presence of females in spawning condition. We used a model of ejaculatory behaviour to simulate the temporal abundance of spermatozoa in mussels. Male R. amarus exhibited high rates of ejaculation and inspection of the siphons of mussels and increased their ejaculation rate in response to the presence of females in spawning condition. Rhodeus ocellatus showed lower overall rates of ejaculation, but significantly elevated ejaculation rate in response to rival ejaculations. The ejaculatory strategy of R. amarus is one that maintains a minimum level of spermatozoa in mussels, which is elevated when the probability of oviposition increases. In contrast, R. ocellatus engages more directly in sperm competition with rivals. We discuss these results in the context of the function of multiple ejaculations and male mating tactics. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. Revisiting post-ejaculation refractory time-what we know and what we do not know in males and in females.

    PubMed

    Levin, Roy J

    2009-09-01

    The post-ejaculation refractory time (PERT), the period after a single ejaculation when further erections and ejaculations are inhibited, has been studied and well-documented in male rats. Since its first attribution in men by Masters and Johnson and its inaccurate delineation in their graphic sexual response model in 1966 it has been infrequently studied whereas scant attention has been paid to any such possible activity in women after female ejaculation. To critically review our current knowledge about PERT in rats and humans and describe and correct shortcomings and errors in previous publications and propose corrections. Review of published literature. Identifying evidence-based data to support authority-based facts. The review exposes the extremely limited evidence-based data that our knowledge of PERT is based on. The paucity of data for most aspects of human PERT is remarkable; even the generally accepted statement that the duration of PERT increases with age has no published support data. Despite numerous studies in rats the mechanisms and site(s) of the activity are poorly understood. Dopaminergic and adrenergic pathways are thought to shorten PERT whereas serotonergic pathways lengthen its duration. Raising the brain serotonin levels in men using SSRIs helps reduce early or premature ejaculation. Rats have an absolute PERT (aPERT) during which erection and ejaculation is inhibited and a relative PERT (rPERT) when a stronger or novel stimulus can, whether such phases exist in men is unexamined. Apart from possible depressed activity in the amygdala and penile dorsal nerve and rejection of prolactin as a major factor in PERT little or no significant advance in understanding human male PERT has occurred. No evidence-based data on women's PERT after female ejaculation exists. New investigations in young and older men utilizing brain imaging and electromagnetic tomography are priority studies to accomplish.

  19. Communication during copulation in the sex-role reversed wolf spider Allocosa brasiliensis: Female shakes for soliciting new ejaculations?

    PubMed

    Garcia Diaz, Virginia; Aisenberg, Anita; Peretti, Alfredo V

    2015-07-01

    Traditional studies on sexual communication have focused on the exchange of signals during courtship. However, communication between the sexes can also occur during or after copulation. Allocosa brasiliensis is a wolf spider that shows a reversal in typical sex roles and of the usual sexual size dimorphism expected for spiders. Females are smaller than males and they are the roving sex that initiates courtship. Occasional previous observations suggested that females performed body shaking behaviors during copulation. Our objective was to analyze if female body shaking is associated with male copulatory behavior in A. brasiliensis, and determine if this female behavior has a communicatory function in this species. For that purpose, we performed fine-scaled analysis of fifteen copulations under laboratory conditions. We video-recorded all the trials and looked for associations between female and male copulatory behaviors. The significant difference between the time before and after female shaking, in favor of the subsequent ejaculation is analyzed. We discuss if shaking could be acting as a signal to accelerate and motivate palpal insertion and ejaculation, and/or inhibiting male cannibalistic tendencies in this species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sperm competition dynamics: ejaculate fertilising efficiency changes differentially with time.

    PubMed

    Pizzari, Tommaso; Worley, Kirsty; Burke, Terry; Froman, David P

    2008-12-16

    A fundamental challenge in evolutionary biology is to resolve the mechanisms that maintain paternity a hypervariable fitness component. Because females are often sexually promiscuous, this challenge hinges on establishing the mechanisms through which the ejaculates of different males compete for fertilisation (sperm competition). The competitive quality of an ejaculate is mediated by the relative number of live sperm and their motile performance. The differential rate at which rival ejaculates lose their fertilising efficiency over time is therefore expected to influence the outcome of sperm competition. Here, we artificially inseminated into sets of replicate domestic hens, Gallus gallus domesticus, experimentally engineered heterospermic ejaculates containing a large number of low-quality sperm from one male, and a lower number of high-quality sperm from another male. Large, low-quality ejaculates fertilised the first eggs produced after insemination, but small, high-quality ejaculates prevailed in the long run despite their numerical disadvantage. Together, these results provide the first experimental demonstration that the relative competitive value of an ejaculate changes drastically over the time during which competing ejaculates are stored within the reproductive tract of a female, resulting in a marked temporal pattern of variation in paternity. A high level of replication makes these results robust. However, our study was restricted to few males of a well characterised study population, and future work should explore the generality of these results.

  1. Sperm competition dynamics: ejaculate fertilising efficiency changes differentially with time

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background A fundamental challenge in evolutionary biology is to resolve the mechanisms that maintain paternity a hypervariable fitness component. Because females are often sexually promiscuous, this challenge hinges on establishing the mechanisms through which the ejaculates of different males compete for fertilisation (sperm competition). The competitive quality of an ejaculate is mediated by the relative number of live sperm and their motile performance. The differential rate at which rival ejaculates lose their fertilising efficiency over time is therefore expected to influence the outcome of sperm competition. Results Here, we artificially inseminated into sets of replicate domestic hens, Gallus gallus domesticus, experimentally engineered heterospermic ejaculates containing a large number of low-quality sperm from one male, and a lower number of high-quality sperm from another male. Large, low-quality ejaculates fertilised the first eggs produced after insemination, but small, high-quality ejaculates prevailed in the long run despite their numerical disadvantage. Conclusion Together, these results provide the first experimental demonstration that the relative competitive value of an ejaculate changes drastically over the time during which competing ejaculates are stored within the reproductive tract of a female, resulting in a marked temporal pattern of variation in paternity. A high level of replication makes these results robust. However, our study was restricted to few males of a well characterised study population, and future work should explore the generality of these results. PMID:19087292

  2. Disorders of orgasm and ejaculation in men.

    PubMed

    Rowland, David; McMahon, Chris G; Abdo, Carmita; Chen, Juza; Jannini, Emmanuele; Waldinger, Marcel D; Ahn, Tai Young

    2010-04-01

    Ejaculatory/orgasmic disorders are common male sexual dysfunctions, and include premature ejaculation (PE), inhibited ejaculation, anejaculation, retrograde ejaculation, and anorgasmia. To provide recommendations and guidelines concerning current state-of-the-art knowledge for management of ejaculation/orgasmic disorders in men. An international consultation in collaboration with the major urology and sexual medicine associations assembled over 200 multidisciplinary experts from 60 countries into 25 committees. Committee members established specific objectives and scopes for various male and female sexual medicine topics. The recommendations concerning state-of-the-art knowledge of disorders of orgasm and ejaculation represent the opinion of seven experts from seven countries developed in a process over a 2-year period. Expert opinion was based on grading of evidence-based medical literature, widespread internal committee discussion, public presentation and debate. Premature ejaculation management is largely dependent upon etiology. Lifelong PE is best managed with PE pharmacotherapy (selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor [SSRI] and/or topical anesthetics). The management of acquired PE is etiology specific and may include erectile dysfunction (ED) pharmacotherapy in men with comorbid ED. Behavioral therapy is indicated when psychogenic or relationship factors are present and is often best combined with PE pharmacotherapy in an integrated treatment program. Retrograde ejaculation is managed by education, patient reassurance, pharmacotherapy, or bladder neck reconstruction. Delayed ejaculation, anejaculation, and/or anorgasmia may have a biogenic and/or psychogenic atiology. Men with age-related penile hypoanesthesia should be educated, reassured, and instructed in revised sexual techniques which maximize arousal. Additional research is required to further the understanding of the disorders of ejaculation and orgasm.

  3. Disorders of orgasm and ejaculation in men.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Chris G; Abdo, Carmita; Incrocci, Luca; Perelman, Michael; Rowland, David; Waldinger, Marcel; Xin, Zhong Cheng

    2004-07-01

    Ejaculatory/orgasmic disorders, common male sexual dysfunctions, include premature ejaculation, inhibited ejaculation, anejaculation, retrograde ejaculation and anorgasmia. To provide recommendations/guidelines concerning state-of-the-art knowledge for management of ejaculation/orgasmic disorders in men. An International Consultation in collaboration with the major urology and sexual medicine associations assembled over 200 multidisciplinary experts from 60 countries into 17 committees. Committee members established specific objectives and scopes for various male and female sexual medicine topics. The recommendations concerning state-of-the-art knowledge in the respective sexual medicine topic represent the opinion of experts from five continents developed in a process over a 2-year period. Concerning the Disorders of Ejaculation/Orgasm in Men Committee, there were nine experts from six countries. Expert opinion was based on grading of evidence-based medical literature, widespread internal committee discussion, public presentation and debate. Premature ejaculation management is dependent upon etiology. When secondary to ED, etiology-specific treatment is employed. When lifelong, initial pharmacotherapy (SSRI, topical anesthesia, PDE5 inhibitors) is appropriate. When associated with psychogenic/relationship factors, behavioral therapy is indicated. When acquired, pharmacotherapy and/or behavioral therapies are preferred. Retrograde ejaculation, diagnosed with spermatozoa and fructose in centrifuged post-ejaculatory voided urine, is managed by education, patient reassurance, pharmacotherapy or bladder neck reconstruction. Men with anejaculation or anorgasmia have a biologic failure of emission and/or psychogenic inhibited ejaculation. Men with age-related penile hypoanesthesia should be educated, reassured and be instructed in revised sexual techniques which maximize arousal. More research is needed in understanding management of men with ejaculation

  4. Delayed ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    Ejaculatory incompetence; Sex - delayed ejaculation; Retarded ejaculation; Anejaculation; Infertility - delayed ejaculation ... include: Religious background that makes the person view sex as sinful Lack of attraction for a partner ...

  5. Larger ejaculate volumes are associated with a lower degree of polyandry across bushcricket taxa

    PubMed Central

    Vahed, Karim

    2006-01-01

    In numerous insects, including bushcrickets (Tettigoniidae), males are known to transfer substances in the ejaculate that inhibit the receptivity of females to further matings, but it has not yet been established whether these substances reduce the lifetime degree of polyandry of the female. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that larger ejaculate volumes should be associated with a lower degree of polyandry across tettigoniid taxa, controlling for male body mass and phylogeny. Data on ejaculate mass, sperm number, nuptial gift mass and male mass were taken primarily from the literature. The degree of polyandry for 14 species of European bushcrickets was estimated by counting the number of spermatodoses within the spermathecae of field-caught females towards the end of their adult lifespans. Data for four further species were obtained from the literature. Data were analysed by using both species regression and independent contrasts to control for phylogeny. Multiple regression analysis revealed that, as predicted, there was a significant negative association between the degree of polyandry and ejaculate mass, relative to male body mass, across bushcricket taxa. Nuptial gift size and sperm number, however, did not contribute further to interspecific variation in the degree of polyandry. A positive relationship was found, across bushcricket taxa, between relative nuptial gift size and relative ejaculate mass, indicating that larger nuptial gifts allow the male to overcome female resistance to accepting large ejaculates. This appears to be the first comparative evidence that males can manipulate the lifetime degree of polyandry of their mates through the transfer of large ejaculates. PMID:16928643

  6. Retrograde ejaculation, painful ejaculation and hematospermia

    PubMed Central

    Parnham, Arie

    2016-01-01

    Although there has been an increased interest on premature ejaculation in the recent years, our understanding regarding the disorders of retrograde ejaculation, painful ejaculation and hematospermia remain limited. All three of these conditions require a keen clinical acumen and willingness to engage in thinking outside of the standard established treatment paradigm. The development of novel investigational techniques and treatments has led to progress in the management of these conditions symptoms; however, the literature almost uniformly is limited to small series and rare randomised trials. Further investigation and randomised controlled trials are needed for progress in these often challenging cases. PMID:27652230

  7. Female orgasm but not male ejaculation activates the pituitary. A PET-neuro-imaging study.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Hieu Kim; Willemsen, Antoon T M; Holstege, Gert

    2013-08-01

    The pituitary gland plays an important role in basic survival mechanisms by releasing fluctuating amounts of hormones into the bloodstream, depending on the circumstances the individual finds itself. However, despite these changes in pituitary hormonal production, neuroimaging studies have never been able to demonstrate changes in the activation level of the pituitary. The most apparent reason is the much higher blood flow rate in the pituitary than in the brain. However, the present PET-scanning study demonstrates for the first time that neuroimaging techniques can identify increased pituitary activity. In a study with 11 healthy women sexual orgasm compared to rest caused an increased blood supply to the pituitary. We assume that this increase signifies elevated pituitary activation in order to produce higher plasma concentrations of oxytocin and prolactin. These hormones induce vaginal and uterus movements, ovulation and enhancement of sperm and egg transport. No increased blood supply was observed comparing clitoral stimulation, orgasm attempt, and faked orgasm with rest. In a study with 11 healthy men comparing ejaculation with rest did not reveal increased pituitary activation, probably because ejaculation causes a much lower increase of oxytocin and prolactin plasma concentration than female orgasm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quality of seminal fluids varies with type of stimulus at ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Jeannerat, E.; Janett, F.; Sieme, H.; Wedekind, C.; Burger, D.

    2017-01-01

    The theory of ejaculate economics was mainly built around different sperm competition scenarios but also predicts that investments into ejaculates depend on female fecundity. Previous tests of this prediction focused on invertebrates and lower vertebrate, and on species with high female reproductive potential. It remains unclear whether the prediction also holds for polygynous mammals with low female reproductive potential (due to low litter size and long inter-birth intervals). We used horses (Equus caballus) to experimentally test whether semen characteristics are adjusted to the oestrous cycle of the mare a stallion is exposed to during few moments before ejaculation. We analysed 122 weekly semen samples collected from 16 stallions during exposure to either an oestrous or a dioestrous mare. Semen volume and the rate of motile sperm were higher when stallions were exposed to an oestrous than to a diestrous mare, while total sperm counts and sperm velocity remained unchanged. Sperm collected after exposure to an oestrous mare also showed reduced oxidative degeneration of cell membranes over a period of 48 hours. We conclude that stallions invest more into their seminal fluids when the chance of fertilization is elevated, and that this adjustment of ejaculate quality can happen very quickly. PMID:28287188

  9. Structural complexity and molecular heterogeneity of a butterfly ejaculate reflect a complex history of selection

    PubMed Central

    Cherwin, Tamara S.; Plakke, Melissa S.; Hill, Jason; Small, Brandon S.; Goetz, Breanna J.; Wheat, Christopher W.; Morehouse, Nathan I.

    2017-01-01

    Male ejaculates are often structurally complex, and this complexity is likely to influence key reproductive interactions between males and females. However, despite its potential evolutionary significance, the molecular underpinnings of ejaculate structural complexity have received little empirical attention. To address this knowledge gap, we sought to understand the biochemical and functional properties of the structurally complex ejaculates of Pieris rapae butterflies. Males in this species produce large ejaculates called spermatophores composed of an outer envelope, an inner matrix, and a bolus of sperm. Females are thought to benefit from the nutrition contained in the soluble inner matrix through increases in longevity and fecundity. However, the indigestible outer envelope of the spermatophore delays female remating, allowing males to monopolize paternity for longer. Here, we show that these two nonsperm-containing spermatophore regions, the inner matrix and the outer envelope, differ in their protein composition and functional properties. We also reveal how these divergent protein mixtures are separately stored in the male reproductive tract and sequentially transferred to the female reproductive tract during spermatophore assembly. Intriguingly, we discovered large quantities of female-derived proteases in both spermatophore regions shortly after mating, which may contribute to spermatophore digestion and hence, female control over remating rate. Finally, we report evidence of past selection on these spermatophore proteins and female proteases, indicating a complex evolutionary history. Our findings illustrate how structural complexity of ejaculates may allow functionally and/or spatially associated suites of proteins to respond rapidly to divergent selective pressures, such as sexual conflict or reproductive cooperation. PMID:28630352

  10. Delayed Ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    ... your partner. Often, men might have difficulty reaching orgasm during sexual intercourse or other sexual activities with a partner. Some men can ejaculate only when masturbating. Delayed ejaculation is divided into the following types based on ...

  11. Identification, RNAi Knockdown and Functional Analysis of an Ejaculate Protein that Mediates a Postmating, Prezgotic Phenotype in a cricket

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Male ejaculate proteins, including both sperm and seminal fluid proteins, play an important role in mediating reproductive biology. The function of ejaculate proteins can include enabling sperm-egg interactions, enhancing sperm storage, mediating female attractiveness, and even regulating female lif...

  12. Etiology of ejaculation and pathophysiology of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Donatucci, Craig F

    2006-09-01

    Ejaculation is comprised of three stages of the male sexual response cycle, namely emission, ejection, and orgasm; however, in comparison with erection, which is a well-understood component of male sexual response, the pathophysiology of ejaculation has yet to be fully delineated. Premature ejaculation (PE), the most common sexual disorder in men, while believed to have a multifactorial etiology, is even less well understood. This article reviews the physiology of ejaculation, and the multifactorial pathophysiology of PE. The Sexual Medicine Society of North America hosted a State of the Art Conference on Premature Ejaculation on June 24-26, 2005 in collaboration with the University of South Florida. The purpose was to have an open exchange of contemporary research and clinical information on PE. There were 16 invited presenters and discussants; the group focused on several educational objectives. Data were obtained by extensive examination of published peer-reviewed literature. Evidence supports that biologic mechanisms associated with neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine, serotonin, oxytocin, Gamma-amino-butyric acid, and nitric oxide (NO) as well as the hormone estrogen play central roles in ejaculation, and subsequently may mediate PE. There is also emerging evidence to show that hyperthyroidism may be a causal factor in PE. Recent data also suggest that psychogenic factors include high level of any experience by some men with PE. The pathophysiology of both lifelong and acquired PE appears to be both neurobiogenic and psychogenic. While psychogenic factors appear to be contributory to PE, pharmacologic intervention of PE can modify intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), which suggests that IELT is a biological variable, and is likely biologically dependent upon neurotransmitters and hormones.

  13. The burden of premature ejaculation: the patient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Sotomayor, Mariano

    2005-05-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) remains an underdetected and under-treated condition, despite the advances in available treatment options. Men with PE often feel stigmatized by the condition and embarrassment is a key barrier to discussing the problem with healthcare professionals. Men with PE perceive themselves as having little control over ejaculation and this lack of control is mirrored in diminished satisfaction with sexual intercourse. The burden of PE is both emotional and physical. Premature ejaculation is associated with low self-esteem, anxiety, and feelings of shame and inferiority. In some studies there is an association with depression. Premature ejaculation places a significant burden on the patient-partner relationship and there is evidence to suggest that there is a higher prevalence of female sexual dysfunction associated with PE. Patients with PE often view the condition as purely psychological or as a problem that will resolve with time and many are unaware that medical treatment could be of benefit. This endorses the particularly important role of healthcare professionals in recognizing the barriers to patient diagnosis and promoting the view that PE is not only a common but also a treatable medical condition.

  14. Sperm competition in humans: mate guarding behavior negatively correlates with ejaculate quality.

    PubMed

    Leivers, Samantha; Rhodes, Gillian; Simmons, Leigh W

    2014-01-01

    In species where females mate with multiple males, the sperm from these males must compete to fertilise available ova. Sexual selection from sperm competition is expected to favor opposing adaptations in males that function either in the avoidance of sperm competition (by guarding females from rival males) or in the engagement in sperm competition (by increased expenditure on the ejaculate). The extent to which males may adjust the relative use of these opposing tactics has been relatively neglected. Where males can successfully avoid sperm competition from rivals, one might expect a decrease in their expenditure on tactics for the engagement in sperm competition and vice versa. In this study, we examine the relationship between mate guarding and ejaculate quality using humans as an empirical model. We found that men who performed fewer mate guarding behaviors produced higher quality ejaculates, having a greater concentration of sperm, a higher percentage of motile sperm and sperm that swam faster and less erratically. These effects were found independent of lifestyle factors or factors related to male quality. Our findings suggest that male expenditure on mate guarding and on the ejaculate may represent alternative routes to paternity assurance in humans.

  15. Ejaculate of sneaker males is pheromonally inconspicuous in the black goby, Gobius niger (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

    PubMed

    Locatello, L; Mazzoldi, C; Rasotto, M B

    2002-11-01

    The black goby, Gobius niger, shows alternative male mating tactics, i.e., parental and sneaker males. Males release a sexual pheromone that attracts females and stimulates aggressive displays in males. This pheromone is produced by the mesorchial gland, a structure well developed in parental males but markedly undeveloped in sneakers. We measured the behavioral response of parental males to the ejaculates of males performing different reproductive tactics. Parental males reacted to the ejaculate of other parental males, with stereotypic aggressive behaviors, but not to the ejaculate of sneakers; consequently sneaker male ejaculate appears to be pheromonally inconspicuous. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Standard operating procedures in the disorders of orgasm and ejaculation.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Chris G; Jannini, Emmanuele; Waldinger, Marcel; Rowland, David

    2013-01-01

    Ejaculatory/orgasmic disorders are common male sexual dysfunctions and include premature ejaculation (PE), inhibited ejaculation, anejaculation, retrograde ejaculation, and anorgasmia. To provide recommendations and guidelines of the current state-of-the-art knowledge for management of ejaculation/orgasmic disorders in men as standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the treating health care professional. The International Society of Sexual Medicine Standards Committee assembled over 30 multidisciplinary experts to establish SOPs for various male and female sexual medicine topics. The SOP for the management of disorders of orgasm and ejaculation represents the opinion of four experts from four countries developed in a process over a 2-year period. Expert opinion was based on grading of evidence-based medical literature, limited expert opinion, widespread internal committee discussion, public presentation, and debate. PE management is largely dependent upon etiology. Lifelong PE is best managed with PE pharmacotherapy (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and/or topical anesthetics). The management of acquired PE is etiology specific and may include erectile dysfunction (ED) pharmacotherapy in men with comorbid ED. All men seeking treatment for PE should receive basic psychosexual education. Graded behavioral therapy is indicated when psychogenic or relationship factors are present and is often best combined with PE pharmacotherapy in an integrated treatment program. Delayed ejaculation, anejaculation, and/or anorgasmia may have a biogenic and/or psychogenic etiology. Men with age-related penile hypoanesthesia should be educated, reassured, and instructed in revised sexual techniques which maximize arousal. Retrograde ejaculation is managed by education, patient reassurance, and pharmacotherapy. Additional research is required to further the understanding of the disorders of ejaculation and orgasm. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  17. Male crickets adjust ejaculate quality with both risk and intensity of sperm competition.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Leigh W; Denholm, Amy; Jackson, Chantelle; Levy, Esther; Madon, Ewa

    2007-10-22

    Sperm competition theory predicts that males should increase their expenditure on the ejaculate with increasing risk of sperm competition, but decrease their expenditure with increasing intensity. There is accumulating evidence for sperm competition theory, based on examinations of testes size and/or the numbers of sperm ejaculated. However, recent studies suggest that ejaculate quality can also be subject to selection by sperm competition. We used experimental manipulations of the risk and intensity of sperm competition in the cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus. We found that males produced ejaculates with a greater percentage of live sperm when they had encountered a rival male prior to mating. However, when mating with a female that presented a high intensity of sperm competition, males did not respond to risk, but produced ejaculates with a reduced percentage of live sperm. Our data suggest that males exhibit a fine-tuned hierarchy of responses to these cues of sperm competition.

  18. On-demand SSRI treatment of premature ejaculation: pharmacodynamic limitations for relevant ejaculation delay and consequent solutions.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Schweitzer, Dave H; Olivier, Berend

    2005-01-01

    Recently, the idea has emerged that on-demand use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), particularly short half-life, should be equally effective in delaying ejaculation as daily SSRI treatment of premature ejaculation. To provide evidence that SSRI-induced ejaculation delay is mainly dependent on pharmacodynamic properties of the drug and hardly on pharmacokinetic factors, and that combined SSRI administration with specific 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor antagonism leads acutely to stronger ejaculation delay than acute SSRI monoadministration. We performed a detailed analysis of serotonin neurotransmission and reviewed animal studies with 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists. In addition, we critically reviewed existing on-demand SSRI treatments publications and the current debate on a definition of premature ejaculation. Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT). Acute SSRI administration leads to only a mild or no increase of 5-HT neurotransmission and concomitant stimulation of postsynaptic 5-HT receptors. Existing on-demand SSRI treatment studies suffer from methodological insufficiencies, and the reported high-fold increases of ejaculation time contradict with neuropharmacological insights from serotonin metabolism. Animal studies show that SSRI coadministration with 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists significantly increases the ejaculation time acutely compared to acute SSRI monoadministration. On-demand SSRI treatment has less ejaculation-delaying effects than daily SSRI treatment. SSRIs with a short half-life are likely leading to much less ejaculation delay than current registered SSRIs. Combined use of SSRIs with 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists increases the likelihood of clinically relevant ejaculation delay after on-demand treatment. On-demand SSRIs with short half-life that insufficiently delay ejaculation in men with IELTs less than 1 minute should be called ejaculation-delaying drugs rather than drugs against premature ejaculation.

  19. Delayed Ejaculation and Associated Complaints: Relationship to Ejaculation Times and Serum Testosterone Levels.

    PubMed

    Morgentaler, Abraham; Polzer, Paula; Althof, Stanley; Bolyakov, Alexander; Donatucci, Craig; Ni, Xiao; Patel, Ankur B; Basaria, Shehzad

    2017-09-01

    Although delayed ejaculation (DE) is typically characterized as a persistently longer than anticipated or desired time to ejaculation (or orgasm) during sexual activity, a timing-based definition of DE and its association with serum testosterone has not been established in a large cohort. To examine in an observational study estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and masturbatory ejaculation latency time (MELT) in men self-reporting DE, assess the association of IELT and MELT with serum testosterone levels, and determine whether correlation with demographic and sexual parameters exist. Men who resided in the United States, Canada, and Mexico were enrolled from 2011 to 2013. Self-estimated IELT and MELT were captured using an Ejaculatory Function Screening Questionnaire in a sample of 988 men screened for possible inclusion in a randomized clinical trial assessing testosterone replacement therapy for ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) and who self-reported the presence or absence of DE and symptoms of hypogonadism. Additional comorbid EjDs (ie, anejaculation, perceived decrease in ejaculate volume, and decreased force of ejaculation) were recorded. Men with premature ejaculation were excluded from this analysis. IELT and MELT were compared between men self-reporting DE and men without DE. The associations of IELT and MELT with serum testosterone were measured. IELT, MELT, and total testosterone levels. Sixty-two percent of screened men self-reported DE with or without comorbid EjDs; 38% did not report DE but did report at least one of the other EjDs. Estimated median IELTs were 20.0 minutes for DE vs 15 minutes for no DE (P < .001). Estimated median MELTs were 15.0 minutes for DE vs 8.0 minutes for no DE (P < .001). Ejaculation time was not associated with serum testosterone levels. Younger men and those with less severe erectile dysfunction had longer IELTs and MELTs. Estimated ejaculation times during vaginal intercourse and/or masturbation were not

  20. Ejaculates are not used as nuptial gifts in simultaneously hermaphroditic snails.

    PubMed

    Lodi, Monica; Meijer, Fedde W; Koene, Joris M

    2017-08-01

    Promoted by sexual selection, males usually adopt different ways to increase their fertilization chances. In many insect taxa males donate nuptial gifts, together with sperm, which represent a valuable additional nutrient source that females can use to provision eggs. This has also been suggested to occur in simultaneous hermaphrodites, organisms with both sex functions. In theory, donation of nuptial gifts or extra nutrients might work in hermaphrodites that mate unilaterally (one-way donation of ejaculates), but will not be effective when these organisms mate reciprocally (mutual exchange of ejaculates), since on average each partner would receive the amount it also transfers. Hence, for the latter the net amount gained would be zero, and when considering the non-trivial costs of metabolic conversion the energy balance of this exchange ends up negative. To test this prediction, we measured the material (dry weight) and resource (carbon and nitrogen content) investment into ejaculates of the unilaterally mating freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis and spermatophores of the reciprocally mating land snail Cornu aspersum. When compared to eggs, our measurements indicate that the investment is low for ejaculates and spermatophores, neither of which represent a significant contribution to egg production. Importantly, during reciprocal matings, couples exchanged similar amounts of material and resources, thus a gain of extra substances seems irrelevant. Hence, caution is needed when generalizing functions of male reproductive strategies across mating systems. Although digestion of ejaculates does not provide extra material and resources in simultaneous hermaphrodites, their absorption could still be important to eliminate an excess of received sperm and to select sperm via cryptic female choice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Female partner's perception of premature ejaculation and its impact on relationship breakups, relationship quality, and sexual satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Burri, Andrea; Giuliano, François; McMahon, Chris; Porst, Hartmut

    2014-09-01

    Women's perceptions of the men's ejaculatory behavior, as well as the impact premature ejaculation (PE) has on the couple's functioning, are important factors that need to be considered. This survey investigated women's perception and importance of ejaculatory function, as well as the specific aspects of PE that cause distress. In addition, the survey further identified the factors with a greater impact on intimacy, relationship, and sexual behavior. The 1,463 females belonging to a web panel from three different countries (Mexico, Italy, and South Korea), aged 20-50 years, participated in the survey. A combination of validated and self-constructed questionnaires to assess women's perception of PE, relationship satisfaction and quality, and sexual functioning and satisfaction were used. Descriptive statistics in form of proportions and percentages, correlation, and regression analyses. A significant correlation between the importance of ejaculatory control and felt distress could be observed (rho = 0.55, P < 0.001). Women reporting less sexual problems considered ejaculatory control more important and reported more PE-related distress (rho = 0.23 and 0.11, respectively; P < 0.001 for both). The male's lack of attention and focus on performance was the most frequently reported reasons for sexual distress (47.6%) followed by "the short time between penetration and ejaculation" (39.9%), and "the lack of ejaculatory control" (24.1%). Almost a quarter of women reported that the man's ejaculatory problem had previously led to relationship breakups (22.8%). Women considering duration to be important were more likely to report breakups. The study highlights the detrimental effects of PE on relationship and sexual satisfaction in the female partner and how it can lead to the termination of the relationship. Most notably, this is the first study to report that an important source of female distress are not only parameters related to performance such as

  2. [Ejaculation inadequacy in sexual disorders].

    PubMed

    Schröder, K H; Krause, W

    1982-01-01

    Sixteen men with missing ejaculation were observed as outpatients in our department within the past years. Among these, four patients with retrograde ejaculation are included. Possible reasons for the missing ejaculation are operations in the genital region or the pelvis, and spinal cord injuries. Endocrine disorders, diabetes mellitus, drug dependence, and psychogenic alterations have to be discussed as etiologic factors. Secondary lack of ejaculation, which is acquired in later years of life, seems to have a poorer prognosis than the primary disease, which begins with puberty. This group of patients is well responsive to psychotherapy. Other therapeutic approaches are hormonal substitution, care of drug dependence, and treatment with sympathicomimetica in some cases of retrograde ejaculation.

  3. Coordination and variability in the elite female tennis serve.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, David; Elliott, Bruce Clifford; Lay, Brendan; Reid, Machar

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing the understanding of coordination and variability in the tennis serve may be of interest to coaches as they work with players to improve performance. The current study examined coordinated joint rotations and variability in the lower limbs, trunk, serving arm and ball location in the elite female tennis serve. Pre-pubescent, pubescent and adult players performed maximal effort flat serves while a 22-camera 500 Hz motion analysis system captured three-dimensional body kinematics. Coordinated joint rotations in the lower limbs and trunk appeared most consistent at the time players left the ground, suggesting that they coordinate the proximal elements of the kinematic chain to ensure that they leave the ground at a consistent time, in a consistent posture. Variability in the two degrees of freedom at the elbow became significantly greater closer to impact in adults, possibly illustrating the mechanical adjustments (compensation) these players employed to manage the changing impact location from serve to serve. Despite the variable ball toss, the temporal composition of the serve was highly consistent and supports previous assertions that players use the location of the ball to regulate their movement. Future work should consider these associations in other populations, while coaches may use the current findings to improve female serve performance.

  4. Epidemiology of delayed ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Di Sante, Stefania; Mollaioli, Daniele; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Carosa, Eleonora; Lenzi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A large body of literature on diminished ejaculatory disorders has been generated without the use of a clear diagnostic definition. Many studies have not distinguished between the orgasm and ejaculation disorders leading to doubtful results. Delayed ejaculation (DE) is one of the diminished ejaculatory disorders, which range from varying delays in ejaculatory latency to a complete inability to ejaculate. The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the definition and epidemiology of diminished ejaculatory disorders. We focus on the acquired diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and specific drug regimens that may cause an iatrogenic form of ejaculatory disorder. In addition, the impact of aging is discussed since the prevalence of DE appears to be moderately but positively related to age. Finally, we also focus on the importance of the hormonal milieu on male ejaculation. To date, evidence on the endocrine control of ejaculation is derived from small clinical trials, but the evidence suggests that hormones modulate the ejaculatory process by altering its overall latency. PMID:27652226

  5. Epidemiology of delayed ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Di Sante, Stefania; Mollaioli, Daniele; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Carosa, Eleonora; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2016-08-01

    A large body of literature on diminished ejaculatory disorders has been generated without the use of a clear diagnostic definition. Many studies have not distinguished between the orgasm and ejaculation disorders leading to doubtful results. Delayed ejaculation (DE) is one of the diminished ejaculatory disorders, which range from varying delays in ejaculatory latency to a complete inability to ejaculate. The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the definition and epidemiology of diminished ejaculatory disorders. We focus on the acquired diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and specific drug regimens that may cause an iatrogenic form of ejaculatory disorder. In addition, the impact of aging is discussed since the prevalence of DE appears to be moderately but positively related to age. Finally, we also focus on the importance of the hormonal milieu on male ejaculation. To date, evidence on the endocrine control of ejaculation is derived from small clinical trials, but the evidence suggests that hormones modulate the ejaculatory process by altering its overall latency.

  6. Female-female mounting among goats stimulates sexual performance in males.

    PubMed

    Shearer, Meagan K; Katz, Larry S

    2006-06-01

    The hypothesis that female-female mounting is proceptivity in goats, in that male goats are aroused by the visual cues of this mounting behavior, was tested. Once a week, male goats were randomly selected and placed in a test pen in which they were allowed to observe one of six selected social or sexual stimulus conditions. The stimulus conditions were one familiar male with two estrous females (MEE); three estrous females that displayed female-female mounting (E(m)); three estrous females that did not mount (E(nm)); three non-estrous females (N(E)); three familiar males (M); and no animals in the pen (Empty). After 10 min, the stimulus animals were removed, and an estrous female was placed in the test pen with the male for a 20-min sexual performance test. During sexual performance tests, the frequencies and latencies of all sexual behaviors were recorded. This procedure was repeated so all males (n = 6) were tested once each test day, and all the stimulus conditions were presented each test day. This was repeated weekly until all males had been exposed to each stimulus condition. Viewing mounting behavior, whether male-female or female-female, increased the total number of sexual behaviors displayed, increased ejaculation frequency, and decreased latency to first mount and ejaculation, post-ejaculatory interval, and the interval between ejaculations. We conclude that male goats are aroused by the visual cues of mounting behavior, and that female-female mounting is proceptivity in goats.

  7. Multiple effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and on vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility.

    PubMed

    Nojimoto, Fernanda D; Piffer, Renata C; Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo de A; Lameu, Claudiana; de Camargo, Antônio C M; Pereira, Oduvaldo C M; Pupo, André S

    2009-09-15

    Sibutramine is an inhibitor of norepinephrine and 5-HT reuptake largely used in the management of obesity. Although a fairly safe drug, postmarketing adverse effects of sibutramine were reported including abnormal ejaculation in men. This study investigates the effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility. Adult male rats received sibutramine (5; 20; or 50 mg kg(-1), ip) and after 60 min were exposed to receptive females for determination of ejaculation parameters. The vasa deferentia and seminal vesicles of untreated rats were mounted in isolated organ baths for recording of isometric contractions and HEK293 cells loaded with fluorescent calcium indicator were used to measure intracellular Ca(2+) transients. Sibutramine 5 and 20 mg kg(-1) reduced ejaculation latency whereas 50 mg kg(-1) increased ejaculation latency. Sibutramine 3 to 30 microM greatly increased the sensitivity of the seminal vesicle and vas deferens to norepinephrine, but at concentrations higher than 10 microM there were striking depressions of maximal contractions induced by norepinephrine, carbachol and CaCl(2). In HEK293 cells, sibutramine 10 to 100 microM inhibited intracellular Ca(2+) transients induced by carbachol. Depending on the doses, sibutramine either facilitates or inhibits ejaculation. Apart from its actions in the central nervous system, facilitation of ejaculation may result from augmented sensitivity of smooth muscles to norepinephrine while reductions of intracellular Ca(2+) may be involved in the delayed ejaculation observed with high doses of sibutramine.

  8. Ejaculation Induced by the Activation of Crz Neurons Is Rewarding to Drosophila Males.

    PubMed

    Zer-Krispil, Shir; Zak, Hila; Shao, Lisha; Ben-Shaanan, Shir; Tordjman, Lea; Bentzur, Assa; Shmueli, Anat; Shohat-Ophir, Galit

    2018-05-07

    The reward system is a collection of circuits that reinforce behaviors necessary for survival [1, 2]. Given the importance of reproduction for survival, actions that promote successful mating induce pleasurable feeling and are positively reinforced [3, 4]. This principle is conserved in Drosophila, where successful copulation is naturally rewarding to male flies, induces long-term appetitive memories [5], increases brain levels of neuropeptide F (NPF, the fly homolog of neuropeptide Y), and prevents ethanol, known otherwise as rewarding to flies [6, 7], from being rewarding [5]. It is not clear which of the multiple sensory and motor responses performed during mating induces perception of reward. Sexual interactions with female flies that do not reach copulation are not sufficient to reduce ethanol consumption [5], suggesting that only successful mating encounters are rewarding. Here, we uncoupled the initial steps of mating from its final steps and tested the ability of ejaculation to mimic the rewarding value of full copulation. We induced ejaculation by activating neurons that express the neuropeptide corazonin (CRZ) [8] and subsequently measured different aspects of reward. We show that activating Crz-expressing neurons is rewarding to male flies, as they choose to reside in a zone that triggers optogenetic stimulation of Crz neurons and display conditioned preference for an odor paired with the activation. Reminiscent of successful mating, repeated activation of Crz neurons increases npf levels and reduces ethanol consumption. Our results demonstrate that ejaculation stimulated by Crz/Crz-receptor signaling serves as an essential part of the mating reward mechanism in Drosophila. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Brain activation during human male ejaculation revisited.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, Janniko R; Reinders, A A T Simone; Van der Graaf, Ferdinand H C E; Paans, Anne M J; Kortekaas, Rudie

    2007-04-16

    In a prior [O]-H2O positron emission tomographic study we reported brain regions involved in human male ejaculation. Here, we used another, more recently acquired data set to evaluate the methodological approach of this previous study, and discovered that part of the reported activation pattern was not related to ejaculation. With a new analysis of these ejaculation data, we now demonstrate ejaculation-related activations in the deep cerebellar nuclei (dentate nucleus), anterior vermis, pons, and ventrolateral thalamus, and, most importantly, ejaculation-related deactivations throughout the prefrontal cortex. This revision offers a new and more accurate insight into the brain regions involved in human male ejaculation.

  10. Multiple effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and on vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility

    SciTech Connect

    Nojimoto, Fernanda D.; Piffer, Renata C.; Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo de A.

    Sibutramine is an inhibitor of norepinephrine and 5-HT reuptake largely used in the management of obesity. Although a fairly safe drug, postmarketing adverse effects of sibutramine were reported including abnormal ejaculation in men. This study investigates the effects of sibutramine on ejaculation and vas deferens and seminal vesicle contractility. Adult male rats received sibutramine (5; 20; or 50 mg kg{sup -1}, ip) and after 60 min were exposed to receptive females for determination of ejaculation parameters. The vasa deferentia and seminal vesicles of untreated rats were mounted in isolated organ baths for recording of isometric contractions and HEK293 cells loadedmore » with fluorescent calcium indicator were used to measure intracellular Ca{sup 2+} transients. Sibutramine 5 and 20 mg kg{sup -1} reduced ejaculation latency whereas 50 mg kg{sup -1} increased ejaculation latency. Sibutramine 3 to 30 {mu}M greatly increased the sensitivity of the seminal vesicle and vas deferens to norepinephrine, but at concentrations higher than 10 {mu}M there were striking depressions of maximal contractions induced by norepinephrine, carbachol and CaCl{sub 2}. In HEK293 cells, sibutramine 10 to 100 {mu}M inhibited intracellular Ca{sup 2+} transients induced by carbachol. Depending on the doses, sibutramine either facilitates or inhibits ejaculation. Apart from its actions in the central nervous system, facilitation of ejaculation may result from augmented sensitivity of smooth muscles to norepinephrine while reductions of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} may be involved in the delayed ejaculation observed with high doses of sibutramine.« less

  11. [Neurobiology of ejaculation and orgasm disorders].

    PubMed

    Salinas Casado, J; Vírseda Chamorro, M; Samblás García, R; Esteban Fuertes, M; Aristizábal Agudelo, J M; Delgado Martín, J A; Blázquez Izquierdo, J; Resel Estévez, L

    1998-04-01

    To determine the neurologic alterations of patients with ejaculatory and orgasmic disorders. A study of the neuroandrologic profile was performed in eight patients; 6 presented an ejaculation, one premature ejaculation and one presented an orgasm. The neuroandrologic profile consisted in performing selective electromyography of the bulbocavernosus muscle, recording of the S2-S4 evoked potentials, evoked somatosensory potentials of the pudendal nerve, electromyography of the smooth cavernous muscle (SPACE), sympathetic skin response and cystometry. The sympathetic lesion was more frequent in the cases with an ejaculation (four cases; 66%); a pudendal efferent lesion was demonstrated in one case (17%) and a suprasacral lesion in one case (16%). A pudendal afferent lesion was observed in the two cases with premature ejaculation (100%). Both cases with an orgasm had a pudendal afferent lesion (100%) and one of them also presented a sympathetic lesion (50%). An ejaculation appears to be caused by sympathetic, motor pudendal or suprasacral lesion. An altered perception of genital sensations due to lesion of the afferent pudendal pathway appears to be present in premature ejaculation. An orgasm could be ascribed to an alteration of the pudendal sensibility or to the absence of ejaculation.

  12. [Painful ejaculation].

    PubMed

    Delavierre, D; Sibert, L; Rigaud, J; Labat, J-J

    2014-06-01

    To clarify definition, epidemiology, diagnosis, evaluation, etiologies and treatment of painful ejaculation (PE). Review of the literature performed by searching the Medline database using keywords ejaculation, orgasm, pain, pelvic pain, sexual behavior. PE is a pelviperineal pain caused by ejaculation or orgasm. Its prevalence rate is between 1 and 4% amongst the general population. Mainly located in the penis, pain usually lasts less than 5 minutes. Assessment is clinical and there is no level of evidence about the strategy of complementary investigations. Benign prostatic hyperplasia, chronic pelvic pain syndrome, radical prostatectomy, prostate brachytherapy and some antidepressant medications are the best estimated etiologies found in the literature. A link between urogenital infections and PE is likely but not clearly established. Alpha-blockers had good therapeutic results in few low level of evidence studies. The assessment of PE is not clearly defined. Some etiologies are known but PE may be a functionnal pain. Only high level of evidence studies would validate the use of the alpha-blockers as an efficient therapeutic option. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Pharmacology for the treatment of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, François; Clèment, Pierre

    2012-07-01

    Male sexual response comprises four phases: excitement, including erection; plateau; ejaculation, usually accompanied by orgasm; and resolution. Ejaculation is a complex sexual response involving a sequential process consisting of two phases: emission and expulsion. Ejaculation, which is basically a spinal reflex, requires a tight coordination between sympathetic, parasympathetic, and somatic efferent pathways originating from different segments and area in the spinal cord and innervating pelvi-perineal anatomical structures. A major relaying and synchronizing role is played by a group of lumbar neurons described as the spinal generator of ejaculation. Excitatory and inhibitory influences from sensory genital and cerebral stimuli are integrated and processed in the spinal cord. Premature ejaculation (PE) can be defined by ≤1-min ejaculatory latency, an inability to delay ejaculation, and negative personal consequences. Because there is no physiological impairment in PE, any pharmacological agent with central or peripheral mechanism of action that is delaying the ejaculation is a drug candidate for the treatment of PE. Ejaculation is centrally mediated by a variety of neurotransmitter systems, involving especially serotonin and serotonergic pathways but also dopaminergic and oxytocinergic systems. Pharmacological delay of ejaculation can be achieved either by inhibiting excitatory or reinforcing inhibitory pathways from the brain or the periphery to the spinal cord. PE can be treated with long-term use of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or tricyclic antidepressants. Dapoxetine, a short-acting SSRI, is the first treatment registered for the on-demand treatment of PE. Anesthetics applied on the glans penis have the ability to lengthen the time to ejaculation. Targeting oxytocinergic, neurokinin-1, dopaminergic, and opioid receptors represent future avenues to delaying ejaculation.

  14. Orchid sexual deceit provokes ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Gaskett, A C; Winnick, C G; Herberstein, M E

    2008-06-01

    Sexually deceptive orchids lure pollinators by mimicking female insects. Male insects fooled into gripping or copulating with orchids unwittingly transfer the pollinia. The effect of deception on pollinators has been considered negligible, but we show that pollinators may suffer considerable costs. Insects pollinating Australian tongue orchids (Cryptostylis species) frequently ejaculate and waste copious sperm. The costs of sperm wastage could select for pollinator avoidance of orchids, thereby driving and maintaining sexual deception via antagonistic coevolution or an arms race between pollinator learning and escalating orchid mimicry. However, we also show that orchid species provoking such extreme pollinator behavior have the highest pollination success. How can deception persist, given the costs to pollinators? Sexually-deceptive-orchid pollinators are almost exclusively solitary and haplodiploid species. Therefore, female insects deprived of matings by orchid deception could still produce male offspring, which may even enhance orchid pollination.

  15. Premature ejaculation results from partners' mismatch: development and validation of index of intra-vaginal ejaculation latency time.

    PubMed

    Cai, L; Wen, Y; Jiang, M; Zeng, M; Zhang, B

    2016-05-01

    Mismatch of partners in premature ejaculation (PE) regarding intra-vaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) is usually neglected. Here we proposed the concept and evaluated the use of index of IELT (IIELT) as an objective diagnostic tool for PE. Data from 103 self-reporting PE patients and 59 normal controls were collected. The expected IELTs of both the male and female partners were provided by each participating couple in two questionnaires. IIELT=stopwatch IELT/(1/2 the male's expected IELT+1/2 the female's expected IELT). The stopwatch IELTs were 1.74±1.4 min (PE group) and 14.45±11.0 min (control group), P<0.05. The expected IELTs were 15.65±8.7 min (men) and 14.16±6.9 min (women) in the PE group, and 21.3±16.1 min (men) and 20.04±13.47 min (women) in the control group, P<0.05. The calculated IIELTs were 0.14±0.12 (PE group) and 0.83±0.60 (control group), P<0.05. The best cut-off point was 0.658, the Youden index was 0.652, sensitivity was 0.991, specificity was 0.661, positive predictive probability was 83.46% and negative predictive probability was 97.6%. We concluded that IIELT was an integrated measurement of the couples' sexual equilibrium and demonstrated that it provided a simple and objective screening indicator for diagnosing self-reported PE.

  16. Do male secondary sexual characters signal ejaculate quality? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mautz, Brian S; Møller, Anders P; Jennions, Michael D

    2013-08-01

    There are two reasons why researchers are interested in the phenotypic relationship between the expression of male secondary sexual characters (SSCs) and 'ejaculate quality' (defined as sperm/ejaculate traits that are widely assumed to increase female fertility and/or sperm competitiveness). First, if the relationship is positive then females could gain a direct benefit by choosing more attractive males for fertility assurance reasons ('the phenotype-linked fertility' hypothesis). Second, there is much interest in the direction of the correlation between traits favoured by pre-copulatory sexual selection (i.e. affecting mating success) and those favoured by post-copulatory sexual selection (i.e. increasing sperm competitiveness). If the relationship is negative this could lead to the two forms of selection counteracting each other. Theory predicts that the direction of the relationship could be either positive or negative depending on the underlying genetic variance and covariance in each trait, the extent of variation among males in condition (resources available to allocate to reproductive traits), and variation among males in the cost or rate of mating. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the average relationship between the expression of behavioural and morphological male secondary sexual characters and four assays of ejaculate quality (sperm number, viability, swimming speed and size). Regardless of how the data were partitioned the mean relationship was consistently positive, but always statistically non-significant. The only exception was that secondary sexual character expression was weakly but significantly positively correlated with sperm viability (r = 0.07, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the strength or direction of the relationship between behavioural and morphological SSCs, nor among relationships using the four ejaculate quality assays. The implications of our findings are discussed. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews

  17. [An update on ejaculation physiology and premature ejaculation definition, prevalence data, and etiology].

    PubMed

    Mas, M

    2014-07-01

    Ejaculation consists of two synchronized phases: a) emission, the contraction of the vas deferens, prostate and seminal vesicles and bladder neck expelling the seminal fluid to the urethra; it is mediated by sympathetic nerves, and b) expulsion, seminal fluid outward propulsion by the rhythmic contraction of perineal muscles. Ejaculation results from a complex spinal reflex having its essential components within the lumbosacral cord. The main afferent signals derive from mechanical stimulation of the glans penis and are conveyed by sacral sensory roots. The ejaculatory reflex is under strong modulatory influence from the brain through both facilitatory and inhibitory descending signals. Several central neurotransmitters including serotonin and dopamine modulate the ejaculatory reflex. The intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), measured or estimated, provides clinically useful assessment of the ejaculatory reflex. The new DSM-5 definition of premature ejaculation (PE) includes a specified time to ejaculation criterion (IELT of about one minute or shorter). Four subtypes of PE, showing different prevalence rates, have been proposed. PE etiology is multifactorial with interacting psychological and biological factors contributing to the disorder. A number of genetic polymorphisms related to serotonin and dopamine neurotransmission may predispose the bearers to developing PE. High prevalence rates of PE have been found in patients with chronic prostatitis, hyperthyroidism, and premature ejaculation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Rural y Generalista (SEMERGEN). All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of hormonal activity in patients with premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Canat, Lütfi; Erbin, Akif; Canat, Masum; Dinek, Mehmet; Çaşkurlu, Turhan

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose Premature ejaculation is considered the most common type of male sexual dysfunction. Hormonal controls of ejaculation have not been exactly elucidated. The aim of our study is to investigate the role of hormonal factors in patients with premature ejaculation. Materials and Methods Sixty-three participants who consulted our outpatient clinics with complaints of premature ejaculation and 39 healthy men as a control group selected from volunteers were included in the study. A total of 102 sexual active men aged between 21 and 76 years were included. Premature ejaculation diagnostic tool questionnaires were used to assessment of premature ejaculation. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, total and free testosterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine and thyroxine were measured. Results Thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin levels were significantly lower in men with premature ejaculation according to premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (p=0.017, 0.007 and 0.007, respectively). Luteinizing hormone level (OR, 1.293; p=0.014) was found to be an independent risk factor for premature ejaculation. Conclusions Luteinizing hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels are associated with premature ejaculation which was diagnosed by premature ejaculation diagnostic tool questionnaires. The relationship between these findings have to be determined by more extensive studies. PMID:27619666

  19. [Retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy and disorders of ejaculation].

    PubMed

    Deiana, G; Ranieri, A; Micheli, E; Peracchia, G; Canclini, L P; Sironi, D; Levorato, C A; Lembo, A

    1999-09-01

    Retrograde ejaculation is a frequent and permanent complication after bilateral retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy (RPLND). Seminal emission and ejaculation are primarily under sympathetic control. Several studies after RPLND in patients with nonseminomatous testis cancer proved the role of preservation of the efferent fibers originating from the lumbar sympathetic ganglia. Based on the results of anatomical studies, a modified unilateral operative technique and nerve-sparing approach permit to preserve normal anterograde ejaculation without reduction of long-term survival.

  20. The Evaluation and Treatment of Delayed Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Daniel H; Spitz, Aaron

    2014-10-01

    Delayed ejaculation is a small but important subsection of ejaculatory dysfunction, with prevalence estimated at 1-4%. It is most commonly defined by DSM-IV-TR criteria, as "a persistent delay in, or absence of, orgasm in a male following a normal sexual excitement phase during sexual activity that the clinician, taking into account the person's age, judges to be adequate in focus, intensity, and duration." The pathophysiology of delayed ejaculation is related to disruptions in ejaculatory apparatus, nervous transmission, hormonal or neurochemical ejaculatory control, or psychosocial factors. To update the clinician on the evaluation and treatment of delayed ejaculation. The keywords "delayed ejaculation" and "retarded ejaculation" were utilized to search Pubmed for relevant publications. 319 results were generated from the search, and those publications judged relevant to the pathophysiology, epidemiology, evaluation, and treatment of delayed ejaculation were included in the review. 110 articles were ultimately selected for inclusion in this review. The evaluation of this condition requires a focused history and physical, which includes a detailed sexual history, examination of the genitalia, and inquiry into the status of the partner. Laboratory tests are aimed at the detection of abnormalities in the blood count, glucose level, hormone levels, or kidney function. If a correctable etiology is discovered, treatment is directed towards the reversal of this condition. In some cases, the delayed ejaculation may be a lifelong problem. Also, in some cases the etiology of the delayed ejaculation may be irreversible, such as in the case of age-related sensation loss or diabetes-related neuropathy. In these instances treatment may require a combination of behavioral modification, sexual therapy, or perhaps pharmaceutical drugs. Participation of the partner in therapy may sometimes be necessary. Future investigations will continue to elucidate the complex biological and

  1. Dimorphic ejaculates and sperm release strategies associated with alternative mating behaviors in the squid.

    PubMed

    Apostólico, Lígia H; Marian, José E A R

    2017-11-01

    Sperm competition is a powerful postcopulatory selective force influencing male adaptations associated with increasing fertilization success, and it is usually related to the evolution of different strategies of ejaculate expenditure between individuals. Ejaculates may also be influenced by additional selective pressures associated with sperm competition, such as timing between insemination and fertilization, female reproductive tract morphology, and fertilization environment. Also, males that adopt alternative mating tactics may face distinct sperm competition pressures, which may lead to the evolution of intraspecific diversity in ejaculates. In loliginid squids, males with alternative reproductive tactics (sneakers and consorts) differ not only in mating behavior, but also transfer spermatophores into two distinct sites within the female. Here, we compared structure and functioning of spermatophores between sneakers and consorts in the squid Doryteuthis plei applying microscopy techniques and in vitro experiments. Sneakers and consorts exhibit differences in spermatophore structure that lead to distinct spermatophoric reactions and spermatangium morphologies. Moreover, in sneakers, sperm release lasts longer and their sperm show an aggregative behavior not detected in consorts. Slow sperm release may be a strategy to guarantee longer sperm provision, given the wide interval between sneaker mating and egg release. For consorts, in turn, intense and quick sperm discharge may be advantageous, as timing between mating and egg-laying is relatively short. Within the complex squid mating system, factors such as (i) different fertilization sites and (ii) interval between mating and egg release may also influence sperm competition, and ultimately shape the evolution of divergent ejaculates between dimorphic males. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Contemporary Management of Disorders of Male Orgasm and Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Althof, Stanley E; McMahon, Chris G

    2016-07-01

    Ejaculatory disorders lie along a conceptual continuum with premature ejaculation anchoring one end, normal ejaculation in the center, and difficulties with delayed or anejaculation at the opposite end. Retrograde ejaculation, painful ejaculation, and postorgasmic illness syndrome can occur at any point on the continuum. This manuscript defines the ejaculatory dysfunctions, reviews the anatomy and physiology of orgasm and ejaculation, and summarizes the pharmacological, psychological, and combined treatment approaches to ejaculatory dysfunctions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Ejaculatory disorders except premature ejaculation, orgasmic disorders].

    PubMed

    Rigot, J-M; Marcelli, F; Giuliano, F

    2013-07-01

    Disorders of ejaculation and orgasm apart from premature ejaculation are pretty uncommon. Medical literature was reviewed and combined with expert opinion of the authors. The semiology of these disorders is essential: aspermia, hypospermia, retrograde ejaculation, delayed or absent ejaculation with or without orgasm. Whether this is a lifelong or acquired condition, it is essential to assess the side-effects of medications i.e. psychotropic drugs, including antidepressant, neuroleptics, tramadol, alphablockers: tamsulosin and silodosin must always be surveyed. The management is often difficult, especially with a parenthood perspective. The management of lifelong disorders must rely on psychosexual therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Premature ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    ... to sexual tension or other problems in the relationship. When to Contact a Medical ... K, Martyn-St. James M, Kaltenthaler E, et al. Behavioral therapies for management of premature ejaculation: a systematic review. Sex Med . ...

  5. Physiology of ejaculation: emphasis on serotonergic control.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, François; Clément, Pierre

    2005-09-01

    Ejaculation is constituted by two distinct phases, emission and expulsion. Orgasm, a feature perhaps unique in humans, is a cerebral process that occurs, in normal conditions, concomitantly to expulsion of semen. Normal antegrade ejaculation is a highly coordinated physiological process with emission and expulsion phases being under the control of autonomic and somatic nervous systems respectively. The central command of ejaculation is located at the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral levels of the spinal cord and is activated by stimuli from genital, mainly penile, origin although cerebral descending pathways exert both inhibitory and excitatory regulatory roles. Cerebral structures specifically activated during ejaculation form a tightly interconnected network comprising hypothalamic, diencephalic and pontine areas. A rational neurobiological approach has led to identify several neurotransmitters contributing to the ejaculatory process. Amongst them, serotonin (5-HT) has received strong experimental evidences indicating its inhibitory role in the central control of ejaculation. In particular, 5-HT1A cerebral autoreceptors but also spinal 5-HT1B and, in a lesser extent, 5-HT2C receptors have been shown to mediate the effects of 5-HT on ejaculation. Pharmacological strategies, especially those targeting serotonergic system, for the treatment of ejaculatory disorders in human will undoubtedly benefit from the application of basic and clinical research findings. In this perspective, the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) which basically increase the amount of central 5-HT and delay ejaculation in humans seems promising.

  6. Retrograde ejaculation

    MedlinePlus

    ... ejaculation. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 11th ed. Philadelphia, ... infertility. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 11th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  7. Urethral anatomy and semen flow during ejaculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Diane

    2016-11-01

    Ejaculation is critical for reproductive success in many animals, but little is known about its hydrodynamics. In mammals, ejaculation pushes semen along the length of the penis through the urethra. Although the urethra also carries urine during micturition, the flow dynamics of micturition and ejaculation differ: semen is more viscous than urine, and the pressure that drives its flow is derived primarily from the rhythmic contractions of muscles at the base of the penis, which produce pulsatile rather than steady flow. In contrast, Johnston et al. (2014) describe a steady flow of semen through the crocodilian urethral groove during ejaculation. Anatomical differences of tissues associated with mammalian and crocodilian urethral structures may underlie these differences in flow behavior.

  8. Normal male sexual function: emphasis on orgasm and ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Alwaal, Amjad; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Lue, Tom F.

    2016-01-01

    Orgasm and ejaculation are two separate physiological processes that are sometimes difficult to distinguish. Orgasm is an intense transient peak sensation of intense pleasure creating an altered state of consciousness associated with reported physical changes. Antegrade ejaculation is a complex physiological process that is composed of two phases (emission and expulsion), and is influenced by intricate neurological and hormonal pathways. Despite the many published research projects dealing with the physiology of orgasm and ejaculation, much about this topic is still unknown. Ejaculatory dysfunction is a common disorder, and currently has no definitive cure. Understanding the complex physiology of orgasm and ejaculation allows the development of therapeutic targets for ejaculatory dysfunction. In this article, we summarize the current literature on the physiology of orgasm and ejaculation, starting with a brief description of the anatomy of sex organs and the physiology of erection. Then, we describe the physiology of orgasm and ejaculation detailing the neuronal, neurochemical, and hormonal control of the ejaculation process. PMID:26385403

  9. Effect of DA-8031, a novel oral compound for premature ejaculation, on male rat sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyung Koo; Sung, Ji Hyun; Kim, Soon Hoe; Lee, Sukhyang

    2014-03-01

    DA-8031 is a potent and selective serotonin transporter inhibitor developed for the treatment of premature ejaculation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of DA-8031 on male sexual behavior in a rat model. Sexual behavior was examined after an acute oral administration of 10, 30 or 100 mg/kg of DA-8031 in copulation studies with female rats. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated after oral administration of DA-8031 at a dose level of 30 mg/kg. DA-8031 treatment produced a dose-dependent increase in ejaculation latency time and showed statistical significance at 30 and 100 mg/kg dosage levels compared with the vehicle (P < 0.05). In addition, DA-8031 treatment reduced the mean number of ejaculations in a dose-dependent manner. No changes in post-ejaculatory interval, numbers of mounts, intromissions or ejaculations were observed at any dose. In pharmacokinetic study, the blood concentration of DA-8031 peaked at 0.38 ± 0.14 h after oral administration, and then rapidly declined with a half-life of 1.79 ± 0.32 h. Treatment with DA-8031 delays the ejaculation latency time without affecting the initiation of mounting behavior or post-ejaculatory interval in rats. Furthermore, DA-8031 is rapidly absorbed and eliminated after oral administration in rats. These preclinical findings provide a clue for the clinical testing of DA-8031 as an "on-demand" agent for premature ejaculation. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  10. Normal male sexual function: emphasis on orgasm and ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Alwaal, Amjad; Breyer, Benjamin N; Lue, Tom F

    2015-11-01

    Orgasm and ejaculation are two separate physiological processes that are sometimes difficult to distinguish. Orgasm is an intense transient peak sensation of intense pleasure creating an altered state of consciousness associated with reported physical changes. Antegrade ejaculation is a complex physiological process that is composed of two phases (emission and expulsion), and is influenced by intricate neurological and hormonal pathways. Despite the many published research projects dealing with the physiology of orgasm and ejaculation, much about this topic is still unknown. Ejaculatory dysfunction is a common disorder, and currently has no definitive cure. Understanding the complex physiology of orgasm and ejaculation allows the development of therapeutic targets for ejaculatory dysfunction. In this article, we summarize the current literature on the physiology of orgasm and ejaculation, starting with a brief description of the anatomy of sex organs and the physiology of erection. Then, we describe the physiology of orgasm and ejaculation detailing the neuronal, neurochemical, and hormonal control of the ejaculation process. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Delayed Ejaculation: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Delayed ejaculation (DE) is a poorly defined and uncommon form of male sexual dysfunction, characterized by a marked delay in ejaculation or an inability to achieve ejaculation. It is often quite concerning to patients and their partners, and sometimes frustrates couples' attempts to conceive. This article aims to review the pathophysiology of DE and anejaculation (AE), to explore our current understanding of the diagnosis, and to present the treatment options for this condition. Electronic databases were searched from 1966 to October 2017, including PubMed (MEDLINE) and Embase. We combined “delayed ejaculation,” “retarded ejaculation,” “inhibited ejaculation,” or “anejaculation” as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms or keywords with “epidemiology,” “etiology,” “pathophysiology,” “clinical assessment,” “diagnosis,” or “treatment.” Relevant sexual medicine textbooks were searched as well. The literature suggests that the pathophysiology of DE/AE is multifactorial, including both organic and psychosocial factors. Despite the many publications on this condition, the exact pathogenesis is not yet known. There is currently no single gold standard for diagnosing DE/AE, as operationalized criteria do not exist. The history is the key to the diagnosis. Treatment should be cause-specific. There are many approaches to treatment planning, including various psychological interventions, pharmacotherapy, and specific treatments for infertile men. An approved form of drug therapy does not exist. A number of approaches can be employed for infertile men, including the collection of nocturnal emissions, prostatic massage, prostatic urethra catheterization, penile vibratory stimulation, probe electroejaculation, sperm retrieval by aspiration from either the vas deferens or the epididymis, and testicular sperm extraction. PMID:29299903

  12. Sperm competition games: sperm selection by females.

    PubMed

    Ball, M A; Parker, G A

    2003-09-07

    We analyse a co-evolutionary sexual conflict game, in which males compete for fertilizations (sperm competition) and females operate sperm selection against unfavourable ejaculates (cryptic female choice). For simplicity, each female mates with two males per reproductive event, and the competing ejaculates are of two types, favourable (having high viability or success) or unfavourable (where progeny are less successful). Over evolutionary time, females can increase their level of sperm selection (measured as the proportion of unfavourable sperm eliminated) by paying a fecundity cost. Males can regulate sperm allocations depending on whether they will be favoured or disfavoured, but increasing sperm allocation reduces their mating rate. The resolution of this game depends on whether males are equal, or unequal. Males could be equal: each is favoured with probability, p, reflecting the proportion of females in the population that favour his ejaculate (the 'random-roles' model); different males are favoured by different sets of females. Alternatively, males could be unequal: given males are perceived consistently by all females as two distinct types, favoured and disfavoured, where p is now the frequency of the favoured male type in the population (the 'constant-types' model). In both cases, the evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is for females initially to increase sperm selection from zero as the viability of offspring from unfavourable ejaculates falls below that of favourable ejaculates. But in the random-roles model, sperm selection decreases again towards zero as the unfavourable ejaculates become disastrous (i.e. as their progeny viability decreases towards zero). This occurs because males avoid expenditure in unfavourable matings, to conserve sperm for matings in the favoured role where their offspring have high viability, thus allowing females to relax sperm selection. If sperm selection is costly to females, ESS sperm selection is high across a region of

  13. Premature ejaculation: a clinical update.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Neil R; Stuckey, Bronwyn G A

    2008-06-02

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is ejaculation occurring without control, on or shortly after vaginal penetration and before the subject wishes it, causing marked distress or interpersonal difficulties. PE is the most common male sexual complaint. Primary (lifelong) PE has a physiological basis. Therapy should involve the man and his partner. The primary aims of therapy are for the man to regain a sense of control over his ejaculation time and for him and his partner to feel satisfaction with sexual intercourse. The most effective therapies for primary PE are certain selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, given on a daily basis or "on demand" before sexual activity. Topical anaesthetics have also been shown to be effective. The most common cause of secondary PE is declining erectile function. The approach to treating secondary PE is to treat the underlying condition.

