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Sample records for female ever-smoking education

  1. Wellness of Minority Female Counselor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillingford, M. Ann; Trice-Black, Shannon; Butler, S. Kent

    2013-01-01

    Minority female counselor educators are faced with numerous challenges. This qualitative study revealed that for female minority counselor educators, these challenges continue to negatively affect their professional and personal experiences. It is through operational wellness practices and optimal balance and functioning that minority female…

  2. Muslim traditions and attitudes to female education.

    PubMed

    Siann, G; Khalid, R

    1984-06-01

    It has been suggested that girls and women coming from a Muslim background in the Asian sub-continent are disadvantaged in the educational sphere. In this study two particular aspects of this suggested disadvantage are investigated. First, the importance of educating males rather than females and secondly, the issue of parental and husband's control over the rights of women to education and work. Twenty-six Muslim females living in a large Scottish town but of a Pakistani Punjabi background were interviewed in depth. The findings, that these women considered that it is as important to educate girls as it is to educate boys, and that they acquiesced in parental and husband's control over the rights of females to be educated and work, are discussed within a cross-cultural perspective. It is concluded that such issues cannot be isolated from traditional values about the importance of upholding family honour. PMID:6747041

  3. Impact of Nutrition Education on Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collison, Sharon B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reports a study that evaluated the effectiveness of a nutrition education program on the knowledge, attitudes, and nutrient intake of female college athletes (n=28) and female nonathletes (n=32). Survey data and food diaries indicated that, though the program improved subjects' knowledge and attitudes, there was no significant impact on dietary…

  4. Female Special Education Directors: Doubly Marginalized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Charlotte Hendrick; Parmley, Pamela

    2003-01-01

    A qualitative study of five Texas female special education directors found that although participants achieved an administrative position, they were marginalized due to their leadership style, gender discrimination, and socialization. Participants also indicated a negative connection between being in special education administration and top-level…

  5. Nutrition Education for Elite Female Runners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Nancy; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A survey of the dietary habits of 115 elite female runners revealed that some did not eat wisely, pointing out nutrition education needs for these subjects in the areas of sweets, vitamin and mineral supplementation, intake of red meat, body weight and body image, eating disorders, calorie intake, and amenorrhea and stress fractures. (Author/CB)

  6. Narrative Research of Female Educational Experiences in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Suling

    2010-01-01

    Female education is an indispensable part of educational practice and research. In recent years, along with the development of both the women's liberation movement and the expansion of the practice of female education, Chinese academic circles have become increasingly concerned with female education. Of these concerns, methodological innovation…

  7. The Spiritual Journey: Black Female Adult Learners in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones Tinner, LaShanta Y.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the experience of Black female adult learners and how spirituality influenced their academic journeys. Research concerning Black female adult learners in higher education is ostensibly partial. These data offered an extended understanding of Black female adult learners' academic experiences, while also investigating common…

  8. Female Counselor Educators: Encouraging and Discouraging Factors in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Nicole R.; Leinbaugh, Tracy; Bradley, Carla; Hazler, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The current study explores the encouraging and discouraging factors influencing female counselor educators. This study asked 115 female counselor educators to rate each of 91 items as to how encouraging or discouraging each item was to them as faculty members. The means and standard deviations were calculated for each of the 91 items of the PMBCE.…

  9. Female Faculty in Higher Education. "The Politics of Hope"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPan, Chantell; Hodge, Camilla; Peroff, Deidre; Henderson, Karla A.

    2013-01-01

    The number of women in higher education is growing. Yet, challenges exist for female faculty in the academy. The purpose of this study is to examine the strategies used by female faculty in parks, recreation, sport, tourism,and leisure programs as they negotiate their careers in higher education. Data were collected using an online survey that was…

  10. Female sexual offenders in the educational system: a brief overview.

    PubMed

    Solis, O Lizette; Benedek, Elissa P

    2012-01-01

    Female sexual offenders comprise the minority of sexual offenders in the criminal justice system. However, empirical research reveals that sexual offenses against adolescents by females are a bigger problem than previously thought, particularly in the educational system. The authors review some of the data in the criminal justice system as well as in empirical research studies about female sexual offenders, with a specific focus on females who commit sexual crimes against students who are minors.

  11. The Implications of Relational Aggression toward Females Pursuing Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryier, Kimberly J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the existence and implications of relational aggression toward female educational administrators. This qualitative study examined the impacts of relational aggression toward ten female superintendents, their observations of relational aggression in the workplace, strategies to overcome relational…

  12. Correctional Education Experiences of Female Offenders with a Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ezekiel

    2012-01-01

    Minimal employable skills, poor work habits, and substance abuse are problems that often result in released female offenders' recidivating within 36 months of their prison release. Recidivism is further compounded when the female offender suffers from a learning disability. Research suggests that correctional education experiences do not…

  13. The Female Educational Advantage among Adolescent Children of Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feliciano, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    The female advantage in educational achievement is especially puzzling in the case of children of immigrants because it departs from the pattern in most immigrants' home countries. Using data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS), this study explores the female advantage in grades and expectations among adolescents and finds…

  14. Leadership Styles of Effective Female Administrators in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hough, Mayra Alayon

    2010-01-01

    The increase number of females in leadership positions provides new opportunities to observe them as leaders. The purpose of this research was to study leadership and to identify the contextual, societal and cultural factors that determined and influenced the styles of leadership of female executives in higher education. The study profiled the…

  15. Career and Technical Education Secondary Female Teachers: Leadership Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Tedra H.; Smith, Bettye P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the leadership attributes, professional characteristics, and personal characteristics of secondary female teachers in career and technical education program areas of agriculture, business, family and consumer sciences, healthcare science, marketing, and technology. This study included 179 female secondary…

  16. Familial and Institutional Factors: Job Satisfaction for Female Counselor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander-Albritton, Carrie; Hill, Nicole R.

    2015-01-01

    Job satisfaction based on familial and institutional factors was explored for 157 female counselor educators. Results indicate that female associate professors had lower levels of intrinsic rewards domain after controlling for institutional type. Parental responsibility and partnership status were equivocal, with significant interaction effects…

  17. Demographic Survey of Female Faculty in Technology Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidari, Farzin

    A study was conducted to determine the general program information and the demographic status of female faculty in four-year technology education programs in the United States. Information was gathered through a literature review and a questionnaire mailed to all 70 technology education programs listed in the 1994 International Technology…

  18. Vocational Education Enrollment Patterns of Females with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Beaver, Suzan M.; Kohler, Paula D.; Chadsey, Janis G.

    2000-01-01

    A study investigated the enrollment of students with and without disabilities in grades 9 through 12 in Illinois in vocational education (VocEd) courses and nontraditional (NT) vocational education programs. Females with disabilities represented the smallest proportion of students enrolled in VocEd and were the smallest proportion of NT enrollees.…

  19. Female Nontraditional Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Julianna

    2010-01-01

    Current enrollment trends indicate that women now outnumber men in college enrollment among all racial/ethnic populations (National Center for Education Statistics [NCES], 2002b, 2007), and that a large portion of these students are nontraditional (NT). Today, more than 73% of all students in undergraduate institutions are described as different…

  20. Saudi Female Attitudes toward Distance Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziyadah, Suliman M. I.

    2012-01-01

    The intent of this study was to determine the essential aspects of both enthusiastic and reluctant Saudi female faculty, administrators, and graduate assistants that encourage or prevent them from participating in online education settings in five government universities across Saudi Arabia. The second intent of this study was to evaluate the…

  1. Health Education Prevention for Eating Disorders among College Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abood, Doris A.; Black, David R.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluated a health education intervention that emphasized risk factors associated with drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction among female college athletes. Surveys of athletes in intervention and comparison groups indicated that the intervention was associated with decreased drive for thinness, which in turn was associated with decreased…

  2. Contemplation, Artful Writing: Research with Internationally Educated Female Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Susan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author experiments with artful writing as a means of contemplating research with internationally educated female teachers. In doing so, she sits with, listens to, writes from particular moments of the research process. The author also composes found poems from words and phrases in the transcripts. Her intention is to dwell…

  3. Adolescent Females with Communication Disorders Involved in Violence: Educators' Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Judy K.; Sanger, Dixie; Moore-Brown, Barbara J.; Smith, Leslie; Scheffler, Marilyn

    2003-01-01

    This study focused on increasing the awareness of educational leaders about the relationship between students with communication disorders and violence. A review of selected research on adolescent females with language problems residing in a correctional facility served to support a survey study and extend discussions about the need for…

  4. Education: The Critical Filter. Volume 2. A Statistical Report on the Status of Female Students in Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Matilda; Marzone, Jean

    The progress and status of female students in postsecondary education are presented in this second of a three-volume study of female education. Volume one focuses on the status of girls and women in elementary and secondary education; volume three, on female professionals in postsecondary education. This volume deals with undergraduate and…

  5. Female role models in physics education in Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chormaic, Síle Nic; Fee, Sandra; Tobin, Laura; Hennessy, Tara

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we consider the statistics on undergraduate student representation in Irish universities and look at student numbers in secondary (high) schools in one region in Ireland. There seems to be no significant change in female participation in physics from 2002 to 2011. Additionally, we have studied the influence of an educator's gender on the prevalence of girls studying physics in secondary schools in Co. Louth, Ireland, and at the postgraduate level in Irish universities. It would appear that strong female role models have a positive influence and lead to an increase in girls' participation in physics.

  6. The effect of female education on fertility: a simple explanation.

    PubMed

    Jain, A K

    1981-11-01

    This paper investigates the structure of the relationship between female education and fertility. It is based on data published in First Country Reports of the World Fertility Surveys for eleven countries--Costa Rica, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Panama, Fiji, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Indonesia. The cumulative marital fertility of educated women is shown to be similar in different settings. A lack of uniformity in the education and fertility relationship including the curvilinear nature of this relationship observed across countries is shown to be attributable to marked differences between countries in the average fertility of women with no education rather than to the presumed differences in the average fertility of the educated women. The structure of the relationship is shown to be similar across several developing countries. This analysis suggests that advancement in female education can be expected to influence fertility behavior even without simultaneous changes in other factors such as increasing opportunity for participation in the paid labor force in the modern sector. PMID:7308537

  7. Educating women about normal female genital appearance variation.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Gemma; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-03-01

    The study investigated the effectiveness of two online resources aimed at improving women's knowledge of the variation in normal female genital appearance and their attitudes towards their own genitals. The first consisted of a photographic array of normal female genitals and the second consisted of a video addressing digital airbrushing of women's genitals in media images. A sample of 136 female undergraduate students were randomly assigned to view the photographs, video, both the photographs and video, or neither. The video significantly increased women's perceptions of genital appearance diversity as well as awareness of digital airbrushing of genital images. Owing to relatively low levels of genital appearance concern, there was no effect of either resource on women's attitudes towards their own genitals; however, women who viewed the video indicated they would pass on their knowledge to help other women. Our results suggest that an educational video could be a useful tool. PMID:26723015

  8. Dietary patterns of female university students with nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Strawson, Cynthia; Bell, Rhonda; Downs, Shauna; Farmer, Anna; Olstad, Dana; Willows, Noreen

    2013-01-01

    Dietary patterns were examined in a convenience sample of 36 female University of Alberta students, all of whom had completed at least one nutrition course. Data from a validated food frequency questionnaire were used to determine if students had a dietary pattern similar to that recommended in Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide (EWCFG) or by the Traditional Healthy Mediterranean Diet Pyramid (THMDP), as measured using a Mediterranean Diet Quality Index Score. No student consumed the THMDP minimum number of portions of legumes, seeds, and nuts, of olive oil, or of whole grains. The majority did not meet the minimum EWCFG recommendations for any food group. The results suggest that nutrition education alone may be insufficient to ensure optimal dietary patterns among female university students. The methodology reported in this study is novel in assessing whether dietary patterns resemble the THMDP or the EWCFG. PMID:24018006

  9. Dietary patterns of female university students with nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Strawson, Cynthia; Bell, Rhonda; Downs, Shauna; Farmer, Anna; Olstad, Dana; Willows, Noreen

    2013-01-01

    Dietary patterns were examined in a convenience sample of 36 female University of Alberta students, all of whom had completed at least one nutrition course. Data from a validated food frequency questionnaire were used to determine if students had a dietary pattern similar to that recommended in Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide (EWCFG) or by the Traditional Healthy Mediterranean Diet Pyramid (THMDP), as measured using a Mediterranean Diet Quality Index Score. No student consumed the THMDP minimum number of portions of legumes, seeds, and nuts, of olive oil, or of whole grains. The majority did not meet the minimum EWCFG recommendations for any food group. The results suggest that nutrition education alone may be insufficient to ensure optimal dietary patterns among female university students. The methodology reported in this study is novel in assessing whether dietary patterns resemble the THMDP or the EWCFG.

  10. Voice characteristics of female physical education student teachers.

    PubMed

    Grillo, Elizabeth U; Fugowski, Justine

    2011-05-01

    In this study, the subjective and objective voice measures of seven female physical education student teachers during a semester of student teaching were investigated. The participants completed the voice measures at three data collection time points: baseline, middle, and end of the semester. The voice measures included acoustic and aerodynamic data, perceptual rating scales of vocal quality and vocal fatigue, an end-of-semester questionnaire, and the Voice Handicap Index. Results demonstrated that the subjective and objective voice measures changed at the middle and the end of the semester as compared with those at baseline. The change in the voice measures may suggest that the vocal mechanism was adapting to the increased vocal demands of teaching physical education.

  11. Physical Education and Female Participation: A Case Study of Teachers' Perspectives and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Brooke; Dionigi, Rylee A.; Litchfield, Chelsea

    2014-01-01

    We argue that gender issues in physical education (PE) remain in some schools, despite advances in PE research and curricula aimed at engaging females in PE. We interviewed five Australian PE teachers (1 male and 4 females) at a co-educational, regional high school about the factors affecting female participation in PE and the strategies they used…

  12. The Significance of Student Voice: Female Students' Interpretations of Failure in Tanzanian Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posti-Ahokas, Hanna; Lehtomäki, Elina

    2014-01-01

    In Tanzania, the national examinations are used as the primary tools for selection and transition from lower to upper secondary education. Female students are more likely to fail in the national exams and to drop out from education. This article examines the perspectives of female students concerning their advancement in secondary education. Two…

  13. Attributes and Characteristics That Contribute to Successful Female Leadership in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouleau-Carroll, Linda K.

    2014-01-01

    The current research indicates that gender underrepresentation in upper management is a broad, global issue. According to data from the Iowa Department of Education (2010), most female principals (50.4%) are at the elementary level while only 23.7% female principals are at the secondary level and 76.3% males. The underrepresentation of females can…

  14. African American Adolescent Female Identification with Engineering and Participation in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornick, Shayla L.

    2012-01-01

    Experiences that females have during middle and high school have been found to influence the perceptions that they have of their ability to be successful as an engineer and the value that they place on participating in engineering education. Engineering education continues to suffer from a lack of female participation. Several efforts have been…

  15. Female Education as a Determinant of Economic Growth: The Case Study of Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatima, Goher

    2011-01-01

    The contribution of female education has been very important in the GDP growth of the country, but this very sector has been ignored by the Government. This paper focuses on the importance of female education and highlights its significance for national development. It also brings out some impediments, obstacles and barriers confronting female…

  16. Attitudes toward Physical Education of Female High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodson-Smith, Andrea; Dorwart, Catherine E.; Linder, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes of female high school students toward PE in selected North Carolina schools. The high schools were conveniently selected to include the Northeast Piedmont urban region of North Carolina. Participants consisted of 102 female students aged 14 to 18 years old who were enrolled in ninth to 12th…

  17. The "Mission" of Nuns in Female Education in Ireland, c.1850-1950

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raftery, Deirdre

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a review and critique of scholarship on female education in Ireland, arguing that researchers have provided a consensual narrative in which women religious (nuns) played a central role in providing academic education to girls and higher education to women. The tendency has been to claim the activities of women religious as…

  18. Maria Edgeworth: Nineteenth Century Irish Female Pioneer of Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scantlebury, Kathryn; Murphy, Collette

    2009-01-01

    Maria Edgeworth was a nineteenth century novelist, primarily remembered for her adult and children's novels. Yet her book, "Letters for literary ladies" discussed the importance of science education for girls and in conjunction with her father, Richard Edgeworth, she wrote several treatises on education. Their book "Practical education" advocates…

  19. Nutrition Education, Body Composition, and Dietary Intake of Female College Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Patricia K.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the effects of nutrition education on body composition and diet patterns of 39 female college athletes. The findings, which are discussed, suggest that individual nutrition counseling is effective in improving the diet quality of female athletes. (Author/MT)

  20. A Tale of Two Schools: Educating Catholic Female Deaf Children in Ireland, 1846-1946

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Noel Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the contributions of the Dominican Sisters and Sisters of Mercy in running schools for female deaf children in Ireland during the period 1846 to 1946. The schools were established as part of an attempt to educate Catholics in the Catholic faith and provide literacy to female deaf children. In assuming the challenge of…

  1. The Experiences of Sexual Harassment in Sport and Education among European Female Sports Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasting, Kari; Chroni, Stiliani; Knorre, Nada

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates whether sport is an especially risky environment for sexual harassment to occur. It explores female students' experiences of sexual harassment in organized sport and compares them with their experiences in formal education, by addressing the following research questions: (1) Are there any differences in female sport…

  2. Sex education among Asian American college females: who is teaching them and what is being taught.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christine; Tran, Denise Yen; Thoi, Deanna; Chang, Melissa; Wu, Lisa; Trieu, Sang Leng

    2013-04-01

    Many parents are reluctant to educate their Asian American adolescents on sexual health topics because sexuality is taboo in most Asian cultures. A survey was conducted with Chinese, Filipina, Korean, and Vietnamese college females ages 18-25 to assess sources of abstinence and birth control education and age of sexual debut. Parents were the least reported source of sex education for all four ethnic groups, with the majority of respondents reporting school as their source of sex education. Respondents who reported family as their source of abstinence education had a sexual debut of 6 months later than those who did not. Females who reported family as their source of birth control education began having sex more than 7 months later than those who reported other sources. Disaggregation of data by Asian ethnic groups and examining differences in delivery of sex education among ethnic groups may improve school curricula and sexual health.

  3. The Demographic Promise of Expanded Female Education: Trends in the Age at First Birth in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Monica J.

    2016-01-01

    The expansion of female education has been promoted as a way to postpone the age of first birth. In sub-Saharan Africa, the first cohorts to benefit from policies that expanded access to education are now reaching adulthood and beginning childbearing. I investigate whether the expansion of education in Malawi, which implemented a free primary education policy in 1994 and subsequently expanded secondary schooling, has led to a later age at first birth and whether the education gradient in fertility timing has remained stable over time. Despite increases in female grade attainment over the past twenty years, the age at first birth has not changed. Using instrumental variables analysis, I find a significant negative association between grade attainment and age at first birth, suggesting that the deterioration of school quality and shift in the age pattern of enrollment that accompanied educational expansion may have compromised the transformative potential of education. PMID:27158172

  4. Adjusting Educational Practice To Increase Female Persistence in the Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Michelle S.; Gess-Newsome, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Interviews and roundtable discussions with 32 junior and senior female students majoring in math, science, and engineering (MSE) identified factors contributing to MSE retention and graduation, including: (1) support networks and university acclimation; (2) faculty associations; (3) financial assistance; and (4) university support programs that…

  5. Attitudes of Parents towards Contemporary Female Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khattak, Shamaas Gul

    2012-01-01

    This paper is derived from the author's PhD dissertation (gender issues in higher education of Khyber Pukhtunkhwah (KPK) Pakistan). This study aimed at exploring the attitude of parents towards contemporary women higher education. The population for the study was the students' parents of four colleges of Peshawar, capital city of KPK, although the…

  6. Educational Megatrends and Increased Female Leadership in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pounder, Diana G.

    A frequently cited explanation for women's underrepresentation in educational administration is the incongruence between traditional administrative role stereotypes and gender stereotypes. However, this paper posits that certain educational and demographic trends may influence school administrator roles to become less stereotypically masculine.…

  7. Facing the Future: Education and Equity for Females and Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Martha

    This publication examines the changes in the roles of women and men and what these changes mean for the future of schools--for educational quality and opportunity and for educational decision making. Women comprise more than 44% of the paid work force. It is estimated that by the year 2000, if not before, work force participation rates of women…

  8. A surprising exception. Himachal's success in promoting female education.

    PubMed

    Dreze, J

    1999-01-01

    Gender inequalities in India are derived partly from the economic dependence of women on men. Low levels of formal education among women reinforce the asymmetry of power between the sexes. A general pattern of sharp gender bias in education levels is noted in most Indian states; however, in the small state of Himachal Pradesh, school participation rates are almost as high for girls as for boys. Rates of school participation for girls at the primary level is close to universal in this state, and while gender bias persists at higher levels of education, it is much lower than elsewhere in India and rapidly declining. This was not the case 50 years ago; educational levels in Himachal Pradesh were no higher than in Bihar or Uttar Pradesh. Today, the spectacular transition towards universal elementary education in Himachal Pradesh has contributed to the impressive reduction of poverty, mortality, illness, undernutrition, and related deprivations.

  9. More Educated and More Equal? A Comparative Analysis of Female Education and Employment in Japan, China and India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha Mukherjee, Sucharita

    2015-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the connections between expanding female education and the participation of women in paid employment in Japan, China and India, three of Asia's largest economies. Analysis based on existing data and literature shows that despite the large expansion in educational access in these countries in the last half century,…

  10. Labor Market Participation, Returns to Education, and Male-Female Wage Differences in Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khandker, Shahidur R.

    Based on a human capital model, this paper uses household survey data from Peru to estimate differences between males and females in labor-market participation, productivity (measured in wages), and economic returns to education. The focus is on human capital, especially education, as a determinant of labor participation and productivity. The…

  11. Exercise and Education: Facilities for the Young Female Body in Scotland, 1930-1960

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macrae, Eilidh H. R.

    2012-01-01

    This article uses testimony gathered from oral history interviews and contemporary physical education sources to explore the schooling of the young female body in Scotland between 1930 and 1960. It looks at the ways in which girls were educated about their own bodies and their physical capabilities at school, taking into account official…

  12. Cost of Health Education to Increase STD Awareness in Female Garment Workers in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rianon, Nahid; Selwyn, Beatrice; Shahidullah, S. M.; Swint, J. Michael; Franzini, Luisa; Rasu, Rafia

    2009-01-01

    Risk of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and the need for health education in the female garment workers in Bangladesh have been emphasized in the past. Interventions were more acceptable when considered cost-effective. This preliminary study reported on the cost-effectiveness of a health education program that successfully improved knowledge…

  13. The Impact of Education on the Female Labor Force in Argentina and Paraguay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainerman, Catalina H.

    1980-01-01

    The author attempts to identify which females, in different educational levels and family situations, have a greater propensity to participate in the labor market and to evaluate how formal education and marital status influence this propensity. Data are drawn from the latest available censuses of Argentina (1970) and Paraguay (1972). (Author/SJL)

  14. "Doing and Undoing Gender": Female Higher Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehran, Golnar

    2009-01-01

    Since the establishment of the Islamic Republic, female higher education has been characterised by a paradoxical combination of discrimination and exclusion, on the one hand, and increasing equality and empowerment, on the other. This study focuses on the triangle of education, equality and empowerment, using Sara Longwe's women's empowerment…

  15. Female Survivors' Perceptions of Lifelong Impact on Their Education of Child Abuse Suffered in Orphanages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Bode, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Many children raised in orphanages suffered ongoing child abuse and neglect including sexual abuse, and nearly all were denied an adequate education. This paper explores adult females' perceptions of the impacts on their education of child sexual abuse they suffered while living in orphanages in Australia. In-depth qualitative and anonymous…

  16. An Exploration of Female Travellers' Experiences of Guidance Counselling in Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Anne; Hearne, Lucy

    2012-01-01

    The proposed changes in the further education sector, including the rationalisation of the VEC into Local Education and Training Boards (LETBs) and the closures of the Senior Traveller Training Centres (STTCs), have implications for guidance counselling provision to the Traveller community. This article discusses female Travellers' experiences of…

  17. Male Dance Educators in a Female-Dominated Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Golden

    2013-01-01

    Problems in gender equity exist in dance education just as they do in other professions. There is a need for strategic recruitment efforts and research on how to attract more males into the dance profession.

  18. Career Guidance and Counseling in Educating Female Scientists Of a Developing Nation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olorode, D. O.; Olorode, G. T.

    2009-05-01

    The study area is Nigeria as a developing nation. A nation that must be developed must devote a high percentage of her resources to support the education of her women. To educate a woman is to educate a nation. This paper seeks to understand the problems of women scientists from the high school level. Three high schools were chosen, two of them are females only while one is a mixed school. Observations reveal that the problems encountered in Nigeria, by females in science education has a lot of link with lack of Career Guidance Counselors at the high school level. Where they have, female students are not advised properly in the sciences, hence majority of the girls end up with the arts and humanities. It is concluded therefore that every high school in a developing nation must have Departments of Guidance and Counseling for Science and Arts Faculties.

  19. Female Leadership Capacity and Effectiveness: A Critical Analysis of the Literature on Higher Education in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alomair, Miznah O.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the progressive changes occurring in Saudi Arabia, developing female leadership capacity and effectiveness in the country's higher education is vital. This literature review examines the scholarship and research on female leadership in higher education in Saudi Arabia, describes the major barriers for female leaders, and provides a…

  20. Female Adolescents' Educational Choices about Reproductive Health Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Melanie A.; Chiappetta, Laurel; Young, Amanda J.; Zuckoff, Allan; DiClemente, Carlo C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess girls' reproductive educational choices, satisfaction with choice, and relationship between demographics, module choice, and satisfaction. Methods: We recruited 286 girls, aged 13 to 21 years, from a hospital-based adolescent clinic, from advertisements, and by word of mouth. At enrollment, participants completed a 60-minute…

  1. Female Supervisors of Arab School Education in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arar, Khalid Husny

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the characteristics of women discipline supervisors in the Arab education system in Israel, through their professional development to their attainment of senior supervisory posts. It examines how they attain supervision posts and perform various managerial functions in what is considered a male role, in a patriarchal society,…

  2. Effects of the Age–Education Structure of Female Workers on Male Earnings in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Lima Amaral, Ernesto Friedrich; Almeida, Mariana Eugenio; Rios-Neto, Eduardo Luiz Gonçalves; Potter, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    The main concern of this study is the impact that an increase in female participation within the labor force has on the earnings of males in Brazil. Previous research considered these transitions for male workers, but did not include female workers when estimating various effects on earnings. The 1970, 1980, 1991, and 2000 Brazilian Demographic Censuses were used for this analysis. Results suggest a significant negative impact on male earnings in 1970 as a result of the share of female workers. This effect has been decreasing over time, as the coefficients from more recent years are positive. Changes in age and educational composition make a substantial difference on the estimation of male earnings in Brazil. The method developed in this study is not infallible, but it improves previous estimates by including the relationship among compositional changes, female labor force participation, and earnings, thus going beyond the direct impact of age and education. PMID:26594305

  3. Tribal Colleges and Universities in the 21st Century: Native American Female Leadership in Tribal Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitting Crow, Karen Paetz

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of Native American female leadership is becoming a more prevalent topic in the scholarly literature as more educated Native American women become visible in tribal higher education. This qualitative case study explored Native American female leadership, as a growing number of Native American women enter higher education and earn…

  4. The Effects of Single Gender Education on Sixth through Eighth Grade Female Student Science Achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Deanna Sherrise

    Currently, students in the United States are educated in either single or mixed gender learning environments. An achievement gap between male and female students in the area of science indicates a need for instructional strategies and environments that will address these learning needs. Single gender classrooms are one possible solution as males and females have gender differences that may contribute to the way they learn. This quantitative, causal comparative study compared the differences in the Palmetto Assessment of State Standards science achievement scores of middle school females in single and mixed gender environments in a state in the Southeastern United States. Independent samples t tests, Chi-Square Tests, and two-way ANOVA analyses determined if group differences in science achievement existed between sixth through eighth grade female students in single and mixed gender classrooms. Results of the study revealed there was no significant difference in achievement scores between the two groups. The research findings provide the stakeholders with information that can potentially influence the implementation of single gender programs to improve the achievement of female students in middle grades science. Keywords: single gender, science, female students, education

  5. Women and girls in science education: Female teachers' and students' perspectives on gender and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crotty, Ann

    Science is a part of all students' education, PreK-12. Preparing students for a more scientifically and technologically complex world requires the best possible education including the deliberate inclusion and full contributions of all students, especially an underrepresented group: females in science. In the United States, as elsewhere in the world, the participation of girls and women in science education and professional careers in science is limited, particularly in the physical sciences (National Academy of Sciences [NAS], 2006). The goal of this research study is to gain a better understanding of the perspectives and perceptions of girls and women, both science educators and students, related to gender and participation in science at the time of an important course: high school chemistry. There is a rich body of research literature in science education that addresses gender studies post---high school, but less research that recognizes the affective voices of practicing female science teachers and students at the high school level (Bianchini, Cavazos, & Helms, 2000; Brown & Gilligan, 1992; Gilligan, 1982). Similarly, little is known with regard to how female students and teachers navigate their educational, personal, and professional experiences in science, or how they overcome impediments that pose limits on their participation in science, particularly the physical sciences. This exploratory study focuses on capturing voices (Brown & Gilligan, 1992; Gilligan, 1982) of high school chemistry students and teachers from selected urban and suburban learning communities in public schools in the Capital Region of New York State. Through surveys, interviews, and focus groups, this qualitative study explores the intersection of the students' and teachers' experiences with regard to the following questions: (1) How do female chemistry teachers view the role gender has played in their professional and personal lives as they have pursued education, degree status, and

  6. Female Representation in the Higher Education of Geography in Hungary. Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timar, Judit; Jelenszkyne, Ildiko Fabian

    2004-01-01

    This paper charts the changing female representation in the higher education of geography, connecting it with the faltering development of feminist geography in Hungary. The transition from socialism to capitalism has compounded gender inequalities while many of the relevant statistical data display gender blindness. Gender issues fail to form a…

  7. Interpreting Letters and Reading Script: Evidence for Female Education and Literacy in Tudor England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daybell, James

    2005-01-01

    Attempts to write the history of female education are hampered by the relative informality of teaching provision for women in early modern England. Since most women were excluded from male centres of learning--the grammar schools, universities and Inns of Court--historians are deprived of institutional records, which so well elucidate the…

  8. Gender and Higher Education in Different National Spaces: Female Palestinian Students Attending Israeli and Jordanian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Rabia-Queder, Sarab; Arar, Khaled

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the higher education experience among Palestinian Arab females in two national spaces and seeks to determine whether studying at an Arab institution of higher learning in a nearby Arab country can alleviate the emotional and economic difficulties that affect Palestinian women at Israeli universities. What can institutions of…

  9. Male and Female Pathways through Four-Year Colleges: Disruption and Sex Stratification in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Pathways through college vary by sex in ways that may contribute to the contemporary male-female gap in college graduation that favors women. Although past research has documented sex differences in college pathways, little research has investigated the underlying causes of this variation. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study,…

  10. Factors Influencing the Design, Establishment, Administration, and Governance of Correctional Education for Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Johnica; McFadden, Cheryl; Colaric, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of a study conducted to investigate factors influencing the organizational design, establishment, administration, and governance of correctional education for females. The research involved interviews with correctional and community college administrators and practitioners representing North Carolina female…

  11. The Female Body in Motion: An Introduction to Women's Studies Through Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Linda; Molstad, Susan

    1977-01-01

    "Exploring Female Images Through Movement," a course at Skidmore College, features activities that help students reexamine their attitudes toward their bodies, improve their self-image, and, through a combination of physical education and women's studies, experiment with new activities and ideas about themselves as women. (MB)

  12. Japanese Female Students' Perceptions of 2-Year Colleges as a Choice for Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzai, Shinobu; Paik, Chie Matsuzawa

    2012-01-01

    Two-year colleges have played an important role in providing postsecondary education for women in postwar Japan. More recently, a dwindling college-bound population in Japan has resulted in a drastic decrease in the number of and enrollment in 2-year colleges. This study explored the motivations and aspirations of 12 Japanese female students to…

  13. Mentoring, Leadership Behaviors, and Career Success, of African American Female Faculty and Administrators in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adedokun, Aderemi D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study is to examine the relationship between the variables of career mentoring, leadership behaviors, and career success of African American female faculty and administrators in higher education positions. The aim is to determine whether mentoring is related to leadership behavior and career success of African…

  14. Female Managers in Business and Education: Sacrifices, Stressors, and Support Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Carole

    Women who occupy the managerial ranks in today's world lead busy, often frustrating lives. In this study, 75 female managers in business and education were interviewed to determine their feelings about their careers, their major sources of stress, their sacrifices when entering management, the barriers they faced, and how they cope with their…

  15. Providing Educational Support for Female Ex-Inmates: Project PROVE as a Model for Social Reintegration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Patricia; Fasenfest, David; Sarri, Rosemary; Phillips, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The number of female prisoners continues to grow in the United States, yet most examinations of how to increase reintegration and reduce recidivation focus on the needs of the predominantly male prisoner population. As a result, prison education programs and post-release environments often leave women unprepared and facing special risks. This…

  16. Exploratory Study of Asian Pacific American Female Leaders in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mella, Hazel Roca

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if and to what extent the model minority myth prevents "Asian Pacific American" ("APA") women from achieving the president or chancellor position in higher education institutions. This study explored the experiences of APA female leaders who are presidents and chancellors to discover…

  17. Status Report on Female Completers in New Jersey Vocational Education 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montclair State Coll., Upper Montclair, NJ. Life Skills Center.

    The New Jersey Occupational Information Coordinating Committee's statistics for average annual predicted job openings for program year 1989 are given in this report, along with the New Jersey Division of Vocational Education completers' statistics for the 1988-89 school year. The numbers of male and female completers of secondary programs for each…

  18. Status Report on Female Enrollment in New Jersey Vocational Education 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montclair State Coll., Upper Montclair, NJ. Life Skills Center.

    The New Jersey Occupational Information Coordinating Committee's statistics for average annual predicted job openings for 1984-87 are presented, along with the New Jersey Division of Vocational Education's enrollment statistics for the same period. The number of males and females enrolled in secondary programs for each of the 29 job categories…

  19. Training to Teach Physical Education in a Grammar School for Boys: Female Narratives and Mentor Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stidder, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the school-based training experiences of a female trainee teacher of physical education (Emily) at a grammar school for boys. The purpose of this research is to consider whether the sex of the trainee teacher either inhibits or advances the professional development of trainee teachers in an opposite-sex school. Emily…

  20. Female Educators, Development, and Human Capital: A Brazilian Case. Working Paper #35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Linda

    The role of female educators in the Brazilian Amazon community of Itaituba (population in 1970: 12,690) has fallen short of that envisioned by the policymakers and social scientists in the early 1970s, as indicated by research conducted in 1976-77. Based on the "human capital" theory, better-trained local teachers were to train the local labor…

  1. The First Female Academics in Programs of Educational Administration in Canada: Riding Waves of Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Janice; Wallin, Dawn; Viczko, Melody; Anderson, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Our research situates, contextualizes, and analyzes the lived experiences of ten female academics who were among the first women in the academic discipline of educational administration in seven of the ten provinces in Canada. Using institutional ethnography and life history to inform our analysis, this article explores three of the themes that…

  2. The Role of Health Education on Breast Cancer Awareness among University of Calabar Female Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asuquo, I. M.; Olajide, T. E.

    2015-01-01

    The study sought to determine the role of health education on breast cancer awareness among University of Calabar female undergraduates. To achieve the purpose of the study, three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Related literature was reviewed, while a survey research design was adopted for the study. Appropriately develop and…

  3. Therapeutic Massage Impacts Quality of Life for University Female Faculty in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandstrom, Clarine

    2009-01-01

    Stress is a part of everyone's life. Depending on the level of stress, it may affect people's health and lives. Stress in the workplace may come from many different sources, however for the purpose of this study, the focus was on female faculty working in a Teacher Education program at a small north central, North Dakota university. Stress is…

  4. FEMALE EDUCATION AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH CHANGES IN SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC BEHAVIOUR: EVIDENCE FROM INDIA.

    PubMed

    Borkotoky, Kakoli; Unisa, Sayeed

    2015-09-01

    Education is a crucial factor in influencing the pattern and timing of marriage for women, and the changes in levels of female literacy will also change the dynamics of family formation. India has experienced consistent improvement in levels of female literacy; therefore, this study examined the association of women's education with the changes in their demographic behaviour in the Indian context. The central idea of the paper is to examine the differences in age at marriage and first birth, choice of marriage partner and the number of children ever born based on educational attainment of women. In addition, the study examined incongruence in years of schooling and discontinuation from school, for children based on education of the mother. The study utilized data from the third round of District Level Household and Facility Survey. The sample constituted 344,164 ever-married women aged 35 years and above with surviving children aged 5-20 years. The results imply that women with higher education are more likely to marry late and have fewer children compared with less educated women. Accordingly, increase in education of women also increases the probability of marrying men with better education than themselves. The study further observed that education of wife has a greater association with the number of children ever born than the education of husband. At the same time, incongruence in years of schooling and drop-out from school are both high for children of uneducated women. The study also found that the children from urban areas are more likely to drop out than their rural counterparts. In addition to education of the mother, number and composition of children in the family and economic condition of the household are some other factors that influence the educational attainment of children.

  5. The piano plague: the nineteenth-century medical critique of female musical education.

    PubMed

    Kennaway, James

    2011-01-01

    The role of music in nineteenth-century female education has been seen primarily in the context of the middle class cult of domesticity, and the relationship of music to medicine in the period has generally been viewed in terms of music therapy. Nevertheless, for much of the century there was serious medical discussion about the dangers of excessive music in girls' education. Many of the leading psychiatrists and gynaecologists of the nineteenth century argued that music could over-stimulate the nervous system, playing havoc with vulnerable female nerves and reproductive organs, and warned of the consequences of music lessons on the developing bodies of teenage girls. Two rival models of music's effects competed and were combined. One suggested that music led to illness by provoking sensuality, imagination and sexuality; the other argued that it was a source of neurasthenic fatigue because of intellectual strain. PMID:22303771

  6. The piano plague: the nineteenth-century medical critique of female musical education.

    PubMed

    Kennaway, James

    2011-01-01

    The role of music in nineteenth-century female education has been seen primarily in the context of the middle class cult of domesticity, and the relationship of music to medicine in the period has generally been viewed in terms of music therapy. Nevertheless, for much of the century there was serious medical discussion about the dangers of excessive music in girls' education. Many of the leading psychiatrists and gynaecologists of the nineteenth century argued that music could over-stimulate the nervous system, playing havoc with vulnerable female nerves and reproductive organs, and warned of the consequences of music lessons on the developing bodies of teenage girls. Two rival models of music's effects competed and were combined. One suggested that music led to illness by provoking sensuality, imagination and sexuality; the other argued that it was a source of neurasthenic fatigue because of intellectual strain.