  14. Lunar and climatic effects on boar ejaculate traits.

    PubMed

    Chinchilla-Vargas, Josué; Kerns, Karl; Rothschild, Max F

    2018-06-01

    There is evidence that phases of the moon affect wild animal behaviors including reproduction. There is, however, little evidence of moon phase effects on domestic livestock reproduction. This study investigated the effects of moon phase and climatic variables on boar ejaculate traits. Records of 4149 semen collections from boars of nine different breeds at one boar stud were used. The response variables were volume of ejaculate, concentration of sperm in the ejaculate, and number of doses obtained per ejaculate. Moon phase, greatest daily temperature (T), least daily T, average daily relative humidity (RH), temperature-humidity index (THI), season and the interaction of moon phase with season were analyzed at the day of collection and 45 days prior to date of collection as a proxy of initiation of spermatogenesis. For both dates analyzed season and the interaction of season with moon had significant effects (P < 0.05) on the volume of the ejaculate. Moon phase had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on volume of ejaculate at the day of collection. Sperm concentration was affected (P < 0.05) by the interaction of moon phase with season, high and low temperature, THI, RH and breed. Season had an effect (P < 0.01) on concentration of sperm at the initiation of spermatogenesis. For doses that could be used for AI that were obtained/ejaculate, there were effects of moon phase, season, the interaction between season and moon phase and breed (P < 0.05) at collection day and at the initiation of spermatogenesis. There was an interaction (P < 0.0001) between season and moon phase for volume of ejaculate, sperm concentration and number of doses obtained per ejaculate at date of collection and at day of initiation of spermatogenesis. The significant interaction of season and moon phase on boar semen traits suggests that to maximize productivity of modern swine production systems determining a collection schedule in some seasons relative to moon phase may

  15. The pathophysiology of acquired premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Jannini, Emmanuele A.; Serefoglu, Ege C.; Hellstrom, Wayne J. G.

    2016-01-01

    The second Ad Hoc International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation defined acquired premature ejaculation (PE) as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by a the development of a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in ejaculation latency time in men with previous normal ejaculatory experiences, often to about 3 minutes or less, the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and the presence of negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy. The literature contains a diverse range of biological and psychological etiological theories. Acquired PE is commonly due to sexual performance anxiety, psychological or relationship problems, erectile dysfunction (ED), and occasionally prostatitis and hyperthyroidism, consistent with the predominant organic etiology of acquired PE, men with this complaint are usually older, have a higher mean BMI and a greater incidence of comorbid disease including hypertension, sexual desire disorder, diabetes mellitus, chronic prostatitis, and ED compared to lifelong, variable and subjective PE. PMID:27652216

  16. Efficacy of treatment with pseudoephedrine in men with retrograde ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Shoshany, O; Abhyankar, N; Elyaguov, J; Niederberger, C

    2017-07-01

    The use of pseudoephedrine, an alpha agonist, for the treatment of retrograde ejaculation is well-known, however, there is no clear consensus from the literature regarding its efficacy and treatment protocol. We evaluated the efficacy of pseudoephedrine treatment in patients with retrograde ejaculation, utilizing a yet undescribed short-period treatment protocol. Twenty men were medically treated with pseudoephedrine for retrograde ejaculation between January 2010 and May 2016 (12 with complete retrograde ejaculation and 8 with partial retrograde ejaculation). All patients had a semen analysis and post-ejaculatory urinalysis before and after treatment. The treatment protocol consisted of 60 mg of pseudoephedrine every 6 h on the day before semen analysis and two more 60 mg doses on the day of the semen analysis. Diabetes was the most common etiology for complete retrograde ejaculation (60%), whereas an idiopathic cause was the most common etiology for partial retrograde ejaculation (82%). Of the 12 complete retrograde ejaculation patients treated with pseudoephedrine prior to semen analysis, 7 (58.3%) recovered spermatozoa in the antegrade ejaculate, with a mean total sperm count of 273.5 ± 172.5 million. Of the eight patients with partial retrograde ejaculation, five (62.5%) had a ≥50% increase in the antegrade total sperm count. In this group, the mean total sperm count increased from 26.9 ± 8.5 million before treatment to 84.2 ± 24.6 million after treatment, whereas the percentage of spermatozoa in the urine declined from 43.2 ± 9% to 17 ± 10%, respectively (both p < 0.05). Overall, in men with retrograde ejaculation treated with a pseudoephedrine regimen prior to ejaculation, some improvement in seminal parameters occurred in 14 (70%) patients, with 10 patients (38.5% of all patients) achieving antegrade total sperm counts over 39 million. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  17. Retarded ejaculation in men: an overview of psychological and neurobiological insights.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2005-06-01

    Disorders of orgasm and ejaculation are erroneously mixed up in the DSM-IV classification system. Male Orgasmic Disorder to denote "delayed ejaculation" is inadequate as orgasm and ejaculation represent clinical expressions of different neurobiological phenomena. Unfortunately, the DSM-IV criteria for delayed ejaculation were accepted regardless of any research with appropriate methodology and design. The psychological approach and associated psychotherapy to solve this problem is rather disappointing. The neurobiological approach, which started with animal studies, has demonstrated various neurotransmitters with the potency to inhibit ejaculation. Indeed, several experimental drugs have been tested in rats, showing the successful acceleration of ejaculation. We propose that human research should start with the development of an operational definition of delayed ejaculation. To achieve this goal, we propose unselected epidemiological stopwatch studies which also provide information on the prevalence and incidence of delayed ejaculation in men. Currently, no effective and safe drugs are available to accelerate ejaculation time in men. The best way to treat lifelong delayed ejaculation is, thus far, to inform the patients about biological and psychological inhibiting factors which they need to avoid, and to remain critical about unrealistic expectations from psychotherapy. Psychotherapy may be useful in subgroups, particularly in the absence of effective and safe drugs.

  18. Silodosin and its potential for treating premature ejaculation: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoshikazu; Tanda, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Hisao; Nitta, Toshikazu; Akagashi, Keigo; Hanzawa, Tatsuo; Tobe, Musashi; Haga, Kazunori; Uchida, Kosuke; Honma, Ichiya

    2012-03-01

    Premature ejaculation is a common sexual problem, as is erectile dysfunction. We evaluated silodosin, a highly selective α1A-adrenoceptor antagonist, as a new treatment option for premature ejaculation. α1-Adrenoceptor antagonists are widely used for lower urinary tract symptoms, and clinical studies on silodosin have shown excellent clinical efficacy for lower urinary tract symptoms. However, compared with other α1-adrenoceptor antagonists, silodosin appeared to suppress ejaculation in a relatively higher percent of trial participants. This suppression of ejaculation by silodosin suggested its potential for treating premature ejaculation. Consequently, we evaluated the feasibility of off-label silodosin as a new treatment option for premature ejaculation. Eight patients suffering premature ejaculation were treated with silodosin. Silodosin (4 mg) was given 2 h before sexual intercourse. Intravaginal ejaculatory latency time, premature ejaculation profile item, clinical global impression change in premature ejaculation and systemic adverse events were recorded. Intravaginal ejaculatory latency time was significantly prolonged (from 3.4 min to 10.1 min, P = 0.003). All patients answered better (much better) or slightly better for their own premature ejaculation problem compared with pretreatment condition in the clinical global impression change. Premature ejaculation profile also significantly improved. Two (25%), three (37.5%) and seven patients (87.5%) experienced anejaculation, reduced semen volume and discomfort during orgasm, respectively. However, these problems were not of major concern for the participants. No systemic adverse effects were reported. The current results support the possible use of silodosin as a new treatment option for premature ejaculation, and suggest that a placebo controlled study assessing its clinical usefulness would be worthwhile. © 2011 The Japanese Urological Association.

  19. Premature ejaculation: A clinical review for the general physician.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eric; Gilbert, Brent; Perera, Marlon; Roberts, Matthew J

    2015-10-01

    Premature ejaculation is one of the most common sexual dysfunctions in men. Recent epidemiological studies suggest its prevalence in Australia may range from 21-31% This article will discuss the current definition of premature ejaculation from a urological perspective. It will provide an understanding of the pathogenesis of premature ejaculation, as well as assessment and management options. Premature ejaculation can have a significant adverse effect on the quality of life for the patient and his sexual partners. It can potentially lead to psychological distress, diminished self- esteem, anxiety, erectile dysfunction, reduced libido and poor interpersonal relationships. Most men feel reluctant to discuss premature ejaculation with their general practitioner despite its psychological, emotional and relational effects. Effective, evidence-based treatment options are available and physicians should feel confident when exploring ways to improve the quality of life for men with sexual dysfunction.

  20. Perceived physiological and orgasmic sensations at ejaculation in spinal cord injured men.

    PubMed

    Courtois, Frédérique; Charvier, Kathleen; Leriche, Albert; Vézina, Jean-Guy; Côté, Isabelle; Raymond, Denis; Jacquemin, Géraldine; Fournier, Christine; Bélanger, Marc

    2008-10-01

    With the advances in penile vibrator stimulation (PVS), most spinal cord injured (SCI) men can self-ejaculate. Oral midodrine may further increase ejaculation success, while maintaining autonomy. Since most SCI men attempt ejaculation for sexual rather than reproductive purposes, self-ejaculation should be emphasized and sensations explored. Explore (i) self-ejaculation success rate in SCI men; (ii) vascular parameters indicative of autonomic dysreflexia (AD) during sexual stimulation and ejaculation; and (iii) sensations associated with ejaculation. Ejaculation was assessed on 81 SCI men with complete ASIA A (49%) and incomplete B to D lesions (51%), subdivided into tetraplegics (C2-T2), paraplegics sensitive to AD (T3-T6), paraplegics not sensitive to AD (T7-T10), paraplegics with lesions to the emission pathway (T11-L2), and paraplegics with lesions interrupting the emission-ejaculation pathways (L3-below). Natural stimulation was attempted first followed, if negative, by PVS followed, if again negative, by PVS combined with oral midodrine (5-25 mg). Ejaculation success, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and perceived physiological and orgasmic sensations. Overall 91% reached ejaculation, 30% with natural stimulation, 49% with PVS and 12% with midodrine plus PVS. Midodrine salvaged up to 27% depending upon the lesion. Physiological and orgasmic sensations were perceived significantly more at ejaculation than sexual stimulation. Tetraplegics did not differ from paraplegics sensitive to AD on perceived cardiovascular and muscular sensations, but perceived significantly more autonomic sensations, and generally more physiological sensations than lower lesions unsensitive to AD. Most SCI men can self-ejaculate and perceive physiological and orgasmic sensations. The climactic experience of ejaculation seems related to AD, few sensations being reported when AD is not reached, pleasurable climactic sensations being reported when mild to moderate AD is reached, and

  1. Sirt3 modulation may be beneficial in the treatment of ejaculation dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Mandava, Sree Harsha; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2013-09-01

    Disorders of ejaculation are the most common form of sexual dysfunction. The ejaculatory reflex consists of two phases: emission and expulsion. Premature ejaculation (PE) can arise from overactivity of the smooth muscles responsible for ejaculation. On the other side of the spectrum, delayed ejaculation occurs when an individual is unable to either reach orgasm within an adequate time frame or experiences no ejaculation. While premature ejaculation and to a lesser degree delayed ejaculation have been recognized for quite some time, no FDA approved treatment has been developed. Since both types of ejaculatory dysfunction have an underlying neuro-muscular component, this may be a target for future treatment strategies. We thereby hypothesize that modulation of the rhythmic contraction of the ejaculatory smooth muscles with either a Sirt3 activator or inhibitor may prove beneficial in treating either premature or delayed ejaculation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sexual function of premature ejaculation patients assayed with Chinese Index of Premature Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yi-Ming; Xin, Zhong-Cheng; Jiang, Hui; Guo, Yan-Jie; Liu, Wu-Jiang; Tian, Long; Zhu, Ji-Chuan

    2004-06-01

    To assess the psychometric properties of the Chinese Index of Premature Ejaculation (CIPE). The sexual function of 167 patients with and 114 normal controls without premature ejaculation (PE) were evaluated with CIPE. All subjects were married and had regular sexual activity. The CIPE has 10 questions, focusing on libido, erectile function, ejaculatory latency, sexual satisfaction and difficulty in delaying ejaculation, self-confidence and depression. Each question was responded to on a 5 point Likert-type scale. The individual question score and the total scale score were analyzed between the two groups. There were no significant differences between the age, duration of marriage and educational level (P> 0.05) of patients with and without PE and normal controls. The mean latency of patients with PE and normal controls were 1.6 +/- 1.2 and 10.2 +/- 9.5 minutes, respectively. Significant differences between patients with (26.7 +/- 4.6) PE and normal controls (41.9 +/- 4.0) were observed on the total score of CIPE (P< 0.01). Using binary logistic regression analysis, PE was significantly related to five questions of the original measure. They are the so-called the CIPE-5 and include: ejaculatory latency, sexual satisfaction of patients and sexual partner, difficulty in delaying ejaculation, anxiety and depression. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of CIPE-5 questionnaire indicated that the sensitivity and specificity of CIPE were 97.60 % and 94.74 %, respectively. Employing the total score of CIPE-5, patients with PE could be divided into three groups: mild (>15 point) 19.8 %, moderate (10-14 point) 62.8 % and severe (< 9 point) 16.7 %. The CIPE-5 is a useful method for the evaluation of sexual function of patients with PE and can be used as a clinical endpoint for clinical trials studying the efficacy of pharmacological intervention.

  3. Pharmaceutical companies could serve their own interests by supporting research on the efficacy of psychotherapy on premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Rowland, D; Cooper, S; Macias, L

    2008-01-01

    For many men, the treatment of sexual dysfunctions such as premature ejaculation may well be most effective when pharmacotherapy is combined with psychotherapy. Yet the essential elements of psychotherapy that might best be combined with pharmacological-based therapy are currently unknown. Support for evidence-based studies that identify key components of psychotherapy that might improve positive long-term outcomes, including patient satisfaction, are needed. Pharmaceutical companies having a vested interest in achieving both treatment adherence and improved patient outcomes could benefit from such information.

  4. On-demand tramadol hydrochloride use in premature ejaculation treatment.

    PubMed

    Kaynar, Mehmet; Kilic, Ozcan; Yurdakul, Talat

    2012-01-01

    To determine the efficacy of tramadol in premature ejaculation (PE) treatment compared with placebo. A single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was conducted with 60 lifelong (primary) patients with PE. The patients were randomized into 2 groups, each consisting of 30 patients, who took tramadol or placebo on demand. PE was defined as an intravaginal ejaculation latency time of ≤60 seconds in 90% of intercourse episodes. The efficacy of the drugs was assessed using the intravaginal ejaculation latency time, ability of ejaculation control, and sexual satisfaction scores after an 8-week treatment period. All participants completed the study voluntarily. Two groups were similar in terms of the patient demographics. Increases in the intravaginal ejaculation latency time, ability of ejaculation control, and sexual satisfaction score between the placebo and tramadol groups were compared with the baseline values in both groups. At the end of study period, the tramadol group had significantly (P<.001) greater values for all 3 parameters compared with those in the placebo group. On-demand use of low-dose tramadol is effective for lifelong PE. Currently, selective seratonin reuptake inhibitors such as dapoxetine, are a more popular treatment option for PE. However, tramadol might be considered an alternative agent for primary PE treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Social dominance explains within-ejaculate variation in sperm design in a passerine bird.

    PubMed

    Rojas Mora, Alfonso; Meniri, Magali; Ciprietti, Sabrina; Helfenstein, Fabrice

    2017-03-04

    Comparative studies suggest that sperm competition exerts stabilizing selection towards an optimal sperm design - e.g., the relative size and covariation of different sperm sections or a quantitative measure of sperm shape - that maximizes male fertility, which results in reduced levels of within-male variation in sperm morphology. Yet, these studies also reveal substantial amounts of unexplained within-ejaculate variance, and the factors presiding to the maintenance of such within-male variation in sperm design at the population level still remain to be identified. Sperm competition models predict that males should progressively invest more resources in their germline as their mating costs increase, i.e., the soma/germline allocation trade-off hypothesis. When access to fertile females is determined by social dominance, the soma/germline allocation trade-off hypothesis predicts that dominant males should invest less in the control of spermatogenesis. Hence, dominance should positively correlate with within-male variance in sperm design. In support of this hypothesis, we found that dominant house sparrow males produce ejaculates with higher levels of within-ejaculate variation in sperm design compared to subordinate males. However, after experimentally manipulating male social status, this pattern was not maintained. Our results suggest that males might control variation in sperm design according to their social status to some extent. Yet, it seems that such within-ejaculate variation in sperm design cannot be rapidly adjusted to a new status. While variation in sperm design could result from various non-exclusive sources, we discuss how strategic allocation of resources to the somatic vs. the germline functions could be an important process shaping the relationship between within-male variation in sperm design and social status.

  6. Erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation: interrelationships and psychosexual factors.

    PubMed

    Brody, Stuart; Weiss, Petr

    2015-02-01

    Both erectile dysfunction (ED) and premature ejaculation (PE) impair the quality of sexual intercourse for both men and their female partners. This study aims to examine with a large representative sample the interrelationships of measures of ED, PE, typical intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), men's perceived relationship quality with their mother, and age of first being in love. In this cross-sectional study, a nationally representative sample of 960 Czech coitally experienced men (aged 15-84), provided age, International Index of Erectile Function 5-item (IIEF-5), Index of Premature Ejaculation (IPE) scores, IELT, rating of relationship with their mother, and age at first being in love. Correlations, partial correlations adjusting for age, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and multiple regression statistical methods were used. IIEF-5, IPE, and IELT were significantly intercorrelated (IIEF-5 and IPE: r=0.64). Better IIEF-5 scores were associated with younger age at first (and ever) being in love. Poorer IPE score, shorter IELT, and mild-moderate ED were associated with poorer perceived mother relationship (which was also associated with first being in love at an older age). Multiple regression analyses revealed that: (i) greater IELT was associated with better erectile function and better mother relationship, but not with age; and (ii) IELT of <1 minute was associated with poorer perceived mother relationship and poorer IIEF-5, but marginally with age. History of homosexual activity was unrelated to IIEF-5, IPE, IELT, and perceived mother relationship scores. The findings suggest that degrees of ED and PE are often comorbid, and both ED and PE are associated with less favorable early experiences with women. Brody S and Weiss P. Erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation: Interrelationships and psychosexual factors. J Sex Med 2015;12:398-404. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  7. The pathophysiology of delayed ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Delayed ejaculation (DE) is probably least studied, and least understood of male sexual dysfunctions, with an estimated prevalence of 1–4% of the male population. Pathophysiology of DE is multifactorial and including psychosexual-behavioral and cultural factors, disruption of ejaculatory apparatus, central and peripheral neurotransmitters, hormonal or neurochemical ejaculatory control and psychosocial factors. Although knowledge of the physiology of the DE has increased in the last two decade, our understanding of the different pathophysiological process of the causes of DE remains limited. To provide a systematic update on the pathophysiology of DE. A systematic review of Medline and PubMed for relevant publications on ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD), DE, retarded ejaculation, inhibited ejaculation, and climax was performed. The search was limited to the articles published between the January 1960 and December 2015 in English. Of 178 articles, 105 were selected for this review. Only those publications relevant to the pathophysiology, epidemiology and prevalence of DE were included. The pathophysiology of DE involves cerebral sensory areas, motor centers, and several spinal nuclei that are tightly interconnected. The biogenic, psychogenic and other factors strongly affect the pathophysiology of DE. Despite the many publications on this disorder, there still is a paucity of publications dedicated to the subject. PMID:27652227

  8. Quality of 4-hourly ejaculates--levels of calcium and magnesium.

    PubMed

    Valsa, J; Skandhan, K P; Gusani, P H; Sahab Khan, P; Amith, S

    2013-02-01

    A four-hourly ejaculation study was conducted in which eleven normal healthy subjects participated. Five of them discontinued after submitting three samples. One alone was present for submission at the end of 16 h (fifth ejaculate), which was his last submission. Physical exhaustion was the sole reason for all participants for their discontinuation from the study. The result showed a decrease in semen volume and sperm count from first to last ejaculate. The increase in motility was probably due to reduction in exposure time to sperm motility inhibitory factors. In general, total motile spermatozoa as well as actively motile spermatozoa progressively increased from first to last ejaculate at the cost of sluggish spermatozoa. A significant increase in seminal plasma calcium and magnesium was seen as well as a significant increase in magnesium inside the cell from the first to the fourth ejaculate. Considering the quality of semen, which was good in sperm count and excellent in motility, calcium and magnesium may be helpful in cleaning motility inhibitory factors of spermatozoa. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Proposals or findings for a new approach about how to define and diagnose premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weifu; Kumar, Pardeep; Minhas, Suks; Ralph, David

    2005-09-01

    To review and present the proposals or findings for a new approach about how to define and diagnose premature ejaculation (PE). Using Medline to search for international peer reviewed manuscripts published from 1996 to 2004 about the definition and diagnosis of PE. PE, to date, has not a universally agreed definition and diagnostic criterion. Many definitions are partial, subjective and nonspecific. An ideal definition or diagnostic criterion should consist of intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), the ability to control over ejaculation, the extent of male sexual satisfaction, the extent of female sexual satisfaction, the frequency of female sexual partner reaching orgasm and the extent of psychological and pathological factors. Therefore, the Chinese Index of Premature Ejaculation (CIPE) seems an ideal tool and criterion used to diagnose PE due to including all the elements above. In the majority of cases, PE is the result of a mix of psychogenic, physiological and organic factors. So, besides some routine tests such as urine routine test, endocrine hormone assay, psychosexual counseling, couple evaluation and physical examination, prostate examination, serum leptin assay, semen magnesium assessment and glans hypersensitivity measurement, are suggested to be performed in the diagnosis of PE. Although elucidated by two clinical trials and further confirmed, serum leptin assay seems a promising and objective marker to diagnose PE because it is related to the serotonergic system whose disorder has been confirmed to contribute to the etiology of PE. None of these definitions and diagnoses has been accepted as a universal agreement of PE. CIPE seems an ideal tool and criterion used to diagnose PE and leptin maybe become a promising and objective marker for PE.

  10. Complex patterns of multivariate selection on the ejaculate of a broadcast spawning marine invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, John L; Simmons, Leigh W; Evans, Jonathan P

    2012-08-01

    Assessing how selection operates on several, potentially interacting, components of the ejaculate is a challenging endeavor. Ejaculates can be subject to natural and/or sexual selection, which can impose both linear (directional) and nonlinear (stabilizing, disruptive, and correlational) selection on different ejaculate components. Most previous studies have examined linear selection of ejaculate components and, consequently, we know very little about patterns of nonlinear selection on the ejaculate. Even less is known about how selection acts on the ejaculate as a functionally integrated unit, despite evidence of covariance among ejaculate components. Here, we assess how selection acts on multiple ejaculate components simultaneously in the broadcast spawning sessile invertebrate Mytilus galloprovincialis using the statistical tools of multivariate selection analyses. Our analyses of relative fertilization rates revealed complex patterns of selection on sperm velocity, motility, and morphology. Interestingly, the most successful ejaculates were made up of slower swimming sperm with relatively low percentages of motile cells, and sperm with smaller head volumes that swam in highly pronounced curved swimming trajectories. These results are consistent with an emerging body of literature on fertilization kinetics in broadcast spawners, and shed light on the fundamental nature of selection acting on the ejaculate as a functionally integrated unit. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Effect of Interventions for Premature Ejaculation in the Treatment of Chronic Prostatitis with Secondary Premature Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Qing; Yi, Qing-Tong; Chen, Chu-Hong; Gong, Min

    2016-08-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of interventions for premature ejaculation (PE) in the management of patients with chronic prostatitis and secondary premature ejaculation. Methods Totally 90 patients diagnosed as chronic prostatitis with PE were randomly divided into control group (n=45) and interventional group (n=45). Control group received a conventional therapy consisted of oral administration of antibiotics,α-receptor blocker,and proprietary Chinese medicine for clearing away heat and promoting diuresis. Interventional group received a conventional therapy combined with treatment for ameliorating the PE symptom (oral dapoxetine on-demand and ejaculation control exercise).National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI),Chinese Index of Sexual Function for Premature Ejaculation (CIPE)-5 questionnaires,intravaginal ejaculatory latency time,and the number of coituses per week were applied for evaluating the treatment outcomes. Results Follow-up was accomplished in 35 and 38 patients in the control and interventional group.The CIPE-5 score,intravaginal ejaculatory latency time,and the number of coituses per week were significantly improved in both two groups but more significantly in interventional group (all P<0.05). The NIH-CPSI pain,urination,and quality of life subscores and total score were improved significantly in both two groups after treatment,but the NIH-CPSI pain and quality of life subscores had been improved more significantly in the interventional group (all P<0.05). The variation of NIH-CPSI was negatively correlated with that of CIPE-5 in both two groups (r=-0.362,P=0.016;r=-0.330,P=0.021). Conclusions For CP with secondary PE patients,the interventions for PE can not only improve the quality of sexual life but also help improve the NIH-CPSI pain and quality of life subscores. PE should be routinely screened and treated during the management of CP.p.

  12. Do Men Produce Higher Quality Ejaculates When Primed With Thoughts of Partner Infidelity?

    PubMed

    Pham, Michael N; Barbaro, Nicole; Holub, Andrew M; Holden, Christopher J; Mogilski, Justin K; Lopes, Guilherme S; Nicolas, Sylis C A; Sela, Yael; Shackelford, Todd K; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Welling, Lisa L M

    2018-01-01

    Sperm competition theory can be used to generate the hypothesis that men alter the quality of their ejaculates as a function of sperm competition risk. Using a repeated measures experimental design, we investigated whether men produce a higher quality ejaculate when primed with cues to sperm competition (i.e., imagined partner infidelity) relative to a control prime. Men ( n = 45) submitted two masturbatory ejaculates-one ejaculate sample for each condition (i.e., sperm competition and control conditions). Ejaculates were assessed on 17 clinical parameters. The results did not support the hypothesis: Men did not produce higher quality ejaculates in the sperm competition condition relative to the control condition. Despite the null results of the current research, there is evidence for psychological and physiological adaptations to sperm competition in humans. We discuss methodological limitations that may have produced the null results and present methodological suggestions for research on human sperm competition.

  13. The effect of sperm concentration in the ejaculate on morphological traits of bull spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Kondracki, Stanisław; Banaszewska, Dorota; Wysokńjska, Anna; Iwanina, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were performed on 75 ejaculates obtained from 19 bulls representing different cattle breeds used at the Masovian Centre for Animal Breeding and Reproduction in Łowicz. Fresh ejaculates were measured in respect to their volume and sperm count in the ejaculates was determined. The ejaculates were classified based on the criterion of sperm concentration and divided into five groups. Sperm morphometric measurements were taken from each bull and assessment of semen morphology was done on the basis of examination under a microscope using preparations made from fresh ejaculates. For each slide, morphometric measurements were taken of 15 randomly selected spermatozoa characterised by normal morphology and well visible under the microscope. Additionally, in each preparation morphometry of 500 spermatozoa was evaluated, numbers of spermatozoa with normal morphology and morphological abnormalities were recorded and these were categorized into spermatozoa with major and minor defects. An insignificant correlation was observed between the sperm concentration in the ejaculate and morphological traits, dimensions and shapes of bull spermatozoa. The less concentrated ejaculates contained spermatozoa with a slightly larger head circumference and a more elongated head shape in comparison with the spermatozoa in the more concentrated ejaculates. The highest frequency of morphologically malformed spermatozoa, both in the case of primary and secondary alterations, was observed in ejaculates with sperm concentration of no more than 1000 x 10(3)/mm3.

  14. Time-to-ejaculation and the quality of semen produced by masturbation at a clinic.

    PubMed

    Elzanaty, Saad

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the association between the length of time-to-ejaculation and semen parameters. Ejaculates from 142 men under infertility assessment were analyzed according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Seminal neutral alpha-glucosidase (NAG), prostate-specific antigen (PSA), zinc, and fructose were also measured. Three groups according to the length of the time-to-ejaculation were defined: G(<10) (<10 minutes), G(10-15) (10 to 15 minutes), and G(>15) (greater than 15 minutes). Time to ejaculation showed negative significant correlation with sperm concentration (rho = -0.20, P = 0.02), total sperm count (rho = -0.20, P = 0.04), NAG (rho = -0.20, P = 0.01), and fructose (rho = -0.30, P = 0.02), respectively. No significant correlations existed among the time-to-ejaculation and age, sexual abstinence, semen volume, sperm motility, PSA, and zinc. There were negative significant associations among time-to-ejaculation and sperm concentration (beta = -3.0; P = 0.004), total sperm count (beta = -10; P = 0.02), total count of progressive motility (beta = -7.0; P = 0.02), and fructose (beta = -0.30; P = 0.02), respectively. No significant associations existed among the time-to-ejaculation and semen volume, motility grades, NAG, PSA, and zinc. G(<10) was characterized by higher sperm concentration, total sperm count, and total count of progressive motility compared with G(10-15) (mean difference = 33 x 10(6)/mL; P = 0.01), (mean difference = 96 x 10(6)/ejaculate; P = 0.50), (mean difference = 77 x 10(6)/ejaculate; P = 0.02), respectively, and G(>15) (mean difference = 50 x 10(6)/mL; P = 0.01), (mean difference = 176 x 10(6)/ejaculate; P = 0.02), (mean difference = 110 x 10(6)/ejaculate; P = 0.03), respectively. Fructose was significantly higher in G(<10) compared with G(>15) (mean difference = 5.0 mmol/L; P = 0.03). The time-to-ejaculation length was associated with semen parameters. These results might reflect the negative effect of acute stress during semen

  15. The drug treatment of delayed ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Elsaied, Moustafa A.; Mostafa, Taymour

    2016-01-01

    Delayed ejaculation (DE) is an uncommon and a challenging disorder to treat. It is often quite concerning to patients and it can affect psychosocial well-being. Here we reviewed how DE is treated pharmacologically .We also highlighted specific settings where drugs could be introduced to medical practice. Electronic databases were searched from 1966 to February 2016, including PubMed MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBCSO Academic Search Complete, Cochrane Systematic Reviews Database, and Google Scholar using key words; delayed ejaculation, retarded ejaculation, inhibited ejaculation, drugs, treatment, or pharmacology. To achieve the maximum sensitivity of the search strategy and to identify all studies, we combined “delayed ejaculation” as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms or keywords with each of “testosterone” or “cabergoline” or “bupropion” or “amantadine” or “cyproheptadine” or “midodrine” or “imipramine” or “ephedrine” or “pseudoephedrine” or “yohimbine” or “buspirone” or “oxytocin” or “bethanechol” as MeSH terms or keywords. There are a number of drugs to treat patients with DE including: testosterone, cabergoline, bupropion, amantadine, cyproheptadine, midodrine, imipramine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, yohimbine, buspirone, oxytocin, and bethanechol. Although there are many pharmacological treatment options, the evidence is still limited to small trials, case series or case reports. Review of literature showed that evidence level 1 (Double blind randomized clinical trial) studies were performed with testosterone, oxytocin, buspirone or bethanechol treatment. It is concluded that successful drug treatment of DE is still in its infancy. The clinicians need to be aware of the pathogenesis of DE and the pharmacological basis underlying the use of different drugs to extend better care for these patients. Various drugs are available to address such problem, however their evidence of efficacy is still limited and their

  16. Painful Ejaculation with Cyclobenzaprine: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Wie, Christopher S.; Gorlin, Andrew W.; Wisenbaugh, Eric S.; Rosenfeld, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Sexual dysfunction is a well‐known side effect of antidepressants. Painful ejaculation is a rare side effect that has been reported with the use of some psychiatric drugs such as triclyclic antidepressants. Cyclobenzaprine is a muscle relaxant that is structurally similar to tricyclic antidepressants. It is the most commonly prescribed muscle relaxant in the United States and accounts for 18% of all prescriptions written for chronic back pain. Methods A 55‐year‐old man was referred to our pain medicine clinic for evaluation and treatment of pain with ejaculation. Main outcome Measure The main outcome measure was to review the current published literature and case reports on painful ejaculation from medication use, in particular tricyclic antidepressants. Results After discontinuation of cyclobenzaprine, our patient's sexual dysfunction resolved. This result was consistent with the literature reviewed on the topic. Conclusion Painful ejaculation is likely an underreported side effect of tricyclic antidepressants and cyclobenzaprine use. Fortunately, these symptoms are reversible and discontinuation of these medications is typically an effective cure. K raus MB , W ie CS , G orlin AW , W isenbaugh ES , and R osenfeld DM . Painful ejaculation with cyclobenzaprine: A case report and literature review. S ex M ed 2015;3:343–345. PMID:26797071

  17. The role of anxiety in premature ejaculation: a psychophysiological model.

    PubMed

    Strassberg, D S; Mahoney, J M; Schaugaard, M; Hale, V E

    1990-06-01

    Despite the prevalence of premature ejaculation and the success in its treatment, researchers have yet to offer a compelling, empirically based theory regarding its nature or etiology. This study explored a model that argues that anxiety may not be necessary for the existence of this dysfunction. Fifteen premature ejaculators (PEs) and 17 nonpremature ejaculators (NPEs) engaged in self-stimulation to orgasm both in the laboratory and at home. The following specific hypotheses were tested: Compared to NPEs, PEs would demonstrate (i) shorter orgasmic latencies, both in the lab and at home, and (ii) equally accurate estimates of these latencies. Results offered strong support for both hypotheses. These findings, and those derived from a questionnaire completed by subjects, were seen as consistent with a psychophysiologic model of premature ejaculation. According to this model, the role of anxiety is seen as variable, interacting with the somatic vulnerability of the individual to determine orgasmic latency.

  18. Proposal for a definition of lifelong premature ejaculation based on epidemiological stopwatch data.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Olivier, Berend; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2005-07-01

    Consensus on a definition of premature ejaculation has not yet been reached because of debates based on subjective authority opinions and nonstandardized assessment methods to measure ejaculation time and ejaculation control. To provide a definition for lifelong premature ejaculation that is based on epidemiological evidence including the neurobiological and psychological approach. We used the 0.5 and 2.5 percentiles as accepted standards of disease definition in a skewed distribution. We applied these percentiles in a stopwatch-determined intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) distribution of 491 nonselected men from five different countries. The practical consequences of 0.5% and 2.5% cutoff points for disease definition were taken into consideration by reviewing current knowledge of feelings of control and satisfaction in relation to ejaculatory performance of the general male population. Literature arguments to be used in a proposed consensus on a definition of premature ejaculation. The stopwatch-determined IELT distribution is positively skewed. The 0.5 percentile equates to an IELT of 0.9 minute and the 2.5 percentile an IELT of 1.3 minutes. However, there are no available data in the literature on feelings of control or satisfaction in relation to ejaculatory latency time in the general male population. Random male cohort studies are needed to end all speculation on this subject. Exact stopwatch time assessment of IELT in a multinational study led us to propose that all men with an IELT of less than 1 minute (belonging to the 0.5 percentile) have "definite" premature ejaculation, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes (between 0.5 and 2.5 percentile) have "probable" premature ejaculation. Severity of premature ejaculation (nonsymptomatic, mild, moderate, severe) should be defined in terms of associated psychological problems. We define lifelong premature ejaculation as a neurobiological dysfunction with an unacceptable increase of risk to

  19. Effect of sperm concentration in an ejaculate on morphometric traits of spermatozoa in Duroc boars.

    PubMed

    Kondracki, S; Wysokińska, A; Iwanina, M; Banaszewska, D; Sitarz, D

    2011-01-01

    The experimental material consisted of 75 ejaculates collected form 8 Duroc boars. The ejaculates were divided into three groups according to sperm concentration in an ejaculate. An ejaculate was obtained from each boar monthly and it was used to make microscopic preparations to examine spermatozoa morphology. In each preparation morphometric measurements were taken of fifteen randomly selected spermatozoa characterized by normal morphology. The following measurements of spermatozoa were taken: length and width of the spermatozoa head, head area, length of the flagellum, perimeter of the spermatozoon head and total spermatozoon length. The results were used to calculate indicators of spermatozoa morphology. Moreover, assessments were made of frequency of morphological defects to isolate spermatozoa with primary and secondary abnormalities following the Blom classification system. It was found that the concentration of spermatozoa in the ejaculate influenced the morphometric characteristics of spermatozoa. Ejaculates with low sperm concentrations are characterized by larger spermatozoa as compared to ejaculates with high sperm concentrations. However, sperm concentration in the ejaculate does not much influence the shape of spermatozoa.

  20. Salvaging urospermic ejaculates from brown bear (Ursus arctos).

    PubMed

    Gomes-Alves, S; Alvarez, M; Nicolas, M; Martínez-Rodríguez, C; Borragán, S; Chamorro, C A; Anel, L; de Paz, P

    2014-11-30

    The objective of this study was to reverse the osmotic stress of sperm in urine contaminated bear ejaculates that were obtained by electroejaculation using pre-freezing washing or density gradient centrifugation isolation. In Experiment 1, ejaculates were divided into six aliquots, five were diluted in each washing extender: 200, 300, 400, 500 and 700 mOsm/kg (prepared from a Tes-Tris-Fructose base, adding water or fructose as corresponds), at a 1:2 ratio (raw semen: washing solution, v/v); and the other aliquot was handled without washing (Control group). Samples were centrifuged at 600 × g for 6 min prior to freezing. In Experiment 2, ejaculates were divided into two aliquots: one was diluted 1:1 with TCG (Tris-Citric acid-Glucose) and centrifuged at 600 × g for 6 min (Centrifugation Control; C-Control); the other was treated with PureSperm density gradient column. After treatments, samples were cryopreserved. Sperm motility, viability (SYBR-14/propidium iodide (PI)) and acrosomal status (peanut agglutinin-fluorescein isothiocyanate (PNA-FITC)/PI) were analyzed before and after freezing. Ejaculates with an initial osmolality of less than 120 mOsm/kg treated with pre-freezing washing, and the Control sample had greater pre-freezing sperm motility than the raw ejaculate, but sperm viability was not different among these groups. The samples washed with 700 mOsm/kg solutions had the least pre-freezing viability. In the post-thawing evaluation, pre-freezing washing treatments did not provide any improvement in comparison with the Control sample, and treatment with 700 mOsm/kg extender had deleterious effects in all urospermic samples. PureSperm density gradient centrifugation applied to urospermic raw semen was suitable for improving sperm motility and viability of pre-freezing samples and the selected spermatozoa had greater freezing capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [The effect of selected antibiotics on microorganisms contaminating boar ejaculate].

    PubMed

    Mazurová, J; Vinter, P

    1991-04-01

    The occurrence of microorganisms, including their total counts in boar native ejaculates, was investigated in two stages; the objective of this investigation also was to determine contamination after the sperms were treated with diluents containing the antibiotics ampicillin, gentamycin, apramycin, cefoxitin, or antibiotic combinations penicillin + streptomycin, ampicillin + cefoxitin, gentamycin + cefoxitin and ampicillin + gentamycin. The representation of bacterial species and total counts of microbes in 1 ml diluted sperm stored at a temperature of about 18 degrees C were determined in 24, 48 and 72 h after dilution. The microorganisms were cultivated from all native ejaculates. Proteus sp. (63.3%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (51.5% of the total number of examined samples) were the most frequent species. The number of contaminated diluted ejaculates ranged from 12.5 to 95.8% in 24 h after dilution, from 12.5 to 98.5% in 48 h and from 16.8 to 95.8% of the total number of examined ejaculates in 72 h. The occurrence of microorganisms correlated mostly with the efficiency spectrum of the antibiotics or their combinations. The average counts of microorganisms in 1 ml of native ejaculate made 2,363,000 in stage I and 1,472,108 in stage II. The highest average counts in 1 ml of diluted sperm were found in ejaculates containing cefoxitin and apramycin. Gentamycin was the most effective antibiotic used as a sole component (average counts of microorganisms CPM in 1 ml were 416 in 24 h, 955 in 48 h and 2260 in 72 h after dilution); ampicillin and gentamycin were the most efficient combination (14--20--21). This combination exerted very good effects also on Proteus sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  2. Fluoxetine and premature ejaculation: a double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Haensel, S M; Klem, T M; Hop, W C; Slob, A K

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fluoxetine on sexual function in men with premature ejaculation and/or erectile dysfunction and control subjects in a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. There were four groups: (1) premature ejaculation (PE, N = 9); (2) premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction (PE/ED, N = 9); (3) erectile dysfunction (ED, N = 7); and (4) healthy, sexually functional control subjects (N = 15). The study consisted of three 4-week periods: fluoxetine, washout, and placebo (or vice versa). Fluoxetine began at 5 mg/day for 2 weeks, followed by 10 mg/day for 2 weeks. At weeks 0, 4, 8, and 12, subjects visited the laboratory for evaluation of sexual function and assessment of erectile response, ejaculation, and sexual arousal to visual erotic stimulation without and with concomitant vibrotactile stimulation to the penis. At home, daily logs for sexual activities and feelings of well-being were maintained, and nocturnal penile tumescence was measured. The latency to ejaculation increased significantly in the PE/ED group (p = 0.03) and in the PE and the PE/ED group taken together (p = 0.007) but not in the PE group alone. Fluoxetine stimulated objectively but not subjectively measured erectile response during laboratory assessment in all groups. No major side effects were reported. In conclusion, fluoxetine (5-10 mg/day) was effective in increasing latency to ejaculation in patients with PE (PE and PE/ED groups combined).

  3. Quality and freezing qualities of first and second ejaculates collected from endangered Gulf Coast Native rams.

    PubMed

    Nel-Themaat, L; Harding, G D; Chandler, J E; Chenevert, J F; Damiani, P; Fernandez, J M; Humes, P E; Pope, C E; Godke, R A

    2006-10-01

    The Gulf Coast Native sheep, or Louisiana Native sheep, is an endangered previously feral domestic sheep population of European origin that has been under natural selection pressure for reproductive survival in their transplanted range while roaming in the southern Gulf Coast Region of the United States. This sheep population has an increased natural resistance to internal parasites, breeds year-around and has a greater percentage of live lambs as compared with other breeds of sheep raised in similar environments. To preserve the genetic diversity of this important feral sheep population, semen was collected by electro-ejaculation and subjected to cryopreservation for subsequent storage in a genome resource bank. Unrelated rams (n=5) were collected 3 days-a-week, allowing at least 2 days of rest between collections. Two ejaculates were obtained from each ram per collection day, with the second collection conducted 10min after the first ejaculation. Semen was processed using the standard Salamon cryopreservation procedure in a Tris-yolk-glycerol extender, frozen in 0.5ml plastic straws using liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) vapor and stored in LN(2). Each ejaculate was evaluated for volume, sperm concentration/ml (x10(9)/ml), number of spermatozoa/ejaculate (x10(9)), sperm progressive motility (%) for pre-cooled semen, cooled semen and semen after thawing. For the five rams, each semen variable for the first ejaculate was compared with that of the second ejaculate collected 10min later. The mean semen volume, sperm concentration and number of spermatozoa per ejaculate obtained from the first ejaculate were significantly greater (P< or =0.01) than those of the second ejaculate (comparisons being 1.62 and 1.06; 3.2 and 1.5; 5.4 and 1.8, respectively). Overall, the mean motility of pre-cooled (22 degrees Celsius), cooled (5 degrees Celsius) and frozen (-196 degrees Celsius) post-thawed spermatozoa was less (P< or =0.01) in the first ejaculate (71.5, 64.8 and 34.1%, respectively

  4. Characterizing the burden of premature ejaculation from a patient and partner perspective: a multi-country qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Revicki, Dennis; Howard, Kellee; Hanlon, Jennifer; Mannix, Sally; Greene, Alison; Rothman, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    Background Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common sexual dysfunction among men which affects men and their partners. Little qualitative data are available to characterize the impact of PE on men and their partners about ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction, emotional distress and relationships. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of PE from the perspective of men with PE and the female partners of men with PE on their sexual experience, distress and relationships. Methods Qualitative data were collected through 14 focus groups in the US and through one-on-one interviews in the US, UK, Italy, France, Germany, and Poland. Study participants included heterosexual men with PE and female partners of males with PE. All participants were asked about how PE affects their daily life, including emotional impacts. One-on-one interviews also included obtaining feedback on the male and female versions of 4-single item measures of PE focusing on ejaculatory control, satisfaction with intercourse, interpersonal distress, and relationship difficulty. Results Participants included 172 males with PE and 67 female partners of men with PE. Lack of control over ejaculation and dissatisfaction with intercourse emerged as central themes of PE. Lack of ejaculatory control resulted in greater dissatisfaction and greater emotional distress, including feelings of inadequacy, disappointment, and anxiety. Continued PE ultimately leads to greater problems with partners and often disrupts partner relationships. Participants indicated that PE was keeping them from attaining complete intimacy in their relationships even when their partners were generally satisfied with sexual intercourse. Impacts of PE on sexual satisfaction, emotional distress and partner relationships were consistent across countries. Feedback on the single-item PE measures confirmed relevance of the item content and further confirmed major themes identified from the qualitative data. Conclusion This

  5. Serotonin Transporter Promoter Region (5-HTTLPR) Polymorphism Is Not Associated With Paroxetine-Induced Ejaculation Delay in Dutch Men With Lifelong Premature Ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Paddy K.C.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Olivier, Berend

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between the 5-HT-transporter-gene-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism and 20-mg paroxetine-induced ejaculation delay in men with lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE). Materials and Methods This was a prospective study of 10 weeks of paroxetine treatment in 54 men with LPE. Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) was measured by stopwatch. Controls consisted of 92 Caucasian men. All men with LPE were genotyped for the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. Allele frequencies and genotypes of short (S) and long (L) variants of the polymorphism were compared between patients and controls. Associations between the LL, SL, and SS genotypes and fold increase of mean IELT were investigated. Results Of the 54 patients, 43 (79.6%) responded to 20-mg paroxetine treatment with an ejaculation delay, whereas 11 patients (20.4%) did not respond; 44%, 18%, and 18% of the patients showed a fold increase in mean IELT of 2-10, 10-20, and more than 20, respectively. Of the 54 men, 14 (25.9%) had the LL genotype, 29 (53.7%) had the SL genotype, and 11 (20.4%) had the SS genotype. In the 92 controls, the LL, SL, and SS genotypes were present in 27 (29.3%), 41 (44.6%), and 24 (26.1%), respectively. No statistically significant differences were found in 5-HTTLPR allelic variations or in 5-HTTLPR gene variations. In all men treated with 20 mg paroxetine, analysis of variance of the natural logarithm of fold increase in the IELT showed no statistically significant difference according to genotype (p=0.83). Conclusions The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is not associated with daily 20-mg paroxetine treatment-induced ejaculation delay in men with LPE. PMID:24578810

  6. Evolutionary Trade-Off between Secondary Sexual Traits and Ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Leigh W; Lüpold, Stefan; Fitzpatrick, John L

    2017-12-01

    Recent theoretical models predict that the evolutionary diversification of the weapons and ornaments of pre-mating sexual selection should be influenced by trade-offs with male expenditure on ejaculates. However, the patterns of association between secondary sexual traits and ejaculate expenditure are frequently inconsistent in their support of this prediction. We show why consideration of additional life-history, ecological, and mating-system variables is crucial for the interpretation of associations between secondary sexual traits and ejaculate production. Incorporation of these 'missing variables' provides evidence that interactions between pre- and post-mating sexual selection can underlie broad patterns of diversification in male weapons and ornaments. We call for more experimental and genetic approaches to uncover trade-offs, as well as for studies that consider the costs of mate-searching. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The pathophysiology of lifelong premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    For many decades it has been thought that lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) is only characterized by persistent early ejaculations. Despite enormous progress of in vivo animal research, and neurobiological, genetic and pharmacological research in men with lifelong PE, our current understanding of the mechanisms behind early ejaculations is far from complete. The new classification of PE into four PE subtypes has shown that the symptomatology of lifelong PE strongly differs from acquired PE, subjective PE and variable PE. The phenotype of lifelong PE and therefore also the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is much more complex. A substantial number of men with lifelong PE not only have PE, but also premature erection and premature penile detumescence as part of an acute hypertonic or hypererotic state when engaged in an erotic situation or when making love. As both erectio praecox, ejaculatio praecox, detumescentia praecox, and the hypererotic state are part of the phenotype lifelong PE, it is argued that lifelong PE is not only a disturbance of the timing of ejaculation but also a disturbance of the timing of erection, detumescence and arousal. Since 1998, the pathophysiology of lifelong PE was thought to be mainly mediated by the central serotonergic system in line with genetic polymorphisms of specific serotonergic genes. However, by accepting that lifelong PE is characterized by the reversible hypertonic state the hypothesis of mainly serotonergic dysfunction is no longer tenable. Instead, it has been postulated that the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is mediated by a very complex interplay of central and peripheral serotonergic, dopaminergic, oxytocinergic, endocrinological, genetic and probably also epigenetic factors. Progress in research of lifelong PE can only be accomplished when a stopwatch is used to measure the IELT and the cut-off point of 1 minute for the definition of lifelong PE is maintained. Current use of validated questionnaires, neglect of

  8. Acupuncture versus paroxetine for the treatment of premature ejaculation: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sunay, Didem; Sunay, Melih; Aydoğmuş, Yasin; Bağbancı, Sahin; Arslan, Hüseyin; Karabulut, Ayhan; Emir, Levent

    2011-05-01

    Acupuncture therapy has been used by many researchers in both male and female sexual dysfunction studies. To determine whether acupuncture is effective as a premature ejaculation (PE) treatment compared with paroxetine and placebo. The study was conducted with methodologic rigor based on Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) criteria. Ninety patients referred to the urology clinic at a tertiary training and research hospital with PE were included in this randomized controlled trial and randomly assigned into paroxetine, acupuncture, and placebo groups. Heterosexual, sexually active men aged between 28 and 50 yr were included. Men with other sexual disorders, including erectile dysfunction; with chronic psychiatric or systemic diseases; with alcohol or substance abuse; or who used any medications were excluded. The medicated group received paroxetine 20 mg/d; the acupuncture or sham-acupuncture (placebo) groups were treated twice a week for 4 wk. Intravaginal ejaculation latency times (IELTs) and the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) were used to assess PE. IELTs were calculated by using a partner-held stopwatch. Data were analyzed statistically. Median PEDT scores of paroxetine, acupuncture, and placebo groups were 17.0, 16.0, and 15.5 before treatment, and 10.5, 11.0, and 16.0 after treatment, respectively (p=0.001, p=0.001, and p=0.314, respectively). Subscores after treatment were significantly lower than subscores before treatment in the paroxetine and acupuncture groups but remained the same in the placebo group. Significant differences were found between mean-rank IELTs of the paroxetine and placebo groups (p=0.001) and the acupuncture and placebo groups (p=0.001) after treatment. Increases of IELTs with paroxetine, acupuncture, and placebo acupuncture were 82.7, 65.7, and 33.1 s, respectively. Extent of ejaculation delay induced by paroxetine was significantly higher than that of acupuncture (p=0.001). The most important limitation

  9. The hormonal control of ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Corona, Giovanni; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Vignozzi, Linda; Rastrelli, Giulia; Maggi, Mario

    2012-09-01

    Hormones regulate all aspects of male reproduction, from sperm production to sexual drive. Although emerging evidence from animal models and small clinical studies in humans clearly point to a role for several hormones in controlling the ejaculatory process, the exact endocrine mechanisms are unclear. Evidence shows that oxytocin is actively involved in regulating orgasm and ejaculation via peripheral, central and spinal mechanisms. Associations between delayed and premature ejaculation with hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, respectively, have also been extensively documented. Some models suggest that glucocorticoids are involved in the regulation of the ejaculatory reflex, but corresponding data from human studies are scant. Oestrogens regulate epididymal motility, whereas testosterone can affect the central and peripheral aspects of the ejaculatory process. Overall, the data of the endocrine system in regulating the ejaculatory reflex suggest that widely available endocrine therapies might be effective in treating sexual disorders in these men. Indeed, substantial evidence has documented that treatments of thyroid diseases are able to improve some ejaculatory difficulties.

  10. Premature ejaculation: challenging new and the old concepts

    PubMed Central

    Kalejaiye, Odunayo; Almekaty, Khaled; Blecher, Gideon; Minhas, Suks

    2017-01-01

    Premature ejaculation remains a difficult condition to manage for patients, their partners, and the clinician. Whilst prevalence rates are estimated to be 20–40%, determining a diagnosis of premature ejaculation is difficult, as the definition remains both subjective and ill-defined in the clinical context. As our understanding of the ejaculatory pathway has improved, new opportunities to treat the condition have evolved with mixed results. In this review, we explore some of these controversies surrounding the aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this condition and discuss potential novel therapeutic options. PMID:29259775

  11. Barriers to the use of Veterans Affairs health care services among female veterans who served in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Newins, Amie R; Wilson, Sarah M; Hopkins, Tiffany A; Straits-Troster, Kristy; Kudler, Harold; Calhoun, Patrick S

    2018-02-08

    The study investigated barriers to the utilization of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care services among female veterans who served in served in Iraq and Afghanistan, including reasons for not choosing VA health care, reasons for not seeking mental health treatment, and types of desired VA services. Female respondents to a survey assessing Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans' needs and health (N = 186) completed measures of military history, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, barriers to VA health care, and preferences for services. Barriers to use of VA health care endorsed by female veterans included receiving care elsewhere and logistical issues. Barriers to utilization of mental health services among female veterans who screened positive for depression or posttraumatic stress disorder included negative treatment biases and concerns about stigma, privacy, and cost. Female veterans endorsed preferences for services related to eligibility education, nonprimary care physical health services, vocational assistance, and a few behavioral/mental health services. Findings highlight the need for ongoing outreach and education regarding eligibility and types of resources for physical and mental health problems experienced by female veterans who served in Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as inform types of VA programming and services desired by female veterans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. SSRIs and ejaculation: a double-blind, randomized, fixed-dose study with paroxetine and citalopram.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, M D; Zwinderman, A H; Olivier, B

    2001-12-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are known to induce delayed orgasm and ejaculation. However, different SSRIs may differentially delay ejaculation. A double-blind, fixed-dose study in healthy men with lifelong rapid ejaculation was performed to evaluate potential differences between clinically relevant doses of two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, paroxetine and citalopram, in their effects on ejaculation. Thirty men with an intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) less than 1 minute were randomly assigned to receive paroxetine (20 mg/day) and citalopram (20 mg/day) for 5 weeks, after taking half the dosage in the first week. During the 1-month baseline and 6-week treatment period, IELTs were measured at home by using a stopwatch procedure. The trial was completed by 23 men. Analysis of variance revealed a between-group difference in the evolution of IELT delay over time (p = 0.0004); the IELT after paroxetine and citalopram gradually increased from 18 and 21 seconds to approximately 170 and 44 seconds, respectively. Paroxetine 20 mg/day exerted a strong delay (8.9-fold increase), whereas citalopram 20 mg/day mildly delayed ejaculation (1.8-fold increase). These results indicate that paroxetine leads to a significant delay in orgasm and ejaculation, whereas citalopram seems to have less of an effect on it.

  13. Ejaculate traits in the Namibian cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus): influence of age, season and captivity.

    PubMed

    Crosier, Adrienne E; Marker, Laurie; Howard, JoGayle; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S; Henghali, Josephine N; Wildt, David E

    2007-01-01

    The objective was to examine the influence of animal age, season and captivity status on seminal quality in wild-born cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in Namibia, Africa. Animals were divided into three age categories: juvenile (14-24 months; n = 16 males, 23 ejaculates); adult (25-120 months; n = 76 males, 172 ejaculates); and aged (>120 months; n = 5 males, 5 ejaculates). Seasons were categorised into hot-wet (January-April), cold-dry (May-August) and hot-dry (September-December). A comparison between freshly wild-caught (n = 29 males, 41 ejaculates) and captive-held cheetahs (n = 68 males, 159 ejaculates) was also conducted. Raw ejaculates contained 69.0 +/- 1.1% motile spermatozoa (mean +/- s.e.m.) with 73.6 +/- 1.5% of these cells containing an intact acrosome. Overall, 18.4 +/- 0.9% of spermatozoa were morphologically normal, with midpiece anomalies being the most prevalent (approximately 39%) defect. Juvenile cheetahs produced ejaculates with poorer sperm motility, forward progressive status, lower seminal volume and fewer total motile spermatozoa than adult and aged animals. Spermatogenesis continued unabated throughout the year and was minimally influenced by season. Proportions of sperm malformations were also not affected by season. Ejaculates from captive cheetahs had increased volume and intact acrosomes, but lower sperm density than wild-caught counterparts. In summary, Namibian cheetahs produce an extraordinarily high proportion of pleiomorphic spermatozoa regardless of age, season or living (captive versus free-ranging) status. Young males less than 2 years of age produce poorer ejaculate quality than adult and aged males. Because (1) all study animals were wild born and (2) there was little difference between freshly caught males and those maintained in captivity for protracted periods, our results affirm that teratospermia in the cheetah is mostly genetically derived. It also appears that an ex situ environment for the Namibian cheetah can ensure sperm

  14. Sperm competition games: the risk model can generate higher sperm allocation to virgin females.

    PubMed

    Ball, M A; Parker, G A

    2007-03-01

    We examine the risk model in sperm competition games for cases where female fertility increases significantly with sperm numbers (sperm limitation). Without sperm competition, sperm allocation increases with sperm limitation. We define 'average risk' as the probability q that females in the population mate twice, and 'perceived risk' as the information males gain about the sperm competition probability with individual females. If males obtain no information from individual females, sperm numbers increase with q unless sperm limitation is high and one of the two competing ejaculates is strongly disfavoured. If males can distinguish between virgin and mated females, greater sperm allocation to virgins is favoured by high sperm limitation, high q, and by the second male's ejaculate being disfavoured. With high sperm limitation, sperm allocation to virgins increases and to mated females decreases with q at high q levels. With perfect information about female mating pattern, sperm allocation (i) to virgins that will mate again exceeds that to mated females and to virgins that will mate only once, (ii) to virgins that mate only once exceeds that for mated females if q is high and there is high second male disadvantage and (iii) to each type of female can decrease with q if sperm limitation is high, although the average allocation increases at least across low q levels. In general, higher sperm allocation to virgins is favoured by: strong disadvantage to the second ejaculate, high sperm limitation, high average risk and increased information (perceived risk). These conditions may apply in a few species, especially spiders.

  15. Emerging and investigational drugs for premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 20−30 years, the premature ejaculation (PE) treatment paradigm, previously limited to behavioural psychotherapy, has expanded to include drug treatment. Pharmacotherapy for PE predominantly targets the multiple neurotransmitters and receptors involved in the control of ejaculation which include serotonin, dopamine, oxytocin, norepinephrine, gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA) and nitric oxide (NO). The objective of this article is to review emerging PE interventions contemporary data on the treatment of PE was reviewed and critiqued using the principles of evidence-based medicine. Multiple well-controlled evidence-based studies have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in delaying ejaculation, confirming their role as first-line agents for the medical treatment of lifelong and acquired PE. Daily dosing of SSRIs is likely to be associated with superior fold increases in IELT compared to on-demand SSRIs. On-demand SSRIs are less effective but may fulfill the treatment goals of many patients. Integrated pharmacotherapy and CBT may achieve superior treatment outcomes in some patients. PDE-5 inhibitors alone or in combination with SSRIs should be limited to men with acquired PE secondary to co-morbid ED. New on-demand rapid acting SSRIs, oxytocin receptor antagonists, or single agents that target multiple receptors may form the foundation of more effective future on-demand medication. Current evidence confirms the efficacy and safety of dapoxetine, off-label SSRI drugs, tramadol and topical anaesthetics drugs. Treatment with α1-adrenoceptor antagonists cannot be recommended until the results of large well-designed RCTs are published in major international peer-reviewed medical journals. As our understanding of the neurochemical control of ejaculation improves, new therapeutic targets and candidate molecules will be identified which may increase our pharmacotherapeutic armamentarium. PMID:27652222

  16. Ejaculate quality and constraints in relation to sperm competition levels among eutherian mammals.

    PubMed

    Lüpold, Stefan

    2013-10-01

    The outcome of sperm competition is influenced by the relative quantity and quality of sperm among competing ejaculates. Whereas it is well established that individual ejaculate traits evolve rapidly under postcopulatory sexual selection, little is known about other factors that might influence the evolution of ejaculates. For example, the metabolic rate is likely to affect the sperm production rate and the cellular activity or metabolism of sperm, and it has recently been suggested to constrain the evolution of sperm length in large but not small mammals. I thus examined in eutherian mammals how ejaculate quality traits vary with one another and with testis mass, body size, and metabolism. I found all ejaculate traits to covary positively with one another and to increase with relative testis mass. When controlling for testis mass, small-bodied species showed superior sperm quality (but not sperm number). Furthermore, sperm motility and viability were positively associated with the mass-corrected metabolic rate, but the percentage of morphologically normal and acrosome-intact sperm were not. These results indicate that body size and the energy budget may also influence the evolution of ejaculate quality, although these influences appear to vary among traits. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Understanding men's attributions of why they ejaculate before desired: an internet study.

    PubMed

    Rowland, David L; Neal, Cody J

    2014-10-01

    Recent developments in the study of men's sexual response have raised significant issues related to the definition and diagnosis of premature ejaculation (PE). We wanted to understand men's perceived reasons for "ejaculating before they wanted," whether they selected attributions from the same broad category when allowed to endorse multiple reasons, and whether younger and older cohorts differed in their attributions. A subsample of 376 men who indicated that they "ejaculated before they wanted" was drawn from a larger pool of 1,249 men participating in an online survey on men's sexual health. This subsample responded to a number of items regarding their ejaculatory patterns, including two questions listing 10 possible self-reported attributions/reasons for their quick ejaculation--one item allowed respondents to endorse multiple reasons, the other limited the response to the most important reason. The primary outcome measure was men's attributions for ejaculating before desired, with choices from 10 possible pretested reasons. In addition, concordance across attributions was determined, that is, if a man responded to one category, was he also likely to select another category? Men who met the ejaculatory latency criterion for PE were generally no different from those who did not. Overall, when required to select the most important attribution, most men identified a specific issue with "lack of self-efficacy" (lack of control or aroused too quickly). Few respondents identified erection loss, partner issues, or medical/medication concerns as the reason--and these patterns were independent of age. Concordance was high across self-efficacy attributions but low across other attributions. Most men who complain of ejaculating before desired attribute this response to problems with self-efficacy. Only a small percent of men identified other possible reasons for their quick ejaculation. Such findings have implications for both the diagnostic process and definitional

  18. [Clinical efficacy of Viagra with behavior therapy against premature ejaculation].

    PubMed

    Tang, Wenhao; Ma, Lulin; Zhao, Lianming; Liu, Yuqing; Chen, Zhenwen

    2004-05-01

    To study the efficacy of Viagra combined with behavior therapy against premature ejaculation (PE). Sixty PE patients were divided into two groups randomly: control group (behavior therapy alone) and the group of Viagra combined with behavior therapy. Intra-vaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and the coitus satisfaction of the patient and the partner were recorded before and after treatment. The IELTs of the two groups were 0.80 +/- 0.20 and 0.73 +/- 0.24 minutes respectively before treatment, and 1.82 +/- 0.54 and 3.63 +/- 0.55 minutes respectively after treatment. As for IELT and satisfaction degree, Viagra produced better result than behavior therapy. During this clinical trial, Viagra combined with behavior therapy prolonged IELT, which suggests that Viagra may be helpful for the treatment of premature ejaculation.

  19. RNA PROFILES OF EJACULATED HUMAN SPERMATOZOA

    EPA Science Inventory

    RNA Profiles of Ejaculated Human Spermatozoa

    Kary E. Thompson, Wenjun Bao, Sally D. Perreault, Hongzu Ren, John C. Rockett, Judith E. Schmid, Lillian F. Strader, David J. Dix
    Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory...

  20. Why do female Callosobruchus maculatus kick their mates?

    PubMed

    van Lieshout, Emile; McNamara, Kathryn B; Simmons, Leigh W

    2014-01-01

    Sexual conflict is now recognised as an important driver of sexual trait evolution. However, due to their variable outcomes and effects on other fitness components, the detection of sexual conflicts on individual traits can be complicated. This difficulty is exemplified in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, where longer matings increase the size of nutritious ejaculates but simultaneously reduce female future receptivity. While previous studies show that females gain direct benefits from extended mating duration, females show conspicuous copulatory kicking behaviour, apparently to dislodge mating males prematurely. We explore the potential for sexual conflict by comparing several fitness components and remating propensity in pairs of full sibling females where each female mated with a male from an unrelated pair of full sibling males. For one female, matings were terminated at the onset of kicking, whereas the other's matings remained uninterrupted. While fecundity (number of eggs) was similar between treatments, uninterrupted matings enhanced adult offspring numbers and fractionally also longevity. However, females whose matings were interrupted at the onset of kicking exhibited an increased propensity to remate. Since polyandry can benefit female fitness in this species, we argue that kicking, rather than being maladaptive, may indicate that females prefer remating over increased ejaculate size. It may thus be difficult to assess the presence of sexual conflict over contested traits such as mating duration when females face a trade off between direct benefits gained from one mating and indirect benefits from additional matings.

  1. Why Do Female Callosobruchus maculatus Kick Their Mates?

    PubMed Central

    van Lieshout, Emile; McNamara, Kathryn B.; Simmons, Leigh W.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual conflict is now recognised as an important driver of sexual trait evolution. However, due to their variable outcomes and effects on other fitness components, the detection of sexual conflicts on individual traits can be complicated. This difficulty is exemplified in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, where longer matings increase the size of nutritious ejaculates but simultaneously reduce female future receptivity. While previous studies show that females gain direct benefits from extended mating duration, females show conspicuous copulatory kicking behaviour, apparently to dislodge mating males prematurely. We explore the potential for sexual conflict by comparing several fitness components and remating propensity in pairs of full sibling females where each female mated with a male from an unrelated pair of full sibling males. For one female, matings were terminated at the onset of kicking, whereas the other’s matings remained uninterrupted. While fecundity (number of eggs) was similar between treatments, uninterrupted matings enhanced adult offspring numbers and fractionally also longevity. However, females whose matings were interrupted at the onset of kicking exhibited an increased propensity to remate. Since polyandry can benefit female fitness in this species, we argue that kicking, rather than being maladaptive, may indicate that females prefer remating over increased ejaculate size. It may thus be difficult to assess the presence of sexual conflict over contested traits such as mating duration when females face a trade off between direct benefits gained from one mating and indirect benefits from additional matings. PMID:24752530

  2. Morphometric and kinematic sperm subpopulations in split ejaculates of normozoospermic men

    PubMed Central

    Santolaria, Pilar; Soler, Carles; Recreo, Pilar; Carretero, Teresa; Bono, Araceli; Berné, José M; Yániz, Jesús L

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze the sperm kinematic and morphometric subpopulations in the different fractions of the ejaculate in normozoospermic men. Ejaculates from eight normozoospermic men were collected by masturbation in three fractions after 3–5 days of sexual abstinence. Analyses of sperm motility by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA-Mot), and of sperm morphometry by computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis (CASA-Morph) using fluorescence were performed. Clustering and discriminant procedures were performed to identify sperm subpopulations in the kinematic and morphometric data obtained. Clustering procedures resulted in the classification of spermatozoa into three kinematic subpopulations (slow with low ALH [35.6% of all motile spermatozoa], with circular trajectories [32.0%], and rapid with high ALH [32.4%]), and three morphometric subpopulations (large-round [33.9% of all spermatozoa], elongated [32.0%], and small [34.10%]). The distribution of kinematic sperm subpopulations was different among ejaculate fractions (P < 0.001), with higher percentages of spermatozoa exhibiting slow movements with low ALH in the second and third portions, and with a more homogeneous distribution of kinematic sperm subpopulations in the first portion. The distribution of morphometric sperm subpopulations was also different among ejaculate fractions (P < 0.001), with more elongated spermatozoa in the first, and of small spermatozoa in the third, portion. It is concluded that important variations in the distribution of kinematic and morphometric sperm subpopulations exist between ejaculate fractions, with possible functional implications. PMID:27624985

  3. Sperm competition games: optimal sperm allocation in response to the size of competing ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Engqvist, Leif; Reinhold, Klaus

    2007-01-22

    Sperm competition theory predicts that when males are certain of sperm competition, they should decrease sperm investment in matings with an increasing number of competing ejaculates. How males should allocate sperm when competing with differently sized ejaculates, however, has not yet been examined. Here, we report the outcomes of two models assuming variation in males' sperm reserves and males being faced with different amounts of competing sperm. In the first 'spawning model', two males compete instantaneously and both are able to assess the sperm competitive ability of each other. In the second 'sperm storage model', males are sequentially confronted with situations involving different levels of sperm competition, for instance different amounts of sperm already stored by the female mating partner. In both of the models, we found that optimal sperm allocation will strongly depend on the size of the male's sperm reserve. Males should always invest maximally in competition with other males that are equally strong competitors. That is, for males with small sperm reserves, our model predicts a negative correlation between sperm allocation and sperm competition intensity, whereas for males with large sperm reserves, this correlation is predicted to be positive.

  4. The Effect of Female Quality on Male Ejaculatory Expenditure and Reproductive Success in a Praying Mantid

    PubMed Central

    Jayaweera, Anuradhi; Barry, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Strategic ejaculation is a behavioural strategy shown by many animals as a response to sperm competition and/or as a potential mechanism of cryptic male choice. Males invest more mating resources when the risk of sperm competition increases or they invest more in high quality females to maximize their reproductive output. We tested this hypothesis in the false garden mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata, where females are capable of multiply mating and body condition is an indicator of potential reproductive fitness. We predicted male mantids would ejaculate strategically by allocating more sperm to high quality females. To determine if and how males alter their ejaculate in response to mate quality, we manipulated female food quantity so that females were either in good condition with many eggs (i.e. high quality) or poor condition with few eggs (i.e. low quality). Half of the females from each treatment were used in mating trials in which transferred sperm was counted before fertilisation occurred and the other half of females were used in mating trials where fertilisation occurred and ootheca mass and total eggs in the ootheca were recorded. Opposed to our predictions, the total number of sperm and the proportion of viable sperm transferred did not vary significantly between female treatments. Male reproductive success was entirely dependent on female quality/fecundity, rather than on the number of sperm transferred. These results suggest that female quality is not a major factor influencing postcopulatory male mating strategies in P. albofimbriata, and that sperm number has little effect on male reproductive success in a single mating scenario. PMID:25970459

  5. Neural mechanisms of sexual behavior in the male rat: emphasis on ejaculation-related circuits.

    PubMed

    Veening, J G; Coolen, L M

    2014-06-01

    Sexual behavior of the male rat can be described as a 'sequence': a series of behavioral transitions eventually leading to a consummatory act: ejaculation. A 'funnel-model' is presented to describe the behavioral progression during the sexual sequence. The ejaculation itself is extensively controlled by the 'spinal ejaculation generator', consisting of several elements with afferent sources of genitosensory information, with ascending projection fibers to inform the brainstem and forebrain as well as with descending afferent fibers providing the supraspinal control mechanisms with the opportunity to restrict ejaculations to the optimal moments and circumstances. The messages ascending from the spinal cord reach several interconnected thalamic, hypothalamic and limbic brain areas and are integrated with olfactory information. These brain areas play a role in mechanisms like 'sexual satiety' or a temporary interruption of sexual activities (post-ejaculatory interval), but the exact facilitatory and inhibitory mechanisms involved have not been elucidated yet. In the 'downward' mechanisms controlling the spinal 'release' of an ejaculation, the medial preoptic nucleus plays an important role in cooperation with a number of brainstem areas. This nucleus is also explicitly involved in the rewarding experiences coming with an ejaculation. Finally, the role of several neurotransmitters and-peptides on male sexual behavior are discussed shortly, because sometimes they show remarkable effects on specific aspects of the behavioral sequence. We conclude that, despite our increased knowledge about the brain mechanisms involved in the control of ejaculation, we are still far away from a complete understanding and quite a few questions remain to be resolved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Larger testes are associated with a higher level of polyandry, but a smaller ejaculate volume, across bushcricket species (Tettigoniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vahed, Karim; Parker, Darren J.; Gilbert, James D. J.

    2011-01-01

    While early models of ejaculate allocation predicted that both relative testes and ejaculate size should increase with sperm competition intensity across species, recent models predict that ejaculate size may actually decrease as testes size and sperm competition intensity increase, owing to the confounding effect of potential male mating rate. A recent study demonstrated that ejaculate volume decreased in relation to increased polyandry across bushcricket species, but testes mass was not measured. Here, we recorded testis mass for 21 bushcricket species, while ejaculate (ampulla) mass, nuptial gift mass, sperm number and polyandry data were largely obtained from the literature. Using phylogenetic-comparative analyses, we found that testis mass increased with the degree of polyandry, but decreased with increasing ejaculate mass. We found no significant relationship between testis mass and either sperm number or nuptial gift mass. While these results are consistent with recent models of ejaculate allocation, they could alternatively be driven by substances in the ejaculate that affect the degree of polyandry and/or by a trade-off between resources spent on testes mass versus non-sperm components of the ejaculate. PMID:21068028

  7. Subjectively measured ejaculation latency time and its association with different sexual activities while controlling for age and relationship length.

    PubMed

    Jern, Patrick; Santtila, Pekka; Johansson, Ada; Varjonen, Markus; Witting, Katarina; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Sandnabba, Kenneth

    2009-09-01

    Recently, attempts to formulate valid and suitable definitions for (different subcategories of) premature ejaculation have resulted in substantial progress in the pursuit to gain knowledge about ejaculatory function. However, the association between ejaculatory dysfunction and different types of sexual activities has yet to be thoroughly investigated, and (due to conflicting results between studies) the potential effects of age and relationship length still need to be taken into account. The aim of this study is to investigate the associations of age, relationship length, frequency of different sexual activities, and different modes of achieving ejaculation with self-reported ejaculation latency time. The main outcome is establishing associations between age, relationship length, self-reported ejaculation latency time, and frequency of different kinds of sexual activities and different modes of achieving ejaculation (such as achieving ejaculation through oral or vaginal sex). Statistical analyses of data on age, relationship length, self-reported ejaculation latency time, and frequency of different sexual activities and different modes of achieving ejaculation were conducted on a population-based sample of 3,189 males aged 18-48 years (mean = 29.9 years, standard deviation = 6.94). Age and relationship length were significantly negatively associated with self-reported ejaculation latency time. Frequency of different kinds of sexual behavior generally had a positive association with self-reported ejaculation latency time, as had different modes of achieving ejaculation. The findings highlight the need for more extensive studies on and increased knowledge of different aspects of ejaculatory function before a valid and suitable definition for premature ejaculation can be formulated.

  8. Excitotoxic lesions of the nucleus paragigantocellularis facilitate male sexual behavior but attenuate female sexual behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Normandin, J J; Murphy, A Z

    2011-02-23

    Little is known regarding the descending inhibitory control of genital reflexes such as ejaculation and vaginal contractions. The brainstem nucleus paragigantocellularis (nPGi) projects bilaterally to the lumbosacral motoneuron pools that innervate the genital musculature of both male and female rats. Electrolytic nPGi lesions facilitate ejaculation in males, leading to the hypothesis that the nPGi is the source of descending inhibition to genital reflexes. However, the function of the nPGi in female sexual behavior remains to be elucidated. To this end, male and female rats received bilateral excitotoxic fiber-sparing lesions of the nPGi, and sexual behavior and sexual behavior-induced Fos expression were examined. In males, nPGi lesions facilitated copulation, supporting the hypothesis that the nPGi, and not fibers-of-passage, is the source of descending inhibition of genital reflexes in male rats. nPGi lesions in males did not alter sexual behavior-induced Fos expression in any brain region examined. nPGi-lesioned females spent significantly less time mating with stimulus males and had significantly longer ejaculation-return latencies compared to baseline. These results did not significantly differ from control females, but this trend warranted further analysis of the reinforcing value of sexual behavior. Both lesioned and non-lesioned females formed a conditioned place preference (CPP) for artificial vaginocervical stimulation (aVCS). However, post-reinforcement, nPGi-lesioned females did not differ in the percentage of time spent in the non-reinforced chamber versus the reinforced chamber, suggesting a weakened CPP for aVCS. nPGi lesions in females reduced sexual behavior-induced Fos expression throughout the hypothalamus and amygdala. Taken together, these results suggest that while nPGi lesions in males facilitate copulation, such lesions in females attenuate several aspects of sexual behavior resulting in a reduction in the rewarding value of copulation

  9. Within-population variation in ejaculate characteristics in a prolonged breeder, Peron's tree frog, Litoria peronii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Craig D. H.; Uller, Tobias; Wapstra, Erik; Olsson, Mats

    2008-11-01

    Sperm number is often a good predictor of success in sperm competition; however, it has become increasingly clear that, for some species, variation in probability of paternity cannot be explained by sperm number alone. Intraspecific variation in ejaculate characteristics, such as the number of viable sperm and sperm longevity, may play an equally important role in determining fertilization success. Here, we assess variation among ejaculates in three factors that may contribute to fertilization success (number of sperm per ejaculate, viability, and longevity), in a population of Peron’s tree frog ( Litoria peronii). We detected large variation among males in the number of sperm per ejaculate and the proportion of viable sperm within ejaculates, which could not be explained by variation in either male size or body condition. However, the proportion of viable sperm released by males increased over the season. Finally, we assessed sperm longevity (proportion viable sperm determined using a dual-fluorochrome vital dye) at two different temperatures. At 23°C, on average, 75% of sperm remained viable after 2 h, but there were significant differences amongst males with the percentage of viable sperm ranging from 43% to 95%. For sperm incubated at 4°C, ejaculates varied fivefold in sperm longevity with some males having 50% viable sperm after 5 days. Our data suggest that ejaculate characteristics (sperm number, viability, and longevity) vary widely in Peron’s tree frog and may therefore play an important role in determining siring success both in the presence and absence of sperm competition. We discuss the results in relation to selection on ejaculate traits via natural and sexual selection in this and other amphibians.

  10. Toward Evidence-Based Genetic Research on Lifelong Premature Ejaculation: A Critical Evaluation of Methodology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Recently, four premature ejaculation (PE) subtypes have been distinguished on the basis of the duration of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT). These four PE subtypes have different etiologies and pathogeneses. Genetic research on PE should consider the existence of these PE subtypes and the accurate measurement of the IELT with a stopwatch. Currently, three methods of genetic research on PE have been used. They differ in the investigated population, tool of measurement, study design, and variables of PE. From animal and human research, it is derived that the central serotonergic system "modulates" ejaculation, whereas the ejaculation (reflex) itself is probably not under direct influence of the serotonergic system, but rather under the influence of other neurotransmitter systems in the spinal cord. For genetic research on PE, it is important to take into account that the (serotonergic) modulation of the IELT is variable among men and may even be absent. This means that serotonergic genetic polymorphisms may only be found in men with PE who respond with an ejaculation delay treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. PMID:21344023

  11. Altered PIWI-LIKE 1 and PIWI-LIKE 2 mRNA expression in ejaculated spermatozoa of men with impaired sperm characteristics.

    PubMed

    Giebler, Maria; Greither, Thomas; Müller, Lisa; Mösinger, Carina; Behre, Hermann M

    2018-01-01

    In about half the cases of involuntary childlessness, a male infertility factor is involved. The PIWI-LIKE genes, a subclade of the Argonaute protein family, are involved in RNA silencing and transposon control in the germline. Knockout of murine Piwi-like 1 and 2 homologs results in complete infertility in males. The aim of this study was to analyze whether the mRNA expression of human PIWI-LIKE 1-4 genes is altered in ejaculated spermatozoa of men with impaired sperm characteristics. Ninety male participants were included in the study, among which 47 were with normozoospermia, 36 with impaired semen characteristics according to the World Health Organization (WHO) manual, 5 th edition, and 7 with azoospermia serving as negative control for the PIWI-LIKE 1-4 mRNA expression in somatic cells in the ejaculate. PIWI-LIKE 1-4 mRNA expression in the ejaculated spermatozoa of the participants was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. In nonazoospermic men, PIWI-LIKE 1-4 mRNA was measurable in ejaculated spermatozoa in different proportions. PIWI-LIKE 1 (100.0%) and PIWI-LIKE 2 (49.4%) were more frequently expressed than PIWI-LIKE 3 (9.6%) and PIWI-LIKE 4 (15.7%). Furthermore, a decreased PIWI-LIKE 2 mRNA expression showed a significant correlation with a decreased sperm count (P = 0.022) and an increased PIWI-LIKE 1 mRNA expression with a decreased progressive motility (P = 0.048). PIWI-LIKE 1 and PIWI-LIKE 2 mRNA expression exhibited a significant association with impaired sperm characteristics and may be a useful candidate for the evaluation of the impact of PIWI-LIKE 1-4 mRNA expression on male infertility.

  12. On-demand Modafinil Improves Ejaculation Time and Patient-reported Outcomes in Men With Lifelong Premature Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Tuken, Murat; Kiremit, Murat Can; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of modafinil on the intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and patient-reported outcomes in patients with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). Treatment-naïve lifelong PE patients were included in this proof-of-concept study. Self-estimated IELTs of the patients were recorded and the Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP) questionnaire was administered before the initiation of on-demand modafinil 100 mg treatment. At the end of 1 month of treatment, self-estimated IELTs were recorded again, along with posttreatment PEP outcomes. Overall, 55 lifelong PE patients with a mean age of 35.07 ± 7.80 (range: 22-58) years were enrolled. Modafinil treatment modestly increased the mean IELT at the end of 1 month (24.82 ± 16.10 seconds vs 49.82 ± 31.46 seconds, P = .0001). Moreover, at the end of 1 month, patients reported in the PEP questionnaire better control over ejaculation (0.75 ± 0.67 vs 1.35 ± 0.91, P = .0001), improved satisfaction with sexual intercourse (0.98 ± 0.78 vs 1.40 ± 0.85, P = .0001), lesser personal distress (0.42 ± 0.69 vs 0.89 ± 1.01, P = .0001), and reduced interpersonal difficulty (1.69 ± 1.48 vs 1.95 ± 1.47, P = .0001). In an uncontrolled proof-of-concept study of men with treatment-naïve lifelong PE where IELT was self-reported without a stopwatch, modest improvements of both IELT and patient-reported outcome measures were observed. Future controlled clinical trials are necessary to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An evidence-based unified definition of lifelong and acquired premature ejaculation: report of the second international society for sexual medicine ad hoc committee for the definition of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; McMahon, Chris G; Waldinger, Marcel D; Althof, Stanley E; Shindel, Alan; Adaikan, Ganesh; Becher, Edgardo F; Dean, John; Giuliano, Francois; Hellstrom, Wayne Jg; Giraldi, Annamaria; Glina, Sidney; Incrocci, Luca; Jannini, Emmanuele; McCabe, Marita; Parish, Sharon; Rowland, David; Segraves, R Taylor; Sharlip, Ira; Torres, Luiz Otavio

    2014-06-01

    The International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation developed the first evidence-based definition for lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) in 2007 and concluded that there were insufficient published objective data at that time to develop a definition for acquired PE. The aim of this article is to review and critique the current literature and develop a contemporary, evidence-based definition for acquired PE and/or a unified definition for both lifelong and acquired PE. In April 2013, the ISSM convened a second Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation in Bangalore, India. The same evidence-based systematic approach to literature search, retrieval, and evaluation used by the original committee was adopted. The committee unanimously agreed that men with lifelong and acquired PE appear to share the dimensions of short ejaculatory latency, reduced or absent perceived ejaculatory control, and the presence of negative personal consequences. Men with acquired PE are older, have higher incidences of erectile dysfunction, comorbid disease, and cardiovascular risk factors, and have a longer intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) as compared with men with lifelong PE. A self-estimated or stopwatch IELT of 3 minutes was identified as a valid IELT cut-off for diagnosing acquired PE. On this basis, the committee agreed on a unified definition of both acquired and lifelong PE as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by (i) ejaculation that always or nearly always occurs prior to or within about 1 minute of vaginal penetration from the first sexual experience (lifelong PE) or a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in latency time, often to about 3 minutes or less (acquired PE); (ii) the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations; and (iii) negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration, and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy. The

  14. An Evidence-Based Unified Definition of Lifelong and Acquired Premature Ejaculation: Report of the Second International Society for Sexual Medicine Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; McMahon, Chris G; Waldinger, Marcel D; Althof, Stanley E; Shindel, Alan; Adaikan, Ganesh; Becher, Edgardo F; Dean, John; Giuliano, Francois; Hellstrom, Wayne JG; Giraldi, Annamaria; Glina, Sidney; Incrocci, Luca; Jannini, Emmanuele; McCabe, Marita; Parish, Sharon; Rowland, David; Segraves, R Taylor; Sharlip, Ira; Torres, Luiz Otavio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation developed the first evidence-based definition for lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) in 2007 and concluded that there were insufficient published objective data at that time to develop a definition for acquired PE. Aim The aim of this article is to review and critique the current literature and develop a contemporary, evidence-based definition for acquired PE and/or a unified definition for both lifelong and acquired PE. Methods In April 2013, the ISSM convened a second Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation in Bangalore, India. The same evidence-based systematic approach to literature search, retrieval, and evaluation used by the original committee was adopted. Results The committee unanimously agreed that men with lifelong and acquired PE appear to share the dimensions of short ejaculatory latency, reduced or absent perceived ejaculatory control, and the presence of negative personal consequences. Men with acquired PE are older, have higher incidences of erectile dysfunction, comorbid disease, and cardiovascular risk factors, and have a longer intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) as compared with men with lifelong PE. A self-estimated or stopwatch IELT of 3 minutes was identified as a valid IELT cut-off for diagnosing acquired PE. On this basis, the committee agreed on a unified definition of both acquired and lifelong PE as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by (i) ejaculation that always or nearly always occurs prior to or within about 1 minute of vaginal penetration from the first sexual experience (lifelong PE) or a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in latency time, often to about 3 minutes or less (acquired PE); (ii) the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations; and (iii) negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration, and/or the

  15. Serotonin transporter promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism is associated with the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch men with lifelong premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Paddy K C; Bakker, Steven C; Réthelyi, Janos; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Touw, Daan J; Olivier, Berend; Waldinger, Marcel D

    2009-01-01

    Lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) is characterized by persistent intravaginal ejaculation latency times (IELTs) of less than 1 minute, and has been postulated as a neurobiological dysfunction with genetic vulnerability for the short IELTs, related to disturbances of central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) neurotransmission and 5-HT receptor functioning. To investigate the relationship between 5-HT transporter gene-linked polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and short IELTs in men with lifelong PE. A prospective study was conducted in 89 Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong PE. IELT during coitus was assessed by stopwatch over a 1-month period. Controls consisted of 92 Dutch Caucasian men. All men with LPE were genotyped for a 5-HTT-promoter polymorphism. Allele frequencies and genotypes of short (S) and long (L) variants of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism were compared between patients and controls. Association between LL, SL, and SS genotypes, and the natural logarithm of the IELT in men with LPE was investigated. IELT measured by stopwatch, 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. In men with lifelong PE, the geometric mean, median, and natural mean IELTs were 21, 26, and 32 seconds, respectively. There were no significant differences in the 5-HTT polymorphism alleles and genotypes between 89 Dutch Caucasian men with LPE (S 47%, L 53%/LL 29%, SL 48%, SS 22%) and 92 Dutch Caucasian controls (S 48%, L 52%/LL 29%, SL 45%, SS 26%). In men with lifelong PE there was a statistically significant difference between LL, SL, and SS genotypes in their geometric mean IELT (P < or = 0.027); the LL genotypes had significantly shorter IELTs than the SS and SL genotypes. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is associated with significant effects on the latency to ejaculate in men with lifelong PE. Men with SS and SL genotypes have 100% and 90% longer ejaculation time, respectively than men with LL genotypes.

  16. Female mediation of competitive fertilization success in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Lüpold, Stefan; Pitnick, Scott; Berben, Kirstin S; Blengini, Cecilia S; Belote, John M; Manier, Mollie K

    2013-06-25

    How females store and use sperm after remating can generate postcopulatory sexual selection on male ejaculate traits. Variation in ejaculate performance traits generally is thought to be intrinsic to males but is likely to interact with the environment in which sperm compete (e.g., the female reproductive tract). Our understanding of female contributions to competitive fertilization success is limited, however, in part because of the challenges involved in observing events within the reproductive tract of internally fertilizing species while discriminating among sperm from competing males. Here, we used females from crosses among isogenic lines of Drosophila melanogaster, each mated to two genetically standardized males (the first with green- and the second with red-tagged sperm heads) to demonstrate heritable variation in female remating interval, progeny production rate, sperm-storage organ morphology, and a number of sperm performance, storage, and handling traits. We then used multivariate analyses to examine relationships between this female-mediated variation and competitive paternity. In particular, the timing of female ejection of excess second-male and displaced first-male sperm was genetically variable and, by terminating the process of sperm displacement, significantly influenced the relative numbers of sperm from each male competing for fertilization, and consequently biased paternity. Our results demonstrate that females do not simply provide a static arena for sperm competition but rather play an active and pivotal role in postcopulatory processes. Resolving the adaptive significance of genetic variation in female-mediated mechanisms of sperm handling is critical for understanding sexual selection, sexual conflict, and the coevolution of male and female reproductive traits.

  17. Premature ejaculation: bother and intravaginal ejaculatory latency time in Iran.

    PubMed

    Zargooshi, Javaad

    2009-12-01

    Complaints of premature ejaculation (PE) and its repercussions are culture-dependent. To report the measured intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and the impact of PE in Kermanshah, Iran. From November 1996 through October 2008, 3,458 patients presented to us with self-diagnosed PE. In the first visit, after obtaining a psychosocial and sexual history, PE-specific bother was self-rated by the patients and the patients were advised to measure their IELTs over the next 2-3 weeks. In the second visit, the measured IELTs were reported by the patients. Patients' measured IELT and bother score. Age range was 17-80 years (mean 34.1, standard deviation [SD] 9.1, median 32). Sixty-five percent were married. Primary and secondary PE was reported by 2,105 (60.8%) and 1,353 (39.1%) patients, respectively. Occasional PE was reported by 36 (0.01%). Of those with multiple partners, 6% had partner-specific PE. IELT distribution was positively skewed. Anteportal ejaculation was reported by 97 (2.8%). In 3,458 self-reported PE patients, IELT was 1-15 seconds in 542 (15.7%), 16-30 seconds in 442 (12.8%), 31-60 seconds in 978 (28.3%), > 1 2 5 minutes in 136 (3.9%). IELTs of

  18. The effect of first nocturnal ejaculation timing on risk and sexual behaviors of Korean male adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Ji; Yang, Go-Eun; Chueh, Hee Won; Park, Jae Hong

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the effect of first nocturnal ejaculation timing on risk and sexual behaviors of Korean male adolescents. Methods We analyzed data from the 10th edition of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based survey that was conducted with male high school adolescents in grades 10–12. The survey included 17,907 adolescents, and 10,326 responded their experience of first nocturnal ejaculation. Of these, 595 had their first nocturnal ejaculation in ≤grade 4 (“early puberty”) and 9,731 had their first nocturnal ejaculation in ≥grade 5 (“normal puberty”). We analyzed differences between these 2 groups in risk and sexual behaviors. Results Early first nocturnal ejaculation showed a positive association with sexual intercourse (odds ratio [OR], 3.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.56–4.17), sexual debut at elementary school age (OR, 7.45; 95% CI, 5.00–11.10), and having had a sexually transmitted disease (OR, 6.60; 95% CI, 3.94–11.08). After a multiple logistic regression to adjust for socio-demographic variables, early first nocturnal ejaculation was still positively associated with sexual intercourse (OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 2.03–3.69), sexual debut at elementary school age (OR, 5.96; 95% CI, 3.47–10.22), and having had a sexually transmitted disease (OR, 5.17; 95% CI, 2.52–10.20). Early first nocturnal ejaculation was positively associated with alcohol consumption, smoking, and substance use. However, this was not statistically significant after adjusting for several socio-demographic variables. Conclusion There is a positive association between early nocturnal ejaculation and sexual behaviors in male adolescents. Proactive education about sexual behaviors is required for adolescents who reach sexual maturity early. PMID:28443258

  19. Influence of season and frequency of ejaculation on production of stallion semen for freezing.

    PubMed

    Magistrini, M; Chanteloube, P; Palmer, E

    1987-01-01

    In an attempt to define optimal season and ejaculation frequency for frozen semen, semen was collected from 6 stallions (3 horses and 3 ponies) 3 times per week or every day, alternating every week, for 1 year. The semen was evaluated and frozen. All the samples were thawed at the end of the experiment. At collection, fresh semen evaluations showed that winter (as opposed to spring and summer) was associated with low sexual behaviour, small volumes of spermatozoa and gel, high sperm concentration and lower motility. The high ejaculation frequency yielded a decreased volume, concentration of spermatozoa in the ejaculate and slightly improved motility. The quality of thawed semen was analysed by video and microscope estimations for motility and by two staining methods for vitality. No variation was observed according to the ejaculation frequency; the best freezability was obtained in winter but the difference was small compared to between-stallion variability and optimization of frequency and season did not change a 'bad freezer' into a good one.

  20. Female age and sperm competition: last-male precedence declines as female age increases.

    PubMed

    Mack, Paul D; Priest, Nicholas K; Promislow, Daniel E L

    2003-01-22

    Until very recently, most studies of sperm competition have focused on variation in male competitive ability. However, we now know that a number of reproductive traits, including oviposition rate, use of stored sperm and receptivity to mating, vary with female condition. Because females can play an active part in the movement of sperm within their reproductive tract, sperm competition may be influenced by female condition. Existing studies of sperm competition in fruitflies ignore the effects of female condition, using females that are 3-4 days old and in their reproductive prime. But condition will decline as a female senesces. Here, we examine the effect of female age on the outcome of sperm competition in three strains of the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster. Previous studies have shown that female age influences preference for mates and male ejaculation strategies. In this study, we find that when males are mated to females that are older than 17 days, last-male sperm precedence decreases significantly. These results could lead to a greater understanding of the physiological mechanisms that regulate the outcome of sperm competition.

  1. Comparison of intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes between spermatozoa retrieved from testicular biopsy and from ejaculation in cryptozoospermic men.

    PubMed

    Amirjannati, N; Heidari-Vala, H; Akhondi, M A; Hosseini Jadda, S H; Kamali, K; Sadeghi, M R

    2012-05-01

    The infrequent presence of spermatozoa in cryptozoospermic men ejaculate is a limiting factor in the treatment of them. Sometimes, this consideration impels us to apply meticulous microscopic search in ejaculate or testicular sperm extraction (TESE) method. The aim of this study was to assess putative effectiveness of sperm origin, ejaculated or testicular, in cryptozoospermia treatment. In this context, were evaluated intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes in two parameters including fertilisation rate (2PN) and embryo quality, independently. We compared the outcome in two groups: patients who underwent ejaculate/ICSI and ones who underwent TESE/ICSI process. Nineteen ICSI cycles performed with testicular spermatozoa and the rest of cycles (n = 208) carried out with ejaculated spermatozoa. Result analysis showed similar fertilisation rate between testicular and ejaculated spermatozoa (respectively, 60% versus 68%, P ≥ 0.05). Also, on the other hand, embryo quality did not show significant differences between two groups, except grade A with low significance. With regard to almost equal performance of both methods in results and being invasive of TESE as surgical sperm retrieval method, the use of ejaculated sperm more than testicular sperm should be recommended in patients with cryptozoospermia whenever possible. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. An evidence-based definition of lifelong premature ejaculation: report of the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) ad hoc committee for the definition of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Chris G; Althof, Stanley E; Waldinger, Marcel D; Porst, Hartmut; Dean, John; Sharlip, Ira D; Adaikan, P G; Becher, Edgardo; Broderick, Gregory A; Buvat, Jacques; Dabees, Khalid; Giraldi, Annamaria; Giuliano, François; Hellstrom, Wayne J G; Incrocci, Luca; Laan, Ellen; Meuleman, Eric; Perelman, Michael A; Rosen, Raymond C; Rowland, David L; Segraves, Robert

    2008-07-01

    The medical literature contains several definitions of premature ejaculation (PE). The most commonly quoted definition, the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition-Text Revision, and other definitions of PE are all authority based rather than evidence based, and have no support from controlled clinical and/or epidemiological studies. The aim of this article is to develop a contemporary, evidence-based definition of PE. In August 2007, the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) appointed several international experts in PE to an Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation. The committee met in Amsterdam in October 2007 to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of current definitions of PE, to critique the evidence in support of the constructs of ejaculatory latency, ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction, and personal/interpersonal distress, and to propose a new evidence-based definition of PE. The committee unanimously agreed that the constructs that are necessary to define PE are rapidity of ejaculation, perceived self-efficacy and control, and negative personal consequences from PE. The committee proposed that lifelong PE be defined as ". . . a male sexual dysfunction characterized by ejaculation which always or nearly always occurs prior to or within about one minute of vaginal penetration, and the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy." This definition is limited to men with lifelong PE who engage in vaginal intercourse. The panel concluded that there are insufficient published objective data to propose an evidence-based definition of acquired PE. The ISSM definition of lifelong PE represents the first evidence-based definition of PE. This definition will hopefully lead to the development of new tools and Patient Reported

  3. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision as an appropriate diagnostic for premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Shabsigh, Ridwan; Rowland, David

    2007-09-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for premature ejaculation (PE) are multifactorial, and include concepts of latency, perceived control over ejaculation, and personal distress and interpersonal difficulty related to the condition. Recent publications have suggested that these criteria are not supported by empirical evidence, leading to the proposal that a PE diagnosis should be based solely on intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), while the presence of other factors (such as perceived lack of control over ejaculation) may be used to guide treatment decisions. To examine the evidence supporting the elements of the DSM-IV-TR criteria for PE. Literature searches on IELT, perceived control over ejaculation, and personal distress and interpersonal difficulty related to ejaculation. From a historical perspective, there has been a lack of large observational studies that evaluated the contributions of the DSM-IV-TR components in men with PE. However, recently performed large observational studies have generated data supporting the inclusion of perceived control over ejaculation and personal distress related to ejaculation in the definition of PE. Furthermore, emerging evidence indicates that a perceived lack of control over ejaculation is directly associated with elevated personal distress related to ejaculation and decreased satisfaction with sexual intercourse, while the effects of IELT on these parameters are indirect, and mediated by perceived control over ejaculation. A key advantage of the DSM-IV-TR approach to the diagnosis of PE is that it firmly links PE to a negative outcome for the patient, which is an element common to diagnostic criteria for other conditions, including depression, hypertension, and osteoporosis. This new evidence strongly suggests that the DSM-IV-TR criteria for PE encompass aspects of the condition that patients describe as important.

  4. Geometric mean IELT and premature ejaculation: appropriate statistics to avoid overestimation of treatment efficacy.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Olivier, Berend; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2008-02-01

    The intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) behaves in a skewed manner and needs the appropriate statistics for correct interpretation of treatment results. To explain the rightful use of geometrical mean IELT values and the fold increase of the geometric mean IELT because of the positively skewed IELT distribution. Linking theoretical arguments to the outcome of several selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and modern antidepressant study results. Geometric mean IELT and fold increase of geometrical mean IELT. Log-transforming each separate IELT measurement of each individual man is the basis for the calculation of the geometric mean IELT. A drug-induced positively skewed IELT distribution necessitates the calculation of the geometric mean IELTs at baseline and during drug treatment. In a positively skewed IELT distribution, the use of the "arithmetic" mean IELT risks an overestimation of the drug-induced ejaculation delay as the mean IELT is always higher than the geometric mean IELT. Strong ejaculation-delaying drugs give rise to a strong positively skewed IELT distribution, whereas weak ejaculation-delaying drugs give rise to (much) less skewed IELT distributions. Ejaculation delay is expressed in fold increase of the geometric mean IELT. Drug-induced ejaculatory performance discloses a positively skewed IELT distribution, requiring the use of the geometric mean IELT and the fold increase of the geometric mean IELT.

  5. Ejaculate and type of freezing extender affect rates of fertilization of horse oocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Roasa, L M; Choi, Y H; Love, C C; Romo, S; Varner, D D; Hinrichs, K

    2007-09-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) was performed on in vitro-matured equine oocytes in three experiments. Frozen-thawed sperm were prepared using swim-up separation and heparin treatment. In Experiment 1, fertilization was achieved with sperm from only one frozen ejaculate of four obtained from the same stallion. Within this ejaculate, fertilization rates were higher with fresh media, as compared to media held for 6-8 days before use (39.6% versus 7.3%, respectively; P<0.001). The type of bovine serum albumin used affected fertilization rates (4% versus 39.6%; P<0.001). To determine if IVF rates were influenced by factors associated with the freezing process (Experiment 2), a single ejaculate from a second stallion was frozen using eight variations in timing of steps in the freezing protocol. There were no differences among treatments in fertilization rates (range, 0-3%). In Experiment 3, fertilization rates of semen frozen in an extender containing 21.5% egg yolk were lower than fertilization rates of semen from the same ejaculate but frozen with a 3% egg-yolk extender (0% versus 15%, respectively; P<0.01). We inferred that rates of equine IVF with frozen-thawed sperm were influenced by ejaculate, the composition and age of the media used, and freezing extender. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ejaculate or extender differences affecting in vitro fertilization in this species. These factors may help to explain the great variability in fertilization rates reported with equine IVF, both among and within laboratories.

  6. Ejaculate traits and sperm cryopreservation in the endangered Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii).

    PubMed

    Pukazhenthi, Budhan S; Togna, Gina Della; Padilla, Luis; Smith, Diorene; Sanchez, Carlos; Pelican, Katey; Sanjur, Oris I

    2011-01-01

    There is little information on the reproductive biology of the male Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii). In this study, we characterized the ejaculate traits and evaluated the efficacy of 2 cryodiluents on sperm cryosurvival. Ejaculates were assessed for volume, pH, sperm motility, forward progression, osmolality, sperm concentration, sperm morphology, and acrosomal integrity. For cryopreservation, ejaculates with >50% total sperm motility were washed, and sperm pellets were resuspended in either Botu-Crio (CryoVital, Grandau, Germany) or INRA 96 containing 2% egg yolk and 2.5% each of methyl- and dimethylformamide (INRA 96), and they were cryopreserved over liquid nitrogen vapor. Thawed samples were incubated in vitro (25 °C) and evaluated for percent total sperm motility, forward progression, and acrosomal integrity at hourly intervals for 4 hours. Spermic ejaculates were obtained from all males, and the mean seminal volume, sperm concentration per milliliter, percent sperm motility, progressive status, and percent morphologically normal cells were 20.4 ± 4.3 mL, 101.2 ± 24.0 × 10(6)/mL, 46.1% ± 5.0%, 2.9 ± 0.1, and 6.9% ± 1.4%, respectively. There was a positive significant correlation between percent normal sperm and animal age (r = 0.66; P < .004). Cryopreservation in either Botu-Crio or INRA 96 resulted in a decline (P < .05) in percent sperm motility and acrosomal integrity. Sperm forward progression remained unaffected immediately after thawing in INRA 96 but continued to decline over time. These results characterize, for the first time, the ejaculate traits of the tapir; demonstrate that tapir spermatozoa can be cryopreserved in diluents containing amides alone or in combination with glycerol; and provide fundamental information critical for development of assisted reproductive technologies for the Baird's tapir.

  7. An evidence-based unified definition of lifelong and acquired premature ejaculation: report of the second International Society for Sexual Medicine Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; McMahon, Chris G; Waldinger, Marcel D; Althof, Stanley E; Shindel, Alan; Adaikan, Ganesh; Becher, Edgardo F; Dean, John; Giuliano, Francois; Hellstrom, Wayne J G; Giraldi, Annamaria; Glina, Sidney; Incrocci, Luca; Jannini, Emmanuele; McCabe, Marita; Parish, Sharon; Rowland, David; Segraves, R Taylor; Sharlip, Ira; Torres, Luiz Otavio

    2014-06-01

    The International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation developed the first evidence-based definition for lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) in 2007 and concluded that there were insufficient published objective data at that time to develop a definition for acquired PE. The aim of this article is to review and critique the current literature and develop a contemporary, evidence-based definition for acquired PE and/or a unified definition for both lifelong and acquired PE. In April 2013, the ISSM convened a second Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation in Bangalore, India. The same evidence-based systematic approach to literature search, retrieval, and evaluation used by the original committee was adopted. The committee unanimously agreed that men with lifelong and acquired PE appear to share the dimensions of short ejaculatory latency, reduced or absent perceived ejaculatory control, and the presence of negative personal consequences. Men with acquired PE are older, have higher incidences of erectile dysfunction, comorbid disease, and cardiovascular risk factors, and have a longer intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) as compared with men with lifelong PE. A self-estimated or stopwatch IELT of 3 minutes was identified as a valid IELT cut-off for diagnosing acquired PE. On this basis, the committee agreed on a unified definition of both acquired and lifelong PE as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by (i) ejaculation that always or nearly always occurs prior to or within about 1 minute of vaginal penetration from the first sexual experience (lifelong PE) or a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in latency time, often to about 3 minutes or less (acquired PE); (ii) the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations; and (iii) negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration, and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy. The

  8. Healthy live birth using theophylline in a case of retrograde ejaculation and absolute asthenozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Thomas; Shebl, Omar; Mayer, Richard Bernhard; Moser, Marianne; Costamoling, Walter; Oppelt, Peter

    2014-02-01

    To analyze whether the use of ready-to-use theophylline is a feasible option in a case of retrograde ejaculation and absolute asthenozoospermia. Case report. In vitro fertilization unit of a public hospital. Thirty-one-year-old nulliparous woman, and 39-year-old male with retrograde ejaculation and absolute asthenozoospermia. Retrieval of postejaculatory urine, restoration of motility using a methylxanthine, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, single-embryo transfer. Sperm motility, fertilization, embryo quality, live birth. Successful fertilization and a single-embryo transfer resulted in a healthy live birth. Theophylline turned out to be a safe, efficient agent for stimulating immotile spermatozoa in patients with retrograde ejaculation. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy of Dapoxetine in the Treatment of Premature Ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Chris G.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder which is associated with substantial personal and interpersonal negative psychological factors. Pharmacotherapy of PE with off-label antidepressant SSRI drugs is common. Development and regulatory approval of drugs specifically for the treatment of PE will reduce reliance on off-label treatments and serve to fill a unmet treatment need. Aim To review evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of dapoxetine in the treatment of PE. Methods MEDLINE and the proceedings of major international and regional scientific meetings during the period 1994–2010 were searched for publications or abstracts using the word dapoxetine in the title, abstract or keywords. This search was then manually cross-referenced for all papers. This review encompasses studies of dapoxetine pharmacokinetics, animal studies, human phase 1, 2 and 3 efficacy and safety studies and drug-interaction studies. Results Dapoxetine is a potent selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, which is administered on-demand 1–3 hours prior to planned sexual contact. Dapoxetine is rapidly absorbed and eliminated, resulting in minimal accumulation and has dose-proportional pharmacokinetics, which are unaffected by multiple dosing. Dapoxetine 30 mg and 60 mg has been evaluated in 5 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in 6081 men aged ≥18 years. Outcome measures included stopwatch-measured intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP) inventory items, clinical global impression of change (CGIC) in PE, and adverse events. Mean IELT, all PEP items and CGIC improved significantly with both doses of dapoxetine vs. placebo (P < 0.001 for all). The most common treatment related adverse effects included nausea (11.0% for 30 mg, 22.2% for 60 mg), dizziness (586% for 30 mg, 10.9% for 60 mg), and headache (5.6% for 30 mg, 8.8% for 60 mg), and evaluation of validated rated scales demonstrated no SSRI

  10. Socially cued seminal fluid gene expression mediates responses in ejaculate quality to sperm competition risk.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Leigh W; Lovegrove, Maxine

    2017-08-30

    There is considerable evidence that males will increase the number of sperm ejaculated in response to sperm competition risk. However, whether they have the capacity to adjust seminal fluid components of the ejaculate has received less attention. Male crickets ( Teleogryllus oceanicus ) have been shown to adjust the viability of sperm in their ejaculate in response to sperm competition risk. Here we show that socially mediated plasticity in sperm viability is probably due, at least in part, to male adjustments in the protein composition of the seminal fluid. Seven seminal fluid protein genes were found to have an increased expression in males exposed to rival calls. Increased expression of these genes was correlated with increased sperm viability in whole ejaculates, and gene knockdown confirmed that at least one of these proteins promotes sperm viability. Our results lend support for recent theoretical models that predict complex responses in male allocation to seminal fluid composition in response to sperm competition risk. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Ejaculation Frequency and Risk of Prostate Cancer: Updated Results with an Additional Decade of Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Rider, Jennifer R.; Wilson, Kathryn M.; Sinnott, Jennifer A.; Kelly, Rachel S.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Giovannucci, Edward L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that ejaculation frequency may be inversely related to the risk of prostate cancer (PCa), a disease for which few modifiable risk factors have been identified. Objective To incorporate an additional 10 yr of follow-up into an original analysis and to comprehensively evaluate the association between ejaculation frequency and PCa, accounting for screening, clinically relevant disease subgroups, and the impact of mortality from other causes. Design, setting, and participants A prospective cohort study of participants in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study utilizing self-reported data on average monthly ejaculation frequency. The study includes 31 925 men who answered questions on ejaculation frequency on a 1992 questionnaire and followed through to 2010. The average monthly ejaculation frequency was assessed at three time points: age 20–29 yr, age 40–49 yr, and the year before questionnaire distribution. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Incidence of total PCa and clinically relevant disease subgroups. Cox models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results and limitations During 480 831 person-years, 3839 men were diagnosed with PCa. Ejaculation frequency at age 40–49 yr was positively associated with age-standardized body mass index, physical activity, divorce, history of sexually transmitted infections, and consumption of total calories and alcohol. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test utilization by 2008, number of PSA tests, and frequency of prostate biopsy were similar across frequency categories. In multivariable analyses, the hazard ratio for PCa incidence for ≥21 compared to 4–7 ejaculations per month was 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72–0.92; p < 0.0001 for trend) for frequency at age 20–29 yr and 0.78 (95% CI 0.69–0.89; p < 0.0001 for trend) for frequency at age 40–49 yr. Associations were driven by low-risk disease, were similar when restricted

  12. Evaluating the content and quality of information about premature ejaculation on the Internet: what are men being exposed to ?

    PubMed

    Gul, M; Kaynar, M

    2017-03-01

    Premature ejaculation is one of the most common male sexual dysfunctions; however, only a few patients with premature ejaculation are seeking professional help or advice. Internet has become an important source of knowledge, and thus, more patients are looking online for health information. According to our best knowledge, no study has evaluated the content and quality of websites on premature ejaculation. We, therefore, aimed to evaluate the content and quality of currently available Internet-based information on premature ejaculation. A sample was obtained comprising the 50 top sites retrieved from Google, Bing and Yahoo search engines using the terms 'premature ejaculation'. Each site then was reviewed based on some predefined evaluation criteria to determine the general quality, condition-specific content quality, popularity index and ownership. The websites reviewed were differed highly in terms of quality and ownership. Only a few sites provided comprehensive medical and complete information on premature ejaculation. The online information available is often of uncertain calibre; therefore, men are being exposed to information about premature ejaculation with a highly variable degree quality. This fact should be considered both by health professionals and website owners, and better online resources should be provided for these patients. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Diacyl, alkenyl, and alkyl ether phospholipids in ejaculated, in utero-, and in vitro-incubated porcine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Evans, R W; Weaver, D E; Clegg, E D

    1980-02-01

    The phospholipids of porcine spermatozoa were analyzed by a hydrolytic procedure directly after ejaculation, and after incubation for 120 min in vitro or in ligated uterine segments of females with induced estrus. Total phospholipid content of ejaculated sperm was 65.7 micro g lipid P per 10(9) sperm, of which 41% was alkyl ether and 23% was alkenyl ether glycerophospholipid. All of the ether phospholipids were choline and ethanolamine glycerophospholipids. In order of decreasing amount (% of total phospholipid), the phospholipids were choline and ethanolamine glycerophospholipids (49.9 and 28.2), sphingolipid (10.6), cardiolipin (5.5), phosphatidylinositol (2.3), phosphatidic acid (1.5), phosphatidylserine (1.2), and phosphatidylglycerol (0.8). Phosphorus-containing sphingolipid separated into two components during thin-layer chromatography. Sphingosine was the only long-chain base identified in either band. Major fatty acids in the band with lower R(f) were 16:0 (56%), 20:0 (23%), and 18:0 (11%) plus smaller amounts of 14:0, 18:1, and 22:0, while those in the band with higher R(f) were 14:0 (30%), 16:0 (45%), and 18:1 (12%) plus smaller amounts of 18:0, 20:0, and 22:0. Choline was the only water-soluble base present in the lower R(f) sphingomyelin while ethanolamine was prevalent in the higher R(f) component. Incubation of washed spermatozoa in Ca(2+)-free Ringer-fructose at 37 degrees C for 2 hr produced no significant change in the level of any of the phospholipids. Incubation of washed sperm in the uterus for 2 hr, in the presence of oviductal secretions, produced an increase in phosphatidylcholine from 7.2 to 10.2 micro g lipid P per 10(9) sperm.-Evans, R. W., D. E. Weaver, and E. D. Clegg. Diacyl, alkenyl, and alkyl ether phospholipids in ejaculated, in utero-, and in vitro-incubated porcine spermatozoa.

  14. Effect of SSRI antidepressants on ejaculation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study with fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, M D; Hengeveld, M W; Zwinderman, A H; Olivier, B

    1998-08-01

    Depression is a common cause of sexual dysfunction, but also antidepressant medication is often associated with sexual side effects. This article includes two related studies. The first double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in men with lifelong rapid ejaculation and aimed to assess putative differences between the major selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline) with regard to their ejaculation-delaying effect. Sixty men with an intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of 1 minute or less were randomly assigned to receive fluoxetine 20 mg/day, fluvoxamine 100 mg/day, paroxetine 20 mg/day, sertraline 50 mg/day, or placebo for 6 weeks. During the 1-month baseline and 6-week treatment periods, the men measured their IELT at home using a stopwatch. The trial was completed by 51 men. During the 6-week treatment period, the geometric mean IELT in the placebo group was constant at approximately 20 seconds. Analysis of variance revealed a between-groups difference in the evolution of IELT delay (p = 0.0004); in the paroxetine, fluoxetine, and sertraline groups there was a gradual increase to about 110 seconds, whereas in the fluvoxamine group, IELT was increased to only approximately 40 seconds. The paroxetine, fluoxetine, and sertraline groups differed significantly (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.017, respectively) from placebo but the fluvoxamine group did not (p = 0.38). Compared with baseline, paroxetine exerted the strongest delay in ejaculation, followed by fluoxetine and sertraline. There was no clinically relevant delay in ejaculation with fluvoxamine. In men with lifelong rapid ejaculation, paroxetine delayed ejaculation most strongly, whereas fluvoxamine delayed ejaculation the least. The second double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out in men with lifelong rapid ejaculation (IELT < or = 1 minute) and in men with lifelong less-rapid ejaculation (IELT > 1 minute) to

  15. Primary lifelong delayed ejaculation: characteristics and response to bupropion.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hamid, Ibrahim A; Saleh, El-Sayed

    2011-06-01

    In contrast to premature ejaculation and secondary delayed ejaculation (DE), primary lifelong DE has not been studied extensively. In addition, there is no approved drug treatment. To explore the clinical and laboratory characteristics of a series of men complaining of lifelong DE and to report the response to bupropion. Nineteen consecutive men with primary lifelong DE were prospectively enrolled in this study. Study group was compared with an age-matched group of 19 healthy men. Both groups underwent history taking, physical examination, International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), anxiety, and depression scores, ejaculation latency time (IELT) using stop watch and measurement of serum prolactin (PRL) and serum total testosterone (T). Patients received open-label bupropion-SR 150 mg/day for 2 months. Stopwatch-measured IELT values, global efficacy question, IIEF, anxiety, and depression scores. The mean age was 30.8 ± 5.5 year (range 25-42 years). Men with DE exhibited significantly higher masturbatory activity during marital period, lower night emissions, longer IELT, lower orgasmic, and intercourse satisfaction domains of IIEF, higher anxiety and depression scores compared with the controls (all P<0.05). Both serum T and PRL levels did not differ significantly between patients and controls (all P<0.05). Four DE patients (21%) showed history of infertility. The percentage of DE men rating control over ejaculation as "fair to good" increased from 0 to 21.1% after bupropion therapy. The fold decreases of the geometric mean IELT was 0.74 after treatment. The intercourse satisfaction and the orgasmic domains of IIEF and depression score were significantly improved from baseline in the bupropion group (all P<0.05). Lifelong DE is mainly associated with higher and idiosyncratic masturbatory activity, lower night emissions, infertility, longer IELT, lower orgasmic, and intercourse satisfaction domains of IIEF, higher anxiety and depression scores. Bupropion-SR in

  16. Relationship between premature ejaculation and depression in Korean males.

    PubMed

    Son, Hwancheol; Song, Sang Hoon; Lee, Jun-Young; Paick, Jae-Seung

    2011-07-01

    The psychological impacts of premature ejaculation (PE), which include guilt, anxiety, and distress, have been well established in Western countries. However, in Asia, although a substantial number of epidemiological studies have surveyed the prevalence of PE, researchers have not thoroughly investigated the relationship between PE and depression, or have defined PE properly. We studied the association between PE and depression and other psychological disturbances, in a Korean cohort by applying an appropriate definition for PE and validated outcome measures of depression. METHODS.  A total of 956 males (≥20 years) were initially approached via an Internet survey company. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire requesting detailed medical and sexual histories, which included questions from the Erectile Function Domain score in the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-EF) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The prevalence of PE was evaluated using two different definitions-self-assessed PE and presumed PE. Presumed PE was defined as a short ejaculation time (an estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time ≤5 minutes), an inability to control ejaculation, and the presence of distress resulting from PE. Ejaculation-related questionnaire, the IIEF-EF, and BDI. A total of 334 men were evaluated. The prevalence of PE was 10.5% according to the Presumed PE definition, whereas by self-assessment, it was 25.4%. Self-assessed PE patients suffered from various psychological problems, such as depression, low self-esteem, bother, and low sexual satisfaction. Even after excluding erectile dysfunction (ED) subjects, a significant relationship was found between self-assessed PE and depression. Moreover, after further classification of the Self-assessed PE group, we found that subjects included in this group, but not in the Presumed PE group, suffered more from psychological burden than any other members of the cohort. Korean men with subjective

  17. Pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation for patients with lifelong premature ejaculation: a novel therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Antonio L; Palleschi, Giovanni; Fuschi, Andrea; Maggioni, Cristina; Rago, Rocco; Zucchi, Alessandro; Costantini, Elisabetta; Carbone, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    Premature ejaculation is the most common male sexual disorder. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible therapeutic role of pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation in patients affected by lifelong premature ejaculation. We treated 40 men with lifelong premature ejaculation, reporting, a baseline intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) ≤ 1 min, with 12-week pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation. At the end of the rehabilitation, mean IELTs were calculated to evaluate the effectiveness of the therapy. At the end of the treatment, 33 (82.5%) of the 40 patients gained control of their ejaculatory reflex, with a mean IELT of 146.2 s (range: 123.6-152.4 s). A total of 13 out of 33 (39%) patients were evaluated at 6 months follow up, and they maintained a significant IELT (112.6 s) compared with their initial IELT (mean 39.8 s). The results obtained in our subjects treated with pelvic floor rehabilitation are promising. This therapy represents an important cost reduction compared with the standard treatment (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). Based on the present data, we propose pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation as a new, viable therapeutic option for the treatment of premature ejaculation.

  18. Morphometry and subpopulation structure of Holstein bull spermatozoa: variations in ejaculates and cryopreservation straws

    PubMed Central

    Valverde, Anthony; Arenán, Héctor; Sancho, María; Contell, Jesús; Yániz, Jesús; Fernández, Alejandro; Soler, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Sperm quality is evaluated for the calculation of sperm dosage in artificial reproductive programs. The most common parameter used is motility, but morphology has a higher potential as a predictor of genetic quality. Morphometry calculations from CASA-Morph technology improve morphological evaluation and allow mathematical approaches to the problem. Semen from 28 Holstein bulls was collected by artificial vagina, and several ejaculates were studied. After general evaluation, samples were diluted, packaged in 0.25 ml straws, and stored in liquid nitrogen. Two straws per sample were thawed, and slides were processed and stained with Diff-Quik. Samples were analyzed by a CASA-Morph system for eight morphometric parameters. In addition to the “classical” statistical approach, based on variance analysis (revealing differences between animals, ejaculates, and straws), principal component (PC) analysis showed that the variables were grouped into PC1, related to size, and PC2 to shape. Subpopulation structure analysis showed four groups, namely, big, small, short, and narrow from their dominant characteristics, representing 31.0%, 27.3%, 24.1%, and 17.7% of the total population, respectively. The distributions varied between animals and ejaculates, but between straws, there were no differences in only four animals. This modern approach of considering an ejaculate sperm population as divided into subpopulations reflecting quantifiable parameters generated by CASA-Morph systems technology opens a new view on sperm function. This is the first study applying this approach to evaluate different ejaculates and straws from the same individual. More work must be done to improve seminal dose calculations in assisted reproductive programs. PMID:27678464

  19. Morphometry and subpopulation structure of Holstein bull spermatozoa: variations in ejaculates and cryopreservation straws.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Anthony; Arenán, Héctor; Sancho, María; Contell, Jesús; Yániz, Jesús; Fernández, Alejandro; Soler, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Sperm quality is evaluated for the calculation of sperm dosage in artificial reproductive programs. The most common parameter used is motility, but morphology has a higher potential as a predictor of genetic quality. Morphometry calculations from CASA-Morph technology improve morphological evaluation and allow mathematical approaches to the problem. Semen from 28 Holstein bulls was collected by artificial vagina, and several ejaculates were studied. After general evaluation, samples were diluted, packaged in 0.25 ml straws, and stored in liquid nitrogen. Two straws per sample were thawed, and slides were processed and stained with Diff-Quik. Samples were analyzed by a CASA-Morph system for eight morphometric parameters. In addition to the "classical" statistical approach, based on variance analysis (revealing differences between animals, ejaculates, and straws), principal component (PC) analysis showed that the variables were grouped into PC1, related to size, and PC2 to shape. Subpopulation structure analysis showed four groups, namely, big, small, short, and narrow from their dominant characteristics, representing 31.0%, 27.3%, 24.1%, and 17.7% of the total population, respectively. The distributions varied between animals and ejaculates, but between straws, there were no differences in only four animals. This modern approach of considering an ejaculate sperm population as divided into subpopulations reflecting quantifiable parameters generated by CASA-Morph systems technology opens a new view on sperm function. This is the first study applying this approach to evaluate different ejaculates and straws from the same individual. More work must be done to improve seminal dose calculations in assisted reproductive programs.

  20. Dilution of boar ejaculates with BTS containing HEPES in place of bicarbonate immediately after ejaculation can reduce the increased inducibility of the acrosome reaction by treatment with calcium and calcium ionophore A23187, which is potentially associated with boar subfertility.

    PubMed

    Murase, Tetsuma; Imaeda, Noriaki; Yamada, Hiroto; Takasu, Masaki; Taguchi, Kazuo; Katoh, Tsutomu

    2010-06-01

    The present study investigated whether substitution of HEPES for bicarbonate in BTS (BTS-H) used to dilute boar ejaculates immediately after ejaculation could reduce the increased inducibility of the acrosome reaction by calcium and calcium ionophore A23187. When an ejaculate was split, diluted 5-fold with regular BTS (BTS-B) and BTS-H and stored at 17 C for 12 h or 60 h, the extender or storage time had no significant influence on sperm motility or viability measured by the eosin-nigrosin method. When spermatozoa diluted serially with BTS-B and stored (36 h) were stimulated with Ca2+ (3 mM) and A23187 (0.3 microM), the proportion of spermatozoa that underwent the acrosome reaction (% acrosome reactions) significantly increased as the magnifications of dilution increased (bicarbonate content almost unchanged by dilution). By contrast, the % acrosome reactions in spermatozoa similarly diluted and stored with BTS-H decreased with the increasing magnifications of dilution (bicarbonate decreased). Sperm motility immediately after the end of incubation without A23178 tended to be lower for BTS-H than BTS-B, and the ejaculates for BTS-H had a tendency to have a lower total protein in seminal plasma than those for BTS-B. These results implied that the samples for BTS-H could be used as a model for ejaculates possibly collected during summer and showing subfertility. When an ejaculate was split, diluted serially with BTS-B and BTS-H and stored, viability measured by staining with propidium iodide was extremely similar between the 2 extenders and among the different dilution magnifications, regardless of whether spermatozoa were washed (stored for 36-66 h) or not (stored for 66-72 h). These results suggest that boar ejaculate can be stored with BTS-H at least according to the results for sperm motility and viability and that hypersensitivity of spermatozoa to Ca2+ and A23187 potentially associated with boar subfertility could be lessened by diluting ejaculates with BTS-H.

  1. [Ejaculatory profile: a pressure of 5 meters H2O at the level of the bladder neck during ejaculation].

    PubMed

    Hugonnet, Christophe L; Böhlen, Dominik; Schmid, Hans-Peter

    2002-12-01

    The existence of a pressure gradient in order to prevent retrograde ejaculation in men with no ejaculatory disorders has always been postulated, but without any scientific evidence. The profile of the prostatic urethra was recorded during ejaculation in 5 men with no ejaculatory disorders using a 10 F balloon catheter with 16 pressure channels, situated in pairs every 5 mm, starting just below the balloon in the bladder neck and extending as far as the external urethral sphincter. The pressure in the proximal part of the proximal urethra was 500 cm H2O in the five men, but this pressure did not exceed 400 cm H2O distally as far as the colliculus seminalis. The authors present a new method for recording the urethral pressure profile during ejaculation (ejaculatory profile). This study provides a better understanding of the mechanisms of normal ejaculation and could be useful for the evaluation of disorders of ejaculation.

  2. MR Imaging of the Prostate and Adjacent Anatomic Structures before, during, and after Ejaculation: Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluation1

    PubMed Central

    Medved, Milica; Sammet, Steffen; Yousuf, Ambereen; Oto, Aytekin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the possibility of obtaining high-quality magnetic resonance (MR) images before, during, and immediately after ejaculation and detecting measurable changes in quantitative MR imaging parameters after ejaculation. Materials and Methods In this prospective, institutional review board–approved, HIPAA-compliant study, eight young healthy volunteers (median age, 22.5 years), after providing informed consent, underwent MR imaging while masturbating to the point of ejaculation. A 1.5-T MR imaging unit was used, with an eight-channel surface coil and a dynamic single-shot fast spin-echo sequence. In addition, a quantitative MR imaging protocol that allowed calculation of T1, T2, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values was applied before and after ejaculation. Volumes of the prostate and seminal vesicles (SV) were calculated by using whole-volume segmentation on T2-weighted images, both before and after ejaculation. Pre- and postejaculation changes in quantitative MR parameters and measured volumes were evaluated by using the Wilcoxon signed rank test with Bonferroni adjustment. Results There was no significant change in prostate volumes on pre- and postejaculation images, while the SV contracted by 41% on average (median, 44.5%; P = .004). No changes before and after ejaculation were observed in T1 values or in T2 and ADC values in the central gland, while T2 and ADC values were significantly reduced in the peripheral zone by 12% and 14%, respectively (median, 13% and 14.5%, respectively; P = .004). Conclusion Successful dynamic MR imaging of ejaculation events and the ability to visualize internal sphincter closure, passage of ejaculate, and significant changes in SV volumes were demonstrated. Significant changes in peripheral zone T2 and ADC values were observed. PMID:24495265

  3. Premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Chris G

    2007-04-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors is well tolerated and offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitor, dapoxetine represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects.

  4. Premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Chris G.

    2007-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggests that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have “definite” PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have “probable” PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors is well tolerated and offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitor, dapoxetine represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects. PMID:19675782

  5. Pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation for patients with lifelong premature ejaculation: a novel therapeutic approach

    PubMed Central

    Palleschi, Giovanni; Fuschi, Andrea; Maggioni, Cristina; Rago, Rocco; Zucchi, Alessandro; Costantini, Elisabetta; Carbone, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Premature ejaculation is the most common male sexual disorder. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible therapeutic role of pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation in patients affected by lifelong premature ejaculation. Methods: We treated 40 men with lifelong premature ejaculation, reporting, a baseline intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) ≤ 1 min, with 12-week pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation. Results: At the end of the rehabilitation, mean IELTs were calculated to evaluate the effectiveness of the therapy. At the end of the treatment, 33 (82.5%) of the 40 patients gained control of their ejaculatory reflex, with a mean IELT of 146.2 s (range: 123.6–152.4 s). A total of 13 out of 33 (39%) patients were evaluated at 6 months follow up, and they maintained a significant IELT (112.6 s) compared with their initial IELT (mean 39.8 s). Conclusions: The results obtained in our subjects treated with pelvic floor rehabilitation are promising. This therapy represents an important cost reduction compared with the standard treatment (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors). Based on the present data, we propose pelvic floor muscle rehabilitation as a new, viable therapeutic option for the treatment of premature ejaculation. PMID:24883105

  6. Selective resection of dorsal nerves of penis for premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G-X; Yu, L-P; Bai, W-J; Wang, X-F

    2012-12-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most prevalent male sexual dysfunctions. Selective resection of the dorsal nerve (SRDN) of penis has recently been used for the treatment of PE and has shown some efficacy. To further clarify the efficacy and safety of SRDN on PE, we performed a preliminary, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical observational study. Persons with the complaints of rapid ejaculation, asking for circumcision because of redundant foreskin, intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) within 2 min, not responding to antidepressant medication or disliking oral medication were randomly enrolled in two groups. From April 2007 to August 2010, a total of 101 eligible persons were enrolled, 40 of them received SRDN which dorsal nerves of the penis were selectively resected, and those (n = 61) enrolled in the control group were circumcised only. IELT and the Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory (BMSFI) questionnaire were implemented pre- and post-operatively for the evaluation of the effect and safety of the surgery. There are no statistically significant differences in the baseline data including mean ages, mean IELTs, perceived control abilities and the BMSFI mean scores between the two groups. With regard to the post-operative data of the surgery, both IELTs and perceived control abilities were significantly increased after SRDN (1.1 ± 0.9 min vs. 3.8 ± 3.1 min for pre- and post-operative IELT, respectively, p < 0.01),whereas the post-operative results were not significantly improved for the control group (1.2 ± 0.7 min vs. 1.5 ± 1.1 min, p > 0.05). Also, there were no statistically significant differences both in BMSFI composite and subscale scores between the two groups after surgery. Hence, we conclude that SRDN is effective in delaying ejaculation and improving ejaculatory control, whereas erectile function is not affected. The results imply that SRDN may be an alternative method for the treatment of PE for some patients. © 2012 The

  7. Premature ejaculation: on defining and quantifying a common male sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Broderick, Gregory A

    2006-09-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) and its individual and relationship consequences have been recognized in the literature for centuries. PE is one of the most common male sexual dysfunctions, affecting nearly one in three men worldwide between the ages of 18 and 59 years. Until recently, PE was believed to be a learned behavior predominantly managed with psychosexual therapy; however, the past few decades have seen significant advances in understanding its etiology, diagnosis, and management. There is, as yet, no one universally agreed upon definition of PE. To review five currently published definitions of PE. The Sexual Medicine Society of North America hosted a State of the Art Conference on Premature Ejaculation on June 24-26, 2005 in collaboration with the University of South Florida. The purpose was to have an open exchange of contemporary research and clinical information on PE. There were 16 invited presenters and discussants; the group focused on several educational objectives. Data were utilized from the World Health Organization, the American Psychiatric Association, the European Association of Urology, the Second International Consultation on Sexual Dysfunctions, and the American Urological Association. The current published definitions of PE have many similarities; however, none of these provide a specific "time to ejaculation," in part because of the absence of normative data on this subject. While investigators agree that men with PE have a shortened intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT; i.e., time from vaginal penetration to ejaculation), there is now a greater appreciation of PE as a multidimensional dysfunction encompassing several components, including time and subjective parameters such as "control,"satisfaction," and "distress." There is a recent paradigm shift away from PE as a unidimensional disorder of IELT toward a multidimensional description of PE as a biologic dysfunction with psychosocial components.