  7. Female leadership raises aspirations and educational attainment for girls: a policy experiment in India.

    PubMed

    Beaman, Lori; Duflo, Esther; Pande, Rohini; Topalova, Petia

    2012-02-01

    Exploiting a randomized natural experiment in India, we show that female leadership influences adolescent girls' career aspirations and educational attainment. A 1993 law reserved leadership positions for women in randomly selected village councils. Using 8453 surveys of adolescents aged 11 to 15 and their parents in 495 villages, we found that, relative to villages in which such positions were never reserved, the gender gap in aspirations closed by 20% in parents and 32% in adolescents in villages assigned a female leader for two election cycles. The gender gap in adolescent educational attainment was erased, and girls spent less time on household chores. We found no evidence of changes in young women's labor market opportunities, which suggests that the impact of women leaders primarily reflects a role model effect. PMID:22245740

  8. Female leadership raises aspirations and educational attainment for girls: a policy experiment in India.

    PubMed

    Beaman, Lori; Duflo, Esther; Pande, Rohini; Topalova, Petia

    2012-02-01

    Exploiting a randomized natural experiment in India, we show that female leadership influences adolescent girls' career aspirations and educational attainment. A 1993 law reserved leadership positions for women in randomly selected village councils. Using 8453 surveys of adolescents aged 11 to 15 and their parents in 495 villages, we found that, relative to villages in which such positions were never reserved, the gender gap in aspirations closed by 20% in parents and 32% in adolescents in villages assigned a female leader for two election cycles. The gender gap in adolescent educational attainment was erased, and girls spent less time on household chores. We found no evidence of changes in young women's labor market opportunities, which suggests that the impact of women leaders primarily reflects a role model effect.

  9. The Piano Plague: The Nineteenth-Century Medical Critique of Female Musical Education*

    PubMed Central

    Kennaway, James

    2014-01-01

    The role of music in nineteenth-century female education has been seen primarily in the context of the middle class cult of domesticity, and the relationship of music to medicine in the period has generally been viewed in terms of music therapy. Nevertheless, for much of the century there was serious medical discussion about the dangers of excessive music in girls’ education. Many of the leading psychiatrists and gynaecologists of the nineteenth century argued that music could over-stimulate the nervous system, playing havoc with vulnerable female nerves and reproductive organs, and warned of the consequences of music lessons on the developing bodies of teenage girls. Two rival models of music’s effects competed and were combined. One suggested that music led to illness by provoking sensuality, imagination and sexuality; the other argued that it was a source of neurasthenic fatigue because of intellectual strain. PMID:22303771

  10. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Sam

    2014-03-01

    This article will explore the intersection between `literature' and `science' in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of the Lichfield Botanical Society (headed by Erasmus Darwin) became implicated in debates around the education of women in Linnaean botany. The Society's translations from Linnaeus inspired a new genre of women's educational writing, the botanical poem with scientific notes, which emerged at this time. It focuses in particular on a poem by Anna Seward and argues that significant problems regarding the representation of the Linnaean sexual system of botany are found in such works and that women in the culture of botany struggled to give voice to a subject which was judged improper for female education. The story of this unique poem and the surrounding controversies can teach us much about how gender impacted upon women's scientific writing in eighteenth century Britain, and how it shaped the language and terminology of botany in works for female education. In particular, it demonstrates how the sexuality of plants uncovered by Linnaeus is a paradigmatic illustration of how societal forces can simultaneously both constrict and stimulate women's involvement in science. Despite the vast changes to women's access in scientific knowledge of the present day, this `fair sexing' of botany illustrates the struggle that women have undergone to give voice to their botanical knowledge.

  11. Educating adult females for leadership roles in an informal science program for girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCreedy, Dale

    The purpose of this study is to gain an understanding of and an evidentiary warrant for, how a community of practice focused on informal science learning, can engage and promote active participation that offers adult female members and the community opportunities for legitimacy and transformation. This study is a qualitative, ethnographic research study that documents how adult female volunteers, historically inexperienced and/or excluded from traditional practices of science, come to engage in science activities through an informal, community-based context that helps them to appreciate science connections in their lives that are ultimately empowering and agentic. I begin to understand the ways in which such informal contexts, often thought to be marginal to dominant educational beliefs and practices, can offer adults outside of the field of science, education, or both, an entree into science learning and teaching that facilitate female's participation in legitimate and empowering ways. Using descriptive analyses, I first identify the characteristics of peripheral and active program participants. Through phenomenological analyses, I then develop an understanding of participation in an informal science program by focusing on three adult female members' unique trajectories of participation leading to core member status. Each draws on different aspects of the program that they find most salient, illustrating how different elements can serve as motivators for participation, and support continuation along the trajectory of participation reflecting personal and political agency. Through a purposeful ethnographic case-study analysis, I then explore one core member's transformation, evidenced by her developing identities as someone who enjoys science, engages in science activities, and, enacts a role as community old timer and door opener to science learning. This study: (1) contributes to the limited knowledge base in fields of informal learning, science education, and

  12. "doing and Undoing Gender": Female Higher Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehran, Golnar

    2009-11-01

    Since the establishment of the Islamic Republic, female higher education has been characterised by a paradoxical combination of discrimination and exclusion, on the one hand, and increasing equality and empowerment, on the other. This study focuses on the triangle of education, equality and empowerment, using Sara Longwe's women's empowerment framework to analyse the interplay between the three. State policies to Islamise the universities during the 1980-1983 Cultural Revolution determined the "gender appropriateness" of each specialisation and led to the exclusion of women from "masculine" fields of study during the early years of the revolution. Despite such discriminatory measures, women today represent the majority of students in all fields, except engineering. Women, however, remain underrepresented at graduate levels of education and as faculty members. An important challenge is to understand why men are not entering different specialisations and whether there is a possibility of "re-doing gender" - this time in addressing male inequality and disempowerment at undergraduate levels.

  13. Perceptions of International Female Students toward E-Learning in Resolving High Education and Family Role Strain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibelloh, Mboni; Bao, Yukun

    2014-01-01

    It is a common phenomenon for many mature female international students enrolled in high education overseas to experience strain from managing conflicting roles of student and family, and difficulties of cross-cultural adjustment. The purpose of this study is to examine perceptions and behavioral intentions of international female students toward…

  14. The Construction of "Female Citizens": A Socio-Historical Analysis of Girls' Education in Luxembourg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Catherina

    2014-01-01

    Background: This paper will empirically investigate female education in Luxembourg from a historical perspective. A special focus will be laid on the question of how women in Luxembourgian society were constructed as female "citizens", even though they were, rather, considered as a homogeneous category limited to a private sphere…

  15. Multivariate Effects of Level of Education, Computer Ownership, and Computer Use on Female Students' Attitudes towards CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahimi, Mehrak; Yadollahi, Samaneh

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was investigating Iranian female students' attitude towards CALL and its relationship with their level of education, computer ownership, and frequency of use. One hundred and forty-two female students (50 junior high-school students, 49 high-school students and 43 university students) participated in this study. They filled…

  16. The Effect of Required Cooperative Education (Co-Op) on the Pursuit of an Undergraduate Engineering Degree for Female Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Vickie L.

    2009-01-01

    Female enrollment in engineering has been historically low. Researchers claim chilly classroom environments and societal expectations of gender and work as reasons why so few women pursue engineering. This qualitative study explores the effects of required cooperative education on a female student's choice of and persistence in an undergraduate…

  17. Examination of the Effectiveness of Male and Female Educational Leaders Who Made Use of the Invitational Leadership Style of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Gwen; Martin, Barbara N.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this inquiry was to examine the effectiveness of male and female educational leaders who made use of the invitational leadership style of leadership in their k-12 school settings. Study participants consisted of 14 principals (7 female and 7 male) and 164 teachers. While quantitative findings revealed a statistically significant…

  18. Exploring the Factors That Influence Female Students' Decision to (Not) Enrol in Elective Physical Education: A Private School Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiley, Jill; Robinson, Daniel Bruce

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the results from a qualitative case study that examined the influencers upon a somewhat unique group of female students who opted out of elective physical education (PE). More specifically, this study focused upon female students attending an affluent private school, investigating why--when they transitioned from middle…

  19. Female adolescents’ experiences and perceptions regarding sexual health education in Iranian schools: A qualitative content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Javadnoori, Mojgan; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Hasanpour, Marzieh; Hazavehei, Seyyed Mohammad Mehdi; Taghipour, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Background: Despite so many unmet sexual health education (SHE) needs of adolescents, socio-cultural challenges have caused this issue to be ignored in different scoieties. This study investigated Iranian female adolescents’ experiences and perceptions with respect to SHE that they received at schools, and what they really needed, expected, and preferred. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study, seven focus group discussions (44 adolescents) and 13 individual in-depth interviews were conducted among female adolescents aged 14-18 in Mashhad and Ahvaz, Iran, to explore adolescents’ experiences and perceptions towards SHE in Iranian schools. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results: Analyzing adolescents’ perspectives and experiences revealed their great dissatisfaction with SHE in schools. Emerged categories included: lack of obligation and priority for SHE, sexual reticence and evading, making adolescents frightened of sexual issues, inconsistency of SHE with adolescents’ needs, unqualified educators, and lack of appropriate educational materials. Conclusion: This study found some similarities between expectations of Iranian adolescents and those of adolescents from other cultures about an SHE program. Adolescents showed great abilities to appraise health services delivered for them, and so any program for sexual health promotion in adolescents ought to address adolescents’ needs, demands, and aspirations. Their contribution can provide insights for tailoring SHE programs for adolescents. PMID:23922603

  20. Promoting Gender Equality in the Context of Nigerian Cultural and Religious Expression: Beyond Increasing Female Access to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Para-Mallam, Funmi J.

    2010-01-01

    National education policies in Nigeria aim at addressing female disprivilege by improving girl-child enrolment in schools in line with Millennium Development Goal targets. In addition, the National Gender Policy and its Strategic Implementation Framework stress the importance of mainstreaming gender perspectives within the education sector by…

  1. Voices from Caribbean Classrooms: The Academic and Lived Experience of Jamaican Nontraditional Female Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black-Chen, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    One of the most notable trends in the last two decades has been the dramatic increase in continuing education among nontraditional-aged females. This study examined the academic and lived experience of women in Jamaica, specifically women who returned to college to further their education. Emphasis was placed on investigating reasons for…

  2. The Relationship of Parental Education and Maternal Work and Occupational Status to Occupational Aspiration in Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlin, Frances-Dee

    1976-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of parental education and maternal work and occupational status to the occupational aspirations of adolescent females. Significant association was found between occupational aspiration and father's education and between occupational aspiration and mother's occupational status (traditional or…

  3. The Effect of Female Education on Fertility and Infant Health: Evidence from School Entry Policies Using Exact Date of Birth

    PubMed Central

    McCrary, Justin

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses age-at-school-entry policies to identify the effect of female education on fertility and infant health. We focus on sharp contrasts in schooling, fertility, and infant health between women born just before and after the school entry date. School entry policies affect female education and the quality of a woman’s mate and have generally small, but possibly heterogeneous, effects on fertility and infant health. We argue that school entry policies manipulate primarily the education of young women at risk of dropping out of school. PMID:21490880

  4. Educators' Perspectives on Female Students' Enrollment in Computer Science and Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibeau, Wendy

    The purpose of this case study was to inquire into educators' perspectives on female students' enrollment in computer science and engineering (CSE) courses. At a high school in New England, girls are significantly underrepresented in CSE courses, a problem that is reflected in schools throughout the United States. As a result, these careers are lacking in input from women, even as the number of CSE professions is increasing. Research questions in this study addressed what teachers, administrators, and guidance counselors think about this growing problem and what changes, if any, they are willing to make to help close this gender gap. Individual interviews and a focus group were used to gather data from 7 participants. The theoretical framework was based on brain research and social theories. Data were then analyzed and coded for themes based on the framework. The results indicated that educators are cognizant of the underrepresentation within their school and have tried individually, but unsuccessfully, to make changes to increase the numbers of girls in CSE courses. In response to these findings, a professional development project was developed that outlines ways for educators to communicate and collaborate to increase girls' representation in CSE courses. Girls, schools, and industry can benefit from the results of this study. If educators can encourage more girls to take CSE courses and provide support for them to be confident and successful, then more girls will go on to major in CSE, which will then lead to an increase in the number of women working in these fields.

  5. The Supply of Female Scientists Conundrum: An International Study Exploring the Predictors of Females' Intentions to Major in Science Postsecondary Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigoni, Susan E.

    The goal of this study was to perform an exploratory analysis of a comprehensive list of independent variables identified from literature to determine which, if any, are effective predictors in forecasting a female's intention to study science postsecondary. This is likely to be indicative of interest to study science when pursing higher education as well as choice of major and possible career. The postulated model guiding this analysis, which was based on prior research, recognized that factors pertaining to students, parents, schools, and peers are all important. This study used logistic regression to analyze data from the 2006 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). The findings of this study suggest that external factors, such as those considered from the environment, are indeed important in determining a female's intention to study science postsecondary. The findings of this study provided further refinement by demonstrating that for the 15 countries included in this analysis from the Oceania, Latin America, European, and Asian regions there were some overarching and consistent factors that are positively associated with females' intentions to study science postsecondary. These findings essentially paint a portrait of females who intend to study science postsecondary, which are used to suggest additional research as well as interventions to help mitigate the female scientist conundrum observed worldwide.

  6. Female and male Hispanic students majoring in science or engineering: Their stories describing their educational journeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Susan Wightman

    National statistics clearly demonstrate an underrepresentation of minorities in the fields of science and engineering. Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, and Asians do not typically choose science or engineering as their college major; therefore, there is a very small representation of these minorities in the science and engineering labor force. The decision not to major in science and engineering may begin as soon as the child can begin to recognize role models in the media. News stories, magazine articles, television programs, teachers, parents, administrators, and other agencies have painted the picture of a scientist or engineer as being dominantly a White male. Schools have continued society's portrayal by using curriculum, textbooks, role models, instructional strategies, and counseling that continues to encourage the White male to succeed in science and engineering, but discourages the minority students, male and female, from succeeding in these fields. In this qualitative study, 22 Hispanic students, 12 female and 10 male, who are majoring in science or engineering, were interviewed using Seidman's in-depth interviewing technique. These students were shadowed in their college science or engineering classes; their high school and college transcripts were analyzed; and, a focus group was brought together at the end of the interviewing process in order to allow interaction between the participants. The goal was to explore the educational journeys of the 22 Hispanic students. What made a difference in the journeys of these 22 students so that they could succeed in majors that have historically discouraged minority students? Seven themes emerged: family support, honors program, challenging and interactive curriculum, college preparation in high school courses, caring and kind teachers, small class size, and small communities. Gender comparison of the educational journeys documents these differences between the females and males: college preparation, mentoring

  7. Joint laxity and osteoarthrosis: a radiological survey of female physical education specialists.

    PubMed Central

    Bird, H. A.; Hudson, A.; Eastmond, C. J.; Wright, V.

    1980-01-01

    Three hundred and sixty-four female specialist teachers of physical education who qualified between 1935 and 1950 agreed to have x-rays of the lumbar spine, hips and knees. Fifty-two has osteoarthrosis of the hip, 65 osteoarthrosis of the knee and 221 degenerative change in the spine. Overall osteoarthrosis of the knee was significantly less common than in a comparable sample from the general population (p < 0.001), severe or moderate osteoarthrosis being equally common in both groups but minor in minimal osteoarthrosis being much less common in the teachers. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of osteoarthrosis of the hip between the two populations though severe osteoarthrosis of the hip was slightly more common in the teachers. Images p179-a p179-b p179-c Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:7448483

  8. Evaluating an Adolescent Behavioral Program: Leadership, Education, Achievement, and Development for Adolescent Female Offenders in Corrections.

    PubMed

    Panosky, Denise M; Shelton, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a pilot study designed to: test the feasibility of implementation, assess implementation barriers, and determine the effectiveness of a modified evidence-based program designed for adolescent female offenders in a women's correctional facility in the United States. A therapeutic expressive arts behavioral program, Leadership, Education, Achievement and Development (LEAD), has been used in community settings as a health promotion program. This behavioral program was adapted to LEAD-Corrections (LEAD-C) and serves incarcerated adolescent female offenders. Results of this pilot study show that it is feasible to offer LEAD-C in a correctional setting. Positive effects were noted on session satisfaction surveys as well as formative and summative evaluations. Implementation of LEAD-C, using therapeutic expressive arts interventions, included coping strategies to help adolescents become confident and self-assured and review better choices. Adolescents were taught to utilize these learned coping strategies in their life, which may help to overcome adversity, enhance resilience, and support youth transition at the time of reentry to the community. PMID:26186153

  9. Historical U.S. Residential Coal Use and Female Lung Cancer Mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, Jennifer; Bogen, Kenneth T.

    2001-03-01

    Recent ecological and case-control studies have indicated elevated lung cancer mortality (LCM) associated with bituminous "smoky" coal use in China, but no similar study has been conducted using U.S. populations. Early 20th century U.S. home cooking and heating fuels were examined in relation to age-specific female LCM, focusing on county-level mortality during 1950-54 to reduce potential inter-county confounding due to cigarette smoking among women aged 40* vs. 60* years (among whom 11% vs. 5% ever smoked, respectively). Overall, a significant relationship was found between female LCM and county-level average per capita bituminous coal use with and without adjustment for numerous covariates in counties where ~75% of homes used coal for heating. This positive association was similar in each female age group after adjustment of 190 combinations of variates considered in addition t

  10. Evaluation of Female Youth Educational Needs about Reproductive Health in Non-Medical Students in the City of Qom

    PubMed Central

    Bazarganipour, Fatemeh; Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Taghavi, Seyed Abdolvahab; Hekmatzadeh, Fatemeh; Sarviye, Malihe

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate reproductive health education which is essential to the prevention of sexual risk behavior and its associated adverse outcomes of unwanted pregnancy, AIDS and other sexually transmitted disease in adolescents. Little is known about youth educational needs about reproductive health in Iran. The aim of this study is evaluation of female youth educational needs about reproductive health in non-medical universities in the city of Qom, north central of Iran. Materials and methods The study was descriptive-analytical type conducted in nine non-medical universities (400 students). A questionnaire was constructed to meet the purpose of the study based on similar studies of knowledge and attitude in different countries, yet it was modified according to Iranian culture and social norms. Results The findings showed that a majority of participants have moderate knowledge about all components of reproductive health. Approximately, one - third of the participants reported difficulties to discuss about sexual health with mothers. The most of the participants believed insufficient female youth reproductive health services and low knowledge about reproductive health were the main barriers for female youth reproductive health aims. Conclusion The participants in this study are representatives of an important subgroup in Iran in order to evaluate female youth reproductive health educational needs. The study identified many misconception and negative attitude that need to be addressed. A health education program through parents, peers, mass media campaign and more comprehensive family planning curriculum in universities are recommended to overcome misconception and spread awareness. PMID:24971106

  11. Female sex workers as health educators with men who buy sex: utilising narratives of rationalisations.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Teela

    2006-05-01

    This paper reports on findings from an ethnographic study of female sex workers who work in the indoor sex markets in a British city. An unexpected finding was the collective narratives that sex workers construct to rationalise their involvement in the sex industry. Fifty-five respondents who took part in in-depth interviews maintained that prostitution is a useful occupation and function in society. Narratives included providing emotional support to male clients; a service for men who are socially or physically disabled; preventing men having adulterous affairs; and health education, disease prevention and as therapists for sexual dysfunction. This paper evaluates how the latter narrative of sexual health promotion is an example of how sex workers are ideally placed to work as health educators with men who buy sex. Arguing against gender specific sexual health policies, men who buy sex are described as a 'high risk' group who are also a hidden population. Limitations posed by ideological, ethical and practical concerns relating to the specific conditions of the sex industry suggest that this proposal could be partially successful. In conclusion, I suggest the sexual health of the nation and the place of sex workers in society must be considered with regard to recent policy debates on the management of prostitution and the cultural construction of the sex worker.

  12. Changing the Culture of Silence: The Potential of an Online Educational Sexual Health and Female Cancer Prevention Intervention in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vahe, Mariliis

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation evaluates the effectiveness of a customized educational health intervention on sexual health and female cancer prevention among young women in Pakistan and evaluates the applicability of the integrated model of behavior prevention (IM) when predicting three health behaviors among this population. The study used randomized…

  13. Explorable Three-Dimensional Digital Model of the Female Pelvis, Pelvic Contents, and Perineum for Anatomical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sergovich, Aimee; Johnson, Marjorie; Wilson, Timothy D.

    2010-01-01

    The anatomy of the pelvis is complex, multilayered, and its three-dimensional organization is conceptually difficult for students to grasp. The aim of this project was to create an explorable and projectable stereoscopic, three-dimensional (3D) model of the female pelvis and pelvic contents for anatomical education. The model was created using…

  14. The Effect of Continuing Education Participation on Outcomes of Male and Female Agricultural Workers in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pena, Anita Alves

    2015-01-01

    Job training and employment assistance programs aim to assist migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their dependents locate steady employment and develop job skills. This study investigates effects of educational programs on wages, annual time allocations, and poverty of male and female farmworkers and their families using regression analysis in…

  15. "A Girl Never Finishes Her Journey": Mixing Methods to Understand Female Experiences of Education in Contemporary Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camfield, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Much research has suggested that focusing on the determinants of female enrolment and dropout tells us little about girls' experiences of schooling in developing countries and cannot explain variation in their educational trajectories. This paper draws on quantitative (n = 1177) and qualitative data (n = 15) collected by "Young Lives" in Ethiopia…

  16. Interventions with Young Female Offenders and Teenage Girls at Risk: Alternative Educational Services in a Singapore Girls' Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Kaili Chen; Choo, Andrew; Lim, Liping

    2009-01-01

    This article presents factors that place girls at risk of delinquency and offending as well as the patterns in juvenile delinquency trends for females in Singapore. The authors also describe Singapore's overall structure of services for young offenders and the current status of alternative education programmes for young women engaged in delinquent…

  17. Experiential and Contextual Factors That Shape Engineering Interest and Educational Decision-Making Processes among Female Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Amy

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the formation of educational and vocational goals among female first-year engineering students at two community colleges and one four-year institution, as well as contextual influences on this process. Participants' pathways to college are also explored, as well as their pathways into engineering. The findings…

  18. The Effect of a Female Physical Educator's Physical Appearance on Physical Fitness Knowledge and Attitudes of Junior High Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Melony Blair; Adams, Thomas M., II; Comeau, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if a female physical educator's appearance of body fatness affects 1) the cognitive performance of junior high school students on a test of health-related fitness knowledge, and 2) student attitudes toward the instructor. Ninety-three seventh through ninth grade students from two schools, participated in a…

  19. From High School Jocks to College Grads: Assessing the Long-Term Effects of High School Sport Participation on Females' Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troutman, Kelly P.; Dufur, Mikaela J.

    2007-01-01

    Various studies show that interscholastic sport participants, and specifically female athletes, enjoy numerous educational benefits at the high school level. Because of the influx in the number of females engaging in high school sport that has occurred during the past 30 years, few studies have been able to adequately assess whether females'…

  20. Exceptional Female Students of Color: Academic Resilience and Gender in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Erik E.

    2008-01-01

    In researching the exceptional academic performance of 31 female and 19 male low socioeconomic college students of color, three distinctly female approaches to exceptional achievement arose from the data. These included the inordinate degree of familial resistance faced by the females and their approaches to that resistance, the value and…

  1. The Role of Physical Education and Other Formative Experiences of Three Generations of Female Football Fans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Stacey; Kirk, David

    2014-01-01

    The experiences of female sports fans have been largely marginalised in academic research to date and little research has examined the formative sporting experiences of female spectators. This article draws on 51 semi-structured interviews with three generations of female fans of one (men's) professional football club (Leicester City), to…

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and sexual behaviour among female students attending higher education in the Republic of Ireland

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Emer; Brennan, Wendy; Cormican, Martin; Glacken, Marita; O'Donovan, Diarmuid; Vellinga, Akke; Cahill, Niall; Lysaght, Fionnguala; O'Donnell, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Background There are no prevalence data on Chlamydia trachomatis relating to female students attending higher education available for the Republic of Ireland. This information is required to guide on the necessity for Chlamydia screening programmes in higher education settings. This research aimed to determine the prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection among female higher education students in Ireland. Methods All females presenting during one-day periods at Student Health Units in three higher education institutions in two cities in the Republic of Ireland were invited to participate. Participants completed a questionnaire on lifestyle and socio-demographic factors and provided a urine sample. Samples were tested for C. trachomatis DNA by a PCR based technique (Cobas Amplicor, Roche). To examine possible associations between a positive test and demographic and lifestyle risk factors, a univariate analysis was performed. All associations with a p value < 0.05 were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 460 sexually active participants 22 tested positive (prevalence 4.8%; 95% CI 3.0 to 7.1%). Variables associated with significantly increased risk were current suggestive symptoms, two or more one-night stands and three or more lifetime sexual partners. The students displayed high-risk sexual behaviour. Conclusion The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection and the lack of awareness of the significance of suggestive symptoms among sexually experienced female students demonstrate the need for a programme to test asymptomatic or non-presenting higher education students. The risk factors identified by multivariate analysis may be useful in identifying those who are most likely to benefit from screening. Alcohol abuse, condom use, sexual behaviour (at home and abroad) and, knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (including asymptomatic nature or relevant symptoms) were identified as

  3. How Partner Gender Influences Female Students' Problem Solving in Physics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, N.; Harskamp, E.

    2006-12-01

    Research has shown that female students cannot profit as much as male students can from cooperative learning in physics, especially in mixed-gender dyads. This study has explored the influence of partner gender on female students' learning achievement, interaction and the problem-solving process during cooperative learning. In Shanghai, a total of 50 students (26 females and 24 males), drawn from two classes of a high school, took part in the study. Students were randomly paired, and there were three research groups: mixed-gender dyads (MG), female-female dyads (FF) and male-male dyads (MM). Analysis of students' pre- and post-test performances revealed that female students in the single-gender condition solved physics problems more effectively than did those in the mixed-gender condition, while the same was not the case for male students. We further explored the differences between female and male communication styles, and content among the three research groups. It showed that the females' interaction content and problem-solving processes were more sensitive to partner gender than were those for males. This might explain why mixed-gender cooperation in physics disadvantages females in high schools.

  4. Self-medication practices among female students of higher educational institutions in Selangor, Malaysia: A quantitative insight

    PubMed Central

    Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Wong, Pei Se; Yi, Heng Chin; Yun, Gan Siaw; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Background: World Health Organization has defined self-medication as the selection and use of medications (including herbal and traditional product) by individuals to treat self-recognized illnesses or symptoms. The prevalence of self-medication is reported to be higher among female students. Objective: To investigate the awareness and self-medication practices among female students of higher education institutions in Malaysia. Method: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in four higher education institutes of Selangor, Malaysia. Convenience sampling approach was used to collect data from a sample 475 students. A “pretested” questionnaire was used as a study instrument. Results: A total of 461 questionnaires were returned (response rate 97.05%). The prevalence of self-medication among female students in higher educational institutions was 57.2% (n = 262). The most common source of self-prescribed medicine was a pharmacy or clinics (n = 206; 45%). It was found that antipyretics were the most common medications used without doctor's consultation (n = 212; 89.1%). Analgesics and antipyretics (n = 79; 62.7%) were highly recommended by students to their family and friends. The common reason for self-medication was prior successful experience (n = 102, 81.0%). The majority of respondents (n = 280; 61.1%) reported that they believed over-the-counter medications were as effective as medications prescribed by a doctor. Conclusion: The prevalence of self-medication practice among female students in the sample of the four higher education institutions was moderate. More studies are required to generalize these findings across Malaysia. PMID:27413350

  5. A Study of Current and Desired State of Physics Education in Iranian Female Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaghatdar, Mohammad J.; Soltani, Asghar; Shojaei, Rashin; Siadat, Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study has examined the characteristics of physics teachers, their professional competences, supplies of equipments and technologies, appropriate textbooks and motivational factors in students' learning of physics from female physics teacher's points of view. The population included all female physics teachers in Isfahan city and a total of 88…

  6. Benefits of Peer Mentoring to Mentors, Female Mentees and Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalpazidou Schmidt, Evanthia; Faber, Stine Thidemann

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we discuss a study of a pilot mentoring program for early career female researchers at a university that addressed the under-representation of female researchers in senior academic positions. Embracing a grounded theory approach, we draw on a design comprising an ex-ante and an ex-post evaluation. We disclose that development…

  7. How Partner Gender Influences Female Students' Problem Solving in Physics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, N.; Harskamp, E.

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that female students cannot profit as much as male students can from cooperative learning in physics, especially in mixed-gender dyads. This study has explored the influence of partner gender on female students' learning achievement, interaction and the problem-solving process during cooperative learning. In Shanghai, a total of…

  8. Engineering education research: Impacts of an international network of female engineers on the persistence of Liberian undergraduate women studying engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimer, Sara; Reddivari, Sahithya; Cotel, Aline

    2015-11-01

    As international efforts to educate and empower women continue to rise, engineering educators are in a unique position to be a part of these efforts by encouraging and supporting women across the world at the university level through STEM education and outreach. For the past two years, the University of Michigan has been a part of a grassroots effort to encourage and support the persistence of engineering female students at University of Liberia. This effort has led to the implementation of a leadership camp this past August for Liberian engineering undergraduate women, meant to: (i) to empower engineering students with the skills, support, and inspiration necessary to become successful and well-rounded engineering professionals in a global engineering market; and (ii) to strengthen the community of Liberian female engineers by building cross-cultural partnerships among students resulting in a international network of women engineers. This session will present qualitative research findings on the impact of this grassroots effort on Liberian female students? persistence in engineering, and the future directions of this work.

  9. Inside versus outside the science classroom: examining the positionality of two female science teachers at the boundaries of science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Tang Wee

    2014-08-01

    The third wave feminist studies in science education take the stance that science teaching is political and that social change is possible through interrogating power inequalities and decentering science to balance out power. For science educators, this means developing an awareness of positionality, which I define here as a stance undertaken by an individual as she or he recognizes and makes sense of the workings of the factors and forces that constitute the politics of her/his context. In this paper, I analyze the positionalities of a female Hispanic American and a female Chinese Singaporean science teacher that influenced the ways in which they interacted with students in the consensual process of science meaning making and relationship building in and outside the classroom. The findings drawn from the analysis of the teachers' transcribed interviews and written reflections show that their personal histories, experiences with social stereotyping and control by authority shaped their positionality. They constructed alternative curriculum spaces empowering themselves and their students to transcend perceived limitations and have voice. However, their positionality did not lead them to question the boundary they saw between the social bias and content of science education. Several implications for teacher education are discussed.

  10. Inside versus outside the science classroom: examining the positionality of two female science teachers at the boundaries of science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teo, Tang Wee

    2015-06-01

    The third wave feminist studies in science education take the stance that science teaching is political and that social change is possible through interrogating power inequalities and decentering science to balance out power. For science educators, this means developing an awareness of positionality, which I define here as a stance undertaken by an individual as she or he recognizes and makes sense of the workings of the factors and forces that constitute the politics of her/his context. In this paper, I analyze the positionalities of a female Hispanic American and a female Chinese Singaporean science teacher that influenced the ways in which they interacted with students in the consensual process of science meaning making and relationship building in and outside the classroom. The findings drawn from the analysis of the teachers' transcribed interviews and written reflections show that their personal histories, experiences with social stereotyping and control by authority shaped their positionality. They constructed alternative curriculum spaces empowering themselves and their students to transcend perceived limitations and have voice. However, their positionality did not lead them to question the boundary they saw between the social bias and content of science education. Several implications for teacher education are discussed.

  11. Botany and the Taming of Female Passion: Rousseau and Contemporary Educational Concepts of Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinau, Elke

    2012-01-01

    Central in the analyses of women's and gender studies within the history of education has been Rousseau's (Emil oder Uber die Erziehung, 12th edn. Ferdinand Schoningh, Paderborn 1762) educational novel Emile, especially Book 5, which deals with the education of Sophie, Emilie's future spouse. Given the lasting interest in the person of Rousseau…

  12. Gender Disparities in Educational Trajectories in India: Do Females Become More Robust at Higher Levels?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husain, Zakir; Sarkar, Swagata

    2011-01-01

    Studies on educational attainments have tended to focus on attainments at a specific level of education. The change in disparities in attainment over the educational life cycle, however, has been neglected in literature--in India, for instance, the only exceptions are Vaid (2004) and Desai and Kulkarni (2008). This paper uses unit level National…

  13. Effect of Female Education and Labor Force Ratio on Economic Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turanli, Munevver; Taspinar Cengiz, Dicle; Turanli, Rona; Akdal, Serem

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of women's education and labor force ratio on the level of development in countries. We use a complete dataset covering 44 countries over the period 1990-2010. It comprises the following: education index, the ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education, income per capita, human development index,…

  14. Factors That Female Higher Education Faculty in Select Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Fields Perceive as Being Influential to Their Success and Persistence in Their Chosen Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opare, Phyllis Bernice

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine factors female higher education faculty in select science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields perceived as influential to their success and persistence in their chosen professions. Females are underrepresented in STEM professions including academia, despite the fact that female…

  15. Educational Camps and Their Effects on Female Perceptions of Technology Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs-Rose, Christina; Harris, Kara

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of Cheering in the Classroom, a four day program designed purposefully to increase female awareness and perceptions of technology fields. The camp included discipline-based activities from the 13 different programs of study based in technology. The camp targeted high school cheerleaders and…

  16. Cultivating the Rosebuds: The Education of Women at the Cherokee Female Seminary, 1851-1909.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihesuah, Devon A.

    This book traces the history of the Cherokee Female Seminary, established by the Cherokee Nation in 1851 near Tahlequah (Oklahoma). Unusual among Indian schools because it was founded by neither the federal government nor missionaries, the school offered a rigorous curriculum from elementary grades through high school, patterned after that of…

  17. Philosophy of Music Education and the Burnout Syndrome: Female Viewpoints on a Male School World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Burnout is a risk for many music teachers, particularly the highly successful and effective teachers. Burnout is more than a personal feeling of discomfort or fatigue. It is an attack on professional efficiency and personal integrity. Burnout is affecting male and female music teachers in different ways, because women tend to react to stress in…

  18. Salaries of Recent Male and Female College Graduates: Educational and Labor Market Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, Lois

    2003-01-01

    Estimating salary regressions on data from the 1993-94 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study showed that gender differences in total college credits accounted for more of the male-female salary gap than majors, grades, or institutions. Gender differences in job sector, industry, and hours worked had the largest effect on the gap. However, as…

  19. A Comparative Study of Factors Influencing Male and Female Lecturers' Job Satisfaction in Ghanaian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amos, Patricia Mawusi; Acquah, Sakina; Antwi, Theresa; Adzifome, Nixon Saba

    2015-01-01

    The study sought to compare factors influencing male and female lecturers' job satisfaction. Cross-sectional survey designs employing both quantitative and qualitative approaches were adopted for the study. Simple random sampling was used to select 163 lecturers from the four oldest public universities in Ghana. Celep's (2000) Organisational…

  20. Inventing Ourselves: An Informed Essay for Black Female Scholars in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Linda C.

    2012-01-01

    Black women and men often work in academic spaces that were not made for them, where they are often viewed as outsiders and in many cases where they find little support for their efforts. But being a Black female professor in a predominantly white institution can sometimes be especially challenging. The purpose of this essay is to provide a brief…

  1. Choice of College Major: An Exploration of Appalachian Female Choice of an Early Childhood Education Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannoe, Lisa N.

    2013-01-01

    First generation Appalachian female students are exposed to gender differences in roles and career choices that are modeled in the family. A case study approach was used to obtain qualitative data from five students at Eastern Kentucky University and their mothers regarding why these students chose to major in child development and early childhood…

  2. Circumcision of the Female Intellect: 19th Century Women Who Opposed Scholarly Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Marbeth

    2009-01-01

    In 19th century America, some women decried the opportunity for scholarly education as rebellion against religion and predicted a grim decline in the quality of life, home, and hearth for American families and for American culture and politics. In particular, women who opposed scholarly education argued that God had not created men and women…

  3. The Paradox of Tradition and Modernity in Female Education in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehran, Golnar

    2003-01-01

    Since the 1979 revolution, Iranian women have been expected to fulfill the traditional role of women under Islamic law while contributing to the modern needs of their country. Iranian women have access to a wide range of (gender-segregated) educational opportunities and are drawing on their relatively high levels of educational attainment to…

  4. A Case Study Objectively Assessing Female Physical Activity Levels within the National Curriculum for Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Matthew; Daly-Smith, Andrew; Morley, David; McKenna, James

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the National Curriculum for Physical Education (NCPE) lesson themes and contexts on the profile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Fifteen, Year 9 Physical Education (PE) lessons were assessed within the lesson themes of Outwitting Opponents (OO) (delivered through field hockey…

  5. Parental education is related to C-reactive protein among female middle-aged community volunteers.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennifer E; Marsland, Anna L; Flory, Janine D; Muldoon, Matthew F; Cohen, Sheldon; Manuck, Stephen B

    2009-07-01

    Growing evidence suggests that socioeconomic attributes of both childhood and adulthood confer risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In this study, we examine the association of both parental and individual educational attainment with C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory mediator relevant to cardiovascular pathophysiology, in a mid-life community sample. Subjects were 811 men and women (394 men/417 women; 87% European-American/13% African-American), 30-54 years of age. Plasma concentrations of CRP were determined from blood samples obtained at a single session following an overnight fast. Regression analyses adjusting for age and race showed both parental education and individual education to be associated inversely with CRP in women, but not men. The relationship of parental education with CRP in women persisted on multivariable adjustment for both lifestyle risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, sleep, exercise, body mass index) and individual SES. Independent of reported personal educational attainment, mid-life adult women whose parents achieved fewer years of educational attainment exhibit higher levels of circulating CRP than women with higher parental education. This association may help explain the increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular morbidity and mortality conferred by low childhood socioeconomic status.

  6. Family Fortunes: Female Students' Perceptions and Expectations of Higher Education and an Examination of How They, and their Parents, See the Benefits of University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Angela

    2013-01-01

    This paper details a case study undertaken in 2011 which examined a small group of female students', and their parents', perceptions of the purpose of a university education. The research is underpinned by a review of the literature examining the views held by academics and politicians as to the benefits of higher education and of research in the…

  7. "They Didn't Consider Me and No-One Even Took Me into Account": Female School Principals in the Arab Education System in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira, Tamar; Arar, Khalid; Azaiza, Faisal

    2011-01-01

    The study of women's management and leadership in education has become a central research topic and the copious work published in many countries encompasses various issues relating to gender and educational leadership. The study of female school principals from the Arab minority in Israel has only recently begun. This is a minority that lives…

  8. The Broken Pipeline for Female Midlevel Administrators in Higher Education: The Effect of Self-Efficacy and Personal Identities on Professional Experiences and Career Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tiffany E.