  8. Dynamic digestive physiology of a female reproductive organ in a polyandrous butterfly

    PubMed Central

    Plakke, Melissa S.; Deutsch, Aaron B.; Meslin, Camille; Clark, Nathan L.; Morehouse, Nathan I.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reproductive traits experience high levels of selection because of their direct ties to fitness, often resulting in rapid adaptive evolution. Much of the work in this area has focused on male reproductive traits. However, a more comprehensive understanding of female reproductive adaptations and their relationship to male characters is crucial to uncover the relative roles of sexual cooperation and conflict in driving co-evolutionary dynamics between the sexes. We focus on the physiology of a complex female reproductive adaptation in butterflies and moths: a stomach-like organ in the female reproductive tract called the bursa copulatrix that digests the male ejaculate (spermatophore). Little is known about how the bursa digests the spermatophore. We characterized bursa proteolytic capacity in relation to female state in the polyandrous butterfly Pieris rapae. We found that the virgin bursa exhibits extremely high levels of proteolytic activity. Furthermore, in virgin females, bursal proteolytic capacity increases with time since eclosion and ambient temperature, but is not sensitive to the pre-mating social environment. Post copulation, bursal proteolytic activity decreases rapidly before rebounding toward the end of a mating cycle, suggesting active female regulation of proteolysis and/or potential quenching of proteolysis by male ejaculate constituents. Using transcriptomic and proteomic approaches, we report identities for nine proteases actively transcribed by bursal tissue and/or expressed in the bursal lumen that may contribute to observed bursal proteolysis. We discuss how these dynamic physiological characteristics may function as female adaptations resulting from sexual conflict over female remating rate in this polyandrous butterfly. PMID:25994634

  9. Female promiscuity promotes the evolution of faster sperm in cichlid fishes

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, John L.; Montgomerie, Robert; Desjardins, Julie K.; Stiver, Kelly A.; Kolm, Niclas; Balshine, Sigal

    2009-01-01

    Sperm competition, the contest among ejaculates from rival males to fertilize ova of a female, is a common and powerful evolutionary force influencing ejaculate traits. During competitive interactions between ejaculates, longer and faster spermatozoa are expected to have an edge; however, to date, there has been mixed support for this key prediction from sperm competition theory. Here, we use the spectacular radiation of cichlid fishes from Lake Tanganyika to examine sperm characteristics in 29 closely related species. We provide phylogenetically robust evidence that species experiencing greater levels of sperm competition have faster-swimming sperm. We also show that sperm competition selects for increases in the number, size, and longevity of spermatozoa in the ejaculate of a male, and, contrary to expectations from theory, we find no evidence of trade-offs among sperm traits in an interspecific analysis. Also, sperm swimming speed is positively correlated with sperm length among, but not within, species. These different responses to sperm competition at intra- and interspecific levels provide a simple, powerful explanation for equivocal results from previous studies. Using phylogenetic analyses, we also reconstructed the probable evolutionary route of trait evolution in this taxon, and show that, in response to increases in the magnitude of sperm competition, the evolution of sperm traits in this clade began with the evolution of faster (thus, more competitive) sperm. PMID:19164576

  10. An evidence-based definition of lifelong premature ejaculation: report of the International Society for Sexual Medicine Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Chris G; Althof, Stanley; Waldinger, Marcel D; Porst, Hartmut; Dean, John; Sharlip, Ira; Adaikan, P G; Becher, Edgardo; Broderick, Gregory A; Buvat, Jacques; Dabees, Khalid; Giraldi, Annamaria; Giuliano, François; Hellstrom, Wayne J G; Incrocci, Luca; Laan, Ellen; Meuleman, Eric; Perelman, Michael A; Rosen, Raymond; Rowland, David; Segraves, Robert

    2008-08-01

    To develop a contemporary, evidence-based definition of premature ejaculation (PE). There are several definitions of PE; the most commonly quoted, the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - 4th Edition - Text Revision, and other definitions of PE, are all authority-based rather than evidence-based, and have no support from controlled clinical and/or epidemiological studies. Thus in August 2007, the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) appointed several international experts in PE to an Ad Hoc Committee for the Definition of PE. The committee met in Amsterdam in October 2007 to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of current definitions of PE, to critically assess the evidence in support of the constructs of ejaculatory latency, ejaculatory control, sexual satisfaction and personal/interpersonal distress, and to propose a new evidence-based definition of PE. The Committee unanimously agreed that the constructs which are necessary to define PE are rapidity of ejaculation, perceived self-efficacy, and control and negative personal consequences from PE. The Committee proposed that lifelong PE be defined as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by ejaculation which always or nearly always occurs before or within about one minute of vaginal penetration, and the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy. This definition is limited to men with lifelong PE who engage in vaginal intercourse. The panel concluded that there are insufficient published objective data to propose an evidence-based definition of acquired PE. The ISSM definition of lifelong PE represents the first evidence-based definition of PE. This definition will hopefully lead to the development of new tools and patient-reported outcome measures for diagnosing and assessing the efficacy of treatment

  11. Sperm Chromatin Immaturity Observed in Short Abstinence Ejaculates Affects DNA Integrity and Longevity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Salian, Sujith Raj; Kumar, Dayanidhi; Singh, Vikram Jeet; D’Souza, Fiona; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Kamath, Asha; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background The influence of ejaculatory abstinence (EA) on semen parameters and subsequent reproductive outcome is still debatable; hence understanding the impact of EA on sperm structural and functional integrity may provide a valuable information on predicting successful clinical outcome. Objective To understand the influence of EA on sperm chromatin maturity, integrity, longevity and global methylation status. Methods This experimental prospective study included 76 ejaculates from 19 healthy volunteers who provided ejaculates after observing 1, 3, 5 and 7 days of abstinence. Sperm chromatin maturity, DNA integrity and global methylation status were assessed in the neat ejaculate. Sperm motility, DNA integrity and longevity were assessed in the processed fraction of the fresh and frozen-thawed ejaculates to determine their association with the length of EA. Results Spermatozoa from 1 day ejaculatory abstinence (EA-1) displayed significantly higher level of sperm chromatin immaturity in comparison to EA-3 (P < 0.05) and EA-5 (P < 0.01) whereas; the number of 5-methyl cytosine immunostained spermatozoa did not vary significantly across groups. On the other hand, in vitro incubation of processed ejaculate from EA-1 resulted in approximately 20 and 40 fold increase in the DNA fragmented spermatozoa at the end of 6 and 24h respectively (P < 0.01–0.001). Conclusion Use of short-term EA for therapeutic fertilization would be a clinically valuable strategy to improve the DNA quality. However, use of such spermatozoa after prolonged incubation in vitro should be avoided as it can carry a substantial risk of transmitting DNA fragmentation to the oocytes. PMID:27043437

  12. Effects of paroxetine on intravaginal ejaculatory latency time in Egyptian patients with lifelong premature ejaculation as a function of serotonin transporter polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Salem, A M; Kamel, I I; Rashed, L A; GamalEl Din, S F

    2017-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common ejaculatory complaint. The estimated rates among Turkish men reached 20%, although the severest type of PE (lifelong PE) usually does not exceed 2.3%. This could be seen in line with two survey studies involving five nations. They revealed that 2.5% of men had an intravaginal ejaculation latency time of <1 min and 6% of <2 min. Rapid ejaculation may be treated pharmacologically with a variety of different medications that act either centrally or locally to delay ejaculation and subsequent orgasm. Antidepressants, particularly members of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class, retard ejaculation significantly. Recently, it was postulated that men with lifelong PE might result from a combination of polymorphisms of the serotonergic transporter and receptors, and other neurotransmitters and/or receptors. Our findings augment the significant effect of paroxetine in delaying ejaculation in the responders (P<0.001). Meanwhile, the findings do not suggest a positive association between such response and serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphism.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of female prostate pathology.

    PubMed

    Wimpissinger, Florian; Tscherney, Robert; Stackl, Walter

    2009-06-01

    The female prostate (paraurethral glands) is a well-known, yet poorly understood, anatomic structure. Imaging studies of the female prostate, its physiology, and pathologies are still highly controversial. To study the anatomy of the female prostate with contemporary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques and correlate these findings to clinical features. Female prostate pathologic anatomy on MRI. Women with clinical signs of function (or dysfunction) of paraurethral glands have been examined with 1.5 or 3 Tesla MRI and urethroscopy. Seven women aged 17 to 62 years (median 40 years) have been prospectively included into the study. Clinically, one of the seven women reported ejaculation at orgasm, whereas three women presented with occasional secretions independent of sexual stimulation. In two women, paraurethral glands have been randomly found on MRI that has been performed in the diagnostic workup of other diseases. One woman presented with swelling of the external urethral meatus at puberty. In this woman, a paraurethral gland has been found, besides the erectile tissue at the external meatus. Two women reported lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with mainly urethral symptoms (recurrent infections in one and paraurethral stones in the other). On MRI, paraurethral glands could be visualized in six of the seven patients. There was no relation between glandular volume and ejaculation status. In cases where glands or related pathologies could be found on physical examination, there was a clear correlation with MRI anatomy. MRI has the potential to become the standard imaging modality for female prostate pathology. Exact visualization of this highly variable structure is possible by tailored MRI protocols. This tool can aid in understanding an individual woman's symptoms related to paraurethral glands with an impact on her sexual life.

  14. Further definition on the multiple partner choice arena: a potential animal model for the study of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Olayo-Lortia, Jesús; Ferreira-Nuño, Armando; Velázquez-Moctezuma, Javier; Morales-Otal, Adriana

    2014-10-01

    The multiple partner choice arena (MPCA) is an experimental setup in which male rats display a significant shortening of ejaculation latency, which is the main characteristic of premature ejaculation (PE) in men. Thus, the MPCA is a potential animal model for PE. In this study, we further analyze whether the features of the MPCA satisfy the validity criteria for it to be considered an animal model as well as the possible participation of the serotoninergic system in the faster ejaculation exhibited by male rats in the MPCA. In Experiment 1, male rats were tested in a standard arena to assess their sexual behavior, then were assessed 1 week later in the MPCA. Another group was first tested in the MPCA, then in a standard arena. In Experiment 2, male rats divided into two groups were treated daily with WAY-100635 (5-HT(1A) antagonist) or vehicle for 15 days. In each group, half of the subjects were tested in a standard arena and half were tested in the MPCA on days 1, 8, and 15 of treatment. Number of intromissions and intromission and ejaculation latencies were the main outcome measures. In Experiment 1, males tested in the MPCA ejaculated significantly faster, regardless of the order in which they were evaluated in both arenas. In Experiment 2, the administration of WAY-100635 increased intromission and ejaculation latencies, and the number of intromissions in the MPCA. The results obtained in the MPCA support its use as an animal model for PE evaluation. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  15. A multinational population survey of intravaginal ejaculation latency time.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Quinn, Paul; Dilleen, Maria; Mundayat, Rajiv; Schweitzer, Dave H; Boolell, Mitradev

    2005-07-01

    Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT), defined as the time between the start of vaginal intromission and the start of intravaginal ejaculation, is increasingly used in clinical trials to assess the amount of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-induced ejaculation delay in men with premature ejaculation. Prospectively, stopwatch assessment of IELTs has superior accuracy compared with retrospective questionnaire and spontaneous reported latency. However, the IELT distribution in the general male population has not been previously assessed. To determine the stopwatch assessed-IELT distribution in large random male cohorts of different countries. A total of 500 couples were recruited from five countries: the Netherlands, United Kingdom, Spain, Turkey, and the United States. Enrolled men were aged 18 years or older, had a stable heterosexual relationship for at least 6 months, with regular sexual intercourse. The surveyed population were not included or excluded by their ejaculatory status and comorbidities. This survey was performed on a "normal" general population. Sexual events and stopwatch-timed IELTs during a 4-week period were recorded, as well as circumcision status and condom use. The IELT, circumcision status, and condom use. The distribution of the IELT in all the five countries was positively skewed, with a median IELT of 5.4 minutes (range, 0.55-44.1 minutes). The median IELT decreased significantly with age, from 6.5 minutes in the 18-30 years group, to 4.3 minutes in the group older than 51 years (P<0.0001). The median IELT varied between countries, with the median value for Turkey being the lowest, i.e., 3.7 minutes (0.9-30.4 minutes), which was significantly different from each of the other countries. Comparison of circumcised (N=98) and not-circumcised (N=261) men in countries excluding Turkey resulted in median IELT values of 6.7 minutes (0.7-44.1 minutes) in circumcised compared with 6.0 minutes (0.5-37.4 minutes) in not-circumcised men

  16. The 5-HT₁A receptor C(1019)G polymorphism influences the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Paddy K C; van Schaik, R; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Olivier, Berend; Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-06-01

    Lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) is characterized by persistent intravaginal ejaculation latency times (IELTs) of less than 1 min, and has been postulated as a neurobiological dysfunction related to diminished serotonergic neurotransmission with 5-HT₁A receptor hyperfunction and 5-HT₂C hypofunction. To investigate the relationship between 5-HT₁A receptor gene (HTR₁A)-C(1019)G promoter polymorphism and IELT in men with LPE. This polymorphism is known to increase 5-HT1A receptor expression. A prospective study was conducted in 54 Dutch Caucasian men with LPE. Baseline IELT during coitus was assessed by stopwatch over a 1-month period. All men were genotyped for HTR₁A gene polymorphism. Allele frequencies and genotypes of C and G variants of HTR₁A polymorphism were determined. Association between CC, CG, and GG genotypes and the IELT in men with LPE were investigated. IELT measured by stopwatch, HTR₁A polymorphism. In this cohort of men with LPE, the geometric mean IELT was 23.8 s. Of the 54 men, the CC, CG and GG genotype frequency for the C(1019)G polymorphism of the 5-HT₁A gene was 33%, 43% and 24%, respectively. The geometric mean IELT for the CC, CG and GG genotypes were 14.5, 27.7 and 36.0 s, respectively (p=0.019). Compared to GG and CG genotypes, men with CC genotype had a 250% and 190% shorter ejaculation time, respectively. HTR₁A gene polymorphism is associated with the IELT in men with LPE. Men with CC genotype have shorter IELTs than men with GG and CG genotypes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Improved sperm kinematics in semen samples collected after 2 h versus 4-7 days of ejaculation abstinence.

    PubMed

    Alipour, H; Van Der Horst, G; Christiansen, O B; Dardmeh, F; Jørgensen, N; Nielsen, H I; Hnida, C

    2017-07-01

    with a semen volume ≥2 ml and concentration ≥15 million/ml were included. Further validation in large prospective randomized controlled trials, more purposely directed at normozoospermic males with partners having problems conceiving when there appears to be no female factor, is needed to confirm the potential advantage of using a second semen sample in improving fertilization and pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction. Despite the significantly lower semen volume, sperm concentration and total sperm counts in all motility sub-groups, the significantly higher percentage of spermatozoa with better motility characteristics (velocity, progressiveness and hyperactivation) in the second ejaculate, may provide and allow for a simpler and more effective selection of higher quality spermatozoa. This could prove to be an advantage for ART procedures such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection where a large number of spermatozoa is not needed. It can also be speculated that pooling two consecutive ejaculates obtained after 4-7 days and after 2 h, could be an advantage for intrauterine insemination where a large number of motile spermatozoa are needed. This study was supported by internal grants from the Department of Health Science and Technology, Faculty of Medicine, Aalborg University (Aalborg, Denmark). The SCA® was provided by a grant from 'Ferring Pharmaceuticals' to Aalborg University Hospital (H.I.N). G.V.D.H. is an external senior scientific consultant to Microptic S/L (Barcelona, Spain). H.A. has provided scientific input and presentations for Microptic S/L (Barcelona, Spain) on several occasions. All other authors declare no conflict of interest. N/A. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Five meters of H(2)O: the pressure at the urinary bladder neck during human ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Böhlen, D; Hugonnet, C L; Mills, R D; Weise, E S; Schmid, H P

    2000-09-01

    There are no data in the literature on pressure changes in the prostatic urethra during ejaculation. In healthy men, it has always been postulated that there must be a pressure gradient in order to prevent retrograde ejaculation, but scientific proof for that is pending. In five healthy male volunteers, the pressure profile in the prostatic urethra was registered during ejaculation, using a 10 French balloon catheter with 16 pressure channels. The channels were arranged in pairs at 5-mm intervals, beginning just below the balloon at the bladder neck and extending down to the external urethral sphincter. In the proximal part of the prostatic urethra, a pressure of up to 500 cm of H(2)O was measured in all subjects. Contrary to that, pressures did not exceed 400 cm of H(2)O distally to the verumontanum. A novel method to register the pressure profile in the lower urinary tract during ejaculation (ejaculomanometry) is presented. This study adds to the knowledge of the normal physiology of reproductive function and may be useful in the evaluation of male sexual and reproductive disorders. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Antidepressants and ejaculation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose study with paroxetine, sertraline, and nefazodone.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, M D; Zwinderman, A H; Olivier, B

    2001-06-01

    Antidepressant medication is often associated with sexual side effects. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study in men with lifelong rapid ejaculation was performed to assess the effects of two selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors--paroxetine and sertraline--and the 5-HT2 antagonist and 5-HT/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor nefazodone on the latency to ejaculate. Forty-eight men with an intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of a maximum of 1 minute were randomly assigned to receive paroxetine (20 mg/day), sertraline (50 mg/day), nefazodone (400 mg/day), or placebo for 6 weeks. During the 1-month baseline and 6-week treatment period, IELTs were measured at home with a stopwatch. The trial was completed by 40 men. During the 6-week treatment period, the geometric mean IELT in the placebo group was stable at approximately 20 seconds. Analysis of variance revealed a between-group difference in the evolution of IELT delay over time (p = 0.002); the IELT after paroxetine and sertraline gradually increased to approximately 146 and 58 seconds, respectively, compared with 28 seconds in the nefazodone group. The paroxetine and sertraline groups differed significantly (p < 0.001 and p = 0.024, respectively) from placebo, but the nefazodone group did not (p = 0.85). Compared with baseline, paroxetine exerted the strongest delay in ejaculation, whereas sertraline delayed it only moderately. There was no clinically relevant delay in ejaculation with nefazodone.

  20. The improving effect of reduced glutathione on boar sperm cryotolerance is related with the intrinsic ejaculate freezability.

    PubMed

    Yeste, Marc; Estrada, Efrén; Pinart, Elisabeth; Bonet, Sergi; Miró, Jordi; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E

    2014-04-01

    Reduced glutathione (GSH) improves boar sperm cryosurvival and fertilising ability when added to freezing extenders. Poor freezability ejaculates (PFE) are known to present lower resistance than good freezability ejaculates (GFE) to cryopreservation procedures. So far, no study has evaluated whether the ability of GSH to counteract the cryopreservation-induced injuries depends on ejaculate freezability (i.e. GFE vs. PFE). For this reason, thirty boar ejaculates were divided into three equal volume fractions and cryopreserved with or without GSH at a final concentration of either 2 or 5mM in freezing media. Before and after freeze-thawing, sperm quality was evaluated through analysis of viability, motility, integrity of outer acrosome membrane, ROS levels, integrity of nucleoprotein structure, and DNA fragmentation. Ejaculates were classified into two groups (GFE or PFE) according to their post-thaw sperm motility and viability assessments in negative control (GSH 0mM), after running cluster analyses. Values of each sperm parameter were then compared between treatments (GSH 0mM, GSH 2mM, GSH 5mM) and freezability groups (GFE, PFE). In the case of GFE, GSH significantly improved boar sperm cryotolerance, without differences between 2 and 5mM. In contrast, PFE freezability was significantly increased when supplemented with 5mM GSH, but not when supplemented with 2mM GSH. In conclusion, PFE need a higher concentration of GSH than GFE to improve their cryotolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Results of requesting a second consecutive sperm ejaculate on the day of oocyte pick-up in assisted reproductive technology].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Dan-mei; Li, Mu-jun; Jiang, Li; Qin, Ai-ping; Li, Liu-ming; Hang, Fu

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the results of requesting a second consecutive sperm ejaculate in order to reduce ICSI cycles by PESA or TESE on the day of oocyte pick-up in assisted reproductive technology (ART). We collected 68 semen samples as a second consecutive ejaculate from 34 men, compared the semen volume and sperm concentration, motility and total count between the first and the second ejaculation, and analyzed the laboratory results and clinical outcomes of fertilization with the mixed sperm. The 34 males ejaculated twice within 4 hours by masturbation, with an interval of 26-183 (94.9 +/- 39.8) minutes between the first and second ejaculation. The volume of the first ejaculate was (2.0 +/- 1.4) ml, significantly higher than that of the second ([1.5 +/- 0.9] ml) (P = 0.007), although the numbers of motile sperm and grade a + b sperm of the first ([40.8 +/- 25.3]% and [30.9 +/- 22.4]%) were significantly lower than those of the second ([52.2 +/- 21.1]% and [39.9 +/- 17.5]%) (P < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in the sperm concentration or total sperm count between the two ejaculates (P > 0.05). The ICSI, IVF + ICSI, and IVF cycles were 3, 3 and 28 respectively among the 34 couples undergoing ART. The number of retrieved oocytes, normal fertilization rate, high quality embryo rate and frozen cycles/fresh transfer cycles ratio were 15.5 +/- 8.7, 57.0% (247/433), 58.7% (145/247) and 20/24 for the IVF cycle, 21.7 +/- 8.3, 61.5% (40/65), 67.5% (27/40) and 3/2 for the ICSI cycle, and 10.0 +/- 2.6, 72.4% (21/29), 66.7% (14/21) and 3/3 for the IVF + ICSI cycle. Fourteen live births were achieved out of the 18 pregnancies, including 6 healthy boys and 9 healthy girls. A clinical pregnancy rate of >30% can be achieved by requesting a second consecutive sperm ejaculate on the day of oocyte pick-up in order to collect more sperm and/or increase the total number of motile sperm for ART. And this method can avoid other invasive sperm processing techniques and

  2. Equivalent seminal characteristics in human and stallion at first and second ejaculated fractions.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, J; Sánchez-Martín, P; Gosálvez, J; Crespo, F

    2017-10-01

    Sperm quality was assessed in normozoospermic human (n = 10) and Spanish breed stallion (n = 10) after sperm fractionation during ejaculation. The first ejaculated fraction was separated from the second. A third sample was reconstituted using equivalent proportion of both fractions (RAW). Fraction 1, Fraction 2 and RAW semen were incubated for 30 min at 37°C to homogenise the impact of iatrogenic damage between both species. Sperm concentration, motility and sperm DNA damage were assessed in each fraction and RAW semen. The results showed two important facts: (i) spermatozoa confined at Fraction 1 exhibit superior parameters than those included at Fraction 2 in both species, and (ii) there is a certain level of concordance between species in the proportion of benefit observed when Fraction 1 is compared to RAW semen. Altogether, these results call into question whether the standard practice of whole ejaculate collection can be considered the best strategy when using male gametes for artificial insemination. In fact, the reconstituted RAW semen exhibits poorer semen characteristics than those found in Fraction 1. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. The distribution of patients who seek treatment for the complaint of ejaculating prematurely according to the four premature ejaculation syndromes.

    PubMed

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; Cimen, Haci Ibrahim; Atmaca, Ali Fuat; Balbay, M Derya

    2010-02-01

    In addition to "lifelong" and "acquired" premature ejaculation (PE) syndromes, two more PE syndromes have recently been proposed: "Natural variable PE" and "premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction." The purpose of this study was to analyze the prevalence of the four PE syndromes among patients who were admitted to a urology outpatient clinic with the complaint of ejaculating prematurely. Between July 2008 and March 2009, patients admitted to a urology outpatient clinic with a self-reported complaint of PE were enrolled into the study. After taking a careful medical and sexual history, patients were classified as "lifelong,"acquired,"natural variable," PE or "premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction." In addition to medical and sexual history, self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency times (IELTs) of patients were used in the classification of patients. A total of 261 potent men with a mean age of 36.39 +/- 10.45 years (range 20-70) were recruited into the study. The majority of the men was diagnosed as having lifelong PE (62.5%); the remaining men were diagnosed as having acquired (16.1%), natural variable PE (14.5%), or premature-like ejaculatory disorder (6.9%). The mean age of patients with acquired PE was significantly higher than the other groups (P = 0.001). No significant difference was observed for educational status or income level of patients in the different PE groups (P = 0.983 and P = 0.151, respectively). The mean self-estimated IELT for all subjects was 65.16 +/- 83.75 seconds (2-420 seconds). Patients with lifelong PE had significantly lower mean self-reported IELT, whereas the patients with premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction had the highest mean IELT (P = 0.001): (i) life-long PE: 20.47 +/- 28.90 seconds (2-120 seconds); (ii) aquired PE: 57.91 +/- 38.72 seconds (90-180 seconds); (iii) natural variable PE: 144.17 +/- 22.47 seconds (120-180 seconds); and (iv) premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction: 286.67 +/- 69.96 seconds (180-420 seconds

  4. Polyandrous females found fitter populations.

    PubMed

    Power, D J; Holman, L

    2014-09-01

    Multiple mating by females (polyandry) requires an evolutionary explanation, because it carries fitness costs in many species. When mated females disperse alone to a new habitat, their offspring may have no option but to mate with their siblings and incur inbreeding depression. However, some of the offspring of polyandrous females may only be half siblings, reducing inbreeding depression when isolated groups of siblings only have each other as mates. We investigated this putative benefit of polyandry over monandry by initiating multiple genetically isolated populations of Callosobruchus maculatus beetles, each founded by a single female, who received a complete ejaculate from either one or two males. The early generations had comparable fitness, but the F4 and F5 descendants of doubly inseminated females were more numerous and had higher egg-to-adult survival than the descendants of singly inseminated females. This fitness benefit was of similar magnitude whether beetles were reared on their standard food plant, or on a less favourable food source. Our results suggest that polyandrous females produce fitter descendants in inbred founder populations and therefore that polyandry may affect movement ecology and invasion biology. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  5. Brain circuits for mating behavior in cats and brain activations and de-activations during sexual stimulation and ejaculation and orgasm in humans.

    PubMed

    Holstege, Gert; Huynh, Hieu K

    2011-05-01

    In cats, there exists a descending system that controls the posture necessary for mating behavior. A key role is played by the mesencephalic periaqueductal gray (PAG), which maintains strong specific projections to the nucleus retroambiguus located laterally in the most caudal medulla. The NRA, in turn, has direct access to motoneurons in the lumbosacral cord that produce the mating posture. This pathway is slightly different in males and females, but in females its strength fluctuates strongly depending on whether or not the cat is in heat. This way the PAG determines whether or not mating can take place. Via the PAG many other regions in the limbic system as well as in the prefrontal cortex and insula can influence mating behavior. In humans, the brain also controls responses to sexual stimulation as well as ejaculation in men and orgasm in women. Neuroimaging techniques show activations and de-activations but are not able to verify whether the PAG has a similar effect as in cats. PET-scanning results revealed that there is activation in the upper brainstem and cerebellum, as well as insula in men and in the somatomotor and somatosensory cortex in women. During sexual stimulation, but especially during ejaculation and orgasm there was strong de-activation mainly on the left side in the temporal lobe and ventral prefrontal cortex. These neuroimaging results show the importance of lowering the level of alertness regarding your immediate environment (left hemisphere) to have proper sexual behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Increased count, motility, and total motile sperm cells collected across three consecutive ejaculations within 24 h of oocyte retrieval: implications for management of men presenting with low numbers of motile sperm for assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Said, Al-Hasen; Reed, Michael L

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitate changes in seminal volume, sperm count, motility, qualitative forward progression, and total motile sperm cells per ejaculate, across three consecutive ejaculates collected from individuals within 24 h preceding an IVF cycle. Men presenting with oligoasthenozoospermia or asthenozoospemia attempted three ejaculates within 24 h preceding IVF. Ejaculate 1 was produced the afternoon prior to oocyte retrieval, and ejaculates 2 and 3 were produced the morning of oocyte retrieval with 2-3 h between collections. Ejaculates 1 and 2 were extended 1:1 v/v with room temperature rTYBS. Test tubes were placed into a beaker of room temperature water, then placed at 4 °C for gradual cooling. Ejaculate 3 was not extended, but pooled with ejaculates 1 and 2 and processed for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Out of 109 oocyte retrievals, 28 men were asked to attempt multiple consecutive ejaculations. Among this population, 25/28 (89.3 %) were successful, and 3/28 men (10.7 %) could only produce two ejaculates. Mean volumes for ejaculates 1, 2, and 3 were significantly different from each other (p < 0.01); the volume decreased for each ejaculate. Mean sperm counts, motility, qualitative forward progression, and total motile cells per ejaculate for the ejaculates1, 2, and 3 demonstrated the following: ejaculates 2 and 3 were not significantly different, but counts, motility, and total motile sperm were improved over ejaculate 1 (p < 0.01). Pooling three consecutive ejaculates within 24 h increased the numbers of available motile sperm in this population by 8-fold compared to the first ejaculate alone, facilitating avoidance of sperm cryopreservation and additional centrifugation steps that could affect sperm viability and/or function.

  7. A clinical trial of the beta blocker propranolol in premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A J; Magnus, R V

    1984-01-01

    Twelve male patients, with a primary complaint of premature ejaculation in a setting of chronic anxiety with prominent somatic manifestations, participated in a double-blind trial: propranolol against placebo. The study consisted of 5 X 4 week phases: run-in, propranolol or placebo--120 mg/day allocated randomly, wash-out; placebo or propranolol and run-out, in a balanced design. Anxiety was rated initially, and every 2 weeks, throughout the trial using the Hamilton Rating Scale. Sitting blood pressure and pulse were also noted. The time to coital ejaculation (every 3 days) was recorded using a stopwatch, and subjects were also required to rate "overall coital satisfaction" and "quality of erection". Neither prematurity nor other signs/symptoms of anxiety improved on the preparations, which were statistically equivalent. Moderate beta-blockade was achieved with propranolol as evidenced by a median reduction in pulse rate of 5 beats/min.

  8. Sperm competition risk drives rapid ejaculate adjustments mediated by seminal fluid

    PubMed Central

    Steeves, Tammy E; Gemmell, Neil J; Rosengrave, Patrice C

    2017-01-01

    In many species, males can make rapid adjustments to ejaculate performance in response to sperm competition risk; however, the mechanisms behind these changes are not understood. Here, we manipulate male social status in an externally fertilising fish, chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and find that in less than 48 hr, males can upregulate sperm velocity when faced with an increased risk of sperm competition. Using a series of in vitro sperm manipulation and competition experiments, we show that rapid changes in sperm velocity are mediated by seminal fluid and the effect of seminal fluid on sperm velocity directly impacts paternity share and therefore reproductive success. These combined findings, completely consistent with sperm competition theory, provide unequivocal evidence that sperm competition risk drives plastic adjustment of ejaculate quality, that seminal fluid harbours the mechanism for the rapid adjustment of sperm velocity and that fitness benefits accrue to males from such adjustment. PMID:29084621

  9. Sperm competition risk drives rapid ejaculate adjustments mediated by seminal fluid.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Michael J; Steeves, Tammy E; Gemmell, Neil J; Rosengrave, Patrice C

    2017-10-31

    In many species, males can make rapid adjustments to ejaculate performance in response to sperm competition risk; however, the mechanisms behind these changes are not understood. Here, we manipulate male social status in an externally fertilising fish, chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ), and find that in less than 48 hr, males can upregulate sperm velocity when faced with an increased risk of sperm competition. Using a series of in vitro sperm manipulation and competition experiments, we show that rapid changes in sperm velocity are mediated by seminal fluid and the effect of seminal fluid on sperm velocity directly impacts paternity share and therefore reproductive success. These combined findings, completely consistent with sperm competition theory, provide unequivocal evidence that sperm competition risk drives plastic adjustment of ejaculate quality, that seminal fluid harbours the mechanism for the rapid adjustment of sperm velocity and that fitness benefits accrue to males from such adjustment.

  10. Size dependence in non-sperm ejaculate production is reflected in daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Christopher R; Powers, Donald R; Copenhaver, Paige E; Mason, Robert T

    2015-05-01

    The non-sperm components of an ejaculate, such as copulatory plugs, can be essential to male reproductive success. But the costs of these ejaculate components are often considered trivial. In polyandrous species, males are predicted to increase energy allocation to the production of non-sperm components, but this allocation is often condition dependent and the energetic costs of their production have never been quantified. Red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) are an excellent model with which to quantify the energetic costs of non-sperm components of the ejaculate as they exhibit a dissociated reproductive pattern in which sperm production is temporally disjunct from copulatory plug production, mating and plug deposition. We estimated the daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate of males after courtship and mating, and used bomb calorimetry to estimate the energy content of copulatory plugs. We found that both daily energy expenditure and resting metabolic rate were significantly higher in small mating males than in courting males, and a single copulatory plug without sperm constitutes 5-18% of daily energy expenditure. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify the energetic expense of size-dependent ejaculate strategies in any species. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Penile Traumatic Neuroma: A Late Complication of Penile Dorsal Neurotomy to Treat Premature Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Jun; Kim, Tae Nam; Baek, Seung Ryong; Lee, Kyung Min; Choi, Kyung-Un; Park, Nam Cheol

    2016-09-01

    Traumatic neuroma is a reactive process caused by the regeneration of an injured nerve that usually forms a nodular proliferation of small nerve bundles. Penile traumatic neuroma is rare; only a few cases related to circumcision have been reported. To report on a case of traumatic neuroma in the penis after selective dorsal neurotomy (SDN) to treat premature ejaculation. The penile traumatic neuroma was successfully removed by excision and confirmed by histopathology. A 55-year-old man who had had several painless, slow-growing nodules on his penis for 2 years presented to our hospital. He had no history of genital trauma, urinary tract infection, or penile surgery, except SDN to treat premature ejaculation. The nodules were excised and the final diagnosis was traumatic neuroma. No recurrence has been detected during 1 year of follow-up. The main complications of SDN are recurrence of premature ejaculation, pain or paresthesia on the glans penis, and erectile dysfunction. However, no traumatic neuroma has been reported as a complication. We report that a traumatic neuroma can occur after SDN. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. "Coffee, tea and me": moderate doses of caffeine affect sexual behavior in female rats.

    PubMed

    Guarraci, Fay A; Benson, Anastasia

    2005-11-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of acute caffeine administration on paced mating behavior and partner preference in ovariectomized rats primed with estrogen and progesterone. In Experiment 1, female rats were tested for paced mating behavior following acute administration of caffeine (15 mg/kg). Caffeine shortened the latency to return to a male following an ejaculation. Although this dose of caffeine did not alter the likelihood of leaving a male after receiving sexual stimulation, locomotor activity did increase significantly. Experiment 2 evaluated the dose response characteristics of caffeine (7.5, 15, 30 mg/kg) administration on paced mating behavior. Replicating Experiment 1, caffeine at the lower doses shortened the latency to return to a male following an ejaculation. Finally, to determine whether the effects of caffeine (15 mg/kg) on contact-return latency reflect a change in sexual motivation or merely an inability to inhibit locomotion, rats were tested for partner preference (intact male vs. estrous female) following caffeine administration (Experiment 3). Although caffeine did not disrupt preference for a sexual partner, caffeine selectively increased visits to the male when physical contact was possible. Collectively, these results suggest that the effects of caffeine on female mating behavior may reflect an increase in both sexual motivation and locomotor activity.

  13. The 5-HT2C receptor gene Cys23Ser polymorphism influences the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Paddy KC; van Schaik, Ron; Olivier, Berend; Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-01-01

    It has been postulated that the persistent short intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of men with lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) is related to 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT)2C receptor functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism and the duration of IELT in men with LPE. Therefore, a prospective study was conducted in 64 Dutch Caucasian men with LPE. Baseline IELT during coitus was assessed by stopwatch over a 1-month period. All men were genotyped for Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism. Allele frequencies and genotypes of Cys and Ser variants of 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism were determined. Association between Cys/Cys and Ser/Ser genotypes and the natural logarithm of the IELT in men with LPE were investigated. As a result, the geometric mean, median and natural mean IELT were 25.2, 27.0, 33.9 s, respectively. Of all men, 20.0%, 10.8%, 23.1% and 41.5% ejaculated within 10, 10–20, 20–30 and 30–60 s after vaginal penetration. Of the 64 men, the Cys/Cys and Ser/Ser genotype frequency for the Cys23Ser polymorphism of the 5-HT2C receptor gene was 81% and 19%, respectively. The geometric mean IELT of the wildtypes (Cys/Cys) is significantly lower (22.6 s; 95% CI 18.3–27.8 s) than in male homozygous mutants (Ser/Ser) (40.4 s; 95% CI 20.3–80.4 s) (P = 0.03). It is concluded that Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism is associated with the IELT in men with LPE. Men with Cys/Cys genotype have shorter IELTs than men with Ser/Ser genotypes. PMID:24799636

  14. The 5-HT2C receptor gene Cys23Ser polymorphism influences the intravaginal ejaculation latency time in Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Paddy Kc; Schaik, Ron van; Olivier, Berend; Waldinger, Marcel D

    2014-01-01

    It has been postulated that the persistent short intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of men with lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) is related to 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT)2C receptor functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism and the duration of IELT in men with LPE. Therefore, a prospective study was conducted in 64 Dutch Caucasian men with LPE. Baseline IELT during coitus was assessed by stopwatch over a 1-month period. All men were genotyped for Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism. Allele frequencies and genotypes of Cys and Ser variants of 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism were determined. Association between Cys/Cys and Ser/Ser genotypes and the natural logarithm of the IELT in men with LPE were investigated. As a result, the geometric mean, median and natural mean IELT were 25.2, 27.0, 33.9 s, respectively. Of all men, 20.0%, 10.8%, 23.1% and 41.5% ejaculated within 10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-60 s after vaginal penetration. Of the 64 men, the Cys/Cys and Ser/Ser genotype frequency for the Cys23Ser polymorphism of the 5-HT2C receptor gene was 81% and 19%, respectively. The geometric mean IELT of the wildtypes (Cys/Cys) is significantly lower (22.6 s; 95% CI 18.3-27.8 s) than in male homozygous mutants (Ser/Ser) (40.4 s; 95% CI 20.3-80.4 s) (P = 0.03). It is concluded that Cys23Ser 5-HT2C receptor gene polymorphism is associated with the IELT in men with LPE. Men with Cys/Cys genotype have shorter IELTs than men with Ser/Ser genotypes.

  15. Dapoxetine: a new option in the medical management of premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder which is associated with substantial personal and interpersonal negative psychological consequences. Pharmacotherapy of PE with off-label antidepressant selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is common, effective and safe. Development and regulatory approval of drugs specifically for the treatment of PE will reduce reliance on off-label treatments and serve to fill an unmet treatment need. The objective of this article is to review evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of dapoxetine in the treatment of PE. MEDLINE, Web of Science, PICA, EMBASE and the proceedings of major international and regional scientific meetings were searched for publications or abstracts published during the period 1993–2012 that used the word ‘dapoxetine’ in the title, abstract or keywords. This search was then manually cross referenced for all papers. This review encompasses studies of dapoxetine pharmacokinetics, animal studies, human phase I, II and III studies, independent postmarketing and pharmacovigilance efficacy and safety studies and drug-interaction studies. Dapoxetine is a potent SSRI which is administered on demand 1–3 h prior to planned sexual contact. It is rapidly absorbed and eliminated, resulting in minimal accumulation, and has dose-proportional pharmacokinetics which are unaffected by multiple dosing. Dapoxetine 30 mg and 60 mg has been evaluated in five industry-sponsored randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in 6081 men aged at least 18 years. Outcome measures included stopwatch-measured intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP) inventory items, Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) in PE, and adverse events. Mean IELT, all PEP items and CGIC improved significantly with both doses of dapoxetine versus placebo (all p <0.001). The most common treatment-related adverse effects included nausea (11.0% for 30 mg, 22.2% for 60 mg

  16. [Therapy of rapid ejaculation using dietary supplement "NeyroDoz": results of a multicenter non-randomized clinical study].

    PubMed

    Kamalov, A A; Aboian, I A; Sitdykova, M É; Tsukanov, A Iu; Teodorovich, O V; Medvedev, V L; Komiakov, B K; Zhuravlev, V N; Novikov, A I; Erkovich, A A; Okhobotov, D A; Karpov, V K; Zubkov, A Iu

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of a multicomponent dietary supplement NeyroDoz in patients with rapid ejaculation. We examined 50 patients with rapid ejaculation (premature ejaculation), who were recruited in 9 clinical centers in different regions of Russia. These patients received NeyroDoz, 2 capsules twice a day for one month, followed by a control observation for 1 month. In study group of patients, symptomatic improvement was achieved in 45 (90%) of 50 patients at 4-week observation target date. In assessing the impact of NeyroDoz on different groups of symptoms, it was found that it significantly increases the average time of sexual intercourse by 2 times, increases the orgasm brightness, reduces the severity of psychosomatic component and has a positive effect on all components of the copulative cycle. In assessing the afterimpression, this effect was maintained throughout the period of follow-up.

  17. An overview of pharmacotherapy in premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Porst, Hartmut

    2011-10-01

    With increasing interest and clinical research in male sexual disorders, it has become clear that not only psychological but also organic, neurobiological, and genetic factors may play an important role in premature ejaculation (PE). This article provides an overview of the different treatment options both for lifelong (primary, "congenital") and acquired (secondary) PE. Review of the literature. Currently used treatment options for PE. Treatments reviewed include psychological/behavioral/sexual counseling therapy, topical anesthetics, dapoxetine, and other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tricyclic antidepressants, and phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitors. Before starting any therapy for PE, correct diagnosis has to be made considering the patient's reported intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and the duration and type of PE. Concomitant erectile dysfunction (ED) should be either ruled out or proven by appropriate means. In uncomplicated cases of PE with stable partnerships, medical treatment represents the first-choice option with a high likelihood of success. Dapoxetine, where available, or other SSRIs provide suitable therapeutic options with a good risk/benefit profile for patients. In complicated ("difficult-to-treat") PE patients, a combination of medication and sexual counseling should be considered the first treatment option. Combination therapies of PDE-5 inhibitors and PE-related medications should be offered to patients suffering from comorbid PE and ED, with ED treatment starting first. In those patients with severe PE-IELTs of <30-60 seconds or anteportal ejaculation-combination therapy of topical and oral medications can be offered and may considerably increase IELT, compared with either monotherapy. 2011 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Surfing and Swimming of Ejaculated Sperm in the Mouse Oviduct.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yu; Usui, Tomoyuki; Yamashita, Misuzu; Kanemori, Yoshinori; Baba, Tadashi

    2016-04-01

    To accomplish fertilization in the oviductal ampulla, ejaculated sperm are required to migrate through the female reproductive tract. However, this fundamental process largely remains unknown. In this study, we focused on the role of oviductal smooth muscle (myosalpinx) contractions in the sperm migration. Administration of prifinium bromide, padrin, to mice effectively suppressed myosalpinx contractions, resulting in a decreased rate of fertilization in a dose-dependent manner, and an abrogation of high-speed back-and-forth/shuttling flows of oviductal fluids around the isthmus. Regardless of padrin administration, no shuttling flows were found near the ampulla. In the isthmus, sperm formed a tight assemblage that was synchronized with the shuttling flows. The sperm assemblage was gradually loosened and then completely abolished near the ampulla. No sperm assemblage was formed in the isthmus when padrin was administrated. These results suggest that myosalpinx contractions play important roles in the formation of sperm assemblage in the isthmus, and in the transport of the assemblage to the middle region of the oviduct. It is also suggested that the motility of sperm is essential for the migration of sperm from the middle oviductal region to the ampulla. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  19. The mathematical formula of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) distribution of lifelong premature ejaculation differs from the IELT distribution formula of men in the general male population

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Paddy K.C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To find the most accurate mathematical description of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) distribution in the general male population. Materials and Methods We compared the fitness of various well-known mathematical distributions with the IELT distribution of two previously published stopwatch studies of the Caucasian general male population and a stopwatch study of Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). The accuracy of fitness is expressed by the Goodness of Fit (GOF). The smaller the GOF, the more accurate is the fitness. Results The 3 IELT distributions are gamma distributions, but the IELT distribution of lifelong PE is another gamma distribution than the IELT distribution of men in the general male population. The Lognormal distribution of the gamma distributions most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 965 men in the general population, with a GOF of 0.057. The Gumbel Max distribution most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 110 men with lifelong PE with a GOF of 0.179. There are more men with lifelong PE ejaculating within 30 and 60 seconds than can be extrapolated from the probability density curve of the Lognormal IELT distribution of men in the general population. Conclusions Men with lifelong PE have a distinct IELT distribution, e.g., a Gumbel Max IELT distribution, that can only be retrieved from the general male population Lognormal IELT distribution when thousands of men would participate in a IELT stopwatch study. The mathematical formula of the Lognormal IELT distribution is useful for epidemiological research of the IELT. PMID:26981594

  20. Establishment of assisted reproduction technologies in female and male African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    PubMed

    Hermes, R; Göritz, F; Maltzan, J; Blottner, S; Proudfoot, J; Fritsch, G; Fassbender, M; Quest, M; Hildebrandt, T B

    2001-01-01

    Transrectal ultrasonography, electroejaculation and cryopreservation of spermatozoa were applied to the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) to establish non-invasive protocols for assessing the reproductive health of one of the most endangered African canids. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed on immobilized male (n = 2) and female (n = 5) captive wild dogs. The testes and epididymides of the male dogs were imaged transcutaneously, followed by electrostimulation and cryopreservation of spermatozoa. The sonomorphology of the female and male urogenital tracts was characterized. In females, the vagina, cervix, non-pregnant uterus and ovary were imaged and the reproductive health of each female was evaluated. The sonographic assessment helped to identify one pyometra and extensive abdominal fat deposits in two other individuals in which pyometra had been suspected. Images of the adrenal glands showed differences in size among individuals of the same breeding group. Whether these differences were related to the dominance hierarchy remains to be determined. In males, visualization of the prostate gland, testis and epididymis indicated sexual maturity. Three ejaculatory fractions (1.0, 1.5 and 0.5 ml, with 50, 95 and 95% motility, respectively; 1.125 x 10(8) spermatozoa per ejaculate) were collected from one male. The motility of each of these fractions after thawing was 0, 30 and 40%, respectively. Electrostimulation of the second male, in which a cystic structure in a testis had been identified by sonography, resulted in an aspermic ejaculate (0.5 and 1.0 ml). These technologies provided basic data on reproduction in female and male African wild dogs and were an efficient way to evaluate reproductive health.

  1. Effect of α-Amylase, Papain, and Spermfluid treatments on viscosity and semen parameters of dromedary camel ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Davide; Fatnassi, Meriem; Padalino, Barbara; Hammadi, Mohamed; Khorchani, Touhami; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele

    2016-04-01

    Ejaculates from five clinically healthy dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) were used to evaluate the effects of different enzymatic treatments (Amylase, Papain, Spermfluid) on liquefaction and seminal parameters. After collection, ejaculates were divided into 5 aliquots: (1) kept undiluted (control); or diluted 1:1 with: (2) Tris-Citrate-Fructose (TCF), (3) TCF containing Amylase, (4) TCF containing Papain or (5) Spermfluid containing Bromelain. At 120 min after dilution, each aliquot was evaluated, at 20-min intervals, for viscosity, motility, viability and agglutination. Only the aliquots diluted with TCF containing Papain underwent complete liquefaction. Sperm motility decreased significantly during the observation times, except for the samples diluted with Spermfluid (P=0.005). Diluted samples showed different levels of agglutination, with the lowest being observed in the control and the highest in the Papain-treated samples. The viscosity of dromedary camel ejaculates could be effectively reduced by using the proteolytic enzyme Papain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Premature Ejaculation in the Anhui Male Population in China: Evidence-Based Unified Definition of Lifelong and Acquired Premature Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jingjing; Peng, Dangwei; Zhang, Xiansheng; Hao, Zongyao; Zhou, Jun; Fan, Song; Zhang, Yao; Mao, Jun; Dou, Xianming; Liang, Chaozhao

    2017-03-01

    In 2014, new evidence-based definitions of lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) and acquired premature ejaculation (APE) were proposed by the International Society for Sexual Medicine. Based on the new PE definitions, the prevalence of and factors associated with LPE and APE have not been investigated in China. To evaluate the prevalence of and factors associated with LPE and APE in men with the complaint of PE in China. From December 2011 to December 2015, a cross-sectional field survey was conducted in five cities in the Anhui province of China. Questionnaire data of 3,579 men were collected in our database. The questionnaire included subjects' demographic information and medical and sexual histories. Men who were not satisfied with their time to ejaculate were accepted as having the complaint of PE. Men with the complaint of PE who met the new definition of PE were diagnosed as having LPE or APE. New definition of LPE and APE. Of 3,579 men who completed the questionnaire, 34.62% complained of PE. Mean age, body mass index, and self-estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time for all subjects were 34.97 ± 9.02 years, 23.33 ± 3.56 kg/m 2 , and 3.09 ± 1.36 minutes, respectively. The prevalences of LPE and APE in men with the complaint of PE were 10.98% and 21.39%, respectively. LPE and APE were associated with age, body mass index, and smoking and exercise rates (P < .001 for all comparisons). Men with APE reported more comorbidities than men with LPE, especially in the presence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and heart disease (P < .001 for all comparisons). In this study, the prevalences of LPE and APE in men with the complaint of PE were 10.98% and 21.39%, respectively. Patients with APE were older and more likely to smoke, had more comorbidities, and had a higher body mass index than patients with LPE. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Classification and definition of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Parnham, Arie; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2016-08-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a poorly understood condition and is considered as the most common sexual disorder in men. The ambiguity surrounding PE is in part due to the difficulty in conducting and interpreting research in the absence of a standardised definition that adequately encompasses the characteristics of these patients. An enhanced awareness of sexual dysfunctions in the recent decades has lead to an increase in scientific research that has challenged the traditional paradigm regarding PE. This has also enabled to establish a universal definition and classification of the disease. A move to a more evidence based approach has improved the clinicians' ability to define those who need medical treatment, as well as perform further research in this complex condition.

  4. Somatosensory evoked potentials assess the efficacy of circumcision for premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Xia, J-D; Jiang, H-S; Zhu, L-L; Zhang, Z; Chen, H; Dai, Y-T

    2016-07-01

    To assess the efficacy and mechanism of circumcision in the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE) with redundant prepuce, we enrolled a total of 81 PE patients who received circumcision. The patients' ejaculatory ability and sexual performances were evaluated before and after circumcision by using questionnaires (Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT), Chinese Index of PE with 5 questions (CIPE-5) and International Index of Erectile function- 5 (IIEF-5)). Furthermore, somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) including dorsal nerve (DNSEP) and glans penis (GPSEP) of the patients were also measured. The mean IELTs of preoperation and post operation were 1.10±0.55 and 2.48±2.03 min, respectively (P<0.001). In addition, the geometric mean IELT after operation was 2.16 min, compared with the baseline 1.07 min before the operation, the fold increase of the IELT was 2.02. Compared with the uncircumcised status, scores of CIPE-5 showed a significant increase after circumcision (P<0.001). The mean latencies (and amplitudes) of GPSEP and DNSEP were 38.1±4.0 ms (3.0±1.9 uV) and 40.5±3.4 ms (2.8±1.6 uV) before circumcision, respectively; and 42.8±3.3 ms (2.8±1.6 uV) and 40.5±4.1 ms (2.4±1.2 uV) in the follow-up end point after circumcision. Only the latencies of GPSEP showed significant prolongation before and after circumcision (P<0.001). The ejaculation time improvement after circumcision is so small, and equal to placebo response, therefore it could not be interpreted as a therapeutic method in men with PE.

  5. Female mating strategy in an enclosed group of Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Soltis, J; Mitsunaga, F; Shimizu, K; Yanagihara, Y; Nozaki, M

    1999-01-01

    Female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) are noted for mating with multiple males and for their ability to exert mate choice. In a captive group of Japanese macaques housed at the Primate Research Institute of Kyoto University, Japan, behavioral and endocrine data were combined to examine female mating strategies. During one breeding season, daily behavioral observations were conducted on females who exhibited copulatory behavior. Blood was collected from females twice weekly and their ovulatory periods estimated by analyzing hormone profiles. Females began mating shortly before ovulation, peaked at ovulation, and continued receiving ejaculations for up to ten weeks after conception. Females were more responsible than males for inbreeding avoidance with matrilineal kin. Males sometimes approached females from their own matriline, but females avoided such males and expressed mate choice behavior preferentially toward non-matrilineal males. Over the entire mating season, females did not choose non-matrilineal males on the basis of displays, dominance rank, age, weight, or weight change during the mating season. When females were likely to conceive, however, they expressed mate choice behavior toward males who displayed most frequently. Female mating strategy may include both mate choice at ovulation and other, non-procreative functions.

  6. Cross-cultural differences in women's sexuality and their perception and impact of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Burri, Andrea; Graziottin, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    To assess the cross-cultural differences in women's perception of premature ejaculation (PE). A total of 1463 sexually active women from 3 different countries—Mexico, South Korea, and Italy—reporting being or having been in a relationship with a man who suffers from PE were included in the study. A mix of self-constructed questions and questions taken from validated instruments were used, including the Female Sexual Function Index, the Female Sexual Distress Scale, and the Relationship Assessment Scale. Significant differences in importance of ejaculatory control and the degree of distress caused by PE were detected between the 3 countries (P < .001 for both). Lack of control was the most commonly reported reason for distress for Mexico, short latency for Italy, and lack of control for South Korea. Mexico reported the highest rates of previous relationship breakups due to PE (28.9%), whereas Italian women reported the lowest relationship satisfaction and South Korean women the highest. It is important to get a better understanding of which sexual issues are important for individuals across different cultures, and whether the same aspects of the problem are considered distressing. This can have implications on nosology, on types of treatments offered, and hence, the likelihood of their efficiency when a couple's sexual perspective is carefully considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of boar ejaculate fraction, extender type and time of storage on quality of spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Dziekońska, A; Świąder, K; Koziorowska-Gilun, M; Mietelska, K; Zasiadczyk, Ł; Kordan, W

    2017-03-28

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect the sperm-rich fraction (F1) and the post-F1 fraction (F2) on the quality of boar spermatozoa stored in a liquid state. Ejaculates were collected from three Polish Landrace boars. Each ejaculate fraction was diluted with BTS short-term extender and Safe-Cell Plus (SCP) long-term extender and stored for seven days (D1-D7) at 17°C. Analyses included sperm motility parameters, normal apical ridge (NAR) acrosomes and plasma membrane integrity (PMI). Prior to the dilution of fractions, marked changes (p<0.05) were noted between F1 and F2 in progressive motility (PMOT), velocity average pathway (VAP) and velocity straight line (VCL). After the ejaculate was diluted, the type of fraction and type of extender significantly affected (p<0.05) PMOT, being markedly higher (p<0.05) for F1 extended in BTS. No marked changes (p<0.05) were observed between F1 and F2 extended in SCP for any of the analyzed sperm quality parameters during seven days of storage. Significantly higher (p<0.05) values of sperm quality parameters were noted in F1 compared with F2 for BTS on D7 of storage. The results of the four-way ANOVA analysis indicate that boar, fraction of ejaculate, extender type and day of storage had significant effects on the quality of boar stored spermatozoa. The F1 was characterised by higher quality of spermatozoa during storage in comparison with F2 in the short-term extender. Using the long-term extender containing the proteins allowed for a better application of F2, which could be important for the pig industry.

  8. Dopamine D5 receptor modulates male and female sexual behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Kudwa, A E; Dominguez-Salazar, E; Cabrera, D M; Sibley, D R; Rissman, E F

    2005-07-01

    Dopamine exerts its actions through at least five receptor (DAR) isoforms. In female rats, D5 DAR may be involved in expression of sexual behavior. We used a D5 knockout (D5KO) mouse to assess the role of D5 DAR in mouse sexual behavior. Both sexes of D5KO mice are fertile and exhibit only minor disruptions in exploratory locomotion, startle, and prepulse inhibition responses. This study was conducted to characterize the sexual behavior of male and female D5KO mice relative to their WT littermates. Female WT and D5KO littermates were ovariectomized and given a series of sexual behavior tests after treatment with estradiol benzoate (EB) and progesterone (P). Once sexual performance was optimal the dopamine agonist, apomorphine (APO), was substituted for P. Male mice were observed in pair- and trio- sexual behavior tests. To assess whether the D5 DAR is involved in rewarding aspects of sexual behavior, WT and D5KO male mice were tested for conditioned place preference. Both WT and D5KO females can display receptivity after treatment with EB and P, but APO was only able to facilitate receptivity in EB-primed WT, not in D5KO, mice. Male D5KO mice display normal masculine sexual behavior in mating tests. In conditioned preference tests, WT males formed a conditioned preference for context associated with either intromissions alone or ejaculation as the unconditioned stimulus. In contrast, D5KO males only showed a place preference when ejaculation was paired with the context. In females, the D5 DAR is essential for the actions of dopamine on receptivity. In males, D5 DAR influences rewarding aspects of intromissions. Taken together, the work suggests that the D5 receptor mediates dopamine's action on sexual behavior in both sexes, perhaps via a reward pathway.

  9. Season of birth modifies puberty in female and male goats raised under subtropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo, J A; De Santiago-Miramontes, M A; Carrillo, E

    2007-07-01

    In seasonal goats and sheep breeds, onset of puberty is modified by the season of birth. As adult does and bucks from subtropical Mexico display seasonal variation in their reproductive behaviour, this study was carried out to determine the effect of season of birth on puberty. Three groups of each sex born in January, May and October were used. During the seasons, does and bucks were weaned at an age of 30 days and offered ad libitum alfalfa hay and 100 g of commercial concentrate. In the female kids, the onset of ovulatory activity was determined by progesterone plasma concentrations once in a week from 3 months of age until the onset of puberty. In the male kids, the onset of puberty was individually recorded by observing the ability to mount and intromit an induced oestrous female goat aged 3 months and the presence of spermatozoa in the ejaculate obtained in an artificial vagina 1 week after the first mount. In female kids, there was an effect of the season on the date of first ovulation (P < 0.001). In the May group, ovulatory activity commenced at an earlier age (201 ± 3 days) compared with January (264 ± 5 days) and October (344 ± 5 days) groups (P < 0.001). In the January group also, the ovulatory activity commenced earlier than the October group (P < 0.001). In males, an effect of the season of birth on the first mounting was observed (P < 0.001). The male kids that were born in May (111 ± 3) and October (112 ± 5 days) attained puberty earlier than those born in January (131 ± 4 days; P < 0.001). The time of onset of puberty did not differ between groups of May and October. All males showed the presence of spermatozoa in the first ejaculate obtained 1 week after the first mount. The spermatozoa in all ejaculates were immobile. It was concluded that the season of birth modified the onset of puberty in both genders, but these modifications were more pronounced in the female than in the male kid goats.

  10. The Premature Ejaculation Profile: validation of self-reported outcome measures for research and practice.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Donald L; Giuliano, François; Ho, Kai Fai; Gagnon, Dennis D; McNulty, Pauline; Rothman, Margaret

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the reliability and validity of the Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP), a self-reported outcome instrument for evaluating domains of PE and its treatment, comprised of four single-item measures, a profile, and an index score. Data were from men participating in observational studies in the USA (PE, 207 men; non-PE, 1380) and Europe (PE, 201; non-PE, 914) and from men with PE (1238) participating in a phase III randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of dapoxetine. The PEP contains four measures: perceived control over ejaculation, personal distress related to ejaculation, satisfaction with sexual intercourse, and interpersonal difficulty related to ejaculation, each assessed on five-point response scales. Test-retest reliability, known-groups validity, and ability to detect a patient-reported global impression of change (PGI) in condition were evaluated for the individual PEP measures and a PEP index score (the mean of all four measures). Profile analysis was conducted using multivariate analysis of variance. All PEP measures showed acceptable reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.66 to 0.83) and mean scores for all measures differed significantly between PE and non-PE groups (P < 0.001). Men who reported a reduction in PE with treatment in the phase III trial had significantly greater scores on each of the four measures. The PEP profiles of men with and without PE differed significantly (P < 0.001) in both observational studies; higher levels of PGI were associated with higher PEP profiles (P < 0.001). The PEP index score also showed acceptable reliability and was significantly different between the PE and non-PE groups (P < 0.001). Men who reported an improvement in PE with treatment in the phase III trial had significantly greater PEP index scores. In the phase III trial, nausea was the most common adverse event with dapoxetine. The PEP provides a reliable, valid, and interpretable measure for use in monitoring

  11. How is a giant sperm ejaculated? Anatomy and function of the sperm pump, or "Zenker organ," in Pseudocandona marchica (Crustacea, Ostracoda, Candonidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Shinnosuke; Matzke-Karasz, Renate

    2012-07-01

    `Giant sperm', in terms of exceptionally long spermatozoa, occur in a variety of taxa in the animal kingdom, predominantly in arthropod groups, but also in flatworms, mollusks, and others. In some freshwater ostracods (Cypridoidea), filamentous sperm cells reach up to ten times the animal's body length; nonetheless, during a single copulation several dozen sperm cells can be transferred to the female's seminal receptacle. This highly effective ejaculation has traditionally been credited to a chitinous-muscular structure within the seminal duct, which has been interpreted as a sperm pump. We investigated this organ, also known as the Zenker organ, of a cypridoid ostracod, Pseudocandona marchica, utilizing light and electron microscope techniques and produced a three-dimensional reconstruction based on serial semi-thin histological sections. This paper shows that numerous muscle fibers surround the central tube of the Zenker organ, running in parallel with the central tube and that a thin cellular layer underlies the muscular layer. A cellular inner tube exists inside the central tube. A chitinous-cellular structure at the entrance of the organ has been recognized as an ejaculatory valve. In male specimens during copulation, we confirmed a small hole derived from the passage of a single spermatozoon through the valve. The new data allowed for proposing a detailed course of operation of the Zenker organ during giant sperm ejaculation.

  12. Factors associated with over-serving at drinking establishments.

    PubMed

    Buvik, Kristin; Rossow, Ingeborg

    2015-04-01

    To address characteristics of drinking establishments, bartenders and patrons that may affect the likelihood of over-serving. A systematic examination of 425 purchase attempts with pseudo-intoxicated patrons enacting scripts that, according to the law, should lead to the denial of alcohol sales. Drinking establishments in the three largest cities in Norway (Trondheim, Bergen and Oslo) were visited by male and female actors aged 20-30 years on weekend nights, with a total of 425 purchase items. Over-serving was recorded when the pseudo-intoxicated patron was served alcohol. Characteristics of the drinking establishment, the bartender and the pseudo-intoxicated patron were recorded systematically. Pseudo-intoxicated patrons were served in 347 of 425 purchase attempts (82%). In bivariate analyses, the over-serving rate increased with venue characteristics, music/noise level and intoxication level among patrons. These factors were intercorrelated and correlated with poor lighting. The over-serving rate was also higher when the pseudo-intoxicated patron was female and when the purchase attempt occurred after midnight. In multi-variate analyses, two factors increased the likelihood of over-serving significantly: a high problematic bar indicator score (poor lighting, high music/noise level and high intoxication level among patrons) [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 3.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.9, 6.4] and female gender of pseudo-intoxicated patrons (adjusted OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.4, 4.7). The rate of over-serving was 95% when both risk factors were present and 67% when both factors were absent. In urban settings in Norway, it is likely that over-serving occurs frequently, and is increased by the risk factors of poor lighting, loud music and high intoxication level among patrons. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Brain hyperthermia and temperature fluctuations during sexual interaction in female rats.

    PubMed

    Mitchum, Robert D; Kiyatkin, Eugene A

    2004-03-12

    Since the metabolic activity of neural cells is accompanied by heat release, brain temperature monitoring provides insight into behavior-associated changes in neural activity. In the present study, local temperatures were continuously recorded in several brain structures (nucleus accumbens, medial-preoptic hypothalamus and hippocampus) and a non-locomotor head muscle (musculus temporalis) in a receptive female rat during sexually arousing stimulation and subsequent copulatory behavior with an experienced male. Placement of the male into a neighboring compartment increased the female's temperature (approximately 0.8 degrees C) and additional, transient increases (approximately 0.2 degrees C) occurred when the rats were allowed to see and smell each other through a transparent barrier. Temperatures gradually increased further as the male repeatedly mounted and achieved intromissions, peaked 2-3 min after male's ejaculation (0.2-0.4 degrees C), and abruptly dropped until the male initiated a new copulatory cycle. Similar biphasic fluctuations accompanied subsequent copulatory cycles. Although both arousal-related temperature increases and biphasic fluctuations associated with copulatory cycles were evident in each recording location, brain sites showed consistently faster and stronger increases than the muscle, suggesting metabolic brain activation as the primary source of brain temperature fluctuations and a force behind associated changes in brain temperature. Robust brain hyperthermia and the generally similar pattern of phasic temperature fluctuations associated with individual events of sexual interaction found in males and females suggest widespread neural activation (motivational arousal) as a driving force underlying this cooperative motivated behavior in animals of both sexes. Females, however, showed different temperature changes in association with the initial (first mount or intromission) and final (ejaculation) events of each copulatory cycle, suggesting

  14. Interventions to treat premature ejaculation: a systematic review short report.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Katy; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Dickinson, Kath; Cantrell, Anna

    2015-03-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is commonly defined as ejaculation with minimal sexual stimulation before, on or shortly after penetration and before the person wishes it. PE can be either lifelong and present since first sexual experiences (primary), or acquired (secondary), beginning later (Godpodinoff ML. Premature ejaculation: clinical subgroups and etiology. J Sex Marital Ther 1989;15:130-4). Treatments include behavioural and pharmacological interventions. To systematically review evidence for clinical effectiveness of behavioural, topical and systemic treatments for PE. The following databases were searched from inception to 6 August 2013 for published and unpublished research evidence: MEDLINE; EMBASE; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; The Cochrane Library including the Cochrane Systematic Reviews Database, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects and the Health Technology Assessment database; ISI Web of Science, including Science Citation Index, and the Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science. The US Food and Drug Administration website and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) website were also searched. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in adult men with PE were eligible (or non-RCTs in the absence of RCTs). RCT data were extrapolated from review articles when available. The primary outcome was intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). Data were meta-analysed when possible. Other outcomes included sexual satisfaction, control over ejaculation, relationship satisfaction, self-esteem, quality of life, treatment acceptability and adverse events (AEs). A total of 103 studies (102 RCTs, 65 from reviews) were included. RCTs were available for all interventions except yoga. The following interventions demonstrated significant improvements (p < 0.05) in arithmetic mean difference in IELT compared with placebo: topical anaesthetics - eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics (EMLA(®), Astra

  15. Proteomic analysis of mature and immature ejaculated spermatozoa from fertile men

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhihong; Sharma, Rakesh; Agarwal, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunctional spermatozoa maturation is the main reason for the decrease in sperm motility and morphology in infertile men. Ejaculated spermatozoa from healthy fertile men were separated into four fractions using three-layer density gradient. Proteins were extracted and bands were digested on a LTQ-Orbitrap Elite hybrid mass spectrometer system. Functional annotations of proteins were obtained using bioinformatics tools and pathway databases. Western blotting was performed to verify the expression levels of the proteins of interest. 1469 proteins were identified in four fractions of spermatozoa. The number of detected proteins decreased according to the maturation level of spermatozoa. During spermatozoa maturation, proteins involved in gamete generation, cell motility, energy metabolism and oxidative phosphorylation processes showed increasing expression levels and those involved in protein biosynthesis, protein transport, protein ubiquitination, and response to oxidative stress processes showed decreasing expression levels. We validated four proteins (HSP 70 1A, clusterin, tektin 2 and tektin 3) by Western blotting. The study shows protein markers that may provide insight into the ejaculated spermatozoa proteins in different stages of sperm maturation that may be altered or modified in infertile men. PMID:26510506

  16. Circumcision does not have effect on premature ejaculation: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Wang, X; Bai, Y; Han, P

    2018-03-01

    We attempted to evaluate whether circumcision has an effect on premature ejaculation. We searched three databases: PubMed, EMBASE and Google scholar on 1 May 2016 for eligible studies that referred to male sexual function after circumcision. No language restrictions were imposed. The Cochrane Collaboration's RevMan 5.2 software was employed for data analysis, and the fixed or the random-effect model was selected depending on the heterogeneity. Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis, containing a total of 10019 circumcised and 11570 uncircumcised men. All studies were divided into five subgroups by types of study design to evaluate the effect of circumcision on premature ejaculation (PE). Intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT), difficulty of orgasm, erectile dysfunction (ED) and pain during intercourse were also assessed because PE was usually discussed along with these subjects. There were no significant differences in PE (odds ratio [OR], 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.72-1.13; p = .37) and orgasm (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.89-1.21; p = .65) between circumcised and uncircumcised group. However, IELT (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.60-0.83; p < .00001), ED (OR, 0.42;95% CI, 0.22-0.78; p = .40) and pain during intercourse (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.17-0.76; p = .007) favoured circumcised group. Based on these findings, circumcision does not have effect on PE. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Vardenafil improves ejaculation success rates and self-confidence in men with erectile dysfunction due to spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Francois; Rubio-Aurioles, Eusebio; Kennelly, Michael; Montorsi, Francesco; Kim, Edward D; Finkbeiner, Alex E; Pommerville, Peter J; Colopy, Michael W; Wachs, Barton H

    2008-04-01

    Multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. To assess the effect of the oral phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor, vardenafil, on ejaculation rates and self-confidence in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). Spinal command of male sexual functions is often seriously impaired by traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). A high proportion of men with SCI cannot ejaculate during sexual intercourse. SCI-related ejaculatory disorders are often responsible for male infertility. Sexual dysfunction associated with SCI can also affect men's self-confidence. In this 12-week study, 418 men aged >or=18 years with erectile dysfunction >6 months resulting from a traumatic SCI were randomized to vardenafil (n = 207) or placebo (n = 211) 10 mg for 4 weeks, then maintained or titrated to 5 or 20 mg at weeks 4 and 8. Assessments included questions of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) about ejaculation success and orgasmic perception; the Global Confidence Question; and quality-of-life scales to measure psychological well-being, self-esteem, depression, and mental health status. Overall per patient ejaculation success rates were significantly greater with vardenafil than placebo over 12 weeks of treatment (19% vs. 10%; P < 0.001). At last observation carried forward, the IIEF "orgasmic function" score increased from 2.9 at baseline to 4.0 for vardenafil and from 3.0 at baseline to 3.4 for placebo. Sixteen percent of men receiving vardenafil and 8% receiving placebo felt orgasm "almost always" or "always" at weeks 8-12, compared with 4% and 6%, respectively, at baseline. Significant improvements in confidence scores were observed with vardenafil compared with placebo (P < 0.0001). There were no clinically significant differences between vardenafil and placebo in the quality-of-life measures at the study endpoint, but these had been in the normal range at baseline. Vardenafil significantly improved ejaculation and self-confidence in men with erectile

  18. Ejaculate fractioning effect on llama sperm head morphometry as assessed by the ISAS(®) CASA system.

    PubMed

    Soler, C; Sancho, M; García, A; Fuentes, Mc; Núñez, J; Cucho, H

    2014-02-01

    South American camelid sperm characteristics are poorly known compared with those of other domestic animals. The long-term duration of ejaculation makes difficult to gather all the seminal fluid, implying possible ejaculation portion losses. Thus, the aim of this research was to evaluate the characteristics of the morphology and morphometry of the spermatozoa change during ejaculation. The morphometric characterization was tested on nine specimens of the Lanuda breed, using a special artificial vagina. In five of the animals, a fractioning of the ejaculate was performed by taking samples every 5 min. for a total of 20 min. Air-dried seminal smears were stained with Hemacolor and mounted permanently with Eukitt. Morphometric analysis was carried out with the morphometry module of the ISAS(®) CASA system. Almost 350 cells were analysed per sample, with a total number of 3207 spermatozoa. Mean values were given as follows: length: 5.51 μm; width: 3.38 μm; area: 17.75 μm(2) ; perimeter: 14.8 μm; ellipticity: 0.24; elongation: 0.56; rugosity: 0.87; regularity: 1.07; and shape factor: 1.41. Different animals showed differences in their morphometric values. When we compared the values from different fractions, only two samples showed differences in morphometric parameter values and four samples showed differences in shape parameters. Multivariate analysis allowed the size classification of the cells into three classes and five classes of shapes. The distribution of classes among fractions showed no differences. Despite the individual morphometric differences observed in some fractions, the characteristics of the sperm head morphometry can be considered constant along the ejaculatory period in the llama. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Development and validation of a premature ejaculation diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Symonds, Tara; Perelman, Michael A; Althof, Stanley; Giuliano, François; Martin, Mona; May, Kathryn; Abraham, Lucy; Crossland, Anna; Morris, Mark

    2007-08-01

    Diagnosis of premature ejaculation (PE) for clinical trial purposes has typically relied on intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) for entry, but this parameter does not capture the multidimensional nature of PE. Therefore, the aim was to develop a brief, multidimensional, psychometrically validated instrument for diagnosing PE status. The questionnaire development involved three stages: (1) Five focus groups and six individual interviews were conducted to develop the content; (2) psychometric validation using three different groups of men; and (3) generation of a scoring system. For psychometric validation/scoring system development, data was collected from (1) men with PE based on clinician diagnosis, using DSM-IV-TR, who also had IELTs < or =2 min (n=292); (2) men self-reporting PE (n=309); and (3) men self-reporting no-PE (n=701). Standard psychometric analyses were conducted to produce the final questionnaire. Sensitivity/specificity analysis was used to determine an appropriate scoring system. The qualitative research identified 9 items to capture the essence of DSM-IV-TR PE classification. The psychometric validation resulted in a 5-item, unidimensional, measure, which captures the essence of DSM-IV-TR: control, frequency, minimal stimulation, distress, and interpersonal difficulty. Sensitivity/specificity analyses suggested a score of < or =8 indicated no-PE, 9 and 10 probable PE, and > or =11 PE. The development and validation of this new PE diagnostic tool has resulted in a new, user-friendly, and brief self-report questionnaire for use in clinical trials to diagnose PE.

  20. Ejaculation profiles of men following radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, John F; Stember, Doron S; Deveci, Serkan; Akin-Olugbade, Yemi; Mulhall, John P

    2013-05-01

    Radical prostatectomy (RP) is associated with anejaculation, which for some men is a source of bother and sexual dissatisfaction. Clinical experience has shown us some men after pelvic radiation therapy (RT) also experience anejaculation. This analysis was conducted to define the ejaculation profiles of men after RT for prostate cancer (PCa). As a routine part of the sexual health evaluation for post-RT patients, men provided information regarding their ejaculatory function and orgasm. Analysis was conducted of a sexual medicine database reviewing demographic data, PCa factors, erectile, ejaculatory, and orgasmic function. Men with prior history of RP, cryotherapy, focal therapies, and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) were excluded. Patients completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire at follow-up visits commencing with the first posttreatment visit and specific attention was paid to the IIEF orgasm domain. Three hundred and sixty-four consecutive patients were included. Two hundred and fifty-two patients had external beam, and 112 patients had brachytherapy (BT). Mean age was 64 ± 11 (42-78) years and mean follow-up after RT was 6 ± 4.5 years. Mean prostate size at time of RT was 42 ± 21 g. Of the entire population, 72% lost the ability to ejaculate in an antegrade fashion after prostate RT by their last visit. The proportion experiencing anejaculation at 1, 3, and 5 years after RT was 16%, 69%, and 89%, respectively. For men with at least two IIEF questionnaires completed, the orgasm domain scores decreased dramatically over the follow-up period; orgasm domain scores (0-10): <12 months post-RT 7.4, 13-24 months 5.4, 25-36 months 3.2, >36 months 2.8 (P < 0.01). Multivariable analysis identified several factors predictive of failure to ejaculate: older age, ADT, RT dose > 100 Gy, and smaller prostates at the time of RT. The vast majority of men after prostate RT will experience anejaculation and should be

  1. Comparison of methods of extracting messenger Ribonucleic Acid from ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    H. D. Guthrie, G.R. Welch, and L. A. Blomberg. Comparison of Methods of Extracting Messenger Ribonucleic Acid from Ejaculated Porcine (Sus Scrofa) Spermatozoa. Biotechnology and Germplasm Laboratory, Agricultural Research Service U. S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD 20705 The purpos...

  2. Cryptic female choice enhances fertilization success and embryo survival in chinook salmon

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated two potentially important intersexual postcopulatory gametic interactions in a population of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): (i) the effect of female ovarian fluid (OF) on the behaviour of spermatozoa during fertilization and (ii) the effects of multilocus heterozygosity (MLH) (as an index of male quality) and female–male genetic relatedness on sperm behaviour and male fertilization success when there is sperm competition in the presence of that OF. To do this, we conducted a series of in vitro competitive fertilization experiments and found that, when ejaculates from two males are competing for access to a single female's unfertilized eggs, fertilization success was significantly biased towards the male whose sperm swam fastest in the female's OF. Embryo survival—a measure of fitness—was also positively correlated with both sperm swimming speed in OF and male MLH, providing novel evidence that cryptic female choice is adaptive for the female, enhancing the early survival of her offspring and potentially influencing her fitness. PMID:27009221

  3. Large Variations in Declared Serving Sizes of Packaged Foods in Australia: A Need for Serving Size Standardisation?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Suzie; Gemming, Luke

    2018-01-01

    Declared serving sizes on food packaging are unregulated in Australia, and variations in serving size within similar products reduces the usability of this information. This study aimed to (i) assess the variations in declared serving sizes of packaged foods from the Five Food Groups, and (ii) compare declared serving sizes to the Australian Dietary Guidelines standard serves and typical portion sizes consumed by Australian adults. Product information, including serving size, was collected for 4046 products from four major Australian retailers. Within product categories from the Five Food Groups, coefficients of variation ranged from 0% to 59% for declared serving size and 9% to 64% for energy per serving. Overall, 24% of all products displayed serving sizes similar (within ±10%) to the standard serves, and 23–28% were similar to typical portion sizes consumed by adults, for females and males, respectively. In conclusion, there is substantial variation in the declared serving sizes of packaged foods from the Five Food Groups, and serving sizes are not aligned with either the Dietary Guidelines or typical portion sizes consumed. Future research into effective means of standardising serving sizes is warranted. PMID:29382083

  4. Induction of partial immunity in both males and females is sufficient to protect females against sexual transmission of Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, C P; Armitage, C W; Kollipara, A; Andrew, D W; Trim, L; Plenderleith, M B; Beagley, K W

    2016-07-01

    Sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis causes infertility, and because almost 90% of infections are asymptomatic, a vaccine is required for its eradication. Mathematical modeling studies have indicated that a vaccine eliciting partial protection (non-sterilizing) may prevent Chlamydia infection transmission, if administered to both sexes before an infection. However, reducing chlamydial inoculum transmitted by males and increasing infection resistance in females through vaccination to elicit sterilizing immunity has yet to be investigated experimentally. Here we show that a partially protective vaccine (chlamydial major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and ISCOMATRIX (IMX) provided sterilizing immunity against sexual transmission between immunized mice. Immunizing male or female mice before an infection reduced chlamydial burden and disease development, but did not prevent infection. However, infection and inflammatory disease responsible for infertility were absent in 100% of immunized female mice challenged intravaginally with ejaculate collected from infected immunized males. In contrast to the sterilizing immunity generated following recovery from a previous chlamydial infection, protective immunity conferred by MOMP/IMX occurred independent of resident memory T cells. Our results demonstrate that vaccination of males or females can further protect the opposing sex, whereas vaccination of both sexes can synergize to elicit sterilizing immunity against Chlamydia sexual transmission.

  5. Functional and psychological characteristics of belgian men with premature ejaculation and their partners.

    PubMed

    Kempeneers, Philippe; Andrianne, Robert; Bauwens, Sabrina; Georis, Isabelle; Pairoux, Jean-François; Blairy, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and emotional factors are generally acknowledged to play a role in premature ejaculation (PE). However, the nature and the extent of their etiological impact remain largely imprecise. The present study examined functional and psychometric dynamics at work in a PE population. A total of 461 men with PE and 80 partners completed an online questionnaire. The main outcome measures were self-reported ejaculatory latency time, the feeling of control upon ejaculation, sexual satisfaction, distress related to PE, trait anxiety (STAI-B), sexual cognitions (Sexual Irrationality Questionnaire [SIQ]), social anxiety (Liebowitz's Social Anxiety Scale [LSAS] and Social Interaction Self-Statement Test [SISST]), and personality traits (Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised [TCI-R]). In our sample, the median latency time to ejaculation was between 1 and 2 min. Sexual satisfaction and distress correlated more strongly with the feeling of control than with the self-reported latency time. Men experienced more distress and dissatisfaction related to PE than did their partners, while overestimating their partners' distress and dissatisfaction. PE participants' scores differed significantly, albeit slightly, from STAI-B, SIQ, LSAS, and SISST norms. The differences were negligible on TCI-R. Some differences became stronger when subtypes were considered. Participants combining generalized and lifelong PE with self-reported latency times of <30 s reported lower sexual satisfaction and control, higher distress, higher social anxiety, and harm avoidance (TCI-R/HA) scores. By contrast, the situational subtype of PE was found to be characterized by a higher level of satisfaction, a greater feeling of control, less distress, and higher trait anxiety scores. However, the trends remained statistically discrete.

  6. Sexually transmitted bacteria affect female cloacal assemblages in a wild bird

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Joël; Mirleau, Pascal; Danchin, Etienne; Mulard, Hervé; Hatch, Scott A.; Heeb, Phillipp; Wagner, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual transmission is an important mode of disease propagation, yet its mechanisms remain largely unknown in wild populations. Birds comprise an important model for studying sexually transmitted microbes because their cloaca provides a potential for both gastrointestinal pathogens and endosymbionts to become incorporated into ejaculates. We experimentally demonstrate in a wild population of kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) that bacteria are transmitted during copulation and affect the composition and diversity of female bacterial communities. We used an anti-insemination device attached to males in combination with a molecular technique (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis) that describes bacterial communities. After inseminations were experimentally blocked, the cloacal communities of mates became increasingly dissimilar. Moreover, female cloacal diversity decreased and the extinction of mate-shared bacteria increased, indicating that female cloacal assemblages revert to their pre-copulatory state and that the cloaca comprises a resilient microbial ecosystem.

  7. Black stone - a natural remedy for premature ejaculation and performance enhancement, or maybe not?

    PubMed

    Bush, Carly; O'Farrell, Nigel

    2014-08-01

    We describe the use of a non-prescribed aid (Black stone) for premature ejaculation that resulted in a chemical burn on the penis with an appearance similar to severe balanitis. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  8. The epidemiology of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Saitz, Theodore Robert; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2016-08-01

    Vast advances have occurred over the past decade with regards to understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of premature ejaculation (PE); however, we still have much to learn about this common sexual problem. As a standardized evidence-based definition of PE has only recently been established, the reported prevalence rates of PE prior to this definition have been difficult to interpret. As a result, a large range of conflicting prevalence rates have been reported. In addition to the lack of a standardized definition and operational criteria, the method of recruitment for study participation and method of data collection have obviously contributed to the broad range of reported prevalence rates. The new criteria and classification of PE will allow for continued research into the diverse phenomenology, etiology and pathogenesis of the disease to be conducted. While the absolute pathophysiology and true prevalence of PE remains unclear, developing a better understanding of the true prevalence of the disease will allow for the completion of more accurate analysis and treatment of the disease.

  9. ServAR: An augmented reality tool to guide the serving of food.

    PubMed

    Rollo, Megan E; Bucher, Tamara; Smith, Shamus P; Collins, Clare E

    2017-05-12

    Accurate estimation of food portion size is a difficult task. Visual cues are important mediators of portion size and therefore technology-based aids may assist consumers when serving and estimating food portions. The current study evaluated the usability and impact on estimation error of standard food servings of a novel augmented reality food serving aid, ServAR. Participants were randomised into one of three groups: 1) no information/aid (control); 2) verbal information on standard serving sizes; or 3) ServAR, an aid which overlayed virtual food servings over a plate using a tablet computer. Participants were asked to estimate the standard serving sizes of nine foods (broccoli, carrots, cauliflower, green beans, kidney beans, potato, pasta, rice, and sweetcorn) using validated food replicas. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests compared median served weights of each food to reference standard serving size weights. Percentage error was used to compare the estimation of serving size accuracy between the three groups. All participants also performed a usability test using the ServAR tool to guide the serving of one randomly selected food. Ninety adults (78.9% female; a mean (95%CI) age 25.8 (24.9-26.7) years; BMI 24.2 (23.2-25.2) kg/m 2 ) completed the study. The median servings were significantly different to the reference portions for five foods in the ServAR group, compared to eight foods in the information only group and seven foods for the control group. The cumulative proportion of total estimations per group within ±10%, ±25% and ±50% of the reference portion was greater for those using ServAR (30.7, 65.2 and 90.7%; respectively), compared to the information only group (19.6, 47.4 and 77.4%) and control group (10.0, 33.7 and 68.9%). Participants generally found the ServAR tool easy to use and agreed that it showed potential to support optimal portion size selection. However, some refinements to the ServAR tool are required to improve the user experience. Use of the

  10. Cryptic female choice enhances fertilization success and embryo survival in chinook salmon.

    PubMed

    Rosengrave, Patrice; Montgomerie, Robert; Gemmell, Neil

    2016-03-30

    In this study, we investigated two potentially important intersexual postcopulatory gametic interactions in a population of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): (i) the effect of female ovarian fluid (OF) on the behaviour of spermatozoa during fertilization and (ii) the effects of multilocus heterozygosity (MLH) (as an index of male quality) and female-male genetic relatedness on sperm behaviour and male fertilization success when there is sperm competition in the presence of that OF. To do this, we conducted a series of in vitro competitive fertilization experiments and found that, when ejaculates from two males are competing for access to a single female's unfertilized eggs, fertilization success was significantly biased towards the male whose sperm swam fastest in the female's OF. Embryo survival--a measure of fitness--was also positively correlated with both sperm swimming speed in OF and male MLH, providing novel evidence that cryptic female choice is adaptive for the female, enhancing the early survival of her offspring and potentially influencing her fitness. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. The use of tramadol "on-demand" for premature ejaculation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wong, Billy L K; Malde, Sachin

    2013-01-01

    To determine the efficacy and safety of tramadol in the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE) by systematically reviewing the results of randomized controlled trials. All studies evaluating the efficacy of tramadol for the treatment of PE published in peer reviewed medical journals between 2006 and March 2012 were identified by searching for the keywords "premature ejaculation" and "tramadol" in the PubMed database. Only randomized controlled trials published in the English language were included. A total of 5 articles, comprising 823 patients, met the inclusion criteria for further analysis. Overall, tramadol on-demand results in a significant improvement in mean intravaginal ejaculatory latency time and symptom scores compared with placebo and in an improvement in partner sexual satisfaction scores. The rate of short-term adverse effects is low. Tramadol is an effective treatment for patients with PE and represents a promising alternative to the currently used oral pharmacologic agents. Longer-term safety studies, and those comparing tramadol with the selective serotonin receptor inhibitors, are essential to determine the place of tramadol in the treatment of this distressing condition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Semen quality in ejaculates produced by masturbation in men with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Kathiresan, A S Q; Ibrahim, E; Modh, R; Aballa, T C; Lynne, C M; Brackett, N L

    2012-12-01

    Retrospective study. Most men with spinal cord injury are anejaculatory. Much has been reported about their semen quality collected by penile vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation (EEJ). What is not well-described is the nature of semen quality in SCI patients who can ejaculate by masturbation. This study was performed to understand the degree to which their semen quality differed from that of anejaculatory SCI patients versus that of healthy non-SCI control subjects. University of Miami. Retrospective chart review of Male Fertility Research Program participants from 1991 to 2011. Of 528 SCI subjects, 444 met inclusion criteria of completing an algorithm in which ejaculation occurred by masturbation (n=43), PVS (n=243), or EEJ (n=158). Sperm motility was higher in the SCI-masturbation group (36.9%) than the PVS group (25.9%, P<0.001) or EEJ group (15.0%, P<0.001), but lower compared with a control group of 61 non-SCI healthy men who collected their semen by masturbation (58.0%, P<0.001). The SCI-masturbation group had similar antegrade sperm concentration (83.3×10(6) cc(-1)) as the PVS group (77.4×10(6) cc(-1)) and control group (82.0×10(6) cc(-1)), but higher than the EEJ group (49.8×10(6) cc(-1), P<0.001). The SCI-masturbation group had significantly more men with incomplete injuries (84%) than the PVS group (54%, P<0.01) or EEJ group (41%, P<0.001). This is the first report focusing on semen quality obtained by masturbation in men with SCI. Sperm motility was higher in men with SCI who could, versus could not, ejaculate by masturbation. Completeness of injury may contribute to this difference.

  13. [Correlation between premature ejaculation diagnostic tool and International Index of Erectile Function-15 in different types of premature ejaculation].

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Xian-Sheng; Tang, Dong-Dong; Gao, Jing-Jing; Huang, Yuan-Yuan; Gao, Pan; Liu, Wei-Qun; Liang, Chao-Zhao

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the correlation between the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) and International Index of Erectile Function-15 (IIEF-15) in different types of premature ejaculation (PE). We performed a cross-section survey among 352 PE patients received in the andrology clinic from December 2014 to December 2015 and 104 healthy men from the health examination center using basic demographic information (as on age, height, weight, education status, occupation, income, etc.), PEDT results, and IIEF-15 scores of the subjects. The PE patients had remarkably higher PEDT and lower IIEF-15 scores than the healthy men (P<0.01). The PEDT score of the PE patients was negatively correlated with their total IIEF-15 score as well as with the scores in the domains of erectile function, sexual intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction after adjusted for age (P<0.01). The patients with acquired PE (APE) showed a lower IIEF-15 score than those with lifelong PE (LPE) (P<0.01). The PEDT score of the APE patients was correlated negatively with the total IIEF-15 score (r=-0.391, P<0.01) and the scores in the domains of erectile function (r=-0.362, P<0.01) and overall satisfaction (r=-0.621, P<0.01), but not correlated with intercourse satisfaction, sexual orgasm, or sexual desire. The PEDT score of the LPE group was correlated negatively with intercourse satisfaction (r=-0.286, P<0.05) but not correlated with either the total IIEF-15 score or the scores in the domains of erectile function, overall satisfaction, sexual orgasm, or sexual desire. PE patients have a higher PEDT score and a lower IIEF-15 score than normal males. The PEDT score of APE patients is significantly correlated with the total IIEF-15 score, while that of LPE patients is correlated not with the total IIEF-15 score but with intercourse satisfaction.

  14. Lifestyle Factors and Premature Ejaculation: Are Physical Exercise, Alcohol Consumption, and Body Mass Index Associated With Premature Ejaculation and Comorbid Erectile Problems?

    PubMed

    Ventus, Daniel; Jern, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common sexual problem in men, but its etiology remains uncertain. Lifestyle factors have long been hypothesized to be associated with sexual problems in general and have been proposed as risk factors for PE. To explore associations among physical exercise, alcohol use, body mass index, PE, and erectile dysfunction. A population-based sample of Finnish men and a sample of Finnish men diagnosed with PE were surveyed for statistical comparisons. Participants using selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or other medications known to affect symptoms of PE were excluded from analyses. Self-report questionnaires: Multiple Indicators of Premature Ejaculation, International Index of Erectile Function-5, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, and Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. The clinical sample reported lower levels of physical exercise (mean = 27.53, SD = 21.01, n = 69) than the population-based sample (mean = 34.68, SD = 22.82, n = 863, t930 = 2.52, P = .012), and the effect size was large (d = 0.85). There was a small negative correlation between levels of physical exercise and symptoms of PE (r = -0.09, P < .01, n = 863) in the population-based sample. The association between physical exercise and PE remained significant after controlling for effects of age, erectile dysfunction, alcohol use, and body mass index. If future studies show that the direction of causality of this association is such that physical activity alleviates PE symptoms, then including physical activity in PE treatment interventions could be a promising addition to treatment regimes. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Management of Premature Ejaculation: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Katy; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Dickinson, Kath; Cantrell, Anna; Ren, Shijie; Wylie, Kevan; Frodsham, Leila; Hood, Catherine

    2017-03-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is defined as ejaculation within 1 minute (lifelong PE) or 3 minutes (acquired PE), inability to delay ejaculation, and negative personal consequences. Management includes behavioral and pharmacologic approaches. To systematically review effectiveness, safety, and robustness of evidence for complementary and alternative medicine in managing PE. Nine databases including Medline were searched through September 2015. Randomized controlled trials evaluating complementary and alternative medicine for PE were included. Studies were included if they reported on intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and/or another validated PE measurement. Adverse effects were summarized. Ten randomized controlled trials were included. Two assessed acupuncture, five assessed Chinese herbal medicine, one assessed Ayurvedic herbal medicine, and two assessed topical "severance secret" cream. Risk of bias was unclear in all studies because of unclear allocation concealment or blinding, and only five studies reported stopwatch-measured IELT. Acupuncture slightly increased IELT over placebo in one study (mean difference [MD] = 0.55 minute, P = .001). In another study, Ayurvedic herbal medicine slightly increased IELT over placebo (MD = 0.80 minute, P = .001). Topical severance secret cream increased IELT over placebo in two studies (MD = 8.60 minutes, P < .001), although inclusion criteria were broad (IELT < 3 minutes). Three studies comparing Chinese herbal medicine with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) favored SSRIs (MD = 1.01 minutes, P = .02). However, combination treatment with Chinese medicine plus SSRIs improved IELT over SSRIs alone (two studies; MD = 1.92 minutes, P < .00001) and over Chinese medicine alone (two studies; MD = 2.52 minutes, P < .00001). Adverse effects were not consistently assessed but where reported were generally mild. There is preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine

  16. Sperm competition generates evolution of increased paternal investment in a sex role-reversed seed beetle.

    PubMed

    Booksmythe, I; Fritzsche, K; Arnqvist, G

    2014-12-01

    When males provide females with resources at mating, they can become the limiting sex in reproduction, in extreme cases leading to the reversal of typical courtship roles. The evolution of male provisioning is thought to be driven by male reproductive competition and selection for female fecundity enhancement. We used experimental evolution under male- or female-biased sex ratios and limited or unlimited food regimes to investigate the relative roles of these routes to male provisioning in a sex role-reversed beetle, Megabruchidius tonkineus, where males provide females with nutritious ejaculates. Males evolving under male-biased sex ratios transferred larger ejaculates than did males from female-biased populations, demonstrating a sizeable role for reproductive competition in the evolution of male provisioning. Although larger ejaculates elevated female lifetime offspring production, we found little evidence of selection for larger ejaculates via fecundity enhancement: males evolving under resource-limited and unlimited conditions did not differ in mean ejaculate size. Resource limitation did, however, affect the evolution of conditional ejaculate allocation. Our results suggest that the resource provisioning that underpins sex role reversal in this system is the result of male-male reproductive competition rather than of direct selection for males to enhance female fecundity. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  17. Psychosexual therapy for delayed ejaculation based on the Sexual Tipping Point model.

    PubMed

    Perelman, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    The Sexual Tipping Point(®) (STP) model is an integrated approach to the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of men with delayed ejaculation (DE), including all subtypes manifesting ejaculatory delay or absence [registered trademark owned by the MAP Educational Fund, a 501(c)(3) public charity]. A single pathogenetic pathway does not exist for sexual disorders generally and that is also true for DE specifically. Men with DE have various bio-psychosocial-behavioral & cultural predisposing, precipitating, maintaining, and contextual factors which trigger, reinforce, or worsen the probability of DE occurring. Regardless of the degree of organic etiology present, DE is exacerbated by insufficient stimulation: an inadequate combination of "friction and fantasy". High frequency negative thoughts may neutralize erotic cognitions (fantasy) and subsequently delay, ameliorate, or inhibit ejaculation, while partner stimulation (friction) may prove unsatisfying. Assessment requires a thorough sexual history including inquiry into masturbatory methods. Many men with DE engage in an idiosyncratic masturbatory style, defined as a masturbation technique not easily duplicated by the partner's hand, mouth, or vagina. The clinician's most valuable diagnostic tool is a focused sex history (sex status). Differentiate DE from other sexual problems and review the conditions under which the man can ejaculate. Perceived partner attractiveness, the use of fantasy during sex, anxiety-surrounding coitus and masturbatory patterns require meticulous exploration. Identify important DE causes by juxtaposing an awareness of his cognitions and the sexual stimulation experienced during masturbation, versus a partnered experience. Assist the man in identifying behaviors that enhance immersion in excitation and minimize inhibiting thoughts, in order to reach ejaculation in his preferred manner. Discontinuing, reducing or altering masturbation is often required, which evokes patient resistance. Coaching

  18. Psychosexual therapy for delayed ejaculation based on the Sexual Tipping Point model

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Sexual Tipping Point® (STP) model is an integrated approach to the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of men with delayed ejaculation (DE), including all subtypes manifesting ejaculatory delay or absence [registered trademark owned by the MAP Educational Fund, a 501(c)(3) public charity]. A single pathogenetic pathway does not exist for sexual disorders generally and that is also true for DE specifically. Men with DE have various bio-psychosocial-behavioral & cultural predisposing, precipitating, maintaining, and contextual factors which trigger, reinforce, or worsen the probability of DE occurring. Regardless of the degree of organic etiology present, DE is exacerbated by insufficient stimulation: an inadequate combination of “friction and fantasy”. High frequency negative thoughts may neutralize erotic cognitions (fantasy) and subsequently delay, ameliorate, or inhibit ejaculation, while partner stimulation (friction) may prove unsatisfying. Assessment requires a thorough sexual history including inquiry into masturbatory methods. Many men with DE engage in an idiosyncratic masturbatory style, defined as a masturbation technique not easily duplicated by the partner’s hand, mouth, or vagina. The clinician’s most valuable diagnostic tool is a focused sex history (sex status). Differentiate DE from other sexual problems and review the conditions under which the man can ejaculate. Perceived partner attractiveness, the use of fantasy during sex, anxiety-surrounding coitus and masturbatory patterns require meticulous exploration. Identify important DE causes by juxtaposing an awareness of his cognitions and the sexual stimulation experienced during masturbation, versus a partnered experience. Assist the man in identifying behaviors that enhance immersion in excitation and minimize inhibiting thoughts, in order to reach ejaculation in his preferred manner. Discontinuing, reducing or altering masturbation is often required, which evokes patient resistance

  19. Response of the urethral and intracorporeal pressures to cavernosus muscle stimulation: role of the muscles in erection and ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Shafik, A

    1995-07-01

    The role of the bulbocavernosus (BC) and ischiocavernosus (IC) muscles in erection and ejaculation was studied. The response of the urethral and intracorporeal pressure to cavernosus muscle stimulation was evaluated in 18 male volunteers (mean age, 36.6 years). A two-channel microtip catheter was placed in the prostatic and bulbous urethra. Muscle stimulation was done by two needle electrodes inserted into the BC and IC muscles. BC muscle stimulation caused an increase in the pressure of the bulbous urethra (P < 0.001) and corpus spongiosum (P < 0.01) and an insignificant change in the prostatic and pendulous urethral and corpus cavernosal pressures (difference not significant). IC muscle stimulation effected an increase in the corpus cavernosal pressure (P < 0.001) without changing the urethral pressure (difference not significant). The BC muscle contracts rhythmically at orgasm and this might help to eject the semen from the posterior to the anterior urethra. It is apparent that the muscle has minimal or no role in erection. IC muscle may have a role in erection by increasing the intracavernosal pressure. It seems that it has no role in ejaculation. BC may be considered the "muscle of ejaculation," and IC the "muscle of erection."

  20. Which are the male factors associated with female sexual dysfunction (FSD)?

    PubMed

    Maseroli, E; Fanni, E; Mannucci, E; Fambrini, M; Jannini, E A; Maggi, M; Vignozzi, L

    2016-09-01

    It has been generally assumed that partner's erectile dysfunction, premature, and delayed ejaculation play a significant role in determining female sexual dysfunction (FSD). This study aimed to evaluate the role of the male partner's sexual function, as perceived by women, in determining FSD. A consecutive series of 156 heterosexual women consulting our clinic for FSD was retrospectively studied. All patients underwent a structured interview and completed the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). FSFI total score decreased as a function of partner's age, conflicts within the couple, relationship without cohabitation and the habit of engaging in intercourse to please the partner; FSFI total score increased as a function of frequency of intercourse, attempts to conceive and fertility-focused intercourse. FSFI total score showed a negative, stepwise correlation with partner's perceived hypoactive sexual desire (HSD) (r = -0.327; p < 0.0001), whereas no significant correlation was found between FSFI and erectile dysfunction, premature and delayed ejaculation. In an age-adjusted model, partner's HSD was negatively related to FSFI total score (Wald = 9.196, p = 0.002), arousal (Wald = 7.893, p = 0.005), lubrication (Wald = 5.042, p = 0.025), orgasm (Wald = 9.293, p = 0.002), satisfaction (Wald = 12.764, p < 0.0001), and pain (Wald = 6.492, p = 0.011) domains. Partner's HSD was also significantly associated with somatized anxiety, low frequency of intercourse, low partner's care for the patient's sexual pleasure, and with a higher frequency of masturbation, even after adjusting for age. In patients not reporting any reduction in libido, FSFI total score was significantly lower when their partner's libido was low (p = 0.041); the correlation disappeared if the patient also experienced HSD. In conclusion, the presence of erectile dysfunction, premature, and delayed ejaculation of the partner may not act as a primary contributing factor to FSD

  1. Evolution of male and female choice in polyandrous systems.

    PubMed

    Puurtinen, Mikael; Fromhage, Lutz

    2017-03-29

    We study the evolution of male and female mating strategies and mate choice for female fecundity and male fertilization ability in a system where both sexes can mate with multiple partners, and where there is variation in individual quality (i.e. in the availability of resources individuals can allocate to matings, mate choice and production of gametes). We find that when the cost of mating differs between sexes, the sex with higher cost of mating is reluctant to accept matings and is often also choosy, while the other sex accepts all matings. With equal mating costs, the evolution of mating strategies depends on the strength of female sperm limitation, so that when sperm limitation is strong, males are often reluctant and choosy, whereas females tend to accept available matings. Male reluctance evolves because a male's benefit per mating diminishes rapidly as he mates too often, hence losing out in the process of sperm competition as he spends much of his resources on mating costs rather than ejaculate production. When sperm limitation is weaker, females become more reluctant and males are more eager to mate. The model thus suggests that reversed sex roles are plausible outcomes of polyandry and limited sperm production. Implications for empirical studies of mate choice are discussed. © 2017 The Author(s).

  2. Female feeding regime and polyandry in the nuptially feeding nursery web spider, Pisaura mirabilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokop, Pavol; Maxwell, Michael R.

    2009-02-01

    We examined the influence of female feeding regime on polyandry in the nuptially feeding nursery web spider (Pisaura mirabilis). In this species, the nuptial gift, a dead prey item wrapped in the male’s silk, is physically separate from the ejaculate. We manipulated female feeding regime (starved or fed) and the presence or absence of a gift with three successive males to test direct-benefits hypotheses (nuptial gift or sperm supply) for the expression of polyandry. The presence of a gift was necessary for copulation, as no male without a gift successfully copulated. Female mating behavior most strongly supports polyandry due to the accumulation of gifted food items (“nuptial gift” direct-benefits hypothesis). Starved females that were presented with a gift accepted significantly more gifts and inseminations than fed females. Most starved females (74%) copulated two or more times, as opposed to only 3% of the fed females. Nearly all of the females that accepted a gift subsequently copulated. The nuptial gift item seems to function as male mating effort and females appear to receive multiple matings as part of a feeding strategy.

  3. Pharmacological/dynamic rehabilitative behavioural therapy for premature ejaculation: Results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Franco

    2017-06-30

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a sexual disorder characterised by excessive rapidity of orgasm. It is defined as either primary (60%), present since the onset of sexual activity, or secondary (40%), manifesting later in life. To date, dapoxetine is the only preparation approved for the on-demand treatment of PE. However, side effects, costs associated with the treatment of chronic PE, drug dependence and its variable effectiveness leads to a not insignificant drop-out rate. Dynamic rehabilitative/behavioural therapy may be a viable therapeutic option, working alongside pharmacological treatment, as long as the participation and involvement of both the individual and the couple is optimal. 18 patients were enrolled, aged between 25 and 55 (mean: 40), all with primary PE, free of comorbidities and with their partners involved. Six patients were prescribed 30 mg dapoxetine two hours before sexual relations for 3 months (group A); 6 patients began the dynamic rehabilitative treatment (group B); 6 other couples were assigned to pharmacological treatment in association with dynamic rehabilitative behavioural treatment for 3 months (group C). Division of subjects was carried out by simple randomisation, excluding patients with a short frenulum, phimosis, ED, chronic prostatitis or experiencing results from previous treatment. Outcomes of treatment were evaluated at the end of the 3 months of treatment and 3 months after discontinuing treatment. In Group A 75% of patients were cured at 3 months and 25% at 6 months. In Group B 25% patients were cured at 3 months and 25% at 6 months. In Group C 75% of patients were cured 3 months and 50% at 6 months. "Cured" means a Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) score reduced from an average of 12 to an average of 6 and Intravaginal Ejaculation Latency Time (IELT) values from < 1 to > 6 minutes. the integration of pharmacological treatment with dynamic behavioural rehabilitation has the specific aim of optimising and

  4. Boar sperm cryosurvival is better after exposure to seminal plasma from selected fractions than to those from entire ejaculate.

    PubMed

    Alkmin, Diego V; Perez-Patiño, Cristina; Barranco, Isabel; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Roca, Jordi

    2014-10-01

    Boar bulk ejaculates are now being collected instead of usual sperm-rich fractions (SRF) for artificial insemination purpose. The present study evaluated the influence of holding boar sperm samples before freezing surrounded in their own seminal plasma (SP), from either fractions/portions or the entire ejaculate, on post-thawing sperm quality and functionality. Ejaculates collected as bulk (BE) or as separate (first 10 mL of SRF [P1] and rest of SRF [P2]) from 10 boars were held 24h at 15-17°C and then frozen. Some bulk ejaculate samples were frozen immediately after collections as Control. In addition, epididymal sperm samples from the same 10 boars were collected post-mortem and extended in SP from P1 (EP1), P2 (EP2) and post SRF (EP3), and also held 24h before freezing for a better understanding of the influence of SP on boar sperm cryopreservation. The sperm quality (motility, evaluated by CASA, and viability, evaluated by flow cytometry) and functionality (flow cytometry assessment of plasma membrane fluidity, mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species [ROS] in viable sperm) were evaluated at 30, 150 and 300 min post-thaw. Post-thawing sperm quality and functionality of P1 and P2 were similar but higher (p < 0.01) than BE samples. Control samples showed higher (p < 0.01) post-thaw sperm quality and functionality than BE samples. Post-thawing sperm quality and functionality of EP1 and EP2 were similar but higher (p < 0.05) than EP3. These results showed that boar sperm from BE are more cryosensitive than those from the SRF, particularly when held 24h before freezing, which would be attributable to the cryonegative effects exerted by the SP from post SRF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Crucial role of estrogen for the mammalian female in regulating semen coagulation and liquefaction in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Semen liquefaction changes semen from a gel-like to watery consistency and is required for sperm to gain mobility and swim to the fertilization site in the Fallopian tubes. Kallikrein-related peptidases 3 (KLK3) and other kallikrein-related peptidases from male prostate glands are responsible for semen liquefaction by cleaving gel-forming proteins (semenogelin and collagen). In a physiological context, the liquefaction process occurs within the female reproductive tract. How seminal proteins interact with the female reproductive environment is still largely unexplored. We previously reported that conditional genetic ablation of Esr1 (estrogen receptor α) in the epithelial cells of the female reproductive tract (Wnt7aCre/+;Esr1f/f) causes female infertility, partly due to a drastic reduction in the number of motile sperm entering the oviduct. In this study, we found that post-ejaculated semen from fertile wild-type males was solidified and the sperm were entrapped in Wnt7aCre/+;Esr1f/f uteri, compared to the watery semen (liquefied) found in Esr1f/f controls. In addition, semenogelin and collagen were not degraded in Wnt7aCre/+;Esr1f/f uteri. Amongst multiple gene families aberrantly expressed in the absence of epithelial ESR1, we have identified that a lack of Klks in the uterus is a potential cause for the liquefaction defect. Pharmacological inhibition of KLKs in the uterus replicated the phenotype observed in Wnt7aCre/+;Esr1f/f uteri, suggesting that loss of uterine and seminal KLK function causes this liquefaction defect. In human cervical cell culture, expression of several KLKs and their inhibitors (SPINKs) was regulated by estrogen in an ESR1-dependent manner. Our study demonstrates that estrogen/ESR1 signaling in the female reproductive tract plays an indispensable role in normal semen liquefaction, providing fundamental evidence that exposure of post-ejaculated semen to the suboptimal microenvironment in the female reproductive tract leads to faulty

  6. Adrenal-pituitary-gonadal relationships and ejaculate characteristics in captive leopards (Panthera pardus kotiya) isolated on the island of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Brown, J L; Wildt, D E; Phillips, L G; Seidensticker, J; Fernando, S B; Miththapala, S; Goodrowe, K L

    1989-03-01

    In Study 1, semen was collected using a standardized electroejaculation procedure. Males (N = 8) produced ejaculates with a high incidence of sperm abnormalities (77 +/- 3.3%). After electroejaculation under anaesthesia, serum cortisol concentrations increased (P less than 0.05), while testosterone concentrations decreased (P less than 0.05) and LH and FSH concentrations were unchanged (P less than 0.05) over a 2-h bleeding period. In Study 2, male and female leopards were bled at 5-min intervals for 3 h and given (i.v.): (1) saline (N = 2/sex); (2) GnRH (1 microgram/kg body weight) 30 min after the onset of sampling (N = 5/sex); or (3) ACTH (250 micrograms) at 30 min followed by GnRH 1 h later (N = 5/sex). Basal concentrations of serum LH, FSH and cortisol were comparable (P greater than 0.05) between male and female leopards. After GnRH, peak LH concentrations were 2-fold greater (P less than 0.05) in males than females while FSH responses were similar. In males, testosterone concentrations increased 2-3-fold following GnRH. After ACTH, serum cortisol concentrations doubled within 15 min in both sexes. Administration of ACTH 1 h before GnRH did not affect GnRH-induced LH or FSH release (P greater than 0.05); however, testosterone secretion was only 30% of that observed after GnRH alone (P less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Anatomy of sex: Revision of the new anatomical terms used for the clitoris and the female orgasm by sexologists.

    PubMed

    Puppo, Vincenzo; Puppo, Giulia

    2015-04-01

    Sexual medicine experts and sexologists must spread certainties on the biological basis of the female orgasm to all women, not hypotheses or personal opinions. Therefore, they must use scientific anatomical terminology. The anatomy of the clitoris and the female orgasm are described in textbooks, but some researchers have proposed a new anatomical terminology for the sexual response in women. The internal/inner clitoris does not exist: the entire clitoris is an external organ. The clitoris is not composed of two arcs but of the glans, body, and crura or roots. "Clitoral bulbs" is an incorrect term from an embryological and anatomical viewpoint: the correct term is "vestibular bulbs." The bulbocavernosus muscles are implicated in inferior vaginismus, while the pubovaginal muscle is responsible for superior vaginismus. The clitoral or clitoris-urethro-vaginal complex has no embryological, anatomical and physiological support: the vagina has no anatomical relationship with the clitoris, and the clitoris is a perineal organ while the supposed G-spot is in the pelvic urethra. G-spot/vaginal/clitoral orgasm, vaginally activated orgasm, and clitorally activated orgasm, are incorrect terms: like "male orgasm," "female orgasm" is the correct term. The "vaginal" orgasm that some women report is always caused by the surrounding erectile organs (triggers of female orgasm). The male penis cannot come in contact with the venous plexus of Kobelt or with the clitoris during vaginal intercourse. Also, female ejaculation, premature ejaculation, persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD), periurethral glans, vaginal-cervical genitosensory component of the vagus nerve, and G-spot amplification, are terms without scientific basis. Female sexual satisfaction is based on orgasm and resolution: in all women, orgasm is always possible if the female erectile organs, i.e. the female penis, are effectively stimulated during masturbation, cunnilingus, partner masturbation, or during vaginal

  8. Current therapeutic strategies for premature ejaculation and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Zhong-Cheng; Zhu, Yi-Chen; Yuan, Yi-Ming; Cui, Wan-Shou; Jin, Zhe; Li, Wei-Ren; Liu, Tao

    2011-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common sexual disorder in men that is mediated by disturbances in the peripheral and central nervous systems. Although all pharmaceutical treatments for PE are currently used ‘off-label', some novel oral agents and some newer methods of drug administration now provide important relief to PE patients. However, the aetiology of this condition has still not been unified, primarily because of the lack of a standard animal model for basic research and the absence of a widely accepted definition and assessment tool for evidence-based clinical studies in patients with PE. In this review, we focus on the current therapeutic strategies and future treatment perspectives for PE. PMID:21532601

  9. Comparison of sperm subpopulation structures in first and second ejaculated semen from Japanese black bulls by a cluster analysis of sperm motility evaluated by a CASA system.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Chihiro; Sakamoto, Kentaro Q; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Katagiri, Seiji; Nagano, Masashi

    2017-08-04

    In the present study, bull sperm in the first and second ejaculates were divided into subpopulations based on their motility characteristics using a cluster analysis of data from computer-assisted sperm motility analysis (CASA). Semen samples were collected from 4 Japanese black bulls. Data from 9,228 motile sperm were classified into 4 clusters; 1) very rapid and progressively motile sperm, 2) rapid and circularly motile sperm with widely moving heads, 3) moderately motile sperm with heads moving frequently in a short length, and 4) poorly motile sperm. The percentage of cluster 1 varied between bulls. The first ejaculates had a higher proportion of cluster 2 and lower proportion of cluster 3 than the second ejaculates.

  10. Possible role of serum testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin in patients with premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Abu El-Hamd, M; Farah, A

    2018-02-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common male sexual dysfunction. This study aimed to investigate the role of serum testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin in patients with PE. In a prospective a case-controlled study, it was conducted on 90 male patients with PE and 90 male healthy participants as controls. Patients were evaluated by Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) and intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). Patients with mean IELT values ≤60 s and PEDT total scores ≥11 were considered to have PE. Serum levels of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and prolactin (PL) were investigated in patients with PE and controls. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with PE and controls regarding the serum levels of TT, FT, FSH, LH and PL (p value ˃.05). There was no significant correlation between the sex hormones levels (TT, FT, FSH, LH and PL) and (age, body mass index (BMI), IELTS and total PEDT scores of the patients; p value ˃.05). This study concluded that there was no disturbance in serum levels of testosterone, gonadotropins and prolactin in patients with PE and controls. These hormones could not relate to pathogenesis of PE. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Comparative analysis of boar seminal plasma proteome from different freezability ejaculates and identification of Fibronectin 1 as sperm freezability marker.

    PubMed

    Vilagran, I; Yeste, M; Sancho, S; Castillo, J; Oliva, R; Bonet, S

    2015-03-01

    Variation in boar sperm freezability (i.e. capacity to withstand cryopreservation) between ejaculates is a limitation largely reported in the literature. Prediction of sperm freezability and classification of boar ejaculates into good (GFEs) and poor freezability ejaculates (PFEs) before cryopreservation takes place may increase the use of frozen-thawed spermatozoa. While markers of boar sperm freezability have been found from sperm cell extracts, little attention has been paid to seminal plasma. On this basis, the present study compared the fresh seminal plasma proteome of 9 GFEs and 9 PFEs through two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The ejaculates were previously classified as GFE or PFE upon their sperm viability and progressive motility assessments at 30 and 240 min post thawing. From a total of 51 spots, four were found to significantly (p < 0.05) differ between GFEs and PFEs, and two were identified as fibronectin-1 (FN1) and glutathione peroxidase 5 (GPX5). These two potential markers were further studied by western blot and correlation analysis between protein relative abundances in fresh seminal plasma and regression factors from principal component analyses (PCA) run using post-thawing sperm quality parameters. Results confirmed that FN1 is a reliable marker of boar sperm freezability, because GFEs presented significantly (p < 0.05) higher FN1-amounts than PFEs and FN1 was found to be correlated with the first PCA component at 240 min post thawing. In contrast, GPX5 was not validated as a boar sperm freezability marker. We can thus conclude that levels of FN1 in fresh seminal plasma from boar semen may be used as a sperm freezability marker, thereby facilitating the use of frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  12. First stirrings: cultural notes on orgasm, ejaculation, and wet dreams.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Diederik F

    2007-05-01

    Both the findings and the limitations of numeric milestone research in sexology have a bearing on the pedagogical status of pleasure, as well as the cultural underpinnings of the notion of a psychosexual milestone. An overview is offered of international data pertaining to the chronology of three "milestones" in sexual autobiography: first orgasm (orgasmarche), first ejaculation (oigarche), and first wet dream (nocturnal emission). Methodological problems associated with the measurement of these variables are discussed. These problems are then situated in a culturalist perspective. It is concluded that orgasms are cultural artifacts in terms of their chronological occurrence as well as perceived salience, necessity, and "age appropriateness".

  13. Psychological interventions for delayed ejaculation/orgasm.

    PubMed

    Althof, S E

    2012-01-01

    Of all the male sexual dysfunctions, delayed ejaculation (DE) is the least understood, least common and least studied. This paper aims to review and integrate the diverse psychological theories and proposed psychological interventions for DE. Clinicians will then be able to more clearly discern the relevant psychological/interpersonal issues of the patient/couple and implement systematically based effective interventions. After reviewing the literature, it is clear that no one theory accounts for all the varied presentations of DE, and no theory by itself has strong empirical support. However, awareness of the diverse points of view helps clinicians conduct better assessments and broaden their understanding of the patient's ejaculatory dysfunction. Similarly, no one psychological intervention works for all patients, nor will unsystematic random selection of interventions. This paper stresses on the need to clearly identify the source of the dysfunction and select treatments based upon the precipitating and maintaining factors. Much work remains to be done with regard to our understanding and treatment of DE. Specifically, we need to craft an evidence-based definition, assess the true prevalence of the dysfunction, demonstrate the efficacy of psychological interventions and design validated outcome measures.

  14. Male-induced costs of mating for females compensated by offspring viability benefits in an insect.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Gonzalez, F; Simmons, L W

    2010-10-01

    Sexual conflict facilitates the evolution of traits that increase the reproductive success of males at the expense of components of female fitness. Theory suggests that indirect benefits are unlikely to offset the direct costs to females from antagonistic male adaptations, but empirical studies examining the net fitness pay-offs of the interaction between the sexes are scarce. Here, we investigate whether matings with males that invest intrinsically more into accessory gland tissue undermine female lifetime reproductive success (LRS) in the cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus. We found that females incur a longevity cost of mating that is proportional to the partner's absolute investment into the production of accessory gland products. However, male accessory gland weight positively influences embryo survival, and harmful ejaculate-induced effects are cancelled out when these are put in the context of female LRS. The direct costs of mating with males that sire offspring with higher viability are thus compensated by direct and possibly indirect genetic benefits in this species. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  15. Practical tips for sexual counseling and psychotherapy in premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Rowland, David; Cooper, Stewart

    2011-10-01

    A number of milestones in the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE) have occurred over the past five decades, including the development of various behavioral and cognitive techniques as well as pharmacotherapies that modify neurophysiological processes involved in ejaculation. Nevertheless, the notion that sexual responses such as PE are influenced by physiological, psychobehavioral, cultural, and relationship factors is as valid now as it was 50 years ago, and therefore, interventions should consider all such domains in the development of effective treatment strategies. Provide an overview of which patients with PE are suitable to receive psychosexual treatment and the psychological approaches for managing this disorder. Review of the literature. Psychosexual treatments that integrate behavioral, psychological, and relationship functioning. PE is typically a couple's problem and, therefore, psychotherapy is best when the partner is involved. Before embarking on psychotherapy, the clinician should obtain a medical history pertaining to sexual-, psychological-, and relationship-related factors, so that the treatment strategy can be tailored to the needs of the individual. General strategies underpinning integrative, "process-oriented" elements of psychotherapy most relevant to PE are: developing the therapist-patient relationship; expressing empathy, genuineness, and positive regard; motivational interviewing, i.e., developing motivation to change; developing discrepancy; working through resistance; identifying PE-related affect, cognitions, and behaviors (including interaction with partners); and supporting self-efficacy. The four main domains that encompass psychotherapy techniques specific to the treatment of PE are: behavioral; cognitive; affective; and relational. Sustained positive outcomes in PE may be obtained using a combination treatment strategy that addresses all elements of PE, including psychological and biological factors. Psychosexual treatments

  16. Contextual Interference Effects in Learning Three Badminton Serves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goode, Sinah; Magill, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    This study was made to validate results obtained in laboratory research. Thirty female students learned three badminton serves in either a low, mixed, or high interference practice schedule and were given a retention and transfer test. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  17. Validity of premature ejaculation diagnostic tool and its association with International Index of Erectile Function-15 in Chinese men with evidence-based-defined premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dong-Dong; Li, Chao; Peng, Dang-Wei; Zhang, Xian-Sheng

    2018-01-01

    The premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) is a brief diagnostic measure to assess premature ejaculation (PE). However, there is insufficient evidence regarding its validity in the new evidence-based-defined PE. This study was performed to evaluate the validity of PEDT and its association with IIEF-15 in different types of evidence-based-defined PE. From June 2015 to January 2016, a total of 260 men complaining of PE and defined as lifelong PE (LPE)/acquired PE (APE) according to the evidence-based definition from Andrology Clinic of the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, along with 104 male healthy controls without PE from a medical examination center, were enrolled in this study. All individuals completed questionnaires including demographics, medical and sexual history, as well as PEDT and IIEF-15. After statistical analysis, it was found that men with PE reported higher PEDT scores (14.28 ± 3.05) and lower IIEF-15 (41.26 ± 8.20) than men without PE (PEDT: 5.32 ± 3.42, IIEF-15: 52.66 ± 6.86, P < 0.001 for both). It was suggested that a score of ≥9 indicated PE in both LPE and APE by sensitivity and specificity analyses (sensitivity: 0.875, 0.913; specificity: 0.865, 0.865, respectively). In addition, IIEF-15 were higher in men with LPE (42.64 ± 8.11) than APE (39.43 ± 7.84, P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, IIEF-15 was negatively related to PEDT in men with LPE (adjust r = -0.225, P < 0.001) and APE (adjust r = -0.378, P < 0.001). In this study, we concluded that PEDT was valid in the diagnosis of evidenced-based-defined PE. Furthermore, IIEF-15 was negatively related to PEDT in men with different types of PE.

  18. Chlamydiae in the ejaculate: their influence on the quality and morphology of sperm.

    PubMed

    Veznik, Zdenek; Pospisil, Leopold; Svecova, Drahomira; Zajicova, Atanaska; Unzeitig, Vit

    2004-07-01

    Given the lack of information concerning the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in male fertility, the aim of this study was to ascertain and analyze the quality of Chlamydiae-positive and -negative semen. Sperm count was performed according to the 1999 World Health Organization (WHO) laboratory manual for examination of human semen and sperm-cervical mucus interaction, and sperm survival was assessed by a 120-min test. The evaluation of the morphological examination of ejaculates was carried out using the sasmo (strict morphological analysis of ejaculates) computer program. Chlamydiae were detected by immunofluorescent reaction using the Progen Biotechnik GmbH diagnostic set. Fisher's exact test and the chi-quadrate test were used for statistical analysis. Of the total of 627 sperm samples examined, Chlamydiae were detected in 136 cases (21.7%). Sperm analysis showed significant differences between Chlamydiae-positive and -negative samples. The Chlamydiae-contaminated group showed normal sperm morphology 14.4% lower, volume 6.4% lower, concentration 8.3% lower, motility 7.8% and velocity 9.3% lower than in Chlamydiae-negative samples. The average values for normal spermatozoa and motility in the Chlamydiae-positive group were also significantly reduced. Chlamydia trachomatis was found to be a possible factor in sperm pathology. These results could help to elucidate the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in male infertility.

  19. Differential distribution of sperm subpopulations and incidence of pleiomorphisms in ejaculates of captive howling monkeys ( Alouatta caraya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle, R. R.; Carvalho, F. M.; Muniz, J. A. P. C.; Leal, C. L. V.; García-Herreros, M.

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an objective method to determine the incidence of pleiomorphisms and its influence on the distribution of sperm morphometric subpopulations in ejaculates of howling monkeys ( Alouatta caraya) by using a combination of computerized analysis system (ASMA) and principal component analysis (PCA) methods. Ejaculates were collected by electroejaculation methods on a regular basis from five individuals maintained under identical captive environmental, nutritional, and management conditions. Each sperm head was measured for dimensional parameters (Area [ A, (square micrometers)], Perimeter [ P, (micrometers)], Length [ L, (micrometers)], and Width [ W, (micrometers)]) and shape-derived parameters (Ellipticity [( L/ W)], Elongation [( L - W)/( L + W)], and Rugosity [(4л A/ P 2)]). PCA revealed two principal components explaining more than the 96 % of the variance. Clustering methods and discriminant analyzes were performed and seven separate subpopulations were identified. There were differences ( P < 0.001) in the distribution of the seven subpopulations as well as in the incidence of abnormal pleiomorphisms (58.6 %, 49.8 %, 35.1 %, 66.4 %, and 55.1 %, P < 0.05) among the five donors tested. Our results indicated that differences among individuals related to the incidence of pleiomorphisms, and sperm subpopulational structure was not related to the captivity conditions or the sperm collection method, since all individuals were studied under identical conditions. In conclusion, the combination of ASMA and PCA is a useful clinical diagnostic resource for detecting deficiencies in sperm morphology and sperm subpopulations in A. caraya ejaculates that could be used in ex situ conservation programs of threatened species in Alouatta genus or even other endangered neotropical primate species.

  20. Factors Leading to Pregnancies in Stimulated Intrauterine Insemination Cycles and the Use of Consecutive Ejaculations Within a Small Clinic Environment.

    PubMed

    Bahadur, Gulam; Almossawi, Ofran; IIlahibuccus, Afeeza; Al-Habib, Ansam; Okolo, Stanley

    2016-10-01

    Understanding and improving IUI pregnancy rates has enormous global appeal and application. This pilot study goes one step further by utilising consecutive ejaculates from men with oligozoospermia and comparing with normozoospermic male group. A retrospective analysis was performed on 117 IUI-stimulated treatment cycles in a small fertility clinic in North Middlesex University Hospitals Trust, UK, within a NHS setting. Risks of OHSS and multiple births are carefully controlled. In our cohort, several factors are associated with positive IUI pregnancies and these were: age of the woman, inseminating with ≥5 total progressive motile sperm; having ≥50 % Grade A sperm progression and having ≥1 follicle achieved with a realistic hMG dosage, hCG trigger and IUI of 29.7 h (2.5-38.4 h), with an endometrial thickness of 10.7 mm (6.6-13.4 mm). Bifollicular presence in at least half the cases along with hMG protocols added usefully to the pregnancy outcomes. The pregnancy rates per cycle were 19 and 23 % in the consecutive ejaculates and non-consecutive ejaculate groups, respectively, P = 0.59. For the whole cohort, the pregnancy rate was 20.51 % per cycle and 33.8 % per women. This approach if validated with large RCT will have universally beneficial effects.

  1. Sexual harm reduction practices of HIV-seropositive gay and bisexual men: serosorting, strategic positioning, and withdrawal before ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Jeffrey T; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Wolitski, Richard J; Halkitis, Perry N; Purcell, David W; Hoff, Colleen C; Gómez, Cynthia A

    2005-04-01

    This study assessed unprotected anal and oral sex behaviors of HIV-positive gay and bisexual men in New York City and San Francisco with their main and non-main sexual partners. Here we focus on the use of three harm reduction strategies (serosorting, strategic positioning, and withdrawal before ejaculation) in order to decrease transmission risk. The data from a baseline assessment of 1168 HIV-positive gay and bisexual men in the two cities were utilized. Men were recruited from a variety of community-based venues, through advertising and other techniques. City differences were identified, with more men in San Francisco reporting sexual risk behaviors across all partner types compared with men in New York City. Serosorting was identified, with men reporting significantly more oral and anal sex acts with other HIV-positive partners than with HIV-negative partners. However, men also reported more unprotected sex with partners of unknown status compared with their other partners. Some evidence of strategic positioning was identified, although differences were noted across cities and across different types of partners. Men in both cities reported more acts of oral sex without ejaculation than with ejaculation, but the use of withdrawal as a harm reduction strategy for anal sex was more common among men from San Francisco. Overall, evidence for harm reduction was identified; however, significant differences across the two cities were found. The complicated nature of the sexual practices of gay and bisexual men are discussed, and the findings have important implications for prevention efforts and future research studies.

  2. Changing paradigms from a historical DSM-III and DSM-IV view toward an evidence-based definition of premature ejaculation. Part I--validity of DSM-IV-TR.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2006-07-01

    In former days, information obtained from randomized well-controlled clinical trials and epidemiological studies on premature ejaculation (PE) was not available, thereby hampering the efforts of the consecutive DSM Work Groups on Sexual Disorders to formulate an evidence-based definition of PE. The current DSM-IV-TR definition of PE is still nonevidence based. In addition, the requirement that persistent self-perceived PE, distress, and interpersonal difficulties, in absence of a quantified ejaculation time, are necessary to establish the diagnosis remains disputable. To investigate the validity and reliability of DSM and ICD diagnosis of premature ejaculation. The historical development of DSM and ICD classification of mental disorders is critically reviewed, and two studies using the DSM-IV-TR definition of PE is critically reanalyzed. Reanalysis of two studies using the DSM-IV-TR definition of PE has shown that DSM-diagnosed PE can be accompanied by long intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) values. The reanalysis revealed a low positive predictive value for the DSM-IV-TR definition when used as a diagnostic test. A similar situation pertains to the American Urological Association (AUA) definition of PE, which is practically a copy of the DSM-IV-TR definition. It should be emphasized that any evidence-based definition of PE needs objectively collected patient-reported outcome (PRO) data from epidemiological studies, as well as reproducible quantifications of the IELT.

  3. The use of old and recent DSM definitions of premature ejaculation in observational studies: a contribution to the present debate for a new classification of PE in the DSM-V.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2008-05-01

    The DSM-III definition of premature ejaculation (PE) contains the criterion "control" but not that of "ejaculation time." In contrast, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition, Text Revision) (DSM-IV-TR) contains the criterion "short ejaculation time," while it lacks "control." To review the adequacy and consequent use of all criteria of the DSM-IV-TR definition in previously published PE Internet surveys. Reviewing all published cohort studies on PE from 2004 to 2007. MEDLINE and EMBASE computer bibliographies were used. Definitions of DSM-III, DSM-IV-TR, and International Classification of Diseases. Five papers, of which three are original studies, reported inclusion of men with PE according to DSM-IV-TR definition but omitted to apply the required "short ejaculation time" criterion. These studies, which have defined PE according to subjective criteria such as control, actually referred to the DSM-III definition. Using DSM-III-like definitions in three different studies revealed a highly variable prevalence of PE (32.5%, 27.6%, and 13.0%). In contrast, based on studies using a 1-minute cutoff point, being the time that is required to call ejaculation time "short" or using the criterion "persistent occurrence," PE revealed to be far less prevalent (5-6%). Unacceptable discrepancies of PE definitions according to DSM-III (abandoned but still used) and DSM-IV-TR argue strongly in favor of a multidimensional new classification of PE for the DSM-V.

  4. Female mating receptivity after injection of male-derived extracts in Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Takashi; Miyatake, Takahisa; Kimura, Yoshinobu

    2008-12-01

    The effects of male-derived extracts on female receptivity were investigated in Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Injection of aqueous extracts of the male reproductive tract into the abdomen of females reduced receptivity. Aqueous extracts of male reproductive tracts were divided to three molecular weight (MW) fractions by ultrafiltration: Fractions: (I) MW<3 kDa, (II) 3-14 kDa, and (III)>14 kDa. Fraction II reduced female receptivity from 3h after injection, and Fraction III reduced female receptivity from 2 days after injection. On the other hand, no effect on receptivity was found for Fraction I. Furthermore, male reproductive tract organs were divided into accessory gland, testis, and seminal vesicle including the ejaculatory duct. Aqueous extracts of the seminal vesicle reduced receptivity of females immediately following injection, while aqueous extracts of the accessory gland reduced receptivity at the second day. The results suggest that the components of Fraction II existed in the seminal vesicle, and those of Fraction III in the accessory gland. The results of the present and the previous studies in Callosobruchus chinensis, a species closely related to C. maculatus, were compared and are discussed from the viewpoint of the significance of ejaculation in the two species.

  5. Female penis, male vagina, and their correlated evolution in a cave insect.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Ferreira, Rodrigo L; Kamimura, Yoshitaka; Lienhard, Charles

    2014-05-05

    Sex-specific elaborations are common in animals and have attracted the attention of many biologists, including Darwin [1]. It is accepted that sexual selection promotes the evolution of sex-specific elaborations. Due to the faster replenishment rate of gametes, males generally have higher potential reproductive and optimal mating rates than females. Therefore, sexual selection acts strongly on males [2], leading to the rapid evolution and diversification of male genitalia [3]. Male genitalia are sometimes used as devices for coercive holding of females as a result of sexual conflict over mating [4, 5]. In contrast, female genitalia are usually simple. Here we report the reversal of intromittent organs in the insect genus Neotrogla (Psocodea: Prionoglarididae) from Brazilian caves. Females have a highly elaborate, penis-like structure, the gynosome, while males lack an intromittent organ. The gynosome has species-specific elaborations, such as numerous spines that fit species-specific pouches in the simple male genital chamber. During prolonged copulation (~40-70 hr), a large and potentially nutritious ejaculate is transferred from the male via the gynosome. The correlated genital evolution in Neotrogla is probably driven by reversed sexual selection with females competing for seminal gifts. Nothing similar is known among sex-role reversed animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantitative assessment of testicular germ cell production and kinematic and morphometric parameters of ejaculated spermatozoa in the grey mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus.

    PubMed

    Aslam, H; Schneiders, A; Perret, M; Weinbauer, G F; Hodges, J K

    2002-02-01

    Germ cell production and organization of the testicular epithelium in a prosimian species, the grey mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus, was investigated to extend knowledge of comparative primate spermatogenesis. In addition, semen samples collected from adult male lemurs (body weight 53-92 g; n = 16) by rectal probe electroejaculation were evaluated using computer-assisted morphometric and kinematic analysis of spermatozoa. Epididymidal spermatozoa were collected from six animals after hemicastration; the testes were weighed and prepared for stereological analysis and flow cytometry. The relative testis mass (as a percentage of body weight) ranged between 1.17 and 5.6%. Twelve stages of testicular seminiferous epithelium as described for macaques were applied and only a single stage was observed in most of the seminiferous tubule cross-sections. On average (mean SD), a single testis contained 1870 +/- 829 x 10(6) germ cells and 35 +/- 12 x 10(6) Sertoli cells. Germ cell ratios (preleptotene:type B spermatogonia = 2, round spermatid:pachytene = 3; elongated spermatid:round spermatids = 1) indicated high spermatogenic efficacy. Sperm head dimensions and tail lengths of the ejaculated and epididymidal spermatozoa were similar. Percentages of defects (neck/mid-piece and tail) were low ( 10%) and similar for ejaculated and epididymidal spermatozoa. Spermatozoa were highly motile, characterized by extensive lateral head displacement, but relatively low progressive motility. In conclusion, the grey mouse lemur has unusually large testes with a highly efficient spermatogenic process and large sperm output. These features, together with the high proportion of morphologically normal and highly motile spermatozoa in the ejaculates, indicate that Microcebus murinus is a species in which sperm competition after ejaculation is likely to occur. The predominantly single spermatogenic stage system seems to be an ancestral feature among primates.

  7. The majority of men with lifelong premature ejaculation prefer daily drug treatment: an observation study in a consecutive group of Dutch men.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Olivier, Berend; Schweitzer, Dave H

    2007-07-01

    Whether men with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) prefer on-demand drug treatment to delay ejaculation time to daily drug treatment, has never been studied as a separate study question. To study how men with lifelong PE feel about the use of serotonergic antidepressants, and which option they would prefer for themselves: either a daily drug, a drug to be used on demand, or a topical anesthetic cream to be applied on demand. Treatment preference was determined by questionnaire. An observational questionnaire survey in a clinical sample. Preferences of different treatment strategies were queried before and after standard efficacy and safety information. A consecutive group of 88 men with lifelong PE who decided for themselves to be seen for rapid ejaculation was studied. The age was 37 +/- 11 years (mean +/- SD), range 18-64 years. None of these men was ever treated for PE and 21% used medication that did not affect sexual performance. Of them, 71 (81%) preferred a drug for daily use, 14 (16%) a drug on demand, while three men preferred topical anesthetic cream. Those men who initially preferred daily treatment did not change their view after standard information about efficacy and side effects, while 9 of 17 men who initially preferred on-demand drug treatment had switched their preferences to daily oral drug usage. Around 60% of men did not care about the nature of the drug, i.e., an antidepressant. The most frequently reported argument to prefer daily drug treatment was that this strategy would have the least effects toward the spontaneity of having sex. As opposed to agents that must be taken 4-6 hours prior to coitus and with the methods used here, this group of Dutch men with lifelong PE favor uninterrupted daily drug treatment to delay ejaculation mainly because daily treatment guarantees no interference with the spontaneity of having sex.

  8. Escitalopram treatment for premature ejaculation has a negative effect on semen parameters.

    PubMed

    Koyuncu, H; Serefoglu, E C; Yencilek, E; Atalay, H; Akbas, N B; Sarıca, K

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of long-term escitalopram treatment on semen parameters of patients with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). Between November 2008 and January 2010, patients admitted to urology outpatient clinic with a self-reported complaint of PE were evaluated. Medical and sexual history of patients were recorded and patients with lifelong PE (a total of 25 patients) who met the International Society of Sexual Medicine definition were asked to record their intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) for 1 month, complete Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) questionnaire and give semen samples. Afterwards, patients received 10 mg escitalopram daily for 12 weeks and were invited for control visits at first and third month of treatment. During control visits, PEDT was administered again whereas IELTs were recorded and semen samples were re-examined. PEDT scores, arithmetic means of IELTs and results of semen analyses, which were recorded at baseline, first and third month were compared. At the third month of treatment, a significant increase in mean IELTs and a significant decrease in PEDT scores were detected. However there was a significant decrease in sperm concentration, motility and morphology when compared with the baseline semen measures. Daily escitalopram treatment effects the semen parameters of patients with lifelong PE. Further investigations with larger series are needed to see whether other serotonin reuptake inhibitors have similar side effects and to expose the exact mechanism underlying it. Different treatment modalities should be suggested to patients who desire fertility.