    2013-01-01

    Women's roles in higher education have increased; however, women remain underrepresented in upper-level administrative positions. This qualitative study examined how personal identities are related to self-efficacy, and subsequently, the professional experiences and aspirations of female midlevel higher education administrators. Midlevel…

  9. The Impact of Single-Sex Education on Male and Female Gains in Mathematics and Reading at the Elementary Level in a Selected School in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The gender gap in achievement and the increasing awareness of differences between male and female cognitive development have ignited a growing interest in single-sex education. No Child Left Behind legislation and amendments to Title IX legislation have increased the number of schools in America offering single-sex education. This 2-year…

  10. The perceptions and readiness toward interprofessional education among female undergraduate health-care students at King Saud University.

    PubMed

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Alderaa, Asma; AlSayyad, Arwa; AlHosawi, Fatimah; AlAmoudi, Shahad; AlTaib, Sara; Mahmoud, Sara; AlGhanim, Tarfah; Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] Interprofessional education (IPE) is an important academic approach for preparing health-care professionals to provide patient care in a collaborative team environment. This study aimed to measure the perceptions and readiness toward IPE among female undergraduate health-care students at King Saud University (KSU). [Subjects and Methods] A cross-sectional study carried out using a survey in the form of an electronic questionnaire: The Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS). The questionnaire was distributed to the students via e-mail and social media networks. [Results] The RIPLS was completed by 296 female health-care students at KSU who valued the importance of IPE. The differences between health-care disciplines in the perceptions and readiness toward IPE were statistically significant, but there were no differences between students of different years of study in their perception and readiness toward IPE. [Conclusion] Administering a course of interprofessional teamwork in the health-care curriculum is a major challenge for the clinical education community. IPE offers an opportunity to address the multi-disciplinary concept in hospitals. Our findings indicate that undergraduate health-care students have high perception and readiness toward IPE. PMID:27190442

  11. The perceptions and readiness toward interprofessional education among female undergraduate health-care students at King Saud University

    PubMed Central

    Al-Eisa, Einas; Alderaa, Asma; AlSayyad, Arwa; AlHosawi, Fatimah; AlAmoudi, Shahad; AlTaib, Sara; Mahmoud, Sara; AlGhanim, Tarfah; Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Interprofessional education (IPE) is an important academic approach for preparing health-care professionals to provide patient care in a collaborative team environment. This study aimed to measure the perceptions and readiness toward IPE among female undergraduate health-care students at King Saud University (KSU). [Subjects and Methods] A cross-sectional study carried out using a survey in the form of an electronic questionnaire: The Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS). The questionnaire was distributed to the students via e-mail and social media networks. [Results] The RIPLS was completed by 296 female health-care students at KSU who valued the importance of IPE. The differences between health-care disciplines in the perceptions and readiness toward IPE were statistically significant, but there were no differences between students of different years of study in their perception and readiness toward IPE. [Conclusion] Administering a course of interprofessional teamwork in the health-care curriculum is a major challenge for the clinical education community. IPE offers an opportunity to address the multi-disciplinary concept in hospitals. Our findings indicate that undergraduate health-care students have high perception and readiness toward IPE. PMID:27190442

  12. STEM Education-An Exploration of Its Impact on Female Academic Success in High School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ybarra, Michael E.

    The 21st century presents many new career opportunities and choices for women today. However, over the past decade, there has been a growing concern that there will not be enough students trained in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) to fill jobs in the United States. Current research reveals that there will be a need for highly skilled workers in the STEM industries, along with the opportunities to earn higher wages. With these opportunities ahead, it is paramount that secondary schools prepare not only their male students, but also their female students for these lucrative STEM careers. The purpose of this study was to investigate to what degree female high school students enrolled in a STEM academy, and who may play sports, experience academic differences in college preparatory math and science courses, and in the math and science portions of the California Standards Test. Academic differences shall be defined as differences in grade point averages. A comparison will be made of female students who take similar classes and play sports, but who are not enrolled in a STEM academy program. This comparison will then incorporate a quantitative non-experimental research design, along with a chi-square test.

  13. Global variance in female population height: the influence of education, income, human development, life expectancy, mortality and gender inequality in 96 nations.

    PubMed

    Mark, Quentin J

    2014-01-01

    Human height is a heritable trait that is known to be influenced by environmental factors and general standard of living. Individual and population stature is correlated with health, education and economic achievement. Strong sexual selection pressures for stature have been observed in multiple diverse populations, however; there is significant global variance in gender equality and prohibitions on female mate selection. This paper explores the contribution of general standard of living and gender inequality to the variance in global female population heights. Female population heights of 96 nations were culled from previously published sources and public access databases. Factor analysis with United Nations international data on education rates, life expectancy, incomes, maternal and childhood mortality rates, ratios of gender participation in education and politics, the Human Development Index (HDI) and the Gender Inequality Index (GII) was run. Results indicate that population heights vary more closely with gender inequality than with population health, income or education.

  14. The Effect of nutrition education on knowledge, attitude, and performance about junk food consumption among students of female primary schools

    PubMed Central

    Vardanjani, Ali Esmaeili; Reisi, Mahnoush; Javadzade, Homamodin; Pour, Zabihollah Gharli; Tavassoli, Elahe

    2015-01-01

    Background: Undoubtedly, proper nutrition has important role in safeguarding the individual from many diseases, especially chronic ones, and increasing ones physical and intellectual efficiency. Considering the importance of nutrition education to school-age kids, this research was done with the purpose of determining the effect of nutrition education on the knowledge, attitude, and performance of female students at primary school about junk food consumption. Materials and Methods: This is an experimental intervention study in Shahr-e-kord city about the reduction of junk foods consumption in 2011. Seventy-two primary girl students were randomly divided into 2 groups, experimental (36) and controls (36). Before of the educational program, self-administrative questionnaire and FFQ (Food Frequency Questionnaire) questionnaire were filled out for both the groups. The self-administrative questionnaire was completed 3 times (before, immediately, and 2 months after education), and FFQ questionnaire was completed 2 times (before and 2 months after education) by students. After pre-test, 4 educational session classes in experimental group were performed. Finally, data were collected and analyzed by SPSS 16 computer software. Results: Demographic variables of the studied population in 2 groups were similar. Before intervention, there were no significant differences regarding the knowledge, attitude, and performance in 2 groups (P > 0/05). After intervention, there were significant differences in the levels of knowledge, attitude, and performance between experimental and control groups (P < 0.001). Conclusion: According to the results, intervention has positive impact on pattern of nutrition, and it can be concluded that intervention is effective on increasing or improving the knowledge, attitude, and performance of the students. PMID:26430680

  15. Sabotaging Our Sisters: Perceptions of Female Relational Aggression in Higher Education among Female Faculty and Administrators at Three Western U.S. Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyborg, Deborah G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and understand relational workplace aggression among female faculty and administrators at three western U.S. universities. This study was designed to address the gap in empirical knowledge of the phenomenon by elucidating how workplace relational aggression affects the lives of female university faculty and…

  16. A longitudinal study of the educational and career trajectories of female participants of an urban informal science education program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadigan, Kathleen A.; Hammrich, Penny L.

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal case study is to describe the educational trajectories of a sample of 152 young women from urban, low-income, single-parent families who participated in the Women in Natural Sciences (WINS) program during high school. Utilizing data drawn from program records, surveys, and interviews, this study also attempts to determine how the program affected the participants' educational and career choices to provide insight into the role informal science education programs play in increasing the participation of women and minorities in science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET)-related fields. Findings revealed 109 participants (93.16%) enrolled in a college program following high school completion. Careers in medical or health-related fields followed by careers in SMET emerged as the highest ranking career paths with 24 students (23.76%) and 21 students (20.79%), respectively, employed in or pursuing careers in these areas. The majority of participants perceived having staff to talk to, the job skills learned, and having the museum as a safe place to go as having influenced their educational and career decisions. These findings reflect the need for continued support of informal science education programs for urban girls and at-risk youth.

  17. An educational programme on dengue fever prevention and control for females in Jeddah high schools.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, N K; Abalkhail, B; Rady, M; Al-Bar, H

    2009-01-01

    A mass communication campaign was conducted at 20 randomly selected female high schools and 2 school supervision centres in Jeddah to improve knowledge, attitudes and practices of students, teachers and supervisors about dengue fever. A total of 5977 pre- and post-intervention questionnaires were completed and the intervention was conducted using lectures and audiovisual aids. A marked improvement in all areas of knowledge, attitudes and practices was observed after the programme in all groups. Students obtained the highest improvement in mean knowledge scores after the programme compared to the other 2 groups. There is a need to expand such programmes to all Jeddah schools.

  18. A longitudinal study of the educational and career trajectories of female participants of an urban informal science education program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadigan, Kathleen Ann

    The purpose of this study is to describe the educational trajectories of a sample of young women from urban, low-income, single-parent families who participated in the Women in Natural Sciences (WINS) program during their ninth and/or tenth grade years of high school. This study also attempts to determine how the WINS program affected the participants' educational and career choices in order to provide insight into the role informal science education programs play in increasing the participation of women and minorities in science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET)-related fields. The research takes the form of a longitudinal, descriptive case study. The case is composed of 152 WINS participants who applied for, were accepted into, and completed at least one year of the program between 1992 and 1997. Data were drawn from program records, surveys, and interviews. Pre-WINS desired educational and career trajectory data were available for 152 participants. Post-WINS actual educational and career trajectory data were available for 101 of the young women in the sample. Seventy-eight women completed a WINS survey. The researcher conducted semi-structured interviews with 12 former participants. Findings revealed a 100 percent high school completion rate. A total of 109 participants (93.16%) enrolled in a college program following high school completion. Careers in medical or health-related fields followed by careers in SMET emerged as the highest ranking career paths with 24 students (23.76%) and 21 students (20.79%), respectively, employed in or pursuing careers in these areas. Taking a greater number of advanced or honors level SMET high school courses was the only contextual variable showing a significant relationship to pursuing a career in SMET. The majority of participants perceived having the WINS staff as people you could talk to, the job skills learned in WINS, and having the museum as a safe place to go as having influenced their educational and career

  19. Science, Technology, Engineering, Math (STEM) in Higher Education from the Perspective of Female Students: An Institutional Ethnography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parson, Laura J.

    A persistent disadvantage for females is systemically embedded in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) education in postsecondary institutions. As a result, undergraduate women majoring in STEM fields face a uniquely difficult path; yet, for the most part, recommendations made and supported in the literature have focused on recruitment of women to STEM fields or on ways to make women more successful and comfortable in their STEM major. These recommendations have so far proved to be insufficient to remedy a gender gap and serve to replicate the existing male hierarchy. In order to truly make the STEM classroom one in which women are welcome and comfortable and to challenge the existing social and scientific systems, it is necessary to explore and understand the social and political implications embedded within teaching and learning choices. This institutional ethnography addresses that gap. The purpose of this study was to uncover and describe the institutional practices of STEM education at a Midwest research university (MRU) from the standpoint of female undergraduate students. Using the framework of feminist standpoint theory, this study explored the everyday "work" of female undergraduate STEM students to provide a unique perspective on the STEM education teaching and learning environment. Data collection began with in-depth interviews with female undergraduate math and physics students. As the institutional processes shaping undergraduate participant experiences were identified, subsequent data collection included classroom observations, additional interviews with students and faculty, and analysis of the texts that mediate these processes (e.g., syllabi and student handbooks). Data analysis followed Carspecken's process of ethnographic data analysis that began with low-level coding, followed by high-level coding, and concluded by pulling codes together through the creation of themes. Analysis of data led to three key findings. First, undergraduate

  20. Breaking into the All-Male Club: Female Professors of Educational Administration. SUNY Series in Women in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertz, Norma T., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    These are the inspiring and illuminating stories of women professors who first broke into the exclusive, all-male academic club of educational administration. Women of this pioneering generation tell how they overcame daunting challenges, traumas, the naivete of others, sexual harassment, and retaliation, as well as how they encountered unexpected…

  1. The Challenge for Female Educational Leaders: An Examination of the Problem and Proposed Solutions through Educational and Social Change Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brathwaite, Frank

    Despite the current need for strong leadership skills to facilitate task achievement, individual development, and social action in an increasingly complex society, women are failing to make significant headway in educational administration. Lack of leadership opportunities for women limits both individual and organizational potential. The problem…

  2. Developing and Testing a Sex Education Program for the Female Clients of Health Centers in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirpak, Khosro Refaie; Ardebili, Hassan Eftekhar; Mohammad, Kazem; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Chinichian, Maryam; Ramenzankhani, Ali; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2007-01-01

    In this study a matched intervention-control site design in 14 urban health centers with random selection of 160 participants (80 in each of intervention and control) was used to evaluate a sex education program in Iran. Qualitative methods were used in a needs assessment that also set the content and method of delivery of the program. The…

  3. Female Students' Perceptions about Gender-Role Stereotypes and Their Influence on Attitude toward Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantinou, Phoebe; Manson, Mara; Silverman, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Why girls' participation in physical education (PE) dramatically changes once girls reach middle school has been of interest to many researchers. Studying how middle school girls perceive things at this age helps ensure a greater understanding of how to better meet girls' needs. The purpose of this study was to determine how middle school girls…

  4. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Sam

    2014-01-01

    This article will explore the intersection between "literature" and "science" in one key area, the botanical poem with scientific notes. It reveals significant aspects of the way knowledge was gendered in the Enlightenment, which is relevant to the present-day education of girls in science. It aims to illustrate how members of…

  5. Male and Female Photographic Representation in 50 Years of "Music Educators Journal"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Adam J.; Giebelhausen, Robin; Shouldice, Heather N.; Ramsey, Andrea L.

    2015-01-01

    Considering the potential for stereotypes to shape professional expectations, the four researchers in this study investigated photographic representation of adult men and women in implied positions of authority in 50 years (1962-2011) of issues of "Music Educators Journal" ("MEJ"). Data included every photograph (N = 7,288) of…

  6. Leadership Effectiveness in Jordanian Educational Institutions: A Comparison of Jordanian Female and Male leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Tineh, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Senior leadership positions in Jordanian Ministry of Education are held predominantly by men. Women are teachers and/or school principals. This under-representation of women is primarily due to culturally derived stereotypes that see women as teachers or school principals, but not as superintendents. The purpose of this study was to investigate,…

  7. Teenage Pregnancy and Female Educational Underachievement: A Prospective Study of a New Zealand Birth Cohort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Woodward, Lianne J.

    2000-01-01

    Study examined the relationship between teenage pregnancy and educational underachievement in a sample of women studied from birth to 21 years. Findings suggest that rates of teenage pregnancy might be elevated among women who leave school early, rather than rates of early school leaving being elevated among women who become pregnant. (Author/JDM)

  8. Effects of Female Education on Economic Growth: A Cross Country Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oztunc, Hakan; Oo, Zar Chi; Serin, Zehra Vildan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which women's education affects long-term economic growth in the Asia Pacific region. It focuses on the time period between 1990 and 2010, using data collected in randomly selected Asia Pacific countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.…

  9. The Empress Frederick and Female Education in the Late Nineteenth Century: Germany, England and Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albisetti, James C.

    2012-01-01

    The long-time Prussian/German Crown Princess Victoria (1840-1901), known after her husband's death as the Empress Frederick, played an important role as patroness of and advocate for many forms of academic and vocational education for girls and women. This article examines her work for various institutions in Berlin as well as her homeland. It…

  10. Negotiating Masculine Hegemony: Female Physical Educators in an All-Boys' School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Amanda; Hickey, Chris

    2012-01-01

    School physical education (PE) and sport are commonly regarded as sites where dominant or hegemonic masculinities cultivate, often at the expense of individuals who embody different gendered identities. In all-boys' PE settings, curriculum content frequently orientates around competitive and traditionally masculine team sports wherein teaching…

  11. Employability and Higher Education: Contextualising Female Students' Workplace Experiences to Enhance Understanding of Employability Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gracia, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Current political and economic discourses position employability as a responsibility of higher education, which deploys mechanisms such as supervised work experience (SWE) to embed employability skills development into the undergraduate curriculum. However, workplaces are socially constructed complex arenas of embodied knowledge that are gendered.…

  12. Does Educational Expansion Encourage Female Workforce Participation? A Study of the 1968 Reform in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Wehn-Jyuan; Liu, Jin-Tan; Chou, Shin-Yi; Thornton, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Between 1968 and 1973 the Taiwanese government undertook the most extensive expansion on record of the public junior high school system in Taiwan. This study analyzes the effects of the 1968 education reform and subsequent high school expansion on gender disparities in employment generally, as well in different sectors and classes of employment.…

  13. The experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women in STEM: Voices to inform work with Black females in STEM education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Beverly A. King

    This grounded theory case study examines the experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women and their membership in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) training and careers. The shortage of Science and Math teachers in 48 of 50 States heightens the need for those trained in STEM. Females of African phenotype have persistently been underrepresented in STEM. However, this trend does not appear to have held for Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women. The current study explores issues related to STEM participation for these women by addressing the overarching question: What key factors from the lived experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women in STEM careers can be used to inform work with females of African phenotype in their pursuit of STEM education and STEM careers? Five women were identified for inclusion in the study's purposive sample. The study draws upon assertions and implications about the relevance of self-identity and collective-identity for membership in STEM. Data for the study was gathered through qualitative interviews, surveys, and observations. The grounded theory approach was used to analyze emergent themes related to participants' responses to the research questions. Two models, the STEM Attainment Model (SAM) and the Ecological Model of Self-Confidence and Bi-Directional Effect, are proposed from evaluation of the identified information. Socio-cultural values and learned strategies were determined to influence self-confidence which is identified as important for persistence in STEM training and careers for females of African phenotype. Evidence supports that the influences of parents, country of origin, neighborhood communities, schools and teachers are factors for persistence. Through the voices of these women, recommendations are offered to the gatekeepers of STEM academic pathways and ultimately STEM careers.

  14. Science Education in Nigeria: An Examination of People's Perceptions about Female Participation in Science, Mathematics and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunjuyigbe, Peter O.; Ojofeitimi, Ebenezer O.; Akinlo, Ambrose

    2006-10-01

    The paper brings to focus people's perception about female involvement in science, mathematics and technology (SMT). Data for the study were obtained from a survey conducted in March, 2005 in two Local Government Areas of Osun state, Southwest Nigeria. The paper reveals that: (i) about 57% of household heads, 45.6% of mothers and 57.6% of the children are of the opinion that both boys and girls are given equal right to SMT education (ii) social forces play an important role in determining people's attitude to SMT (iii) though, parents and stakeholders perceptions about girls' participation in some professions is changing, however, socio-cultural and economic factors still determine which sex to encourage to read SMT.

  15. Integrating health education and physical activity programming for cardiovascular health promotion among female inmates: A proof of concept study.

    PubMed

    Nair, Uma S; Jordan, Jeremy S; Funk, Daniel; Gavin, Kristin; Tibbetts, Erica; Collins, Bradley N

    2016-05-01

    Female inmate populations in the United States tend to be overweight, physically inactive, experience high stress, and have a history of nicotine and other drug dependence. Thus, they bear an elevated risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease than the general population. However, few evidence-based health interventions exist for this population. This study will test proof of concept, feasibility, and potential efficacy of a multiple health behavior change intervention that integrates CV-health promotion education delivered during a physical activity (PA) program (indoor cycling) tailored to this population. This study uses a quasi-experimental 2-group design with two measurement time-points: baseline and 8-week end of treatment. N=120 incarcerated women (18-59years of age) who are medically cleared for participation in PA will be enrolled. Indoor cycling instructors will be trained to deliver five health education topics over an 8-week period during twice-weekly cycling classes. Topics match the American Heart Association recommendations for CV health: (a) nutrition, (b) PA promotion, (c) weight management, (d) stress management, and (e) smoking cessation and relapse prevention. Modes of intervention include instructor advice, written materials and audio/video clips reviewed during class. CV-related and mental health measures will be assessed at both time-points. Results will guide a full scale efficacy study. Future research in this area has potential to impact the health of female inmates, a high-risk population. Moreover, this multiple health behavior change intervention model represents a community approach to health promotion that could generalize to other underserved populations who may benefit most from similar intervention efforts. PMID:27020419

  16. The Educational Function of an Astronomy Research Experience for Undergraduates Program as Described by Female Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    The long-running REU-program is tacitly intended to increase retention and provide "an important educational experience" for undergraduates, particularly women, minorities and underrepresented groups. This longitudinal, two-stage study was designed to explore the ways in which the REU acted as an educational experience for 51 women in the field of astronomy. Stage-1 consisted of an ex post facto analysis of data collected over 8 years, including multiple interviews with each participant during their REU, annual open-ended alumni surveys, faculty interviews, and extensive field notes. Four themes emerged, related to developing understandings of the nature of professional scientific work, the scientific process, the culture of academia, and an understanding of the "self." Analysis provided an initial theory that was used to design the Stage-2 interview protocol. In Stage-2, over 10 hours of interviews were conducted with 8 participants selected for their potential to disconfirm the initial theory. Results indicate that the REU provided a limited impact in terms of participants’ knowledge of professional astronomy as a largely computer-based endeavor. The REU did not provide a substantive educational experience related to the nature of scientific work, the scientific process, the culture of academia, participants' conceptions about themselves as situated in science, or other aspects of the "self,” were limited. Instead, the data suggests that these women began the REU with pre-existing and remarkably strong conceptions in these areas, and that the REU did not functional to alter those states. These conceptions were frequently associated with other mentors/scientist interactions, from middle school into the undergraduate years. Instructors and family members also served as crucial forces in shaping highly developed, stable science identities. Sustained relationships with mentors were particularly transformational. These findings motivate an ongoing research agenda

  17. Using sediment transport and river restoration to link research and education, and promote K-12 female involvement in STEM fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, E. M.; Bradley-Eitel, K.

    2011-12-01

    The focus of this CAREER award is to better understand and predict the mechanics of sediment transport, to link research and education through courses and shared field sites, and to increase female interest in STEM fields. To accomplish the education component of this proposal we have focused on the following three activities: 1) a Keystone course on the scientific method, 2) a Women Outside with Science (WOWS) camp and 3) a permanent field site for research and education on river processes. In the Keystone Course, students investigated the impact of roughness addition, in sediment-starved river reaches (e.g. downstream of dams), on the retention of gravel used for spawning. They developed research questions and hypotheses, designed and conducted a set of scaled laboratory flume experiments, analyzed their data and wrote a draft manuscript of their results. Student feedback was overwhelmingly positive on the merits of this course, which included hands-on learning of the following: basic sediment transport and fluvial geomorphology, applied statistics, laboratory methods, and scientific writing skills. Students sometimes struggled when flume experiments did not progress as planned, and in the analysis and interpretation of complex data. Some of the students in the course have reanalyzed data, conducted additional experiments and are currently rewriting the manuscript for submission to a peer-reviewed journal. Such a course fundamentally links research and teaching, and provides an introduction to research for advanced undergraduates or beginning graduate students. We have also run one summer WOWS camp, which was a ten day camping and inquiry based research experience for 20 female junior-high and high-school students. The girls studied climate change and water related issues, worked on a restoration project on the Little Salmon River, met with a fish biologist and did fish habitat surveys and studied water quality along the North Fork of the Payette River while on a

  18. Risk of breast cancer among female teachers of physical education and languages.

    PubMed

    Vihko, V J; Apter, D L; Pukkala, E I; Oinonen, M T; Hakulinen, T R; Vihko, R K

    1992-01-01

    A retrospective follow-up study on 924 physical education (PE) and 3,239 language (L) teachers was performed to study whether life-long high physical activity affects the risk of breast cancer. The Finnish Cancer Registry found 128 malignant breast cancers among these women in a follow-up during 1967-1987. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for all PE teachers was 1.28 (n.s.) and for L teachers 1.59 (p less than 0.001). Before the menopause (below age 50) SIR for PE teachers was 0.93 (n.s.) and for L teachers 1.51 (p less than 0.05). These results suggest that before menopause the risk of breast cancer in physically active PE is smaller than in the less active L. A Poisson regression analysis, taking into account the reproductive factors together with age and observation period, did not show any significant difference between PE and L teachers, probably due to the relatively small number of cases (n = 22) in the PE teacher group.

  19. Education and Cognitive Ability as Direct, Mediating, or Spurious Influences on Female Age at First Birth: Behavior Genetic Models Fit to Danish Twin Data1

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Kohler, Hans-Peter; McGue, Matt; Behrman, Jere R.; Petersen, Inge; Bingley, Paul; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    The authors study education and cognitive ability as predictors of female age at first birth (AFB), using monozygotic and dizygotic female twin pairs from the Middle-Aged Danish Twin survey. Using mediated regression, they replicate findings linking education (and not cognitive ability) to AFB. But in a behavior genetic model, both relationships are absorbed within a latent variable measuring the shared family environment. Two interpretations are relevant. First, variance in AFB emerges from differences between families, not differences between sisters within the same family. Second, even in a natural laboratory sensitive to genetic variance in female fertility—during demographic transition—the variance in AFB was non-genetic, located instead within the shared environment. PMID:19569405

  20. Technological Learning after School: A Study of the Communication Dimensions of Technological Literacy in Three Informal Education Programs for Female and Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Carolyn Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation asks how the communication dimensions of technological literacy are understood in three informal education programs in Texas that aim to bridge the digital divide for female and low-income minority youth. Technological literacy is a prerequisite for economic, political, and cultural equality, yet different rationales for…

  1. Uganda's Universal Secondary Education Policy and Its Effect on "Empowered" Women: How Reduced Income and Moonlighting Activities Differentially Impact Male and Female Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molyneaux, Kristen J.

    2011-01-01

    In January 2007 Uganda embarked on a strategy to implement a nationwide Universal Secondary Education (USE) policy. This article investigates how gender differences in Uganda's informal and formal teaching markets, that went unexamined during the implementation process of USE, differentially affected male and female teachers' incomes. In…

  2. Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD): An Evaluation of a Semistructured Reading Discussion Group for African American Female Adult-Literacy Students with Histories of Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jayatta D.

    2012-01-01

    Women Reading for Education, Affinity & Development (WREAD), a reading discussion group geared toward African American female adult-literacy students with self-defined histories of trauma, was an outgrowth of research identifying links between trauma, women's struggles with literacy, and the need to be conscious of emotional health…

  3. Female Teachers Training in Educational Grades of Women's Gymnasia in Kazan in the Last Third of the XIX--Early XX Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornilova, Irina V.; Magsumov, Timur A.; Shakirov, Rasul R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to study the way the female teacher education was formed in late imperial Russia. The subject of the study is the specific element of this process in Kazan province, being a multi-ethnic region. The article analyses a number of issues, the ones related to the activities of the two Kazan gymnasia--Maryinskaya and…

  4. School-to-Work Transition Performance of "Male", "Female" and "Neutral" Vocational Streams: A Gender Balance Sheet for Vocational Education Graduates in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paleocrassas, Stamatis; Rousseas, Panagiotis; Vretakou, Vassilia

    2003-01-01

    The issue of gender-related differences in the transition of secondary vocational education graduates from school-to-work is discussed, relative to "male", "female" and "neutral" curriculum choices, using findings from a national survey of graduates. The discussion explores this issue using matched employment and earnings as critical indicators.…

  5. Cognitive Styles Field Dependence/Independence and Scientific Achievement of Male and Female Students of Zamfara State College of Education Maru, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Tukur; Daniel, Esther Gananamalar Sarojini; Abdurauf, Rose Amnah

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association between cognitive styles (Field dependence/Independence) and scientific achievement in Male and Female student of Biology and Integrated science Department of Zamfara State College of Education Maru, the is correlational. A population of 700 students were used, in which 150 were randomly selected…

  6. Barriers to and Facilitators of Female Deans' Career Advancement in Higher Education: An Exploratory Study in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Thi Lan Huong

    2013-01-01

    Although the slow progress of female academics compared to their male colleagues and the challenges that female academic leaders have to face in taking leadership roles have been well-documented, very little is known about female academic leaders and managers' career advancement in developing countries like Vietnam. This paper reports on an…

  7. A Phenomenological Study of Perceptions of Identity and Leadership among African-American Female Administrators within Public Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, June Pickett

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study explores how African-American female administrators (individually and collectively) perceive the relationship between their identity and their leadership voice. The study focuses upon perceptions of 11 African-American female administrators who serve the 14 main campuses of the universities constituting the Pennsylvania…

  8. Differential HIV Risk for Racial/Ethnic Minority Trans*female Youths and Socioeconomic Disparities in Housing, Residential Stability, and Education

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yea-Hung; Arayasirikul, Sean; Fisher, Marla; Pomart, W. Andres; Le, Victory; Raymond, H. Fisher; McFarland, Willi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined HIV prevalence and risk behaviors of 282 trans*female youths aged 16 to 24 years participating in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, SHINE study from 2012 to 2013 to determine differences between racial/ethnic minority and White youths. Methods. We conducted the χ2 test to determine distributional differences between racial/ethnic minority and White participants in sociodemographic factors, HIV-related risk behaviors, and syndemic factors. Results. Of the trans*female youths, 4.8% were HIV positive. Racial/ethnic minority and White trans*female youths differed significantly in gender identity and sexual orientation. Racial/ethnic minority youths also had significantly lower educational attainment, were less likely to have lived with their parents of origin as a child, and were significantly more likely to engage in recent condomless anal intercourse than were Whites. Conclusions. Efforts to assess the impact of multiple-minority stress on racial/minority trans*female youths are needed imminently, and prevention efforts must address macrolevel disparities for trans*female youths, especially those from racial/ethnic minority groups, to reduce these disparities and prevent incident cases of HIV. PMID:25905826

  9. Trends in Female Authorships, Editorial Board Memberships, and Editorships in Educational Psychology Journals from 2003 to 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Carlton J.; Yoo, Julia H.; Jones, Sara J.; Torres, Laura G.; Decker, Mark Lowry

    2009-01-01

    Robinson, McKay, Katayama, and Fan ("Contemporary Educational Psychology," 23, 331-343, 1998) reported that women were underrepresented in terms of authorships, editorial board memberships, and editorships in the field of educational psychology based on membership trends. More recently, Evans, Hsieh, and Robinson ("Educational Psychology Review,"…

  10. Navigating the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics pipeline: How social capital impacts the educational attainment of college-bound female students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Rebecca Elizabeth

    Despite the proliferation of women in higher education and the workforce, they have yet to achieve parity with men in many of the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) majors and careers. The gap is even greater in the representation of women from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. This study examined pre-college intervention strategies provided by the University of Southern California's Math, Engineering, Science Achievement (MESA) program, as well as the relationships and experiences that contributed to the success of underrepresented female high school students in the STEM pipeline. A social capital framework provided the backdrop to the study. This qualitative study takes an ethnographic approach, incorporating 11 interviews, 42 hours of observation, and document analysis to address the research questions: How does involvement in the MESA program impact female students' decisions to pursue a mathematics or science major in college? What is the role of significant others in supporting and encouraging student success? The findings revealed a continuous cycle of support for these students. The cycle started in the home environment, where parents were integral in the early influence on the students' decisions to pursue higher education. Relationships with teachers, counselors, and peers provided critical networks of support in helping these students to achieve their academic goals. Participation in the MESA program empowered the students and provided additional connections to knowledge-based resources. This study highlights the interplay among family, school, and the MESA program in the overall support of underrepresented female students in the STEM pipeline.

  11. Effect of education on preventive behaviors of breast cancer in female teachers of guidance schools of Zahedan city based on health belief model

    PubMed Central

    Farma, Khadijah Kalan Farman; Jalili, Zahra; Zareban, Iraj; Pour, Mahnaz Shahraki

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in females. Methods of screening are the best among early detection methods. The goal of this study is effect of education on preventive behaviors of breast cancer in female teachers of guidance schools of Zahedan city based on health belief model Materials and Methods: This study was a semi-experimental, a kind of case-control research. This study was carried on 240 female teachers in guidance schools, Zahedan city, in 2011-2012 academic years with multi-stage sampling. Data collection tool was a questionnaire that was used after confirmation of validity and reliability. Data were collected with questionnaire after analysis, educational intervention with lecture, view video, group discussion, question and answer performed. Two month after intervention, secondary evaluation was performed. Collected data with SPSS software and appropriate statistical tests like: Paired t-test, independent t-test, regression analysis, Chi-square were analyzed. Results: Persons mean age in this study was 39.40(±7.4) years. In awareness item and health belief model constructs (awareness, perceived susceptibility, perceived seriousness, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficiency, behavior) and also practice, paired t-test showed significant difference among before and after education (P > 0.0001). In two groups based on Chi-square in level of education and married status, there were no significant differences. Also, regression analysis outcomes showed that perceived barriers had the most effect on behavior, and this construct could be predictor of preventive behaviors from breast cancer. Conclusions: The findings of this study could conclude that educational programs designed based on the health belief model have significant impact on improving preventive treatment of breast cancer. Given the fact that Iran has a very high incidence of breast cancer, since Iranian women's awareness level and performance specially

  12. Females at Risk in the Future Workplace: Gender Credibility Perceptions and Communication Educator Problems in the Building of Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandeville, Mary Y.

    A study examined female and male university students' perceptions about career choice. Essay response questionnaires were administered to 52 university students in speech communication courses in the Fall of 1990 and 55 students the following semester. After reviewing student responses, survey response questions were developed and administered to…

  13. The Experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean Women in STEM: Voices to Inform Work with Black Females in STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Beverly A. King

    2013-01-01

    This grounded theory case study examines the experiences of Panamanian Afro-Caribbean women and their membership in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) training and careers. The shortage of Science and Math teachers in 48 of 50 States heightens the need for those trained in STEM. Females of African phenotype have persistently…

  14. Cognitive Testing with Female Nutrition and Education Assistance Program Participants Informs Validity of the Satter Eating Competence Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krall, Jodi Stotts; Lohse, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Examine the validity of a self-report measure of eating competence with low-income women. Methods: Twenty-five females (18-49 years old) recruited from low-income venues in Pennsylvania completed cognitive testing through an iterative interview process. Respondents' oral responses were compared to researchers' intended meaning of…

  15. US Female College Students' Breast Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Determinants of Screening Practices: New Implications for Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early, Jody; Armstrong, Shelley Nicole; Burke, Sloane; Thompson, Doris Lee

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined female college students' knowledge, attitudes, and breast cancer screening and determined significant predictors of breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and mammography among this population. Participants: A convenience sample of 1,074 college women from 3 universities participated in the research.…

  16. A Comparison of 9th Grade Male and Female Physical Education Activities Preferences and Support for Coeducational Groupings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Grant; Cleven, Brian

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the physical education activity preferences of 9th grade students in a southern California school district, to identify which activities students felt should be offered in coeducation or gender separate formats, and to determine whether physical education is one of their favorite classes. Results…

  17. Inside versus outside the Science Classroom: Examining the Positionality of Two Female Science Teachers at the Boundaries of Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Tang Wee

    2015-01-01

    The third wave feminist studies in science education take the stance that science teaching is political and that social change is possible through interrogating power inequalities and decentering science to balance out power. For science educators, this means developing an awareness of "positionality," which I define here as a…

  18. A Comparative Career Profile in 1985-1990 Female and Male Graduates of Educational Administration from a Midwestern Research University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunanan, Esmeralda S.

    In education, women are outnumbered by men four to one at the administrative level. This paper presents findings of a study that sought to determine the association between advanced degrees in educational administration and the careers of those holding such degrees. Data were obtained from questionnaires that were mailed to a total of 210 former…

  19. Recruitment and Retention of Female Accounting Students at a Denomination-Affiliate's Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Beth Trimble

    2012-01-01

    In the past, women students who attended higher education institutions affiliated with Pentecostal religious denominations selected major areas of study that were perceived as women oriented, such as preparation for careers in education, social sciences, practical ministry, and general business. Few women students focused on major subjects…

  20. The relationship between cigarette smoking and education revisited: implications for categorizing persons' educational status.

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, B P; Giovino, G A; Mowery, P D; Eriksen, M P

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study sought to reassess the relationship between cigarette smoking and education. METHODS: Data from the 1983 to 1991 National Health Interview Survey for participants aged 25 years and older were used to plot the prevalence of current smoking, ever smoking, heavy smoking, and smoking cessation, as well as the adjusted log odds ratios, by years of education. RESULTS: The "less than high school graduate" category consisted of two groups with distinct smoking patterns: persons with 0 to 8 years and persons with 9 to 11 years of education. The latter were the most likely to be current, ever, and heavy smokers and the least likely to have quit smoking, whereas the former were similar to persons having 12 years of education. After 11 years of education, the likelihood of smoking decreased and that of smoking cessation increased with each successive year of education. These results persisted after the statistical adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, poverty status, employment status, marital status, geographic region, and year of survey. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between smoking and education is not monotonic. Thus, when evaluating smoking in relation to education, researchers should categorize years of education as follows: 0 to 8, 9 to 11, 12, 13 to 15, and 16 or more years. PMID:8916524

  1. Academic stress and menstrual disorders among female undergraduates in Uyo, South Eastern Nigeria - the need for health education.

    PubMed

    Ekpenyong, C E; Davis, K J; Akpan, U P; Daniel, N E

    2011-12-20

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between academic stress and menstrual disorders among female undergraduates in Uyo, South Eastern Nigeria. Three hundred and ninety-three (393) female students of the University of Uyo, ages between 16 and 35 years were randomly selected from different departments in the University, and studied during the 2009/2010 academic session. Menstrual history and Student's Stress Assessment Questionnaire (SSAQ) were used for this assessment. They were distributed for participants to fill out. Prevalence of menstrual disorder among participants was 34.6%. A direct association between menstrual disorder and academic stress was observed. Commonest menstrual disorder was menorrhagia (37.5%). Others were: Pre-menstrual Syndrome (PMS 33.1%), Oligomenorrhea 19.9% and amenorrhea 5.9% (P<0.05). Those who experienced academic stress had about 2 times chances of having menstrual disorders (OR : 2.0, C.I = 1.224-2.837) at P<0.05. This study demonstrated a significant association between academic stress and menstrual disorder among females undergraduate in Uyo, South Eastern Nigeria.