  9. The role of male harassment on female fitness for the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Helinski, Michelle E H; Harrington, Laura C

    2012-08-01

    Sexual harassment studies in insects suggest that females can incur several kinds of costs from male harassment and mating. Here, we examined direct and indirect costs of male harassment on components of female fitness in the predominantly monandrous mosquito Aedes aegypti . To disentangle the costs of harassment versus the costs of mating, we held females at a low or high density with males whose claspers were modified to prevent insemination, and compared these to females held with normal males and to those held with females or alone. A reduced longevity was observed when females were held under high density conditions with males or females, regardless if male claspers had been modified. There was no consistent effect of harassment on female fecundity. Net reproductive rate (R 0 ) was higher in females held at low density with normal males compared to females held with males in the other treatments, even though only a small number of females showed direct evidence of remating. Indirect costs and benefits that were not due to harassment alone were observed. Daughters of females held with normal males at high density had reduced longevity compared to daughters from females held without conspecifics. However, their fitness (R 0 ) was higher compared to females in all other treatments. Overall, our results indicate that A. aegypti females do not suffer a fitness cost from harassment of males when kept at moderate densities, and they suggest the potential for benefits obtained from ejaculate components.

  10. [Squirting and female ejaculation in 2015?].

    PubMed

    Salama, S; Boitrelle, F; Gauquelin, A; Lesaffre, C; Thiounn, N; Desvaux, P

    2015-06-01

    Since Antiquity, women who expulse a large quantity of liquid during sexual stimulation have remained a mystery. This phenomena is usually called "squirting". Many physicians have proposed different explications, however, there are very few scientific publications and their conclusions are discordant. Today, squirting is fashionable in the media, and some recent studies have brought new information. Through medical publications, we present the conclusions concerning the origin and the nature of squirting, the psychological experience of these squirting women and the feelings of their partners. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Sperm kinematics and subpopulational responses during the cryopreservation process in caprine ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Barbas, J P; Leahy, T; Horta, A E; García-Herreros, M

    2018-03-20

    Sperm cryopreservation in goats has been a challenge for many years due to the detrimental effects of seminal plasma enzymes produced by the bulbo-urethral glands which catalyse the hydrolysis of lecithins in egg yolk to fatty acids and lysolecithins which are deleterious to spermatozoa. This fact implies to carry out additional processing steps during sperm cryopreservation for seminal plasma removal triggering different sperm responses which may affect sperm functionality. The objective of the present study was to determine specific sperm subpopulation responses in different handling steps during the cryopreservation process by using functional sperm kinematic descriptors in caprine ejaculates. Buck ejaculates (n = 40) were analysed for sperm concentration, viability, morphology and acrosome integrity. Moreover, sperm motility was assessed using a computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system after five different handling steps (fresh sperm, 1st washing, 2nd washing, cooling and frozen-thawed sperm) during a standard cryopreservation protocol for goat semen. The results were analysed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and multivariate clustering procedures to establish the relationship between the distribution of the subpopulations found and the functional sperm motility in each step. Except for the 1st and 4th steps, four sperm kinematic subpopulations were observed explaining more than 75% of the variance. Based on velocity and linearity parameters and the subpopulations disclosed, the kinematic response varies among processing steps modifying sperm movement trajectories in a subpopulation-specific and handling step-dependent manner (p < 0.001). The predominant motile subpopulation in freshly ejaculated buck sperm had very fast velocity characteristics and a non-linear trajectory (41.1%). Washing buck sperm twice altered the subpopulation structure as well as cooling which resulted in a dramatic reduction in sperm velocities (p < 0

  12. A neuronal pathway that controls sperm ejection and storage in female Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang-Min; Daubnerová, Ivana; Isaac, R Elwyn; Zhang, Chen; Choi, Sekyu; Chung, Jongkyeong; Kim, Young-Joon

    2015-03-16

    In polyandrous females, sperm storage permits competition between sperm of different mates, and in some species females influence the relative fertilization success of competing sperm in favor of a preferred mate [1, 2]. In female Drosophila melanogaster, sperm competition is strongly influenced by the timing of sperm ejection from the uterus [3, 4]. Understanding how female behavior influences sperm competition requires knowledge of the neuronal mechanisms controlling sperm retention and storage, which is currently lacking. Here, we show that D. melanogaster females eject male ejaculates from the uterus 1-6 hr after mating with a stereotypic behavior regulated by a brain signaling pathway composed of diuretic hormone 44 (Dh44), a neuropeptide related to vertebrate corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), and its receptor, Dh44R1. Suppression of Dh44 signals in the brain expedites sperm ejection from the uterus, resulting in marked reduction of sperm in the storage organs and decreased fecundity, whereas enhancement of Dh44 signals delays sperm expulsion. The Dh44 function was mapped to six neurons located in the pars intercerebralis of the brain together with a small subset of Dh44R1 neurons that express the sex-specific transcription factor doublesex. This study identifies a neuronal pathway by which females can control sperm retention and storage and provides new insight into how the female might exercise post-copulatory sexual selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Differences in the ability of spermatozoa from individual boar ejaculates to withstand different semen-processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Parrilla, Inma; del Olmo, David; Sijses, Laurien; Martinez-Alborcia, María J; Cuello, Cristina; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Roca, Jordi

    2012-05-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the ability of spermatozoa from individual boar ejaculates to withstand different semen-processing techniques. Eighteen sperm-rich ejaculate samples from six boars (three per boar) were diluted in Beltsville Thawing Solution and split into three aliquots. The aliquots were (1) further diluted to 3×10(7) sperm/mL and stored as a liquid at 17°C for 72 h, (2) frozen-thawed (FT) at 1×10(9) sperm/mL using standard 0.5-mL straw protocols, or (3) sex-sorted with subsequent liquid storage (at 17°C for 6 h) or FT (2×10(7) sperm/mL using a standard 0.25-mL straw protocol). The sperm quality was evaluated based on total sperm motility (the CASA system), viability (plasma membrane integrity assessed using flow cytometry and the LIVE/DEAD Sperm Viability Kit), lipid peroxidation (assessed via indirect measurement of the generation of malondialdehyde (MDA) using the BIOXYTECH MDA-586 Assay Kit) and DNA fragmentation (sperm chromatin dispersion assessed using the Sperm-Sus-Halomax(®) test). Data were normalized to the values assessed for the fresh (for liquid-stored and FT samples) or the sorted semen samples (for liquid stored and the FT sorted spermatozoa). All of the four sperm-processing techniques affected sperm quality (P<0.01), regardless of the semen donor, with reduced percentages of motile and viable sperm and increased MDA generation and percentages of sperm with fragmented DNA. Significant (P<0.05) inter-boar (effect of boars within each semen-processing technique) and intra-boar (effect of semen-processing techniques within each boar) differences were evident for all of the sperm quality parameters assessed, indicating differences in the ability of spermatozoa from individual boars to withstand the semen-processing techniques. These results are the first evidence that ejaculate spermatozoa from individual boars can respond in a boar-dependent manner to different semen-processing techniques. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All

  14. Understanding the effects of establishing various cutoff criteria in the definition of men with premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Rowland, David L; Kolba, Tiffany N

    2015-05-01

    Over the past decade, professional organizations and consensus groups have offered a variety of definitions for premature ejaculation (PE), all generally including a set of common concepts but all varying in specific language and operationalization. Clearly articulated definitions of such conditions are important because they not only affect prevalence rates but also diagnostic inclusion-who is deemed to have the condition and therefore who might be eligible for treatment. The current study had two goals: (i) to examine the effects on prevalence rates of moving the cutoff points from more stringent to less stringent for each of three PE criteria-ejaculatory latency, distress, and ejaculating before desired; and (ii) to explore in detail the relationships among the three criteria. Using an Internet-based sample of 1,183 men, we examined the responses of 374 with PE-type symptoms based on consensus definitions, and determined the effect of decreasing restrictions on the cutoff criteria. In addition, we calculated both correlations and concordance rates among criteria. Numeric and graphic depiction of the effects of moving the cutoff point for each of the three criteria is provided in the URL "PE Prevalence," a dynamic tool developed specifically for this study (https://sites.google.com/a/valpo.edu/PEprevalence/). In addition, statistical relationships among the PE criteria suggest sufficient independence to warrant inclusion of all three in a diagnostic procedure as well as to consider a 2-minute ejaculatory latency as the threshold for a PE diagnosis. Based on our data, clinicians should approach the 1-minute ejaculatory latency time (ELT) criterion with flexibility, considering ELTs up to 2 minutes for a PE diagnosis. At the same time, frequency of occurrence of either ejaculating before desired or of distress about the condition, as long as they reach at least 50% of the time, had only minor impact on PE diagnostic inclusion. © 2015 International Society for

  15. The effects of citalopram and fluoxetine on sexual behavior in healthy men: evidence of delayed ejaculation and unaffected sexual desire. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel group study.

    PubMed

    Madeo, Bruno; Bettica, Paolo; Milleri, Stefano; Balestrieri, Antonio; Granata, Antonio R M; Carani, Cesare; Rochira, Vincenzo

    2008-10-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are known to induce delayed orgasm and delayed ejaculation, while their effect on other aspects of sexual function, such as sexual motivation, arousal, and erectile function are unclear. In order to evaluate the effect of chronic administration of two SSRIs, citalopram and fluoxetine, on normal sexual function, we studied the parameters of male sexual behavior, erectile function, and ejaculation on 48 healthy male volunteers, aged 29.5 +/- 4.9, in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy study. Methods. The subjects were randomized to receive placebo (16 subjects), or fluoxetine (20 mg/day) (16 subjects) or citalopram (20 mg/day) for the first week, and 40 mg/day in the following 3 weeks (16 subjects). Sexual function was investigated at the screening and at the end of the study by means of test of penile erection (TPE) and masturbation ejaculation latency time (MELT) performed during visual erotic stimulation, and at each visit by self-filled questionnaires (International Index Erectile Function [IIEF-15] and Golombock Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction [GRISS]). All the erectile parameters, evaluated by means of RigiScan Plus during TPE, were not significantly different when both fluoxetine and citalopram were compared with placebo. A delay in the ejaculation time was observed both during citalopram and during fluoxetine treatment when compared with placebo, reaching a statistical significance only with citalopram. During the treatment with citalopram and fluoxetine, the IIEF-15 score of all items decreased except for those items related to sexual desire; however, the scores were significantly lower only for the citalopram treatment. The treatment with citalopram or with fluoxetine was confirmed to delay ejaculation, but was significant only for citalopram. Citalopram and fluoxetine did not affect sexual desire. Citalopram and fluoxetine did not directly affect penile erection as objectively

  16. Naked Aggression: The Meaning and Practice of Ejaculation on a Woman's Face.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chyng; Ezzell, Matthew B; Kendall, Olivia

    2016-10-21

    Based on in-depth interviews with 16 heterosexual men, this study focuses on participants' meaning-making surrounding a common and controversial sexual act in pornography: ejaculation on a woman's face (EOWF). We analyze the ways that male consumers decoded EOWF and the ways that EOWF, as a sexual script, was included in the men's accounts of their sexual desires and practices. The majority of the men decoded EOWF through the preferred (encoded) meaning as an act of male dominance and sexual aggression and that they wanted to engage in it despite their general belief that women would not be interested in it. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. A Study of Attitudes of Female Faculty Members Serving in Complementarian Conservative Theological Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellen, Venessa Yvette

    2013-01-01

    Problem: The problem of this study was to determine whether attitudes of female faculty members employed by conservative theological colleges and seminaries reflected a complementarian perspective of biblical womanhood. Additionally, this study evaluated how these attitudes related to the female faculty member's home life and her…

  18. New agents in the treatment of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Chris G; McMahon, Chelsea N; Leow, Liang Joo

    2006-12-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggest that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have "definite" PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have "probable" PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (serotonin) receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains and is well tolerated. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitors (ESSTIs) such as dapoxetine and UK-390,957 represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control, and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects.

  19. New agents in the treatment of premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Chris G; McMahon, Chelsea N; Leow, Liang Joo

    2006-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual disorder. Recent normative data suggest that men with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) of less than 1 minute have “definite” PE, while men with IELTs between 1 and 1.5 minutes have “probable” PE. Although there is insufficient empirical evidence to identify the etiology of PE, there is limited correlational evidence to suggest that men with PE have high levels of sexual anxiety and inherited altered sensitivity of central 5-HT (serotonin) receptors. Pharmacological modulation of the ejaculatory threshold using off-label daily or on-demand selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) offers patients a high likelihood of achieving improved ejaculatory control within a few days of initiating treatment, consequential improvements in sexual desire and other sexual domains and is well tolerated. Investigational drugs such as the ejaculo-selective serotonin transport inhibitors (ESSTIs) such as dapoxetine and UK-390,957 represent a major development in sexual medicine. These drugs offer patients the convenience of on-demand dosing, significant improvements in IELT, ejaculatory control, and sexual satisfaction with minimal adverse effects. PMID:19412497

  20. [Dapoxetine (Priligy): on demand treatment of premature ejaculation].

    PubMed

    Andrianne, R

    2013-12-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common sexual dysfunction, affecting approximately 20-24% of men. Managing PE has been a challenge for physicians and psycho-sexologists as well because no drug for PE has been approved by European (EMA) or U.S. (FDA) drug agencies. Over the past decade, clinical evidence has emerged indicating a beneficial effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), tramadol, penile anesthesia and, in some cases, inhibitors of phosphodiesterase type 5 for the treatment of men with PE. A psycho-sexological care helps support. In spite of their efficacy, adverse effects represent the major concern for the chronic use of SSRIs in patients with PE and they may prompt discontinuation from therapy. Dapoxetine, marketed as Priligy, is the first compound developed specially for the treatment of PE, on demand before intercourse. Dapoxetine works by inhibiting the serotonin transporter, increasing serotonin's action at the postsynaptic cleft, and as a consequence promoting ejaculatory delay. Dapoxetine is quickly absorbed and eliminated rapidly from the body. Its fast acting property makes it suitable for the on demand treatment of PE.

  1. In vivo test of bitter (andrographis paniculata nees.) extract to ejaculated sperm quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumarmin, R.; Huda, NK; Yuniarti, E.; Violita

    2018-03-01

    Sambiloto or Bitter (Andrographis paniculata Nees.), are often used to treat various diseases, such as influenza, cancer, anti-inflammation, anti-HIV, anti-mitotic and anti-fertility. This study aimed to determine the effects of the bitter (Andrographis paniculata Nees.) extract to ejaculated sperm mice quality (Mus musculus L. Swiss Webster). This research was conducted using Completely Randomized Design with 4 treatments, which are 0.0 g/b.w., (P0), 0.2 g/b.w., (P1), 0,4 g/b.w., (P3), or 0.6 g/b.w., (P4) bitter extract orally for 36 days. After treatment, the mice decapitated, dissected and collected the sperm from vas deferens. Then, the number of sperm counted by used the improved Neubauer and then stained by Eosin to count the abnormal sperm. Data analyzed by ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) then DNMRT. The results showed that the average numbers of sperm are 28.80 x 105 (P0), 19.50 x 105 (P1), 12.50 x105 (P2) and 9.50 x 105 (P3). The average abnormal sperm numbers are 18.33 x 105 (P0), 22.50 x 105 (P1), 31.50 x105 (P2) and 39.33 x 105 (P3). It showed that the effective treatment to decrease sperm number was 0.2 g/b.w., of bitter extract. It can conclude that the bitter (Andrographis paniculata Nees.) extract decreases the quality of the ejaculated sperm of mice (Mus musculus L.)

  2. Effect of different procedures of ejaculate collection, extenders and packages on DNA integrity of boar spermatozoa following freezing-thawing.

    PubMed

    Fraser, L; Strzezek, J

    2007-06-01

    Whole ejaculate or sperm-rich fraction, collected from four sexually mature boars, was frozen in an extender containing lactose-hen egg yolk with glycerol (lactose-HEY-G) or extender containing lactose, lyophilized lipoprotein fractions isolated from ostrich egg yolk and glycerol (lactose-LPFo-G), and Orvus Es Paste, respectively. The sperm samples were also frozen in a standard boar semen extender (Kortowo-3), without the addition of cryoprotective substances. Sperm DNA integrity was assessed using a modified neutral comet assay. Sperm characteristics such as motility, plasma membrane integrity (SYBR-14/PI), mitochondrial function (rhodamine 123) and acrosome integrity were monitored. Freezing-thawing caused a significant increase (P<0.05) in sperm DNA fragmentation, irrespective of the procedures of ejaculate collection and extender type. Sperm DNA fragmentation was significantly lower (P<0.05) in the whole ejaculate compared with the sperm-rich fraction, indicating that spermatozoa maintained in the whole seminal plasma prior to its removal for freezing-thawing procedure were less vulnerable to cryo-induced DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, spermatozoa frozen in lactose-HEY-G or lactose-LPFo-G extender exhibited lower (P<0.05) DNA fragmentation than those frozen in the absence of cryoprotective substances. The levels of sperm DNA damage, as expressed by comet tail length and tail moment values, were significantly higher (P<0.05) in sperm samples frozen in the absence of cryoprotective substances. The deterioration in post-thaw sperm DNA integrity was concurrent with reduced sperm characteristics. It can be suggested that evaluation of DNA integrity, coupled with different sperm characteristics such as motility, plasma membrane integrity and mitochondrial function, may aid in determining the quality of frozen-thawed boar semen.

  3. Female rats express a conditioned object preference for receipt of sexual stimulation.

    PubMed

    Guterl, Sophie A; McNamara, Tanner A; Klumpp, Gracie C; Meerts, Sarah H

    2015-11-01

    Female rats alternately approach and avoid the male rat during copulation, potentially reflecting appetitive and aversive aspects of mating, respectively. We developed a novel classical conditioning procedure, conditioned object preference (COP), to test whether female rats show increased approach toward a conditioned stimulus associated directly with receipt of sexual stimulation. During conditioning, one scented object was paired with an appetitive stimulus and a different object plus scent was paired with a control stimulus on a separate day. After conditioning, preference for each object was evaluated with a choice task. Experiment 1 was conducted to verify the procedure. Rats exhibited a significant COP for 1mg/kg amphetamine, indicating that the conditioned object preference procedure is an effective tool for evaluating the rewarding nature of a treatment. In Experiment 2, paced mating to one ejaculation and experimenter-delivered artificial vaginocervical stimulation (aVCS) each induced a COP. The robust COPs for paced mating and aVCS support the notion that female rats experience a reward state during receipt of sexual stimulation. Moreover, the data suggest that any aversive aspects of receipt of sexual stimulation do not overshadow the appetitive effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Event-level impact of Promescent on quality of sexual experience in men with subjective premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Mark, K P; Kerner, I

    2016-01-01

    Promescent is a lidocaine-based ejaculation delaying spray that absorbs into the skin of the penis prior to sexual activity. This article aimed to evaluate the effect of Promescent on the experience of orgasm, ejaculatory latency time and quality of sexual experience (QSE). Additionally, we assessed ease of application of Promescent and the extent to which it enhanced or interrupted the sexual experience. The analytic sample consisted of 91 men with self-reported subjective premature ejaculation who were sent a sample of Promescent and completed a 14-day internet-based prospective daily electronic report. Average ejaculatory latency time was 11.16 min during product use events, compared with 6.81 min during product non-use events. Both members of the couple had an orgasm 65.6% of the time when they used the product, compared with 44.1% when they did not use the product. QSE was significantly improved on product use days (P<0.05). Quality also significantly improved each subsequent time the product was used (P<0.01). The product was reported as easy to use and did not interrupt the sexual experience. Findings suggest that the use of this topical spray significantly improves QSE and perception of partner experience, and that these improve with longer duration of use. PMID:27557610

  5. Event-level impact of Promescent on quality of sexual experience in men with subjective premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Mark, K P; Kerner, I

    2016-11-01

    Promescent is a lidocaine-based ejaculation delaying spray that absorbs into the skin of the penis prior to sexual activity. This article aimed to evaluate the effect of Promescent on the experience of orgasm, ejaculatory latency time and quality of sexual experience (QSE). Additionally, we assessed ease of application of Promescent and the extent to which it enhanced or interrupted the sexual experience. The analytic sample consisted of 91 men with self-reported subjective premature ejaculation who were sent a sample of Promescent and completed a 14-day internet-based prospective daily electronic report. Average ejaculatory latency time was 11.16 min during product use events, compared with 6.81 min during product non-use events. Both members of the couple had an orgasm 65.6% of the time when they used the product, compared with 44.1% when they did not use the product. QSE was significantly improved on product use days (P<0.05). Quality also significantly improved each subsequent time the product was used (P<0.01). The product was reported as easy to use and did not interrupt the sexual experience. Findings suggest that the use of this topical spray significantly improves QSE and perception of partner experience, and that these improve with longer duration of use.

  6. The diagnostic value of the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool and its association with intravaginal ejaculatory latency time.

    PubMed

    Kam, Sung Chul; Han, Deok Hyun; Lee, Sung Won

    2011-03-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most prevalent male ejaculation disorder. The premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) was developed to systematically apply the DSM-IV-TR criteria in diagnostic PE. To evaluate the diagnostic value of the PEDT and its association with intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). (i) Korean validation of PEDT: data was collected from men interviewed by one of the two clinical experts, who made a diagnostic of present or absence of PE, using DSM-IV-TR criteria. A total of 103 patients with PE and 100 men without PE were enrolled into the study and requested to complete the PEDT; and (ii) The correlation between IELT and PEDT: 200 participants were enrolled and each participant was asked to make out PEDT. All participants were requested to measure IELT. Validity and reliability of the PEDT and its association with IELT. The geometric mean IELT of the PE group was 115.37 ± 78.14 seconds. The number of men reporting IELTs of <1, 1 to ≤ 2, and >2 minutes were 28 (28.6%), 29 (29.6%), and 41 (41.8%), respectively. The Cronbach's alpha score was calculated as 0.93, showing adequate internal consistency. The test-retest correlation coefficients of each item were higher than 0.72 and the correlation coefficients of the total score was 0.88. (P < 0.001) Sensitivity and specificity analyses suggested a score of ≤ 8 indicated no PE, 9 and 10 probable PE, and ≥ 11 PE. The PEDT total score and IELT showed an adequate negative correlation. (ρ = -0.77, P < 0.0001) also, the PEDT total score of the PE subgroup (IELT ≤ 2 minutes) and IELT showed a negative correlation. (ρ = -0.6, P < 0.0001) The PEDT was highly effective in detecting the presence of PE. The result of our study supports its validity as a diagnostic tool in the clinical setting. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  7. Publicizing female athletes' weights: implications for female psychology undergraduates acting as spectators.

    PubMed

    Holm-Denoma, Jill; Smith, April; Waesche, Matthew

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of including female athletes' weights in athletic event programs on female spectators' body image, eating disorder symptoms, self-esteem, and affective state and to investigate whether the magnitude of the athletes' reported weights had differential effects on female spectators (i.e., do female spectators who view heavier athletes respond differently than those who view less heavy athletes?). We used an experimental design to examine hypotheses derived from competing theories to determine whether exposure to female athletes of varying weight would adversely or beneficially impact female undergraduates (N = 152) who served as athletic event spectators. Analyses indicated that in this simulated study, female spectators' body image, eating disorder symptoms, self-esteem, and affective states were not impacted by the presence or by the magnitude of female athletes' weights in athletic event programs. The results imply that including athletes' weights in game-day programs at women's athletic events does not affect female spectators on an individual level.

  8. Percutaneous CT-guided cryoablation of the dorsal penile nerve for treatment of symptomatic premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    David Prologo, J; Snyder, Laura L; Cherullo, Edward; Passalacqua, Matthew; Pirasteh, Ali; Corn, David

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate expansion of image-guided interventional cryoablation techniques usually employed for pain management to address the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of treatment for a urologic condition with otherwise limited treatment options, premature ejaculation (PE). Prospective institutional review board approval was obtained, and 24 subjects with PE were enrolled. All patients underwent unilateral percutaneous computed tomography-guided cryoablation of the dorsal penile nerve (DPN). Postprocedural intravaginal ejaculatory latency times (IELTs) and PE Profile (PEP) results served as outcome variables. In addition, subjects were asked whether they would have the procedure done again based on their experience at the 180- and 360-day marks. The technical success rate was 100%. Baseline average IELT was 54.7 seconds ± 7.8 (n = 24), which increased to a maximum of 256 seconds ± 104 (n = 11; P = .241) by day 7 and decreased to 182.5 seconds ± 87.8 (n = 6; P = .0342) by day 90. The mean IELT remained at 182.5 seconds ± 27.6 at day 180 (n = 23; P<.0001) and decreased to 140.9 seconds ± 83.6 by 1 year (n = 22; P<.001). PEP scores improved overall, IELTs significantly improved at 180 and 360 days, and 83% of subjects reported that they would undergo the procedure again if given the same opportunity. There were no procedure-related complications. CT-guided percutaneous unilateral cryoablation of the DPN is a feasible, safe, single-day outpatient procedure for the treatment of symptomatic PE. Copyright © 2013 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pheromonal Cues Deposited by Mated Females Convey Social Information about Egg-Laying Sites in Drosophila Melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Duménil, Claire; Woud, David; Pinto, Francesco; Alkema, Jeroen T; Jansen, Ilse; Van Der Geest, Anne M; Roessingh, Sanne; Billeter, Jean-Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Individuals can make choices based on information learned from others, a phenomenon called social learning. How observers differentiate between which individual they should or should not learn from is, however, poorly understood. Here, we showed that Drosophila melanogaster females can influence the choice of egg-laying site of other females through pheromonal marking. Mated females mark territories of high quality food by ejecting surplus male sperm containing the aggregation pheromone cis-11-vaccenyl acetate (cVA) and, in addition, deposit several sex- and species-specific cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) pheromones. These pheromonal cues affect the choices of other females, which respond by preferentially laying eggs on the marked food. This system benefits both senders and responders, as communal egg laying increases offspring survival. Virgin females, however, do not elicit a change in the egg-laying decision of mated females, even when food has been supplemented with ejected sperm from mated females, thus indicating the necessity for additional cues. Genetic ablation of either a female's CHC pheromones or those of their mate results in loss of ability of mated females to attract other females. We conclude that mated females use a pheromonal marking system, comprising cVA acquired from male ejaculate with sex- and species-specific CHCs produced by both mates, to indicate egg-laying sites. This system ensures information reliability because mated, but not virgin, females have both the ability to generate the pheromone blend that attracts other flies to those sites and a direct interest in egg-laying site quality.

  10. A typological approach to testing the evolutionary functions of human female orgasm.

    PubMed

    King, Robert; Belsky, Jay

    2012-10-01

    Building on previous work that identified different types of orgasm in women (King, Belsky, Mah, & Binik, 2011), the goal of the present study was to extend such typological work and determine whether female orgasmic variability tracked potentially evolutionarily salient sexual partner characteristics (e.g., those displaying possible immune-system compatibility). A total of 265 females completed an Internet survey about their orgasmic experience-achieved either with partners or alone. For partnered orgasms, they also provided details of partner characteristics and sexual behaviors. Latent class analysis revealed two orgasm types which were meaningfully distinguishable in terms of sensations and location-either centered on the surface of genitalia or deep inside. Deep orgasms were associated with internal sensations consistent with proposed functions of female orgasm in terms of differential sperm insuck. Such orgasms were associated with partners who were perceived as considerate, dominant, with a noticeably attractive smell, and as providing firm penetration. However, some hypothesized reproductively significant partner characteristics were not differentially associated with deep orgasms (i.e., muscularity, aggression, masculinity). Results were discussed and future research directions outlined. In particular, it is suggested that sexual passion between partners is a non-accidental component of sexual functioning and that this has too frequently been missing in sex research involving humans. Direct physiological measures of the results of female orgasm need to be undertaken. Additionally, the intriguing phenomenon of female ejaculation deserves scientific attention.

  11. MicroRNAs Influence Reproductive Responses by Females to Male Sex Peptide in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Fricke, Claudia; Green, Darrell; Smith, Damian; Dalmay, Tamas; Chapman, Tracey

    2014-01-01

    Across taxa, female behavior and physiology change significantly following the receipt of ejaculate molecules during mating. For example, receipt of sex peptide (SP) in female Drosophila melanogaster significantly alters female receptivity, egg production, lifespan, hormone levels, immunity, sleep, and feeding patterns. These changes are underpinned by distinct tissue- and time-specific changes in diverse sets of mRNAs. However, little is yet known about the regulation of these gene expression changes, and hence the potential role of microRNAs (miRNAs), in female postmating responses. A preliminary screen of genomic responses in females to receipt of SP suggested that there were changes in the expression of several miRNAs. Here we tested directly whether females lacking four of the candidate miRNAs highlighted (miR-279, miR-317, miR-278, and miR-184) showed altered fecundity, receptivity, and lifespan responses to receipt of SP, when mated once or continually to SP null or control males. The results showed that miRNA-lacking females mated to SP null males exhibited altered receptivity, but not reproductive output, in comparison to controls. However, these effects interacted significantly with the genetic background of the miRNA-lacking females. No significant survival effects were observed in miRNA-lacking females housed continually with SP null or control males. However, continual exposure to control males that transferred SP resulted in significantly higher variation in miRNA-lacking female lifespan than did continual exposure to SP null males. The results provide the first insight into the effects and importance of miRNAs in regulating postmating responses in females. PMID:25245794

  12. Test of Fruit Extract Pare (Momordica charantia L.) to Quality of Ejaculated Spermatozoa Mice (Mus musculus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fifendy, M.; Indriati, G.

    2018-04-01

    Pare (Momordica charantia L.) can be used in the treatment of various diseases, such as influenza, cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV, antimitotic and antifertilitas. This study aimed to determine the effect of the herbal bitter (Momordica charantia L.) to ejaculated sperm quality mice (Mus musculus L.). This research was conducted using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 4 treatments and 6 replications, water and fed adlibitum. First treatment is given solvent extract. Second treatments extract were given 0.2 gram, third treatment were given 0.4 gram of extracts and fourth treatment were treated exstrac 0.6 gram were orally for 30 days. After the mice decapitated, dissected and take sperm from vas deferens. Then, the sperm preparation determined using the improved Neubauer. Data were analyzed by ANOVA (Analysis of Varians). The results shoured at doses of 0,2 gram, the average sperm count was 19.89. decrease significant when compared with the control in which the average number of sperm 29.13. So with this research the effective doses to decrease sperm count and can be used as a contraception medication dosage was 0,2 gram. It can be conclude that the extract of bitter (Momordica charantia L.) can decrease the quality of the ejaculated sperm of mice (Mus musculus L.)

  13. Female major histocompatibility complex type affects male testosterone levels and sperm number in the horse (Equus caballus)

    PubMed Central

    Burger, D.; Dolivo, G.; Marti, E.; Sieme, H.; Wedekind, C.

    2015-01-01

    Odours of vertebrates often contain information about the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and are used in kin recognition, mate choice or female investment in pregnancy. It is, however, still unclear whether MHC-linked signals can also affect male reproductive strategies. We used horses (Equus caballus) to study this question under experimental conditions. Twelve stallions were individually exposed either to an unfamiliar MHC-similar mare and then to an unfamiliar MHC-dissimilar mare, or vice versa. Each exposure lasted over a period of four weeks. Peripheral blood testosterone levels were determined weekly. Three ejaculates each were collected in the week after exposure to both mares (i.e. in the ninth week) to determine mean sperm number and sperm velocity. We found high testosterone levels when stallions were kept close to MHC-dissimilar mares and significantly lower ones when kept close to MHC-similar mares. Mean sperm number per ejaculate (but not sperm velocity) was positively correlated to mean testosterone levels and also affected by the order of presentation of mares: sperm numbers were higher if MHC-dissimilar mares were presented last than if MHC-similar mares were presented last. We conclude that MHC-linked signals influence testosterone secretion and semen characteristics, two indicators of male reproductive strategies. PMID:25904670

  14. The impact of premature ejaculation on the subjective perception of orgasmic intensity: validation and standardisation of the 'Orgasmometer'.

    PubMed

    Limoncin, E; Lotti, F; Rossi, M; Maseroli, E; Gravina, G L; Ciocca, G; Mollaioli, D; Di Sante, S; Maggi, M; Lenzi, A; Jannini, E A

    2016-09-01

    To the best of our knowledge, no psychometric tools have been specifically developed to measure if premature ejaculation (PE) is related to low sexual pleasure in terms of perception of orgasmic intensity. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate if men with PE suffer from a low perception of orgasmic intensity using a new tool, the 'Orgasmometer', to quantitatively measure the intensity of orgasmic pleasure. Among 329 subjects attending our andrological unit for suspected PE, 257 men fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, 156 (60.7%; 156/257) were affected by PE (PE group) and 101 (39.3%; 101/257) did not have any sexual dysfunction (Control group). Men were requested to fill out the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) and the Orgasmometer, a new visual tool recording orgasm intensity on a Likert scale. Interestingly, MANCOVA analysis revealed a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.044) in the subjective perception of orgasm intensity with the PE group scoring lower on the Orgasmometer (mean 5.8; 95% CI 5.191-6.409) than the Control group (mean 7.95; 95% CI 7.033-8.87). In addition, multiple linear regression revealed an inverse correlation between the PEDT and the Orgasmometer scores (p < 0.0001). Hence, higher PEDT scores were associated with a lower subjective perception of orgasmic intensity. The Orgasmometer was well understood, had good test-retest reliability and a high AUC in differentiating between men with high and low orgasmic pleasure intensity. The ROC curve analysis showed that a cut-off ≤6 had 87.7% sensitivity (95% CI 79.6-92.6), 95% specificity (95% CI 88.7-98.4), 95.3% positive predictive value (PPV) and 86.4% negative predictive value (NPV). Men affected by premature ejaculation perceived significantly lower orgasmic intensity than sexually healthy men. The Orgasmometer is an easy-to-perform, user-friendly tool for measuring orgasmic intensity. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and

  15. A combination of tryptophan, Satureja montana, Tribulus terrestris, Phyllanthus emblica extracts is able to improve sexual quality of life in patient with premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Sansalone, Salvatore; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Mondaini, Nicola; Cantiello, Francesco; Antonini, Gabriele; Cai, Tommaso

    2016-10-05

    The management of patient affected by premature ejaculation (PE) is nowadays not highly satisfactory. Here, we aimed to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of a combination of tryptophan, Satureja montana, Tribulus terrestris, Phyllanthus emblica extracts in order to improve sexual quality of life in patients with premature ejaculation. All patients attending to 5 urological centers from January 2015 to March 2015, due to premature ejaculation were enrolled in this study. At the enrolment visit, all subjects underwent self-administered IIEF-5, Male Sexual Health Questionnaire-Ejaculation Disorder (MSHQEjD), PEDT and IELTS (calculated as mean from that perceived by partner and that perceived by patient) and underwent urological visit and laboratory examinations. All patients received one tablet per day of a combination of tryptophan, Satureja montana, Tribulus terrestris, Phyllanthus emblica extracts for 3 months (Group A). After 3 months all patients underwent follow-up visit with the same investigations that have been carried out in the enrolment visit. The results were compared with a cohort of patients enrolled in the same period in another urological center and considered as a control group (Group B). All patients in the control group underwent counseling and sexual behavioral treatment without any pharmacological compound. At the follow-up analysis, significant changes in terms of IELT in the Group A (mean difference: 31.90; p < 0.05) at 3 months and versus Group B at the intergroup analysis (mean difference: 30.30; p < 0.05) were reported. In the group A, significant differences from baseline to last follow- up were observed relative to IIEF-5 (mean difference: 1.04; p < 0.05), PEDT (mean difference: -2.57; p < 0.05) and FSH (mean difference: -16.46; p < 0.05). In conclusion, patients affected by PE may significantly benefit from oral therapy with a combination of tryptophan, Satureja montana, Tribulus terrestris, Phyllanthus emblica

  16. The Efficacy and Safety of On-demand Tramadol and Paroxetine Use in Treatment of Life Long Premature Ejaculation: A Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hamidi-Madani, Ali; Motiee, Reza; Mokhtari, Gholamreza; Nasseh, Hamidreza; Esmaeili, Samaneh; Kazemnezhad, Ehsan

    2018-01-01

    Background: Several medical therapies have been proposed for the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE). Paroxetine and tramadol were both reported to be effective in treatment of PE. In this study, the therapeutic effects of tramadol, paroxetine and placebo were compared in treatment of primary PE. Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 150 patients were divided into 3 groups. One group was treated with tramadol 50 mg ondemand, the other group took paroxetine 20 mg on-demand and the third group was treated with placebo. Before starting treatment and after 12 weeks, patients were asked to measure their average intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and fill the PEP (Premature Ejaculation Profile) questionnaire. Results: At the end of the 12th week, the mean IELT and average of PEP scores improved in all 3 groups. The increase in tramadol group was significantly higher than the paroxetine and placebo groups (p<0.0001). There were no significant differences in terms of side effects between the 3 groups. Conclusion: The results showed that despite an increase in mean IELT and PEP scores in all 3 groups, the rate of improvement in tramadol group was significantly more than the others. Thus, tramadol may be considered as an appropriate alternative therapeutic option for lifelong PE. PMID:29850442

  17. The Efficacy and Safety of On-demand Tramadol and Paroxetine Use in Treatment of Life Long Premature Ejaculation: A Randomized Double-blind Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Hamidi-Madani, Ali; Motiee, Reza; Mokhtari, Gholamreza; Nasseh, Hamidreza; Esmaeili, Samaneh; Kazemnezhad, Ehsan

    2018-01-01

    Several medical therapies have been proposed for the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE). Paroxetine and tramadol were both reported to be effective in treatment of PE. In this study, the therapeutic effects of tramadol, paroxetine and placebo were compared in treatment of primary PE. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 150 patients were divided into 3 groups. One group was treated with tramadol 50 mg ondemand, the other group took paroxetine 20 mg on-demand and the third group was treated with placebo. Before starting treatment and after 12 weeks, patients were asked to measure their average intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and fill the PEP (Premature Ejaculation Profile) questionnaire. At the end of the 12th week, the mean IELT and average of PEP scores improved in all 3 groups. The increase in tramadol group was significantly higher than the paroxetine and placebo groups (p<0.0001). There were no significant differences in terms of side effects between the 3 groups. The results showed that despite an increase in mean IELT and PEP scores in all 3 groups, the rate of improvement in tramadol group was significantly more than the others. Thus, tramadol may be considered as an appropriate alternative therapeutic option for lifelong PE.

  18. Clinical characteristics and penile afferent neuronal function in patients with primary delayed ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Xia, J-D; Han, Y-F; Pan, F; Zhou, L-H; Chen, Y; Dai, Y-T

    2013-09-01

    Primary delayed ejaculation (DE) is a relatively uncommon condition and has not been studied broadly. In this study, we aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and penile afferent neuronal function using somatosensory evoked potentials in patients with primary DE. Twenty-four patients with primary DE and 24 age-matched normally potent men were enrolled in this study. Results indicated that patients with primary DE had remarkably higher frequency of masturbatory activity (especially, some with idiosyncratic styles), lower night emissions, longer intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT), higher anxiety and depression states (p = 0.010, p = 0.017, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001 respectively). In addition, the mean penile shaft sensory threshold values in the patients were considerably higher than those in the healthy men (p < 0.001). Mean latencies of dorsal nerve somatosensory evoked potential DNSEP were 4.32 ms longer in the DE group than those in the control group (p < 0.001). However, the latencies of glans penis somatosensory evoked potential (GPSEP) between the two group showed no significant difference (p = 0.985). At the same time, in comparison with the control group, the amplitudes of DNSEP were considerably lower in the DE group (p = 0.016), but not in the amplitudes of GPSEP (p = 0.934). This study indicates that the patients with primary DE appear to have penile shaft rather than glans hyposensitivity and hypoexcitability, and adaptation to a certain masturbatory technique (higher and idiosyncratic) may be related to the causes of primary DE, which is also associated with lower night emissions, longer IELT, higher anxiety and depression states. © 2013 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  19. Analysis of Setting Efficacy in Young Male and Female Volleyball Players.

    PubMed

    González-Silva, Jara; Domínguez, Alberto Moreno; Fernández-Echeverría, Carmen; Rabaz, Fernando Claver; Arroyo, M Perla Moreno

    2016-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyse the variables that predicted setting efficacy in complex I (KI) in volleyball, in formative categories and depending on gender. The study sample was comprised of 5842 game actions carried out by the 16 male category and the 18 female category teams that participated in the Under-16 Spanish Championship. The dependent variable was setting efficacy. The independent variables were grouped into: serve variables (a serve zone, the type of serve, striking technique, an in-game role of the server and serve direction), reception variables (a reception zone, a receiver player and reception efficacy) and setting variables (a setter's position, a setting zone, the type of a set, setting technique, a set's area and tempo of a set). Multinomial logistic regression showed that the best predictive variables of setting efficacy, both in female and male categories, were reception efficacy, setting technique and tempo of a set. In the male category, the jump serve was the greatest predictor of setting efficacy, while in the female category, it was the set's area. Therefore, in the male category, it was not only the preceding action that affected setting efficacy, but also the serve. On the contrary, in the female category, only variables of the action itself and of the previous action, reception, affected setting efficacy. The results obtained in the present study should be taken into account in the training process of both male and female volleyball players in formative stages.

  20. Birth of healthy twins after intracytoplasmic sperm injection using ejaculated immotile spermatozoa from a patient with Kartagener's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Geber, S; Lemgruber, M; Taitson, P F; Valle, M; Sampaio, M

    2012-05-01

    This case report demonstrates a successful pregnancy after ICSI combined with hypo-osmotic swelling test in a couple with Kartagener's syndrome with complete immotile ejaculated spermatozoa. Our result suggests that even for complete immotile spermatozoa, the use of hypo-osmotic swelling test is a good alternative to identify viable spermatozoa. When associated with ICSI, it can be a valuable tool to get fertilisation and pregnancy. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Changes in the sexual behavior and testosterone levels of male rats in response to daily interactions with estrus females

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, Leanne M.; Spritzer, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Male rat sexual behavior has been intensively studied over the past 100 years, but few studies have examined how sexual behavior changes over the course of several days of interactions. In this experiment, adult male rats (n = 12) were given daily access to estrus females for 30 min per day for 15 consecutive days and control males did not interact with females. Ovariectomized females were induced into estrus with hormonal injections, and males interacted with a different female each day. The amount of sexual activity (mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations) was found to cycle with a period of approximately 4 days in most male rats. Additionally, blood was collected every other day following sexual interactions to assess serum testosterone levels. Testosterone was found to peak on the first day of interaction and then fell back to near the level of control rats that did not interact with females. Following the initial peak, testosterone concentrations fluctuated less in males exposed to females than in controls. Sexual activity was not found to predict testosterone concentration. We conclude that when male rats have daily sexual interactions, sexual behavior tends to show cyclic changes and testosterone is significantly elevated only on the first day of interactions. PMID:24813700

  2. Sexual cannibalism increases male material investment in offspring: quantifying terminal reproductive effort in a praying mantis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, William D.; Barry, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Models of the evolution of sexual cannibalism argue that males may offset the cost of cannibalism if components of the male body are directly allocated to the eggs that they fertilize. We tested this idea in the praying mantid Tenodera sinensis. Males and females were fed differently radiolabelled crickets and allowed to mate. Half of the pairs progressed to sexual cannibalism and we prevented cannibalism in the other half. We assess the relative allocation of both male-derived somatic materials and ejaculate materials into the eggs and soma of the female. Our results show that male somatic investment contributes to production of offspring. The eggs and reproductive tissues of cannibalistic females contained significantly more male-derived amino acids than those of non-cannibalistic females, and there was an increase in the number of eggs produced subsequent to sexual cannibalism. Sexual cannibalism thus increases male material investment in offspring. We also show that males provide substantial investment via the ejaculate, with males passing about 25% of their radiolabelled amino acids to females via the ejaculate even in the absence of cannibalism. PMID:27358366

  3. Impact of dry ejaculation caused by highly selective alpha1A-blocker: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover pilot study in healthy volunteer men.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Fumitaka; Taguri, Masataka; Harada, Yoshiko; Matsuyama, Yutaka; Sase, Kazuhiro; Fujime, Makoto

    2010-03-01

    Dry ejaculation with loss of seminal emission is reported in patients who have been administered silodosin, an alpha1A-adrenoceptor antagonist. We investigated the impact of dry ejaculation caused by orally administered silodosin on orgasmic function. In a double-blind crossover study, 50 healthy volunteer men were randomly assigned to receive either a single dose of 4-mg silodosin or placebo with 3 days of washout before crossover. Subjects masturbated 4 hours after administering agents. Numerical rating scale (NRS) score from 0 (highest) to 10 (lowest) for subjective quality of orgasm, the subjective number of contractions of the bulbocavernosus/pelvic floor muscles, and the amount of semen were examined. Results. After the administration of silodosin, the NRS score worsened by 1.3 points (P = 0.003), the number of contractions of the bulbocavernosus/pelvic floor muscles decreased by about 1 (P = 0.003), and there was a decrease of 1.8 mL in the amount of semen produced (P < 0.0001). Eleven men overall (22%) on silodosin administration had less than a 50% decrease from baseline in the amount of semen. Silodosin may adversely affect the subjective orgasmic function by causing an abnormal ejaculation with decreased (or no) semen discharge and a decrease in the number of bulbocavernosus/pelvic floor muscle contractions. Semen passing through the urethra and sufficient rhythmic contraction of the muscle of the pelvic floor may contribute to the subjective pleasure of orgasm.

  4. Sexual selection for male dominance reduces opportunities for female mate choice in the European bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus).

    PubMed

    Reichard, M; Bryja, J; Ondracková, M; Dávidová, M; Kaniewska, P; Smith, C

    2005-04-01

    Sexual selection involves two main mechanisms: intrasexual competition for mates and intersexual mate choice. We experimentally separated intrasexual (male-male interference competition) and intersexual (female choice) components of sexual selection in a freshwater fish, the European bitterling (Rhodeus sericeus). We compared the roles of multiple morphological and behavioural traits in male success in both components of sexual competition, and their relation to male reproductive success, measured as paternity of offspring. Body size was important for both female choice and male-male competition, though females also preferred males that courted more vigorously. However, dominant males often monopolized females regardless of female preference. Subordinate males were not excluded from reproduction and sired some offspring, possibly through sneaked ejaculations. Male dominance and a greater intensity of carotenoid-based red colouration in their iris were the best predictors of male reproductive success. The extent of red iris colouration and parasite load did not have significant effects on female choice, male dominance or male reproductive success. No effect of parasite load on the expression of red eye colouration was detected, though this may have been due to low parasite prevalence in males overall. In conclusion, we showed that even though larger body size was favoured in both intersexual and intrasexual selection, male-male interference competition reduced opportunities for female choice. Females, despite being choosy, had limited control over the paternity of their offspring. Our study highlights the need for reliable measures of male reproductive success in studies of sexual selection.

  5. Testicular sperm is superior to ejaculated sperm for ICSI in cryptozoospermia: An update systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yi-No; Hsiao, Ya-Wen; Chen, Chien-Yu; Wu, Chien-Chih

    2018-05-18

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is well established and provides patients with severely impaired sperm quality with an opportunity to father a child. However, previous studies do not clearly indicate whether male with cryptozoospermia should use testicular sperm or ejaculated sperm for ICSI. The newest systematic review of this topic also gave a controversial conclusion that was based on incorrect pooling result. Moreover, two clinical studies published after the systematic review. In the present update systematic review and meta-analysis, a comprehensive citation search for relevant studies was performed using the Cochrane library databases, Embase, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Web of Science up to September 2017. The search returned 313 records, in which six studies were included in quantitative synthesis. These studies involved 578 male infertility patients who had undergone 761 ICSI cycles. The risk ratios favour fresh testicular sperm for good quality embryo rate (1.17, 95% CI 1.05-1.30, P = 0.005), implantation rate (95% CI 1.02-2.26, P = 0.04), and pregnancy rate (RR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.20-2.52, P = 0.004). In conclusion, the existing evidence suggests that testicular sperm is better than ejaculated sperm for ICSI in male with cryptozoospermia.

  6. Relationship between premature ejaculation and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Ho; Lee, Sung Won

    2015-03-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a common etiology of premature ejaculation (PE). However, the current data are insufficient to explain this relationship and to support routine screening of men with PE. This study aims to evaluate the relationship between PE and CP/CPPS. A cross-sectional study was conducted that included 8,261 men who had participated in a health examination. The Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT), the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI), and the International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF) were used for assessment of symptoms. A full metabolic work-up and serum testosterone level checks were also performed. We then investigated the relationship using the Spearman correlation test, multiple linear regression, and logistic regression analyses. Associations of PEDT with NIH-CPSI. The mean age was 50.4 ± 5.5 years. In total, 2,205 (24.9%) men had prostatitis-like symptoms (NIH-CPSI pain score of ≥4 and perineal or ejaculatory pain), and 618 (7.0%) men had moderate to severe symptoms (NIH-CPSI pain score of ≥8). Additionally, 2,144 men (24.2%) were classified as demonstrating PE (PEDT > 10). The PEDT score was found to have a significant positive correlation with the NIH-CPSI pain domain score (correlation coefficient = 0.206; P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, metabolic syndrome status, testosterone level, and IIEF score, there was no change in the positive correlation between the NIH-CPSI pain domain score and PEDT score (Beta = 0.175; P < 0.001). After adjusting for age, testosterone level, metabolic syndrome, and IIEF score, the odds ratio (OR) for PE significantly increased with the severity of pelvic pain (mild prostatitis-like symptoms, OR for PE: 1.269, 95% confidence interval: 1.113-1.447; moderate to severe symptoms, OR for PE: 2.134: 95% confidence interval: 1.782-2.557). Our data showed a significant correlation between the

  7. The prevalence of premature ejaculation and its clinical characteristics in Korean men according to different definitions.

    PubMed

    Lee, S W; Lee, J H; Sung, H H; Park, H J; Park, J K; Choi, S K; Kam, S C

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the prevalence of premature ejaculation (PE) diagnosed by the PE diagnostic tool (PEDT) score, self-reporting and stopwatch-recorded intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT). It examined the characteristics of males diagnosed with PE by each criterion. A questionnaire survey enrolled 2081 subjects from March to October, 2010. Stopwatch-recorded IELT was measured in 1035 of the 2081 subjects. We aimed to determine whether PE has an influence on the frequency and satisfaction of sexual intercourse, the degree of libido/erectile function and the satisfaction. These factors were evaluated according to different definitions of PE to assess whether the definition used yielded differences in the data. The prevalence of PE, based on a PEDT score of ≥11, self-reporting and stopwatch-recorded IELT of ≤1 min was 11.3%, 19.5% and 3%, respectively. The prevalence of PE diagnoses based on PEDT score and self-reporting increased with age, but stopwatch-recorded IELT-based diagnoses did not. Males experiencing PE showed lower levels of libido, erectile function and frequency and satisfaction of sexual intercourse compared with non-PE males. PE males felt that they did not satisfy their partners in terms of the partners' sexual satisfaction and frequency of orgasm, in comparison with non-PE males. PE is a highly prevalent sexual dysfunction in males. Regardless of whether the PE diagnosis was made on the basis of self-reporting, PEDT score or stopwatch-recorded IELT, subjective symptoms were similar among PE males.

  8. Pretreatment with CP-154526 blocks the modifying effects of alarm pheromone on components of sexual behavior in male, but not in female, rats.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2011-09-01

    We previously demonstrated that an alarm pheromone released from male donor Wistar rats evoked several physiological and behavioral responses in recipient rats. However, the pheromone effects on social behavior were not analyzed. In the present study, we examined whether the alarm pheromone affects sexual behavior in male or female rats. When a pair of male and female subjects was exposed to the alarm pheromone during sexual behavior, the ejaculation latency was elongated, the number of mounts was increased, and the hit rate (number of intromissions/number of mounts and intromissions) was decreased in the male subject. In contrast, female sexual behavior was not affected by the alarm pheromone. When we exposed only the male or female subject of the pair to the pheromone just before sexual behavior, the results were similar: the pheromone effects were evident in male, but not in female, subjects. In addition, when we pretreated with corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) antagonist (CP-154526) before exposing the male subject to the alarm pheromone, the pheromone effects were attenuated in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that the alarm pheromone modifies male, but not female, components of sexual behavior and that CRF participates in the effects.

  9. Biallelic and Triallelic 5-Hydroxytyramine Transporter Gene-Linked Polymorphic Region (5-HTTLPR) Polymorphisms and Their Relationship with Lifelong Premature Ejaculation: A Case-Control Study in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xiansheng; Gao, Jingjing; Tang, Dongdong; Gao, Pan; Li, Chao; Liu, Weiqun; Liang, Chaozhao

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to explore the relationship between premature ejaculation (PE) and the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) with respect to the biallelic and triallelic classifications. Material/Methods A total of 115 outpatients who complained of ejaculating prematurely and who were diagnosed as having lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE) and 101 controls without PE complaint were recruited. All subjects completed a detailed questionnaire and were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR polymorphism using PCR-based technology. We evaluated the associations between 5-HTTLPR allelic and genotypic frequencies and their association with LPE, as well as the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of different 5-HTTLPR genotypes among LPE patients. Results The patients and controls did not differ significantly in terms of any characteristic except age. The results showed no significant difference regarding biallelic 5-HTTLPR. According to the triallelic classification, no significant difference was found when comparing the genotypic distribution (P=0.091). However, the distribution of the S, LG, and LA alleles in the cases was significantly different from the controls (P=0.018). We found a significantly lower frequency of LA allele and higher frequency of LG allele in patients. Based on another classification by expression, we found a significantly lower frequency of the L’L’ genotype (OR=0.37; 95%CI=0.15–0.91, P=0.025) in patients with LPE. No significant association was detected between IELT of LPE and different genotypes. Conclusions Contrary to the general classification based on S/L alleles, triallelic 5-HTTLPR was associated with LPE. Triallelic 5-HTTLPR may be a promising field for genetic research in PE to avoid false-negative results in future studies. PMID:27311544

  10. Duplicated Female Receptacle Organs for Traumatic Insemination in the Tropical Bed Bug Cimex hemipterus: Adaptive Variation or Malformation?

    PubMed Central

    Kamimura, Yoshitaka; Mitsumoto, Hiroyuki; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2014-01-01

    During mating, male bed bugs (Cimicidae) pierce the female abdomen to inject sperm using their needle-like genitalia. Females evolved specialized paragenital organs (the spermalege and associated structures) to receive traumatically injected ejaculates. In Leptocimex duplicatus, the spermalege is duplicated, but the evolutionary significance of this is unclear. In Cimex hemipterus and C. lectularius, in which females normally develop a single spermalege on the right side of the abdomen, similar duplication sometimes occurs. Using these aberrant morphs (D-females) of C. hemipterus, we tested the hypothesis that both of the duplicated spermaleges are functionally competent. Scars on female abdominal exoskeletons indicated frequent misdirected piercing by male genitalia. However, the piercing sites showed a highly biased distribution towards the right side of the female body. A mating experiment showed that when the normal insemination site (the right-side spermalege) was artificially covered, females remained unfertilized. This was true even when females also had a spermalege on the left side (D-females). This result was attributed to handedness in male mating behavior. Irrespective of the observed disuse of the left-side spermalege by males for insemination, histological examination failed to detect any differences between the right-side and left-side spermaleges. Moreover, an artificial insemination experiment confirmed that spermatozoa injected into the left-side spermalege show apparently normal migration behavior to the female reproductive organs, indicating an evolutionary potential for functionally-competent duplicated spermaleges. We discuss possible mechanisms for the evolutionary maintenance of D-females and propose a plausible route to the functionally-competent duplicated spermaleges observed in L. duplicatus. PMID:24586643

  11. [Characteristics of social supportive network serving the older female sex workers in Qingdao].

    PubMed

    Xu, Y Q; Li, Y F; Jiang, Z X; Zhang, X J; Yuan, X; Zhang, N; Li, X F; Jiang, B F

    2016-02-01

    To overview the status of social support on older female sex workers (OFSWs) in Qingdao and to better understand the characteristics of this egocentric social support networks. Ucinet 6 software was used to analyze the characteristics of egocentric social networks which involving 400 OFSWs who were recruited by respondent-driven sampling (RDS) method in Qingdao during March 2014 to June. Structural equation model (SEM) was used for data analysis, fitted test and estimation. A total of 400 OFSWs of Qingdao nominated 1 617 social supportive members, and the average size of egocentric social networks of OFSWs was (4.0 ± 1.5). Among all the alter egos (social support network members of the egos), 613 were female sex workers fellows, accounted for the most important part of all the social ties (37.91%). Characteristics of small size and non-relative relationships were seen more obviously among OFSWs with non-local registration and the ratings of emotional support (4.42±2.38) was significantly lower than the tangible support (5.73 ± 1.69) (P<0.05). Result of the SEM showed that homogeneity, joint strength and the network structure were significantly related to the ratings of average support. The total standard effects of which were 0.110, 0.925 and -0.069 respectively. It seemed that homogeneity can affect the degree of support, both directly and indirectly. OFSWs in Qingdao tended to ask for social support from friends who were also female sex workers. Stronger the joint strength between egos and alters, greater the homogeneity between the two was seen. Tighter relations among the alter egos, higher degree of average social support of the egos were acquired.

  12. Alcohol exposure during development: analysis of effects on female sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Gass, Justin T; Jenkins, William J; Marino, Melissa D; Lugo, Joaquin N; Kelly, Sandra J

    2007-12-01

    Alcohol exposure during development has been shown to alter a variety of social behaviors in both humans and rodents. Sexual behavior in rodents has been well characterized and lends itself to a detailed investigation of the manner in which ethanol impacts this particular social behavior. Rats were exposed to ethanol during both the prenatal and early postnatal period (ET). Control groups included rats exposed to the administration procedures alone (intubated-control) and nontreated controls (NC). Sexual behavior of intact naïve female rats in estrus was assessed in adulthood (approximately postnatal day 90) and activity was measured by the number of crossings between chambers in the 3-chamber test apparatus. A separate study examined the olfactory preferences for 4 odors by intact naïve female rats in all 3 groups. The 4 odors were the odors resulting from 1 hour of occupation of the test chamber by an intact male, 1 hour of occupation of the test chamber by a gonadectomized male, 0.5 ml of urine from an intact male, and 0.5 ml of urine from a gonadectomized male. ET female rats showed a reduced return latency after ejaculation compared to both control groups. There was a trend toward a reduction in percent exits after all forms of male behavior in the ET animals compared to the control groups. No significant differences across groups were seen in the lordosis quotient, activity, or the behavior of the nonexperimental male. ET female rats showed a reduced preference for the odor from the intact male compared to both control groups and a reduced preference for the odor from the gonadectomized male compared to NC females only. These data suggest that ethanol exposure during the prenatal and postnatal period in females alters sexual motivation and changes the processing of olfactory cues and possibly coital cues from male rats.

  13. Reducing the standard serving size of alcoholic beverages prompts reductions in alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Kersbergen, Inge; Oldham, Melissa; Jones, Andrew; Field, Matt; Angus, Colin; Robinson, Eric

    2018-05-14

    To test whether reducing the standard serving size of alcoholic beverages would reduce voluntary alcohol consumption in a laboratory (study 1) and a real-world drinking environment (study 2). Additionally, we modelled the potential public health benefit of reducing the standard serving size of on-trade alcoholic beverages in the United Kingdom. Studies 1 and 2 were cluster-randomized experiments. In the additional study, we used the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model to estimate the number of deaths and hospital admissions that would be averted per year in the United Kingdom if a policy that reduces alcohol serving sizes in the on-trade was introduced. A semi-naturalistic laboratory (study 1), a bar in Liverpool, UK (study 2). Students and university staff members (study 1: n = 114, mean age = 24.8 years, 74.6% female), residents from local community (study 2: n = 164, mean age = 34.9 years, 57.3% female). In study 1, participants were assigned randomly to receive standard or reduced serving sizes (by 25%) of alcohol during a laboratory drinking session. In study 2, customers at a bar were served alcohol in either standard or reduced serving sizes (by 28.6-33.3%). Outcome measures were units of alcohol consumed within 1 hour (study 1) and up to 3 hours (study 2). Serving size condition was the primary predictor. In study 1, a 25% reduction in alcohol serving size led to a 20.7-22.3% reduction in alcohol consumption. In study 2, a 28.6-33.3% reduction in alcohol serving size led to a 32.4-39.6% reduction in alcohol consumption. Modelling results indicated that decreasing the serving size of on-trade alcoholic beverages by 25% could reduce the number of alcohol-related hospital admissions and deaths per year in the United Kingdom by 4.4-10.5% and 5.6-13.2%, respectively. Reducing the serving size of alcoholic beverages in the United Kingdom appears to lead to a reduction in alcohol consumption within a single drinking occasion. © 2018 The Authors. Addiction

  14. Female Faculty Role Models and Student Outcomes: A Caveat about Aggregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Iryna Y.

    2014-01-01

    The idea that female faculty might serve as role models for female students has led to studies of the effect of female faculty on female student performance. Due to varying levels of aggregation of the measure of student exposure to female faculty--percentage of female faculty at an institution or department, percentage of classes taught by…

  15. Alpaca semen characteristics under free and directed mounts during a mating period.

    PubMed

    Urquieta, Bessie; Flores, Paloma; Muñoz, Camila; Bustos-Obregón, Eduardo; García-Huidobro, Jorge

    2005-12-01

    Most studies in alpaca reproductive biology have been focused on female physiology. Only recent research is being conducted in order to increase the knowledge on males. Semen characteristics during breeding periods will contribute to understanding the poor fertility rates in alpaca. Ten adult male alpacas were distributed randomly into two groups and submitted alternatively to two regimens of semen collection of 12 days duration (day 1, initial day of semen collection). Semen samples were collected using an artificial vagina and a receptive, non-pregnant female. With regimen 1, males were maintained with females except for the days of sexual rest (6 and 7). Semen was collected on days 1, 5, 8 and 12. With regimen 2, males were exposed to females for daily semen collection only, before and after sexual rest. Mating duration, color and volume of ejaculates, spermatozoa concentration and morphology were evaluated. No statistical differences for the variables were found between regimens that were used for semen collection. With respect to influence of day, however, the total numbers of spermatozoa ejaculated on days 1 and 5 of semen collection were statistically different (p<0.05). Azoospermic samples increased on days 5 and 12 of semen collection. Partial recovery in spermatozoa concentration and number of spermatozoa ejaculated were observed after sexual rest. Although normal spermatozoa percentage was less on day 1 (p<0.05) as compared with values found in the following ejaculates (days 5 and 12), the total number of normal spermatozoa was greater. These results support the conclusion that when male alpaca have a daily ejaculation during five consecutive days, they might copulate without having enough spermatozoa for fertilization towards the end of the mating period.

  16. Potential contribution of progesterone receptors to the development of sexual behavior in male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Desroziers, Elodie; Brock, Olivier; Bakker, Julie

    2017-04-01

    We previously showed that estradiol can have both defeminizing and feminizing effects on the developing mouse brain. Pre- and early postnatal estradiol defeminized the ability to show lordosis in adulthood, whereas prepubertal estradiol feminized this ability. Furthermore, we found that estradiol upregulates progesterone receptors (PR) during development, inducing both a male-and female-typical pattern of PR expression in the mouse hypothalamus. In the present study, we took advantage of a newly developed PR antagonist (ZK 137316) to determine whether PR contributes to either male- or female-typical sexual differentiation. Thus groups of male and female C57Bl/6j mice were treated with ZK 137316 or OIL as control: males were treated neonatally (P0-P10), during the critical period for male sexual differentiation, and females were treated prepubertally (P15-P25), during the critical period for female sexual differentiation. In adulthood, mice were tested for sexual behavior. In males, some minor effects of neonatal ZK treatment on sexual behavior were observed: latencies to the first mount, intromission and ejaculation were decreased in neonatally ZK treated males; however, this effect disappeared by the second mating test. By contrast, female mice treated with ZK during the prepubertal period showed significantly less lordosis than OIL-treated females. Mate preferences were not affected in either males or females treated with ZK during development. Taken together, these results suggest a role for PR and thus perhaps progesterone in the development of lordosis behavior in female mice. By contrast, no obvious role for PR can be discerned in the development of male sexual behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Interplay Between Premature Ejaculation and Erectile Dysfunction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Corona, Giovanni; Rastrelli, Giulia; Limoncin, Erika; Sforza, Alessandra; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Maggi, Mario

    2015-12-01

    The specific determinants and underlying factors linking erectile dysfunction (ED) and premature ejaculation (PE) have yet to be clearly identified. The aim of this study was to review and meta-analyze all available data regarding the link between ED and PE. An extensive Medline Embase and Cochrane search was performed including the following words: "premature ejaculation" and "erectile dysfunction". All observational trials comparing the risk of ED in relation to PE were included. Data extraction was performed independently by two of the authors (G.R, G.C.), and conflicts resolved by the third investigator (M.M.). Out of 474 retrieved articles, 18 were included in the study for a total of 57,229 patients, of which 12,144 (21.2%) had PE. The presence of PE, however defined, was associated with a significant increase in ED risk (odds ratio: 3.68[2.61;5.18]; P < 0.0001). Meta-regression analysis showed that the risk of ED in PE subjects was higher in older individuals as well as in those with a lower level of education and in those who reported a stable relationship less frequently. In addition, subjects with PE and ED more often reported anxiety and depressive symptoms and a lower prevalence of organic associated morbidities, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia. All the latter associations were confirmed even after adjustment for age. Finally the risk of PE-related ED increased with the increased proportion of acquired ejaculatory problems (adj r = 0.414; P < 0.0001 after the adjustment for age). In conclusion, the present data showed that ED and PE are not distinctly separate entities, but should be considered from a dimensional point of view. Understanding this dimensional perspective might help sexual health care professionals in providing the most appropriate therapeutic approach to realistically increase patient related outcomes in sexual medicine. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  18. Sexual cannibalism increases male material investment in offspring: quantifying terminal reproductive effort in a praying mantis.