  2. A phenomenological analysis of the essence of the science education experience as perceived by female high school physics and advanced chemistry students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitriou, Michael

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the essential elements of the current science education experience as constructed by twelve female high school physics and advanced chemistry students. The expressed desired outcome was a description of the phenomenon from a participant point of view. Student recollections and interpretations of experiences were assessed for a twelve-week period. Data sources were student journals, autobiographies, interviews, focus group interviews and researcher observations. In addition, each participant completed the Test of Science Related Attitudes (Fraser, 1981) in order to create attitude profiles for triangulation with other data. While a wide range of aspects of the science education experience emerged, results showed that female students describe and interpret their science education experiences on the basis of actual interest in science, early science experiences, perception of ability, self-confidence, teacher attributes, parental and peer interaction, societal expectations, the nature of science, and gender. Of these factors, specifically, interest and curiosity, societal influence, the nature of science, lack of in-school experiences, the desire to help others, and general parent support were most impacting upon experience and the desire to continue science study. Moreover, the interaction of these factors is relevant. Very simply, early experiences are crucial to interest development. In general, parents can enhance this interest by providing science-related experiences. In the absence of early in-school experiences (i.e., which the participants reported), these out-of-school experiences become crucial. More importantly, quality instruction and parent and peer support are needed to foster science interest and to overcome the powerfully negative influence of society, the discriminatory nature of science, and the lack of experiences.

  3. The effect of a physical activity education programme on physical activity, fitness, quality of life and attitudes to exercise in obese females.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Alison; Doody, Catherine; O'Shea, Donal

    2008-09-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Decline in physical activity has occurred simultaneously or before the increase in obesity. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effect of a physical activity group-based education programme delivered by a Physiotherapist on weight, physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, quality of life and attitudes to exercise in obese females. A sample of 18 obese Irish females (mean age 37.6 years, mean weight 117.9kg), took part in this study. The participants attended four physical activity education sessions in groups of 6-8, 1 month apart. Outcome measures were Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) measured by the Incremental Shuttle Walk test (ISWT) International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-Short) Impact of Weight on Quality of Life Questionnaire-Short Form (IWQOL-Lite), and a questionnaire adapted from the EU survey on Consumer Attitudes to Physical Activity. There were no significant decreases in participants' weight (p=0.444) and there were no significant improvements in IPAQ (p=0.496) and IWQOL-Lite scores (p=0.337). There were significant improvements in CRF (p<0.0002). Attitudes towards exercise improved as shown by decreased barriers to exercise, i.e. decreased shyness (17%) and increased energy (22%) and increased enjoyment (22%). A group education programme focusing on physical activity alone demonstrated a significant increase in CRF (ISWT) and had a positive influence on attitudes to exercise. Longer duration interventions may allow participants to make the necessary lifestyle changes to achieve weight loss.

  4. Does Teaching-Experience Matters? A Study on Female Teachers Involved in Engineering-Education through ODL Mode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Rajarshi; Paira, Anjana

    2013-01-01

    Irrespective of discipline and trade-boundaries, pedagogy of Engineering-Education demands specialty in most of the cases. Teachers' style of assisting in the process of students' learning accords influence of sequel of factors and variables some of which may be clubbed under "psychopedagogical attributes". Among the many other…

  5. Female Arab Students' Experience of Acculturation and Cultural Diversity upon Accessing Higher Education in the Northern Galilee-Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study addresses the issue of the cultural transition of Arab women who for the first time leave their secluded villages and traditional society in the Northern Galilee to access Western-style Israeli institutions of higher education located in the region in which they will study in Hebrew, their second language. This study uses…

  6. Educating the Female Citizen in a Post-war World: Competing Ideologies for American Women, 1945-1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenmann, Linda

    2002-01-01

    In post-World War II United States, women were caught between competing patriotic, economic, cultural, and psychological ideologies dictating their behavior. Differences between these expectations and challenges to behavioral norms provoked tensions in women's education that lasted until the women's movement of the 1960s. (Contains 25 references.)…

  7. The "Healthy Teen Girls Project": Comparison of Health Education and STD Risk Reduction Intervention for Incarcerated Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Angela R.; St. Lawrence, Janet; Morse, David T.; Baird-Thomas, Connie; Liew, Hui; Gresham, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent girls incarcerated in a state reformatory (N = 246) were recruited and assigned to an 18-session health education program or a time-equivalent HIV prevention program. Cohorts were assigned to conditions using a randomized block design separated by a washout period to reduce contamination. Post intervention, girls in the HIV risk…

  8. Female Reproductive System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, N. J.

    This autoinstructional lesson can be used with health education and/or biology classes in a high school curriculum. It deals with the study of human development with emphasis on the female reproductive organs and cycles. The behavioral objectives are given, and the materials and equipment needed to gain these objectives are itemized. Fifteen…

  9. Study of anemia in adolescents female and effect information, education and communication in rural area of central Kathmandu Valley.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R K C; Ghimire, H P; Panta, P P

    2013-06-01

    Adolescence is a period of rapid change and opportunities. It is a coming up of age as children grow into young adults. It constitutes 10-19 yrs of age. In Nepal 23% of the population are adolescents. Across-sectional community based study was carried out in 3 schools in Jhaukhel (Bhaktapur) to determine the prevalence of anemia and the effect of IEC in female adolescents. Does IEC effect improve anemia rapidly. Two hundred four female school children were screened for Hemoglobin estimation by Simple Random Sampling method. Physical examination and nutritional assessment was also done. Hemoglobin estimation was done by Cynomethemoglobin method in their respective schools. Anemia was diagnosed according to WHO guidelines. IEC was given to all adolescents girls thrice in 1 month and again the effect of IEC was studied by estimating hemoglobin. Out of 204, 72 (35.3%) had anemia. Forty (34.2%) had anemia in the age group of 13-15 yrs, followed by 19 in age group 10-12 yrs and mild anemia was found in the age group 16-19 yrs. The adolescents girls whose parents were farmers and labourers were more anemic than others. Twelve (44.4%) maximum anemic girls were observed in those whose parental income was between NPRs 12000-16000. Out of 204 girls only 157 attained menarche. All girls 52 (33.1%) who attained menarche upto 13 yrs had more anemia than others of above 13 yrs of age group. The mean age at menarche was 13.05 yrs. The subjects exhibited increase in Hb significantly P value 0.000. Mean Hb before IEC was 12.26 (SD 1.43) and after IEC it was 12.81 (SD +/- 1.05). The Mean increase in percentage after IEC was 4.48 (SD +/- 9.68) in females. The Range was 20 to 41.18%. The Coefficient of relationship (Karl Pearson coefficient of correlation) between two Hb levels before and after giving IEC was 0.719, which is statistically significant with positive correlation (p = .000) and r2 = 0.516. It is represented as scattered diagram. PMID:24696933

  10. Study of anemia in adolescents female and effect information, education and communication in rural area of central Kathmandu Valley.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R K C; Ghimire, H P; Panta, P P

    2013-06-01

    Adolescence is a period of rapid change and opportunities. It is a coming up of age as children grow into young adults. It constitutes 10-19 yrs of age. In Nepal 23% of the population are adolescents. Across-sectional community based study was carried out in 3 schools in Jhaukhel (Bhaktapur) to determine the prevalence of anemia and the effect of IEC in female adolescents. Does IEC effect improve anemia rapidly. Two hundred four female school children were screened for Hemoglobin estimation by Simple Random Sampling method. Physical examination and nutritional assessment was also done. Hemoglobin estimation was done by Cynomethemoglobin method in their respective schools. Anemia was diagnosed according to WHO guidelines. IEC was given to all adolescents girls thrice in 1 month and again the effect of IEC was studied by estimating hemoglobin. Out of 204, 72 (35.3%) had anemia. Forty (34.2%) had anemia in the age group of 13-15 yrs, followed by 19 in age group 10-12 yrs and mild anemia was found in the age group 16-19 yrs. The adolescents girls whose parents were farmers and labourers were more anemic than others. Twelve (44.4%) maximum anemic girls were observed in those whose parental income was between NPRs 12000-16000. Out of 204 girls only 157 attained menarche. All girls 52 (33.1%) who attained menarche upto 13 yrs had more anemia than others of above 13 yrs of age group. The mean age at menarche was 13.05 yrs. The subjects exhibited increase in Hb significantly P value 0.000. Mean Hb before IEC was 12.26 (SD 1.43) and after IEC it was 12.81 (SD +/- 1.05). The Mean increase in percentage after IEC was 4.48 (SD +/- 9.68) in females. The Range was 20 to 41.18%. The Coefficient of relationship (Karl Pearson coefficient of correlation) between two Hb levels before and after giving IEC was 0.719, which is statistically significant with positive correlation (p = .000) and r2 = 0.516. It is represented as scattered diagram.

  11. After the Fact: A Brief Educational Program on HIV Postexposure Prophylaxis for Female Detainees in a Local Jail.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neha; Schmidt, Heidi; Buisker, Timothy; Dufour, Mi-Suk Kang; Goldenson, Joe; Myers, Janet; Tulsky, Jacqueline

    2015-04-01

    Women who have been in jail are at increased risk of acquiring HIV when they are in the community. Nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis (nPEP) reduces HIV transmission following high-risk behaviors and is an effective HIV prevention strategy. The authors designed a 15-minute interactive educational program to increase inmates' knowledge of nPEP. Before the program, participants self-reported high HIV risk yet low risk perception and lack of nPEP awareness. After the program, nPEP knowledge scores increased by 40% regardless of demographic or HIV-risk characteristics. This study demonstrates that a brief, easy-to-deliver educational intervention can be carried out in a jail, is effective at raising awareness of both HIV risk and nPEP, and may be useful for others seeking to increase use of this prevention strategy for high-risk women during incarceration.

  12. High intensity interval and moderate continuous cycle training in a physical education programme improves health-related fitness in young females.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, K; Zmijewski, P; Krawczyk, K; Czajkowska, A; Kęska, A; Kapuściński, P; Mazurek, T

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with high intensity interval cycle exercise (HIIE) or continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME). Forty-eight collegiate females exercising in two regular physical education classes per week were randomly assigned to two programmes (HIIE; n = 24 or CME; n = 24) of additional (one session of 63 minutes per week) physical activity for 8 weeks. Participants performed HIIE comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active recovery pedalling with intensity 65%-75% HRmax or performed CME corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax. Before and after the 8-week programmes, anthropometric data and aero- and anaerobic capacity were measured. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant time main effect for VO2max (p < 0.001), similar improvements being found in both groups (+12% in HIIE and +11% in CME), despite body mass not changing significantly (p = 0.59; +0.4% in HIIE and -0.1% in CME). A significant main time effect was found for relative fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). A group x time interaction effect was found for relative FM and FFM (p = 0.018 and p = 0.018); a greater reduction in FM and greater increase in FFM were noted in the CME than the HIIE group. Improvements in anaerobic power were observed in both groups (p < 0.001), but it was greater in the HIIE group (interaction effect, p = 0.022). Weight loss is not mandatory for exercise-induced effects on improving aerobic and anaerobic capacity in collegiate females. Eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with CME sessions are more effective in improving body composition than physical education classes supplemented with HIIE sessions. In contrast to earlier, smaller trials, similar improvements in aerobic capacity were observed following physical activity with additional HIIE or CME sessions.

  13. High intensity interval and moderate continuous cycle training in a physical education programme improves health-related fitness in young females

    PubMed Central

    Zmijewski, P; Krawczyk, K; Czajkowska, A; Kęska, A; Kapuściński, P; Mazurek, T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with high intensity interval cycle exercise (HIIE) or continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME). Forty-eight collegiate females exercising in two regular physical education classes per week were randomly assigned to two programmes (HIIE; n = 24 or CME; n = 24) of additional (one session of 63 minutes per week) physical activity for 8 weeks. Participants performed HIIE comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active recovery pedalling with intensity 65%–75% HRmax or performed CME corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax. Before and after the 8-week programmes, anthropometric data and aero- and anaerobic capacity were measured. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant time main effect for VO2max (p < 0.001), similar improvements being found in both groups (+12% in HIIE and +11% in CME), despite body mass not changing significantly (p = 0.59; +0.4% in HIIE and -0.1% in CME). A significant main time effect was found for relative fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). A group x time interaction effect was found for relative FM and FFM (p = 0.018 and p = 0.018); a greater reduction in FM and greater increase in FFM were noted in the CME than the HIIE group. Improvements in anaerobic power were observed in both groups (p < 0.001), but it was greater in the HIIE group (interaction effect, p = 0.022). Weight loss is not mandatory for exercise-induced effects on improving aerobic and anaerobic capacity in collegiate females. Eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with CME sessions are more effective in improving body composition than physical education classes supplemented with HIIE sessions. In contrast to earlier, smaller trials, similar improvements in aerobic capacity were observed following physical activity with additional HIIE or CME sessions. PMID

  14. High intensity interval and moderate continuous cycle training in a physical education programme improves health-related fitness in young females.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, K; Zmijewski, P; Krawczyk, K; Czajkowska, A; Kęska, A; Kapuściński, P; Mazurek, T

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with high intensity interval cycle exercise (HIIE) or continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME). Forty-eight collegiate females exercising in two regular physical education classes per week were randomly assigned to two programmes (HIIE; n = 24 or CME; n = 24) of additional (one session of 63 minutes per week) physical activity for 8 weeks. Participants performed HIIE comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active recovery pedalling with intensity 65%-75% HRmax or performed CME corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax. Before and after the 8-week programmes, anthropometric data and aero- and anaerobic capacity were measured. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant time main effect for VO2max (p < 0.001), similar improvements being found in both groups (+12% in HIIE and +11% in CME), despite body mass not changing significantly (p = 0.59; +0.4% in HIIE and -0.1% in CME). A significant main time effect was found for relative fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). A group x time interaction effect was found for relative FM and FFM (p = 0.018 and p = 0.018); a greater reduction in FM and greater increase in FFM were noted in the CME than the HIIE group. Improvements in anaerobic power were observed in both groups (p < 0.001), but it was greater in the HIIE group (interaction effect, p = 0.022). Weight loss is not mandatory for exercise-induced effects on improving aerobic and anaerobic capacity in collegiate females. Eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with CME sessions are more effective in improving body composition than physical education classes supplemented with HIIE sessions. In contrast to earlier, smaller trials, similar improvements in aerobic capacity were observed following physical activity with additional HIIE or CME sessions. PMID:27274106

  15. Cultural views of the female breast.

    PubMed

    Jones, Diana P

    2004-01-01

    This manuscript discusses historical and contemporary cultural views of the female breast. It also considers implications of these views for female health and for use of this information by health educators.

  16. Female Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  17. Infection with high-risk HPV types among female sex workers in northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Huyen Thi Thanh; Ishizaki, Azumi; Nguyen, Cuong Hung; Tran, Vuong Thi; Matsushita, Kaori; Saikawa, Kunikazu; Hosaka, Norimitsu; Pham, Hung Viet; Bi, Xiuqiong; Ta, Van Thanh; Van Pham, Thuc; Ichimura, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    Vaccines against two high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, HPV-16, and HPV-18, are in use currently, with high efficacy for preventing infections with these HPV types and consequent cervical cancers. However, circulating HPV types can vary with geography and ethnicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV types and the association between HPV types and abnormal cervical cytology among female sex workers in Northern Vietnam. Cervical swabs and plasma samples were collected from 281 female sex workers at two health centers in Hanoi and Hai Phong in 2009. The HPV L1 gene was amplified by PCR using original and modified GP5(+)/6(+) primers. Amplified PCR products were genotyped by the microarray system GeneSquare (KURABO) and/or clonal sequencing. Of the 281 women, 139 (49.5%) were positive for HPV DNA. Among the HPV-positive samples, 339 strains and 29 different types were identified. Multiple-type and high risk-type HPV infections were found in 85 (61.2%) and 124 (89.2%) women, respectively. The most common genotype was HPV-52, followed by HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-58. Abnormal cervical cytology was detected in 3.2% (9/281) of the women, and all of these samples were positive for HPV-DNA. Age ≤25 years and infection with human immunodeficiency virus were associated positively with HPV infection among the women while ever smoking was associated negatively. These results show that HPV-52 is most prevalent among female sex workers in Northern Vietnam, most of whom had normal cervical cytology. This information may be important for designing vaccination strategies in Vietnam.

  18. Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundja, J. O.; Decrosta, J. T.; Lechuga, P.

    2009-05-01

    Government schools in Congo kinshasa are not providing quality education to the masses since many years, and this phenomenon has not escaped the eyes of experts, activists, and policy makers. However, there seems to be a general perception that the main, and sometimes even the sole, source of this problem are the low levels of government expenditure of education. And to prove their case supports of this view cite educational expenditure to GDP ratios in Congo kinshasa in comparison with that of some other nations. Though there may be reasonable arguments to increase the level of government expenditure on education, such hijacking of public debate to focus on - the level of expenditure - often overlooks more important issues. Contrary to common perception the level of per student expenditure on government schools in Delhi is reasonable, ranging from Fc.6000 to Fc.12000 p.a. There are a number of organisational deficiencies which do not create checks and balances for appropriate utilization of fund. Moreover, the division of these funds among social groups and for different purposes is also questionable. Though, female literacy lags significantly behind male literacy, about 15% points, extra resources provided for female education are insignificant. And in some schemes such as the one run for 'street children' and 'child labourers', large amounts are budgeted year after year without a single French congolese being spent. Also government schools catering to richer regions of Kinshasa seem to be spending more per child as compared to the poorer counterparts. The paper also proposes an education voucher model, which may have the potential to address some of the issues raised in the paper. Trends in expenditure under some schemes have been studied in relation to the purpose of expenditure. The issue of government expenditure on education is a complex one, and public space should be utilized to discuss them as they are, rather than reducing discussion to dogmatic wars

  19. Promoting the female condom.

    PubMed

    Cornman, H

    1997-01-01

    AIDS is spreading most rapidly among women, who often cannot negotiate the use of a male condom with reluctant partners. Recent findings from 6 countries, however, indicate that women can draw upon peer support to help them negotiate female condom use with reluctant partners. These findings come from Family Health International's (FHI) AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project's introduction of the female condom to women through peer support groups in Kenya and Brazil, and the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS' (UNAIDS) coordinated studies in Costa Rica, Indonesia, Mexico, and Senegal on sexual negotiation, women's empowerment, and the female condom, also using group education sessions. The US Agency for International Development recently committed $100,000 toward the purchase of 150,000 female condoms for operations research and familiarization in countries where officials have not been exposed to the method. More than 130 participants from 19 countries attended FHI's May 1-2, 1997, conference on the female condom convened in Arlington, Virginia. PMID:12292734

  20. Relational perceptions in high school physical education: teacher- and peer-related predictors of female students’ motivation, behavioral engagement, and social anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Gairns, Felicity; Whipp, Peter R.; Jackson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Although researchers have demonstrated the importance of interpersonal processes in school-based physical education (PE), there have been calls for further studies that account for multiple relational perspectives and provide a more holistic understanding of students’ relational perceptions. Guided by principles outlined within self-determination theory and the tripartite efficacy model, our aim was to explore the ways in which students’ perceptions about their teacher and classmates directly and/or indirectly predicted motivation, anxiety, and engagement in PE. A total of 374 female high-school students reported the extent to which their teachers and classmates independently (a) engaged in relatedness-supportive behaviors, (b) satisfied their need for relatedness, and (c) were confident in their ability in PE (i.e., relation-inferred self-efficacy). Students also rated their motivation and anxiety regarding PE, and teachers provided ratings of in-class behavioral engagement for each student. Analyses demonstrated support for the predictive properties of both teacher- and peer-focused perceptions. Students largely reported more positive motivational orientations when they held favorable perceptions regarding their teacher and peers, and autonomous motivation was in turn positively related to behavioral engagement ratings. These findings offer novel insight into the network of interpersonal appraisals that directly and indirectly underpins important in-class outcomes in PE. PMID:26157404

  1. Relational perceptions in high school physical education: teacher- and peer-related predictors of female students' motivation, behavioral engagement, and social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Gairns, Felicity; Whipp, Peter R; Jackson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Although researchers have demonstrated the importance of interpersonal processes in school-based physical education (PE), there have been calls for further studies that account for multiple relational perspectives and provide a more holistic understanding of students' relational perceptions. Guided by principles outlined within self-determination theory and the tripartite efficacy model, our aim was to explore the ways in which students' perceptions about their teacher and classmates directly and/or indirectly predicted motivation, anxiety, and engagement in PE. A total of 374 female high-school students reported the extent to which their teachers and classmates independently (a) engaged in relatedness-supportive behaviors, (b) satisfied their need for relatedness, and (c) were confident in their ability in PE (i.e., relation-inferred self-efficacy). Students also rated their motivation and anxiety regarding PE, and teachers provided ratings of in-class behavioral engagement for each student. Analyses demonstrated support for the predictive properties of both teacher- and peer-focused perceptions. Students largely reported more positive motivational orientations when they held favorable perceptions regarding their teacher and peers, and autonomous motivation was in turn positively related to behavioral engagement ratings. These findings offer novel insight into the network of interpersonal appraisals that directly and indirectly underpins important in-class outcomes in PE.

  2. Female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  3. Female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  4. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Female Reproductive System Print A ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Female Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  5. Female condoms.

    PubMed

    Bounds, W

    1997-06-01

    Early versions of a female condom were available in the 1920s and 1960s, but they were little used and soon forgotten. It took the arrival of AIDS, and the urgent need for a wider range of female-controlled barrier techniques, to rekindle scientific interest in this method. In the 1980s, three groups in Europe and the USA began development of new female condom designs, comprising 'Femidom (Reality)', the 'Bikini Condom', and 'Women's Choice'. Apart from differences in their physical design, Femidom differs from the others in that it is made of a polyurethane membrane, which has several advantages over latex. Of the three, Femidom is the most advanced in terms of development and clinical testing, and it is the only one to have reached the marketing stage. Laboratory studies and clinical trials suggest that its contraceptive efficacy is similar to that documented for the male condom, though a direct comparison is not possible because no comparative clinical trials have, as yet, been undertaken. Reported 'typical-use' pregnancy rates range from 12.4 to 22.2% at 6 months of use in the USA and Latin America, respectively, while a study in the UK observed a rate of 15% at 12 months. As with all barrier methods, most failures appear to be associated with poor compliance or incorrect use. 'Perfect-use' pregnancy rates were substantially lower, indicating that Femidom can be very effective, if used consistently and correctly. Evidence for Femidom's effectiveness to protect against transmission of sexual disease-causing organisms, including HIV, is still very limited and based largely on laboratory studies. Whilst, in theory, the condom should confer reliable protection, its efficacy in clinical use will depend upon correct and consistent use and upon the product's ability to maintain an effective physical barrier throughout penetrative intercourse. In this respect, the results of recent and ongoing clinical studies are expected with much interest. How valuable Femidom will

  6. A qualitative study of science education in nursing school: Narratives of Hispanic female nurses' sense of identity and participation in science learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gensemer, Patricia S.

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to learn from Hispanic nursing students regarding their experiences as participants in science learning. The participants were four female nursing students of Hispanic origin attending a small, rural community college in a southeastern state. The overarching question of this study was "In what ways does being Hispanic mediate the science-related learning and practices of nursing students?" The following questions more specifically provided focal points for the research: (1) In what ways do students perceive being Hispanic as relevant to their science education experiences? (a) What does it mean to be Hispanic in the participants' home community? (b) What has it meant to be Hispanic in the science classroom? (2) In what ways might students' everyday knowledge (at home) relate to the knowledge or ways of knowing they practice in the nursing school community? The study took place in Alabama, which offered a rural context where Hispanic populations are rapidly increasing. A series of four interviews was conducted with each participant, followed by one focus group interview session. Results of the study were re presented in terms of portrayals of participant's narratives of identity and science learning, and then as a thematic interpretation collectively woven across the individuals' narratives. Portraitures of each participant draw upon the individual experiences of the four nursing students involved in this study in order to provide a beginning point towards exploring "community" as both personal and social aspects of science practices. Themes explored broader interpretations of communities of practice in relation to guiding questions of the study. Three themes emerged through the study, which included the following: Importance of Science to Nurses, Crossing with a Nurturing and Caring Identity, and Different Modes of Participation. Implications were discussed with regard to participation in a community of practice and

  7. Female Access to Careers in Engineering Technology. Exemplary Project in Vocational Education Conducted under Section 132 of Public Law 94-482. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caughman, Alison Y.

    Reacting to a demand for female engineering technicians in Charleston (South Carolina) area industries, Trident Technical College conducted a project to encourage women to study engineering technology, to provide female technicians to local industries, to establish close working ties between the college and local high schools, and to provide for a…

  8. Bayer Facts of Science Education XV: A View from the Gatekeepers—STEM Department Chairs at America's Top 200 Research Universities on Female and Underrepresented Minority Undergraduate STEM Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer Corporation

    2012-06-01

    Diversity and the underrepresentation of women, African-Americans, Hispanics and American Indians in the nation's science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields are the subjects of the XV: A View from the Gatekeepers—STEM Department Chairs at America's Top 200 Research Universities on Female and Underrepresented Minority Undergraduate STEM Students. Annual public opinion research project commissioned by Bayer Corporation, the Bayer Facts surveys examine science education and science literacy issues. The 15th in the series and the fifth to explore diversity and underrepresentation, this research is a direct outgrowth of last year's results which found 40 percent of the country's female and underrepresented minority (URM) chemists and chemical engineers working today were discouraged from pursuing their STEM career at some point in their lives. US colleges were cited as places where this discouragement most often happened and college professors as the individuals most likely responsible. Does such discouragement still occur in American colleges today? To answer this and other questions about the undergraduate environment in which today's students make their career decisions, the survey polls 413 STEM department chairs at the nation's 200 top research universities and those that produce the highest proportion of female and URM STEM graduates. The survey also asks the chairs about their institutions track record recruiting and retaining female and URM STEM undergraduates, preparedness of these students to study STEM, the impact of traditional introductory STEM courses on female and URM students and barriers these students face pursuing their STEM degrees.

  9. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Female Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Female Reproductive System Print A ... the egg or sperm. continue Components of the Female Reproductive System Unlike the male, the human female has a ...

  10. The Resilience of Women in Higher Education in Afghanistan. Study No 1: Obstacles and Opportunities in Women's Enrollment and Graduation; Study No. 2: The Human, Social and Institutional Resilience of Female Doctors and Postgraduate Residency Programs. Resilience in Education Settings (RES)-Research Studies Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosha, Afifa; Oriya, Spozhmay; Nabi, Tahira; Halim, Sabera; Hofyani, Sohaila; Liwal, Abida; Safi, Najibullah; Sahak, Mohamad Nadir; Noormal, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Female access to higher education in Afghanistan has been and continues to be limited. At the basic education level, the country has made great advances since 2000; it increased access from 900,000 students in 2000, almost all boys, to 6.7 million students in 2009, and girl's enrollment increased from 5,000 under the Taliban to 2.4 million in the…

  11. Masculine Female Adolescents at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma'ayan, Hadar Dubowsky

    2003-01-01

    The current literatures on girls, queer youth, and multicultural education have ignored a significant group of young people and their experiences in school. This research is a retrospective exploratory study of masculine female adolescent schooling experiences, focusing on the school experiences of adults aged 18-54 who were socially defined as…

  12. Rural female adolescence: Indian scenario.

    PubMed

    Kumari, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the life conditions of female adolescents in India and issues such as health, discrimination in nutrition and literacy, child labor, early marriage, juvenile delinquency, and violence against girls in rural areas of India. Data are obtained from interview samples conducted among 12 villages in north India. Female adolescents suffer from a variety of poverty-ridden village life conditions: caste oppression, lack of facilities, malnutrition, educational backwardness, early marriage, domestic burden, and gender neglect. Girls carry a heavy work burden. Adolescence in rural areas is marked by the onset of puberty and the thrust into adulthood. Girls have no independent authority to control their sexuality or reproduction. Girls are expected to get married and produce children. Control of female sexuality is shifted from the father to the husband. There is a strong push to marry girls soon after menstruation, due to the burden of imposing strict restrictions on female sexuality, the desire to reduce the burden of financial support, and the need to ensure social security for daughters. Girls may not go out alone or stay outside after dark. Many rural parents fear that education and freedom would ruin their daughter. Girls develop a low self-image. Rural villages have poor sanitation, toilet facilities, and drainage systems. Girls are ignorant of health and sex education and lack access to education. The neglect of female children includes malnutrition, sex bias, and early marriage. In 1981, almost 4 out of every 100 girls had to work. 5.527 million girls 5-14 years old were child laborers. Girls are veiled, footbound, circumcised, and burnt by dowry hungry in-laws. Female delinquents are subjected to sexual harassment and sometime to sexual abuse while in custody. Cows are treated better in rural India than women. Gender disparity is caused by the perpetuation of patriarchal masculine values.

  13. Developing an Equity Handbook for Community College Personnel--A Resource to Increase Female Enrollment in Nontraditional Vocational Education Programs. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenback, Kathryn

    A project identified and described factors that influence women's enrollment and continuation in nontraditional vocational education programs. The purposes of the study were to produce an equity handbook on education and employment and to develop a gathered through interviews with 60 women enrolled in traditional and nontraditional vocational…

  14. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing shows the uterus, myometrium (muscular outer layer ...

  15. The young female athlete.

    PubMed

    Hurvitz, Michal; Weiss, Ram

    2009-12-01

    Participation of adolescents and young women in strenuous sports activity may lead to various metabolic and psychological derangements of clinical relevance to the endocrinologist. The most common manifestations encountered in practice are primary and secondary amenorrhea, reduced bone mineral density and eating disorders. The occurrence of all three together has been named "the athletic triad". The underlying hormonal drivers that lead to some of these manifestations are the reduced leptin level as well as the persistent low grade stress response commonly observed in such females. "Exercise-related female reproductive dysfunction" (ERFRD), can possibly include short-term (infertility) and long-term (osteoporosis) consequences. Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, a manifestation of ERFRD in adolescence, is an integrated response to the combination of excessive physical and emotional stress, exercise, and/or reduced food intake characterized by decreased endogenous GNRH secretion. The primary aim of treating these athletes should be the prevention of the development of any component of the triad as well as the whole complex by educating athletes, trainers, parents and health care professionals about proper nutrition and safe training. The long term prognosis is good. However, significant long term morbidity may affect these young women later in life. PMID:20118893

  16. The Females Against Cancer Educational Series: A Qualitative Evaluation of Mother/ Daughter Knowledge and Perceptions of Human Papillomavirus and Its Related Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Louis-Nance, Tasha R.; Flournoy, Minnjuan W.; Clinton, Karen S.; Hightower, Krystle; Sebastian, Neethu; Wilkinson, Larrell L.; Glover, Saundra H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the knowledge, perceptions, and effectiveness of an human papillomavirus (HPV)/cervical cancer education/prevention program. Methods Approximately 50 middle and high school girls and their mothers participated in the 7-part educational series. Qualitative pre-evaluations and postevaluations were completed for every session, followed by culminating focus groups with mothers and daughters separately. Results Common themes included lack of basic knowledge about HPV and its related cancers. Additionally, mothers and daughters expressed difficulty in communicating with one another about healthy relationships; however, during the focus groups, both mothers and daughters discussed how they had utilized effective communication tools to discuss sensitive topics and make informed decisions together. Conclusions Despite recent HPV prevention campaigns, more innovative strategies must be implemented to educate more mothers and daughters of HPV and its dangers. Additionally, in educating communities about HPV and associated cancers, more innovative strategies should be mobilized to trigger discussions regarding protective behaviors against HPV. PMID:22774387

  17. African Perceptions of Female Attractiveness

    PubMed Central

    Coetzee, Vinet; Faerber, Stella J.; Greeff, Jaco M.; Lefevre, Carmen E.; Re, Daniel E.; Perrett, David I.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about mate choice preferences outside Western, educated, industrialised, rich and democratic societies, even though these Western populations may be particularly unrepresentative of human populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test which facial cues contribute to African perceptions of African female attractiveness and also the first study to test the combined role of facial adiposity, skin colour (lightness, yellowness and redness), skin homogeneity and youthfulness in the facial attractiveness preferences of any population. Results show that youthfulness, skin colour, skin homogeneity and facial adiposity significantly and independently predict attractiveness in female African faces. Younger, thinner women with a lighter, yellower skin colour and a more homogenous skin tone are considered more attractive. These findings provide a more global perspective on human mate choice and point to a universal role for these four facial cues in female facial attractiveness. PMID:23144734

  18. Living Two Lives: The Ability of Low Income African American Females in Their Quest to Break the Glass Ceiling of Education through the Ellison Model (TEM) Mentoring Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, DaVina J.

    2013-01-01

    It is often that during their academic pursuits, to become successful, low-income African-American women must learn to navigate an upstream current through higher education, where the established order in the academy is based on Western European values that often conflict with African-American values (Harper, Patton & Wooden, 2009; Phinney,…

  19. Navigating the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Pipeline: How Social Capital Impacts the Educational Attainment of College-Bound Female Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Rebecca Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of women in higher education and the workforce, they have yet to achieve parity with men in many of the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) majors and careers. The gap is even greater in the representation of women from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. This study examined pre-college intervention strategies…

  20. Education and Women's Work: Female Schooling and the Division of Labor in Urban America, 1870-1930. SUNY Series on Women and Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rury, John L.

    This study examines the development of women's secondary education in U.S. cities in the years between the Civil War and the Great Depression. Chapter 1 looks at the period between 1870 and 1900 when, through the coeducational high school, women came to share in the academic culture traditionally reserved for males. Chapter 2 looks at who went to…

  1. Problems of Female School Teachers in District Kulgam (J&K)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rashid, Ruhee; Maharashi, Santosh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find the problems of employed female school teachers in district Kulgam. Sample of 100 employed women are selected from different education institutions as 20 Rehaber e Taleem (ReT) female teachers, 40 female teachers, 20 female masters and 20 female lecturers using stratified random sampling. In this study we use…

  2. Female Empowerment in Iran: The Voice of Iranian University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fereidouni, Somayeh; Mehran, Golmar; Mansourian, Yasdan

    2015-01-01

    In line with global trends, the rate of Iranian female students' enrolment in higher education has increased. However, some policy makers have been concerned about this and without considering the female voice, they have implemented strategies to balance the labour market, which has led to a decrease in female students in certain majors. The…

  3. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Intent and Uptake among Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Divya A.; Zochowski, Melissa; Peterman, Stephanie; Dempsey, Amanda F.; Ernst, Susan; Dalton, Vanessa K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine intent and the effect of an educational intervention on vaccine uptake among female college students. Participants: Females aged 18 to 26 attending a university health service gynecology clinic (n = 256). Methods: Participants were randomized to receive either HPV-specific education with a…

  4. The Shadow Report for the "Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)" with Topics on Gender Diversity Education, Sex Education, and Female Participation in Exercise and Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li-Ching, Wang; Yu-Hsien, Tseng; Keng-Yu, Cho; Cheng-Ting, Wu; Yi-Chia, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This report primarily responds to the content of the Articles 10 and 12 regarding gender equity education in the governmental report made by the Taiwanese government in 2014 for CEDAW. In order to observe the obstacles and challenges facing gender equity education in our nation today, this report focuses on three aspects: gender diversity…

  5. Female Prisoners in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teh, Yik Koon

    2006-01-01

    This is a study on 422 female prisoners in peninsular Malaysia. More than half of the female prisoners are foreigners, mainly from Indonesia and Thailand. This study surveys the background of the respondents and identifies factors that may have influenced them to commit the offences. Female prisoners in Malaysia, particularly those who are…

  6. Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, J. V.; Withington, Charles F.

    1979-01-01

    The year 1978 marked a downward trend in geoscience education. Lobbying for geoscience education should be encouraged. Among the year's developments were the publishing of textbooks on historical geology and geomorphology. (BB)

  7. Female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Erdogan; Fynes, Michelle

    2008-02-01

    Female sexual dysfunction is a common problem with detrimental effects on woman's quality of life. It also has an economical and societal impact. It is defined as disorders of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and sexual pain, which lead to personal distress. The etiology of sexual dysfunction is frequently multifactorial as it relates to general physical and mental well-being, quality of relationship, past sexual functioning, social class, education, employment, life stressors, personality factors, the presence of a sexual partner, and partner's age and health. It is very important to adopt the most efficient approach to gather information, and this may be achieved via standardized questionnaires or open-ended questions. Therapy should be tailored according to the patient's needs and may involve a multidisciplinary team approach including psychosexual counselor/sexologist/therapist and the physician. There is still more work needed to optimize the care of women with this problem. Priority should be given to international standardization and training of health care professionals.

  8. The Female Athlete Triad.

    PubMed

    Weiss Kelly, Amanda K; Hecht, Suzanne

    2016-08-01

    The number of girls participating in sports has increased significantly since the introduction of Title XI in 1972. As a result, more girls have been able to experience the social, educational, and health-related benefits of sports participation. However, there are risks associated with sports participation, including the female athlete triad. The triad was originally recognized as the interrelationship of amenorrhea, osteoporosis, and disordered eating, but our understanding has evolved to recognize that each of the components of the triad exists on a spectrum from optimal health to disease. The triad occurs when energy intake does not adequately compensate for exercise-related energy expenditure, leading to adverse effects on reproductive, bone, and cardiovascular health. Athletes can present with a single component or any combination of the components. The triad can have a more significant effect on the health of adolescent athletes than on adults because adolescence is a critical time for bone mass accumulation. This report outlines the current state of knowledge on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the triad conditions. PMID:27432852

  9. Perspective for Female Medical Physicists (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naqvi, Syed Mansoor; Hasnain, Aziz Fatima

    2009-04-01

    Due to cultural and religious reasons, Pakistani women can be reluctant to seek medical attention for disorders affecting their genitals or breasts. As a result, in the case of cervical and breast cancers, oncological treatment is often not received until the diseases are in the late stages. Once a cancer is classified and the tumor marked, the role of the medical physicist begins. Medical physicists' responsibilities include treatment planning, supervising treatment through radiation, dosimetry, contouring, training, equipment selection, education, research, and supervising radiotherapy facilities. In brachytherapy, isotopes are placed at the tumor site in the form of wires or seeds. There are very few female medical physicists in Pakistan. This leads to further hesitation on the part of many women to seek treatment. To help female patients obtain needed medical care, female physics students should be encouraged to pursue the emerging field of medical physics. This would provide a new professional opportunity for female physics students and give comfort to female patients.

  10. The Female Gametophyte

    PubMed Central

    Drews, Gary N.; Koltunow, Anna M.G

    2011-01-01

    The angiosperm female gametophyte is critical for plant reproduction. It contains the egg cell and central cell that become fertilized and give rise to the embryo and endosperm of the seed, respectively. Female gametophyte development begins early in ovule development with the formation of a diploid megaspore mother cell that undergoes meiosis. One resulting haploid megaspore then develops into the female gametophyte. Genetic and epigenetic processes mediate specification of megaspore mother cell identity and limit megaspore mother cell formation to a single cell per ovule. Auxin gradients influence female gametophyte polarity and a battery of transcription factors mediate female gametophyte cell specification and differentiation. The mature female gametophyte secretes peptides that guide the pollen tube to the embryo sac and contains protein complexes that prevent seed development before fertilization. Post-fertilization, the female gametophyte influences seed development through maternal-effect genes and by regulating parental contributions. Female gametophytes can form by an asexual process called gametophytic apomixis, which involves formation of a diploid female gametophyte and fertilization-independent development of the egg into the embryo. These functions collectively underscore the important role of the female gametophyte in seed and food production. PMID:22303279

  11. Female feticide in India.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society.

  12. Myths and realities of female-perpetrated terrorism.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Karen; Taylor, Paul J

    2013-02-01

    The authors examined the backgrounds and social experiences of female terrorists to test conflicting accounts of the etiology of this offending group. Data on 222 female terrorists and 269 male terrorists were examined across 8 variables: age at first involvement, educational achievement, employment status, immigration status, marital status, religious conversion, criminal activity, and activist connections. The majority of female terrorists were found to be single, young (<35 years old), native, employed, educated to at least secondary level, and rarely involved in criminality. Compared with their male counterparts, female terrorists were equivalent in age, immigration profile, and role played in terrorism, but they were more likely to have a higher education attainment, less likely to be employed, and less likely to have prior activist connections. The results clarify the myths and realities of female-perpetrated terrorism and suggest that the risk factors associated with female involvement are distinct from those associated with male involvement.

  13. Female competition in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Pusey, Anne E; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara

    2013-01-01

    Female chimpanzees exhibit exceptionally slow rates of reproduction and raise their offspring without direct paternal care. Therefore, their reproductive success depends critically on long-term access to high-quality food resources over a long lifespan. Chimpanzee communities contain multiple adult males, multiple adult females and their offspring. Because males are philopatric and jointly defend the community range while most females transfer to new communities before breeding, adult females are typically surrounded by unrelated competitors. Communities are fission-fusion societies in which individuals spend time alone or in fluid subgroups, whose size depends mostly on the abundance and distribution of food. To varying extents in different populations, females avoid direct competition by foraging alone or in small groups in distinct, but overlapping core areas within the community range to which they show high fidelity. Although rates of aggression are low, females compete for space and access to food. High rank correlates with high reproductive success, and high-ranking females win direct contests for food and gain preferential access to resource-rich sites. Females are aggressive to immigrant females and even kill the newborn infants of community members. The intensity of such aggression correlates with population density. These patterns are compared to those in other species, including humans.

  14. Changing gender roles of Egyptian females.

    PubMed

    Gulick, J

    1985-01-01

    A high population growth rate in the Middle East is prompting investigators to look for cultural conditions and attitudes that can be encouraged to facilitate lower fertility rates. Population researchers find an inverse relationship between the educational level of females and their fertility, especially in Third World countries. This suggests that education can become an internal cultural mechanism for population control. The author explores this notion using data collected from interviews with 750 teenage girls and their mothers in Cairo, Egypt.

  15. Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Felicity

    2011-01-01

    This book will be an original and indispensable resource for all who believe in the importance of art in the wider educational realm. Framing the recent "educational turn" in the arts within a broad historical and social context, this anthology raises fundamental questions about how and what should be taught in an era of distributive rather than…

  16. [Female sexual disorders nowadays].

    PubMed

    Rajtman, Marta

    2013-01-01

    This article makes a brief overview of the most frequent female sexual disorders seen in our clinical practice. It highlights the increasing number of women presenting with hypoactive sexual desire and the efforts practitioners put on helping these female patients. The article also shows the pharmacological strategies that are investigated to solve these dysfuntions. PMID:24260752

  17. [Female sexual disorders nowadays].

    PubMed

    Rajtman, Marta

    2013-01-01

    This article makes a brief overview of the most frequent female sexual disorders seen in our clinical practice. It highlights the increasing number of women presenting with hypoactive sexual desire and the efforts practitioners put on helping these female patients. The article also shows the pharmacological strategies that are investigated to solve these dysfuntions.

  18. The Female Athlete Triad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Roberta Trattner; Thompson, Ron A.

    2004-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a syndrome of the interrelated components of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Sometimes inadvertently, but more often by willful dietary restriction, many female athletes do not ingest sufficient calories to adequately fuel their physical or sport activities, which can disrupt menstrual functioning,…

  19. Female Athletes and Performance-Enhancer Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fralinger, Barbara K.; Pinto-Zipp, Genevieve; Olson, Valerie; Simpkins, Susan

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a knowledge base on factors associated with performance-enhancer usage among female athletes at the high school level in order to identify markers for a future prevention-education program. The study used a pretest-only, between-subjects Likert Scale survey to rank the importance of internal and external…

  20. The female athlete.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, D L; Wiggins, M E

    1997-10-01

    Women's participation in sporting activities is now diverse with new opportunities arising yearly. As a result, care of the the female athlete's unique medical concerns has become an important challenge and issue to the primary care physician. The major focus when caring for the female athlete should be the diagnosis and treatment of the female athlete triad. The components of the triad--disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis--can have serious implications for the health of the female athlete. Appropriate prevention and screening methods for early diagnosis of the female athlete triad require future study and improvement. Healthy pregnant, postpartum, and breastfeeding women can continue to maintain physical activity. Musculoskeletal injuries from sports are, in general, not gender specific but are more often sport specific. One exception is the increased prevalence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries occurring in women soccer and basketball players. The exact cause of this is unknown but is continuing to be investigated.

  1. Pathways to Teaching: An Examination of Black Females' Pursuits of Careers as K-12 Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farinde, Abiola A.; LeBlanc, Jennifer K.; Otten, Amanda S.

    2015-01-01

    White, female, middle-class teachers dominate the education field. As a result, Black female teachers are underrepresented in the teaching field. Statistically, Black female teachers represent 7.7% of the United States teaching force, while White female teachers make up over 60% of the American teaching workforce. With the aim of diversifying the…

  2. Urban female teenagers' perceptions of medical communication.

    PubMed

    Clowers, M

    2000-01-01

    Although it is clear that health care must be age-appropriate to be effective, little is known about the care-related preferences of adolescent females. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine teenagers' preferences in regard to medical communication, so that care providers in a number of disciplines can make their interactions with young females more satisfactory and successful. Specifically, examples of female teenagers' best and worst encounters with physicians are reported. It was found that female teenagers prefer physicians who comfort, use humor, are understanding, and explain procedures. Physicians who rush, behave rudely, or are "too personal" are viewed negatively. It was concluded that relational communication skill development must be a priority of educators and service providers if caregiving is to be maximized with this important patient group.

  3. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences. PMID:26759415

  4. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences.

  5. Ideal female brow aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Garrett R; Kim, Jennifer C

    2013-01-01

    The concept of the ideal female eyebrow has changed over time. Modern studies examining youthful brow aesthetics are reviewed. An analysis of ideal female brow characteristics as depicted in the Western print media between 1945 and 2011 was performed. This analysis provided objective evidence that the ideal youthful brow peak has migrated laterally over time to lie at the lateral canthus. There has been a nonstatistically significant trend toward lower and flatter brows. These findings are discussed in relation to current concepts of female brow aging, with repercussions regarding endoscopic brow lift and aesthetic forehead surgery.

  6. Inbreeding promotes female promiscuity.

    PubMed

    Michalczyk, Łukasz; Millard, Anna L; Martin, Oliver Y; Lumley, Alyson J; Emerson, Brent C; Chapman, Tracey; Gage, Matthew J G

    2011-09-23

    The widespread phenomenon of polyandry (mating by females with multiple males) is an evolutionary puzzle, because females can sustain costs from promiscuity, whereas full fertility can be provided by a single male. Using the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, we identify major fitness benefits of polyandry to females under inbreeding, when the risks of fertilization by incompatible male haplotypes are especially high. Fifteen generations after inbred populations had passed through genetic bottlenecks, we recorded increased levels of female promiscuity compared with noninbred controls, most likely due to selection from prospective fitness gains through polyandry. These data illustrate how this common mating pattern can evolve if population genetic bottlenecks increase the risks of fitness depression due to fertilization by sperm carrying genetically incompatible haplotypes.

  7. Female pattern baldness

    MedlinePlus

    Alopecia in women; Baldness - female; Hair loss in women; Androgenetic alopecia in women; Hereditary balding or thinning in women ... male hormones). For example, after reaching menopause , many women find that the hair on their head is ...

  8. Female Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be fertilized by sperm, provide a favorable environment for the developing fetus , move the fetus to the outside at the end of the development period, and produce the female sex hormones. The ...

  9. [Comments on female homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Honsberg, L

    1989-03-01

    The author explores to what extent the first gender-identical love between mother and daughter shapes female self representation and becomes influential for later homosexual relations among women. Literary examples and case vignettes illustrate the connection. PMID:2652196

  10. Female Pattern Alopecia

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cyproterone acetate (not available in the US). Finasteride, also an oral medication, is approved for male ... show no effect for female pattern hair loss. Finasteride, spironolactone, and cyproterone should not be used in ...

  11. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    PubMed

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.

  12. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    PubMed

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups. PMID:21976624

  13. "Commendable Progress": Acculturation at the Cherokee Female Seminary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Devon

    1987-01-01

    Details the role of the Cherokee Female Seminary, established in 1851, in facilitating Cherokee acculturation. Describes educational philosophy and influence of A. Florence Wilson, principal for 26 years. Discusses curriculum, daily schedule, discipline, social events, religious influence. (NEC)

  14. Female urbanward migration and human resource issues.

    PubMed

    Zosa-feranil, I

    1990-01-01

    Of those migrating to urban centers in the Philippines, a disproportionate number of them are young females, most of whom end up working in the service sector. Between 1975-80, 1.3 million people migrated to urban centers, 56% of whom were females. Furthermore, a 1980 census indicates that 13% of all urban migrants were females age 15-19, and almost 1/4 of them were women in their 20s. Figures also show that single females make up a substantial portion of the urban migrants. Compared to the men migrating into the cities, the female urban migrants had lower educational attainments. Many of uneducated migrants do not integrate as easily, and are relegated to the periphery of urban centers. The search for employment serves as the driving force for urban migration, and in fact, the level of female participation in the workforce is high. But while male migrants work mostly as craftsmen or in the production sector, most female migrants work in the service sector. This category includes domestic workers, laundry women, cooks and waitresses, hospitality girls, and prostitutes. Generally attracting single, young females, the service sector has easy entry, which helps explain the high rate of female employment. The author explains that this trend is cause for concern, considering that the number of people involved is large, that the service sector provides low earning, and that it lends itself to the exploitation of the workers. Nonetheless, the author says that the migration pattern might only be transitory, and the urban migration might be a liberating process for women, but explains that further research is needed concerning the upward mobility of urban migrants.

  15. How Culture Affects Female Inequality across Countries: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Hoi Yan; Chan, Alex W. H.

    2007-01-01

    Many studies have commented that culture has an influence on gender inequality. However, few studies have provided data that could be used to investigate how culture actually influences female inequality. One of the aims of this study is to investigate whether Hofstede's cultural dimensions have an impact on female inequality in education in terms…

  16. Preferences of Male and Female Students for TSA Competitive Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitts, Charles R.; Haynie, W. J., III

    2010-01-01

    Arguably a major issue facing technology education (TE) since its inception has been its failure to attract and keep female students. This article explains one primary reason female students may be avoiding TE courses, presents a research-tested set of tools that TE teachers can use to help fix the problem, and offers a new realizable pathway…

  17. Female Superintendents, Barriers, and the Struggle for Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCreight, Carolyn

    This report examines the status of female superintendents in the United States. Women comprise 70 percent of all teachers in the United States, but men continue to dominate educational administration, particularly the superintendency. A 1999 survey revealed that females hold 20 percent of top school-executive positions and that there remain many…

  18. Leadership and Strategic Choices: Female Professors in Australia and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkanli, Ozlem; White, Kate

    2008-01-01

    This study explores leadership styles and gender in higher education (HE) by examining representation of female professors in Australian and Turkish universities and identifying barriers to achieving seniority. The paper explores factors, including leadership styles, which explain the higher representation of female professors in Turkey, despite…

  19. Phenotypic Involvement in Females with the FMR1 Gene Mutation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, J. E.; Cheema, A.; Sobesky, W. E.; Gardner, S. C.; Taylor, A. K.; Pennington, B. F.; Hagerman, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated phenotypic effects seen in 114 females with premutation and 41 females (ages 18-58) with full Fragile X mental retardation gene mutation. Those with the full mutation had a greater incidence of hand-flapping, eye contact problems, special education help for reading and math, and grade retention. (Author/CR)

  20. A Community College Program Serving Female Displaced Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Ruth

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the Bunker Hill Community College program designed to draw on the experience of female dislocated workers. Discusses the types of women this program serves. Provides an example of each type of woman. Discusses the enormous employment problems of dislocated female workers and how education might help them overcome these difficulties. (JS)

  1. Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Short descriptions of NSF support for the State University of New York computer network, one year trial of educational materials from the United Kingdom's Open University, A Dartmouth course on control of life, Stanford action on a course on dysgenics, and a bioengineering program at Texas A&M. (TS)

  2. Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coash, John R.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights various issues/trends in geology/earth science education. These include financial support, teacher salaries, teacher supply (indicating decline in numbers of faculty going from academic to industry), audiovisual aids, geology/earth science publications, minority programs, industry support, and support of geology/earth science education…

  3. Female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees. PMID:8400925

  4. Female athlete triad update.

    PubMed

    Beals, Katherine A; Meyer, Nanna L

    2007-01-01

    The passage of Title IX legislation in 1972 provided enormous opportunities for women to reap the benefits of sports participation. For most female athletes, sports participation is a positive experience, providing improved physical fitness, enhanced self-esteem, and better physical and mental health. Nonetheless, for a few female athletes, the desire for athletic success combined with the pressure to achieve a prescribed body weight may lead to the development of a triad of medical disorders including disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density (BMD)--known collectively as the female athlete triad. Alone or in combination, the disorders of the triad can have a negative impact on health and impair athletic performance.

  5. The female athlete triad.

    PubMed

    Horn, Elizabeth; Gergen, Nicole; McGarry, Kelly A

    2014-11-01

    The female athlete triad is a spectrum of interrelated pathophysiologic consequences of low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. Components of the triad are not only counterproductive to athletic performance goals, but can lead to serious long-term negative health outcomes. Practitioners caring for female athletes play an important role detecting at-risk athletes early in their course along the disease spectrum. Importantly, women who are evaluated for one component of the triad should always be screened for the other two. Detecting the disorder early is the most important factor for preventing the potentially severe consequences, and requires heightened vigilance on the part of all those who work with this special patient population. In this article, we discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, evaluation, and management of the female athlete triad. PMID:25365814

  6. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Dimitrios; Lazaridou, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss, or female pattern androgenetic alopecia, is a nonscarring alopecia with a multi-factorial etiology that mostly affects postmenopausal women and is characterized by a reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp. The clinical picture is characterized by a diffuse rarefaction of scalp hair over the mid-frontal scalp and a more-or-less intact frontal hairline without any signs of inflammation or scarring. Although the disease poses only a cosmetic concern, it is chronic and may have a significant negative psychological impact on the affected person. The aim of treating female pattern hair loss is to reduce hair loss and, to a certain extent, succeed in promoting hair regrowth. Various treatment methods are available, but it remains unclear which are the most effective. Early initiation of treatment and the combination of various modalities seem to be more efficacious than monotherapy. PMID:26370643

  7. [Specificity of female unemployment].

    PubMed

    Saint-pierre, M H

    1985-10-01

    The author develops the argument that "female unemployment should not be tackled in the same way as male unemployment because women's situation within the family and in the labor market is different. The author proposes a new vision of female unemployment, taking into account the dialectical situation experienced by women because of their double role, in the sphere of reproduction as well as in the sphere of economic production." The primary geographic focus is on the situation in Quebec. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  8. Female hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Unger, Robin H

    2013-08-01

    Female hair loss is a devastating issue for women that has only relatively recently been publicly acknowledged as a significant problem. Hair transplant surgery is extremely successful in correcting the most cosmetically problematic areas of alopecia. This article discusses the surgical technique of hair transplantation in women in detail, including pearls to reduce postoperative sequelae and planning strategies to ensure a high degree of patient satisfaction. A brief overview of some of the medical treatments found to be helpful in slowing or reversing female pattern hair loss is included, addressing the available hormonal and topical treatments.

  9. Female genital actinomycosis.

    PubMed

    Beedham, T; Ellice, R; Smith, H; Usherwood, M M

    1979-10-01

    Four cases of female genital actinomycosis are added to the reported total of about 300. The relationship of the disease to the normal microbial flora, intrauterine contraceptive device usage and pelvic sepsis is explored. It is suggested that the disease may be more frequent than hitherto realized.

  10. Functional female pelvic anatomy.

    PubMed

    Klutke, C G; Siegel, C L

    1995-08-01

    This article reviews important aspects of female pelvic anatomy with particular emphasis on the structures important for pelvic organ support and urinary control. The pelvis and supporting structures, the pelvic floor, and the relationships of the pelvic organs are described and illustrated by MR imaging.

  11. Growing up Female.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecroyd, Catherine Ann

    1989-01-01

    Claims that too many authors of young adult fiction do not use females in the main character roles. Provides examples of novels which are written by women and focus on a girl's coming of age, without falling back on stereotypes. (MG)

  12. Female Physicist Doctoral Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why…

  13. The female athlete.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, K E

    1998-05-01

    Although there are many similarities between men and women involved in sport activities, certain issues are unique to the female athlete. This article presents and brings to light some of the more important concerns that are specific to women engaged in sports. PMID:9626483

  14. Understanding the Female Offender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Although boys engage in more delinquent and criminal acts than do girls, female delinquency is on the rise. In 1980, boys were four times as likely as girls to be arrested; today they are only twice as likely to be arrested. In this article, the author explores how the juvenile justice system is and should be responding to the adolescent female…

  15. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    PubMed Central

    Herskovitz, Ingrid; Tosti, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    Context: Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) also known as female androgenetic alopecia is a common condition afflicting millions of women that can be cosmetically disrupting. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for obtaining optimal outcome. This review addresses the clinical presentation of female pattern hair loss, its differential diagnosis and treatment modalities. Evidence Acquisition: A) Diffuse thinning of the crown region with preservation of the frontal hairline (Ludwig’s type) B) The “Christmas tree pattern” where the thinning is wider in the frontal scalp giving the alopecic area a triangular shaped figure resembling a christmas tree. C) Thinning associated with bitemporal recession (Hamilton type). Generally, FPHL is not associated with elevated androgens. Less commonly females with FPHL may have other skin or general signs of hyperandrogenism such as hirsutism, acne, irregular menses, infertility, galactorrhea and insulin resistance. The most common endocrinological abnormality associated with FPHL is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Results: The most important diseases to consider in the differential diagnosis of FPHL include Chronic Telogen Effluvium (CTE), Permanent Alopecia after Chemotherapy (PAC), Alopecia Areata Incognito (AAI) and Frontal Fibrosing Alopecia (FFA). This review describes criteria for distinguishing these conditions from FPHL. Conclusions: The only approved treatment for FPHL, which is 2% topical Minoxidil, should be applied at the dosage of 1ml twice day for a minimum period of 12 months. This review will discuss off-label alternative modalities of treatment including 5-alfa reductase inhibitors, antiandrogens, estrogens, prostaglandin analogs, lasers, light treatments and hair transplantation. PMID:24719635

  16. Perceptual Characteristics of Female Voices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batstone, Susan; Tuomi, Seppo K.

    1981-01-01

    Male and females listeners rated 21 young female voices on seven scales representing unique vocal features. Voices were described as "passive", or traditionally female, and "active," characterized as "lively,""colorful," and "sexy." Females found active characteristics more salient; males preferred the passive characteristics. Implications for…

  17. Nutrition Knowledge among Adolescent High School Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Patricia; Toma, Ramses B.; Tuveson, Richard V.; Jacob, Mary

    1997-01-01

    Evaluates the effectiveness of a sports nutrition education program in changing the nutrition behavior of females (N=72) on high school varsity softball teams. Pretests indicated no significant difference in nutrition knowledge between experimental and control groups. However, following nutrition education, significant differences in nutrition…

  18. The Role Model Effect on Gender Equity: How are Female College Students Influenced by Female Teaching Assistants in Science?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Darilyn

    The gender gap of women in science is an important and unresolved issue in higher education and occupational opportunities. The present study was motivated by the fact that there are typically fewer females than males advancing in science, and therefore fewer female science instructor role models. This observation inspired the questions: Are female college students influenced in a positive way by female science teaching assistants (TAs), and if so how can their influence be measured? The study tested the hypothesis that female TAs act as role models for female students and thereby encourage interest and increase overall performance. To test this "role model" hypothesis, the reasoning ability and self-efficacy of a sample of 724 introductory college biology students were assessed at the beginning and end of the Spring 2010 semester. Achievement was measured by exams and course work. Performance of four randomly formed groups was compared: 1) female students with female TAs, 2) male students with female TAs, 3) female students with male TAs, and 4) male students with male TAs. Based on the role model hypothesis, female students with female TAs were predicted to perform better than female students with male TAs. However, group comparisons revealed similar performances across all four groups in achievement, reasoning ability and self-efficacy. The slight differences found between the four groups in student exam and coursework scores were not statistically significant. Therefore, the results did not support the role model hypothesis. Given that both lecture professors in the present study were males, and given that professors typically have more teaching experience, finer skills and knowledge of subject matter than do TAs, a future study that includes both female science professors and female TAs, may be more likely to find support for the hypothesis.

  19. Physical therapy for female pelvic floor disorders.

    PubMed

    Bourcier, A P

    1994-08-01

    Non-surgical, non-pharmacological treatment for female pelvic floor dysfunction is represented by rehabilitation in urogynecology. Since Kegel, in 1948, who proposed the concept of functional restoration of the perineal muscles, no specific term has actually been established. Owing to the number of specialists involved in the management of female pelvic floor disorders (such as gynecologists, urologists, coloproctologists, and neurologists) and the different types of health care providers concerned (such as physicians, physical therapists, nurses, and midwives), it is difficult to make the proper choice between 'physical therapy for pelvic floor', 'pelvic floor rehabilitation', 'pelvic muscle re-education', and 'pelvic floor training'. Because muscle re-education is under the control of physical therapists, we have chosen the term of physical therapy for female pelvic floor disorders. Muscle re-education has an important role in the primary treatment of lower urinary tract dysfunction. A multidisciplinary collaboration may be of particular interest, and a thorough evaluation is useful for a proper selection of patients.

  20. The Influence of an After School Single Gender Literacy Community on the Early-Adolescent Female's Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Brown, Jibby L.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the research of the 20th and 21st centuries, the ability to sustain voice in our adolescent females continues to present a concern. This qualitative study in educational and literacy research uncovers an educational framework that can strengthen the voice of adolescent females by using non-traditional methods and female preferred learning…

  1. [The role of female veterinarians in Africa].

    PubMed

    Balogh, K K

    2000-01-01

    While the number of female veterinary students has reached figures as over 80% in the Netherlands and other European countries, the number of female veterinary students in Africa is also changing but still at a slower pace. Still nowadays, according to UNICEF, two-thirds of primary school age children, denied their right to basic education, are girls. In addition, especially in rural areas in Africa, there are only few secondary schools, so that children, either have to travel over large distances on a daily basis or have to live away from their families. As girls, already from an early age play an important role in the daily household routine, they are often not allowed to leave for schooling. There used to be less than 10 veterinary faculties in Africa during the first half of the 20th century. These faculties were located in South Africa, Sudan, Egypt and Nigeria. For many years, African veterinarians were also trained in western countries (UK, France, USA) or in former communist countries (Russia, Ukraine, Romania, Hungary Eastern Germany, Cuba) depending on the existence of historic or political links. A long stay abroad made it more difficult for female students, especially for those with children. Still nowadays, female veterinarians in Africa are mostly working for the veterinary departments mainly in the urban areas. Another area where many female veterinarians can be found are governmental diagnostic and research laboratories as well as training institutions such as veterinary faculties or agricultural colleges. Generally the salaries at these institutions are very low and therefore their male colleagues have gradually shifted to work in the private sector with more competitive salaries (private clinics, sector pharmaceutical companies, development projects, (agricultural) banks, etc). As still in most societies, women tend to follow their husbands, most female veterinarians are bound to find employment where their husbands are based. In addition, as most

  2. Sex-Role Change, Anomie and Female Suicide: A Test of Alternative Durkheimian Explanations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Roy L; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Used trend analysis of suicide rate and female/male suicide ratios from 1950 to 1984 and regression of ratio on educational attainment, labor force participation, fertility, and divorce rates to examine explanations for rate changes. General anomie explanation of female suicide trends was supported for middle-aged females; conjugal anomie…

  3. The Effectiveness of a Female Condom Intervention on Women's Use of Condoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardwick, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated a female condom promotion intervention for socioeconomically disadvantaged women at high risk for sexually transmitted diseases and HIV who had never used female condoms. Pre- and postintervention surveys indicated that providing education and counseling, along with unlimited quantities of male condoms, female condoms, and water-based…

  4. An Exploratory Study of Female Master of Divinity Students in a Conservative West Coast Evangelical Seminary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemen, Valerie A.

    2009-01-01

    Issues surrounding female participation in graduate theological education are complex and multifaceted. One important problem concerning female theological students is the lack of research exploring the experiences and unique challenges faced by conservative evangelical female Master of Divinity (M. Div.) students as they pursue academic and…

  5. The lot of female child in an economically weaker society.

    PubMed

    Grover, V L; Roy, S N

    1990-01-01

    The study aim was to determine the demographic profile of female children 0-14 years old living in urban slums in Delhi, India. The sample included 1680 slum dwellers in 386 households, of whom 733 were children 0-14 years old. The sex ratio of the sample population was 900 females per 1000 males, compared to the national ratio of 933 females per 1000 males. The sample population included 796 females and 884 males. The sex ratio among children 0-14 years old in the sample was 960 females per 1000 males. School enrollment of children 5-14 years old numbered 232 (50.4%): 46% males and 27.5% females. The lower enrollment of females in slum areas compared to the national average was attributed to the greater participation of young girls in domestic work. 22% of children 0-14 years old were married. The infant mortality rate was 143.2/1000 live births. The crude death rate was 19.64/1000 population, which was 150% higher than the national rate. Female mortality among those 0-6 years old was higher than male mortality; after 6 years of age, male mortality was higher. The study revealed the needs of female children in urban slum areas of India. Government and voluntary agencies must work together in the areas of social work, nutrition, education, health among the poor urban female population in India. PMID:12346029

  6. "The Road Less Traveled": The Female's Journey to the State Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner-Anderson, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have emerged over the past several decades attempting to pinpoint potential factors for occupational inequity and inequality for prospective and current female educational leaders. Although women are increasingly obtaining leadership positions in the field, one position remains elusive to the aspiring female educational leader:…

  7. Career Pathways of Female High School Principals in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Tiffany Harris

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify the career pathways of female high school principals for women pursuing a career in educational leadership and female leaders interested in obtaining executive level leadership positions. Despite increased enrollment and of women in educational leadership programs, leadership certification programs, and…

  8. Female-female aggression and female mate choice on black grouse leks.

    PubMed

    Karvonen; Rintamäki; Alatalo

    2000-05-01

    We studied female-female aggression in relation to female mate choice in black grouse, Tetrao tetrix, in central Finland, in 1994-1998. Aggression occurred on average every other minute when there was more than one female on a territory, and aggressive behaviour was most prominent when several females attended the lek. Interactions tended to be proportionally most frequent on the territories of the highest-ranking males, although not significantly so. Females that were chased by other females did not mate with lower-ranking males than their aggressors did. Furthermore, chased females were only rarely (6% of cases) forced to move off the territory by agonistic interactions and copulations were disrupted by other females even less often (3% of cases). The choice of a mating territory did not depend on the outcome of aggression even though the aggressors were more likely to mate on the territory where aggression occurred than elsewhere. There was a marginally significant tendency for aggressors to mate earlier in the season. Females placed themselves further away from other females on the territory when soliciting a copulation than just before aggression. Our results suggest that aggression between females does not effectively constrain female choice in black grouse. Its function may be to aid females to secure undisturbed mating opportunities for themselves rather than to prevent others from mating with a particular male. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  9. Female-pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Female-pattern baldness is a pattern of hair loss (alopecia) caused by hormones, aging and genetics. Unlike male-pattern baldness, female-pattern baldness is an over-all thinning which maintains the normal ...

  10. A Pilot Study of Alcohol and Cigarette Consumption among Adolescent and Young Adult Females Attending Health Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; Dunn, Michael; Woods, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Examines the alcohol and cigarette use patterns of adolescent and young adult female patients (N=246). Results indicate that smoking differences between Whites and Blacks was inversely related to education: less-educated Whites and more-educated Blacks had a greater smoking risk. Conclusions show females' differential needs regarding alcohol and…

  11. Hiring and Recruiting Female Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Jaime; Bers, Trudy

    2010-01-01

    Community colleges are generally more inclusive to female faculty as compared to four-year institutions. Women represent 49 percent of fulltime and 50 percent of part-time community college faculty, a stark contrast to the low numbers of female faculty in four-year institutions. Female faculty at community colleges also receive similar rates of…

  12. Duality of female employment in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kazi, S; Raza, B

    1991-01-01

    The trends in the level and pattern of women's employment in Pakistan in terms of supply and demand factors which influence women's participation in the labor market are discussed. Women's labor participation is underestimated in official sources such as the Labor Force Survey (LFS) and the Population Census. Figures which were obtained from micro level surveys and the Agricultural Census, show the duality of employment at the top and bottom socioeconomically. LFS data show the female share of the professional work force to have risen from 15.5% to 18.3% between 1984-95 and 1987-88, which translates to 33% of teachers and 25% of physicians being women. Urban female participation rates have increased only slightly from 3 to 5% between 1971 and 72 and 1987-88, based on LFS data, while informal sector surveys have shown an increase of workers who are women who have never worked before in the formal sector. In manufacturing, the female work force remains low at 5% in factories in the Punjab and Sindh, but only 20% were in regular employment compared with 50% of men. Agricultural work on the family farm has increased from 35% in 1972 and 42% in 1980. Increases are also shown in more recent LF surveys. Constraints on both male and female employment are the recent (1978-79 and 1986-87) shift to capital investment in agriculture with tubewells and tractors and in manufacturing. Women's movement into agriculture may be precipitated by men's out migration to urban areas or the Gulf region into other nonfarm occupations. In manufacturing there is exploitation of workers through low overhead costs of temporary or part time help. Supply constraints for women involve cultural restrictions, household responsibilities, and low levels of education and skills. Women enter the work force out of financial need. Data on female-headed households are scarce, but a Karachi survey finds that most female-headed households belong to the poorest strata and women work when family size

  13. Taekwondo training and fitness in female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Bae; Stebbins, Charles L; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong-Kook

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we determined the specificity of a low frequency taekwondo training programme on physical fitness levels in adolescent females who receive limited physical education instruction (i.e. 2 days per week). Major components of physical fitness assessed were: skeletal muscle fitness (hand grip strength, bent arm hang, standing long jump, and isokinetic strength), flexibility (sit-and-reach test), speed and agility (10 × 5-m shuttle run), and cardiovascular fitness (VO(2max) and 20-m shuttle run). Changes in body composition were also assessed (dual X-ray absorptiometry, DXA). Participants were divided into two groups, a taekwondo training group (n = 21), which trained 50 min a day, 2 days per week for 12 weeks, and a control group (n = 10). Taekwondo training improved isokinetic strength, standing long jump, and sit-and-reach performance. Body fat mass and percent body fat were reduced. No changes in grip strength, bent arm hang time, speed and agility, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed. Results indicate that low frequency taekwondo training in adolescent females produces beneficial changes in skeletal muscle fitness, flexibility, and body composition in a relatively short period of time. Consequently, this specific type of training can be useful to female adolescents in structured school environments where physical education classes are limited and there is little free time for physical activity.

  14. Ritual genital cutting of female minors.

    PubMed

    Davis, Dena S

    2010-05-01

    The traditional custom of ritual cutting and alteration of the genitalia of female infants, children, and adolescents, referred to as female genital mutilation or female genital cutting (FGC), persists primarily in Africa and among certain communities in the Middle East and Asia. Immigrants in the United States from areas in which FGC is common may have daughters who have undergone a ritual genital procedure or may request that such a procedure be performed by a physician. The American Academy of Pediatrics believes that pediatricians and pediatric surgical specialists should be aware that this practice has life-threatening health risks for children and women. The American Academy of Pediatrics opposes all types of female genital cutting that pose risks of physical or psychological harm, counsels its members not to perform such procedures, recommends that its members actively seek to dissuade families from carrying out harmful forms of FGC, and urges its members to provide patients and their parents with compassionate education about the harms of FGC while remaining sensitive to the cultural and religious reasons that motivate parents to seek this procedure for their daughters.

  15. Bayer Facts of Science Education XV: A View from the Gatekeepers--STEM Department Chairs at America's Top 200 Research Universities on Female and Underrepresented Minority Undergraduate STEM Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Science Education and Technology, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Diversity and the underrepresentation of women, African-Americans, Hispanics and American Indians in the nation's science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields are the subjects of the XV: A View from the Gatekeepers--STEM Department Chairs at America's Top 200 Research Universities on Female and Underrepresented Minority…

  16. Is it abuse? Deaf female undergraduates' labeling of partner violence.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Melissa L; Kobek Pezzarossi, Caroline M

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated the labeling of abuse experiences in a sample of 97 Deaf female undergraduate students, exploring the following questions: What is the prevalence of violent behaviors experienced by Deaf female undergraduates in their past-year relationships, what proportion of these relationships are identified as "abuse," and what scripts and strategies do Deaf female undergraduates utilize to label their experiences of partner violence? Results indicated that over half of the sample chose not to label past-year experiences of psychological aggression, physical assault, and sexual coercion as abuse, even when these experiences included severe violence. Implications for the Deaf education system will be discussed. PMID:22140216

  17. Cyberspace violence against girls and adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, June F

    2006-11-01

    Children and adolescents today are the first generation raised in a society in which technological literacy is essential for effective citizenship in the 21st century. With many more youth using digital technologies for educational and recreational purposes, there has been an increase in social problems in cyberspace, exposing them to different forms of cyberviolence. This article gives an overview of the developments in cyberspace, describes different types of cyberviolence, and focuses on cyberbullying among girls and adolescent females as both victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. At-risk online activities among girls and adolescent females as well as strategies to promote cybersafety are presented. Current research and future directions for research are reviewed. PMID:17189499

  18. The effects of contraception on female poverty.

    PubMed

    Browne, Stephanie P; LaLumia, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Poverty rates are particularly high among households headed by single women, and childbirth is often the event preceding these households' poverty spells. This paper examines the relationship between legal access to the birth control pill and female poverty. We rely on exogenous cross-state variation in the year in which oral contraception became legally available to young, single women. Using census data from 1960 to 1990, we find that having legal access to the birth control pill by age 20 significantly reduces the probability that a woman is subsequently in poverty. We estimate that early legal access to oral contraception reduces female poverty by 0.5 percentage points, even when controlling for completed education, employment status, and household composition.

  19. Female condom uptake and acceptability in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Napierala, Sue; Kang, Mi-Suk; Chipato, Tsungai; Padian, Nancy; van der Straten, Ariane

    2008-04-01

    As the first phase of a two-phase prospective cohort study to assess the acceptability of the diaphragm as a potential HIV/STI prevention method, we conducted a 2-month prospective study and examined the effect of a male and female condom intervention on female condom (FC) use among 379 sexually active women in Harare, Zimbabwe. Reported use of FC increased from 1.1% at baseline to 70.6% at 2-month follow-up. Predictors of FC uptake immediately following the intervention included interest in using FC, liking FC better than male condoms, and believing one could use them more consistently than male condoms. Women reported 28.8% of sex acts protected by FC in the 2 weeks prior to last study visit. Though FC may not be the preferred method for the majority of women, with access, proper education, and promotion they may be a valuable option for some Zimbabwean women. PMID:18433318

  20. Promoting peer acceptance of females with higher-functioning autism in a mainstream education setting: a replication and extension of the effects of an autism anti-stigma program.

    PubMed

    Ranson, Natalia J; Byrne, Mitchell K

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of an eight-session female higher-functioning autism anti-stigma program on the knowledge, attitudes and behavioural intentions of adolescent girls. Participants were seventh-, eighth- and ninth-grade students (N = 273) in a mainstream school. Two-eighth-grade classes were randomly allocated to the intervention condition. The remaining students were either allocated to the no-intervention peer or no-intervention non-peer condition. The anti-stigma program positively influenced knowledge, attitudes and to a lesser extent behavioural intentions towards peers with higher-functioning autism within the intervention condition. Some degree of attitudinal improvement occurred across all conditions following the program suggesting some spill over effects. Overall, findings provide preliminary evidence supporting the efficacy of an anti-stigma program tailored to support females with higher-functioning autism.

  1. Melatonin and female reproduction.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Akihisa; Taketani, Toshiaki; Tanabe, Manabu; Lee, Lifa; Tamura, Isao; Maekawa, Ryo; Aasada, Hiromi; Yamagata, Yoshiaki; Sugino, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is secreted during the dark hours at night by the pineal gland. After entering the circulation, melatonin acts as an endocrine factor and a chemical messenger of light and darkness. It regulates a variety of important central and peripheral actions related to circadian rhythms and reproduction. It also affects the brain, immune, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal, bone and endocrine functions and acts as an oncostatic and anti-aging molecule. Many of melatonin's actions are mediated through interactions with specific membrane-bound receptors expressed not only in the central nervous system, but also in peripheral tissues. Melatonin also acts through non-receptor-mediated mechanisms, for example serving as a scavenger for reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. At both physiological and pharmacological concentrations, melatonin attenuates and counteracts oxidative stress and regulates cellular metabolism. Growing scientific evidence of reproductive physiology supports the role of melatonin in human reproduction. This review was conducted to investigate the effects of melatonin on female reproduction and to summarize our findings in this field.

  2. Nurturing and Individuation in Female/Female Therapy Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Sandra Beth

    As therapy relationships between female therapists and female clients become more prevalent, there is a need to address the attributes of these relationships. Psychoanalytic object relations theory and feminist theory can be used to arrive at a meaningful context for viewing the dimension of intimacy. Psychoanalytic literature on the mother/infant…

  3. Female Sexual Arousal in Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S.

    2010-01-01

    Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal. PMID:20816968

  4. Female sexual arousal in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S

    2011-05-01

    Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal.