    PubMed

    Brown, William D; Barry, Katherine L

    2016-06-29

    Models of the evolution of sexual cannibalism argue that males may offset the cost of cannibalism if components of the male body are directly allocated to the eggs that they fertilize. We tested this idea in the praying mantid Tenodera sinensis Males and females were fed differently radiolabelled crickets and allowed to mate. Half of the pairs progressed to sexual cannibalism and we prevented cannibalism in the other half. We assess the relative allocation of both male-derived somatic materials and ejaculate materials into the eggs and soma of the female. Our results show that male somatic investment contributes to production of offspring. The eggs and reproductive tissues of cannibalistic females contained significantly more male-derived amino acids than those of non-cannibalistic females, and there was an increase in the number of eggs produced subsequent to sexual cannibalism. Sexual cannibalism thus increases male material investment in offspring. We also show that males provide substantial investment via the ejaculate, with males passing about 25% of their radiolabelled amino acids to females via the ejaculate even in the absence of cannibalism. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. A kinematic comparison of successful and unsuccessful tennis serves across the elite development pathway.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, David; Elliott, Bruce; Lay, Brendan; Reid, Machar

    2013-08-01

    While velocity generation is an obvious prerequisite to proficient tennis serve performance, it is also the only stroke where players are obliged to negotiate a unique target constraint. Therefore, the dearth of research attending to the accuracy component of the serve is surprising. This study compared the body, racquet and ball kinematics characterising successful serves and service faults, missed into the net, in two groups of elite junior female players and one professional female tennis player. Three-dimensional body, racquet and ball kinematics were recorded using a 22-camera VICON motion analysis system. There were no differences in body kinematics between successful serves and service faults, suggesting that service faults cannot be attributed to a single source of biomechanical error. However, service faults missing into the net are characterized by projection angles significantly further below the horizontal, implying that consistency in this end-point parameter is critical to successful performance. Regulation of this parameter appears dependent on compensatory adjustments in the distal elbow and wrist joints immediately prior to impact and also perceptual feedback. Accordingly, coordination of the distal degrees of freedom and a refined perception-action coupling appear more important to success than any isolated mechanical component of the service action. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females reduce hippocampal neurogenesis among adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Spritzer, M D; Curtis, M G; DeLoach, J P; Maher, J; Shulman, L M

    2016-03-24

    Recent experiments have shown that sexual interactions prior to cell proliferation cause an increase in neurogenesis in adult male rats. Because adult neurogenesis is critical for some forms of memory, we hypothesized that sexually induced changes in neurogenesis may be involved in mate recognition. Sexually naive adult male rats were either exposed repeatedly to the same sexual partner (familiar group) or to a series of novel sexual partners (unfamiliar group), while control males never engaged in sexual interactions. Ovariectomized female rats were induced into estrus every four days. Males were given two injections of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) (200mg/kg) to label proliferating cells, and the first sexual interactions occurred three days later. Males in the familiar and unfamiliar groups engaged in four, 30-min sexual interactions at four-day intervals, and brain tissue was collected the day after the last sexual interaction. Immunohistochemistry followed by microscopy was used to quantify BrdU-labeled cells. Sexual interactions with unfamiliar females caused a significant reduction in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus compared to males that interacted with familiar females and compared to the control group. The familiar group showed no difference in neurogenesis compared to the control group. Males in the familiar group engaged in significantly more sexual behavior (ejaculations and intromissions) than did males in the unfamiliar group, suggesting that level of sexual activity may influence neurogenesis levels. In a second experiment, we tested whether this effect was unique to sexual interactions by replicating the entire procedure using anestrus females. We found that interactions with unfamiliar anestrus females reduced neurogenesis relative to the other groups, but this effect was not statistically significant. In combination, these results indicate that interactions with unfamiliar females reduce adult neurogenesis and the effect is stronger for sexual

  1. Adiposity, compared with masculinity, serves as a more valid cue to immunocompetence in human mate choice.

    PubMed

    Rantala, Markus J; Coetzee, Vinet; Moore, Fhionna R; Skrinda, Ilona; Kecko, Sanita; Krama, Tatjana; Kivleniece, Inese; Krams, Indrikis

    2013-01-22

    According to the 'good genes' hypothesis, females choose males based on traits that indicate the male's genetic quality in terms of disease resistance. The 'immunocompetence handicap hypothesis' proposed that secondary sexual traits serve as indicators of male genetic quality, because they indicate that males can contend with the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone. Masculinity is commonly assumed to serve as such a secondary sexual trait. Yet, women do not consistently prefer masculine looking men, nor is masculinity consistently related to health across studies. Here, we show that adiposity, but not masculinity, significantly mediates the relationship between a direct measure of immune response (hepatitis B antibody response) and attractiveness for both body and facial measurements. In addition, we show that circulating testosterone is more closely associated with adiposity than masculinity. These findings indicate that adiposity, compared with masculinity, serves as a more important cue to immunocompetence in female mate choice.

  2. Sperm yield after single layer centrifugation with Androcoll-E is related to the potential fertility of the original ejaculate.

    PubMed

    Morrell, J M; Stuhtmann, G; Meurling, S; Lundgren, A; Winblad, C; Macias Garcia, B; Johannisson, A

    2014-05-01

    Many attempts have been made to identify laboratory tests that are predictive of sperm fertility, both to improve the quality of stallion semen doses for artificial insemination (AI) and to identify potential breeding sires if no fertility data are available. Sperm quality at the stud is mostly evaluated by assessing subjective motility, although this parameter can be poorly indicative of fertility. Sperm morphology and chromatin integrity in Swedish stallions are correlated to pregnancy rate after AI. Because single layer centrifugation (SLC) selects for spermatozoa with normal morphology and good chromatin, retrospective analysis was carried out to investigate whether sperm yield after SLC is linked to potential fertility. Commercial semen doses for AI from 24 stallions (five stallions with four ejaculates each, 19 stallions with three ejaculates each; n = 77) obtained during the breeding season were cooled, and sent overnight to the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in an insulated box for evaluation, with other doses being sent to studs for commercial AI. On arrival at Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, the semen was used for SLC and also for evaluation of sperm motility, membrane integrity, chromatin integrity, and morphology. The seasonal pregnancy rates for each stallion were available. The yield of progressively motile spermatozoa after SLC (calculated as a proportion of the initial load) was found to be highly correlated with pregnancy rate (r = 0.75; P < 0.001). Chromatin damage was highly negatively correlated with pregnancy rate (r = -0.69; P < 0.001). Pregnancy rate was also correlated with membrane integrity (r = 0.58; P < 0.01), progressive motility (r = 0.63; P < 0.01), and normal morphology (r = 0.45; P < 0.05). In conclusion, these preliminary results show that sperm yield after SLC is related to the potential fertility of the original ejaculate, and could be an alternative indicator of stallion fertility if breeding data are

  3. Serving Bowl Selection Biases the Amount of Food Served

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kleef, Ellen; Shimizu, Mitsuru; Wansink, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine how common serving bowls containing food for multiple persons influence serving behavior and consumption and whether they do so independently of satiation and food evaluation. Methods: In this between-subjects experiment, 68 participants were randomly assigned to either a group serving pasta from a large-sized bowl (6.9-L…

  4. Postmating sexual selection and the enigmatic jawed genitalia of Callosobruchus subinnotatus

    PubMed Central

    Rönn, Johanna Liljestrand; Schilthuizen, Menno; Arnqvist, Göran

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Insect genitalia exhibit rapid divergent evolution. Truly extraordinary structures have evolved in some groups, presumably as a result of postmating sexual selection. To increase our understanding of this phenomenon, we studied the function of one such structure. The male genitalia of Callosobruchus subinnotatus (Coleoptera: Bruchinae) contain a pair of jaw-like structures with unknown function. Here, we used phenotypic engineering to ablate the teeth on these jaws. We then experimentally assessed the effects of ablation of the genital jaws on mating duration, ejaculate weight, male fertilization success and female fecundity, using a double-mating experimental design. We predicted that copulatory wounding in females should be positively related to male fertilization success; however, we found no significant correlation between genital tract scarring in females and male fertilization success. Male fertilization success was, however, positively related to the amount of ejaculate transferred by males and negatively related to female ejaculate dumping. Ablation of male genital jaws did not affect male relative fertilization success but resulted in a reduction in female egg production. Our results suggest that postmating sexual selection in males indeed favors these genital jaws, not primarily through an elevated relative success in sperm competition but by increasing female egg production. PMID:28583926

  5. Validity of the patient-reported Clinical Global Impression of Change as a measure of treatment response in men with premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Althof, Stanley E; Brock, Gerald B; Rosen, Raymond C; Rowland, David L; Aquilina, Joseph W; Rothman, Margaret; Tesfaye, Fisseha; Bull, Scott

    2010-06-01

    The Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGIC) measures have high utility in clinical practice. However, it is unknown whether the CGIC is valued for assessing premature ejaculation (PE) symptoms and/or the relationship between CGIC and other validated PE patient-reported measures. The study aims to assess the validity of the patient-reported CGIC measure in men with PE and to examine the relationship between CGIC ratings and assessments of control, satisfaction, personal distress, and interpersonal difficulty. Data from a randomized, double-blind, 24-week phase 3 trial in 1,162 men with PE who received dapoxetine (30 mg or 60 mg) or placebo on demand provided the basis for the analysis. Patients were ≥18 years, in a stable monogamous relationship for ≥6 months, met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition-Text Revision criteria for PE for ≥6 months, and had an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) ≤2 minutes in ≥75% of intercourse episodes. The CGIC asked patients to rate improvement or worsening of their PE compared with the start of the study using a 7-point response scale; other patient-reported measures were control over ejaculation, satisfaction with sexual intercourse, interpersonal difficulty, and personal distress related to ejaculation. Stopwatch-measured IELT was recorded. Associations between CGIC and change in other measures at study end point were assessed. The magnitude of IELT increased for each category of improvement on the CGIC: 1.63, 4.03, and 7.15 minutes for slightly better, better, and much better, respectively. Higher CGIC ratings were correlated with greater improvement in control (r = 0.73), satisfaction (r = 0.62), greater reduction in distress (r = -0.52), and interpersonal difficulty (r = -0.39). Total variance accounted for was 57.4%: control (48.7%), satisfaction (4.5%), IELT (2.8%), and distress (1.15%). The analyses support the validity of the CGIC measure in men with PE. The CGIC

  6. Mondia whitei (Periplocaceae) prevents and Guibourtia tessmannii (Caesalpiniaceae) facilitates fictive ejaculation in spinal male rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mondia whitei and Guibourtia tessmannii are used in Cameroon traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pro-ejaculatory effects of the aqueous and organic solvent extracts of these plants in spinal male rats. Methods In spinal cord transected and urethane-anesthetized rats, two electrodes where inserted into the bulbospongiosus muscles and the ejaculatory motor pattern was recorded on a polygraph after urethral and penile stimulations, intravenous injection of saline (0.1 ml/100 g), dopamine (0.1 μM/kg), aqueous and organic solvent plant extracts (20 mg/kg). Results In all spinal rats, urethral and penile stimulations always induced the ejaculatory motor pattern. Aqueous or hexane extract of Mondia whitei (20 mg/kg) prevented the expression of the ejaculatory motor pattern. The pro-ejaculatory effects of dopamine (0.1 μM/kg) were not abolished in spinal rats pre-treated with Mondia whitei extracts. Aqueous and methanolic stem bark extracts of Guibourtia tessmannii (20 mg/kg) induced fictive ejaculation characterized by rhythmic contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscles followed sometimes with expulsion of seminal plugs. In rats pre-treated with haloperidol (0.26 μM/kg), no ejaculatory motor pattern was recorded after intravenous injection of Guibourtia tessmannii extracts (20 mg/kg). Conclusion These results show that Mondia whitei possesses preventive effects on the expression of fictive ejaculation in spinal male rats, which is not mediated through dopaminergic pathway; on the contrary, the pro-ejaculatory activities of Guibourtia tessmannii require the integrity of dopaminergic system to exert its effects. The present findings further justify the ethno-medicinal claims of Mondia whitei and Guibourtia tessmannii. PMID:23295154

  7. Identification of sperm subpopulations with defined motility characteristics in ejaculates from Ile de France rams.

    PubMed

    Bravo, J A; Montanero, J; Calero, R; Roy, T J

    2011-11-01

    The aims of this study were to identify different motile sperm subpopulations in fresh ejaculates from six Ile de France rams, by using a computer-assisted sperm motility analysis (CASA) system, and to evaluate the effects of individual ram and season on population distribution. Overall sperm motility and individual kinematic parameters of motile spermatozoa were evaluated for 125,312 spermatozoa, defined by curvilinear velocity (VCL), linear velocity (VSL), average path velocity (VAP), linearity coefficient (LIN), straightness coefficient (STR), wobble coefficient (WOB), mean amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) and frequency of head displacement (BCF). A multivariate cluster analysis was carried out to classify these spermatozoa into a reduced number of subpopulations according to their movement patterns. The statistical analysis clustered the whole motile sperm population into five separate groups: subpopulation 1, constituted by rapid, progressive and non sinuous spermatozoa (VCL=126.41 μm/s, STR=92.87% and LIN=86.47%); subpopulation 2, characterized by progressive spermatozoa with moderate velocity (VCL=74.74 μm/s and STR=84.03%); subpopulation 3, represented by rapid, progressive and sinuous spermatozoa (VCL=130.45 μm/s, STR=76.02% and LIN=47.68%); subpopulation 4 represents rapid nonprogressive spermatozoa (VCL=128.69 μm/s and STR=44.09%); subpopulation 5 includes poorly motile, nonprogressive spermatozoa with a very irregular trajectory (VCL=36.81 μm/s and STR=47.04%). Our results show the existence of five subpopulations of motile spermatozoa in ram ejaculates. The frequency distribution of spermatozoa within subpopulations was quite similar for the six rams, and the five subpopulations turned out to be very stable along seasons. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Semen characterization and sperm storage in Cabot's Tragopan.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y Y

    2006-05-01

    The semen quality of Cabot's Tragopan, the dependence of sperm yields on frequency of semen collection, and the duration of sperm storage in females were investigated. The results are as follows: 1) The average duration of the period in which Cabot's Tragopan can produce an ejaculate was about 70 d. The ejaculate volume ranged from 15 to 100 microL. The average concentration of the ejaculate was 2.31 x 10(9) mL(-1). There were 11.69 (+/- 0.77)% abnormal spermatozoa per ejaculate. Three of 11 males yielded more than 50 microL of semen per collection most of the time. 2) The ejaculate volumes, the concentration, the total number of sperm per ejaculate, and the daily sperm output were all markedly affected by the frequency of semen collection (P < 0.01). However, no significant difference was detected in characters between the 2 groups with relatively low collection frequency (P > 0.05) except the daily sperm output (P < 0.01). The highest frequency of semen collection did not yield more sperm. 3) The average duration of the period in which the female laid fertilized eggs after single insemination was 19.85 +/- 3.08 d (range 9 to 32 d, n = 7). This value was affected by the rhythm of egg laying and varied among individuals. All of the results will facilitate design of the optimal artificial insemination strategy and help to achieve the ultimate aim of ex situ conservation.

  9. Impact of different dilution techniques on boar sperm quality and sperm distribution of the extended ejaculate.

    PubMed

    Schulze, M; Ammon, C; Schaefer, J; Luther, A-M; Jung, M; Waberski, D

    2017-07-01

    The dilution of ejaculates is a fundamental step for the production of liquid-preserved boar semen. For a long time, it has been recommended to add the extender to the ejaculate. The aim of the present study was to first compare the effect of the position ('center' vs. 'wall') where the extender is added to the semen-mixing cylinder (height 32.5cm; diameter 12.7cm) using an automatic dispenser (n=11). In experiment 2 (n=30), we analyzed the two main dilution methods (extender to the semen ('control') vs. 'reverse'). Experiment 3 was carried out to study the dilution effect on kinematics. In Experiments 1 and 2, the sperm distribution 10min after the dilution and the sperm quality parameters during long-term storage (d1, d3, d5, and d7) were evaluated. In Experiment 3, sperm quality was assessed during short-term storage at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 60min after semen dilution ('control' vs. 'reverse'; n=6). There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between the treatments in the specific response to bicarbonate, mitochondrial activity, membrane status, thermo-resistance or sperm motility immediately after dilution or long-term storage. The sperm distribution was significantly (P=0.029) affected by the dilution method in Experiment 2. In summary, treatment with the extender first, which is used by only a few European boar studs, leads to comparable results in sperm quality during storage and better results in sperm distribution after dilution. This procedure is also less time consuming, less foam formation occurs during the semen dilution and the procedure is more hygienic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Adiposity, compared with masculinity, serves as a more valid cue to immunocompetence in human mate choice

    PubMed Central

    Rantala, Markus J.; Coetzee, Vinet; Moore, Fhionna R.; Skrinda, Ilona; Kecko, Sanita; Krama, Tatjana; Kivleniece, Inese; Krams, Indrikis

    2013-01-01

    According to the ‘good genes’ hypothesis, females choose males based on traits that indicate the male's genetic quality in terms of disease resistance. The ‘immunocompetence handicap hypothesis’ proposed that secondary sexual traits serve as indicators of male genetic quality, because they indicate that males can contend with the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone. Masculinity is commonly assumed to serve as such a secondary sexual trait. Yet, women do not consistently prefer masculine looking men, nor is masculinity consistently related to health across studies. Here, we show that adiposity, but not masculinity, significantly mediates the relationship between a direct measure of immune response (hepatitis B antibody response) and attractiveness for both body and facial measurements. In addition, we show that circulating testosterone is more closely associated with adiposity than masculinity. These findings indicate that adiposity, compared with masculinity, serves as a more important cue to immunocompetence in female mate choice. PMID:23193134

  11. Post-copulatory opportunities for sperm competition and cryptic female choice provide no offspring fitness benefits in externally fertilizing salmon

    PubMed Central

    Lumley, Alyson J.; Diamond, Sian E.; Einum, Sigurd; Yeates, Sarah E.; Peruffo, Danielle; Emerson, Brent C.; Gage, Matthew J. G.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that females can somehow improve their offspring fitness by mating with multiple males, but we understand little about the exact stage(s) at which such benefits are gained. Here, we measure whether offspring fitness is influenced by mechanisms operating solely between sperm and egg. Using externally fertilizing and polyandrous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), we employed split-clutch and split-ejaculate in vitro fertilization experiments to generate offspring using designs that either denied or applied opportunities for sperm competition and cryptic female choice. Following fertilizations, we measured 140 days of offspring fitness after hatch, through growth and survival in hatchery and near-natural conditions. Despite an average composite mortality of 61%, offspring fitness at every life stage was near-identical between groups fertilized under the absence versus presence of opportunities for sperm competition and cryptic female choice. Of the 21 551 and 21 771 eggs from 24 females fertilized under monandrous versus polyandrous conditions, 68% versus 67.8% survived to the 100-day juvenile stage; sub-samples showed similar hatching success (73.1% versus 74.3%), had similar survival over 40 days in near-natural streams (57.3% versus 56.2%) and grew at similar rates throughout. We therefore found no evidence that gamete-specific interactions allow offspring fitness benefits when polyandrous fertilization conditions provide opportunities for sperm competition and cryptic female choice. PMID:27069665

  12. Premature ejaculation: do we have effective therapy?

    PubMed

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; Saitz, Theodore R; Trost, Landon; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2013-03-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual dysfunction, with the majority of PE patients remaining undiagnosed and undertreated. Despite its prevalence, there is a current paucity of data regarding available treatment options and mechanisms. The objective of the current investigation is to review and summarize pertinent literature on therapeutic options for the treatment of PE, including behavioral/psychologic, oral pharmacotherapy, and surgery. A pubmed search was conducted on articles reporting data on available treatment options for PE. Articles describing potential mechanisms of action were additionally included for review. Preference was given towards randomized, controlled trials, when available. PE remains an underdiagnosed and undertreated disease process, with limited data available regarding potential underlying mechanisms and long-term outcomes of treatment options. Psychological/behavioral therapies, including the stop-start, squeeze, and pelvic floor rehabilitation techniques have demonstrated improvements in short-term series, with decreased efficacy with additional follow-up. Topical therapies, which are commonly utilized result in prolonged intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) at the expense of potential penile/vaginal Hypothesia. Oral therapies similarly demonstrate improved IELTs with variable side effect profiles and include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (daily or on demand), phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, alpha-1 adrenergic antagonists, and tramadol. Alternative therapies such as acupuncture have shown benefits in limited studies. Surgery is not commonly performed and is not recommended by available guidelines. PE is a common condition, with limited data available regarding its underlying pathophysiology and treatment. Available therapies include topical, oral, behavioral/psychologic modification, or a combination thereof. Additional research is required to assess the optimal treatment strategies and algorithms as

  13. Emerging Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs): Serving Latino Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Deborah A.; Andrade, Sally J.

    2010-01-01

    In this fifth brief in "Excelencia" in Education's series on Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) the focus is on the methods and strategies that are producing successful results in a growing sector of colleges and universities we call, "Emerging" Hispanic-Serving Institutions. These Emerging HSIs are institutions that…

  14. Depicted serving size: cereal packaging pictures exaggerate serving sizes and promote overserving.

    PubMed

    Tal, Aner; Niemann, Stina; Wansink, Brian

    2017-02-06

    Extensive work has focused on the effects of nutrition label information on consumer behavior on the one hand, and on the effects of packaging graphics on the other hand. However, little work has examined how serving suggestion depictions - graphics relating to serving size - influence the quantity consumers serve themselves. The current work examines the prevalence of exaggerated serving size depictions on product packaging (study 1) and its effects on food serving in the context of cereal (study 2). Study 1 was an observational field survey of cereal packaging. Study 2 was a mixed experimental cross-sectional design conducted at a U.S. university, with 51 student participants. Study 1 coded 158 US breakfast cereals and compared the serving sizes depicted on the front of the box with the suggested serving size stated on the nutrition facts panel. Study 2 measured the amount of cereal poured from exaggerated or accurate serving size depictions. Study 1 compared average servings via t-tests. Study 2 used a mixed model with cereal type as the repeated measure and a compound symmetry covariance matrix. Study 1 demonstrated that portion size depictions on the front of 158 cereal boxes were 65.84% larger (221 vs. 134 calories) than the recommended portions on nutrition facts panels of those cereals. Study 2 showed that boxes that depicted exaggerated serving sizes led people to pour 20% more cereal compared to pouring from modified boxes that depicted a single-size portion of cereal matching suggested serving size. This was 45% over the suggested serving size. Biases in depicted serving size depicted on cereal packaging are prevalent in the marketplace. Such biases may lead to overserving, which may consequently lead to overeating. Companies should depict the recommended serving sizes, or otherwise indicate that the depicted portion represents an exaggerated serving size.

  15. Students Serving Arizona. 1994 "Serve-America" Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Linda; Vandegrift, Judith A.

    Arizona's Serve-America program, administered by the Arizona Department of Education (ADE), began in fiscal year 1992-93 under the auspices of the National and Community Service Act of 1990. Serve-America links community service projects with schools and youths in grades K-12. This second annual report documents the second year of project…

  16. Fecal endocrine profiles and ejaculate traits in black-footed cats (Felis nigripes) and sand cats (Felis margarita).

    PubMed

    Herrick, J R; Bond, J B; Campbell, M; Levens, G; Moore, T; Benson, K; D'Agostino, J; West, G; Okeson, D M; Coke, R; Portacio, S C; Leiske, K; Kreider, C; Polumbo, P J; Swanson, W F

    2010-01-15

    Information regarding the reproductive biology of black-footed cats (BFC) and sand cats (SC) is extremely limited. Our objectives were to: (1) validate fecal hormone analysis (estrogens, E; progestagens, P; androgens, T) for noninvasive monitoring of gonadal activity; (2) characterize estrous cyclicity, ovulatory mechanisms, gestation, and seasonality; and (3) evaluate male reproductive activity via fecal androgen metabolites and ejaculate traits. In both species, the estrous cycle averaged 11-12 days. In BFC (n=8), estrus lasted 2.2+/-0.2 days with peak concentrations of E (2962.8+/-166.3 ng/g feces) increasing 2.7-fold above basal concentrations. In SC (n=6), peak concentrations of E (1669.9+/-83.5 ng/g feces) during estrus (2.9+/-0.2 days) were 4.0-fold higher than basal concentrations. Nonpregnant luteal phases occurred in 26.5% (26 of 98) of BFC estrous cycles, but were not observed in SC (0 of 109 cycles). In both species, P concentrations during pregnancy were elevated (32.3+/-3.0 microg/g feces BFC; 8.5+/-0.7 microg/g feces SC) approximately 10-fold above basal concentrations. Fecal T concentrations in males averaged 3.1+/-0.1 microg/g feces in BFC and 2.3+/-0.0 microg/g feces in SC. Following electroejaculation, 200 to 250 microl of semen was collected containing 29.9 (BFC) to 36.5 (SC)x10(6) spermatozoa with 40.4 (SC) to 46.8 (BFC)% normal morphology. All females exhibited estrous cycles during the study and spermatozoa were recovered from all males on every collection attempt, suggesting poor reproductive success in these species may not be due to physiological infertility.

  17. Effectiveness of Teacher Training: Voices of Teachers Serving High-Needs Populations of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela, Daniella G.; Maxwell, Gerri M.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the effectiveness of educator preparation programs from the perspective of three female Hispanic veteran teachers serving high-needs populations of students. The study strives to contribute to research on minimum proposed standards for teacher preparation programs in Texas. Through a process of coding data from the informant…

  18. Is the female G-spot truly a distinct anatomic entity?

    PubMed

    Kilchevsky, Amichai; Vardi, Yoram; Lowenstein, Lior; Gruenwald, Ilan

    2012-03-01

    The existence of an anatomically distinct female G-spot is controversial. Reports in the public media would lead one to believe the G-spot is a well-characterized entity capable of providing extreme sexual stimulation, yet this is far from the truth. The aim of this article was to provide an overview of the evidence both supporting and refuting the existence of an anatomically distinct female G-spot. PubMed search for articles published between 1950 and 2011 using key words "G-spot," "Grafenberg spot," "vaginal innervation," "female orgasm," "female erogenous zone," and "female ejaculation." Clinical trials, meeting abstracts, case reports, and review articles that were written in English and published in a peer-reviewed journal were selected for analysis. The main outcome measure of this article was to assess any valid objective data in the literature that scientifically evaluates the existence of an anatomically distinct G-spot. The literature cites dozens of trials that have attempted to confirm the existence of a G-spot using surveys, pathologic specimens, various imaging modalities, and biochemical markers. The surveys found that a majority of women believe a G-spot actually exists, although not all of the women who believed in it were able to locate it. Attempts to characterize vaginal innervation have shown some differences in nerve distribution across the vagina, although the findings have not proven to be universally reproducible. Furthermore, radiographic studies have been unable to demonstrate a unique entity, other than the clitoris, whose direct stimulation leads to vaginal orgasm. Objective measures have failed to provide strong and consistent evidence for the existence of an anatomical site that could be related to the famed G-spot. However, reliable reports and anecdotal testimonials of the existence of a highly sensitive area in the distal anterior vaginal wall raise the question of whether enough investigative modalities have been implemented in

  19. Premature ejaculation: do we have effective therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Serefoglu, Ege Can; Saitz, Theodore R.; Trost, Landon

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common sexual dysfunction, with the majority of PE patients remaining undiagnosed and undertreated. Despite its prevalence, there is a current paucity of data regarding available treatment options and mechanisms. The objective of the current investigation is to review and summarize pertinent literature on therapeutic options for the treatment of PE, including behavioral/psychologic, oral pharmacotherapy, and surgery. Methods A pubmed search was conducted on articles reporting data on available treatment options for PE. Articles describing potential mechanisms of action were additionally included for review. Preference was given towards randomized, controlled trials, when available. Results PE remains an underdiagnosed and undertreated disease process, with limited data available regarding potential underlying mechanisms and long-term outcomes of treatment options. Psychological/behavioral therapies, including the stop-start, squeeze, and pelvic floor rehabilitation techniques have demonstrated improvements in short-term series, with decreased efficacy with additional follow-up. Topical therapies, which are commonly utilized result in prolonged intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) at the expense of potential penile/vaginal Hypothesia. Oral therapies similarly demonstrate improved IELTs with variable side effect profiles and include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (daily or on demand), phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, alpha-1 adrenergic antagonists, and tramadol. Alternative therapies such as acupuncture have shown benefits in limited studies. Surgery is not commonly performed and is not recommended by available guidelines. Conclusions PE is a common condition, with limited data available regarding its underlying pathophysiology and treatment. Available therapies include topical, oral, behavioral/psychologic modification, or a combination thereof. Additional research is required to assess the optimal

  20. Copulation, genital damage and early death in Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Eady, Paul E; Hamilton, Leticia; Lyons, Ruth E

    2006-01-01

    Antagonistic sexual coevolution stems from the notion that male and female interests over reproduction are in conflict. Such conflicts appear to be particularly obvious when male genital armature inflicts damage to the female reproductive tract resulting in reduced female longevity. However, studies of mating frequency, genital damage and female longevity are difficult to interpret because females not only sustain more genital damage, but also receive more seminal fluid when they engage in multiple copulations. Here, we attempt to disentangle the effects of genital damage and seminal fluid transfer on female longevity in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Males copulating for the sixth time in succession inflicted greater levels of genital damage, but transferred smaller ejaculates in comparison with virgin males. The number of copulations performed by males was negatively related to female fecundity and positively related to female longevity, suggesting a trade-off between fecundity and longevity. However, inclusion of fecundity as a covariate revealed sperm and/or seminal fluid transfer to have a negative impact on female longevity above that caused by the fecundity–longevity trade-off. The consequences of multiple copulations on female longevity were examined. Females that mated twice laid more eggs and died sooner than those that mated once. However, incorporation of fecundity as a covariate into our statistical model removed the effect of female mating frequency on female longevity, indicating that double-mated females suffer greater mortality owing to the trade-off between fecundity and longevity. Males of this species are known to transfer very large ejaculates (up to 8% of their body weight), which may represent a significant nutritional benefit to females. However, the receipt of large ejaculates appears to carry costs. Thus, the interpretation of multiple mating experiments on female longevity and associated functional

  1. Copulation, genital damage and early death in Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Eady, Paul E; Hamilton, Leticia; Lyons, Ruth E

    2007-01-22

    Antagonistic sexual coevolution stems from the notion that male and female interests over reproduction are in conflict. Such conflicts appear to be particularly obvious when male genital armature inflicts damage to the female reproductive tract resulting in reduced female longevity. However, studies of mating frequency, genital damage and female longevity are difficult to interpret because females not only sustain more genital damage, but also receive more seminal fluid when they engage in multiple copulations. Here, we attempt to disentangle the effects of genital damage and seminal fluid transfer on female longevity in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Males copulating for the sixth time in succession inflicted greater levels of genital damage, but transferred smaller ejaculates in comparison with virgin males. The number of copulations performed by males was negatively related to female fecundity and positively related to female longevity, suggesting a trade-off between fecundity and longevity. However, inclusion of fecundity as a covariate revealed sperm and/or seminal fluid transfer to have a negative impact on female longevity above that caused by the fecundity-longevity trade-off. The consequences of multiple copulations on female longevity were examined. Females that mated twice laid more eggs and died sooner than those that mated once. However, incorporation of fecundity as a covariate into our statistical model removed the effect of female mating frequency on female longevity, indicating that double-mated females suffer greater mortality owing to the trade-off between fecundity and longevity. Males of this species are known to transfer very large ejaculates (up to 8% of their body weight), which may represent a significant nutritional benefit to females. However, the receipt of large ejaculates appears to carry costs. Thus, the interpretation of multiple mating experiments on female longevity and associated functional

  2. Membrane stability and mitochondrial activity of human-ejaculated spermatozoa during in vitro experimental infection with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Bacteroides ureolyticus.

    PubMed

    Fraczek, M; Piasecka, M; Gaczarzewicz, D; Szumala-Kakol, A; Kazienko, A; Lenart, S; Laszczynska, M; Kurpisz, M

    2012-10-01

    The aim of the study was to examine an in vitro effect of the three bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Bacteroides ureolyticus) on ejaculated spermatozoa with reference to sperm membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity. The study was carried out on swim-up-separated spermatozoa from 12 normozoospermic volunteers. Sperm plasma membrane stability was evaluated by the LIVE/DEAD Sperm Viability Kit and by the merocyanine 540 test. Mitochondrial activity was evaluated using the JC-1 test as well as the NADH-dependent NBT assay. The percentage of dead cells was significantly higher in spermatozoa treated with B. ureolyticus as compared to that of control spermatozoa (P < 0.01). All the bacterial strains applied affected sperm plasma membrane architecture measured by M540 test (P < 0.01). Moreover, the presence of E. coli or B. ureolyticus was connected with significant decrease in both the number of cells with high mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) and the cells with normal oxidoreductive function of mitochondria (P < 0.05 as compared to untreated cells). To conclude, the contact of bacteria with ejaculated spermatozoa can be a reason for severe injury of sperm membrane stability and mitochondrial activity with potential consequences for male fertility. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Morphological study of boar sperm during their passage through the female genital tract

    PubMed Central

    GARCÍA-VÁZQUEZ, Francisco Alberto; HERNÁNDEZ-CARAVACA, Iván; MATÁS, Carmen; SORIANO-ÚBEDA, Cristina; ABRIL-SÁNCHEZ, Silvia; IZQUIERDO-RICO, María José

    2015-01-01

    Once deposited in the female tract, sperm face a series of challenges that must be overcome to ensure the presence of an adequate normal sperm population close to the site of fertilization. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of the uterine milieu on boar sperm morphology. In experiment 1, sperm morphology was evaluated in the backflow (60 min after insemination) and within the uterotubal junction (UTJ) (collected ~24 h after insemination) following intrauterine sperm deposition (n = 6) and compared with the morphology of the sperm in the insemination dose. In experiment 2, the influence of the uterine fluid (UF) on sperm morphological modifications was evaluated. For this purpose, ejaculated (n = 4) and epididymal (n = 4) sperm were in vitro incubated with or without UF for 2 and 24 h. In both experiments, sperm were classified as normal, having a cytoplasmic droplet (proximal or distal) or having tail defects. The results of experiment 1 pointed to an increase in morphologically abnormal sperm collected in the backflow (27.70%) and a reduction of the same in the UTJ (2.12%) compared with the insemination dose (17.75%) (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, incubation of ejaculated sperm with UF did not provoke any morphological modifications; however, when epididymal sperm were incubated with UF, a pronounced increase in the percentage of normal sperm was evident after 24 h compared with the initial dose (from 25.77% to 53.58%, P < 0.05), mainly due to distal cytoplasmatic droplet shedding (53.22 vs. 20.20%). In conclusion, almost all the sperm that colonize the UTJ had a normal morphology, with part of the abnormal sperm having been discarded in the backflow and part selected/modified on their way to the oviduct. UF seems to influence cytoplasmic distal droplet removal, as demonstrated previously in seminal plasma. PMID:26119829

  4. Association of STin2 Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) Polymorphism of Serotonin Transporter Gene with Lifelong Premature Ejaculation: A Case-Control Study in Han Chinese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xiansheng; Gao, Jingjing; Tang, Dongdong; Gao, Pan; Peng, Dangwei; Liang, Chaozhao

    2016-01-01

    Background The STin2 VNTR polymorphism has a variable number of tandem repeats in intron 2 of the serotonin transporter gene. We aimed to explore the relationship between STin2 VNTR polymorphism and lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE). Material/Methods We recruited a total of 115 outpatients who complained of ejaculating prematurely and who were diagnosed as LPE, and 101 controls without PE complaint. Allelic variations of STin2 VNTR were genotyped using PCR-based technology. We evaluated the associations between STin2 VNTR allelic and genotypic frequencies and LPE, as well as the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of different STin2 VNTR genotypes among LPE patients. Results The patients and controls did not differ significantly in terms of any characteristic except age. A significantly higher frequency of STin2.12/12 genotype was found among LPE patients versus controls (P=0.026). Frequency of patients carrying at least 1 copy of the 10-repeat allele was significantly lower compared to the control group (28.3% vs. 41.8%, OR=0.55; 95%CI=0.31–0.97, P=0.040). In the LPE group, the mean IELT showed significant difference in STin2.12/12 genotype when compared to those with STin2.12/10 and STin2.10/10 genotypes. The mean IELT in10-repeat allele carriers was 50% longer compared to homozygous carriers of the STin2.12 allele. Conclusions Our results indicate the presence of STin2.10 allele is a protective factor for LPE. Men carrying the higher expression genotype STin2. 12/12 have shorter IELT than 10-repeat allele carriers. PMID:27713390

  5. The design and methodology of premature ejaculation interventional studies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Large well-designed clinical efficacy and safety randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are required to achieve regulatory approval of new drug treatments. The objective of this article is to make recommendations for the criteria for defining and selecting the clinical trial study population, design and efficacy outcomes measures which comprise ideal premature ejaculation (PE) interventional trial methodology. Data on clinical trial design, epidemiology, definitions, dimensions and psychological impact of PE was reviewed, critiqued and incorporated into a series of recommendations for standardisation of PE clinical trial design, outcome measures and reporting using the principles of evidence based medicine. Data from PE interventional studies are only reliable, interpretable and capable of being generalised to patients with PE, when study populations are defined by the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) multivariate definition of PE. PE intervention trials should employ a double-blind RCT methodology and include placebo control, active standard drug control, and/or dose comparison trials. Ejaculatory latency time (ELT) and subject/partner outcome measures of control, personal/partner/relationship distress and other study-specific outcome measures should be used as outcome measures. There is currently no published literature which identifies a clinically significant threshold response to intervention. The ISSM definition of PE reflects the contemporary understanding of PE and represents the state-of-the-art multi-dimensional definition of PE and is recommended as the basis of diagnosis of PE for all PE clinical trials. PMID:27652224

  6. Male sexual ornament size is positively associated with reproductive morphology and enhanced fertility in the stalk-eyed fly Teleopsis dalmanni

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Exaggerated male ornaments and displays often evolve in species where males only provide females with ejaculates during reproduction. Although "good genes" arguments are typically invoked to explain this phenomenon, a simpler alternative is possible if variation in male reproductive quality (e.g. sperm number, ejaculate content, mating rate) is an important determinant of female reproductive success. The "phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis" states that female preference for male ornaments or displays has been selected to ensure higher levels of fertility and has driven the evolution of exaggerated male traits. Females of the stalk-eyed fly Teleopsis dalmanni must mate frequently to maintain high levels of fertility and prefer to mate with males exhibiting large eyespan, a condition-dependent sexual ornament. If eyespan indicates male reproductive quality, females could directly increase their reproductive success by mating with males with large eyespan. Here we investigate whether male eyespan indicates accessory gland and testis length, and then ask whether mating with large eyespan males affects female fertility. Results Male eyespan was a better predictor of two key male reproductive traits – accessory gland and testis length – than was body size alone. This positive relationship held true over three levels of increasing environmental stress during the maturation of the adult accessory glands and testes. Furthermore, females housed with a large eyespan male exhibited higher levels of fertility than those with small eyespan males. Conclusion Male eyespan in stalk-eyed flies is subject to strong directional mate preference and is a reliable indicator of male reproductive quality – both because males with larger eyespan have bigger accessory glands and testes, and also as they confer higher fertility on females. Fertility enhancement may have arisen because males with larger eyespan mated more often and/or because they transferred more sperm or

  7. Male sexual ornament size is positively associated with reproductive morphology and enhanced fertility in the stalk-eyed fly Teleopsis dalmanni.

    PubMed

    Rogers, David W; Denniff, Matthew; Chapman, Tracey; Fowler, Kevin; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2008-08-18

    Exaggerated male ornaments and displays often evolve in species where males only provide females with ejaculates during reproduction. Although "good genes" arguments are typically invoked to explain this phenomenon, a simpler alternative is possible if variation in male reproductive quality (e.g. sperm number, ejaculate content, mating rate) is an important determinant of female reproductive success. The "phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis" states that female preference for male ornaments or displays has been selected to ensure higher levels of fertility and has driven the evolution of exaggerated male traits. Females of the stalk-eyed fly Teleopsis dalmanni must mate frequently to maintain high levels of fertility and prefer to mate with males exhibiting large eyespan, a condition-dependent sexual ornament. If eyespan indicates male reproductive quality, females could directly increase their reproductive success by mating with males with large eyespan. Here we investigate whether male eyespan indicates accessory gland and testis length, and then ask whether mating with large eyespan males affects female fertility. Male eyespan was a better predictor of two key male reproductive traits--accessory gland and testis length--than was body size alone. This positive relationship held true over three levels of increasing environmental stress during the maturation of the adult accessory glands and testes. Furthermore, females housed with a large eyespan male exhibited higher levels of fertility than those with small eyespan males. Male eyespan in stalk-eyed flies is subject to strong directional mate preference and is a reliable indicator of male reproductive quality--both because males with larger eyespan have bigger accessory glands and testes, and also as they confer higher fertility on females. Fertility enhancement may have arisen because males with larger eyespan mated more often and/or because they transferred more sperm or other substances per ejaculate. The

  8. Ejaculate collection efficiency and post-thaw semen quality in wild-caught Griffon vultures from the Sardinian population

    PubMed Central

    Madeddu, Manuela; Berlinguer, Fiammetta; Ledda, Massimo; Leoni, Giovanni G; Satta, Valentina; Succu, Sara; Rotta, Andrea; Pasciu, Valeria; Zinellu, Angelo; Muzzeddu, Marco; Carru, Ciriaco; Naitana, Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to test the feasibility of a programme of semen collection and cryopreservation in Griffon vultures. Four wild-caught individuals kept in captivity because of unrecoverable traumas were used. Semen collection attempts were made twice a week during three consecutive reproductive seasons (December – March) using the abdominal massage method. Ejaculation was successfully induced between late January and late February. Semen collection efficiency was rather low (27.9%) and it did not vary among individuals (p > 0.05). No differences were found in ejaculate volumes (12.5 +/- 9.1 μl), spermatozoa concentration (28.4 +/- 30.9 million cells/ml) and viability (61.3 +/- 13.9%) among the 4 vultures. ATP values differed among the four vultures (p < 0.001); B showed higher nucleotide concentration than both C and D, while it did not differ form A, whose values were higher compared with D. After freezing and thawing, semen in vitro viability, DNA integrity and ATP intracellular concentration were determined. Spermatozoa viability after thawing did not differ among the four individuals (52.6 +/- 5.8 in A, 53.4 +/- 4.6 in B, 50.4 +/- 3.2 in C, 42.5 +/- 2.7 in D), but it decreased significantly compared to fresh semen (p < 0.05). During 4 hrs in vitro culture, spermatozoa collected from B maintained over time a higher viability in vitro when compared to A, C and D. As evaluated by the comet assay method, DNA fragmentation after freezing and thawing did not differ in the 4 vultures. ATP concentration in frozen/thawed semen was significantly lower than in fresh semen (p < 0.0001). This study indicates that semen cryopreservation can be considered as a useful tool in the conservation of Griffon vulture genetic resources, but further studies are needed to optimize this technique. PMID:19228408

  9. Being a Female Veteran: A Grounded Theory of Coping With Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Burkhart, Lisa; Hogan, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Female veterans, the fastest growing segment in the military, have unique pre-military histories and military experiences that are associated with post-military physical and mental health service needs. Successful treatment is contingent on a clearer understanding of the processes underlying these experiences. Data from 20 female veterans who served post–Gulf War were analyzed to generate a substantive theory of the process of women who entered, served in, and transitioned out of the military. Coping with transitions emerged as the basic psychosocial process used by female veterans. The Coping with transitions process is comprised of seven categories: Choosing the Military, Adapting to the Military, Being in the Military, Being a Female in the Military, Departing the Military, Experiencing Stressors of Being a Civilian, and Making Meaning of Being a Veteran-Civilian. The results of this study provide a theoretical description of the process female veterans experience when transitioning from a civilian identity, through military life stressors and adaptations, toward gaining a dual identity of being a veteran-civilian. PMID:25745366

  10. Factors facilitating and inhibiting the use of female condoms among female university students in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mahlalela, Nomsa Brightness; Maharaj, Pranitha

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the factors facilitating and inhibiting female condom use among female university students in South Africa. This qualitative study drew on 15 individual, in-depth interviews with female university students in Durban, South Africa. The results of the study highlight several factors that facilitate and inhibit female condom use. Protection from sexually transmitted infections (including HIV/AIDS) and prevention of pregnancy facilitated use of the device among female students. In addition, students expressed positive attitudes towards the female condom and preferred it to hormonal contraceptives because it offered them dual protection. Absence of side effects and greater power and autonomy to initiate safer sex were other factors that facilitated use. Inadequate availability, partner objection, stigma, insertion difficulties and lack of awareness served as significant barriers to consistent female condom use. Although the female condom can protect female students from infections and pregnancy, there are several barriers to its use. Interventions should aim to increase availability of the female condom, and male involvement should be increased to facilitate consistent use of the method.

  11. Female social preference for males that have evolved via monogamy: evidence of a trade-off between pre- and post-copulatory sexually selected traits?

    PubMed

    Firman, Renée C

    2014-10-01

    When females mate with multiple males both pre- and post-copulatory sexual selections occur. It has been suggested that females benefit from polyandry when better-quality males are successful in sperm competition and sire high-quality offspring. Indeed, studies of experimental evolution have confirmed that sperm competition selects for both increased ejaculate quality and elevated offspring viability. Fewer investigations have explored whether these fitness benefits are evident beyond early life-history stages. Here, I used house mice (Mus domesticus) from selection lines that had been evolving for 25 generations under either polygamy or monogamy to test whether females preferred males from lines that had evolved with sperm competition. Males from the polygamous lines had previously been shown to achieve a fitness advantage under semi-natural conditions, deeming them to be of high genetic quality and leading to the a priori expectation that females would prefer males that had evolved with sperm competition compared with males that had not. Contrary to expectation, the data showed that sexually receptive females spent more time associating with males from the monogamous lines. This unexpected but interesting result is discussed in relation to sperm competition theory that predicts a trade-off between male investment in pre- and post-copulatory sexually selected traits. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. Subcellular localization of calcium deposits in the noble crayfish Astacus astacus spermatophore: Implications for post-mating spermatophore hardening and spermatozoon maturation.

    PubMed

    Niksirat, Hamid; Kouba, Antonín

    2016-04-01

    The freshly ejaculated spermatophore of crayfish undergoes a hardening process during post-mating storage on the body surface of female. The ultrastructural distribution of calcium deposits were studied and compared in freshly ejaculated and post-mating noble crayfish spermatophores, using the oxalate-pyroantimonate technique, to determine possible roles of calcium in post-mating spermatophore hardening and spermatozoon maturation. Small particles of sparsely distributed calcium deposits were visible in the wall of freshly ejaculated spermatophore. Also, large amount of calcium deposits were visible in the membranes of the freshly ejaculated spermatozoon. Five minutes post-ejaculation, granules in the spermatophore wall appeared as porous formations with numerous electron lucent spaces. Calcium deposits were visible within the spaces and scattered in the spermatophore wall matrix, where smaller calcium deposits combined to form globular calcium deposits. Large numbers of the globular calcium deposits were visible in the wall of the post-mating spermatophore. Smaller calcium deposits were detected in the central area of post-mating spermatophore, which contains the sperm mass, and in the extracellular matrix and capsule. While the density of calcium deposits decreased in the post-mating spermatozoon membranes, numerous small calcium deposits appeared in the subacrosomal zone and nucleus. Substantial changes in calcium deposit distribution in the crayfish spermatophore during post-mating storage on the body of female may be involved in the processes of the spermatophore hardening and spermatozoon maturation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Phenotypic engineering unveils the function of genital morphology.

    PubMed

    Hotzy, Cosima; Polak, Michal; Rönn, Johanna L; Arnqvist, Göran

    2012-12-04

    The rapidly evolving and often extraordinarily complex appearance of male genital morphology of internally fertilizing animals has been recognized for centuries. Postcopulatory sexual selection is regarded as the likely evolutionary engine of this diversity, but direct support for this hypothesis is limited. We used two complementary approaches, evolution through artificial selection and microscale laser surgery, to experimentally manipulate genital morphology in an insect model system. We then assessed the competitive fertilization success of these phenotypically manipulated males and studied the fate of their ejaculate in females using high-resolution radioisotopic labeling of ejaculates. Males with longer genital spines were more successful in gaining fertilizations, providing experimental evidence that male genital morphology influences success in postcopulatory reproductive competition. Furthermore, a larger proportion of the ejaculate moved from the reproductive tract into the female body following mating with males with longer spines, suggesting that genital spines increase the rate at which seminal fluid passes into the female hemolymph. Our results show that genital morphology affects male competitive fertilization success and imply that sexual selection on genital morphology may be mediated in part through seminal fluid. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Concentrations of gatifloxacin in plasma and urine and penetration into prostatic and seminal fluid, ejaculate, and sperm cells after single oral administrations of 400 milligrams to volunteers.

    PubMed

    Naber, C K; Steghafner, M; Kinzig-Schippers, M; Sauber, C; Sörgel, F; Stahlberg, H J; Naber, K G

    2001-01-01

    Gatifloxacin (GTX), a new fluoroquinolone with extended antibacterial activity, is an interesting candidate for the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP). Besides the antibacterial spectrum, the concentrations in the target tissues and fluids are crucial for the treatment of CBP. Thus, it was of interest to investigate its penetration into prostatic and seminal fluid. GTX concentrations in plasma, urine, ejaculate, prostatic and seminal fluid, and sperm cells were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography method after oral intake of a single 400-mg dose in 10 male Caucasian volunteers in the fasting state. Simultaneous application of the renal contrast agent iohexol was used to estimate the maximal possible contamination of ejaculate and prostatic and seminal fluid by urine. GTX was well tolerated. The means (standard deviations) for the following parameters were as indicated: time to maximum concentration of drug in serum, 1.66 (0. 91) h; maximum concentration of drug in serum, 2.90 (0.39) microg/ml; area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h, 25.65 microg. h/ml; and half life, 7.2 (0.90) h. Within 12 h about 50% of the drug was excreted unchanged into the urine. The mean renal clearance was 169 ml/min. The gatifloxacin concentrations in ejaculate, seminal fluid, and prostatic fluid were in the range of the corresponding plasma concentrations which were 1.92 (0.27) microg/ml at approximately the same time point (4 h after drug intake). The concentrations in sperm cells (0.195, 0.076, and 0.011 microg/ml) could be determined in three subjects. The good penetration into prostatic and seminal fluid, the good tolerance, and the previously reported broad antibacterial spectrum suggest that GTX may be a good alternative for the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis. Clinical studies should be performed to confirm this assumption.

  15. Management of ejaculatory disorders in infertile men

    PubMed Central

    Barazani, Yagil; Stahl, Peter J; Nagler, Harris M; Stember, Doron S

    2012-01-01

    Ejaculatory dysfunction is a highly prevalent clinical condition that may be classified along a continuum that ranges from premature ejaculation (PE), through retarded or delayed ejaculation (DE), to complete anejaculation (AE). Retrograde ejaculation (RE) represents a distinct entity in which ejaculate is expelled either partially or completely into the bladder. While DE and PE are significant sources of sexual dissatisfaction among men and their partners, patients with these disorders retain normal fertility in most cases. Conversely, men with AE and RE are unable to deliver sperm into the female genital tract and are therefore rendered subfertile. Therefore, in reviewing ejaculatory disorders as they relate to fertility, this paper will primarily focus on the diagnosis and management of AE and RE. Physiology, diagnostic strategies, pharmacological treatments, and procedural interventions relevant to AE and RE are discussed. PMID:22580636

  16. Predicting Volleyball Serve-Reception

    PubMed Central

    Paulo, Ana; Zaal, Frank T. J. M.; Fonseca, Sofia; Araújo, Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Serve and serve-reception performance have predicted success in volleyball. Given the impact of serve-reception on the game, we aimed at understanding what it is in the serve and receiver's actions that determines the selection of the type of pass used in serve-reception and its efficacy. Four high-level volleyball players received jump-float serves from four servers in two reception zones—zone 1 and 5. The ball and the receiver's head were tracked with two video cameras, allowing 3D world-coordinates reconstruction. Logistic-regression models were used to predict the type of pass used (overhand or underhand) and serve-reception efficacy (error, out, or effective) from variables related with the serve kinematics and related with the receiver's on-court positioning and movement. Receivers' initial position was different when in zone 1 and 5. This influenced the serve-related variables as well as the type of pass used. Strong predictors of using an underhand rather than overhand pass were higher ball contact of the server, reception in zone 1, receiver's initial position more to the back of the court and backward receiver movement. Receiver's larger longitudinal displacements and an initial position more to the back of the court had a strong relationship with the decreasing of the serve-reception efficacy. Receivers' positioning and movement were the factors with the largest impact on the type of pass used and the efficacy of the reception. Reception zone affected the variance in the ball's kinematics (with the exception of the ball's lateral displacement), as well as in the receivers' positioning (distances from the net and from the target). Also the reception zone was associated with the type of pass used by the receiver but not with reception efficacy. Given volleyball's rotation rule, the receiver needs to master receiving in the different reception zones; he/she needs to adapt to the diverse constraints of each zone to maintain performance efficacy. Thus

  17. Sexual Harassment by Males Reduces Female Fecundity in the Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee (Megachile rotundata)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Under sexual conflict, males evolve traits to increase their mating and reproductive success that impose costs on females. Females evolve counter-adaptations to resist males and reduce those costs. Female resistance may instead serve as a mechanism for mate choice if the male-imposed costs are outwe...

  18. Impact of male condition on his spermatophore and consequences for female reproductive performance in the Glanville fritillary butterfly.

    PubMed

    Duplouy, Anne; Woestmann, Luisa; Gallego Zamorano, Juan; Saastamoinen, Marjo

    2018-04-01

    In butterflies, male reproductive success is highly related to the quality and the size of the spermatophore transferred to the female. The spermatophore is a capsule produced by the male during copulation, which in many species contains sperm in addition to a nuptial gift, and which is digested by the female after copulation. The nuptial gift may contribute to egg production and offspring quality, and in some cases also to female body maintenance. The production of the spermatophore, however, represents a cost for the male and, in polyandrous species, ejaculates are sometimes allocated adaptively across matings. Nonetheless, although the ecological factors affecting the reproductive success of female butterflies have been the topic of numerous studies, little information exists on the factors affecting males' contribution to reproduction, and the indirect impacts on female fecundity and fitness. We used the Glanville fritillary butterfly, Melitaea cinxia (Linnaeus, 1758) (Nymphalidae), in order to assess variation in male allocation to matings. In this species, smaller males produce smaller spermatophores, but variation in spermatophore size is not correlated with female reproductive success. We show that spermatophore size increases with male age at first mating, decreases with mating frequency and adult food-deprivation, and is not influenced by developmental food-limitation. The length of copulation period does not influence the spermatophore size nor influences the polyandrous mating behavior in this species. Male contribution to his spermatophore size is clearly influenced by his condition and adult-resource at the time of mating. Despite this variation, spermatophore size does not seem to have a direct impact on female reproductive output or mating behavior. © 2016 The Authors Insect Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Joint angles during successful and unsuccessful tennis serves kinematics of tennis serve.

    PubMed

    Göktepe, Ayhan; Ak, Emre; Söğüt, Mustafa; Karabörk, Hakan; Korkusuz, Feza

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the joint angle differences in successful and unsuccessful tennis serves of junior tennis players. Nine healthy junior tennis players (5 girls, 4 boys; mean age 11.8+/-0.8 years; height 153.6+/-7.2 cm; body mass index 42.3+/-4.1 kg; playing experience 6.2+/-1.5 years) volunteered to participate in this study. They were asked to perform tennis serves as fast as they can as if they were in an actual game. Successful and unsuccessful serves were recorded using two high speed cameras and then analyzed using Pictran software. Angle changes in pre-impact, impact and post-impact phases were compared. The results of paired sample t-tests revealed nosignificant differences between successful and unsuccessful tennis serves in all three phases. This study failed to show differences between successful and unsuccessful tennis serves in pre-impact, impact and post-impact phases. However, future research with more detailed analyses would be needed to reveal the possible changes in the joints while serving.

  20. Detection of invariant natural killer T cells in ejaculates from infertile patients with chronic inflammation of genital tract.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yong-Gang; Chen, Shujian; Haidl, Gerhard; Allam, Jean-Pierre

    2017-08-01

    Chronic inflammation of genital tract is thought to play a major role in male fertility disorder. Natural killer (NK) T cells are a heterogeneous group of T cells that share properties of both T cells and NK cells which display immunoregulatory properties. However, little is known regarding the presence and function of NK T cells in ejaculates from patients with chronic inflammation of genital tract. Invariant NK T (iNK T) cells were detected by invariant (Vα24-JαQ) TCR chain in ejaculates from patients suffering from chronic inflammation of genital tract (CIGT) using flow cytometry and immunofluorescence of double staining (n=40). Inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-17, and IFN-γ were detected in cell-free seminal plasma using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The correlation between the percentage of iNK T cells and spermatozoa count, motility, vitality, seminal IL-6, IL-17, and IFN-γ was investigated. Significant percentages of iNK T cells above 10% were detected in 50% (CIGT-NKT + group). A negative correlation was detected between the percentage of iNK T cells and spermatozoa count (r=-.5957, P=.0056), motility (r=-.6163, P=.0038), and vitality (r=-.8032, P=.0019) in CIGT-NKT + group (n=20). Interestingly, a significant correlation of iNK T cells to seminal IL-6 (r=.7083, P=.0005), IFN-γ (r=.9578, P<.0001) was detected whereas lack of correlation between iNK T cells and IL-17 (r=-.1557, P=.5122) in CIGT-NKT + group. The proliferative response of iNK T cells could accompany an inflammatory response to spermatozoa and consequently influence sperm quality through secretion of IFN-γ but not IL-17 under chronic inflammatory condition. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Self-reported premature ejaculation prevalence and characteristics in Korean young males: community-based data from an internet survey.

    PubMed

    Son, Hwancheol; Song, Sang Hoon; Kim, Soo Woong; Paick, Jae-Seung

    2010-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is suspected to be the most prevalent male sexual complaint, and the prevalence of PE is considerably high also in the younger generation. We investigated the PE prevalence based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed text revision; DSM-IV-TR) definition and the risk factors of PE in Korean young men via Internet survey. Subjects (n = 3980) aged from 20 to 59, who performed sexual intercourse more than once a month during the past 6 months were asked to participate in this study. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire that consisted of questions on general, medical, and sexual history related to ejaculation. A total of 600 subjects were included in this study. PE prevalence was found to be 18.3%. Prevalences were not significantly different across age groups, after excluding subjects with erectile dysfunction (ED). Educational level, marital status and duration, average income, sexual orientation, smoking, alcohol consumption, and circumcision status showed no difference in the PE and non-PE groups. Partners perceived satisfaction rates were 45.0% in the PE group and 63.9% in the non-PE group. Significant differences were found between the PE and non-PE groups in terms of ED, obesity, and depression prevalence. However, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the significant risk factors of PE were age and the frequency of conversations with partners about sexual intercourse. This Internet-based study is limited because participants probably represent a selected population of Internet users with non-representative educational and socioeconomic profiles. This study is the first to report the prevalence of both self-reported PE and PE on the basis of the DSM-IV-TR definition in the Korean population. This study demonstrates that PE in Korea is as prevalent as it is in European countries and the United States.

  2. Tempered Radicals and Servant Leaders: Black Females Persevering in the Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Judy A.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the small numbers of Black female superintendents and the overwhelming obstacles of the position, Black women who serve as public school superintendents continue to meet the challenges of educational leadership and are flourishing in their jobs. As noted in previous research on Black women in the superintendency and Black female leaders in…

  3. Current Challenges in Female Veterans' Health

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, Eileen M.; Mallampalli, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Women in the U.S. military are technically barred from serving in combat specialties, positions, or units; however, since Operation Desert Storm, women have served in forward positions in greater numbers. This increased involvement in combat zones has resulted in exposures to trauma, injury, and a myriad of environmental hazards associated with modern war. Some of these hazards present new health risks specifically relevant to women who have been deployed to or recently returned from Iraq or Afghanistan or both. To address this evolving public health concern, the Society for Women's Health Research (SWHR) convened a 1-day interdisciplinary scientific conference, with speakers and attendees from civilian, military, and veteran settings. The purpose of the conference was to reveal the state-of-the-science on the health of the female veteran and to focus attention on recent advances in biomedical research related to female veterans' health. The following topics were discussed: mental health (posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD] and depression), urogenital health, musculoskeletal health, and traumatic brain injury (TBI). PMID:22876756

  4. Rare male aggression directed toward females in a female-dominated society: Baiting behavior in the spotted hyena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szykman, Micaela; Engh, Anne L.; Van Horn, Russell C.; Boydston, Erin E.; Scribner, Kim T.; Holekamp, Kay E.

    2003-01-01

    Spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) are gregarious carnivores. The females are socially dominant to males, and adult males rarely direct aggression toward adult females. This study analyzed all cases in which adult immigrant males behaved aggressively toward adult females in a large population of free-living hyenas in Kenya, observed for 11 years. Our goals were to describe the conditions under which male attacks on females occur, and address possible adaptive functions. Most aggression directed by adult immigrant males against females occurred when coalitions of two or more males attacked a single adult female, who typically responded by defending herself and fighting back. Male aggression against females frequently occurred at sites of ungulate kills, but males never behaved aggressively toward females over food, and all male attacks on females were unprovoked. Although no mounting or other copulatory behaviors ever occurred during or immediately after an attack, the number of male attacks on females peaked around the time of conception. Daily rates at which males attacked females did not vary with female social rank. However, daily attack rates did vary significantly with female reproductive state, and the highest rates of male attack on females were observed during the two stages of the reproductive cycle during which females were most likely to conceive litters. The adaptive significance of male aggression against females in this species remains unknown, but a tight association between male attacks on females and a female's time of conception provides strong evidence of some role for male aggression in hyena sexual behavior. In particular, our data are consistent with hypotheses suggesting that male aggression toward females in this species either serves to inform females about male fitness or represents sexual harassment.

  5. Hispanic-Serving Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Lee; Glasscock, Herlinda M.; Glasscock, Ronnie L.; Fulton-Calkins, Patsy J.

    2006-01-01

    The article examines student tuition, ad valorem property taxes, and state appropriations utilizing a revenue-per-contact-hour model to identify disparities in the Texas' community college funding mechanism. Methodology is presented to identify differences between and among Caucasian-serving, African-American-serving, Hispanic-serving, and other…

  6. Experiences of forced sex among female patrons of alcohol-serving venues in a South African township.

    PubMed

    Watt, Melissa H; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Abler, Laurie; Velloza, Jennifer; Eaton, Lisa A; Kalichman, Seth C; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree

    2015-05-01

    South Africa has among the highest rates of forced sex worldwide, and alcohol use has consistently been associated with risk of forced sex in South Africa. However, methodological challenges affect the accuracy of forced sex measurements. This study explored the assessment of forced sex among South African women attending alcohol-serving venues and identified factors associated with reporting recent forced sex. Women (n = 785) were recruited from 12 alcohol-serving venues in a peri-urban township in Cape Town. Brief self-administered surveys included questions about lifetime and recent experiences of forced sex. Surveys included a single question about forced sex and detailed questions about sex by physical force, threats, verbal persuasion, trickery, and spiked drinks. We first compared the single question about forced sex to a composite variable of forced sex as unwanted sex by physical force, threats, or spiked drinks. We then examined potential predictors of recent forced sex (demographics, drinking behavior, relationship to the venue, abuse experiences). The single question about forced sex had low sensitivity (0.38); more than half of the respondents who reported on the detailed questions that they had experienced forced sex by physical force, threats, or spiked drinks reported on the single question item that they had not experienced forced sex. Using our composite variable, 18.6% of women reported lifetime and 10.8% reported recent experiences of forced sex. In our adjusted logistic regression model, recent forced sex using the composite variable was significantly associated with hazardous drinking (OR = 1.92), living farther from the venue (OR = 1.81), recent intimate partner violence (OR = 2.53), and a history of childhood sexual abuse (OR = 4.35). The findings support the need for additional work to refine the assessment of forced sex. Efforts to prevent forced sex should target alcohol-serving venues, where norms and behaviors may present particular

  7. The Effects of Total Motile Sperm Count on Spontaneous Pregnancy Rate and Pregnancy After IUI Treatment in Couples with Male Factor and Unexplained Infertility.

    PubMed

    Hajder, Mithad; Hajder, Elmira; Husic, Amela

    2016-02-01

    Male infertility factor is defined if the total number of motile spermatozoa (TMSC) < 20 × 10(6)/ejaculated, and unexplained infertility if spermiogram is normal with normal female factor. of this study was to determine the predictive value of TMSC for spontaneous pregnancy (ST) and pregnancy after treatment with intrauterine insemination (IUI) in couples with male factor and unexplained infertility. According to the WHO qualification system abnormal spermiogram can be diagnosed as oligozoospermia (O), asthenozoospermia (A), teratozoospermia (T) or combination (O+A+T) and azoospermia (A). Although this classification indicates the accuracy of findings its relevance for prognosis in infertile couple and the choice of treatment is questionable. The study included 98 couples with male infertility factor (bad spermiogram) and couples with normospermia and normal female factor (unexplained infertility). Testing group is randomized at: group (A) with TMSC> 3,10(6) / ejaculate and a spontaneous pregnancy, group (B) with TMSCl <3 x 10(6) / ejaculate and pregnancy after IUI, plus couples who have not achieved SP with TMSC> 3 x 10(6) / ejaculate and couples who have not achieved pregnancy. From a total of 98 pairs of men's and unexplained infertility, 42 of them (42.8%) achieved spontaneous pregnancy, while 56 (57.2%) pairs did not achieve spontaneous pregnancy. TMSC was significantly higher (42.4 ± 28.4 vs. 26.2 ± 24, p <0.05) in the group A compared to group B. Couples with TMSC 1-5 × 10(6) ejaculate had significantly lower (9.8% vs. 22.2%, p <0.0001) rate of spontaneous pregnancy in comparison to couples after IUI treatment. Couples with unexplained infertility had significantly higher (56.8% vs. 29.9%, p <0.01) spontaneous pregnancy rate compared to couples after IUI treatment. Infertile couples had significant pregnancy rate with TMSC 5-10 x 10(6) / ejaculate (OR = 1.45, 95% CI:1.26-1.78, <0.01); with TMSC 10-20 x 10(6) / ejaculate (OR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1:12 to 1

  8. Complicating a Latina/o-Serving Identity at a Hispanic Serving Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Gina A.

    2016-01-01

    As institutions not founded to "serve" Latina/o students, Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs) are criticized for solely being "Hispanic-enrolling," with access and graduation rates being hypothesized as indicators of an organizational identity for HSIs. Drawing from a case study with 88 participants, the purpose of this…

  9. Reproductive toxicity: Male and female reproductive systems as targets for chemical injury

    SciTech Connect

    Mattison, D.R.; Plowchalk, D.R.; Meadows, M.J.