  5. A Qualitative Study of African-American Female Administrators in the Academy: Identification of Characteristics That Contribute to Their Advancement to Senior Level Positions of Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander-Lee, Mary Louise

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative study explored the (a) self-identity and individual experiences of five African American female higher education administrators, (b) educational and background preparedness of each African American female administrator, (c) individual support mechanisms of each African American female administrator, (i.e., mentoring, community and…

  6. Female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Singal, Archana; Sonthalia, Sidharth; Verma, Prashant

    2013-01-01

    Female pattern hair loss (FPHL) is a common cause of hair loss in women characterized by diffuse reduction in hair density over the crown and frontal scalp with retention of the frontal hairline. Its prevalence increases with advancing age and is associated with significant psychological morbidity. The pathophysiology of FPHL is still not completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Although androgens have been implicated, the involvement of androgen-independent mechanisms is evident from frequent lack of clinical or biochemical markers of hyperandrogenism in affected women. The role of genetic polymorphisms involving the androgen and estrogen receptors is being increasingly recognized in its causation and predicting treatment response to anti-androgens. There are different clinical patterns and classifications of FPHL, knowledge of which facilitates patient management and research. Chronic telogen effluvium remains as the most important differential diagnosis. Thorough history, clinical examination, and evaluation are essential to confirm diagnosis. Patients with clinical signs of androgen excess require assessment of biochemical parameters and imaging studies. It is prudent to screen the patients for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors. The treatment comprises medical and/or surgical modalities. Medical treatment should be initiated early as it effectively arrests hair loss progression rather than stimulating regrowth. Minoxidil continues to be the first line therapy whereas anti-androgens form the second line of treatment. The progressive nature of FPHL mandates long-term treatment for sustained effect. Medical therapy may be supplemented with cosmetic concealment in those desirous of greater hair density. Surgery may be worthwhile in some carefully selected patients. PMID:23974580

  7. DESCRIBING LYMPHEDEMA IN FEMALES WITH TURNER SYNDROME.

    PubMed

    Rothbauer, J; Driver, S; Callender, L

    2015-09-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a chromosomal condition affecting an estimated 1 in 2,500 girls where the second X chromosome is missing, or partially formed. This abnormality affects multiple body systems and can lead to short stature, cardiac, neural, and renal abnormalities. Due to the chronic, non-life threatening nature of lymphedema in comparison to other symptoms of TS, it is often ignored by girls and women with TS and their physicians. Consequently, little is known about how lymphedema affects girls and women with TS across the lifespan. Therefore, the objective of the study was to deliver an online survey for females with TS and caregivers in the US, UK, and Canada to provide a worldwide perspective on their current experience with lymphedema within the spectrum of TS. There were 219 participants who completed the survey, and we were able to identify incidence and characteristics of lymphedema across the lifespan. In addition, we found that females with 45,X karyotyping were more likely to report lymphedema symptoms. Lymphedema is not the most significant concern of females with TS, but education, physician evaluation, and assistance with referrals for treatment and management would improve the ease of managing lymphedema in girls and women with TS.

  8. Female genital alteration: a compromise solution.

    PubMed

    Arora, Kavita Shah; Jacobs, Allan J

    2016-03-01

    Despite 30 years of advocacy, the prevalence of non-therapeutic female genital alteration (FGA) in minors is stable in many countries. Educational efforts have minimally changed the prevalence of this procedure in regions where it has been widely practiced. In order to better protect female children from the serious and long-term harms of some types of non-therapeutic FGA, we must adopt a more nuanced position that acknowledges a wide spectrum of procedures that alter female genitalia. We offer a revised categorisation for non-therapeutic FGA that groups procedures by effect and not by process. Acceptance of de minimis procedures that generally do not carry long-term medical risks is culturally sensitive, does not discriminate on the basis of gender, and does not violate human rights. More morbid procedures should not be performed. However, accepting de minimis non-therapeutic f FGA procedures enhances the effort of compassionate practitioners searching for a compromise position that respects cultural differences but protects the health of their patients. PMID:26902479

  9. DESCRIBING LYMPHEDEMA IN FEMALES WITH TURNER SYNDROME.

    PubMed

    Rothbauer, J; Driver, S; Callender, L

    2015-09-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a chromosomal condition affecting an estimated 1 in 2,500 girls where the second X chromosome is missing, or partially formed. This abnormality affects multiple body systems and can lead to short stature, cardiac, neural, and renal abnormalities. Due to the chronic, non-life threatening nature of lymphedema in comparison to other symptoms of TS, it is often ignored by girls and women with TS and their physicians. Consequently, little is known about how lymphedema affects girls and women with TS across the lifespan. Therefore, the objective of the study was to deliver an online survey for females with TS and caregivers in the US, UK, and Canada to provide a worldwide perspective on their current experience with lymphedema within the spectrum of TS. There were 219 participants who completed the survey, and we were able to identify incidence and characteristics of lymphedema across the lifespan. In addition, we found that females with 45,X karyotyping were more likely to report lymphedema symptoms. Lymphedema is not the most significant concern of females with TS, but education, physician evaluation, and assistance with referrals for treatment and management would improve the ease of managing lymphedema in girls and women with TS. PMID:26939161

  10. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs' effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed.

  11. Prevention of eating disorders in female athletes

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Gomes, Ainá Innocencio da Silva; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are serious mental diseases that frequently appear in female athletes. They are abnormal eating behaviors that can be diagnosed only by strict criteria. Disordered eating, although also characterized as abnormal eating behavior, does not include all the criteria for diagnosing eating disorders and is therefore a way to recognize the problem in its early stages. It is important to identify factors to avoid clinical progression in this high-risk population. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss critical information for the prevention of eating disorders in female athletes. This review discusses the major correlates for the development of an eating disorder. We also discuss which athletes are possibly at highest risk for eating disorders, including those from lean sports and female adolescent athletes. There is an urgent need for the demystification of myths surrounding body weight and performance in sports. This review includes studies that tested different prevention programs’ effectiveness, and the majority showed positive results. Educational programs are the best method for primary prevention of eating disorders. For secondary prevention, early identification is essential and should be performed by preparticipation exams, the recognition of dietary markers, and the use of validated self-report questionnaires or clinical interviews. In addition, more randomized clinical trials are needed with athletes from multiple sports in order for the most reliable recommendations to be made and for some sporting regulations to be changed. PMID:24891817

  12. Teaching Then and Now: Black Female Scholars and the Mission to Move beyond Borders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard-Baptiste, Shewanee; Harris, Jessica C.

    2014-01-01

    We explored the historical and contemporary struggles of Black female scholars who overcame multiple forms of resistance in higher education. In addition to a review of some of the most recent literature on the subject and our personal reflections of our sojourns in higher education, we also examined the educational journeys of Sadie Tanner…

  13. Psychopathology in Female Juvenile Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Angela; Howie, Pauline; Starling, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Background: The aim was to document the spectrum of present and lifetime psychological disorders in female juvenile offenders, and to examine the relations between mental health status and socio-demographic, family and trauma variables. Method: One hundred juvenile offenders were matched with a comparison group of 100 females on age and…

  14. Female Dropouts: A New Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earle, Janice; Roach, Virginia

    Early socialization, cognitive differences, treatment by teachers, and curricular choices have a negative effect on both the self-esteem and academic achievement of young females. Program designers and policymakers should incorporate the following approaches into female dropout prevention programs: (1) academic encouragement; (2) counseling to…

  15. Female Adolescent Development. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar, Max, Ed.

    This book emphasizes female adolescents' healthy development within a psychoanalytic frame of reference for what is normative, that also indicates the boundaries of and transitions to what is deviant. The book's 12 articles relate to 3 general topics. The two articles in part 1 of the book, which addresses biological issues, are "Female Pubertal…

  16. Dispelling Myths about Female Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane, Ethel

    1980-01-01

    Discussed are several myths and stereotypes about female physiology. Also included are new technical advances concerning the female reproduction physiology, new techniques in hormone measurement, hypotholomic-pituitary-ovarian axis, hormones and the monthly cycles, dysmenorrhea, menopause, infertility, and future areas for investigation about the…

  17. Female Superintendent Longevity in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlfing, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, through narrative inquiry (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000), the leadership evolution of five female superintendents in California with longevity of 5 or more years in their current school district positions. The research question addressed was, "How do California female superintendents evolve to…

  18. Female Perpetrators of Intimate Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Donald G.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Spidel, Alicia

    2005-01-01

    A review is made of female intimate abuse. It is concluded that females are as abusive as males in intimate relationships according to survey and epidemiological studies. This is especially so for younger "cohort" community samples followed longitudinally. Predictors of intimate violence with women appear to be similar to those of men; including…

  19. OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE FOR FEMALES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JEFFS, GEORGE A.

    OCCUPATIONAL TITLES USABLE IN ASSESSING OCCUPATIONAL GOALS OFSENIOR HIGH SCHOOL FEMALES WERE SELECTED AS THE FIRST STEP IN ESTABLISHING AN OCCUPATIONAL ASPIRATION SCALE FOR FEMALES. A LIST OF 117 OCCUPATIONAL TITLES, COMPILED FROM THREE PREVIOUS STUDIES AND "THE DICTIONARY OF OCCUPATIONAL TITLES," WAS RATED ON A SIX-LEVEL SCALE AS TO ITS GENERAL…

  20. Female dental practitioners and care of special needs children.

    PubMed

    Waldman, H Barry; Perlman, Steven P

    2004-01-01

    Increased numbers of female pediatric and general dentists are considered in terms of their potential to provide services for children (and adults) with special health care needs. Reviewed in this are: (1) practitioner work patterns; (2) increasing numbers of children in community residences; (3) the general need for dental services; (4) changing educational standards; and (5) practitioner willingness to provide care.

  1. Examining Entrepreneurial Attributes of Latin American Female University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villasana, Marcia; Alcaraz-Rodríguez, Rafael; Alvarez, Mario Moisés

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of women engaging in entrepreneurship is expanding and becoming acknowledged as a valuable resource that must be institutionally and socially supported. Through entrepreneurship education, female students, as potential entrepreneurs, can develop and strengthen those skills and behaviours identified as characteristic of successful…

  2. Effects of Negative Parental Attitudes on Female Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillman, Diane B.

    1989-01-01

    Surveyed female undergraduates (N=151) on perceptions of their parents' attitudes toward higher education. Found students perceiving nonencouragement reported interpersonal conflict with parents as well as financial difficulties. Suggests counselors address these concerns when counseling students who were not encouraged to attend college.…

  3. First Aid for Female Casualties of the Information Highway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Petrea

    2006-01-01

    Females are under-represented in education, training and employment in the area of Information Communication Technology (ICT). Research shows that girls are tuning out to ICTs in school and they have a low participation rate in ICT related tertiary study and employment. The Tech Savvy report by the American Association of University Women (2000)…

  4. Female Leadership and the Ethic of Care: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kropiewnicki, Mary I.; Shapiro, Joan P.

    A study explored the ethical framework of care as a leadership attribute in three female principals at an elementary school, a junior high school, and a high school in northeast Pennsylvania. Recent studies of educational administrators reveal that new leadership models and attributes, identified as the ethic of care, are emerging among both male…

  5. Teacher Sexual Misconduct: Grooming Patterns and Female Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, James

    2010-01-01

    Educator sexual misconduct has received increasing attention over the past decade. The attention has exposed a number of concerning issues, including a lack of formal research in the area and difficulties in recognizing and prosecuting cases. Public responses to high profile cases of sexual misconduct involving female teachers suggest that…

  6. Male and Female College Presidents: Leadership Behaviors and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Karen J.; Tack, Martha W.

    A study on differences between the leadership behaviors and attitudes of male and female college presidents is presented. Women are rarely represented in top academic administrative positions in higher education. Reasons include sex discrimination, negative perceptions of them as administrators, and negative evaluation of their administrative…

  7. Constructing Gender: Female Identity Realised in Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Monica

    The workshop described in this paper combines critical literacy and functional grammar and is intended for educators who may not be familiar with either pedagogy. The paper discusses a unit of work that was designed for a year 9 English class. It focused on how females have been constructed in pop songs since 1950 and how that construction has…

  8. Young Females' Images of Motherhood in Relation to Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ex, Carine T. G. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines young Dutch adolescent and young females' self-image and ideal image of motherhood and the extent to which television viewing and viewing motives were related to these images. Notes none of the subjects were mothers and all were selected from a variety of educational settings. Concludes that sitcoms and soaps that portrayed mothers with a…

  9. Voices from the Present: Tracking the Female Administrative Aspirant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edson, Sakre K.

    1987-01-01

    Strategies that allow female managers to have occupational success must be investigated. Career women in educational administration were tracked for ten years to ascertain their organizational situation, career path, attitudes, and goals. Although women have made minimal gains, they are optimistic and will continue to test traditional occupational…

  10. Developing Female Middle-Managers in Australian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Michelle; Marchant, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Universities should be developing female middle-managers for reasons of gender balance (Aitkin in "The Last Boilerhouse Address," Canberra University 2001), the skills shortage, pending mass retirements (Chesterman in "Not doable jobs? Exploring senior women's attitudes to leadership roles in universities." Women's Higher Education Network…

  11. Desire and the female analyst.

    PubMed

    Schaverien, J

    1996-04-01

    The literature on erotic transference and countertransference between female analyst and male patient is reviewed and discussed. It is known that female analysts are less likely than their male colleagues to act out sexually with their patients. It has been claimed that a) male patients do not experience sustained erotic transferences, and b) female analysts do not experience erotic countertransferences with female or male patients. These views are challenged and it is argued that, if there is less sexual acting out by female analysts, it is not because of an absence of eros in the therapeutic relationship. The literature review covers material drawn from psychoanalysis, feminist psychotherapy, Jungian analysis, as well as some sociological and cultural sources. It is organized under the following headings: the gender of the analyst, sexual acting out, erotic transference, maternal and paternal transference, gender and power, countertransference, incest taboo--mothers and sons and sexual themes in the transference. PMID:8666556

  12. Motivations, interests and retention of female minority engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, Naila

    In an effort to potentially increase low enrollment of females, particularly minorities, in Engineering programs, this study used a survey to determine motivations, interests and retention of current female Engineering students. A total of 82 participants from varied ethnic (non-Hispanic white, Euro-American, African American, Hispanic American, Asian American, South Asian, Arab American, and Native American participants) and education (high school senior, undergraduate, graduate, and in-service Engineers) backgrounds filled out the survey. With approximately half of the participants being non-minorities (non-Hispanic white or Euro-American), they served as the `control' group for the data, and the comparison group was the minority participants. Notable differences between the two groups were: student participation in female community groups, and extra-curricular activities like sports and arts (writing, drama and band) clubs. Increasing female-minority participation in these clubs and other extra-curricular activities may potentially increase their enrollment numbers in Engineering programs.

  13. Second-Language Acquisition, Culture Shock, and Language Stress of Adult Female Latina Students in New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttaro, Lucia

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the educational, cultural, and linguistic adjustments and experiences encountered by Hispanic adult females in learning English as a second language (ESL) and the relation of these experiences to the variables of language, culture, and education of adult Hispanic females. Adult ESL learners…

  14. The culture of female circumcision.

    PubMed

    Morris, R

    1996-12-01

    The issue of female circumcision takes on special significance as more women migrate to the United States from countries where the practice has religious and traditional underpinnings. Female circumcision is a problem unfamiliar to most Western health care practitioners. This article describes an ethnographic study of the types of female circumcision, the reasons for and against the practice, the health implications of this practice, and cultural attitudes of circumcised women both in Western Africa and as migrant refugees living in the United States. Ethical dilemmas in dealing with this practice and implications for nurses and health care providers are discussed.

  15. The female runner: gender specifics.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Stacy L; Hoch, Anne Z

    2010-07-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of female runners of all ages and abilities in the past 35 years. Women who participate in running and sports are generally healthier and have higher self-esteem. However, unique medical and orthopedic issues exist for the female runner. This article reviews the history of women in sports, physiologic and biomechanic differences between genders, the pregnant runner, knee osteoarthritis, an update on the female athlete triad and the relationship between amenorrhea and endothelial dysfunction associated with athletics. PMID:20610034

  16. Female genital cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Dorothy; Lefebvre, Guylaine; Bouchard, Celine; Shapiro, Jodi; Blake, Jennifer; Allen, Lisa; Cassell, Krista; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy; Allaire, Catherine; Awadalla, Alaa; Best, Carolyn; Dunn, Sheila; Heywood, Mark; Lemyre, Madeleine; Marcoux, Violaine; Menard, Chantal; Potestio, Frank; Rittenberg, David; Singh, Sukhbir; Shapiro, Jodi; Akhtar, Saima; Camire, Bruno; Christilaw, Jan; Corey, Julie; Nelson, Erin; Pierce, Marianne; Robertson, Deborah; Simmonds, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Objectif : Fournir aux gynécologues canadiens des directives factuelles en matière de chirurgie esthétique génitale chez la femme, en réponse au nombre grandissant de demandes (et d’interventions) de chirurgie vaginale et vulvaire se situant bien au-delà des reconstructions traditionnellement indiquées sur le plan médical. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en 2011 et en 2012 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé et de mots clés appropriés (« female genital cosmetic surgery »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en mai 2012. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Recommandations 1. Un des rôles importants des obstétriciens-gynécologues devrait consister à aider les femmes à comprendre leur anatomie et à en respecter les variantes qui leur sont propres. (III-A) 2. Lorsqu’une femme demande la tenue d’interventions esthétiques vaginales, une anamnèse médicale, sexuelle et gynécologique exhaustive devrait être obtenue et l’absence de tout dysfonctionnement

  17. Building emissions: Female thermal demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hoof, Joost

    2015-12-01

    The temperature in many office buildings is set according to a method from the 1960s. Consideration of the different metabolic rates of male and females is necessary to increase comfort and reduce energy consumption.

  18. Eating Disorders among Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgen, Jorunn Sundgot; Corbin, Charles B.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes a study of 168 college women to determine the extent to which preoccupation with weight and tendencies toward eating disorders are problems among female athletes. Results are presented. (Author/MT)

  19. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C. PMID:23515242

  20. Female suicide bombers and burdensomeness.

    PubMed

    Lester, David

    2010-02-01

    Brief case descriptions from journalists are presented to illustrate the role of traumatic experiences, the sense of being a burden to their families, and shame and humiliation in female suicide bombers. PMID:20402439

  1. Cohort size and female labour supply.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, S

    1992-01-01

    Cohort size and female labor supply is examined through the literature available in the field. The impetus for this examination is the expected young male labor shortage in Europe. Although raising educational levels, or encouraging immigration of young well trained workers are policy alternatives, the emphasis in this article is on exploring the option of increasing the female labor supply to offset the shortage. After a brief introduction to the nature of the problem, Easterlin's theory of women's work is presented: relative income is a determinant of labor force participation. Wright's experience with European fertility shows that relative income is not the dominant influence on fertility when relative cohort size is taken as a measure of relative income. A model is presented and distinctions made between educated labor and experienced labor and uneducated labor. Several studies are discussed with equate or complement labor inputs with capital, and tentative findings are presented that women may indeed substitute for men in the work place. Cohort size effects on relative earnings studies are also presented. The conclusion is that the cohort size effects in the US labor market are small over the life cycle. In Europe, however, because of the smaller size of baby boom cohorts, the relative income of baby boom cohorts has not been upset, and quantity adjustments may have taken place rather than income injustments. Discussion of husbands income and women's labor supply indicated weaknesses in labor supply estimation, and an example of a frequently used model for estimating female labor force participation. Evidence points to own wage as a more important predictor of female labor force participation than husband's income. This lends support to the opportunity cost hypothesis or new home economics hypothesis rather than the Easterlin relative income hypothesis. Attention is given to the example of Sweden and its family policy which enables women the best opportunity

  2. The functionality of female reciprocal calls in the Iberian midwife toad (Alytes cisternasii): female-female acoustic competition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, Jaime

    2002-11-01

    Female midwife toads (genus Alytes) emit highly variable reciprocal calls of unclear function prior to and during courtship. In some species, female-female competition, expressed as physical fighting, has been reported. Males of Majorcan midwife toads (Alytes muletensis) show phonotactic response to female calls, and females of Iberian midwife toads (Alytes cisternasii) respond differently according to the male call characteristics. In this study, I test the hypothesis of female-female acoustic competition as an additional function of female reciprocal calls. Playback tests indicate that female calls are not clearly involved in female acoustic competition in the Iberian midwife toad, therefore female calls could be directed at males rather than towards competitive females.

  3. Review of the Literature Regarding Female Collegiate Athletes with Eating Disorders and Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klasey, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this review of literature was to examine the relationship of eating disorders and disordered eating among female collegiate athletes. Since the institution of Title IX in 1972, the Educational Amendment to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, female participation in sports has been consistently rising at all levels of…

  4. Perceived Advantages and Disadvantages of Being a Female Graduate Student in the US and the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Clare Marie; Keener, Emily; Shrier, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    We build on Diana Leonard's work on gender and graduate education by qualitatively investigating the perceived advantages and disadvantages of being a female graduate student in the USA and the UK. We interviewed six female students (ages 22-30) pursuing master's degrees in psychology or social sciences in the USA and the UK. Students…

  5. Having Many Irons in the Fire--"Finnish Female Leaders' School Memories"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyvärinen, Sanna; Uusiautti, Satu; Määttä, Kaarina

    2014-01-01

    Education and school years impact leadership development, but this development has still been little studied. This study contributes Finnish female leaders' narratives to the discussion. The purpose was to analyze how female leaders describe their school years and themselves as learners and how these elements have shaped their careers. The…

  6. Bibliotherapeutic Influence on Nigerian Female University Students: Self-Report on Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okwilagwe, Oshiotse Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the influence of self-prescribed literature on sex education of female students at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. The sample population consists of 303 married, engaged, those in love and those yet to fall in love female students. The analysis of data reveals that they read books specifically on friendship, love, marriage…

  7. Female Superintendents: A Qualitative Study of the Journey to the Role of Superintendent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Stacey M.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the journey of females to the role of superintendent. This study is based on interviews of six female superintendents from Indiana and Illinois in cities with a population of 15,000 people or more. Three of the superintendents had more than 25 years of experience in education, and three of the superintendents had 25…

  8. Amazing Muses of Science: An Interdisciplinary Project Creates Awareness of Female Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Beverly

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an interdisciplinary project that created awareness of female scientists in a public Montessori classroom. Every spring, the author's sixth-grade students write an educational play in which the entire class participates. Following an underwhelming response to asking students who are their favorite female scientists, the…

  9. Female Genital Cutting: Applying the PRECEDE-PROCEED Model To Understand the Incentives for the Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbagh, Leila

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the practice of female circumcision and the significance of considering social, cultural, economic, and educational opportunities available to females in developing countries when creating intervention programs to help end this practice. The PRECEDE-PROCEED model is a tool that can assess various elements present in a girls' life that…

  10. Smoking Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors Among Rural- to-Urban Migrant Women in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Karen; Ma, Shaojun; Qin, Dingxin; Xin, Guo; Xia, Wan; Novotny, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    Background China has the largest population of cigarette smokers worldwide; surveys suggest rising prevalence among young women. Migratory lifestyles may confer increased susceptibility. Objectives we aimed to understand how migration relates to smoking among young women. Methods we implemented a cross-sectional behavioral survey of rural-to-urban Chinese women (n = 206) working in restaurants and commercial sex venues, assessing smoking attitudes, behaviors, and health-risk knowledge. Results rates of ever smoking and current smoking among restaurant workers were high compared with the rates in general population surveys (16.1% and 6.5%, respectively); rates were much higher among sex workers (54.9% and 33.3%, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed education to be protective, whereas exposure to female-branded cigarettes was a risk for ever smoking. Conclusions Chinese migrant women appear to be smoking at higher rates than nonmigrant women. Priorities for future research include representative studies in multiple cities examining reasons for uptake and stimuli to quit. PMID:19443881

  11. Educational Expansion and the Returns to Education: Evidence from Cyprus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demetriades, Euripides L.; Psacharopoulos, George

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study that compared returns to education in the government controlled area of Cyprus as measured in 1974 and again in 1984 after considerable educational expansion. Average salary per year of school is reported for males and females. Overall returns to education decreased during this decade. (CH)

  12. Male-female literacy differential in India--1981.

    PubMed

    Sagar, P

    1989-01-01

    The author examines inequalities in the literacy rates between males and females in India. Regional variations in literacy are examined by district using maps. "The male-female literacy differential is low in coastal, peripheral and metropolitan areas and is high in inland and mountainous areas. These regional disparities are the product of differences in length of educational background, age at marriage, level of urbanisation, standard of living and proportion of socially conservative and backward sections of society.... The study in spatial dimension provides a strong base for the removal of sex biased discrimination in society."

  13. [Female erotic dreams and female seed in ancient Greek medicine].

    PubMed

    Andò, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses passages of the Hippocratic Corpus, of Aristotle and Galen about oneirogmòs, spermatic emission during sleep, referring specifically to women. Into the Hippocratic texts there is only one gynaecological case among many cases about males: for them this nocturnal emission is symptom of dangerous illness and De genitura gives a causal explanation of such phaenomenon. Instead, in Aristotle and Galen erotic dream is evidence for or against emission of female seed and female contribution to generation. As the argument ofHistoria animalium book X shows clear theoretical differences from that of De generatione animalium, the topic of erotic dream also concerns issues of authenticity.

  14. Coping behaviors among sexual minority female youth.

    PubMed

    Pendragon, Diane K

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes data from a qualitative study investigating the ways in which female youth perceive and respond to challenges related to the interplay of late adolescence and a minority sexual orientation. Fifteen sexual minority females in late adolescence were interviewed individually and in focus groups. The interviews focused on participants' perceptions of challenges, the impact those stressors have in their lives, and methods they utilize to cope with them. The most common negative experiences reported were isolation, lack of acceptance, harassment, and violence. Sub-themes include: hearing negative messages about gender and sexual orientation, pressures to conform to a variety of cultural norms including gender norms, fears of future violence, and pressure to identify sexual orientation. Collectively, the participants described these negative consequences of experiences of heterosexism, sexism, and racism as their most difficult experiences. The most common responses to these stressors reported by participants were finding support in relationships, engaging in coping responses, pursuing education and activism, rebellion and resistance, and avoidance and deferment.

  15. Effect of a supportive-educative program in the math class for stress, anxiety, and depression in female students in the third level of junior high school: An action research

    PubMed Central

    Emamjomeh, Seyedeh Mahtab; Bahrami, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Students in junior high school, particularly in the third level, are prone to a variety of stressors. This in turn might lead to stress, anxiety, depression, and other health-related problems. There are a very limited number of action research studies to identify the effect of stress management techniques among students. Therefore, a study was conducted to assess the effect of a program used in the math class to decrease the student's level of stress, anxiety, and depression. Material and Methods: This was an action research study, which was conducted in region three of the Education and Training Office of Isfahan, in the year 2012. Fifty-one students in a junior high school were selected and underwent a comprehensive stress management program. This program was prepared in collaboration with the students, their parents, teachers, and managers of the school, and was implemented approximately during a four-month period. The student's stress, anxiety, and depression were measured before and after the program using the DASS-21 questionnaire. Findings: The t-test identified that the mean scores of stress, anxiety, and depression after the intervention were significantly lower than the corresponding scores before the program. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) also showed that the students from the veterans (Janbaz) families had higher levels of stress compared to their classmates, who belonged to the non-veteran families (P< 0.05). Results: Education and implementation of stress management techniques including cognitive and behavioral interventions along with active and collaborative methods of learning in the math class might be useful both inside and outside the class, for better management of stress and other health-related problems of students. PMID:25767821

  16. Immune Aspects of Female Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Brazdova, Andrea; Senechal, Helene; Peltre, Gabriel; Poncet, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Immune infertility, in terms of reproductive failure, has become a serious health issue involving approximately 1 out of 5 couples at reproductive age. Semen that is defined as a complex fluid containing sperm, cellular vesicles and other cells and components, could sensitize the female genital tract. The immune rejection of male semen in the female reproductive tract is explained as the failure of natural tolerance leading to local and/or systemic immune response. Present active immune mechanism may induce high levels of anti-seminal/sperm antibodies. It has already been proven that iso-immunization is associated with infertility. Comprehensive studies with regards to the identification of antibody-targets and the determination of specific antibody class contribute to the development of effective immuno-therapy and, on the other hand, potential immuno-contraception, and then of course to complex patient diagnosis. This review summarizes the aspects of female immune infertility. PMID:27123194

  17. Female circumcision: Limiting the harm

    PubMed Central

    Kandil, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To review the strength of evidence that links many health hazards to female genital cutting. Material and methods: Literature search in Medline/Pubmed and Google scholar. Results: Female genital cutting is still practiced secretly in both underdeveloped and developed countries due to prevailing strong traditional beliefs. There is insufficient evidence to support the claims that genital cutting is a harmful procedure if performed by experienced personnel in a suitable theatre with facilities for pain control and anesthesia. Cutting, however, is advised not to go beyond type I. Conclusion: Law makers around the globe are invited to review the legal situation in relation to female genital cutting. Proper counseling of parents about possible risks is a must in order to make informed decision about circumcising their daughters. The procedure should be offered to parents who insist on it; otherwise, they will do it illegally, exposing their daughters to possible complications. PMID:24627762

  18. Knee injuries in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, M R; Ireland, M L

    1995-04-01

    Female athletes are at increased risk for certain sports-related injuries, particularly those involving the knee. Factors that contribute to this increased risk are the differences in sports undertaken and in gender anatomy and structure. Gender differences include baseline level of conditioning, lower extremity alignment, physiological laxity, pelvis width, tibial rotation and foot alignment. Sports like gymnastics and cheerleading create a noncontact environment, but can result in significant knee injuries. In quick stopping and cutting sports, females have an increased incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury by noncontact mechanisms. Patellofemoral (PF) disorders are also very common in female athletes. Awareness of these facts helps the sports medicine professional make an accurate diagnosis and institute earlier treatment-focused rehabilitation with or without surgery. Further prospective and retrospective research is needed in areas of epidemiology, mechanisms, severity and types of knee injuries. The goal is to lessen the severity of certain knee injuries and to prevent others. PMID:7604201

  19. Female physicists in Ugandan universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'ujanga, Florence M.; Ssentongo, Grace Spencer; Ayugi, Gertrude; Akoba, Rashida; Saphina, Biira

    2015-12-01

    For a long time, only one public university in Uganda had a department of physics. Several women graduated from this department, but not many showed much interest in pursuing higher degrees in physics. Currently, there are five public universities in Uganda with departments of physics, and there has been an increase in the number of female graduates in physics. At the same time, the number of women pursuing higher degrees in physics has increased, and the universities have registered an increase in female physics lecturers.

  20. Girls, girls, girls: Gender composition and female school choice.

    PubMed

    Schneeweis, Nicole; Zweimüller, Martina

    2012-08-01

    Gender segregation in employment may be explained by women's reluctance to choose technical occupations. However, the foundations for career choices are laid much earlier. Educational experts claim that female students are doing better in math and science and are more likely to choose these subjects if they are in single-sex classes. One possible explanation is that coeducational settings reinforce gender stereotypes. In this paper, we identify the causal impact of the gender composition in coeducational classes on the choice of school type for female students. Using natural variation in the gender composition of adjacent cohorts within schools, we show that girls are less likely to choose a traditionally female dominated school type and more likely to choose a male dominated school type at the age of 14 if they were exposed to a higher share of girls in previous grades. PMID:24850996

  1. Female circumcision is curbed in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Wiens, J

    1996-08-01

    In the wake of the death of an 11-year-old girl the Egyptian government has banned any government-affiliated medical staff from performing female circumcision. Egyptian health policy has shifted from trying to control the practice by keeping it under government supervision towards condemnation. In October 1995 the health minister banned female circumcision from being carried out in state hospitals, a direct reversal of a 1994 decree that asked state hospitals to set aside one day a week for performing the procedure. The further restriction follows an incident in July 1996 when an 11-year-old girl bled to death in the rural area of Mansoora after being circumcised by a barber. Female genital mutilation in Egypt changed from an accepted custom to a political hot topic after the news network CNN in September 1994 featured the circumcision of a 9-year-old girl from Cairo. The footage embarrassed Egyptians and fueled an outcry by women's groups and nongovernmental organizations. Statistics compiled in 1994 by Egypt's former ministry of population estimated that between 70% and 90% of Egyptian women were circumcised. But a more recent survey puts the figure even higher, with 97% of women in both rural and urban areas having been circumcised. Circumcisions range from clitoridectomies to almost total removal of the outside genitalia. The practice seems to be rooted in both African tradition and Islamic beliefs, although many Islamic countries do not practice female circumcision. The main motivation seems to be in controlling women's sexual urges, and the belief that circumcision makes a woman more feminine. A university professor of gynecology teaches his medical students that circumcision is healthier for the woman. Most circumcisions in Egypt are performed by barbers or midwives, despite a sporadically enforced law forbidding the operation by anyone but a trained medical staff member. There is a high rate of complications, with some operations leading to infertility

  2. Underreporting of Concussions and Concussion-Like Symptoms in Female High School Athletes.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Tracy; Burghart, Mark A; Nazir, Niaman

    2016-01-01

    Underreporting of concussions and concussion-like symptoms in athletes continues to be a serious medical concern and research focus. Despite mounting worry, little evidence exists examining incidence of underreporting and documenting characteristics of head injury in female athletes participating in high school sports. This study examined the self-reporting behaviors of female high school athletes. Seventy-seven athletes participated, representing 14 high school sports. Nearly half of the athletes (31 participants) reported a suspected concussion, with 10 of the 31 athletes refraining from reporting symptoms to training staff after injury. Only 66% reported receiving concussion education. Concussion education appeared to have no relationship with diagnosed concussion rates in athletes, removing athletes from play, or follow-up medical care after injury. In conclusion, female high school athletes underreport signs and symptoms of concussions. Concussion education should occur at higher rates among female athletes to influence reporting behaviors. PMID:27618372

  3. The female condom: STD protection in the hands of women.

    PubMed

    Gollub, E L

    1993-01-01

    In 1993, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the female condom Reality. It provides better protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) than does the male condom. The polyurethane sheath is more resistant to tears and covers the vagina, cervix, and vulva. Since it does not depend on erection of the penis, the female condom protects women from STDs/HIV that can be transmitted through the pre-ejaculate. In light of the AIDS epidemic, FDA approved the female condom based on its contraceptive effectiveness rather than on its ability to protect against STDs. Annual contraceptive failure rates for Reality range 5-21%, which match those of other barrier methods for women and men. Incorrect or inconsistent use affects its contraceptive effectiveness. The female condom prevents passage of virus particles as small as the hepatitis B virus which is smaller than HIV. In a study, all women who correctly and consistently used Reality were protected from Trichomonas vaginalis, while sporadic users were not protected. Currently, less than 20% of US couples use male condoms, indicating a need for women to have options to protect their reproductive and genital health. The female condom provides women such an option since women are in total control of its use. Women with partners who do not want to use a male condom maintain that Reality will revolutionize sexual dynamics. Its visibility does not help women with violent partners, however. Educational efforts about all methods that can be used without men's knowledge need to reach these women. Family planning providers need to shed the old concept of women as incompetent users and set up counseling programs that promote women's methods. They should accept and provide the female condom. Basic sexual education and constant provider support and encouragement are crucial.

  4. Television and the Female Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Denise, Ed.; Spigel, Lynn, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This special issue brings together an editorial, six articles, and three book reviews that focus on the relationship between television and the female audience. The articles are: (1) "Installing the Television Set: Popular Discourses on Television and Domestic Space, 1948-1955" (Lynn Spigel); (2) "The Spectacularization of Everyday Life: Recycling…

  5. An Update on Gifted Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Carolyn M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses selected issues and literature concerning gifted female students, examining achievement and aptitude, career choice, self-perceptions of ability, course taking, parental influences, the glamorization of sex differences, stereotyping, effects of classroom groupings and teaching strategies, and effects of single-sex schools and…

  6. Enticing Mature Females into College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loseth, Lexie; Moreau, Linda

    Following a review of the literature on mature female students, this paper examines enrollment trends in a selection of colleges in Alberta (Canada) and presents the findings of a survey of returning women students at Red Deer College. The literature review highlights factors related to the personal and professional development of women graduates…

  7. Adolescent Leadership: The Female Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archard, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the female adolescent view of leadership by giving voice to student leaders through focus group discussions. The questions: What is leadership? Where/how was leadership taught?, and How was leadership practised? were explored within the context of girls' schools located in Australia, with one school located in South…

  8. Archetypes of Outstanding Female Superintendents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Carole; Pankake, Anita; Schroth, Gwen

    This report documents a study of women superintendents. Specifically, the study identified professional and personal characteristics and styles of leadership to develop archetypes of six outstanding female superintendents in Texas. The intent of the research was also to reveal similarities between and among these superintendents that could provide…

  9. HIV and female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Estébanez, P; Fitch, K; Nájera, R

    1993-01-01

    In this review of published findings on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and risk factors among female sex workers, we summarize the results of seroprevalence studies in different countries and discuss the different patterns of transmission among such workers in various geographical regions. The highest rates of HIV infection occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where the widespread existence of sexually transmitted diseases may play an important role in sustaining transmission. In Europe and North America injecting drug use continues to be the major factor associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, while in Latin America and parts of Asia there is a more mixed pattern of heterosexual and parenteral transmission from injecting drug use. Reviewed also are studies of the risk factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, such as drug use, sexual behaviour, the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, and condom use; in addition, we comment on some studies of the clients of sex workers. Finally, we propose directions that future research in this area might take and discuss various interventions that need to be undertaken to reduce HIV transmission among female sex workers.

  10. HIV and female sex workers.

    PubMed Central

    Estébanez, P.; Fitch, K.; Nájera, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this review of published findings on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and risk factors among female sex workers, we summarize the results of seroprevalence studies in different countries and discuss the different patterns of transmission among such workers in various geographical regions. The highest rates of HIV infection occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where the widespread existence of sexually transmitted diseases may play an important role in sustaining transmission. In Europe and North America injecting drug use continues to be the major factor associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, while in Latin America and parts of Asia there is a more mixed pattern of heterosexual and parenteral transmission from injecting drug use. Reviewed also are studies of the risk factors associated with HIV infection among female sex workers, such as drug use, sexual behaviour, the presence of sexually transmitted diseases, and condom use; in addition, we comment on some studies of the clients of sex workers. Finally, we propose directions that future research in this area might take and discuss various interventions that need to be undertaken to reduce HIV transmission among female sex workers. PMID:8324860

  11. Chapter 22: Female Reproductive Toxicology

    EPA Science Inventory

    The female reproductive system provides multiple targets for environmental toxicants with the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Moreover, the functional impact of a chemical can differ, depending on the species involved and the parameters of exposure. While cross-species compa...

  12. Hypnotherapy and Female Sexual Inadequacy

    PubMed Central

    Glick, Daniel

    1972-01-01

    Dr. Glick describes the use of hypnosis in the treatment of primary and secondary frigidity, dyspareunia and psychosomatic symptoms in female sexual inadequacy. He uses case histories to show the various techniques used and the results that can be expected. PMID:20468741

  13. WISH Inspires Future Female Explorers

    NASA Video Gallery

    Some of the next generation’s future female explorers and problem solvers got a real-world look at what it takes to be a scientist or engineer. Through the Women in STEM High School Aerospace Sch...

  14. Developing Female Coaches: Strategies from Women Themselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore strategies for the development of aspiring female coaches based on the ideas of existing high-performance female coaches. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with national-level female coaches in the United Kingdom, four recurrent ideas for developing female coaches in a male-dominated profession emerged.…

  15. The International Student: Female Circumcision Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengston, Barbara; Baldwin, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    Describes the process and practice of female circumcision, the impact it may have on circumcised female international college students, and some counseling strategies for the college counselor who works with this population. Explains variety of reasons for performing female circumcision, different types of female circumcisions, and psychological…

  16. A structural comparison of female-male and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    PubMed

    Ottenheimer Carrier, Lydia; Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Pellis, Sergio; Vasey, Paul L

    2015-10-01

    In certain populations, female Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) mount both males and females. Vasey (2007) proposed that female-female sexual mounting in Japanese macaques may be a neutral evolutionary by-product of a purported adaptation, namely, female-male mounting. In this study, we aim to further examine the proposed link between female-male and female-female mounting in Japanese macaques by comparing the structural characteristics that define both forms of mounting. We do so using Eshkol-Wachman Movement Notation (EWMN), a globographic reference system that can be used to describe the position of body segments. No significant differences were observed in the female mounters' positioning of eight different body segments (i.e., lower torso, mid-torso, upper torso, upper arm, lower arm, upper leg, lower leg, and foot) during female-male and female-female mounting. This finding lends support to the conclusion that female-female and female-male mounting are structurally, and thus, evolutionarily, related.

  17. I Am a Chameleon in Pearls: How Three Select Female Superintendents Perceive Their Professional Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Catherine Agnes

    2012-01-01

    The public school superintendent is the least progressive position in education at integrating women and balancing the scales of equitable representation. Statistical data indicates there are far fewer females than males serving as superintendents. Current statistics show women make up: 1) over 70 percent of all public school educators; 2) nearly…

  18. First-Generation Female College Students' Financial Literacy: Real and Perceived Barriers to Degree Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eitel, Susan J.; Martin, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    First-generation female college students (FGFCS) make up a large portion of the diversity in higher education. Unfortunately "access" to education does not translate to success. Persistence and degree completion for these students is often undermined by seemingly insurmountable obstacles. The purposes of this study were to identify the financial…

  19. Female Leadership in Islamic Schools in the United States of America: Prevalence, Obstacles, and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahmy, Mona

    2013-01-01

    Islam is the most misunderstood religion in the world, and the status of Muslim women is even more misinterpreted. There have been relatively few studies of Islamic educational leaders and even fewer specifically addressing female Islamic educational leadership. Although women have made tremendous progress in the labor force, the proportion of…

  20. Fitting In: Community College Female Executive Leaders Share Their Experiences--A Study in West Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Kristina; Jones, Stephanie J.

    2013-01-01

    Women who move into and work within administration in higher education face many struggles. Both the traits that are specific to most females and their leadership style can impede their rise into and within administrative ranks. In addition, higher education has traditionally been a hierarchical and patriarchal system that makes it more difficult…

  1. A Feminist Postcolonial Examination of Female Principals' Experiences in South African Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mestry, Raj; Schmidt, Michele

    2012-01-01

    A central theme that dominates most studies on gender and leadership in education is the emerging tendency towards mitigating pervasive forms of discrimination against females. Yet, women still remain, for the most part, a minority within leadership positions in education. Despite policy initiatives emphasising gender equity, discrimination,…

  2. Male and Female Superintendents: A Comparison of Differences in Salaries, Interview Experiences, and Contract Negotiations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Alan

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the results of a comparison of differences in salary, interview experiences, and contract negotiations for male and female superintendents. Other variables of interest include educational attainment and educational experiences. The study participants (N = 161) consisted of practicing superintendents from four regions of the…

  3. Does Female Schooling Reduce Fertility? Evidence from Nigeria. NBER Working Paper No. 13070

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osili, Una Okonkwo; Long, Bridget Terry

    2007-01-01

    The literature generally points to a negative relationship between female education and fertility. Citing this pattern, policymakers have advocated educating girls and young women as a means to reduce population growth and foster sustained economic and social welfare in developing countries. This paper tests whether the relationship between…

  4. Girls' and Women's Education in Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    Cultural and socioeconomic barriers to girls' and women's education are reflected in the female literacy rate, average wage, and girls' enrollment, dropout, attainment, and participation rates in formal education. Development of national education has been given top priority in the Indonesian national development. The education system is organized…

  5. The necessity of female population studies.

    PubMed

    Zhu, C

    1989-01-01

    Justification for and an illustrative example of female focused population studies in China is given in this article. Many questions which have not been empirically answered have been raised about women. Traditional Chinese social norms favor males over females. How has this tradition affected women's fertility, mortality, lifespan, education, and employment? How is this impact felt and to what extent? Empirical research on women is appropriate for the development of the women's movement. Women's issues are universal, of importance socially, politically, and economically. There have been 3 women's liberation movements: during the 1898 Reformation, the 1911 Revolution, and the May 4th Movement in 1919. In the past 10 years, there have been debates about Chinese women's liberation consciousness. Although women make up 50% of the population, educational levels are still below men and employment options are limited. The changing roles of women and future implications need to be investigated. Reform has benefited women, yet in economically underdeveloped areas of the north and south west there is a higher early marriage rate than in more developed areas. What accounts for this pattern? What is woman's role in reproduction in light of changing government policy? The value of women's contribution to family life and reproduction, and to economic life directly needs to be assessed. Statistical information, even though it has been collected, is not generally published as sex specific figures for urban and rural populations, the nonagricultural population, educational levels, or new employment. This prevents an appraisal of the current status or an assessment of the extent of change in the status of women. The governmental statistical system, the departmental statistical system, and statistical departments of enterprises and institutions such as the All China Federation of Women should make available indices on women. Sources of relevant statistics also need to be increased

  6. Prevalence and correlates of female condom use and interest among injection drug-using female sex workers in two Mexico-US border cities.

    PubMed

    Stockman, Jamila K; Morris, Meghan D; Martinez, Gustavo; Lozada, Remedios; Patterson, Thomas L; Ulibarri, Monica D; Vera, Alicia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-10-01

    Little is known about female condom use among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Northern Mexico, where HIV/STI prevalence is high. We examined the prevalence and correlates of female condom use and interest in female condom use among FSW-IDUs aged >18 years in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico enrolled in a behavioral intervention designed to reduce high-risk sexual and injection behaviors. Of 621 FSW-IDUs, 8 % reported ever using female condoms, and 67.2 % expressed interest in trying female condoms. Factors independently associated with female condom use were having had a client become angry at the suggestion of using condoms and having engaged in unprotected vaginal sex with non-regular clients. Factors independently associated with interest in using female condoms were lifetime physical abuse and lifetime sexual abuse. Increasing the availability of female condoms and providing education on their use in the context of drug use and violence is recommended.

  7. Prevalence and Correlates of Female Condom Use and Interest Among Injection Drug-Using Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico–US Border Cities

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Meghan D.; Martinez, Gustavo; Lozada, Remedios; Patterson, Thomas L.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Vera, Alicia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about female condom use among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) in Northern Mexico, where HIV/STI prevalence is high. We examined the prevalence and correlates of female condom use and interest in female condom use among FSW-IDUs aged ≥18 years in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico enrolled in a behavioral intervention designed to reduce high-risk sexual and injection behaviors. Of 621 FSW-IDUs, 8 % reported ever using female condoms, and 67.2 % expressed interest in trying female condoms. Factors independently associated with female condom use were having had a client become angry at the suggestion of using condoms and having engaged in unprotected vaginal sex with non-regular clients. Factors independently associated with interest in using female condoms were lifetime physical abuse and lifetime sexual abuse. Increasing the availability of female condoms and providing education on their use in the context of drug use and violence is recommended. PMID:22711225

  8. Female circumcision and child mortality in urban Somalia.

    PubMed

    Mohamud, O A

    1991-01-01

    In Somalia, a demographer analyzed urban data obtained from the Family Health Survey to examine the effect female circumcision has on child mortality and the mechanism of that effect. Girls undergo female circumcision between 5-12 years old in Somalia. Since sunni circumcision (removal of the clitoral prepuce and tip of the clitoris) and clitoridectomy (removal of the entire clitoris) did not affect child mortality, he used them as the reference group. Infibulation (entire removal of the clitoris and of the labia minora and majora with the remains of the labia majora being sewn together allowing only a small opening for passage of urine) did affect child mortality. Female children who underwent infibulation and whose mothers most likely also underwent infibulation experienced higher mortality (13-72%) than those from other circumcised mothers. Female mortality exceeded male mortality indicating possible son preference. Mothers with clitoridectomy or infibulation had significantly higher infant mortality than those with sunni circumcision with the strongest effects during the neonatal period (95% and 42% higher mortality, respectively; p=.01). The effect of female circumcision on child mortality decreased with increased child's age. This higher than expected mortality among women with clitoridectomy may have been because women with infibulation had more stillbirths which were not counted as births. The exposed vagina of clitoridectomized women is more likely to be infected resulting in high risk of stillbirths and premature births than the closed vagina of infibulated women. The researcher suggested that the policies promoting education and consciousness raising may eventually eradicate female circumcision. This longterm campaign should use mass media, senior women of high status, and respected religious leaders. Legislation prohibiting this practice would only drive it underground under unsanitary conditions. Demographers should no longer ignore female circumcision

  9. Effects of Remediation on Academic Success of First-Time-in-College Female African Americans in a Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean-Francois, Francisse

    2013-01-01

    For decades, remedial education has been extensively used in higher education and studied as an effective tool to help overcome the challenge of student unpreparedness. While previous studies on remedial education addressed the academic failure of students, this study focuses on academic success of African American females. This causal-comparative…

  10. Welfare reform and female headship.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, John M; Ribar, David C

    2004-05-01

    While much of the focus of recent welfare reforms has been on moving recipients from welfare to work, many reforms were also directed at decisions regarding living arrangements, pregnancy, marriage, and cohabitation. This article assesses the impact of welfare reform waivers and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) programs on women's decisions to become unmarried heads of families, controlling for confounding influences from local economic and social conditions. We pooled data from the 1990, 1992, 1993, and 1996 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, which span the period when many states began to adopt welfare waivers and to implement TANF, and estimated logit models of the incidence of female headship and state-stratified, Cox proportional hazard models of the rates of entry into and exit from headship. We found little consistent evidence that waivers affected female headship of families.

  11. Female Sex Offenders' Relationship Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Louanne

    2010-01-01

    Interventions for child sexual abusers should take into account their perspectives on the context of their offenses, but no descriptions of everyday life from the offender's point of view have been published. This study therefore explored female offenders' views of their strengths and challenges. Documented risk assessments of 20 female offenders were analyzed using inductive content analysis (Cavanagh, 1997; Priest, Roberts & Woods, 2002; Woods, Priest & Roberts, 2002). The Good Lives Model provided the initial coding framework and Atlas/ti software (Muhr, 1997) was used for simultaneous data collection and analysis. The content analysis yielded 999 coding decisions organized in three themes. The global theme was relationship experiences. Offenders described the quality of their relationship experiences, including their personal perspectives, intimate relationships and social lives. These descriptions have implications for treatment planning and future research with women who have molested children. PMID:18624098

  12. Clitoridectomy: female circumcision in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hansen, H H

    Female circumcision, or clitoridectomy, has been mentioned in ancient writings from many parts of the world. There are 4 different degrees of total or partial clitoridectomy involving removal of different parts of the female genitalia. The most radical, Sudanese or Pharonic circumcision, is not now practiced in very many areas. The procedure is generally performed 1-2 years preceding puberty. Therefore, it cannot really be considered a rite of passage. Complications following the procedure are mentioned. The are 4 reasons for having the procedure performed: 1) religious; 2) aesthetic; 3) for prevention of undesirable sexual stimulation; and 4) tradition. In Egypt, the 4th most radical type of clitoridectomy is not practiced. The other 3 types are practiced by both Muslims and Christian Copts. During a stay in Egypt during 1966-67, the author had a chance to observe the incidence of the procedure among all classes of Egyptian women.

  13. Social representations of female orgasm.

    PubMed

    Lavie-Ajayi, Maya; Joffe, Hélène

    2009-01-01

    This study examines women's social representations of female orgasm. Fifty semi-structured interviews were conducted with British women. The data were thematically analysed and compared with the content of female orgasm-related writing in two women's magazines over a 30-year period. The results indicate that orgasm is deemed the goal of sex with emphasis on its physiological dimension. However, the women and the magazines graft onto this scientifically driven representation the importance of relational and emotive aspects of orgasm. For the women, particularly those who experience themselves as having problems with orgasm, the scientifically driven representations induce feelings of failure, but are also resisted. The findings highlight the role played by the social context in women's subjective experience of their sexual health.

  14. Female genital mutilations - a testimony.

    PubMed

    Youssouf, Samia

    2013-02-01

    In Djibouti, the prevalence of female genital mutilations (FGMs) amounts to 98% and the practice is still in use. When I left, in 1999, I knew I would involve myself in the fight against FGMs and I describe here the outcome of an obstacle course of more than ten years duration. This paper is written on behalf of innumerable women, who could give you a similar account. PMID:23205512

  15. Female drug use: some observations.

    PubMed

    Suffet, F; Brotman, R

    1976-01-01

    This paper, based on a review of recent social science drug research, summarizes the main findings on female drug use and speculates on its future direction. The findings include the following: women are usually initiated into illicit drug use by men; rates of illicit drug use are lower among females than males (which may reflect the greater personal freedom traditionally granted to males), although the difference narrows among younger persons and among those who subscribe to more liberal values and life styles; women are more likely than men to use psychotherapeutic drugs (which may reflect strains resulting from their unequal status vis-à-vis men); and female opiate addicts, although they tend to hold conventional values, are often involved in such deviant activity as prostitution. To the extent that women gain social equality with men and subscribe to greater personal lifestyle freedom, they may be expected to show a higher rate of illicit drug use, particularly of a recreational kind. On the other hand, the rate of psychotherapeutic drug use may decrease, although if the tensions of the workplace eventually substitute for the tensions of status inequality, the resultant changes in rates and patterns of substance use are problematic. PMID:767261

  16. [Clinical comments on female homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Zeul, M

    1993-02-01

    In psychoanalytic theory, homosexual women are regarded as being possessed by violent hatred of the mother. They are held to identify with the male or the phallic and to display an absence of "normal" femaleness. Their attendant immaturity makes them incapable of love. The author takes issue with the assumption that normality is synonymous with mature, reciprocal heterosexuality. With reference to a case study of a homosexual woman, she traces the structure of a lesbian love relationship. The patient is the involuntary witness of sexual intercourse between the parents. The mixture of alarm and excitement which this arouses sparks off female desires that revive early libidinous experiences with the mother. The girl desires her mother, without however identifying with the father. In her later relationships with women she does not relate to her partners as a disguised man but as a woman. Identification with the father serves as a defence against the desire for-and the fear of-identification at a female level. PMID:8441814

  17. Female Reproductive System and Bone

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Bart L.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2010-01-01

    The female reproductive system plays a major role in regulating the acquisition and loss of bone by the skeleton from menarche through senescence. Onset of gonadal sex steroid secretion at puberty is the major factor responsible for skeletal longitudinal and radial growth, as well as significant gain in bone density, until peak bone density is achieved in third decade of life. Gonadal sex steroids then help maintain peak bone density until menopause, including during the transient changes in skeletal mineral content associated with pregnancy and lactation. At menopause, decreased gonadal sex steroid production normally leads to rapid bone loss. The most rapid bone loss associated with decreased estrogen levels occurs in the first 8–10 years after menopause, with slower age-related bone loss occurring during later life. Age-related bone loss in women after the early menopausal phase of bone loss is caused by ongoing gonadal sex steroid deficiency, vitamin D deficiency, and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Other factors also contribute to age-related bone loss, including intrinsic defects in osteoblast function, impairment of the GH/IGF axis, reduced peak bone mass, age-associated sarcopenia, and various sporadic secondary causes. Further understanding of the relative contributions of the female reproductive system and each of the other factors to development and maintenance of the female skeleton, bone loss, and fracture risk will lead to improved approaches for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:20637179

  18. [Energy balance among female athletes].

    PubMed

    Arieli, Rakefet; Constantini, Naama

    2012-02-01

    Athletes need to consume sufficient energy to meet their training demands, maintain their health, and if young, to ensure their growth and development. Athletes are often preoccupied by their body weight and shape, and in some sports might be subjected to pressure to lose weight by coaches, peers or themselves. Eating disorders and poor eating habits are prevalent among female athletes, especially in sport disciplines where low body weight is required to improve performance or for "aesthetic" appearance or in weight category sports. Low energy intake has deleterious effects on many systems, including the cardiovascular system, several hormonal pathways, musculoskeletal system, fluids and electrolytes, thermoregulation, growth and development. Various fitness components and overall performance are also negatively affected. All these, together with poor nutritional status that causes vitamin and mineral deficiencies, poor concentration and depression, put the athlete at an increased injury risk. Energy availability is now recognized as the primary factor initiating these health problems. Energy availability is defined as dietary energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure. If below 30 kcal/kg fat free mass per day, reproductive system functions, as well as other metabolic systems, might be suppressed. The case presented is of a young female Judoka, who complained of fatigue and weakness. Medical and nutritional assessment revealed that she suffered from low energy availability, which slowed her growth and development, and negatively affected her health and athletic performance. This case study emphasizes the importance of adequate energy availability in young female athletes in order to ensure their health.

  19. Stroke and the female brain.

    PubMed

    Bushnell, Cheryl D

    2008-01-01

    Stroke is a major public health problem. The female population carries a higher stroke burden than the male population, both because females have a longer life expectancy and because most stroke deaths occur in women. Differences between the sexes in relation to stroke are increasingly being recognized; for example, among stroke survivors, women tend to have worse outcomes than men, as indicated by more-severe disability and an increased likelihood of institutionalization in women. Women and men with stroke also differ in their risk factor profiles, and they respond differently to primary-prevention and acute stroke treatment. Women experience variations in endogenous estrogens throughout their life cycle and might also be exposed to exogenous estrogens, both of which markedly affect the brain. An understanding of the effects of endogenous and exogenous estrogens on cerebral hemodynamics could guide research into explaining how hormone therapy increases the risk of stroke in postmenopausal women. This Review summarizes the sex differences related to stroke, and the effect of endogenous and exogenous hormones on the cerebrovasculature of the female brain. It also proposes potential research approaches, the results of which could fill in gaps in our knowledge regarding the mechanism of action of estrogen in the brain.

  20. The Minority Voice in Educational Reform: An Analysis by Minority and Women College of Education Deans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castenell, Louis A., Ed.; Tarule, Jill M., Ed.

    This collection of papers examines the issue of minority and female deans in colleges of education, offering the current thinking by a group of minority and female deans of education. Part 1, "Changing Leadership: Tensions within Academic and Social Roles," presents the first four chapters: (1) "Surviving the Middle Passage: The Absent Legacy of…

  1. Parasitoid infestation changes female mating preferences.

    PubMed

    Beckers, Oliver M; Wagner, William E

    2013-04-01

    Females often adjust their mating preference to environmental and social conditions. This plasticity of preference can be adaptive for females and can have important consequences for the evolution of male traits. While predation and parasitism are widespread, their effects on female preferences have rarely been investigated. Females of the cricket Gryllus lineaticeps are parasitized by the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. Infestation with fly larvae substantially reduces female life span and thus reproductive opportunities of the cricket. Both female G. lineaticeps and flies orient to male song and both prefer male songs with faster chirp rates to songs with slower chirp rates. We tested the effect of parasitic infestation on female responsiveness to male song and female chirp rate preferences. The proportion of individuals responding to male songs did not differ between infested and control females. Control females preferred intermediate chirp rates to slow chirp rates and did not discriminate between fast and intermediate chirp rates. In contrast, infested females showed no preferences in the choice trials, indicating reduced chirp rate selectivity. This plasticity in female preferences may be adaptive; parasitized females may have a higher probability of reproducing before they are killed by the parasitoids if they are less selective (i.e. there will be a larger pool of males considered acceptable). The change in preferences suggests relaxed selection on male chirp rate during times of parasitism. PMID:24347669

  2. Parasitoid infestation changes female mating preferences

    PubMed Central

    Beckers, Oliver M.; Wagner, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Females often adjust their mating preference to environmental and social conditions. This plasticity of preference can be adaptive for females and can have important consequences for the evolution of male traits. While predation and parasitism are widespread, their effects on female preferences have rarely been investigated. Females of the cricket Gryllus lineaticeps are parasitized by the parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea. Infestation with fly larvae substantially reduces female life span and thus reproductive opportunities of the cricket. Both female G. lineaticeps and flies orient to male song and both prefer male songs with faster chirp rates to songs with slower chirp rates. We tested the effect of parasitic infestation on female responsiveness to male song and female chirp rate preferences. The proportion of individuals responding to male songs did not differ between infested and control females. Control females preferred intermediate chirp rates to slow chirp rates and did not discriminate between fast and intermediate chirp rates. In contrast, infested females showed no preferences in the choice trials, indicating reduced chirp rate selectivity. This plasticity in female preferences may be adaptive; parasitized females may have a higher probability of reproducing before they are killed by the parasitoids if they are less selective (i.e. there will be a larger pool of males considered acceptable). The change in preferences suggests relaxed selection on male chirp rate during times of parasitism. PMID:24347669

  3. [Current status of the female condom in Africa].

    PubMed

    Deniaud, F

    1997-01-01

    The female condom was developed in the 1980s. It is a contraceptive device used by women that protects against both pregnancy and sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) including HIV infection. Two studies have investigated the contraceptive effectiveness of the female condom, and it was found to be as effective as other barrier methods. It has been shown to be effective against STD and HIV transmission in vitro but there is only limited evidence of its efficacy in vivo. No serious local side effects or allergies have been reported and the female condom can be used with any type of lubricant, spermicidal cream or foam. The female condom is the only device other than the male condom that has been shown to prevent HIV transmission. The female condom has been marketed in 13 countries since the summer of 1996. Most of these countries are industrialized and the selling price in these countries is too high for developing countries. Sub-Saharan Africa has very high prevalence rates for HIV infection, at least 30% of the general population in Eastern and Central regions. The epidemic is also spreading fast in some parts of the Western region. In Ivory Coast for example, 12 to 15% of pregnant women are infected. African women are subordinate to men in many aspects of their lives, politically, educationally, socially and sexually. This sexual inequality makes them highly vulnerable to STDs, including HIV, and unwanted pregnancies. This paper reviews 10 of the 15 studies carried out in sub-Saharan African countries between 1990 and 1996 and compiled by the World Health Organization. Recruitment methods, education of subjects, methodology and assessment of acceptability differed between studies. Despite these limitations, most studies concluded that the women who participated in the trials generally found the female condom acceptable. Acceptability was established quicker among prostitutes than among other women and men found the female condom less acceptable than did women

  4. Concerns and Education Regarding Issues of Weight Control and Female Athletes: Body Image and Female Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brylinsky, Jody

    An examination of the interaction of social and cultural influences on body image development may yield an explanation for the development of eating disorder behavior, especially in understanding the special problems facing women athletes. There appear to be two major sociocultural factors influencing the development of body image in the…

  5. Female representation by type of class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-02-01

    Last month we saw that females make up about 47% of all high school physics students in the United States. This number has changed little since 1997. This month, we take a closer look at female representation by type of class. We last collected class-specific data in 1993; that year, 43% of all high school physics students were female. However, female representation varies by type of class. In both 1993 and 2009, conceptual physics courses had the highest proportion of female students, and AP Physics C had the lowest. The good news is that female representation exhibits growth in all types of classes. In fact, the jump from 27% of the AP Physics C students being female in 1993 to 32% in 2009 represents an almost 20% growth in female representation; this compares favorably to the 9.3% growth overall.

  6. The Female Image in Children's TV Commercials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verna, Mary Ellen

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of advertising on children's television programs shows that more than half were male-dominant ads and fewer than one-seventh were female dominated. Female roles were almost entirely dependent and passive. (LS)

  7. Female Athletes: Targets for Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duda, Marty

    1986-01-01

    Increased participation in sports and greater pressures to win have made female athletes very vulnerable to drug abuse. How the physiology and socialization of females contributes to this problem is discussed. (Author/MT)

  8. Health Considerations in Female Runners.

    PubMed

    Kim, Brian Y; Nattiv, Aurelia

    2016-02-01

    Female participation in running is at a historical high. Special consideration should be given to this population, in whom suboptimal nutritional intake, menstrual irregularity, and bone stress injury are common. Immature athletes should garner particular attention. Advances in the understanding of the Triad and Triad-related conditions have largely informed the approach to the health of this population. Clinicians should be well versed in the identification of Triad-related risk factors. A multidisciplinary team may be necessary for the optimal treatment of at-risk runners. Nonpharmacologic strategies to increase energy availability in athletes should be used as first-line treatment. PMID:26616182

  9. Thoughts on the socialization of the female population.

    PubMed

    Zhou, W

    1995-01-01

    In China in 1990 70% of illiterates were women, and in 1988 82% of school-age children who were not enrolled were girls. Educational attainment has increased however since 1949, but the effects are still not sufficiently widespread or at high enough levels, particularly in rural areas. Female employment since the mid-1970s increased at an annual rate of about 4.3%. Female employment in 1992 was 38% of total employment. Types of occupations engaging women have broadened somewhat. Women are over 50% of those employed by hygiene, sports, and social welfare occupations and 45% of those employed by public and commercial occupations. Over 1 million women are engaged in privately owned businesses out of a total of over 2 million. 40 million women are engaged in township enterprises out of a total of over 100 million township enterprises. A gap in female labor force participation is the lower number of women engaged in the tertiary sector jobs requiring a higher education. Women are still encouraged to be only homemakers, and many women still prefer to remain at home. Women do not actively seek employment outside the home. Women are assured of protection in the labor market or with social security. Women are treated as commodities. Chinese women in this largely agricultural society are not valued highly and are valued for their sexual functions, particularly in producing sons. Women are forced into a secluded environment. Rural women's social exchanges are limited to blood relatives and regional location and are usually among women only. Social exchanges are limited to chattiness about personal affairs and are constricted by time factors. Tradition determines family responsibilities and the range of behavior. Female social development is inhibited by women's personal attributes such as dependency and social factors such as gender discrimination and family and productivity constraints. Female socialization and modernization can bring out changes in marriage quality, family

  10. Male Acceptance of Female Career Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollender, John; Schafer, Leslie

    1981-01-01

    Forty-two White, male university students rated five written female role statements matched with videotaped females on an 11-point probability of marriage scale. Preference was given to family-oriented women with some career involvement. Results also indicated interaction among work roles, female physical attractiveness, and male self-esteem. (JCD)

  11. Sexual Attractiveness of Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Peggy; And Others

    The most important characteristics for females judging the attractiveness of males, and for males judging females, were eyes, body build and facial complexion. Previously, females tended to place less importance on physical components of attraction for both themselves and men. Possible interpretations are: (1) women have become more egalitarian…

  12. Normal development of the female reproductive system

    EPA Science Inventory

    The embryonic development of the female reproductive system involves a progression of events that is conserved across vertebrate species. The early gonad progresses from a form that is undifferentiated in both genotypic males and females. Rudimentary male (Wolffian) and female (M...

  13. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and... condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and is..., 2011, for any female condom that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, or that has, on...

  14. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and... condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and is..., 2011, for any female condom that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, or that has, on...

  15. 21 CFR 884.5330 - Female condom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Female condom. 884.5330 Section 884.5330 Food and... condom. (a) Identification. A female condom is a sheath-like device that lines the vaginal wall and is..., 2011, for any female condom that was in commercial distribution before May 28, 1976, or that has, on...

  16. Female Representation by Type of Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Teacher, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Last month we saw that females make up about 47% of all high school physics students in the United States. This number has changed little since 1997. This month, we take a closer look at female representation by type of class. We last collected class-specific data in 1993; that year, 43% of all high school physics students were female. However,…

  17. Characteristics of Female College Student Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traub, Stuart H.

    1983-01-01

    Examined female college students' (N=466) drug use, marihuana use in particular. Results indicated that the gap in marihuana usage patterns between females and males has substantially narrowed. Female marihuana users used other drugs quite extensively and had friends who use marihuana. Peer influence was a major factor in drug use. (JAC)

  18. Value Profiles of Male and Female Entrepreneurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Lloyd W., Jr.; Solomon, George T.

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of the values of 86 male and 74 female entrepreneurs found males' highest terminal values being pleasure and true friendship while females' highest terminal values were health and self-respect. High instrumental values for males were ambition and broadmindedness; while for females high instrumental values were honesty and…

  19. The Effects of Female Mathematician Role Models on Eighth- and Ninth-Grade First-Year Algebra Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Judith A.; Tracy, Dyanne M.

    In the United States female and male students supposedly have the same educational opportunities. Females continue to score below male students on the mathematics portions of standardized tests and less frequently choose mathematics-oriented careers. In this experimental study (n=95), 47 first-year algebra students participated in a month-long…

  20. The Subtlety of Age, Gender, and Race Barriers: A Case Study of Early Career African American Female Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean-Marie, Gaetane

    2013-01-01

    While all educational leaders face challenges in achieving success, African American female principals often face a unique set of challenges associated with the complexity of their gender, race, and, as examined in this study, age. This case study investigates the experiences of two highly visible, early career African American female principals…

  1. "Sisters of Nia": A Social Justice Advocacy Intervention for School Counselors in Their Work with Adolescent African American Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Lee Edmondson; Haizlip, Breyan; Rogers, Tiffany; Brown, Kimberly D.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent African American females face multiple obstacles that hinder their educational success. High school completion and college attendance rates remain lower for African American females than those for other racial and gender groups, while pregnancy rates for African American teens are higher. Group work holds promise for meeting the…

  2. Assessing the Awareness and Behaviors of U.S. High School Nurses with Respect to the Female Athlete Triad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroshus, Emily; Fischer, Anastasia N.; Nichols, Jeanne F.

    2015-01-01

    Female high school athletes are an at-risk population for the Female Athlete Triad--a syndrome including low energy availability (with or without disordered eating), menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. School nurses can play an important role in reducing the health burden of this syndrome, by educating coaches and athletes, and by…

  3. STEM for Females goes from a Ripple to a Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Rita

    2015-11-01

    At the 2015 World Conference of Science Journalists in Seoul on June 9, 2015 Nobel Prize Winner Sir Tim Hunt gave a speech with remarks which offended females in science around the world. Following the social media reaction several STEM education foundation for girls received justified attention. Programs are being supported for the education of girls and women around the world and they are gaining media attention. I will discuss the growing popularity and availability of all-girl science programs. These eager-to-learn young females are preparing themselves for serious careers in the hopes that their generation will close the gender gap. I will present a statistical analysis of workplace gender equality in professional STEM environments, including a focus on select fluid dynamics corporations, which will show that there is room for improvement across the industry. The goal of this presentation is to endorse and promote the ever-growing wave of qualified female applicants to graduate programs and industrial job placements.

  4. Tobacco abuse among school going adolescents in a rural area of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Anindya; Sinha, Abhik; Taraphdar, Pranita; Basu, Gandhari; Chakrabarty, Debadatta

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents are vulnerable targets of tobacco industry with all consequences of usage. Studies reveal that tobacco abuse is rising in this age group in India. A cross sectional survey was carried out in two coeducational high schools of Anandanagar village of Singur block, Hooghly district, West Bengal among 276 students of VIII-IX standard to study the knowledge and abuse of tobacco and to find out influencing socio-demographic factors. Knowledge score was higher in females, students from nuclear families, and those with literate parents. Low prevalence of tobacco intake was obtained among the students, with 9.8% reported having ever used smokeless tobacco and 4.3% ever smoked. Tobacco intake was higher among those with a history of parental tobacco intake. Continued information education and communication (IEC) activities should be conducted by the school authorities, with involvement of nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and parents for primary prevention. PMID:23354139

  5. What's wrong with female circumcision?

    PubMed

    Nelson, D

    1994-03-16

    Why should the multicultural society of Canada outlaw female genital mutilation (FGM) as proposed by federal Justice Minister Allan Rock or allow avoidance of the procedure to be a legitimate reason for gaining refugee status? Is this anti-FGM position simply an ethnocentric stance that would be called racism in other circumstances? Canadian objections to FGM can not arise from objections about mutilation of a child's sexual organs because male circumcision is legal in Canada, although it, too, is medically questionable. Perhaps Rock is being patriarchal in reserving his concern for females. In Somali culture, women determine the nature and extent of FGM, so Rock may simply be exhibiting his inability to understand other cultures. On the other hand, it is politically incorrect for Canadian government workers to criticize other cultures, and immigrants are assured that their values and beliefs will be accommodated in Canada. Thus, polygamy among Somali immigrants is ignored. The question is why should FGM be a major exception and invoke efforts at repression instead of a respect for diversity.

  6. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications - minoxidil and finasteride - are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. PMID:24039457

  7. Types of female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    1998-03-01

    The two major types of female genital mutilation include clitoridectomy and excision with infibulation. Clitoridectomy involves removal of the clitoris, part of all of the labia minora, and, often, all external soft genital tissue. Excision with infibulation involves all of this as well as removing the sides of the labia majora, abrading the sides of the vulva, and joining the bleeding sides of the vulva with thorns or a paste. A small opening is all that is allowed to remain for the passage of urine and menstrual blood. In Western Africa, infibulation is accomplished by tying the legs of the affected girls together in a crossed position immediate after the operation. These girls are immobilized for several weeks until the wound has closed. Infibulation is sometimes referred to a "pharaonic" because it occurred in ancient Egypt. Infibulated women must be cut open to allow sexual intercourse or child birth. Women are traditionally reinfibulated after child birth and then reopened when the child is weaned. Female genital mutilation is performed in septic conditions using the same tool on a group of girls. Fatalities are blamed on evil spirits or are said to occur because the victim was not a virgin.

  8. Female pattern alopecia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2013-01-01

    Hair loss is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice, with men presenting with a distinctive pattern involving hairline recession and vertex balding (Norwood-Hamilton classification) and women exhibiting diffuse hair thinning over the crown (increased part width) and sparing of the frontal hairline (Ludwig classification). Female pattern hair loss has a strikingly overwhelming psychological effect; thus, successful treatments are necessary. Difficulty lies in successful treatment interventions, as only two medications – minoxidil and finasteride – are approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia, and these medications offer mediocre results, lack of a permanent cure, and potential complications. Hair transplantation is the only current successful permanent option, and it requires surgical procedures. Several other medical options, such as antiandrogens (eg, spironolactone, oral contraceptives, cyproterone, flutamide, dutasteride), prostaglandin analogs (eg, bimatoprost, latanoprost), and ketoconazole are reported to be beneficial. Laser and light therapies have also become popular despite the lack of a profound benefit. Management of expectations is crucial, and the aim of therapy, given the current therapeutic options, is to slow or stop disease progression with contentment despite patient expectations of permanent hair regrowth. This article reviews current perspectives on therapeutic options for female pattern hair loss. PMID:24039457

  9. Energy deficiency, menstrual disturbances and low bone mass: What do Australian exercising females know about the female athlete triad?

    PubMed

    Kyriazis, Stephanie M; Kukuljan, Sonja; Turner, Anne I; van der Pligt, Paige; Ducher, Gaele

    2012-02-15

    PURPOSE: Prevention of the female athlete triad is essential to protect female athletes' health. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of regularly exercising adult females towards eating patterns, menstrual cycles and bone health. METHODS: A total of 191 female exercisers, aged 18-40 y, engaging in ≥2 hr/wk of strenuous activity, completed a survey. After excluding 11 surveys (due to incomplete answers), the 180 participants were categorised into lean-build sports (n=82; running/athletics, triathlon, swimming, cycling, dancing, rowing), non lean-build sports (n=94; basketball, netball, soccer, hockey, volleyball, tennis, trampoline, squash, Australian football) or gym/fitness activities (n=4). RESULTS: Mean (±SD) training volume was 9.0±5.5 hr/wk, with participants competing from local up to international level. Only 10% of respondents could name the 3 components of the female athlete triad. Regardless of the reported history of stress fracture, 45% of the respondents did not think that amenorrhoea (absence of menses for ≥ three months) could affect bone health, and 22% of those involved in lean-build sports would do nothing if experiencing amenorrhoea (vs. 3.2% in non lean-build sports, p=0.005). Lean-build sports, history of amenorrhoea and history of stress fracture were all significantly associated with not taking action in the presence of amenorrhoea (all p<0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Few active Australian women are aware of the detrimental effects of menstrual dysfunction on bone health. Education programs are needed to prevent the female athlete triad and ensure appropriate actions are taken by athletes when experiencing amenorrhoea.

  10. Energy deficiency, menstrual disturbances and low bone mass: What do Australian exercising females know about the female athlete triad?

    PubMed

    Kyriazis, Stephanie M; Kukuljan, Sonja; Turner, Anne I; van der Pligt, Paige; Ducher, Gaele

    2012-02-15

    PURPOSE: Prevention of the female athlete triad is essential to protect female athletes' health. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of regularly exercising adult females towards eating patterns, menstrual cycles and bone health. METHODS: A total of 191 female exercisers, aged 18-40 y, engaging in ≥2 hr/wk of strenuous activity, completed a survey. After excluding 11 surveys (due to incomplete answers), the 180 participants were categorised into lean-build sports (n=82; running/athletics, triathlon, swimming, cycling, dancing, rowing), non lean-build sports (n=94; basketball, netball, soccer, hockey, volleyball, tennis, trampoline, squash, Australian football) or gym/fitness activities (n=4). RESULTS: Mean (±SD) training volume was 9.0±5.5 hr/wk, with participants competing from local up to international level. Only 10% of respondents could name the 3 components of the female athlete triad. Regardless of the reported history of stress fracture, 45% of the respondents did not think that amenorrhoea (absence of menses for ≥ three months) could affect bone health, and 22% of those involved in lean-build sports would do nothing if experiencing amenorrhoea (vs. 3.2% in non lean-build sports, p=0.005). Lean-build sports, history of amenorrhoea and history of stress fracture were all significantly associated with not taking action in the presence of amenorrhoea (all p<0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Few active Australian women are aware of the detrimental effects of menstrual dysfunction on bone health. Education programs are needed to prevent the female athlete triad and ensure appropriate actions are taken by athletes when experiencing amenorrhoea. PMID:22349258

  11. [The family. The poorest households with female heads].