    On the basis of current knowledge of reproductive biology and toxicology, it is apparent that chemicals affecting reproduction may elicit their effects at a number of sites in both the male and the female reproductive system. This multiplicity of targets is attributable to the dynamic nature of the reproductive system, in which the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is controlled by precise positive and negative feedback mechanisms among its components. Interference by a xenobiotic at any level in either the male or the female reproductive system may ultimately impair hypothalamic or pituitary function. Normal gonadal processes such as spermatogenesis or oogenesis, ejaculation ormore » ovulation, hormone production by Leydig or granulosa cells, and the structure or function of the accessory reproductive structures (e.g., epididymis, fallopian tube) also appear vulnerable to xenobiotics. The reproductive system is a complex one that requires local and circulating hormones for control. This brief review illustrates a system for characterizing the mechanism of action of reproductive toxicants, as well as for defining the sites available for disruption of reproduction. Unfortunately, at present, data addressing the actual vulnerability of reproduction are sorely lacking. However, when experiments have been conducted and combined with epidemiologic data or clinical observation, it has been possible to demonstrate impairment of reproductive processes by xenobiotics. The role of environmental exposure to xenobiotics in the increase in infertility that has been observed remains to be defined. 87 references.« less

  10. A study of the prostate, androgens and sexual activity of male rats

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Maria Elena; Soto-Cid, Abraham; Aranda-Abreu, Gonzalo E; Díaz, Rosaura; Rojas, Fausto; Garcia, Luis I; Toledo, Rebeca; Manzo, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    Background The prostate is a sexual gland that produces important substances for the potency of sperm to fertilize eggs within the female reproductive tract, and is under complex endocrine control. Taking advantage of the peculiar behavioral pattern of copulating male rats, we developed experimental paradigms to determine the influence of sexual behavior on the level of serum testosterone, prostate androgen receptors, and mRNA for androgen receptors in male rats displaying up to four consecutive ejaculations. Methods The effect of four consecutive ejaculations was investigated by determining levels of (i) testosterone in serum by solid phase RIA, (ii) androgen receptors at the ventral prostate with Western Blots, and (iii) androgen receptors-mRNA with RT-PCR. Data were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA followed by a post hoc application of Dunnett's test if required. Results The constant execution of sexual behavior did not produce any change in the weight of the ventral prostate. Serum testosterone increased after the second ejaculation, and remained elevated even after four ejaculations. The androgen receptor at the ventral prostate was higher after the first to third ejaculations, but returned suddenly to baseline levels after the fourth ejaculation. The level of mRNA increased after the first ejaculation, continued to increase after the second, and reached the highest peak after the third ejaculation; however, it returned suddenly to baseline levels after the fourth ejaculation. Conclusion Four consecutive ejaculations by sexually experienced male rats had important effects on the physiological responses of the ventral prostate. Fast responses were induced as a result of sexual behavior that involved an increase and decrease in androgen receptors after one and four ejaculations, respectively. However, a progressive response was observed in the elevation of mRNA for androgen receptors, which also showed a fast decrease after four ejaculations. All of these changes

  11. [Clinical comments on female homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Zeul, M

    1993-02-01

    In psychoanalytic theory, homosexual women are regarded as being possessed by violent hatred of the mother. They are held to identify with the male or the phallic and to display an absence of "normal" femaleness. Their attendant immaturity makes them incapable of love. The author takes issue with the assumption that normality is synonymous with mature, reciprocal heterosexuality. With reference to a case study of a homosexual woman, she traces the structure of a lesbian love relationship. The patient is the involuntary witness of sexual intercourse between the parents. The mixture of alarm and excitement which this arouses sparks off female desires that revive early libidinous experiences with the mother. The girl desires her mother, without however identifying with the father. In her later relationships with women she does not relate to her partners as a disguised man but as a woman. Identification with the father serves as a defence against the desire for-and the fear of-identification at a female level.

  12. Bat Dynamics of Female Fast Pitch Softball Batters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messier, Stephen P.; Owen, Marjorie G.

    1984-01-01

    Female fast pitch softball batters served in an examination of the dynamic characteristics of the bat during the swing through the use of three-dimensional cinematographic analysis techniques. These results were compared with those from previous studies of baseball batting. Findings are listed. (Author/DF)

  13. Psychometric validation of a sexual quality of life questionnaire for use in men with premature ejaculation or erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Lucy; Symonds, Tara; Morris, Mark F

    2008-03-01

    An instrument that can systematically capture the impact of sexual dysfunction on quality of life (QoL) in men is needed. To psychometrically validate a sexual QoL instrument for men (SQOL-M) with premature ejaculation (PE) or erectile dysfunction (ED). The main assessment populations were men participating in clinical trials of treatments for PE or ED. Men with PE had a confirmed intravaginal ejaculatory latency time of < or = 2 minutes in > or = 70% of attempts. Men with ED had a score of > 21 on the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF). Confirmatory psychometric testing was conducted in further groups of men with PE. The internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, test-retest reliability, and known-groups validity of the instrument were assessed. An 11-item version of the SQOL-M was produced following factor analyses on men with either PE or ED. Psychometric testing showed no overlap between items and good item-total correlations. Factor analysis confirmed a one-factor solution. Excellent internal consistency was demonstrated, with a Cronbach's alpha of > or = 0.82 in all groups. In men reporting no change in their symptoms, the SQOL-M showed excellent test-retest reliability: the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.77 for men with PE, and 0.79 for men with ED. Convergent validity was also good. In men with PE, the SQOL-M correlated with the satisfaction and distress domains of the Index of Premature Ejaculation. In men with ED, the SQOL-M correlated with the overall satisfaction domain of the IIEF. The measure also demonstrated excellent discriminant validity between men with PE or ED and men with no sexual dysfunction (P < 0.0001). The SQOL-M instrument is a useful tool for evaluating sexual QoL in men with PE and ED.

  14. A Helpful Serving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockower, David

    2006-01-01

    This article briefly describes how a fifth-grade class collaborated with a downtown diner for several months and then actually ran the restaurant for four hours. Through the Chatters Cafe, a local high school cafe that serves as a culinary arts training ground for high school students, fifth graders had the opportunity to prepare and serve dinner…

  15. The role of sexual preferences in intrasexual female competition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While search costs have long been understood to affect the evolution of female preference, other costs associated with mating have been the focus of much less attention. Here I consider a novel mate choice cost: female-female intrasexual competition, that is, when females compete with each other for mates. This competition results in cost to female fecundity, such as a reduction in fertility due to decreased direct benefits, sperm limitation, or time and resources spent competing for a mate. I asked if female-female competition affects the evolution of preferences, and further, if the presence of multiple, different, preferences in a population can reduce competitive costs. Results Using population genetic models of preference and trait evolution, I found that intrasexual competition leads to direct selection against female preferences, and restricts the parameter space under which preference may evolve. I also examined how multiple, different, preferences affected preference evolution with female intrasexual competition. Conclusions Multiple preferences primarily serve to increase competitive costs and decrease the range of parameters under which preferences may evolve. PMID:23148567

  16. Concentrations of Gatifloxacin in Plasma and Urine and Penetration into Prostatic and Seminal Fluid, Ejaculate, and Sperm Cells after Single Oral Administrations of 400 Milligrams to Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Naber, Christoph K.; Steghafner, Michaela; Kinzig-Schippers, Martina; Sauber, Christian; Sörgel, Fritz; Stahlberg, Hans-Jürgen; Naber, Kurt G.

    2001-01-01

    Gatifloxacin (GTX), a new fluoroquinolone with extended antibacterial activity, is an interesting candidate for the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP). Besides the antibacterial spectrum, the concentrations in the target tissues and fluids are crucial for the treatment of CBP. Thus, it was of interest to investigate its penetration into prostatic and seminal fluid. GTX concentrations in plasma, urine, ejaculate, prostatic and seminal fluid, and sperm cells were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography method after oral intake of a single 400-mg dose in 10 male Caucasian volunteers in the fasting state. Simultaneous application of the renal contrast agent iohexol was used to estimate the maximal possible contamination of ejaculate and prostatic and seminal fluid by urine. GTX was well tolerated. The means (standard deviations) for the following parameters were as indicated: time to maximum concentration of drug in serum, 1.66 (0.91) h; maximum concentration of drug in serum, 2.90 (0.39) μg/ml; area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h, 25.65 μg · h/ml; and half life, 7.2 (0.90) h. Within 12 h about 50% of the drug was excreted unchanged into the urine. The mean renal clearance was 169 ml/min. The gatifloxacin concentrations in ejaculate, seminal fluid, and prostatic fluid were in the range of the corresponding plasma concentrations which were 1.92 (0.27) μg/ml at approximately the same time point (4 h after drug intake). The concentrations in sperm cells (0.195, 0.076, and 0.011 μg/ml) could be determined in three subjects. The good penetration into prostatic and seminal fluid, the good tolerance, and the previously reported broad antibacterial spectrum suggest that GTX may be a good alternative for the treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis. Clinical studies should be performed to confirm this assumption. PMID:11120980

  17. How patient-centered do female physicians need to be? Analogue patients' satisfaction with male and female physicians' identical behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hall, Judith A; Roter, Debra L; Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Mast, Marianne Schmid; Pitegoff, Curtis A

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that female physicians may not receive appropriate credit in patients' eyes for their patient-centered skills compared to their male counterparts. An experiment was conducted to determine whether a performance of higher (versus lower) verbal patient-centeredness would result in a greater difference in analogue patient satisfaction for male than female physicians. Two male and two female actors portrayed physicians speaking to a patient using high or low patient-centered scripts while not varying their nonverbal cues. One hundred ninety-two students served as analogue patients by assuming the patient role while watching one of the videos and rating their satisfaction and other evaluative responses to the physician. Greater verbal patient-centeredness had a stronger positive effect on satisfaction and evaluations for male than for female physicians. This pattern is consistent with the hypothesis that the different associations between patient-centeredness and patients' satisfaction for male versus female physicians occur because of the overlap between stereotypical female behavior and behaviors that comprise patient-centered medical care. If this is the case, high verbal patient-centered behavior by female physicians is not recognized as a marker of clinical competence, as it is for male physicians, but is rather seen as expected female behavior.

  18. Sperm as moderators of environmentally induced paternal effects in a livebearing fish.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P; Lymbery, Rowan A; Wiid, Kyle S; Rahman, Md Moshiur; Gasparini, Clelia

    2017-04-01

    Until recently, paternal effects-the influence of fathers on their offspring due to environmental factors rather than genes-were largely discarded or assumed to be confined to species exhibiting paternal care. It is now recognized that paternal effects can be transmitted through the ejaculate, but unambiguous evidence for them is scarce, because it is difficult to isolate effects operating via changes to the ejaculate from maternal effects driven by female mate assessment. Here, we use artificial insemination to disentangle mate assessment from fertilization in guppies, and show that paternal effects can be transmitted to offspring exclusively via ejaculates. We show that males fed reduced diets produce poor-quality sperm and that offspring sired by such males (via artificial insemination) exhibit reduced body size at birth. These findings may have important implications for the many mating systems in which environmentally induced changes in ejaculate quality have been reported. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. African American Female Superintendents: Resilient School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bernadeia H.

    2012-01-01

    Six African American female superintendents who had served as superintendents in at least 2 school districts were interviewed to understand ways in which they responded to barriers and adversity in their roles, with a particular emphasis on issues related to sexism and racism. Study participants shared that they work to engage the community and…

  20. Cross-Fostering of Male Mice Subtly Affects Female Olfactory Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying-Juan; Zhang, Yao-Hua; Li, Lai-Fu; Du, Rui-Qing; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Zhang, Jian-Xu

    2016-01-01

    The maternal environment has been shown to influence female olfactory preferences through early chemosensory experience. However, little is known about the influence of the maternal environment on chemosignals. In this study, we used two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6 (C57) and BALB/c (BALB), and explored whether adoption could alter male chemosignals and thus influence female olfactory preferences. In Experiment 1, C57 pups were placed with BALB dams. Adult BALB females then served as the subjects in binary choice tests between paired male urine odours (BALB vs. C57, BALB vs. adopted C57 and C57 vs. adopted C57). In Experiment 2, BALB pups were placed with C57 dams, and C57 females served as the subjects in binary choice tests between paired male urine odours (C57 vs. BALB, C57 vs. adopted BALB, and BALB vs. adopted BALB). In both experiments, we found that females preferred the urine of males from different genetic backgrounds, suggesting that female olfactory preferences may be driven by genetic compatibility. Cross-fostering had subtle effects on female olfactory preferences. Although the females showed no preference between the urine odours of adopted and non-adopted males of the other strain, the BALB females preferred the urine odour of BALB males to that of adopted C57 males, whereas the C57 females showed no preference between the urine odour of C57 and adopted BALB males. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and stepwise discriminant analysis, we found that the ratios of volatile chemicals from urine and preputial gland secretions were altered in the fostered male mice; these changes may have resulted in the behavioural changes observed in the females. Overall, the results suggest that female mice prefer urine odours from males with different genetic backgrounds; this preference may be driven by genetic compatibility. The early maternal environment influences the chemosignals of males and thus may influence the olfactory preferences of

  1. Serving Alcohol at Home: What Do Most People Do? Findings from a 2001 Ontario Adult Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anglin, Lise; Giesbrecht, Norman; Ialomiteanu, Anca; Grand, Larry; Mann, Robert; McAllister, Janet

    2004-01-01

    In Ontario, some court cases have involved attempts to sue social hosts for damage caused by the behaviour of drunken guests. Such legal actions give rise to the question of risks and responsibilities accruing to social hosts who serve alcohol. Using a sample of 1395 male and female adult residents of Ontario, the authors present self-report…

  2. FEMALE CONTROL OF SPERM TRANSFER AND INTRASPECIFIC VARIATION IN SPERM PRECEDENCE: ANTECEDENTS TO THE EVOLUTION OF A COURTSHIP FOOD GIFT.

    PubMed

    Sakaluk, Scott K; Eggert, Anne-Katrin

    1996-04-01

    Manipulation of ejaculates is believed to be an important avenue of female choice throughout the animal kingdom, but evidence of its importance to sexual selection remains scarce. In crickets, such manipulation is manifest in the premature removal of the externally attached spermatophore, which may afford females an important means of postcopulatory mate choice. We tested the hypothesis that premature spermatophore removal contributes significantly to intraspecific variation in sperm precedence by (1) experimentally manipulating spermatophore attachment durations of competing male Gryllodes sigillatus and (2) employing protein electrophoresis to determine the paternity of doubly mated females. The relative spermatophore attachment durations of competing males had a significant influence on male paternity, but the pattern of sperm precedence deviated significantly from the predictions of an ideal lottery. Instead, paternity data and morphological evidence accorded best with a model of partial sperm displacement derived here. Our model is similar to a displacement model of Parker et al. in that sperm of the second male mixes instantaneously with that of the first throughout the displacement process, but the novel feature of our model is that the number of sperm displaced is only a fraction of the number of sperm transferred by the second male. Regardless of the underlying mechanism, female G. sigillatus can clearly alter the paternity of their offspring through their spermatophore-removal behavior, and employ such cryptic choice in favoring larger males and those providing larger courtship food gifts. We discuss how female control of sperm transfer and intraspecific variation in sperm precedence may be important precursors to the evolution of gift giving in insects. © 1996 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Views of Adolescent Female Youth on Physical Activity During Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Yungblut, Hope E.; Schinke, Robert J.; McGannon, Kerry R.

    2012-01-01

    Early adolescence is a time when a transition away from sport and physical activity participation is at its highest level among female youth (Hedstrom & Gould, 2004). This has led to the identification of barriers and facilitators of physical activity participation for adolescent females. Consequently there have been calls to overcome barriers and augment facilitators via the creation of gender-relevant programming. Despite these calls and efforts, a gender disparity remains, and a detailed understanding of how girls experience and interpret physical activity within the context of their lives is still lacking. The current project aimed to gain further insight into the foregoing using tenets of Interpretive Phenomenology to further understand the lived physical activity experiences of females during early adolescence, delineating their barriers to participation and the factors enabling participation. Five themes were identified and made into vignettes to facilitate understanding from adolescent females' perspectives: friends or don't know anyone, good or not good enough, fun or not fun; good feeling or gross; and peer support or peer pressure. The physical activity promotion implications for female youth are discussed within the context of these themes. Key points Please provide 3-5 bullet points of the study. Inductive qualitative methodologies can encourage the much-needed voice of female youth in sport and physical activity research. Vignettes serve, not only as a method to illustrate data, but also as a medium to teach contextually relevant information to participants and sport science service providers. The barriers and solutions to female youth engagement in physical activity are best understood through the perspectives of the intended participant. Female youth can serve as central informants in the development and analysis of research projects relating to female youth physical activity. PMID:24149121

  4. Is cunnilingus-assisted orgasm a male sperm-retention strategy?

    PubMed

    Pham, Michael N; Shackelford, Todd K; Sela, Yael; Welling, Lisa Lm

    2013-06-06

    We secured data from 243 men in committed, sexual, heterosexual relationships to test the sperm retention hypothesis of oral sex. We predicted that, among men who perform cunnilingus on their partner, those at greater risk of sperm competition are more likely to perform cunnilingus until their partner achieves orgasm (Prediction 1), and that, among men who ejaculate during penile-vaginal intercourse and whose partner experiences a cunnilingus-assisted orgasm, ejaculation will occur during the brief period in which female orgasm might function to retain sperm (Prediction 2). The results support Prediction 1 but not Prediction 2. We discuss limitations of the current research and discuss how these results may be more consistent with alternative hypotheses regarding female orgasm and oral sex.

  5. Current Concepts in Ejaculatory Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wolters, Jeffrey P; Hellstrom, Wayne J. G

    2006-01-01

    Although erectile dysfunction has recently become the most well-known aspect of male sexual dysfunction, the most prevalent male sexual disorders are ejaculatory dysfunctions. Ejaculatory disorders are divided into 4 categories: premature ejaculation (PE), delayed ejaculation, retrograde ejaculation, and anejaculation/anorgasmia. Pharmacologic treatment for certain ejaculatory disorders exists, for example the off-label use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for PE. Unfortunately, the other ejaculatory disorders are less studied and not as well understood. This review revisits the physiology of the normal ejaculatory response, specifically explores the mechanisms of anejaculation, and presents emerging data. The neurophysiology of the ejaculatory reflex is complex, making classification of the role of individual neurotransmitters extremely difficult. However, recent research has elucidated more about the role of serotonin and dopamine at the central level in the physiology of both arousal and orgasm. Other recent studies that look at differing pharmacokinetic profiles and binding affinities of the α1-antagonists serve as an indication of the centrally mediated role of ejaculation and orgasm. As our understanding of the interaction between central and peripheral modulations and regulation of the process of ejaculation increases, the probability of developing centrally acting pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of sexual dysfunction approaches reality. PMID:17215997

  6. The Existence of Gender Biased Counseling of Female Students by High School Guidance Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael C.

    Gender role stereotypes are rigid beliefs in and applications of expected roles to almost all females and males. Female gender roles often include being expressive, communal, weak, emotional, caring, dependent, and working in traditional occupations. Educationally, women's appropriate roles serve to limit their future choices. Married women are…

  7. Sisters in the Struggle: African American Female Graduate Students Coping with Racism and Racism-Related

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Kelsie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined if coping was predictive of perceived racism and racism related stress of African American female graduate students. Participants were 217 African American female graduate students attending Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs), Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs) and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and…

  8. CompuServe in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riedl, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Describes a student magazine publishing project in which the participating junior high school students accessed the information utility, CompuServe, to gather current and accurate background information for their magazine articles. Student use of CompuServe is described, and the value and costs of using CompuServe are discussed. (MBR)

  9. Circulating neuroactive C21- and C19-steroids in young men before and after ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Stárka, L; Hill, M; Havlíková, H; Kancheva, L; Sobotka, V

    2006-01-01

    Twelve neuroactive and neuroprotective steroids, androgens and androgen precursors i.e. 3alpha,17beta-dihydroxy-5alpha-androstane, 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-17-one, 3alpha-hydroxy-5beta-androstan-17-one, androst-5-ene-3beta,17beta-diol, 3beta,17alpha-dihydroxy-pregn-5-en-20-one (17alpha-hydroxy-pregnenolone), 3beta-hydroxy-androst-5-en-17-one (dehydroepiandrosterone, DHEA), testosterone, androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (androstenedione), 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (allopregnanolone), 3beta-hydroxy-pregn-5-en-20-one (pregnenolone), 7alpha-hydroxy-DHEA, and 7beta-hydroxy-DHEA were measured using the GC-MS system in young men before and after ejaculation provoked by masturbation. The circulating level of 17alpha-hydroxypregnenolone increased significantly, whereas the other circulating steroids were not changed at all. This fact speaks against the hypothesis that a drop in the level of neuroactive steroids, e.g. allopregnanolone may trigger the orgasm-related increase of oxytocin, reported by other authors.

  10. Communication during sex among female bonobos: effects of dominance, solicitation and audience

    PubMed Central

    Clay, Zanna; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Bonobo females frequently form close bonds, which give them social power over other group members. One potential mechanism to facilitate female bonding is the performance of sexual interactions. Using naturalistic observations and experiments, we found various patterns that determined female-female sexual interactions. First, while low-ranked females interacted with all females, sexual interactions between high-ranked females were rare. Second, during genital contacts, females sometimes produced ‘copulation calls’, which were significantly affected by the rank of the caller and partner, as well as the solicitation direction. Third, there was a significant effect of the alpha female as a bystander, while variables relating to physical experience had no effects. Overall, results highlight the importance of sexual interactions for bonobo female social relations. Copulation calls are an important tool during this process, suggesting that they have become ritualised, beyond their reproductive function, to serve as broader social signals in flexible and potentially strategic ways. PMID:22389761

  11. Effects of Tadalafil 5 mg Dosed Once Daily in Men with Premature Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Levent; Polat, Emre Can; Onen, Efe; Kocaaslan, Ramazan; Otunctemur, Alper; Cekmen, Mustafa; Eraldemir, Ceyla; Ozbek, Emin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of 5 mg tadalafil once daily in men with premature ejaculation (PE). Thirty married men with lifelong PE and 30 healthy men as control group were included in this study. All the patients received 5 mg tadalafil once a day for a month. The international index of erectile function questionnaire and intravaginal ejaculatory latency times (IELTs) and PE profile were recorded before and after treatment. Plasma samples were collected before and after treatment. The mean baseline IELTs was 40.8 ± 8.1 s in the PE group and 196.5 ± 26.2 s in the control group. After treatment in the PE group, the mean IELTs values showed a statistically significant improvement from the baseline values. At the end of 4 weeks, in the PE group, the mean IELT values showed a statistically significant improvement from the baseline values. Baseline serum nitric oxide (NO) levels were 27.3 ± 1.7 in the PE group and in the 31.1 ± 1.4 healthy control groups. After treatment, NO levels were increased from baseline. We consider that 5 mg tadalafil once daily is safety and effective for the treatment of PE. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Effects of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors on erectile function, sexual desire and ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Gur, Serap; Kadowitz, Philip J; Hellstrom, Wayne Jg

    2013-01-01

    Treatment with 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5ARI) is commonly utilized for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The true prevalence of sexual side effects with 5ARI treatment is currently unknown. The current article reviews the reported adverse effects of 5ARI in regard to erectile function, sexual desire and ejaculation. A PubMed search was performed of all articles from 1990 to present, which reported any sexual side effects with finasteride or dutasteride. Preference was given to more recent and human studies where available. Clinical trials with 5ARI report prevalence rates of de novo erectile dysfunction of 5 - 9%. Decreased circulating dihydrotestosterone (DHT) resulting from 5ARI use is associated with diminished sexual desire and/or orgasm. The presence of adverse sexual effects is associated with decreased self-esteem, quality of life and ability to maintain an intimate relationship. Inhibition of 5ARI additionally influences progesterone and deoxycorticosterone levels and may alter psychological functions, including increased depression, melancholy and loss of general well being. Ejaculatory dysfunction has not been well studied in patients using 5ARI. Patients receiving therapy with 5ARI should be counseled as to potential sexual and psychological adverse effects. Future clinical studies are needed to further investigate the sexual side effects associated with this class of drugs.

  13. Stallion semen quality depends on major histocompatibility complex matching to teaser mare.

    PubMed

    Jeannerat, E; Marti, E; Berney, C; Janett, F; Bollwein, H; Sieme, H; Burger, D; Wedekind, C

    2018-02-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has repeatedly been found to influence mate choice of vertebrates, with MHC-dissimilar mates typically being preferred over MHC-similar mates. We used horses (Equus caballus) to test whether MHC matching also affects male investment into ejaculates after short exposure to a female. Semen characteristics varied much among stallions. Controlling for this variance with a full-factorial within-subject experimental design, we found that a short exposure to an MHC-dissimilar mare enhanced male plasma testosterone and led to ejaculates with elevated sperm numbers as compared to exposure to an MHC-similar mare. Sperm velocity seemed not affected by the treatment. Overall genetic similarity between stallions and mares (determined from polymorphic microsatellites on 20 different chromosomes) played no significant role here. The MHC type of the teaser mare also affected characteristics of cold-stored sperm after 24 and 48 hr. As expected from ejaculate economics, sperm viability was elevated after exposure to an MHC-dissimilar mare. However, oxidative stress and the percentage of sperm with a high DNA fragmentation were mostly increased after exposure to an MHC-dissimilar mare, depending also on whether the teaser mare was in oestrous or not. We conclude that males can quickly adjust ejaculate quality relative to a female's MHC, and that this male reaction to the social environment can also affect important characteristics of cold-stored semen. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Screening for erectile dysfunction in men with lifelong premature ejaculation--Is the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) reliable?

    PubMed

    McMahon, Chris G

    2009-02-01

    Some men with premature ejaculation (PE) and normal erectile function record contradictory response/s to The Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) and may be incorrectly categorized as suffering from erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of false positive SHIM diagnosis of ED in men with lifelong PE. SHIM, stopwatch intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT). A prospective observational study of men with normal erectile function and lifelong PE, diagnosed using the ISSM definition of lifelong PE, was conducted. The SHIM was self-administered at Visit 1. Mean per subject stopwatch IELT was determined from four subsequent intercourse attempts. Seventy-eight subjects with a mean age of 33.2 +/- 8.3 years and a geometric mean IELT of 15.9 +/- 2.3 seconds were enrolled. The mean SHIM score for all subjects was 20.4 +/- 6.0. Fifty-two subjects (66.7%) have SHIM scores of >21 (mean 24.3 +/- 1.1), consistent with normal erectile function, and a geometric mean IELT of 18.3 +/- 2.2 seconds. Twenty-six subjects (33.3%) had SHIM scores <22 (mean 12.7 +/- 3.7), consistent with a false positive diagnosis of ED, and a geometric mean IELT of 10.5 +/- 2.3 seconds. The incidence of false positive SHIM diagnosis of ED (SHIM < 22) was inversely related to the IELT. Although the geometric mean IELT for subjects with SHIM scores <22 was significantly less than that of all subjects and subjects with SHIM scores >21, there were no significant differences between the geometric mean IELT or the IELT distribution of all subjects vs. the normal erectile function IELT (SHIM > 21) cohort. This study demonstrates a 33.3% false positive SHIM diagnosis of ED in men with PE. This is likely to limit subject recruitment in clinical trials by exclusion of subjects with low-range IELTs but is unlikely to result in significantly different baseline IELTs or IELT distributions.

  15. Dapoxetine for the treatment of premature ejaculation: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial in 22 countries.

    PubMed

    Buvat, Jacques; Tesfaye, Fisseha; Rothman, Margaret; Rivas, David A; Giuliano, François

    2009-04-01

    Dapoxetine is being developed for the on-demand treatment of premature ejaculation (PE). Previous clinical trials have demonstrated its safety and efficacy. To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of dapoxetine in men with PE. This randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, conducted in 22 countries, enrolled men (N=1162) > or = 18 yr of age who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, text revision criteria for PE for > or = 6 mo, with an intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) < or = 2 min in > or = 75% of intercourse episodes at baseline. Dapoxetine 30 mg or dapoxetine 60 mg or placebo on demand (1-3 h before intercourse) for 24 wk. Stopwatch-measured IELT, Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP), Clinical Global Impression (CGI) of change, adverse events (AEs). The study was completed by 618 men. Mean average IELT increased from 0.9 min at baseline (all groups) to 1.9 min, 3.2 min, and 3.5 min with placebo and dapoxetine 30 mg and dapoxetine 60 mg, respectively, at study end point; geometric mean IELT increased from 0.7 min at baseline to 1.1 min, 1.8 min, and 2.3 min, respectively, at study end point. All PEP measures and IELTs improved significantly with dapoxetine versus placebo at week 12 and week 24 (p<0.001 for all). The most common AEs were nausea, dizziness, diarrhea, and headache. AEs led to discontinuation in 1.3%, 3.9%, and 8.2% of subjects with placebo and dapoxetine 30 mg and dapoxetine 60 mg, respectively. Limitations of this study included the exclusion of men who were not in long-term monogamous relationships. Dapoxetine significantly improved all aspects of PE and was generally well tolerated in this broad population.

  16. The Female Naval Officer: What Is Her Role?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Patricia J.

    A 1972 survey of female and male naval offficers indicated that most men had little difficulty seeing women as effective managers, but doubted that women should serve in active service, or as line or commanding officers. The women saw their status as inferior to males, with junior officers more disssatisfied over inequality and more in favor of…

  17. [Reproductive function of the male rat after a flight on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Serova, L V; Denisova, L A; Apanasenko, Z I; Kuznetsova, M A; Meĭzerov, E S

    1982-01-01

    Male rats that were flown for 18.5 days on Cosmos-1129 were mated postflight with intact females. The mating 5 days postflight when the ejaculate consisted of spermatozoids that were exposed to zero-g effects in the mature stage yielded the litter which lagged behind the controls with respect to the growth and development during the first postnatal month. The mating 2.5-3 months postflight when the ejaculate consisted of spermatozoids that were exposed to zero-g effects at the stem cell stage yielded the litter which did not differ from the control.

  18. Male victims of sexual assault: phenomenology, psychology, physiology.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Clayton M; Beckson, Mace

    2011-01-01

    Myths, stereotypes, and unfounded beliefs about male sexuality, in particular male homosexuality, are widespread in legal and medical communities, as well as among agencies providing services to sexual assault victims. These include perceptions that men in noninstitutionalized settings are rarely sexually assaulted, that male victims are responsible for their assaults, that male sexual assault victims are less traumatized by the experience than their female counterparts, and that ejaculation is an indicator of a positive erotic experience. As a result of the prevalence of such beliefs, there is an underreporting of sexual assaults by male victims; a lack of appropriate services for male victims; and, effectively, no legal redress for male sexual assault victims. By comparison, male sexual assault victims have fewer resources and greater stigma than do female sexual assault victims. Many male victims, either because of physiological effects of anal rape or direct stimulation by their assailants, have an erection, ejaculate, or both during the assault. This is incorrectly understood by assailant, victim, the justice system, and the medical community as signifying consent by the victim. Studies of male sexual physiology suggest that involuntary erections or ejaculations can occur in the context of nonconsensual, receptive anal sex. Erections and ejaculations are only partially under voluntary control and are known to occur during times of extreme duress in the absence of sexual pleasure. Particularly within the criminal justice system, this misconception, in addition to other unfounded beliefs, has made the courts unwilling to provide legal remedy to male victims of sexual assault, especially when the victim experienced an erection or an ejaculation during the assault. Attorneys and forensic psychiatrists must be better informed about the physiology of these phenomena to formulate evidence-based opinions.

  19. Female Teachers, Whiteness, and the Quest for Cultural Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayne, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Though America's public schools have become increasingly diverse, the teaching staff remains relatively homogeneous. This gap is more apparent in California schools that serve large numbers of students of color, being taught by teachers who are predominately White and female. Because the population of kindergarten-through-12th-grade teachers is…

  20. Mortality in Female War Veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-10

    characteristics. Despite a similar prevalence of wounds between gen- ders, we found female service members’ death rates while serving in the combat theater...compare injury mechanism, distributions, and severities. We therefore cannot assume that demographic data or other confounders do not influence the death ... rates . Fourth, we are unable to report on specific job descriptions held by our cohort of females to study the link between the job and injury

  1. Hybrid female mate choice as a species isolating mechanism: environment matters.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, E M; Pfennig, K S

    2016-04-01

    A fundamental goal of biology is to understand how new species arise and are maintained. Female mate choice is potentially critical to the speciation process: mate choice can prevent hybridization and thereby generate reproductive isolation between potentially interbreeding groups. Yet, in systems where hybridization occurs, mate choice by hybrid females might also play a key role in reproductive isolation by affecting hybrid fitness and contributing to patterns of gene flow between species. We evaluated whether hybrid mate choice behaviour could serve as such an isolating mechanism using spadefoot toad hybrids of Spea multiplicata and Spea bombifrons. We assessed the mate preferences of female hybrid spadefoot toads for sterile hybrid males vs. pure-species males in two alternative habitat types in which spadefoots breed: deep or shallow water. We found that, in deep water, hybrid females preferred the calls of sterile hybrid males to those of S. multiplicata males. Thus, maladaptive hybrid mate preferences could serve as an isolating mechanism. However, in shallow water, the preference for hybrid male calls was not expressed. Moreover, hybrid females did not prefer hybrid calls to those of S. bombifrons in either environment. Because hybrid female mate choice was context-dependent, its efficacy as a reproductive isolating mechanism will depend on both the environment in which females choose their mates as well as the relative frequencies of males in a given population. Thus, reproductive isolation between species, as well as habitat specific patterns of gene flow between species, might depend critically on the nature of hybrid mate preferences and the way in which they vary across environments. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  2. A comparison of the performance of male and female CBD distributors in Peru.

    PubMed

    Foreit, J R; Garate, M R; Brazzoduro, A; Guillen, F; Herrera, M C; Suarez, F C

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results of an operations research project to increase male involvement in family planning in Peru. Two community-based distribution (CBD) programs, PROFAMILIA of Lima and CENPROF of Trujillo, Peru, recruited male contraceptive distributors and compared their performance to that of female distributors recruited at the same time. Both programs found it harder to recruit men than women as distributors. Program supervisors, who were women, were less comfortable with men than with other women, even though there were no differences in distributor compliance with program norms. Male distributors were more likely to serve male clients and sell male methods (condoms), while female distributors were more likely to serve female clients and sell female methods (pills). Men sold as much or more total couple-years of protection than did women, and they recruited as many or more new acceptors. Gender was found to exert an impact on method mix independent of other distributor characteristics, such as age, education, marital status, and number of living children. The study suggests that family planning programs can influence method mix and client characteristics by recruiting men as CBD distributors.

  3. Drama Queen or Trauma Queen: Does Elevating Self-Awareness Impact the Colonized Consciousness of Female Clergy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifton, Angelita

    2013-01-01

    This project design incorporates three Aramaic phrases enhancing an existing ministry model for women victimized by trauma. "Talitha Cum-Woman Arise," "Ephpatha-Be Opened" and "Maranatha-O'Lord Come," serve as the foundation for a three tiered spiritual support system for female clergy. This project design serves: (1)…

  4. Preparing for Combat Readiness for the Fight: Physical Performance Profile of Female U.S. Marines.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Karen R; Jameson, Jason T

    2016-03-01

    Females have been restricted from serving in direct combat arms' positions for decades. One reason for the exclusion derives from the perceived physical demands of these positions. As a result, many current efforts are directed toward defining the physical demands of combat arms' positions. The purpose of this study was to develop a physical performance and body composition profile of females who could overcome the physical demands of combat tasks that rely primarily on upper body strength. This study is based on an analysis of archival data from 2 separate samples of active-duty female Marines (n = 802), who had been recruited to participate in heavy lifting tasks. These tasks included lifting a heavy machine gun (HMG) lift (cohort 1, n = 423) and Clean and Press lifts (29.5-52.3 kg) (cohort 2, n = 379). To develop the physical performance profile, data from annual physical fitness tests were collected, which included run times, ammunition can lift, 804. Seven-meter (880-yard) movement to contact, and the maneuver under fire. In cohort 1, 65 females (∼15%; n = 423 females) successfully completed HMG; in cohort 2, 33 females (∼9%; n = 379 females) successfully completed another strength task, a Clean and Press of 52.3 kg. In both samples, female Marines who were successful on these tasks also outperformed their unsuccessful counterparts on the annual physical fitness tests. In addition, larger females typically outperformed their smaller counterparts. Females seeking assignment to closed combat arms' positions would thus be well served by targeting upper body strength, while maintaining overall physical fitness.

  5. Single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of dapoxetine hydrochloride, a novel agent for the treatment of premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Modi, Nishit B; Dresser, Mark J; Simon, Mary; Lin, Denise; Desai, Dhaval; Gupta, Suneel

    2006-03-01

    Dapoxetine is a serotonin transporter inhibitor currently in development for the treatment of premature ejaculation. This randomized, 2-sequence, 2-treatment crossover study assessed the single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of dapoxetine following once-daily administration of dapoxetine 30 mg and 60 mg to healthy male volunteers. Dapoxetine was rapidly absorbed following oral administration, with peak plasma concentrations reached approximately 1 hour after dosing; plasma concentrations after single doses of dapoxetine decreased rapidly to approximately 5% of peak concentrations by 24 hours. Elimination was biphasic, with an initial half-life of approximately 1.4 hours and a terminal half-life of approximately 20 hours. Dapoxetine showed time-invariant pharmacokinetics and dose proportionality between doses, and its pharmacokinetics was unaffected by multiple dosing. The pharmacokinetics of dapoxetine metabolites, desmethyldapoxetine and dapoxetine-N-oxide, was similarly unaffected by multiple dosing. There were no serious adverse events; the most commonly reported adverse events were diarrhea, dizziness, and nausea.

  6. Adolescent Females and Their Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Volkman, Julie E.; Silk, Kami J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research indicates environmental factors and personal behaviors are related to breast cancer risk, but adopting a healthy lifestyle as early as adolescence can serve a protective function. To investigate perceptions of breast cancer risk and the environment, 10 focus groups (N = 91) were conducted with adolescent females (n = 55) and mothers (n = 36) across four counties in the Midwest, USA. The Uncertainty Management Theory provides a framework for discussing statements, and results suggest that uncertainty is maintained through ambiguity about environmental risk factors and breast cancer. Recommendations for prevention messages are presented. PMID:18987091

  7. Adolescent Females with Communication Disorders Involved in Violence: Educators' Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Judy K.; Sanger, Dixie; Moore-Brown, Barbara J.; Smith, Leslie; Scheffler, Marilyn

    2003-01-01

    This study focused on increasing the awareness of educational leaders about the relationship between students with communication disorders and violence. A review of selected research on adolescent females with language problems residing in a correctional facility served to support a survey study and extend discussions about the need for…

  8. The effect of badminton-specific exercise on badminton short-serve performance in competition and practice climates.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael J; Chan, Cheryl K Y; Clarke, Neil D; Cox, Martin; Smith, Mike

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the effects of changes in physiological and psychological arousal on badminton short-serve performance in competitive and practice climates. Twenty competitive badminton players (10 males and 10 females) volunteered to participate in the study following ethics approval. After familiarisation, badminton short-serve performance was measured at rest, mid-way through and at the end of a badminton-specific exercise protocol in two conditions; competition vs. practice. Ratings of cognitive and somatic anxiety were assessed at three time points prior to badminton short-serve performance using the Mental Readiness Form 3. Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were assessed during the exercise protocol. Results indicated that better short-serve performance was evident in practice compared to competition (P = .034). RPE values were significantly higher in the competition condition compared to practice (P = .007). Cognitive anxiety intensity was significantly lower post-exercise in the practice condition compared to competition (P = .001). Cognitive anxiety direction showed greater debilitation post-exercise in the competition condition compared to practice (P = .01). Somatic anxiety intensity increased from pre-, to mid- to post-exercise (P = .001) irrespective of condition. This study suggests that badminton serve performance is negatively affected when physiological arousal, via badminton-specific exercise, and cognitive anxiety, via perceived competition, are high.

  9. Motivations, interests and retention of female minority engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, Naila

    In an effort to potentially increase low enrollment of females, particularly minorities, in Engineering programs, this study used a survey to determine motivations, interests and retention of current female Engineering students. A total of 82 participants from varied ethnic (non-Hispanic white, Euro-American, African American, Hispanic American, Asian American, South Asian, Arab American, and Native American participants) and education (high school senior, undergraduate, graduate, and in-service Engineers) backgrounds filled out the survey. With approximately half of the participants being non-minorities (non-Hispanic white or Euro-American), they served as the `control' group for the data, and the comparison group was the minority participants. Notable differences between the two groups were: student participation in female community groups, and extra-curricular activities like sports and arts (writing, drama and band) clubs. Increasing female-minority participation in these clubs and other extra-curricular activities may potentially increase their enrollment numbers in Engineering programs.

  10. Practicing Politics: Female Political Scientists as Candidates for Elective Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, University of Oklahoma political science professor Cindy Simon Rosenthal was elected mayor of Norman, Oklahoma, after having served as a member of its city council. Was her activity unique within the political science profession among female political scientists? Her election stimulated the curiosity of some of us in the…

  11. Infanticide risk and the evolution of male-female association in primates.

    PubMed

    van Schaik, C P; Kappeler, P M

    1997-11-22

    Year-round association between adult males and females is common in primates, even though internal gestation and lactation predispose males to mate-desertion in the majority of mammals. Because there is little a priori support for alternative explanations, we hypothesized that permanent male-female association in primates serves to reduce the risk of infanticide by strange males whenever females and infants are closely associated. For a phylogenetic test of this hypothesis, we reconstructed the evolution of male-female and female-infant association among primates. The results of Maddison's concentrated changes test confirmed the prediction that mother-infant association, as opposed to infant parking, and female-male association did not evolve independently. Changes in litter size and activity, in contrast, were not significantly associated with evolutionary changes in male-female association. Thus, we demonstrate a fundamental link between primate life history and social behaviour, explain the most basic type of variation in primate social organization, and propose an additional determinant of social organization that may also operate in other mammals.

  12. Infanticide risk and the evolution of male-female association in primates.

    PubMed Central

    van Schaik, C P; Kappeler, P M

    1997-01-01

    Year-round association between adult males and females is common in primates, even though internal gestation and lactation predispose males to mate-desertion in the majority of mammals. Because there is little a priori support for alternative explanations, we hypothesized that permanent male-female association in primates serves to reduce the risk of infanticide by strange males whenever females and infants are closely associated. For a phylogenetic test of this hypothesis, we reconstructed the evolution of male-female and female-infant association among primates. The results of Maddison's concentrated changes test confirmed the prediction that mother-infant association, as opposed to infant parking, and female-male association did not evolve independently. Changes in litter size and activity, in contrast, were not significantly associated with evolutionary changes in male-female association. Thus, we demonstrate a fundamental link between primate life history and social behaviour, explain the most basic type of variation in primate social organization, and propose an additional determinant of social organization that may also operate in other mammals. PMID:9404030

  13. 5 CFR 1203.14 - Serving documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Serving documents. 1203.14 Section 1203... REVIEW OF RULES AND REGULATIONS OF THE OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Procedures for Review § 1203.14 Serving documents. (a) Parties. In every case, the person requesting regulation review must serve a copy...

  14. 5 CFR 1203.14 - Serving documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Serving documents. 1203.14 Section 1203... REVIEW OF RULES AND REGULATIONS OF THE OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Procedures for Review § 1203.14 Serving documents. (a) Parties. In every case, the person requesting regulation review must serve a copy...

  15. 5 CFR 1203.14 - Serving documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Serving documents. 1203.14 Section 1203... REVIEW OF RULES AND REGULATIONS OF THE OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Procedures for Review § 1203.14 Serving documents. (a) Parties. In every case, the person requesting regulation review must serve a copy...

  16. 5 CFR 1203.14 - Serving documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Serving documents. 1203.14 Section 1203... REVIEW OF RULES AND REGULATIONS OF THE OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Procedures for Review § 1203.14 Serving documents. (a) Parties. In every case, the person requesting regulation review must serve a copy...

  17. 5 CFR 1203.14 - Serving documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Serving documents. 1203.14 Section 1203... REVIEW OF RULES AND REGULATIONS OF THE OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Procedures for Review § 1203.14 Serving documents. (a) Parties. In every case, the person requesting regulation review must serve a copy...

  18. Proposal of a Mediterranean Diet Serving Score

    PubMed Central

    Monteagudo, Celia; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Rivas, Ana; Lorenzo-Tovar, María Luisa; Tur, Josep A.; Olea-Serrano, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Numerous studies have demonstrated a relationship between Mediterranean Diet (MD) adherence and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes, etc. The study aim was to validate a novel instrument to measure MD adherence based on the consumption of food servings and food groups, and apply it in a female population from southern Spain and determining influential factors. Methods and Results The study included 1,155 women aged 12-83 yrs, classified as adolescents, adults, and over-60-yr-olds. All completed a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The Mediterranean Dietary Serving Score (MDSS) is based on the latest update of the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid, using the recommended consumption frequency of foods and food groups; the MDSS ranges from 0 to 24. The discriminative power or correct subject classification capacity of the MDSS was analyzed with the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, using the MDS as reference method. Predictive factors for higher MDSS adherence were determined with a logistic regression model, adjusting for age. According to ROC curve analysis, MDSS evidenced a significant discriminative capacity between adherents and non-adherents to the MD pattern (optimal cutoff point=13.50; sensitivity=74%; specificity=48%). The mean MDSS was 12.45 (2.69) and was significantly higher with older age (p<0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed highest MD adherence by over 60-year-olds with low BMI and no habit of eating between meals. Conclusions The MDSS is an updated, easy, valid, and accurate instrument to assess MD adherence based on the consumption of foods and food groups per meal, day, and week. It may be useful in future nutritional education programs to prevent the early onset of chronic non-transmittable diseases in younger populations. PMID:26035442

  19. A Decolonizing Methodology for Health Research on Female Genital Cutting.

    PubMed

    Werunga, Jane; Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Ewashen, Carol

    2016-01-01

    In this article, critical perspectives including postcolonial feminism, African feminism, and intersectionality are presented as having decolonizing methodological potential whereby the Western narrative surrounding the practice of female genital cutting, particularly in the context of migration, is reexamined. In addition, multiple intersecting influences on affected women's realities are accounted for and a critical consciousness that serves to inform praxis, address social determinants of health, and promote health equity is encouraged. The inclusion of an African feminist perspective, a traditionally marginalized critical perspective, serves to further decolonize some long-held erroneous beliefs about the sexuality, subjectivity, and embodiment of the African woman.

  20. Turkish validation of the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool and its association with intravaginal ejaculatory latency time.

    PubMed

    Serefoglu, E C; Cimen, H I; Ozdemir, A T; Symonds, T; Berktas, M; Balbay, M D

    2009-01-01

    There are uncertain issues on the diagnostic methods of premature ejaculation (PE). The premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) was developed to systematically apply the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria in diagnosing PE and the aim of this study is to carry out the Turkish validation of the PEDT and to evaluate its association with intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). A total of 94 patients with a self-reported complaint of PE and 88 men without PE were enrolled into the study and requested to complete the nine-item PEDT, which was translated into Turkish. The patients were also requested to measure IELT. All participants were requested to come for a second visit to assess the PEDT's retest reliability; data from 78 men in the PE group and 69 men in the control group were collected. The IELT data of 35 patients were also recorded. The mean age of the PE group and the control group were 39.4+/-9.7 (24-65) and 30.1+/-5.7 (20-56), respectively, (P=0.068). Among the patients in the PE group, 24 (68.5%) reported life-long PE, whereas 11 (31.5%) reported acquired PE. The geometric mean IELT of the PE group was 59.7+/-46.2 (6.5-197.7) s. The number of men reporting IELTs of <1, 1-<2 and >2 min were 20 (57.1%), 11 (31.5) and 4 (11.4%), respectively. The factor analysis assessment showed that the five-item combination (questions 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8) explained 74.4% of the variance, there were no other combinations that explained the variance more effectively. Cronbach's alpha score of five-item combination was calculated as 0.77, showing adequate internal consistency. The overall Cronbach's alpha score did not increase if any item combination was deleted. The test-retest correlation coefficients of each item were higher than 0.80 and the correlation coefficient of the total score was 0.90. The PEDT and IELT showed an adequate correlation (rho=0.44). As a conclusion, the validated five-item Turkish version of

  1. A Phenomenological Study of Perceptions of Identity and Leadership among African-American Female Administrators within Public Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, June Pickett

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study explores how African-American female administrators (individually and collectively) perceive the relationship between their identity and their leadership voice. The study focuses upon perceptions of 11 African-American female administrators who serve the 14 main campuses of the universities constituting the Pennsylvania…

  2. Increase in female faculty in American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy-sponsored programming over time.

    PubMed

    Enestvedt, Brintha K; DeVivo, Rebecca S; Schmitt, Colleen M; Calderwood, Audrey H

    2018-04-01

    Female representation in medicine is increasing across all levels of medical training, yet women hold fewer senior leadership positions than men. National recognition, including participation as faculty in society-sponsored programs, is one component of academic advancement. The aim of this study was to characterize female representation among faculty in courses sponsored by the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE). We performed a retrospective review of demographic data, including faculty gender and role, year, and program type, from the ASGE database of its sponsored programs between 2009 and 2014. Female faculty rates were compared with the rate of female membership in the ASGE and by faculty role and course type over time. Between 2009 and 2014 there were a total of 2020 ASGE course faculty positions of which women comprised 19%. There was a significant increase in the proportion of women that served as course faculty over time (P < .0005). Female faculty participation exceeded the ASGE female domestic membership rate in all years. Women were more likely to serve as course directors than lecturers (25% vs 18%, P = .004) and to participate in smaller courses (P = .0003). We found an increase in female participation in ASGE programming over time, suggesting that specialty societies are making efforts to improve female representation at the national level. Future work should evaluate whether or not these opportunities translate into leadership roles for women within their own institutions or lead to promotions for women over time. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of the Performance of Females as Light Infantry Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Finestone, Aharon S.; Milgrom, Charles; Yanovich, Ran; Evans, Rachel; Constantini, Naama; Moran, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    A few countries permit women to serve in combat roles, but their long term performance in these positions has not been reported. The incidences of overuse injuries and attrition of 85 male and 235 female recruits in a light infantry brigade was followed in a three-year prospective study. Females were shorter (162 cm, CI 161–163 cm) than males (174 cm, CI 173–176), had more body fat (18.9 kg, CI 18.2–19.6 kg) than males (12.6 kg, 11.3–13.8 kg), had lower V˙O2max (36.8 mL·min−1 ·kg−1, CI 35.8–37.78 mL·min−1 ·kg−1) than males (50.48 mL·min−1 ·kg−1, CI 48.4 to 52.48 mL·min−1 ·kg−1), had more stress fractures (21.0%, 95% CI 16.2–26.5%) than males (2.3%, CI 0.3–8.2%), and had more anterior knee pain (41.2%, CI 34.9–47.7%) than males (24.7%, CI 16.0–35.2%). Three-year attrition was 28% CI 22–34% for females and 37% CI 26–48% for males. The females in this study successfully served as light infantry soldiers. Their lower fitness and high incidence of overuse injuries might impede service as regular infantry soldiers. PMID:25215282

  4. [QUANTITATIVE DNA EVALUATION OF THE HIGH CARCINOGENIC RISK OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUSES AND HUMAN HERPES VIRUSES IN MALES WITH FERTILITY DISORDERS].

    PubMed

    Evdokimov, V V; Naumenko, V A; Tulenev, Yu A; Kurilo, L F; Kovalyk, V P; Sorokina, T M; Lebedeva, A L; Gomberg, M A; Kushch, A A

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is an actual medical and social problem. In 50% of couples it is associated with the male factor and in more than 50% of cases the etiology of the infertility remains insufficiently understood. The goal of this work was to study the prevalence and to perform quantitative analysis of the human herpes viruses (HHV) and high carcinogenic risk papilloma viruses (HR HPV) in males with infertility, as well as to assess the impact of these infections on sperm parameters. Ejaculate samples obtained from 196 males fall into 3 groups. Group 1 included men with the infertility of unknown etiology (n = 112); group 2, patients who had female partners with the history of spontaneous abortion (n = 63); group 3 (control), healthy men (n = 21). HHV and HR HPV DNA in the ejaculates were detected in a total of 42/196 (21.4%) males: in 31 and 11 patients in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p > 0.05) and in none of healthy males. HHV were detected in 24/42; HR HPV, in 18/42 males (p > 0.05) without significant difference between the groups. Among HR HPV genotypes of the clade A9 in ejaculate were more frequent (14/18, p = 0.04). Comparative analysis of the sperm parameters showed that in the ejaculates of the infected patients sperm motility as well as the number of morphologically normal cells were significantly reduced compared with the healthy men. The quantification of the viral DNA revealed that in 31% of the male ejaculates the viral load was high: > 3 Ig10/100000 cells. Conclusion. The detection of HHV and HR HPV in the ejaculate is associated with male infertility. Quantification of the viral DNA in the ejaculate is a useful indicator for monitoring viral infections in infertility and for decision to start therapy.

  5. An Update of the International Society of Sexual Medicine's Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Premature Ejaculation (PE)

    PubMed Central

    Althof, Stanley E; McMahon, Chris G; Waldinger, Marcel D; Serefoglu, Ege Can; Shindel, Alan W; Adaikan, P Ganesan; Becher, Edgardo; Dean, John; Giuliano, Francois; Hellstrom, Wayne JG; Giraldi, Annamaria; Glina, Sidney; Incrocci, Luca; Jannini, Emmanuele; McCabe, Marita; Parish, Sharon; Rowland, David; Segraves, R Taylor; Sharlip, Ira; Torres, Luiz Otavio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In 2009, the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) convened a select panel of experts to develop an evidence-based set of guidelines for patients suffering from lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). That document reviewed definitions, etiology, impact on the patient and partner, assessment, and pharmacological, psychological, and combined treatments. It concluded by recognizing the continually evolving nature of clinical research and recommended a subsequent guideline review and revision every fourth year. Consistent with that recommendation, the ISSM organized a second multidisciplinary panel of experts in April 2013, which met for 2 days in Bangalore, India. This manuscript updates the previous guidelines and reports on the recommendations of the panel of experts. Aim The aim of this study was to develop clearly worded, practical, evidenced-based recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of PE for family practice clinicians as well as sexual medicine experts. Method A comprehensive literature review was performed. Results This article contains the report of the second ISSM PE Guidelines Committee. It offers a new unified definition of PE and updates the previous treatment recommendations. Brief assessment procedures are delineated, and validated diagnostic and treatment questionnaires are reviewed. Finally, the best practices treatment recommendations are presented to guide clinicians, both familiar and unfamiliar with PE, in facilitating treatment of their patients. Conclusion Development of guidelines is an evolutionary process that continually reviews data and incorporates the best new research. We expect that ongoing research will lead to a more complete understanding of the pathophysiology as well as new efficacious and safe treatments for this sexual dysfunction. We again recommend that these guidelines be reevaluated and updated by the ISSM in 4 years. Althof SE, McMahon CG, Waldinger MD, Serefoglu EC, Shindel AW, Adaikan PG

  6. The global online sexuality survey (GOSS): The United States of America in 2011 Chapter III--Premature ejaculation among English-speaking male Internet users.

    PubMed

    Shaeer, Osama

    2013-07-01

    The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS) is a worldwide epidemiologic study of sexuality and sexual disorders. In 2010, the first report of GOSS came from the Middle East. This report studies the prevalence rate of premature ejaculation (PE) in the U.S. as of 2011-2012 and evaluates risk factors for PE. GOSS was randomly deployed to English-speaking male web surfers in the USA via paid advertising on Facebook®, comprising 146 questions. Prevalence of PE as per the International Society of Sexual Medicine's (ISSM) definition. With a mean age of 52.38 years ± 14.5, 1,133 participants reported on sexual function. As per the ISSM definition of PE, the prevalence rate of PE in the USA as of 2011 was 6.3%. This is in contrast to 49.6% as per the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT), 77.6% as per unfiltered subjective reports, and 14.4% as per subjective reporting on more consistent basis. 56.3% of the latter reported lifelong PE. 63.2% could be classified as having natural variable PE. Erectile dysfunction is a possible predisposing factor for acquired PE, while genital size concerns may predispose to lifelong PE. Age, irregular coitus, circumcision, and the practice of masturbation did not pose a risk for PE, among other risk factors. Oral treatment for PE was more frequently used and reported to be more effective than local anesthetics, particularly in those with lifelong PE. Applying the ISSM definition, prevalence of PE is far less than diagnosed by other methods, 6.3% among Internet users in USA as of the year 2011. PEDT measures both lifelong and acquired PE, in addition to 35% men with premature-like ejaculatory dysfunction, making it inaccurate for isolating lifelong and acquired PE cases. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  7. Personal, Professional, and Sociocultural Experiences of African American Female School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Armentress D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore and gain an in-depth understanding of the personal, professional, and sociocultural experiences of ten African American female school leaders serving as assistant principals, principals, and central office administrators in four suburban school districts in the southeast region of the…

  8. Selective attention toward female secondary sexual color in male rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Waitt, Corri; Gerald, Melissa S; Little, Anthony C; Kraiselburd, Edmundo

    2006-07-01

    Pink-to-red anogenital and facial sexual skin occurs in females of many primate species. Since female sexual skin color varies with reproductive state, it has long been assumed that color acts to stimulate male sexual interest. Although there is supportive evidence for this as regards anogenital skin, it is unclear whether this is also the case for facial sexual skin. In this study we experimentally manipulated digital facial and hindquarter images of female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) for color within the natural range of variation. The images were presented to adult male conspecifics to assess whether the males exhibited visual preferences for red vs. non-red female coloration, and whether preferences varied with anatomical region. The males displayed significantly longer gaze durations in response to reddened versions of female hindquarters, but not to reddened versions of faces. This suggests that female facial coloration may serve an alternative purpose to that of attracting males, and that the signal function of sexual skin and the intended recipients may vary across anatomical regions. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Fitness cost of pheromone production in signaling female moths.

    PubMed

    Harari, Ally R; Zahavi, Tirtza; Thiéry, Denis

    2011-06-01

    A secondary sexual character may act as an honest signal of the quality of the individual if the trait bears a cost and if its expression is phenotypically condition dependent. The cost of increasing the trait should be tolerable for individuals in good condition but not for those in a poor condition. The trait thus provides an honest signal of quality that enables the receiver to choose higher quality mates. Evidence for sex pheromones, which play a major role in shaping sexual evolution, inflicting a signaling cost is scarce. Here, we demonstrate that the amount of the major component of the pheromone in glands of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera) females at signaling time was significantly greater in large than in small females, that male moths preferred larger females as mates when responding to volatile signals, and small virgin females, but not large ones, exposed to conspecific pheromone, produced, when mated, significantly fewer eggs than nonexposed females. The latter indicates a condition-dependent cost of signaling. These results are in accordance with the predictions of condition-dependent honest signals. We therefore suggest that female signaling for males using sex pheromones bears a cost and thus calling may serve as honest advertisement for female quality. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Sexual selection for genetic compatibility: the role of the major histocompatibility complex on cryptic female choice in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    PubMed Central

    Gessner, C; Nakagawa, S; Zavodna, M; Gemmell, N J

    2017-01-01

    Cryptic female choice (CFC), a form of sexual selection during or post mating, describes processes of differential sperm utilization by females to bias fertilization outcomes towards certain males. In Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) the ovarian fluid surrounding the ova of a given female differently enhances the sperm velocity of males. Sperm velocity is a key ejaculate trait that determines fertilization success in externally fertilizing fishes, thus the differential effect on sperm velocity might bias male fertilization outcomes and represent a mechanism of CFC. Once sperm reach the oocyte, CFC could potentially be further facilitated by sperm–egg interactions, which are well understood in externally fertilizing marine invertebrates. Here, we explored the potential genetic basis of both possible mechanisms of CFC by examining whether the genotypic combinations of mates (amino-acid divergence, number of shared alleles) at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II explain the variation in sperm velocity and/or male fertilization success that is not explained by sperm velocity, which might indicate MHC-based sperm–egg interactions. We recorded sperm velocity in ovarian fluid, employed paired-male fertilization trials and evaluated the fertilization success of each male using microsatellite-based paternity assignment. We showed that relative sperm velocity was positively correlated with fertilization success, confirming that the differential effect on sperm velocity may be a mechanism of CFC in Chinook salmon. The variation in sperm velocity was independent of MHC class I and II. However, the MHC class II divergence of mates explained fertilization success, indicating that this locus might influence sperm–egg interactions. PMID:28051059

  11. Sexual selection for genetic compatibility: the role of the major histocompatibility complex on cryptic female choice in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    PubMed

    Gessner, C; Nakagawa, S; Zavodna, M; Gemmell, N J

    2017-05-01

    Cryptic female choice (CFC), a form of sexual selection during or post mating, describes processes of differential sperm utilization by females to bias fertilization outcomes towards certain males. In Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) the ovarian fluid surrounding the ova of a given female differently enhances the sperm velocity of males. Sperm velocity is a key ejaculate trait that determines fertilization success in externally fertilizing fishes, thus the differential effect on sperm velocity might bias male fertilization outcomes and represent a mechanism of CFC. Once sperm reach the oocyte, CFC could potentially be further facilitated by sperm-egg interactions, which are well understood in externally fertilizing marine invertebrates. Here, we explored the potential genetic basis of both possible mechanisms of CFC by examining whether the genotypic combinations of mates (amino-acid divergence, number of shared alleles) at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II explain the variation in sperm velocity and/or male fertilization success that is not explained by sperm velocity, which might indicate MHC-based sperm-egg interactions. We recorded sperm velocity in ovarian fluid, employed paired-male fertilization trials and evaluated the fertilization success of each male using microsatellite-based paternity assignment. We showed that relative sperm velocity was positively correlated with fertilization success, confirming that the differential effect on sperm velocity may be a mechanism of CFC in Chinook salmon. The variation in sperm velocity was independent of MHC class I and II. However, the MHC class II divergence of mates explained fertilization success, indicating that this locus might influence sperm-egg interactions.

  12. [Prevalence and potential predictors of morbidity among Hungarian female physicians].

    PubMed

    Gyorffy, Zsuzsa; Adám, Szilvia; Kopp, Mária

    2009-07-01

    We explored the general health status of physicians in Hungary using a nationwide sample. Based on international and Hungarian literature, we hypothesised that the prevalence of psychiatric and somatic morbidity is higher among female physicians in Hungary compared to the normative population. The objective of our cross-sectional research was to study the morbidity of Hungarian female physicians as well as to analyse background factors. Data for this national study were collected from 408 female physicians. 818 white collar workers from a representative survey (Hungarostudy 2002) served as controls. The prevalence of chronic somatic morbidity and reproduction disorders among female physicians was significantly higher than that in the control group. The female physicians have more chronic diseases, and the somatic morbidity have been appeared earlier. Correlation analyses confirmed a significant relationship: the chronic morbidity associated with injurious to health, sleep disorders and higher levels of work-family conflict. We found that the prevalence of chronic somatic morbidity among female physicians was significantly higher than that in the respective control groups. The higher prevalence of somatic and mental morbidity of Hungarian female physicians has important consequences. This may influence health care systems and thus might lead increased morbidity and mortality of Hungarian population.

  13. The different types of sperm morphology and behavior within a single species: Why do sperm of squid sneaker males form a cluster?

    PubMed

    Hirohashi, Noritaka; Iwata, Yoko

    2013-11-01

    Some coastal squids exhibit male dimorphism (large and small body size) that is linked to mating behaviors. Large "consort" males compete with other, rival males to copulate with a female, and thereby transfer their spermatophores to her internal site around the oviduct. Small "sneaker" males rush to a single female or copulating pair and transfer spermatophores to her external body surface around the seminal receptacle near the mouth. We previously found that in Loligo bleekeri, sneaker sperm are ~50% longer than consort sperm, and only the sneaker sperm, once ejaculated from the spermatophore (sperm mass), form a cluster because of chemoattraction toward their own respiratory CO2. Here, we report that sperm clusters are able to move en masse. Because a fraction of ejaculated sperm from a sneaker's spermatophore are eventually located in the female's seminal receptacle, we hypothesize that sperm clustering facilitates collective migration to the seminal receptacle or an egg micropyle. Sperm clustering is regarded as a cooperative behavior that may have evolved by sperm competition and/or physical and physiological constraints imposed by male mating tactics.

  14. Is there a place for surgical treatment of premature ejaculation?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Management of premature ejaculation (PE) has evolved tremandoulsy over the last 20 years. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants and local anesthetics are the most and best studied treatments. This evidence has led to the establishment of an evidence-based definition of PE and the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of PE. The current treatment of choice for PE according to the ISSM guidelines is a centrally acting SSRI or peripherally acting topical anesthetics. Despite the progress in threating PE, the drawbacks of these medical treatments are controversial. Before the ISSM guidelines were established, selective dorsal neurectomy (SDN) and glans penis augmentation (GPA) using a hyaluronic acid (HA) gel were developed to decrease sensitivity of the glans penis but later ISSM guidelines do not recommend surgical treatment because of possible permanent loss of sexual function and insufficient reliable data. Despite the drawbacks of medical treatments and debates about the ISSM guideline, surgical treatment for PE has increased continuously in Asian countries for non-responders to medical treatment. In contrast to the concerns outlined in the ISSM guidelines, SDN has been reported as effective and safe with rare sensory loss. Percutaneous computed tomography-guided cryoablation of the dorsal penile nerve and neuromodulation of the dorsal penile nerve by pulsed radiofrequency are reported as effective and safe for PE. It is time to re-evaluate rather than ignore surgical treatments for PE because doctors and patients need surgical alternatives for patients with PE who are not satisfied with medical treatment. SDN has a definite role in the efficacy but needs more safety data to be used as standard surgical treatment for PE. SDN must be performed carefully and more well-designed studies are needed. GPA with a HA gel does not induce serious sensory loss in patients with ED erectile

  15. Is there a place for surgical treatment of premature ejaculation?

    PubMed

    Moon, Du Geon

    2016-08-01

    Management of premature ejaculation (PE) has evolved tremandoulsy over the last 20 years. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants and local anesthetics are the most and best studied treatments. This evidence has led to the establishment of an evidence-based definition of PE and the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of PE. The current treatment of choice for PE according to the ISSM guidelines is a centrally acting SSRI or peripherally acting topical anesthetics. Despite the progress in threating PE, the drawbacks of these medical treatments are controversial. Before the ISSM guidelines were established, selective dorsal neurectomy (SDN) and glans penis augmentation (GPA) using a hyaluronic acid (HA) gel were developed to decrease sensitivity of the glans penis but later ISSM guidelines do not recommend surgical treatment because of possible permanent loss of sexual function and insufficient reliable data. Despite the drawbacks of medical treatments and debates about the ISSM guideline, surgical treatment for PE has increased continuously in Asian countries for non-responders to medical treatment. In contrast to the concerns outlined in the ISSM guidelines, SDN has been reported as effective and safe with rare sensory loss. Percutaneous computed tomography-guided cryoablation of the dorsal penile nerve and neuromodulation of the dorsal penile nerve by pulsed radiofrequency are reported as effective and safe for PE. It is time to re-evaluate rather than ignore surgical treatments for PE because doctors and patients need surgical alternatives for patients with PE who are not satisfied with medical treatment. SDN has a definite role in the efficacy but needs more safety data to be used as standard surgical treatment for PE. SDN must be performed carefully and more well-designed studies are needed. GPA with a HA gel does not induce serious sensory loss in patients with ED erectile

  16. A quantitative study of copulatory behaviour of large Felidae.

    PubMed

    Lanier, D L; Dewsbury, D A

    1976-12-01

    A total of 109 copulations was observed in six male-female pairs from four species of large Felidae. The mean intromission durations were 3.0 sec for Asian leopards (Panthera pardus), 3.3 sec for African leopards (Panthera pardus), 12.9 sec for snow leopards (Uncia uncia), 2.3 sec for spotted jaguars (Panthera onca), 3.3 sec for black jaguars (Panthera onca), and 12.4 sec for Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris). Behavioural patterns were qualitatively similar across species; all displayed a copulatory pattern with no lock, no intra-vaginal thrusting, ejaculation on a single insertion, and multiple ejaculations. Whereas domestic cats are reported to assume a neck grip and to tread prior to insertion, these larger Felidae generally did so after intromission had been achieved. After copulation, females of some pairs swiped at the male and displayed a rolling after-reaction. Copyright © 1976. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Facing Aggression: Cues Differ for Female versus Male Faces

    PubMed Central

    Geniole, Shawn N.; Keyes, Amanda E.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Carré, Justin M.; McCormick, Cheryl M.

    2012-01-01

    The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F1,36 = 7.43, p = 0.01). In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait) and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively) and masculinity (negatively) ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as “honest signals”. PMID:22276184

  18. Facing aggression: cues differ for female versus male faces.

    PubMed

    Geniole, Shawn N; Keyes, Amanda E; Mondloch, Catherine J; Carré, Justin M; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2012-01-01

    The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F(1,36) = 7.43, p = 0.01). In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait) and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively) and masculinity (negatively) ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female fac