    PubMed

    Acosta Diaz, F

    1992-01-01

    Data from the household questionnaire of the 1987 Mexican Fertility and Health Survey were the basis for an analysis of the characteristics of households headed by women. 14.1% of households were headed by women in 1987, of which 14% were in rural and 86% in urban areas. 41.9% of the households headed by women contained only a woman and her children. Child care responsibilities are the main determinant of discrimination in the labor market for these women and oblige them to accept jobs that are not adequately paid. The social disadvantage of households headed by women is also related to their age and marital and educational status. Among male and female household heads respectively, 16.3% and 36.5% were over age 60, 16.4% and 27.5% were illiterate, and 92.7% and 8.4% were married or in union. 15.5% of the female heads were single, 24.7% were divorced or separated, and 51.4% were widows. Among employed female household heads, 49.2% were salaried, 36.5% were self-employed, and 10.1% were domestic workers. 63.8% of female and 46.3% of male household heads earned one minimum salary or less per month. The average size of households headed by women was 3.9 members, compared to 5.4 for households headed by men.

  12. [How EPMEWSE* worked with supporting programs for female scientists in STEM** fields in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ohtsubo, Hisako

    2013-09-01

    In gender equality, Japan is still lagging behind other developed nations. The ratio of female to male researchers is only at 14% in 2012, the lowest among developed countries. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) in Japan has started the programs to support the female researchers and to develop their leadership activities. Our survey revealed that there are too few women in higher positions who can help younger women with career enhancement. Also, male scientists have unconscious bias when they evaluate their female colleagues. At the same time, female scientists often underestimate their ability when seeking leadership roles. The MEXT programs will only exert a long-term effect on the ratio and roles of women in science if the academic climate and leadership changes in Japan. In Japan, a long-term strategy with support by government and universities is essential to overcome the gender gap and maximize the potential of female scientists.

  13. [How EPMEWSE* worked with supporting programs for female scientists in STEM** fields in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ohtsubo, Hisako

    2013-09-01

    In gender equality, Japan is still lagging behind other developed nations. The ratio of female to male researchers is only at 14% in 2012, the lowest among developed countries. The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) in Japan has started the programs to support the female researchers and to develop their leadership activities. Our survey revealed that there are too few women in higher positions who can help younger women with career enhancement. Also, male scientists have unconscious bias when they evaluate their female colleagues. At the same time, female scientists often underestimate their ability when seeking leadership roles. The MEXT programs will only exert a long-term effect on the ratio and roles of women in science if the academic climate and leadership changes in Japan. In Japan, a long-term strategy with support by government and universities is essential to overcome the gender gap and maximize the potential of female scientists. PMID:24066391

  14. Receptive females mitigate costs of sexual conflict.

    PubMed

    Harano, T

    2015-02-01

    Males typically gain fitness from multiple mating, whereas females often lose fitness from numerous mating, potentially leading to sexual conflict over mating. This conflict is expected to favour the evolution of female resistance to mating. However, females may incur male harassment if they refuse to copulate; thus, greater female resistance may increase costs imposed by males. Here, I show that the evolution of resistance to mating raises fitness disadvantages of interacting with males when mating is harmful in female adzuki bean beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis. Females that were artificially selected for higher and lower remating propensity evolved to accept and resist remating, respectively. Compared with females that evolved to accept remating, females that evolved to resist it suffered higher fitness costs from continuous exposure to males. The costs of a single mating measured by the effect on longevity did not differ among selection line females. This study indicates that receptive rather than resistant females mitigate the fitness loss resulting from sexual conflict, suggesting that even though mating is harmful, females can evolve to accept additional mating.

  15. Anthropometry of Korean female industrial workers.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, J E; Malzahn, D E; Eyada, O K; Kim, C H

    1989-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an anthropometric survey conducted on Korean female workers in the garment industry. The data was collected as part of a project to modify work stations that utilized equipment from other countries. A set of 23 body dimensions were taken from a sample of 101 workers (aged 18-28 years). The anthropometric measurements are presented and compared with those of the Western and Japanese female. The results indicate that the body dimensions of the Korean female are different from those of both the Western and the Japanese female. The ratio of sitting height to standing height for the Korean female is closer to that of the Western female than it is the Japanese female.

  16. Being Female Doing Gender. Narratives of Women in Education Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priola, Vincenza

    2007-01-01

    The paper explores gender relations in academia and discusses how gender is constructed within academic institutions. It is based upon the study of a business school, part of a British university. The construction of gender relations within this institution was of special interest because the majority of managerial roles were occupied by women.…

  17. Female Condom Use among Female University Students in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: Results of a Randomized Behavioral Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mantell, Joanne E.; Smit, Jennifer A.; Exner, Theresa M.; Mabude, Zonke; Hoffman, Susie; Beksinska, Mags; Kelvin, Elizabeth A.; Ngoloyi, Claudia; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Stein, Zena A.

    2014-01-01

    Relatively few interventions have tested the efficacy of female condom promotion either alone or in combination with other barrier methods. We evaluated the efficacy of a two-session (enhanced) cognitive-behavioral intervention (EI) (n=147) against aone-session control (minimal) educational intervention (MI) (n=149) to promote female condom (FC) use among female students aged 18-28 at a South African university. We assessed change from baseline to 2.5 and 5 months in number of vaginal intercourse occasions unprotected by male or female condoms in EI vs. MI using generalized linear models with a log link function and GEE. Both groups reported significant reductions in number of unprotected vaginal intercourse occasions from baseline to each follow-up, with no significant difference between the two-session and single-session intervention. Introduction of a brief group-based MI FC promotion intervention with FC access holds promise for delivery in clinics and other community venues. PMID:25092513

  18. Young adult females' perceptions of high-risk social media behaviors: a focus-group approach.

    PubMed

    Virden, Amber L; Trujillo, Angelia; Predeger, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This study describes young adult female college students' perceptions of risky social media behaviors. A sample of 14 young adult females, aged 18-22 years and residing in an urban university, participated in 1 of 3 focus groups held in campus housing. Data analysis yielded 4 themes surrounding young adults' engagement in risky behaviors associated with social media. Themes described the predominant culture, associated risk, and prevention. Important insights into young adult female college students' thoughts on risky social media behaviors can be used by advanced practice nurses to inform preventive education for young college women.

  19. Female genital cosmetic surgery: a review of techniques and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Iglesia, Cheryl B; Yurteri-Kaplan, Ladin; Alinsod, Red

    2013-12-01

    The aesthetic and functional procedures that comprise female genital cosmetic surgery (FGCS) include traditional vaginal prolapse procedures as well as cosmetic vulvar and labial procedures. The line between cosmetic and medically indicated surgical procedures is blurred, and today many operations are performed for both purposes. The contributions of gynecologists and reconstructive pelvic surgeons are crucial in this debate. Aesthetic vaginal surgeons may unintentionally blur legitimate female pelvic floor disorders with other aesthetic conditions. In the absence of quality outcome data, the value of FGCS in improving sexual function remains uncertain. Women seeking FGCS need to be educated about the range and variation of labia widths and genital appearance, and should be evaluated for true pelvic support disorders such as pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence. Women seeking FGCS should also be screened for psychological conditions and should act autonomously without coercion from partners or surgeons with proprietary conflicts of interest.

  20. The School Nurse's Role in Addressing Female Genital Mutilation.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is the practice in some immigrant populations of cutting or causing injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. The incidence of FGM/C has increased by 314% in school-aged children according to a study published in 2016. The school nurse is in an optimal position to identify children at risk and build collaborative relationships to treat the students affected by the practice. FGM/C is child abuse and carries both federal and state legal consequences. It is important for the school nurse to understand the cultural context, legal guidance, and social consequences of this practice within the greater community. The school nurse should work to develop interagency guidelines to provide safe processes for the child and the family. The most effective programs use a combination of educational strategies for families and communities along with law enforcement to help abolish the practice. PMID:27194237

  1. The School Nurse's Role in Addressing Female Genital Mutilation.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is the practice in some immigrant populations of cutting or causing injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. The incidence of FGM/C has increased by 314% in school-aged children according to a study published in 2016. The school nurse is in an optimal position to identify children at risk and build collaborative relationships to treat the students affected by the practice. FGM/C is child abuse and carries both federal and state legal consequences. It is important for the school nurse to understand the cultural context, legal guidance, and social consequences of this practice within the greater community. The school nurse should work to develop interagency guidelines to provide safe processes for the child and the family. The most effective programs use a combination of educational strategies for families and communities along with law enforcement to help abolish the practice.

  2. Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Sheryl, Ed.; Shaver, Barbara, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Articles on women's studies and females in higher education are presented in this publication. A University of North Dakota project that sought to promote the integration of new research and scholarship results into the curriculum is described in "Women's Equity Committee Offers a Model Project," (Leola Furman, Robert Young). Historical…

  3. Chance, choice and opportunity: Life history study of two exemplary female elementary science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitt, Kathleen Milligan

    The purpose of this two-year study was to investigate why two female elementary teachers became exemplary science teachers, despite conditions which do not promote such achievement. Each teachers' progress was examined using life history methodology. The study's theoretical grounding included females' academic and attitudinal success in science education. Purposeful sampling of peers, administrators, and college professors produced two research participants. Both teachers participated in interviews, observations, and member checks lasting over one year. Data were analyzed inductively, resulting in two life histories. Comparing the life stories using confluence theory (Feldman, 1986) indicated four major categories for consideration: risk-taking; life-long learning; gender equity; and mentors. Risk-taking is necessary for female elementary teachers because of their often poor educational background. Few female role models support efforts for achievement. Life-long learning, including extensive reading and graduate-level classes, supports female teachers' personal and professional growth. Exposure to new ideas and teacher practices encourages curricular change and refinement in science education. Gender inequity and the male-packaging of science is an issue to be resolved by female elementary teachers. Mentors can provide interaction and feedback to refine science instructional practices. Professors, peers, and mentor teachers support instructional and content knowledge efforts. Recommendations for science education in classroom practices, preservice teacher education and continuing professional development include female-friendly approaches to science instruction. Decreased competitive practices through cooperative learning and gender inclusive language encourages female participation and achievement in classrooms. Hands-on, inquiry-based instruction and verbalization encourages female students' achievement in science education. Preservice teachers must receive

  4. Female STEM majors wanted: The impact of certain factors on choice of a college major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Walter Michael

    Although females have made significant strides in educational achievements and substantial inroads into academic majors, such as business and medicine, they have made considerably less progress in the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. This translates into a smaller number of female graduates prepared to work in the science career fields and results in American industry looking to other countries for its educated workforce. A mixed-methods research design was used to explore and understand the lived experiences and perceptions of faculty members and working STEM professionals in Northern and Central Virginia. Results indicated that although females are attaining STEM degrees and entering STEM fields in record numbers, obstacles such as a challenging STEM curriculum, bias, feelings of insecurity, lack of female role models, and inadequate preparation for the STEM workforce could impede the progress females have made. This research makes recommendations to the academic community and industry which may be used as retention and recruitment strategies for females considering a career in STEM. The ultimate goal is to significantly increase the number of highly skilled female graduates entering STEM fields, leading the U.S. to regain its previous position atop the world in technological innovation and leadership.

  5. Flibanserin and Female Sexual Desire.

    PubMed

    Fantasia, Heidi Collins

    2016-01-01

    Female hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is one type of sexual problem that can affect women. It is characterized by low or absent sexual desire that cannot be attributed to another cause and results in difficulty in interpersonal relationships. HSDD is not well understood, and women may not report symptoms of difficulties to their health care providers. In August 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved flibanserin, a nonhormonal oral medication for the treatment of HSDD in premenopausal women. Flibanserin is the only currently available pharmacologic treatment for HSDD. This article will provide an overview of flibanserin, including potential adverse reactions, special considerations for use, and implications for nursing practice. PMID:27287358

  6. [Benign neoplasms of female urethra].

    PubMed

    Usunova, I; Vladimirov, V

    2009-01-01

    In clinical practice neoplasms of female urethra are found usually in adult women. They can also be found in adolescent girls and as rare congenital abnormality. Those conditions are most frequently detected during gynecological or urological examination. Symptoms are few. Lesions are situated at the outer orifice of urethra at the broad basis. Authors have diagnosed and treated 331 patients between 26 and 87 years. Electro coagulation has been performed in 185 patients. Surgical excision has been performed in 41 patients. Excision with following electrocoagulation has been performed in 18 patients. Conservative treatment has been performed in 87 patients. Histological sample analysis has provided diagnosis of urethral polyp, caruncle and mucosal prolaps. Second electrocoagulation after surgical excision has been performed in 5 patients. Collaboration between urologists and gynecologists is essential for early diagnosis, prophylaxis and successful treatment of above mentioned diseases. PMID:19496462

  7. [Smoking and female reproductive health].

    PubMed

    Sajdak, Stefan; Witczak, Kamila; Sroka, Lukasz; Samulak, Dariusz

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological data shows that 9 millions of Poles are in smokers group, 43% of them are women. Smoking has significant negative impact on different fields of female sexual and reproductive life, like menstrual cycle, fertility, gynecological cancers and early menopause. Smoking during pregnancy is an important cause of ill health for both mother and foetus-it increases risk of placental complications, pregnancy induced hypertension, reduced fetal growth and perinatal death. Many of adverse effects of smoking is at least partially reversible after stopping smoking, so large public information campaigns can be useful for increasing women awareness of smoking hazards. Gynecologist, as a first contact specialist, has a responsibility to provide accurate information on the risks smoking poses both to the health of the smoker and to give clear, firm advice to stop smoking and offer suitable support.

  8. [Nutritional problems of female adolescents].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; González Iglesias, María José; Gimeno Pita, Patricia; Ortega, Rosa M

    2015-07-18

    Feeding in infancy is necessary to allow proper growth and development. Health of these early stages of life may influence the development of many diseases in the future (atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, hypertension, obesity ...). Furthermore habits set in childhood will endure throughout life. Therefore, getting adequate dietary and health patterns in childhood is vital. In adolescence occur a number of changes: rapid growth, development of secondary sexual characteristics, changes in body composition, ... that will be a challenge when getting or keeping that adequate feeding and habits. In female population requirements of different micronutrients are increased (mainly iron) and also higher energy requirement than in later stages of life occurs. However, adolescents are the main population at risk for developing eating disorders, which can pose serious problems to meet these nutritional requirements to achieve optimal development. These features and others, such as pregnant adolescents, are what make them a population that should be taken special care from nutritional point of view.

  9. Female genital mutilation in Greece.

    PubMed

    Vrachnis, N; Salakos, N; Iavazzo, C; Iliodromiti, Z; Bakalianou, K; Kouiroukidou, P; Creatsas, G

    2012-01-01

    The number of migrants and refugees with a female genital mutilation (FGM) living in Greece is rising. This study explores the characteristics and psychosexual issues of women with FGM who were examined in the 2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Athens Medical School, Greece during the year 2009. The women were asked to fill out an anonymous questionnaire asking for demographic data, obstetric history, current complaints, and psychosexual problems. The results are presented and discussed, as FGM is a new reality for Greece. Healthcare providers have to familiarize themselves with issues related to FGM and improve their skills in transcultural care, so as to manage and support women with FGM adequately.

  10. [Benign neoplasms of female urethra].

    PubMed

    Usunova, I; Vladimirov, V

    2009-01-01

    In clinical practice neoplasms of female urethra are found usually in adult women. They can also be found in adolescent girls and as rare congenital abnormality. Those conditions are most frequently detected during gynecological or urological examination. Symptoms are few. Lesions are situated at the outer orifice of urethra at the broad basis. Authors have diagnosed and treated 331 patients between 26 and 87 years. Electro coagulation has been performed in 185 patients. Surgical excision has been performed in 41 patients. Excision with following electrocoagulation has been performed in 18 patients. Conservative treatment has been performed in 87 patients. Histological sample analysis has provided diagnosis of urethral polyp, caruncle and mucosal prolaps. Second electrocoagulation after surgical excision has been performed in 5 patients. Collaboration between urologists and gynecologists is essential for early diagnosis, prophylaxis and successful treatment of above mentioned diseases.

  11. Adolescent females "voice" changes can signal difficulties for teachers and administrators.

    PubMed

    Wren, D J

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the different preferences in learning styles of adolescent females and males, based on the pioneering work on adolescent values development by Lawrence Kohlberg and Carol Gilligan. Since values education programs are currently considered very important, educators need to explore the philosophical, psychological, and social influences on students' learning preferences before they can introduce appropriate curricula. An indication of problems in adolescent females frequently is the occurrence of voice changes, for example, girls may express viewpoints that do not represent their true beliefs and feelings. Curricular and co-curricular suggestions are presented.

  12. Emma Willard: Pioneer in Social Studies Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Murry R.

    1987-01-01

    One of the first women in the field of teacher education, Emma Hart Willard trained many young women at the Troy Female Seminary. Willard held an integrated view of social science education. Her interests and views in geography, history, and citizenship education were more typical of the 1960's than the early 1800's, the period of her major work.…

  13. Rural Education in India: Unity Through Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Donald E.

    A discussion of rural education in India presents an overview of the subcontinent's geography, history, philosophy, economy, rural environment, and population and relates these factors to problems and changes in rural educational practices and conditions. The paper points out increases in school and college enrollment, education of more females,…

  14. Education from a Gender Equality Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Agency for International Development, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Education is universally acknowledged to benefit individuals and promote national development. Educating females and males produces similar increases in their subsequent earnings and expands future opportunities and choices for both boys and girls. However, educating girls produces many additional socio-economic gains that benefit entire…

  15. Female aggression and the maintenance of monogamy: female behaviour predicts male mating status in European starlings

    PubMed Central

    Sandell, M. I.

    1998-01-01

    Any reduction in the fitness of a breeding female induced by the settlement of additional females with her mate creates a conflict between the sexes over mating system. In birds, females are often aggressive towards other females but few studies have been able to quantify the importance of female-female aggression for the maintenance of monogamy. This study of the European starling, Sturnus vulgaris, quantifies male and female behaviour towards a potential prospecting female, presented in a cage during the pre-laying period, and relates it to the subsequent mating status of the male. A solitary breeding male was given the opportunity to attract an additional mate, which almost half of the males did. No biometric characters of the male or female were related to the subsequent mating status. Males demonstrated mate-attraction behaviour towards the caged female but the behaviour of the male did not predict the likelihood to attract an additional female. However, the proportion of time that the female spent near the potential settler was related to mating status, indicating that females that reacted more strongly towards a potential female competitor maintained their monogamous status. These results suggest that female behaviour may play an important role in shaping the mating system of facultatively polygynous species.

  16. Female fertility, by population censuses.

    PubMed

    Rasevic, M

    1995-01-01

    This article examines the trends in fertility in Serbia and Montenegro in Yugoslavia in decades between 1948 and 1981 by age, marital status, educational attainment, ethnic affiliation, and economic status. People born at the turn of the century, who reported data in 1981, gave birth to an average of 3.6 children. People born 25-30 years later had an average of 2.45 children. In Kosovo and Metohja provinces, fertility of older women was lower than younger women. 1991 Census data is incomplete, but tentative findings indicate that low natality regions continued to show fertility decline. The average number of live born children (LBC) among women older than 50 was smaller in 1991 compared to 1981. Montenegro cumulative fertility (CF) did not decline as fast as in low natality regions of Serbia and was higher than in Serbia and Vojvodina. CF was lowest among unmarried women in Montenegro compared to low natality regions of Serbia, and Kosovo and Metohja. Most women stopped bearing children by the age of 29 in Serbia and Vojvodina and by age 39 in Montenegro. The average number of LBC per women of reproductive age was about 2.3 live births per woman 35-49 years old in 1981, which was smaller than in earlier censuses. In Kosovo and Metohija, the LBC per woman 35-39 years old was 5.11 in 1981, which was larger than in earlier censuses. In 1991, evidence suggests that fertility decline slowed considerably in Serbia proper and Vojvodina at below 2.0. Childlessness and CF among women older than 50 varied by region. Less developed regions and Albanian, Muslim, and gypsy women had the highest fertility. The highest decrease in fertility was among women without any education. The negative relationship between fertility and education was weaker in low fertility regions and stronger in high fertility ones. The highest CF was among agricultural households.

  17. Female feeding priority in bonobos, Pan paniscus, and the question of female dominance.

    PubMed

    White, Frances J; Wood, Kimberley D

    2007-08-01

    The question of whether bonobos show feeding priority and female dominance has been proposed and examined, both in the wild and in captive studies, with differing results. The relationship between female dominance and female feeding priority has been best studied in prosimian primates. These studies use established criteria of females consistently evoking submissive behavior from males in dyadic encounters for determining female dominance. Although the relationship is complex, female dominance in prosimians is associated with preferential access to food. Data from studies of wild habituated bonobos in the Lomako Forest, Democratic Republic of the Congo, are examined for evidence of both female feeding priority and female social dominance using similar criteria as used for prosimians. Bonobos showed evidence of female feeding priority in small, but not in large, food patches. Male-male competition for mating opportunities at the start of the food bout was related to some, but not all, differences in time spent feeding between the sexes. Female dominance similar to that seen in prosimians was not observed in these bonobos. Males were consistently dominant in dyadic interactions. Female feeding priority with male dyadic social dominance implies that male deference during feeding cannot be excluded as one explanation of interpretations of female dominance in bonobos. Additionally, dominance of male bonobos by females appears to require the presence of female coalition partners. As in other primates with female feeding priority, bonobo females express this trait where food is economically defendable. Unlike prosimians, however, bonobo female feeding priority may result from male deference and the importance of female coalitions in nondyadic interactions.

  18. Fighting poverty: the economic adjustment of female migrants in Dhaka.

    PubMed

    Huq-hussain, S

    1995-10-01

    Data from a field survey of slum and squatter settlements in Dhaka, Bangladesh, are used to examine the social adjustment of poor, female migrants to work, occupational choice, work satisfaction, income, control over income, and women's role in the family economy. A "poor household," defined in terms of nutritional intake, included those families receiving under 2122 cal/person/day. 44% of the urban population in Bangladesh do not obtain the daily nutritional requirement. Findings indicate that 61% of all female migrants expected to find work on arrival in the city. 44% of female migrants were willing to take any kind of work available at the time of arrival. Over 66% of all females found work in less than 6 months. Almost 25% took 6 months to a year to find a job, and 15% found work after a year's time. Recent migrants, who were older, found work quicker. 16% of female migrants found their job with help from relatives and friends (23% of recent migrants and 14% of long-term migrants). Among female migrants who sought a job on their own, 14% found work within 6 months. 3% found work between 6 months and a year. The rest were engaged in family and home-based work or found a job much later. In Dhaka, most women migrants worked in the service or informal sector. 40% of the sample worked as domestics, 38% worked in the informal sector, 16% worked in other informal work, and 5% worked in export-based garment industries. Most female migrants lived in the British Dhaka zone and the post-British Dhaka zone. Those living in the Mughal Dhaka zone tended to work in home-based informal activities. Garment industry workers tended to have more education. Women in the informal sector did not receive cash income. Just over 33% received income in kind, about 25% received a low income, and another 25% received a moderate income. In 71% of cases, husbands or fathers handled the money. 29% handled income on their own. Their own earnings went mostly for survival needs. Over 70% changed

  19. Flibanserin for female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Reviriego, C

    2014-08-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most commonly described form of female sexual dysfunction. There is currently no pharmacological therapy approved to treat HSDD, and therefore, there is an unmet medical need for the development of efficacious treatment alternatives. Flibanserin is a novel, non-hormonal drug for the treatment of HSDD in pre- and postmenopausal women, although the application submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration by Sprout Pharmaceuticals is only for premenopausal women. Flibanserin works by correcting an imbalance of the levels of the neurotransmitters that affect sexual desire. More specifically, flibanserin increases dopamine and norepinephrine, both responsible for sexual excitement, and decreases serotonin, responsible for sexual inhibition. Clinically, flibanserin has exhibited some encouraging results in terms of its ability to increase the frequency of satisfying sexual events, and the intensity of sexual desire. However, adverse events such as dizziness, nausea, fatigue and somnolence, typical of a centrally acting drug, are also frequently related to flibanserin treatment. PMID:25187905

  20. Controversial issues: female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Richards, D

    2000-01-01

    As immigrant women from African countries enter the U.S., Canada, Australia, and Western Europe, western health care providers are beginning to see patients affected by the cultural practice of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). Unfamiliar with the practice, either medically or culturally, these providers are turning to medical librarians for information. Complicating the issue are the strong negative feelings most western health care workers have about FGM, which appears to them to be both barbaric and cruel. These feelings may conflict strongly with those of their immigrant patients, who regard the practice as normal and desirable. Both medical and cultural information are needed for the professional to provide treatment of medical conditions, while also establishing a good relationship with the FGM affected patient. This article identifies and describes the most important refereed journal article databases, available now over the Internet, providing both medical and cultural information on FGM, and the most useful Web sites for health professionals, librarians, and interested laypersons who need information about this difficult multicultural issue. PMID:11299679

  1. Meiotic drive and evolution of female choice.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, K; Engqvist, L; Misof, B; Kurtz, J

    1999-07-01

    As a special version of the good-genes hypothesis, it was recently proposed that females could benefit from choosing drive-resistant males in a meiotic drive system. Here, we examine with a three-locus, six-allele population genetic model whether female choice for drive resistance can evolve. An allele leading to female preference for drive-resistant males was introduced at low frequency into a population polymorphic for meiotic drive and drive resistance. Our simulations show that female choice of drive-resistant males is disadvantageous when resistance is Y-linked. This disadvantage occurs because, at equilibrium, drive-resistant males have lower reproductive success than drive-susceptible males. Thus, female choice of drive-susceptible males can evolve when resistance is Y-linked. When resistance is autosomal, selection on female choice for drive resistance is less strong and depends on the frequency of choice: female preference of resistant males is favoured when choice is rare and disadvantageous when choice is frequent, leading to a stable equilibrium at a low frequency of the choice allele. Independent of the location of drive resistance alleles, males with the non-driving allele always have above average reproductive success. Female choice is therefore beneficial when choosy females prefer males with the non-driving allele.

  2. Belarusian female physicists: Statistics and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotova, Julia; Tashlykova-Bushkevich, Iya

    2013-03-01

    The experience for women in physics remains challenging in Belarus. The proportion of female physics master's degree recipients is approximately 30%, while the percentage of female physics PhD recipients is 50%. Still, only a few female physicists occupy top positions in research laboratories, institutes, or universities. The basic problem for career-oriented female physicists in Belarus is public opinion, which cultivates a passive and dependent life philosophy for women. The Belarusian Women in Physics group was formed in 2003 as part of the Belarusian Physical Society.

  3. Permanent tooth sizes in 46,XY females.

    PubMed Central

    Alvesalo, L; Varrela, J

    1980-01-01

    The teeth of seven Finnish patients with complete testicular-feminization syndrome (46,XY females) were studied to obtain further information about their growth and possible somatic determinants on the Y chromosome. The sizes of the permanent teeth of the 46,XY females were found to be as large as those of control males and definitely larger than those of control females. Testicular feminization is caused by androgen insensitivity, and persons affected are phenotypically females. Hence, these results also indicate the influence of the Y chromosome on dental determination. PMID:7424913

  4. Meiotic drive and evolution of female choice.

    PubMed Central

    Reinhold, K; Engqvist, L; Misof, B; Kurtz, J

    1999-01-01

    As a special version of the good-genes hypothesis, it was recently proposed that females could benefit from choosing drive-resistant males in a meiotic drive system. Here, we examine with a three-locus, six-allele population genetic model whether female choice for drive resistance can evolve. An allele leading to female preference for drive-resistant males was introduced at low frequency into a population polymorphic for meiotic drive and drive resistance. Our simulations show that female choice of drive-resistant males is disadvantageous when resistance is Y-linked. This disadvantage occurs because, at equilibrium, drive-resistant males have lower reproductive success than drive-susceptible males. Thus, female choice of drive-susceptible males can evolve when resistance is Y-linked. When resistance is autosomal, selection on female choice for drive resistance is less strong and depends on the frequency of choice: female preference of resistant males is favoured when choice is rare and disadvantageous when choice is frequent, leading to a stable equilibrium at a low frequency of the choice allele. Independent of the location of drive resistance alleles, males with the non-driving allele always have above average reproductive success. Female choice is therefore beneficial when choosy females prefer males with the non-driving allele. PMID:10445289

  5. Female equality and suicide in the Indian states.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Peter

    2003-06-01

    Indian suicide rates rose by 76% in the 10 years between 1984 and 1994. In this study of the 16 principal states of India, male and female suicide rates in 1994 were associated with measures of equal education for men and women. Male suicide rates were associated with equal life expectancy for men and women. Equal income for women and men was not associated with suicide rates. Unlike earlier studies, no inverse association was found between equal attainment in education and suicide sex ratios. The Indian findings thus do not conform to patterns found in more developed economies. Given increasing human development in India, it seems probable that suicide rates in that country may increase two to three times over coming decades.

  6. Women as Leaders in Education: Succeeding Despite Inequity, Discrimination, and Other Challenges. Women and Careers in Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jennifer L., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This up-to-date, candid examination of women's careers in education and leadership in education describes the pitfalls, triumphs, and future promise of female leaders in education. Despite the gains women have made in higher education over the past few decades, and an increasing number of well-qualified female candidates, they are still…

  7. An Investigation into How Female Teachers Manage Stress and Teacher Burnout: A Case Study of West Akim Municipality of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison, Asonaba Kofi; Yankyera, George

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate into how female teachers in Asamankese Circuit II in West Akim Municipality of Ghana Education Service manage stress and teacher burnout, and explore the causes, effects, and ways of improving work-related stress for better standard of education. The study was conducted with qualitative research…

  8. International Experience: An Opportunity for Professional Development in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamza, Aswan

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the role of international experience in the transformative learning of female educators as it relates to professional development in a higher education context. It also investigates how the learning productions of these experiences were transferred to the participants' home country. Nine American female faculty and…

  9. Education and Unemployment of Women. Technical Paper No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincer, Jacob

    The positive correlation between higher educational attainment and lower unemployment is as strong for females as for males. However, analysis of statistical data on female workers drawn from the National Longitudinal Samples (NLS), and comparison with the findings of an earlier study on the relationship between educational attainment and…

  10. Methamphetamine enhances sexual behavior in female rats.

    PubMed

    Winland, Carissa; Haycox, Charles; Bolton, Jessica L; Jampana, Sumith; Oakley, Benjamin J; Ford, Brittany; Ornelas, Laura; Burbey, Alexandra; Marquette, Amber; Frohardt, Russell J; Guarraci, Fay A

    2011-06-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of methamphetamine (MA) on sexual behavior in female rats. In Experiment 1, ovariectomized, hormone-primed rats were injected with MA (1.0mg/kg, i.p.) or saline prior to a test for mate choice wherein females could mate with two males simultaneously. Female rats treated with saline returned to their preferred mate faster after receiving intromissions and visited their preferred mate at a higher rate than their non-preferred mate. In contrast, MA-treated female rats spent a similar amount of time with their preferred and non-preferred mate and failed to return to their preferred mate faster than to their non-preferred mate following intromissions. Two weeks later, the females received the same drug treatment but were tested for partner preference wherein females could spend time near a male or female stimulus rat. All subjects spent more time near the male stimulus than the female stimulus. However, the MA-treated rats visited the male stimulus more frequently and spent less time near the female stimulus than the saline-treated rats. Similar to Experiment 1, female rats in Experiment 2 were tested for mate choice and then two weeks later tested for partner preference; however, females received three daily injections of MA (1.0mg/kg, i.p.) or saline. Females treated chronically with MA returned to both males faster following intromissions than females treated with saline, independent of preference (i.e., preferred mate and non-preferred mate). Furthermore, MA-treated rats were more likely to leave either male (i.e., preferred or non-preferred mate) than saline-treated rats after receiving sexual stimulation. Although MA-treated subjects spent more time near the male stimulus than the female stimulus, they spent less time near either when compared to saline-treated subjects. The present results demonstrate that MA affects sexual behavior in female rats partly by increasing locomotion and partly by directly affecting sexual

  11. Changes in Female Career Goals and Attitudes during College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Alice A.

    Research has indicated that female models are important for female college students in their career decisions. To examine the effect of female role models on the career choices of college females, 57 freshmen students were provided with role models through interaction with female faculty advisers, and through exposure to female career women in a…

  12. Rousseau on Sex-Roles, Education and Happiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, philosophers of education have begun taking a renewed interest in Rousseau's educational thought. This is a welcome development as his ideas are rich with educational insights. His philosophy is not without its flaws, however. One significant flaw is his educational project for females, which is sexist in the highest degree.…

  13. Examining science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools: A mixed methods study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topping, Kecia C.

    This dissertation examined factors that affected the science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools. The research literature informed that African American females are facing the barriers of race, gender, socioeconomic status, and cultural learning style preferences. Nationally used measurements of science achievement such as the Standardized Achievement Test, Tenth edition (SAT-10), National Assessment for Educational Progress, and National Center for Educational Statistics showed that African American females are continuing to falter in the areas of science when compared to other ethnic groups. This study used a transformative sequential explanatory mixed methods design. In the first, quantitative, phase, the relationships among the dependent variables, science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores, yearly averages, and the independent variables, attitude toward science scores obtained from the Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudes toward Science Scale, socioeconomics, and caregiver status were tested. The participants were 150 African American females in grades 6 through 8 in four suburban middle schools located in the Southeastern United States. The results showed a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitude and their science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores and a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitudes and their yearly averages in science. The results also confirmed that attitude was a significant predictor of science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores for these females and that attitude and socioeconomics were significant predictors of the females' yearly averages in science. In the second, qualitative, phase, nine females purposefully selected from those who had high and low attitude towards science scores on the scale in the quantitative phase were interviewed. The themes that emerged revealed seven additional factors that impacted the females' science achievement. They were usefulness of science

  14. Gender and homophily: differences in male female association in Blau space.

    PubMed

    Brashears, Matthew E

    2008-06-01

    Homophily, the tendency for similar individuals to associate, is one of the most robust findings in social science. Despite this robustness, we have less information about how personal characteristics relate to differences in the strength of homophily. Nor do we know much about the impact of personal characteristics on judgments of relative dissimilarity. The present study compares the strength of age, religious, and educational homophily for male and female non-kin ties using network data from the 1985 General Social Survey. It also compares the patterning of ties among dissimilar alters for both sexes. The results of this exploratory effort indicate that males and females are almost equally homophilous, although religious homophily exerts a stronger influence on females than males. Males and females do, however, differ in their tendency to associate with certain types of dissimilar alters. Education is essentially uniform for both sexes, religious difference is more important for females than males, and those over sixty or under thirty are less different from the middle categories of age for females than for males. The results suggest that males are able to bridge larger areas of social space in their non-kin interpersonal networks and likely accumulate greater social capital as a consequence.

  15. On enrolling more female students in science and engineering.

    PubMed

    Bouville, Mathieu

    2008-06-01

    Many people hold this truth to be self-evident that universities should enroll more female students in science and engineering; the main question then being how. Typical arguments include possible benefits to women, possible benefits to the economy, and the unfairness of the current female under-representation. However, when clearly stated and scrutinized these arguments in fact lead to the conclusion that there should be more women in scientific disciplines in higher education in the sense that we should expect more women (which various kinds of discrimination may prevent), not that we should actively enroll more women. Outreach programs towards high school students may therefore be logically incompatible with the arguments supposed to justify them. They should purport to allow women to graduate in a field congruent with her abilities and desires, rather than try to draw as many of them to scientific disciplines as possible: one cannot try to 'recruit' as many female students as possible while claiming to help them choose more freely.

  16. A study of unnatural female death profile in Lucknow, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sachil; Verma, Anoop Kumar; Ali, Wahid; Pandey, Abhishek; Ahmad, Irfan; Singh, Uma Shankar

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiological and medicolegal, including forensic pathological, aspects of 456 cases of unnatural deaths of females aged 16 to 30 years were studied in Lucknow during the period of 1 year (May 2, 2011 to May 1, 2012). These constituted 62.5% of the total unnatural deaths autopsied from all ages in females. Most of the victims were young Hindu housewives killed or who died within 7 years of marriage. The most common cause was vehicular accidents followed by poisons and burns. The homicidal, suicidal, and accidental deaths were 87, 129, and 240, respectively. The common motives and circumstances were mental stress due to various reasons, family quarrel, maladjustment in married life, and cruelty by the in-laws. Level of education, joint family structure, unemployment, dependence of the woman on the in-laws, infidelity, large families, and failure in love in unmarried girls were other contributing factors affecting the incidence. The study suggests different measures to check unnatural female deaths to improve the situation. PMID:24141355

  17. A study of unnatural female death profile in Lucknow, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sachil; Verma, Anoop Kumar; Ali, Wahid; Pandey, Abhishek; Ahmad, Irfan; Singh, Uma Shankar

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiological and medicolegal, including forensic pathological, aspects of 456 cases of unnatural deaths of females aged 16 to 30 years were studied in Lucknow during the period of 1 year (May 2, 2011 to May 1, 2012). These constituted 62.5% of the total unnatural deaths autopsied from all ages in females. Most of the victims were young Hindu housewives killed or who died within 7 years of marriage. The most common cause was vehicular accidents followed by poisons and burns. The homicidal, suicidal, and accidental deaths were 87, 129, and 240, respectively. The common motives and circumstances were mental stress due to various reasons, family quarrel, maladjustment in married life, and cruelty by the in-laws. Level of education, joint family structure, unemployment, dependence of the woman on the in-laws, infidelity, large families, and failure in love in unmarried girls were other contributing factors affecting the incidence. The study suggests different measures to check unnatural female deaths to improve the situation.

  18. The Gendered Boundaries of Child-Centred Education: Elsie Ripley Clapp and the History of US Progressive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Diana

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses how historical narratives of the 1930s conflict between child-centred and social reconstructionist factions of US progressive education reinforce gendered constructions of education. The split between these two groups has been drawn along lines of gender with child-centred education associated with female educators focused on…

  19. Boys' and Girls' Educational Choices in Secondary Education. The Role of Gender Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Vleuten, Maaike; Jaspers, Eva; Maas, Ineke; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explain why boys and girls in secondary education choose different educational tracks. We argue that adolescents internalise gender expectations as to what is "appropriate" male and female behaviour in their gender ideology. Gender ideology can affect educational choices by influencing (1) how adolescents evaluate…

  20. Self-Regulation of Physical Education Teacher Education Students' Attitudes towards Exercise and Diet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess differences in self-regulation of attitudes towards engaging in exercise and eating a healthy diet between physical education teacher education (PETE) students and general education (GE) students, and between male students and female students. Participants were university students (n = 194) at a university…